Science.gov

Sample records for butterflies

  1. Teaching and Learning with Butterflies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Saul

    1996-01-01

    Presents butterflies as an introduction to natural history. Describes observation tips and metamorphosis of butterflies in the classroom. Includes butterfly resources for naturalists and educators. (AIM)

  2. Butterfly Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is back at work, capturing this image of the 'butterfly wing'- shaped nebula, NGC 2346. The nebula is about 2,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. It represents the spectacular 'last gasp' of a binary star system at the nebula's center. The image was taken on March 6, 1997 as part of the recommissioning of the Hubble Space Telescope's previously installed scientific instruments following the successful servicing of the HST by NASA shuttle astronauts in February. WFPC2 was installed in HST during the servicing mission in 1993. At the center of the nebula lies a pair of stars that are so close together that they orbit around each other every 16 days. This is so close that, even with Hubble, the pair of stars cannot be resolved into its two components. One component of this binary is the hot core of a star that has ejected most of its outer layers, producing the surrounding nebula. Astronomers believe that this star, when it evolved and expanded to become a red giant, actually swallowed its companion star in an act of stellar cannibalism. The resulting interaction led to a spiraling together of the two stars, culminating in ejection of the outer layers of the red giant. Most of the outer layers were ejected into a dense disk, which can still be seen in the Hubble image, surrounding the central star. Later the hot star developed a fast stellar wind. This wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk, has inflated the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. These wings produce the butterfly appearance when seen in projection. The total diameter of the nebula is about one-third of a light-year, or 2 trillion miles.

  3. Butterfly Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 4 September 2003

    In the heavily cratered southern highlands of Mars, the type of crater seen in this THEMIS visible image is relatively rare. Elliptical craters with 'butterfly' ejecta patterns make up roughly 5% of the total crater population of Mars. They are caused by impactors which hit the surface at oblique, or very shallow angles. Similar craters are also seen in about the same abundance on the Moon and Venus.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -24.6, Longitude 41 East (319 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. The butterfly effect of the "butterfly effect".

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kevin J

    2009-07-01

    The "Butterfly Effect" metaphor states with variance that the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil can cause a tornado in Texas. This metaphor has become part of the common vernacular of Western culture. In this paper I discuss the origins of the metaphor, examine its current usage within popular culture, and present an argument as to why it is popular. I propose that the metaphor is a type of semantic attractor, a narrative device with invariant meaning but audience-specific contextualization. Finally I address whether the Butterfly Effect metaphor is a good example of itself. PMID:19527619

  5. Unscrambling butterfly oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Butterflies are popular model organisms to study physiological mechanisms underlying variability in oogenesis and egg provisioning in response to environmental conditions. Nothing is known, however, about; the developmental mechanisms governing butterfly oogenesis, how polarity in the oocyte is established, or which particular maternal effect genes regulate early embryogenesis. To gain insights into these developmental mechanisms and to identify the conserved and divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis, we analysed a de novo ovarian transcriptome of the Speckled Wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.), and compared the results with known model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. Results A total of 17306 contigs were annotated, with 30% possibly novel or highly divergent sequences observed. Pararge aegeria females expressed 74.5% of the genes that are known to be essential for D. melanogaster oogenesis. We discuss the genes involved in all aspects of oogenesis, including vitellogenesis and choriogenesis, plus those implicated in hormonal control of oogenesis and transgenerational hormonal effects in great detail. Compared to other insects, a number of significant differences were observed in; the genes involved in stem cell maintenance and differentiation in the germarium, establishment of oocyte polarity, and in several aspects of maternal regulation of zygotic development. Conclusions This study provides valuable resources to investigate a number of divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis requiring further research. In order to fully unscramble butterfly oogenesis, we also now also have the resources to investigate expression patterns of oogenesis genes under a range of environmental conditions, and to establish their function. PMID:23622113

  6. Chasing the Hofstadter Butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satija, Indu

    2014-03-01

    The experimental observation of the Hofstadter butterfly, the fascinating quantum fractal that also encodes the Chern numbers associated with quantum Hall state, continues to remain a challenging task. It may be possible to observe the fine structure of the butterfly, consisting of small gaps of the spectrum characterized by topological invariants greater than unity, with a resolution matching that of the Chern-1 gaps that form the skeleton of the butterfly. The tiny gaps of the butterfly emanating from a rational flux p / q are found to be associated with infinity of possible solutions (of Diophantine equation)for the rational flux. Not supported by the simple square lattice nearest-neighbor hopping model of the Hofstadter system, these solutions are found to be hiding in neighborhood of these fluxes. By perturbing this simple system, it is possible to ``amplify'' these small gaps corresponding to higher Chern states where they replace the Chern 1 gap of the Hofstadter butterfly. In other words, by tuning a parameter, it is possible to induce topological quantum phase transitions where the finer gaps become the new major gaps that dominate the spectrum. This may provide a possible pathway to see the topological landscape of the Hofstadter butterfly fractal in its entirety.

  7. 9. BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL DIABLO POWERHOUSE. BUTTERFLY VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL DIABLO POWERHOUSE. BUTTERFLY VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED BY THE PELTON WATER WHEEL COMPANY IN 1931, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  8. Bonjour Papillon (Hello Butterfly).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Donald G.; Ogrydziak, Dan

    This story in French about a butterfly who talks to children is presented in comic-book style and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Words and expressions peculiar to the Franco-American idiom are marked and translated into standard French. The drawings are in black and white. (AMH)

  9. Structural color of Morpho butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2009-11-01

    Structural color is caused by wavelength-selective scattering of light by microscopic features, such as those on the scales of some insects. The brilliant blue displayed by some male Morpho butterflies is a classic example of this phenomenon. In this paper, experiments used to distinguish structural color from color due to pigmentation are reviewed. A simple electromagnetic model is developed for the structural scattering from Morpho butterfly scales, and the blue color and iridescence normally seen for these butterflies are predicted by this model. The analysis is based on topics usually discussed in courses on electromagnetism and optics and can be used as an example to supplement classroom discussions of these topics.

  10. Butterflied bivalves as paleoenvironmental indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Allmon, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Fossil bivalves are seldom preserved in a flat-open, yet still articulated position, or butterflied. A study of butterflied bivalves in the Delphi Station of the Hamilton Fm. suggests that this preservation mode is limited to one or possibly two sedimentary environments: deltaic and fluvial. Three parameters control the mode of preservation of fossil bivalves: 1) rate of sedimentation, 2) depth of bioturbation, and 3) time of ligament failure. Using these three parameters a model for the occurrence of butterflied bivalves can be constructed: bioturbation depth divided by sedimentation rate gives the disturbance time (DST), during which shells on one bedding plane would be subject to reworking. This can be seen as a time window into which ligament failure times - or disarticulation time (DAT) - can be fitted. If DATbutterflied mode of preservation. Only in deltaic and possibly some fluvial environments are the sedimentation rates high enough to bury the shells before complete disarticulation and reworking of the valves can occur. This model suggest that butterflied bivalves may be used as partial indicators of conditions prevailing in environments of deposition.

  11. Extended season for northern butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  12. Extended season for northern butterflies.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences. PMID:23456374

  13. Extended season for northern butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2013-03-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  14. Ecology: Butterflies reset the calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert J.; Roy, David B.

    2011-05-01

    The timing of seasonal events such as flowering and migration is changing as the climate warms, reshuffling the order in which such events take place each year. Now research sheds light on the causes of changes in the timing of butterfly emergence.

  15. Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Steven M; Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the migration of the eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) have revealed mechanisms behind its navigation. The main orientation mechanism uses a time-compensated sun compass during both the migration south and the remigration north. Daylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and integrated through intricate circuitry in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Monarch circadian clocks have a distinct molecular mechanism, and those that reside in the antennae provide time compensation. Recent evidence shows that migrants can also use a light-dependent inclination magnetic compass for orientation in the absence of directional daylight cues. The monarch genome has been sequenced, and genetic strategies using nuclease-based technologies have been developed to edit specific genes. The monarch butterfly has emerged as a model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of long-distance animal migration. PMID:26473314

  16. Blame it on the butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Kate

    2009-08-01

    Last year at a science networking event in a Central London pub, I was cornered by the manager of an "alternative healing centre", who regaled me with stories about her patients' miraculous recoveries from ailments that modern medicine had been unable to address. "After all," she said, leaning forward with the air of someone confiding an esoteric, but unassailable, argument, "if a butterfly flapping its wings in a forest can cause a hurricane, imagine what a positive attitude can do!"

  17. The Butterfly Effect for Physics Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, James R.; Valentine, John H.

    2015-01-01

    A low-cost chaos dynamics lab is developed for quantitative demonstration of the butterfly effect using a magnetic pendulum. Chaotic motion is explored by recording magnetic time series. Students analyze the data in Excel® to investigate the butterfly effect as well as the reconstruction of the strange attractor using time delay plots. The lab…

  18. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  19. Host shifts and evolutionary radiations of butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Fordyce, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Ehrlich and Raven proposed a model of coevolution where major host plant shifts of butterflies facilitate a burst of diversification driven by their arrival to a new adaptive zone. One prediction of this model is that reconstructions of historical diversification of butterflies should indicate an increase in diversification rate following major host shifts. Using reconstructed histories of 15 butterfly groups, I tested this prediction and found general agreement with Ehrlich and Raven's model. Butterfly lineages with an inferred major historical host shift showed evidence of diversification rate variation, with a significant acceleration following the host shift. Lineages without an inferred major host shift generally agreed with a constant-rate model of diversification. These results are consistent with the view that host plant associations have played a profound role in the evolutionary history of butterflies, and show that major shifts to chemically distinct plant groups leave a historical footprint that remains detectable today. PMID:20610430

  20. [Keratouveitis and lens opacity caused by butterfly hair].

    PubMed

    Domngang Noche, C; Kengmogne, B; Bella, A L

    2012-01-01

    Butterfly hair is known to cause eye injury. In Africa, incriminated butterflies are Hylesia (spp). We report a case of a sub-epithelial keratitis associated with anterior uveitis following a trauma by a butterfly that was complicated by late lens opacity due to butterfly hair. Ocular lesions caused by butterfly hair are rare, but require an urgent management to prevent late and severe complications due to intraocular migration of the hairs. PMID:22978182

  1. Preventing cavitation in butterfly valves

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, H.D.

    1985-03-18

    Some of the mechanical problems that plagued butterfly valves in the past are discussed. The authors suggest integrated packages to alleviate these problems. These packages include such innovations as backlash-free stem connections, allenclosed actuator packages, and torque-compensated vanes. Some disadvantages to these packages are outlined and examined, including: high noise levels with compressible fluids, and an increased tendency to cavitate with liquids. A discussion follows on cavitation--how it is caused, just how much of it can be tolerated, and how it can be avoided or reduced.

  2. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings. PMID:26397977

  3. Butterfly proboscis as a biomicrofluidic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornev, Konstantin; Monaenkova, Daria; Rea, Steven; Yore, Campbell; Klipowics, Caleb; Edmond, Kara; Sa, Vijoya

    2009-11-01

    It looks amazing how butterflies and moths with their thin feeding trunk are being able to sip very thick liquids like nectar or animal extractions. Their sucking ability goes beyond that: one can observe butterflies and moths probing liquids from porous materials like fruit flesh or wet soils. This suggests that the suction pressure produced by these insects is sufficiently high. The estimates based on engineering hydraulic formulas show that the pressure can be greater than one atmosphere, i.e. it can be greater than that any vacuum pump could supply. In this experimental study, the principles of interfacial flows are used to carefully analyze the feeding mechanism of butterflies and moths. We document the feeding rates and proboscis behavior of Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in different situations: when butterfly feeds from droplets, from vials modeling floral cavities, and from porous materials modeling fruits, wet soils, or dung. Using high speed imaging and simple models, we propose a scenario of butterfly feeding which is based on capillary action. According to the proposed mechanism, the trunk of butterflies and moths works like a fountain pen where the air bubbles play a significant role in controlling fluid flow.

  4. Looking inside the butterfly diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, M.

    2007-12-01

    The suitability of Maunder's butterfly diagram to give a realistic picture of the photospheric magnetic flux large scale distribution is discussed. The evolution of the sunspot zone in cycle 20 through 23 is described. To reduce the noise which covers any structure in the diagram, a smoothing algorithm has been applied to the sunspot data. This operation has eliminated any short period fluctuation, and given visibility to long duration phenomena. One of these phenomena is the fact that the equatorward drift of the spot zone center of mass results from the alternation of several prograde (namely, equatorward) segments with other stationary or poleward segments. The long duration of the stationary/retrograde phases as well as the similarities among the spot zone alternating paths in the cycles under examination prevent us from considering these features as meaningless fluctuations, randomly superimposed on the continuous equatorward migration. On the contrary, these features should be considered physically meaningful phenomena, requiring adequate explanations. Moreover, even the smoothed spotted area markedly oscillates. The compared examination of area and spot zone evolution allows us to infer details about the spotted area distribution inside the butterfly diagram. Links between the changing structure of the spot zone and the tachocline rotation rate oscillations are proposed.

  5. Development of a butterfly multiprocessor test bed description of butterfly components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, J.; Starr, E.

    1985-03-01

    In this, the first in a series of quarterly technical reports on the development of a 128-node Butterfly (TM) testbed we present descriptions of the major components of the Butterfly Parallel Processor: the Processor Node (BPN), the MSI Switch Node (BSN), the VLSI Switch Node (BVSN), the Butterfly I/O Board (BI1), the Multibus Adapter (BMA), and the Butterfly Fantail (BFAN). At the end of the report, there is a set of tables that summarize the important characteristics of each component.

  6. Electron butterfly distribution modulation by magnetosonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Armando A.; Chen, Lunjin; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Spence, Harlan

    2016-04-01

    The butterfly pitch angle distribution is observed as a dip in an otherwise normal distribution of electrons centered about αeq=90°. During storm times, the formation of the butterfly distribution on the nightside magnetosphere has been attributed to L shell splitting combined with magnetopause shadowing and strong positive radial flux gradients. It has been shown that this distribution can be caused by combined chorus and magnetosonic wave scattering where the two waves work together but at different local times. Presented in our study is an event on 21 August 2013, using Van Allen Probe measurements, where a butterfly distribution formation is modulated by local magnetosonic coherent magnetosonic waves intensity. Transition from normal to butterfly distributions coincides with rising magnetosonic wave intensity while an opposite transition occurs when wave intensity diminishes. We propose that bounce resonance with waves is the underlying process responsible for such rapid modulation, which is confirmed by our test particle simulation.

  7. The butterfly effect for physics laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claycomb, James R.; Valentine, John H.

    2015-03-01

    A low-cost chaos dynamics lab is developed for quantitative demonstration of the butterfly effect using a magnetic pendulum. Chaotic motion is explored by recording magnetic time series. Students analyze the data in Excel® to investigate the butterfly effect as well as the reconstruction of the strange attractor using time delay plots. The lab exercise is suitable for junior-level modern physics laboratories, or as an extension to traditional first-year laboratories exploring pendulum motion.

  8. Butterfly wing color: A photonic crystal demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically modeled the optical behavior of a natural occurring photonic crystal, as defined by the geometrical characteristics of the Teinopalpus Imperialis butterfly. In particular, following a genetic algorithm approach, we demonstrate how its wings follow a triclinic crystal geometry with a tetrahedron unit base. By performing both photonic band analysis and transmission/reflection simulations, we are able to explain the characteristic colors emerging by the butterfly wings, thus confirming their crystal form.

  9. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallick, Tapas K

    2015-01-01

    Man's harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies' wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies' thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off. PMID:26227341

  10. Sea gulls, butterflies, and grasshoppers: A brief history of the butterfly effect in nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilborn, Robert C.

    2004-04-01

    The butterfly effect has become a popular metaphor for sensitive dependence on initial conditions—the hallmark of chaotic behavior. I describe how, where, and when this term was conceived in the 1970s. Surprisingly, the butterfly metaphor was predated by more than 70 years by the grasshopper effect.

  11. Can butterflies cope with city life? Butterfly diversity in a young megacity in southern China.

    PubMed

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Dong, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wilson, John-James

    2016-09-01

    During 30 years of unprecedented urbanization, plant diversity in Shenzhen, a young megacity in southern China, has increased dramatically. Although strongly associated with plant diversity, butterfly diversity generally declines with urbanization, but this has not been investigated in Shenzhen. Considering the speed of urbanization in Shenzhen and the large number of city parks, we investigated butterfly diversity in Shenzhen parks. We measured butterfly species richness in four microhabitats (groves, hedges, flowerbeds, and unmanaged areas) across 10 parks and examined the relationship with three park variables: park age, park size, and distance from the central business district. Butterflies were identified based on wing morphology and DNA barcoding. We collected 1933 butterflies belonging to 74 species from six families; 20% of the species were considered rare. Butterfly species richness showed weak negative correlations with park age and distance from the central business district, but the positive correlation with park size was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Among microhabitat types, highest species richness was recorded in unmanaged areas. Our findings are consistent with others in suggesting that to promote urban butterfly diversity it is necessary to make parks as large as possible and to set aside areas for limited management. In comparison to neighbouring cities, Shenzhen parks have high butterfly diversity. PMID:27314400

  12. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  13. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly Using interactivity to excite and educate children about butterflies and the National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Lydia

    The National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden is a tropical rainforest that allows visitors to step into the world of butterflies, but lacks a more comprehensive educational element to teach visitors additional information about butterflies. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly is a thesis project designed to enhance younger visitors' experience of the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden with an interactive educational application that aligns with The Strong's mission of encouraging learning, creativity, and discovery. This was accomplished through a series of fun and educational games and animations, designed for use as a kiosk outside the garden and as a part of The Strong's website. Content, planning, and organization of this project has been completed through research and observation of the garden in the following areas: its visitors, butterflies, best usability practices for children, and game elements that educate and engage children. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly teaches users about the butterfly's life cycle, anatomy, and characteristics as well as their life in the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden. Through the use of the design programs Adobe Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects; the programming language ActionScript3.0; a child-friendly user interface and design; audio elements and user takeaways, Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly appeals to children of all ages, interests, and learning styles. The project can be viewed at lydiapowers.com/Thesis/FlutterByButterfly.html

  14. Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2016-03-01

    In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles. PMID:27078464

  15. 17. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROLS FOR UNIT 43. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROLS FOR UNIT 43. THE BUTTERFLY VALVE LOCK INDICATES THE BUTTERFLY VALVE IS CLOSED AS UNIT 43 WAS SHUT DOWN FOR REPAIRS, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  16. Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2016-03-01

    In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles.

  17. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  18. Monarch butterfly spatially discrete advection model.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz; Sáenz, Roberto; Stein, Julie; Jones, Laura E

    2004-08-01

    We study the population cycles of the Monarch butterfly using one of the simplest systems incorporating both migration and local dynamics. The annual migration of the Monarch involves four generations. Members of Generations 1-3 (occasionally 4) migrate from the over-wintering site in Central Mexico to breeding grounds that extend as far north as the Northern United States and Southern Canada. A portion of the Generation 3 and all members of the Generation 4 butterflies begin their return to the over-wintering grounds in August through October where they enter reproductive diapause for several months. We developed a simple discrete-time island chain model in which different fecundity functions are used to model the reproductive strategies of each generation. The fecundity functions are selected from broad classes of functions that capture the effects of either contest or scramble intraspecific competition in the Monarch population. The objectives of our research are multiple and include the study of the generationally dependent intraspecific competition and its effect on the pool size of migrants as well as the persistence of the overall butterfly populations. The stage structure used in modeling the Monarch butterfly dynamics and their generationally dependent reproductive strategies naturally support fluctuating patterns and multiple attractors. The implications of these fluctuations and attractors on the long-term survival of the Monarch butterfly population are explored. PMID:15234616

  19. Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies.

    PubMed

    Saura, Anssi; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O; Brown, Keith S

    2013-06-01

    We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus. PMID:23865963

  20. Measuring straight line segments using HT butterflies.

    PubMed

    Du, Shengzhi; Tu, Chunling; van Wyk, Barend J; Ochola, Elisha Oketch; Chen, Zengqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT) butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently proposed to employ these relationships in order to discover the parameters of segments. Power line inspection is considered as an application of the proposed method. The application demonstrates that the proposed method is effective for power line inspection, especially for corner detection when they cross poles. PMID:22479442

  1. Algorithmic Identification for Wings in Butterfly Diagrams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, E. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. Two algorithms of cluster analysis, namely DBSCAN and C-means, have demonstrated their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Here we generalize the method for continuous tracers, give results concerning the migration velocities and presented clusters for 12 - 20 cycles.

  2. Retinal regionalization and heterogeneity of butterfly eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavenga, D.; Kinoshita, M.; Yang, E.-C.; Arikawa, K.

    2001-11-01

    The regional characteristics of the eyes of butterflies from different families have been surveyed using epi-illumination microscopy, utilizing the eyeshine visible due to the tapetum situated proximally to the rhabdom. All butterflies studied have a high spatial acuity in the frontal region. The facet diameter varies slightly across the eye, and the interommatidial angle and the eye parameter p are especially large dorsally. Whereas the ommatidial lattice is generally highly regular, the eyeshine colours distinctly depend on the species. Sometimes the eyeshine is locally uniform, but often it is heterogeneous. It is hypothesized that the regional characteristics as well as the local heterogeneity are adaptations that optimize spectral discrimination.

  3. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  4. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-01-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off. PMID:26227341

  5. Fine structure of the butterfly diagram revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Balázs

    The latitudinal time distribution of sunspots (butterfly diagram) was studied by Becker (1959) and Antalová & Gnevyshev (1985). Our goal is to revisit these studies. In the first case we check whether there is a poleward migration in sunspot activity. In the second case we confirm the results, and make more quantitative statements concerning their significance and the position of the activity peaks.

  6. Polarized light helps monarch butterflies navigate.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Steven M; Zhu, Haisun; White, Richard H

    2004-01-20

    During their spectacular migratory journey in the fall, North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate to their overwintering sites in central Mexico. One feature of the sun compass mechanism not fully explored in monarchs is the sunlight-dependent parameters used to navigate. We now provide data suggesting that the angle of polarized skylight (the e-vector) is a relevant orientation parameter. By placing butterflies in a flight simulator outdoors and using a linear polarizing filter, we show that manipulating the e-vector alters predictably the direction of oriented flight. Butterflies studied in either the morning or afternoon showed similar responses to filter rotation. Monarch butterflies possess the anatomical structure needed for polarized skylight detection, as rhabdoms in the dorsalmost row of photoreceptor cells in monarch eye show the organization characteristic of polarized-light receptors. The existence of polarized-light detection could allow migrants to accurately navigate under a variety of atmospheric conditions and reveals a critical input pathway into the sun compass mechanism. PMID:14738739

  7. Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

  8. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  9. From medicine to butterflies and back again

    PubMed Central

    Parmesan, Camille

    2014-01-01

    My research focuses on the current impacts of climate change on wildlife, from field-based work on butterflies to synthetic analyses of global impacts on a broad range of species across terrestrial and marine biomes. I work actively with governmental agencies and NGOs to help develop conservation assessment and planning tools aimed at preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change.

  10. The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

  11. Monarch Butterflies: Spirits of Loved Ones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The study of the beautiful monarch butterfly lends itself to a vast array of subject matter, and offers the opportunity to meet a large and varied number of standards and objectives for many grade levels. Art projects featuring monarchs may include many cross-curricular units such as math (symmetry and number graphing), science (adaptation and…

  12. An Opera Opportunity: Butterfly in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Jeri

    1992-01-01

    This article describes a program of the Lyric Opera Company of Chicago (Illinois) that brought opera to the classroom of students with deafness in grades three through six. The four-session program explored vocabulary, music, story-telling, and Japanese culture and culminated in a student production of "Madame Butterfly." (JDD)

  13. Butterfly responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Debinski, Diane M.; Koford, Rolf R.; Miller, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of land for modern agriculture has resulted in losses of native prairie habitat. The small, isolated patches of prairie habitat that remain are threatened by fire suppression, overgrazing, and invasion by non-native species. We evaluated the effects of three restoration practices (grazing only, burning only, and burning and grazing) on the vegetation characteristics and butterfly communities of remnant prairies. Total butterfly abundance was highest on prairies that were managed with burning and grazing and lowest on those that were only burned. Butterfly species richness did not differ among any of the restoration practices. Butterfly species diversity was highest on sites that were only burned. Responses of individual butterfly species to restoration practices were highly variable. In the best predictive regression model, total butterfly abundance was negatively associated with the percent cover of bare ground and positively associated with the percent cover of forbs. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that sites with burned only and grazed only practices could be separated based on their butterfly community composition. Butterfly communities in each of the three restoration practices are equally species rich but different practices yield compositionally different butterfly communities. Because of this variation in butterfly species responses to different restoration practices, there is no single practice that will benefit all species or even all species within habitat-specialist or habitat-generalist habitat guilds. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pollen Feeding and Reproductive Biology of Heliconius Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Lawrence E.

    1972-01-01

    Butterflies of the neotropical Genus Heliconius feed on pollen. This is the first known instance in butterflies of a habit that is well known for other insects. The butterflies remove amino acids and proteins from pollen; this feeding innovation plays a role in the reproductive and population biology of these insects. It is suggested that other animals may use pollen in a similar fashion. Images PMID:16591992

  15. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    PubMed

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. PMID:26314013

  16. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Huang, Long-Gang; Pan, Nan; Lei, Ming

    2014-10-15

    Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. - Highlights: • Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated. • Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. • Analytic two-soliton solutions for butterfly-shaped pulses are derived.

  17. Navigational mechanisms of migrating monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Steven M; Gegear, Robert J; Merlin, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind their southward navigation while using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and are probably integrated in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs might also use a magnetic compass because they possess two cryptochromes that have the molecular capability for light-dependent magnetoreception. Multiple genomic approaches are now being used with the aim of identifying navigation genes. Monarch butterflies are thus emerging as an excellent model organism in which to study the molecular and neural basis of long-distance migration. PMID:20627420

  18. Comments on compressible flow through butterfly valves

    SciTech Connect

    Blakenship, J.G. )

    1989-01-01

    In the flow analysis of process piping systems, it is desirable to treat control valves in the same way as elbow, reducers, expansions, and other pressure loss elements. In a recently reported research program, the compressible flow characteristics of butterfly valves were investigated. Fisher Controls International, Inc., manufacturer of a wide range of control valves, publishes coefficients that can be used to calculate flow characteristics for the full range of valve movement. This paper describes the use of the manufacturer's data to calculate flow parameters as reported by the researchers who investigated compressible flow through butterfly valves. The manufacturer's data produced consistent results and can be used to predict choked flow and the pressure loss for unchoked flow. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Reflections on colourful ommatidia of butterfly eyes.

    PubMed

    Stavenga, Doekele G

    2002-04-01

    The eye shine of butterflies from a large number of ommatidia was observed with a modified epi-illumination apparatus equipped with an objective lens of large numerical aperture. A few representative cases are presented: the satyrine Bicyclus anynana, the heliconian Heliconius melpomene, the small white Pieris rapae and the small copper Lycaena phlaeas. The colour of the eye shine is determined mainly by the reflectance spectrum of the tapetal mirror and the transmittance spectrum of the photoreceptor screening pigments, if present near the light-guiding rhabdom. Reflectance spectra measured from individual ommatidia show that tapetum and screening pigments are co-expressed in fixed combinations, thus determining different ommatidial classes. The classes are distributed in an irregular pattern that can be rapidly assessed with the novel epi-illumination apparatus. Many butterfly species appear to have red-reflecting ommatidia, which is interpreted to indicate the presence of red-sensitive photoreceptors. PMID:11919267

  20. A butterfly eye's view of birds.

    PubMed

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2008-11-01

    The striking color patterns of butterflies and birds have long interested biologists. But how these animals see color is less well understood. Opsins are the protein components of the visual pigments of the eye. Color vision has evolved in butterflies through opsin gene duplications, through positive selection at individual opsin loci, and by the use of filtering pigments. By contrast, birds have retained the same opsin complement present in early-jawed vertebrates, and their visual system has diversified primarily through tuning of the short-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors, rather than by opsin duplication or the use of filtering elements. Butterflies and birds have evolved photoreceptors that might use some of the same amino acid sites for generating similar spectral phenotypes across approximately 540 million years of evolution, when rhabdomeric and ciliary-type opsins radiated during the early Cambrian period. Considering the similarities between the two taxa, it is surprising that the eyes of birds are not more diverse. Additional taxonomic sampling of birds may help clarify this mystery. PMID:18937365

  1. Underwater flight by the planktonic sea butterfly.

    PubMed

    Murphy, David W; Adhikari, Deepak; Webster, Donald R; Yen, Jeannette

    2016-02-01

    In a remarkable example of convergent evolution, we show that the zooplanktonic sea butterfly Limacina helicina 'flies' underwater in the same way that very small insects fly in the air. Both sea butterflies and flying insects stroke their wings in a characteristic figure-of-eight pattern to produce lift, and both generate extra lift by peeling their wings apart at the beginning of the power stroke (the well-known Weis-Fogh 'clap-and-fling' mechanism). It is highly surprising to find a zooplankter 'mimicking' insect flight as almost all zooplankton swim in this intermediate Reynolds number range (Re=10-100) by using their appendages as paddles rather than wings. The sea butterfly is also unique in that it accomplishes its insect-like figure-of-eight wing stroke by extreme rotation of its body (what we call 'hyper-pitching'), a paradigm that has implications for micro aerial vehicle (MAV) design. No other animal, to our knowledge, pitches to this extent under normal locomotion. PMID:26889002

  2. Metamorphosis of a Butterfly-Associated Bacterial Community

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Tobin J.; McMillan, W. Owen; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar) and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from internal bacterial communities associated with multiple life stages of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. We found that the leaf-chewing larvae and nectar- and pollen-feeding adults of H. erato contain markedly distinct bacterial communities, a pattern presumably rooted in their distinct diets. Larvae and adult butterflies host relatively small and similar numbers of bacterial phylotypes, but few are common to both stages. The larval microbiota clearly simplifies and reorganizes during metamorphosis; thus, structural changes in a butterfly's bacterial community parallel those in its own morphology. We furthermore identify specific bacterial taxa that may mediate larval and adult feeding biology in Heliconius and other butterflies. Although male and female Heliconius adults differ in reproductive physiology and degree of pollen feeding, bacterial communities associated with H. erato are not sexually dimorphic. Lastly, we show that captive and wild individuals host different microbiota, a finding that may have important implications for the relevance of experimental studies using captive butterflies. PMID:24466308

  3. Disruptive Coloration in Butterflies: Lack of Support in Anartia fatima.

    PubMed

    Silberglied, R E; Aiello, A; Windsor, D M

    1980-08-01

    Experimental obliteration of high-contrast wing stripes of the neotropical butterfly Anartia fatima affected neither survival nor wing damage in a natural population over a 5-month period. There is no direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that so-called disruptive wing patterns function as protective coloration in butterflies. PMID:17756845

  4. Developing "Butterfly Warriors": A Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen…

  5. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

    PubMed Central

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Wilson, John McVean; Botham, Marc S.; Brereton, Tom M.; Fox, Richard; Goulson, Dave

    2015-01-01

    There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 despite both a doubling in conservation spending in the UK, and predictions that climate change should benefit most species. Here we build models of the UK population indices from 1985 to 2012 for 17 widespread butterfly species that commonly occur at farmland sites. Of the factors we tested, three correlated significantly with butterfly populations. Summer temperature and the index for a species the previous year are both positively associated with butterfly indices. By contrast, the number of hectares of farmland where neonicotinoid pesticides are used is negatively associated with butterfly indices. Indices for 15 of the 17 species show negative associations with neonicotinoid usage. The declines in butterflies have largely occurred in England, where neonicotinoid usage is at its highest. In Scotland, where neonicotinoid usage is comparatively low, butterfly numbers are stable. Further research is needed urgently to show whether there is a causal link between neonicotinoid usage and the decline of widespread butterflies or whether it simply represents a proxy for other environmental factors associated with intensive agriculture. PMID:26623186

  6. Differential diagnosis of multiple vertebral compression: butterfly vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Ozaras, Nihal; Gumussu, Kevser; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Rezvani, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] A butterfly vertebra is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a symmetric fusion defect. Only a few cases of butterfly vertebra have been described. This anomaly may be isolated or associated with Pfeiffer, Jarcho-Levins, Crouzon, or Alagille syndrome. [Subject and Methods] We herein describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck and low back pain and was found to have butterfly vertebrae at the T9 and L3 levels. He also had Behçet’s disease and psoriasis. [Results] The patient’s symptoms improved with analgesics and physiotherapy. [Conclusion] To our knowledge, butterfly vertebrae at two levels have never been reported. Butterfly vertebrae may be confused with vertebral fractures in lateral radiographs, and awareness of this anomaly is important for a correct diagnosis. PMID:26696746

  7. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general. PMID:23949748

  8. Monitoring the Response of Butterfly Communities to Prescribed Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleishman, Erica

    2000-12-01

    Federal land managers in the western United States are interested in the potential of prescribed fire as a tool to decrease fuel loads, increase vegetational heterogeneity, and increase faunal diversity in various ecosystems. I tested whether implementation of a prescribed fire program by the US Forest Service in a watershed in the central Great Basin had significant effects on butterfly species richness and composition. I monitored butterfly communities during the first two years after implementation in five to seven burn units and controls in the watershed. To estimate baseline spatial and temporal variation in butterfly communities in the greater ecosystem, I also monitored butterflies in five untreated canyons outside the project area. Butterfly species richness and butterfly species composition (measured as community similarity) did not differ significantly between burn units and controls. Geographic location had statistically significant effects on species richness. Butterfly species composition of individual locations varied over time, as did the magnitude of that variation. These results emphasize that standardized, repeatable monitoring protocols are vital for evaluating the effects of experimental management treatments and for predicting and assessing the effects of future management strategies and environmental changes.

  9. Three-dimensional analysis of partially open butterfly valve flows

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.; Kim, R.H.

    1996-09-01

    A numerical simulation of butterfly valve flows is a useful technique to investigate the physical phenomena of the flow field. A three-dimensional numerical analysis was carried out on incompressible fluid flows in a butterfly valve by using FLUENT, which solves difference equations. Characteristics of the butterfly valve flows at different valve disk angles with a uniform incoming velocity were investigated. Comparisons of FLUENT results with other results, i.e., experimental results, were made to determine the accuracy of the employed method. Results of the three-dimensional analysis may be useful in the valve design.

  10. Hot Dog and Butterfly, Nereidum Montes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the pictures returned from Mars by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft show features that--at a glance--resemble familiar, non-geological objects on Earth. For example, the picture above at the left shows several low, relatively flat-topped hills (mesas) on the floor of a broad valley among the mountains of the Nereidum Montes region, northeast of Argyre Planitia. One of the mesas seen here looks like half of a butterfly (upper subframe on right). Another hill looks something like a snail or a hot dog wrapped and baked in a croissant roll (lower subframe on right). These mesas were formed by natural processes and are most likely the eroded remnants of a formerly more extensive layer of bedrock. In the frame on the left, illumination is from the upper left and the scene covers an area 2.7 km (1.7 miles) wide by 6.8 km (4.2 miles) high. The 'butterfly' is about 800 meters (875 yards) in length and the 'hot dog' is about 1 km (0.62 miles) long.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  11. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    PubMed Central

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly reflect population sizes and trends. This study compares capture-mark-recapture (absolute abundance) and count-index (relative abundance) monitoring methods in three species (Maculinea nausithous and Iolana iolas: Lycaenidae; Minois dryas: Satyridae) in contrasted habitat types. We demonstrate that intraspecific variability in individual detectability under standard monitoring conditions is probably the rule rather than the exception, which questions the reliability of count-based indices to estimate and compare specific population abundance. Our results suggest that the accuracy of count-based methods depends heavily on the ecology and behavior of the target species, as well as on the type of habitat in which surveys take place. Monitoring programs designed to assess the abundance and trends in butterfly populations should incorporate a measure of detectability. We discuss the relative advantages and inconveniences of current monitoring methods and analytical approaches with respect to the characteristics of the species under scrutiny and resources availability. PMID:22859980

  12. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark.

    PubMed

    Stark, John D; Chen, Xue Dong; Johnson, Catherine S

    2012-05-01

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24-36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. PMID:22310058

  13. Interactions between butterfly scales and unsteady flows during flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert; Lang, Amy

    2008-11-01

    Recent research has shown that the highly flexible wings of butterflies in flapping flight develop vortices along their leading and trailing edges. Butterfly scales (approximately 100 microns) have a shingled pattern and extend into the boundary layer. These scales could play a part in controlling separation in this 3-dimensional complex flow field. Biomimetic applications of butterfly scales may aid in the development of flapping wing micro air vehicles. In this study, we observed that the orientation of the scales may relate to the local flow field, and might move or shift during flight. Monarch butterflies were trained to fly in a low speed smoke tunnel for visualization. Scales were removed from the leading and trailing edges and specimens were photographed at 500 frames per second. Variation in flapping pattern and flight fitness are discussed.

  14. 21. PENSTOCK, VIEW TO SOUTHWEST WITH NO. 1 BUTTERFLY VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. PENSTOCK, VIEW TO SOUTHWEST WITH NO. 1 BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR AUTOMATIC SHUTOFF JUST BELOW SCREENHOUSE IN FOREGROUND - Yosemite Hydroelectric Power Plant, Highways 120 & 140, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  15. 33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ON HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 18. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE FROM BELOW AND SCROLL CASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE FROM BELOW AND SCROLL CASE DRAIN. TAG INDICATES THE SCROLL CASE DRAIN WAS OPEN, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  17. 111. Detail of butterfly valve for turbine unit no. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Detail of butterfly valve for turbine unit no. 2. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  18. Checklist and Pollard Walk butterfly survey methods on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royer, R.A.; Austin, J.E.; Newton, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Checklist and Pollard Walk butterfly survey methods were contemporaneously applied to seven public sites in North Dakota during the summer of 1995. Results were compared for effect of method and site on total number of butterflies and total number of species detected per hour. Checklist searching produced significantly more butterfly detections per hour than Pollard Walks at all sites. Number of species detected per hour did not differ significantly either among sites or between methods. Many species were detected by only one method, and at most sites generalist and invader species were more likely to be observed during checklist searches than during Pollard Walks. Results indicate that checklist surveys are a more efficient means for initial determination of a species list for a site, whereas for long-term monitoring the Pollard Walk is more practical and statistically manageable. Pollard Walk transects are thus recommended once a prairie butterfly fauna has been defined for a site by checklist surveys.

  19. 8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, MOSAIC TILE FLOOR, AS SEEN FROM VISITORS GALLERY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  20. 20. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE AS SEEN FROM INSIDE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE AS SEEN FROM INSIDE THE SCROLL CASE, 1987. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  1. Egg-laying butterflies distinguish predaceous ants by sight.

    PubMed

    Sendoya, Sebastián F; Freitas, André V L; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2009-07-01

    Information about predation risks is critical for herbivorous insects, and natural selection favors their ability to detect predators before oviposition and to select enemy-free foliage when offspring mortality risk is high. Food plants are selected by ovipositing butterflies, and offspring survival frequently varies among plants because of variation in the presence of predators. Eunica bechina butterflies oviposit on Caryocar brasiliense, an ant-defended plant. Experiments with dried Camponotus and Cephalotes ants pinned to leaves revealed that butterflies use ant size and form as visual cues to avoid ovipositing on plant parts occupied by ants more likely to kill larval offspring. Presence of sap-sucking bugs did not affect butterfly oviposition. This is the first demonstration that visual recognition of predators can mediate egg-laying decisions by an insect herbivore and that an insect will discriminate among different species of potential predators. This unusual behavioral capability permits specialization on a risky, ant-defended food plant. PMID:19456265

  2. Do neotropical migrant butterflies navigate using a solar compass?

    PubMed

    Oliveira; Srygley; Dudley

    1998-12-01

    Many tropical butterfly species are well-known for their migratory behaviour. Although these insects can maintain a constant direction throughout the day, the physiological mechanisms of orientation are unknown. It has been argued that tropical migrant butterflies must use a time-compensated sun compass to accomplish their journey, but the crucial experimental manipulations to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. This study reports the results of clock-shift experiments performed with two species of migrating butterflies (Pieridae: Aphrissa statira and Phoebis argante) captured during flight across Lake Gatun, Panama. The observed constant flight bearing of natural controls suggests that these species are capable of performing time-compensated celestial navigation. Our clock-shift experiments suggest that a sun compass is involved. Individuals submitted to a 4 h advance shift took significantly different mean orientations on release compared with control butterflies. The direction of this difference was consistent with the use of a sun compass. The magnitude was approximately half the predicted value if the vanishing bearing of released butterflies was used as the variable to evaluate the effect of time-shifting and approximately three-quarters of that predicted if the estimated heading was the variable used. Mean vanishing bearings of control and experimental butterflies did not correspond to predicted values. This difference can be attributed largely to the combined effects of wind and handling. PMID:9817829

  3. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  4. Do monarch butterflies use polarized skylight for migratory orientation?

    PubMed

    Stalleicken, Julia; Mukhida, Maya; Labhart, Thomas; Wehner, Rüdiger; Frost, Barrie; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2005-06-01

    To test if migratory monarch butterflies use polarized light patterns as part of their time-compensated sun compass, we recorded their virtual flight paths in a flight simulator while the butterflies were exposed to patches of naturally polarized blue sky, artificial polarizers or a sunny sky. In addition, we tested butterflies with and without the polarized light detectors of their compound eye being occluded. The monarchs' orientation responses suggested that the butterflies did not use the polarized light patterns as a compass cue, nor did they exhibit a specific alignment response towards the axis of polarized light. When given direct view of the sun, migratory monarchs with their polarized light detectors painted out were still able to use their time-compensated compass: non-clockshifted butterflies, with their dorsal rim area occluded, oriented in their typical south-southwesterly migratory direction. Furthermore, they shifted their flight course clockwise by the predicted approximately 90 degrees after being advance clockshifted 6 h. We conclude that in migratory monarch butterflies, polarized light cues are not necessary for a time-compensated celestial compass to work and that the azimuthal position of the sun disc and/or the associated light-intensity and spectral gradients seem to be the migrants' major compass cue. PMID:15939779

  5. Developing `Butterfly Warriors': a Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-12-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen scientists. The butterfly unit included five lessons. The researchers observed the lessons and interviewed students and the classroom teacher. The students completed a unit evaluation survey after the unit. Findings indicate that the students enjoyed and were interested in activities such as reading about butterflies, learning and using new vocabulary, drawing butterfly life cycles, as well as hunting, tagging and releasing butterflies and publishing the data they had collected on a dedicated website. Through their participation in the unit, students had opportunities to act locally and globally, and to `see themselves' in science through `being there' experience. Units like this have the potential to develop students' interest for longer-term engagement in science, even those students who may never envision themselves as professional scientists.

  6. Do Heliconius butterfly species exchange mimicry alleles?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joel; Kronforst, Marcus R.

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization has the potential to transfer beneficial alleles across species boundaries, and there are a growing number of examples in which this has apparently occurred. Recent studies suggest that Heliconius butterflies have transferred wing pattern mimicry alleles between species via hybridization, but ancestral polymorphism could also produce a signature of shared ancestry around mimicry genes. To distinguish between these alternative hypotheses, we measured DNA sequence divergence around putatively introgressed mimicry loci and compared this with the rest of the genome. Our results reveal that putatively introgressed regions show strongly reduced sequence divergence between co-mimetic species, suggesting that their divergence times are younger than the rest of the genome. This is consistent with introgression and not ancestral variation. We further show that this signature of introgression occurs at sites throughout the genome, not just around mimicry genes. PMID:23864282

  7. Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales.

    PubMed

    Vukusic, P; Sambles, J R; Lawrence, C R

    2004-05-01

    Surfaces of low reflectance are ubiquitous in animate systems. They form essential components of the visual appearance of most living species and can explicitly influence other biological functions such as thermoregulation. The blackness associated with all opaque surfaces of low reflectivity has until now been attributed to strongly absorbing pigmentation alone. Our present study challenges this assumption, demonstrating that in addition to the requirement of absorbing pigmentation, complex nano-structures contribute to the low reflectance of certain natural surfaces. We describe preliminary findings of an investigation into the nature of the black regions observed on the dorsal wings of several Lepidoptera. Specifically, we quantify the optical absorption associated with black wing regions on the butterfly Papilio ulysses and find that the nanostructure of the wing scales of these regions contributes significantly to their black appearance. PMID:15252994

  8. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the significance of light <420 nm for inclination compass function was not considered in previous monarch studies. The antennae are important for the inclination compass because they appear to contain light-sensitive magnetosensors. For migratory monarchs, the inclination compass may serve as an important orientation mechanism when directional daylight cues are unavailable and may also augment time-compensated sun compass orientation for appropriate directionality throughout the migration. PMID:24960099

  9. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the significance of light <420 nm for inclination compass function was not considered in previous monarch studies. The antennae are important for the inclination compass because they appear to contain light-sensitive magnetosensors. For migratory monarchs, the inclination compass may serve as an important orientation mechanism when directional daylight cues are unavailable and may also augment time-compensated sun compass orientation for appropriate directionality throughout the migration. PMID:24960099

  10. The Butterfly diagram leopard skin pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    A time-latitude diagram where spotgroups are given proportional relevance to their area is presented. The diagram reveals that the spotted area distribution is higly dishomogeneous, most of it being concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the Butterfly Diagram; because of this structure, the BD may be properly described as a cluster of knots. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is challenged. Indeed, spots cluster around at as many latitudes as knots; a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the activity splits, in any hemisphere, into two or more distinct ``activity waves'', drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  11. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    PubMed

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. PMID:26743786

  12. Butterfly Dam, Cross section AA/South Elevation at Movable Leaf, Longitudinal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Butterfly Dam, Cross section A-A/South Elevation at Movable Leaf, Longitudinal Section B-B - Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Butterfly Dam, Illinois Waterway River Mile 293.1, Lockport, Will County, IL

  13. Butterfly wing coloration studied with a novel imaging scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavenga, Doekele

    2010-03-01

    Animal coloration functions for display or camouflage. Notably insects provide numerous examples of a rich variety of the applied optical mechanisms. For instance, many butterflies feature a distinct dichromatism, that is, the wing coloration of the male and the female differ substantially. The male Brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni, has yellow wings that are strongly UV iridescent, but the female has white wings with low reflectance in the UV and a high reflectance in the visible wavelength range. In the Small White cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, the wing reflectance of the male is low in the UV and high at visible wavelengths, whereas the wing reflectance of the female is higher in the UV and lower in the visible. Pierid butterflies apply nanosized, strongly scattering beads to achieve their bright coloration. The male Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, has dorsal wings with scales functioning as thin film gratings that exhibit polarized iridescence; the dorsal wings of the female are matte black. The polarized iridescence probably functions in intraspecific, sexual signaling, as has been demonstrated in Heliconius butterflies. An example of camouflage is the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi, where photonic crystal domains exist in the ventral wing scales, resulting in a matte green color that well matches the color of plant leaves. The spectral reflection and polarization characteristics of biological tissues can be rapidly and with unprecedented detail assessed with a novel imaging scatterometer-spectrophotometer, built around an elliptical mirror [1]. Examples of butterfly and damselfly wings, bird feathers, and beetle cuticle will be presented. [4pt] [1] D.G. Stavenga, H.L. Leertouwer, P. Pirih, M.F. Wehling, Optics Express 17, 193-202 (2009)

  14. On the Analysis and Construction of the Butterfly Curve Using "Mathematica"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geum, Y. H.; Kim, Y. I.

    2008-01-01

    The butterfly curve was introduced by Temple H. Fay in 1989 and defined by the polar curve r = e[superscript cos theta] minus 2 cos 4 theta plus sin[superscript 5] (theta divided by 12). In this article, we develop the mathematical model of the butterfly curve and analyse its geometric properties. In addition, we draw the butterfly curve and…

  15. 75 FR 10309 - Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly... for a 10-year period and would authorize incidental take of the endangered Karner blue butterfly... Karner blue butterfly to the maximum extent practicable, under section 10(a)(1)(B) of the Act (16...

  16. Citizen Science: The First Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count

    PubMed Central

    Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Lim, Aik-Hean; Lim, Voon-Ching; Lee, Ping-Shin; Sing, Kong-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past 50 years, Southeast Asia has suffered the greatest losses of biodiversity of any tropical region in the world. Malaysia is a biodiversity hotspot in the heart of Southeast Asia with roughly the same number of mammal species, three times the number of butterfly species, but only 4% of the land area of Australia. Consequently, in Malaysia, there is an urgent need for biodiversity monitoring and also public engagement with wildlife to raise awareness of biodiversity loss. Citizen science is “on the rise” globally and can make valuable contributions to long-term biodiversity monitoring, but perhaps more importantly, involving the general public in science projects can raise public awareness and promote engagement. Butterflies are often the focus of citizen science projects due to their charisma and familiarity and are particularly valuable “ambassadors” of biodiversity conservation for public outreach. New information Here we present the data from our citizen science project, the first “Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count”. Participants were asked to go outdoors on June 6, 2015, and (non-lethally) sample butterfly legs for species identification through DNA barcoding. Fifty-seven citizens responded to our adverts and registered to take part in the butterfly count with many registering on behalf of groups. Collectively the participants sampled 220 butterfly legs from 26 mostly urban and suburban sampling localities. These included our university campus, a highschool, several public parks and private residences. On the basis of 192 usable DNA barcodes, 43 species were sampled by the participants. The most sampled species was Appias olferna, followed by Junonia orithya and Zizina otis. Twenty-two species were only sampled once, five were only sampled twice, and four were only sampled three times. Three DNA barcodes could not be assigned species names. The sampled butterflies revealed that widely distributed, cosmopolitan

  17. Aerodynamic forces and vortical structures in flapping butterfly's forward flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Senda, Kei; Iima, Makoto; Hirai, Norio

    2013-02-01

    Forward flights of a bilaterally symmetrically flapping butterfly modeled as a four-link rigid-body system consisting of a thorax, an abdomen, and left and right wings are numerically simulated. The joint motions of the butterflies are adopted from experimental observations. Three kinds of the simulations, distinguished by ways to determine the position and attitude of the thorax, are carried out: a tethered simulation, a prescribed simulation, and free-flight simulations. The upward and streamwise forces as well as the wake structures in the tethered simulation, where the thorax of the butterfly is fixed, reasonably agree with those in the corresponding tethered experiment. In the prescribed simulation, where the thoracic trajectories as well as the joint angles are given by those observed in a free-flight experiment, it is confirmed that the butterfly can produce enough forces to achieve the flapping flights. Moreover, coherent vortical structures in the wake and those on the wings are identified. The generation of the aerodynamic forces due to the vortical structures are also clarified. In the free-flight simulation, where only the joint angles are given as periodic functions of time, it is found that the free flight is longitudinally unstable because the butterfly cannot maintain the attitude in a proper range. Focusing on the abdominal mass, which largely varies owing to feeding and metabolizing, we have shown that the abdominal motion plays an important role in periodic flights. The necessity of control of the thoracic attitude for periodic flights and maneuverability is also discussed.

  18. Relative resource abundance explains butterfly biodiversity in island communities

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Yokoyama, Jun; Kawata, Masakado

    2007-01-01

    Ecologists have long been intrigued by the factors that control the pattern of biodiversity, i.e., the distribution and abundance of species. Previous studies have demonstrated that coexisting species partition their resources and/or that the compositional similarity between communities is determined by environmental factors, lending support to the niche-assembly model. However, no attempt has been made to test whether the relative amount of resources that reflects relative niche space controls relative species abundance in communities. Here, we demonstrate that the relative abundance of butterfly species in island communities is significantly related to the relative biomasses of their host plants but not to the geographic distance between communities. In the studied communities, the biomass of particular host plant species positively affected the abundance of the butterfly species that used them, and consequently, influenced the relative abundance of the butterfly communities. This indicated that the niche space of butterflies (i.e., the amount of resources) strongly influences butterfly biodiversity patterns. We present this field evidence of the niche-apportionment model that propose that the relative amount of niche space explains the pattern of the relative abundance of the species in communities. PMID:17553963

  19. Refractive index dependence of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnaeni, Muslimin, Ahmad Novi; Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang

    2016-02-01

    We have observed and utilized butterfly wings of Papilio Ulysses for refractive index sensor. We noticed this butterfly wings have photonic crystal structure, which causes blue color appearance on the wings. The photonic crystal structure, which consists of cuticle and air void, is approximated as one dimensional photonic crystal structure. This photonic crystal structure opens potential to several optical devices application, such as refractive index sensor. We have utilized small piece of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings to characterize refractive index of several liquid base on reflectance spectrum of butterfly wings in the presence of sample liquid. For comparison, we simulated reflectance spectrum of one dimensional photonic crystal structure having material parameter based on real structure of butterfly wings. We found that reflectance spectrum peaks shifted as refractive index of sample changes. Although there is a slight difference in reflectance spectrum peaks between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum, the trend of reflectance spectrum peaks as function of sample's refractive index is the similar. We assume that during the measurement, the air void that filled by sample liquid is expanded due to liquid pressure. This change of void shape causes non-similarity between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum.

  20. Direct excitation of butterfly states in Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippe, Carsten; Niederpruem, Thomas; Thomas, Oliver; Eichert, Tanita; Ott, Herwig

    2016-05-01

    Since their first theoretical prediction Rydberg molecules have become an increasing field of research. These exotic states originate from the binding of a ground state atom in the electronic wave function of a highly-excited Rydberg atom mediated by a Fermi contact type interaction. A special class of long-range molecular states, the butterfly states, were first proposed by Greene et al.. These states arise from a shape resonance in the p-wave scattering channel of a ground state atom and a Rydberg electron and are characterized by an electron wavefunction whose density distribution resembles the shape of a butterfly. We report on the direct observation of deeply bound butterfly states of Rydberg molecules of 87 Rb. The butterfly states are studied by high resolution spectroscopy of UV-excited Rydberg molecules. We find states bound up to - 50 GHz from the 25 P1/2 , F = 1 state, corresponding to binding lengths of 50a0 to 500a0 and with permanent electric dipole moments of up to 500 Debye. This distinguishes the observed butterfly states from the previously observed long range Rydberg molecules in rubidium.

  1. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Breinholt, Jesse W.

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly–moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  2. Butterfly inclusions in Van Schrieck masterpieces. Techniques and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, S.; Boulenguez, J.; Menu, M.; Mottin, B.

    2008-07-01

    Dutch painter Otto Marseus Van Schrieck (1619 1678) is famous for his invention of “sottobosco”. These specific still-life paintings are characterized by the presence of various living organisms (mainly insects and plants) directly on the canvas. We will focus our attention on the painting kept in the museum of Grenoble, France, where a real butterfly is pasted on the canvas. The actual butterfly is a common Nymphalidae, Inachis io, presented in a static position on the dorsal side, without any perspective, compared to the neighboring butterflies. The colors of this butterfly are mainly due to pigments, melanin (black to brown) and ommochromes (yellow, orange, red) often in granules configuration that introduce scattering of light superimposed to the classical selective absorption, except in the ocelli of the hind wings where the blue coloration is due to interferential effects. The nearly perfect refraction index equality between the varnish and the chitin, the main constituent of the butterfly wings, deeply affects its colors. This leads the artist to a final intervention in some parts of the wings, revealed by microscope observation.

  3. Flight testing of live Monarch butterflies to determine the aerodynamic benefit of butterfly scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Amy; Cranford, Jacob; Conway, Jasmine; Slegers, Nathan; Dechello, Nicole; Wilroy, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Evolutionary adaptations in the morphological structure of butterfly scales (0.1 mm in size) to develop a unique micro-patterning resulting in a surface drag alteration, stem from a probable aerodynamic benefit of minimizing the energy requirement to fly a very lightweight body with comparably large surface area in a low Re flow regime. Live Monarch butterflies were tested at UAHuntsville's Autonomous Tracking and Optical Measurement (ATOM) Laboratory, which uses 22 Vicon T40 cameras that allow for millimeter level tracking of reflective markers at 515 fps over a 4 m × 6 m × 7 m volume. Data recorded included the flight path as well as the wing flapping angle and wing-beat frequency. Insects were first tested with their scales intact, and then again with the scales carefully removed. Differences in flapping frequency and/or energy obtained during flight due to the removal of the scales will be discussed. Initial data analysis indicates that scale removal in some specimens leads to increased flapping frequencies for similar energetic flight or reduced flight speed for similar flapping frequencies. Both results point to the scales providing an aerodynamic benefit, which is hypothesized to be linked to leading-edge vortex formation and induced drag. Funding from the National Science Foundation (CBET and REU) is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Canine Butterfly Glioblastomas: A Neuroradiological Review.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, John H; Clapp, Kemba; Pancotto, Theresa E; Emch, Samantha; Robertson, John L; Debinski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a "butterfly" glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented for generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3) or symmetrical (1/3), bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes that were associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3), and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma. PMID:27458589

  5. Quantum computation over the butterfly network

    SciTech Connect

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio

    2011-07-15

    In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider deterministically performing a two-qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource setting introduced by M. Hayashi [Phys. Rev. A 76, 040301(R) (2007)], which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that unitary operations can be performed without adding any entanglement resource, if and only if the unitary operations are locally unitary equivalent to controlled unitary operations. Our protocol is optimal in the sense that the unitary operations cannot be implemented if we relax the specifications of any of the channels. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.

  6. Hybridization promotes speciation in Coenonympha butterflies.

    PubMed

    Capblancq, Thibaut; Després, Laurence; Rioux, Delphine; Mavárez, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    Hybridization has become a central element in theories of animal evolution during the last decade. New methods in population genomics and statistical model testing now allow the disentangling of the complexity that hybridization brings into key evolutionary processes such as local adaptation, colonization of new environments, species diversification and extinction. We evaluated the consequences of hybridization in a complex of three alpine butterflies in the genus Coenonympha, by combining morphological, genetic and ecological analyses. A series of approximate Bayesian computation procedures based on a large SNP data set strongly suggest that the Darwin's Heath (Coenonympha darwiniana) originated through hybridization between the Pearly Heath (Coenonympha arcania) and the Alpine Heath (Coenonympha gardetta) with different parental contributions. As a result of hybridization, the Darwin's Heath presents an intermediate morphology between the parental species, while its climatic niche seems more similar to the Alpine Heath. Our results also reveal a substantial genetic and morphologic differentiation between the two geographically disjoint Darwin's Heath lineages leading us to propose the splitting of this taxon into two different species. PMID:26581657

  7. Flowering time of butterfly nectar food plants is more sensitive to temperature than the timing of butterfly adult flight.

    PubMed

    Kharouba, Heather M; Vellend, Mark

    2015-09-01

    1. Variation among species in their phenological responses to temperature change suggests that shifts in the relative timing of key life cycle events between interacting species are likely to occur under climate warming. However, it remains difficult to predict the prevalence and magnitude of these shifts given that there have been few comparisons of phenological sensitivities to temperature across interacting species. 2. Here, we used a broad-scale approach utilizing collection records to compare the temperature sensitivity of the timing of adult flight in butterflies vs. flowering of their potential nectar food plants (days per °C) across space and time in British Columbia, Canada. 3. On average, the phenology of both butterflies and plants advanced in response to warmer temperatures. However, the two taxa were differentially sensitive to temperature across space vs. across time, indicating the additional importance of nontemperature cues and/or local adaptation for many species. 4. Across butterfly-plant associations, flowering time was significantly more sensitive to temperature than the timing of butterfly flight and these sensitivities were not correlated. 5. Our results indicate that warming-driven shifts in the relative timing of life cycle events between butterflies and plants are likely to be prevalent, but that predicting the magnitude and direction of such changes in particular cases is going to require detailed, fine-scale data. PMID:25823582

  8. Rib butterfly fractures as a possible indicator of blast trauma.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A

    2013-01-01

    Forensic anthropologists have become increasingly involved in the interpretation of skeletal trauma caused by exploding ordnance. This study examines the cause and significance of butterfly fractures observed in a recent study investigating skeletal blast trauma by Christensen et al. Fractured ribs resulting from blast events carried out in the original study were re-examined revealing that rib butterfly fractures with the tensile indicator on the visceral surface were present in 100% of viable pig specimens. Additionally, manual fracture testing was performed on 46 pig ribs to simulate the bending force believed to have been sustained in the original blast events. Fracture testing resulted in 93% of specimens presenting butterfly fractures with the tensile indicator on the visceral surface. This fracture pattern differs significantly from that normally observed in association with other types of trauma events and may aid forensic anthropologists and other investigators in the identification and interpretation of blast events. PMID:23126284

  9. Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Matthias A.; Nash, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host-ant-dependent oviposition in this and other Maculinea species have, however, shown equivocal results, leading to a long-term controversy over support for this hypothesis. We therefore conducted a controlled field experiment to study the egg-laying behaviour of M. alcon. Matched potted Gentiana plants were set out close to host-ant nests and non-host-ant nests, and the number and position of eggs attached were assessed. Our results show no evidence for host-ant-based oviposition in M. alcon, but support an oviposition strategy based on plant characteristics. This suggests that careful management of host-ant distribution is necessary for conservation of this endangered butterfly. PMID:19864269

  10. The Effect of Wing Scales on Monarch Butterfly Flight Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Angela; Jones, Robert; Lang, Amy

    2010-11-01

    Recent research has shown that the highly flexible wings of butterflies in flapping flight develop vortices along their leading and trailing edges. Butterfly scales (approximately 100 microns in length) have a shingled pattern and extend into the boundary layer. These scales, which make up approximately 3% of the body weight or less, could play a part in controlling separation and vortex formation in this unsteady, three-dimensional complex flow field. A better understanding of this mechanism may lead to bio-inspired applications for flapping wing micro-air vehicles. In this study, the flight performance of Monarch (Danaus plexippus) butterflies with and without scales was analyzed. Scales were removed from the upper and lower wing surfaces and specimens were videotaped at 600 frames per second. Variation in flapping patterns and flight fitness were observed.

  11. Numerical Analysis for Structural Safety Evaluation of Butterfly Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Myung-Seob; Yoon, Joon-Yong; Park, Han-Yung

    2010-06-01

    Butterfly valves are widely used in current industry to control the fluid flow. They are used for both on-off and throttling applications involving large flows at relatively low operating pressure especially in large size pipelines. For the industrial application of butterfly valves, it must be ensured that the valve could be used safety under the fatigue life and the deformations produced by the pressure of the fluid. In this study, we carried out the structure analysis of the body and the valve disc of the butterfly valve and the numerical simulation was performed by using ANSYS v11.0. The reliability of valve is evaluated under the investigation of the deformation, the leak test and the durability of the valve.

  12. Solving tridiagonal linear systems on the Butterfly parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    A parallel block partitioning method to solve a tri-diagonal system of linear equations is adapted to the BBN Butterfly multiprocessor. A performance analysis of the programming experiments on the 32-node Butterfly is presented. An upper bound on the number of processors to achieve the best performance with this method is derived. The computational results verify the theoretical speedup and efficiency results of the parallel algorithm over its serial counterpart. Also included is a study comparing performance runs of the same code on the Butterfly processor with a hardware floating point unit and on one with a software floating point facility. The total parallel time of the given code is considerably reduced by making use of the hardware floating point facility whereas the speedup and efficiency of the parallel program considerably improve on the system with software floating point capability. The achieved results are shown to be within 82% to 90% of the predicted performance.

  13. Hearing in the crepuscular owl butterfly (Caligo eurilochus, Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Lucas, Kathleen M; Mongrain, Jennifer K; Windmill, James F C; Robert, Daniel; Yack, Jayne E

    2014-10-01

    Tympanal organs are widespread in Nymphalidae butterflies, with a great deal of variability in the morphology of these ears. How this variation reflects differences in hearing physiology is not currently understood. This study provides the first examination of hearing organs in the crepuscular owl butterfly, Caligo eurilochus. We examined the tuning and sensitivity of the C. eurilochus hearing organ, called Vogel's organ, using laser Doppler vibrometry and extracellular neurophysiology. We show that the C. eurilochus ear responds to sound and is most sensitive to frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz, as confirmed by both the vibration of the tympanal membrane and the physiological response of the associated nerve branches. In comparison to the hearing of its diurnally active relative, Morpho peleides, C. eurilochus has a narrower frequency range with higher auditory thresholds. Hypotheses explaining the function of hearing in this crepuscular butterfly are discussed. PMID:25173833

  14. Both Palatable and Unpalatable Butterflies Use Bright Colors to Signal Difficulty of Capture to Predators.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L; Campos, V C; DeVries, P J; Penz, C M

    2016-04-01

    Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of capture to predators is a widespread phenomenon in butterflies, and this ability may not be limited to palatable butterflies. The possibility that both palatable and unpalatable species signal difficulty of capture has not been fully explored, but helps explain the existence of aposematic coloration and escape mimicry in butterflies lacking defensive chemicals. This possibility may also change the role that putative Müllerian and Batesian mimics play in a variety of classical mimicry rings, thus opening new perspectives in the evolution of mimicry in butterflies. PMID:26911159

  15. Fueling the fall migration of the monarch butterfly.

    PubMed

    Brower, Lincoln P; Fink, Linda S; Walford, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Monarch butterflies in eastern North America accumulate lipids during their fall migration to central Mexico, and use them as their energy source during a 5 month overwintering period. When and where along their migratory journey the butterflies accumulate these lipids has implications for the importance of fall nectar sources in North America. We analyzed the lipid content of 765 summer breeding and fall migrant monarch butterflies collected at 1 nectaring site in central Virginia over 4 years (1998-2001), and compared them with 16 additional published and unpublished datasets from other sites, dating back to 1941. Virginia migrants store significantly more lipid than summer butterflies, and show significant intraseason and between-year variation. None of the Virginia samples, and none of the historical samples, with one exception, had lipid levels comparable with those found in migrants that had reached Texas and northern Mexico. This evidence suggests that upon reaching Texas, the butterflies undergo a behavioral shift and spend more time nectaring. The one exceptional sample led us to the discovery that monarchs that form roosts along their migratory routes have higher lipid contents than monarchs collected while nectaring at flowers. We propose that for much of their journey monarchs are opportunistic migrants, and the variation within and between samples reflects butterflies' individual experiences. The stored lipids appear to be of less importance as fuel for the butterflies' migration than for their survival during their overwintering period, in part because soaring on favorable winds reduces the energetic cost of flying. The conservation of nectar plants in Texas and northern Mexico is crucial to sustaining the monarch's migratory spectacle, and nectar abundance throughout eastern North America is also important. As generalists in their selection of nectar sources and nectaring habitats, monarchs are unlikely to be affected by small changes in plant

  16. Analysis, synchronization and circuit design of a novel butterfly attractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehlivan, Ihsan; Moroz, Irene M.; Vaidyanathan, Sundarapandian

    2014-09-01

    This research paper introduces a novel three-dimensional autonomous system, whose dynamics support periodic and chaotic butterfly attractors as certain parameters vary. A special case of this system, exhibiting reflectional symmetry, is amenable to analytical and numerical analysis. Qualitative properties of the new chaotic system are discussed in detail. Adaptive control laws are derived to achieve global chaotic synchronization of the new chaotic system with unknown parameters. Furthermore, a novel electronic circuit realization of the new chaotic system is presented, examined and realized using Orcad-PSpice program and physical components. The proposed novel butterfly chaotic attractor is very useful for the deliberate generation of chaos in applications.

  17. Atmospheric Predictability: Why Butterflies Are Not Important

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durran, D. R.; Gingrich, M.

    2014-12-01

    The spectral turbulence model of Lorenz, as modified for surface quasi-geostrophic dynamics by Rotunno and Snyder, is further modified to more smoothly approach nonlinear saturation. This model is used to investigate error growth starting from different distributions of the initial error. Consistent with an often overlooked finding by Lorenz, the loss of predictability generated by initial errors of small but fixed absolute magnitude is essentially independent of their spatial scale when the background saturation kinetic energy spectrum is proportional the -5/3 power of the wavenumber. Thus, because the background kinetic energy increases with scale, very small relative errors at long wavelengths have similar impacts on perturbation error growth as large relative errors at short wavelengths. To the extent that this model applies to practical meteorological forecasts, the influence of initial perturbations generated by butterflies would be swamped by unavoidable tiny relative errors in the large scales. The rough applicability of our modified spectral turbulence model to the atmosphere over scales ranging between 10 km and 1000 km is supported by the good estimate it provides for the ensemble error growth in state-of-the-art ensemble mesoscale-model simulations of two winter storms. The initial error spectrum for the ensemble perturbations in these cases has maximum power at the longest wavelengths. The dominance of large-scale errors in the ensemble suggests that mesoscale weather forecasts may often be limited by errors arising from the large-scales instead of being produced solely through an upscale cascade from the smallest scales. These results imply the predictability of small-scale features in the vicinity of topography may be shorter than currently supposed.

  18. Iteradensovirus from the Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus plexippus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The 5,006-nucleotide (nt)-long genome of a new virus from monarch butterfly pupae was cloned and sequenced. It was flanked by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of 239 nt with 163-nt hairpins. The monosense genome with three open reading frames is typical of the genus Iteradensovirus in the subfamily Densovirinae of the family Parvoviridae. PMID:24744339

  19. Evolution of the Hofstadter butterfly in a tunable optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktel, Mehmet O.; Unal, Nur; Yilmaz, Firat

    Advances in realizing artificial gauge fields on optical lattices promise experimental detection of topologically non-trivial energy spectra. Self-similar fractal energy structures, known as Hofstadter butterflies, depend sensitively on the geometry of the lattice, as well as the applied magnetic field. The recent demonstration of an adjustable lattice geometry [L. Tarruell et al., Nature 483, 302 (2012)] presents a unique opportunity to study this dependence. We calculate the Hofstadter butterflies that can be obtained in such an adjustable lattice and find three qualitatively different regimes. We show that the existence of Dirac points at zero magnetic field does not imply the topological equivalence of spectra at finite field. As the real-space structure evolves from the checkerboard to the honeycomb lattice, two square lattice Hofstadter butterflies merge to form a honeycomb lattice butterfly in a topologically non-trivial way, as it is accomplished by sequential closing of infinitely many gaps. We discuss the evolution of topological properties with underlying lattice geometry by calculating the Chern numbers and comment on the validity of simulating graphene in such an adjustable lattice

  20. Attack risk for butterflies changes with eyespot number and size

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Sebastian; Schachat, Sandra R.; Piel, William H.; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly eyespots are known to function in predator deflection and predator intimidation, but it is still unclear what factors cause eyespots to serve one function over the other. Both functions have been demonstrated in different species that varied in eyespot size, eyespot number and wing size, leaving the contribution of each of these factors to butterfly survival unclear. Here, we study how each of these factors contributes to eyespot function by using paper butterfly models, where each factor is varied in turn, and exposing these models to predation in the field. We find that the presence of multiple, small eyespots results in high predation, whereas single large eyespots (larger than 6 mm in diameter) results in low predation. These data indicate that single large eyespots intimidate predators, whereas multiple small eyespots produce a conspicuous, but non-intimidating signal to predators. We propose that eyespots may gain an intimidation function by increasing in size. Our measurements of eyespot size in 255 nymphalid butterfly species show that large eyespots are relatively rare and occur predominantly on ventral wing surfaces. By mapping eyespot size on the phylogeny of the family Nymphalidae, we show that these large eyespots, with a potential intimidation function, are dispersed throughout multiple nymphalid lineages, indicating that phylogeny is not a strong predictor of eyespot size. PMID:26909190

  1. Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-03-22

    Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae. PMID:21920981

  2. Some Possible Cases of Escape Mimicry in Neotropical Butterflies.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L

    2014-10-01

    The possibility that escape or evasive mimicry evolved in butterflies and other prey insects in a similar fashion to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry has long been advanced in the literature. However, there is a general disagreement among lepidopterists and evolutionary biologists on whether or not escape mimicry exists, as well as in which mimicry rings this form of mimicry has evolved. Here, we review some purported cases of escape mimicry in Neotropical butterflies and suggest new mimicry rings involving several species of Archaeoprepona, Prepona, and Doxocopa (the "bright blue bands" ring) and species of Colobura and Hypna (the "creamy bands" ring) where the palatability of butterflies, their ability to escape predator attacks, geographic distribution, relative abundance, and co-occurrence in the same habitats strongly suggest that escape mimicry is involved. In addition, we also indicate other butterfly taxa whose similarities of coloration patterns could be due to escape mimicry and would constitute important case studies for future investigation. PMID:27193948

  3. Evolution of the Hofstadter butterfly in a tunable optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, F.; Ünal, F. Nur; Oktel, M. Ã.-.

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in realizing artificial gauge fields on optical lattices promise experimental detection of topologically nontrivial energy spectra. Self-similar fractal energy structures generally known as Hofstadter butterflies depend sensitively on the geometry of the underlying lattice, as well as the applied magnetic field. The recent demonstration of an adjustable lattice geometry [L. Tarruell, D. Greif, T. Uehlinger, G. Jotzu, and T. Esslinger, Nature (London) 483, 302 (2012), 10.1038/nature10871] presents a unique opportunity to study this dependence. In this paper, we calculate the Hofstadter butterflies that can be obtained in such an adjustable lattice and find three qualitatively different regimes. We show that the existence of Dirac points at zero magnetic field does not imply the topological equivalence of spectra at finite field. As the real-space structure evolves from the checkerboard lattice to the honeycomb lattice, two square-lattice Hofstadter butterflies merge to form a honeycomb lattice butterfly. This merging is topologically nontrivial, as it is accomplished by sequential closings of gaps. Ensuing Chern number transfer between the bands can be probed with the adjustable lattice experiments. We also calculate the Chern numbers of the gaps for qualitatively different spectra and discuss the evolution of topological properties with underlying lattice geometry.

  4. Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-Jun; Liang, Hong-Fei; Feng, Wen

    2010-11-01

    Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram, which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength.

  5. Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.

    PubMed

    Herman, W S; Tatar, M

    2001-12-22

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive development is arrested as a consequence of suppressed synthesis of juvenile hormone. Here, we describe survival in monarch butterflies as a function of the migrant syndrome. We show that migrant adults are longer lived than summer adults when each are maintained under standard laboratory conditions, that the longevity of migrant adults is curtailed by treatment with juvenile hormone and that the longevity of summer adults is increased by 100% when juvenile hormone synthesis is prevented by surgical removal of its source, the corpora allatum. Thus, monarch butterfly persistence through a long winter season is ensured in part by reduced ageing that is under endocrine regulation, as well as by the unique environmental properties of their winter roost sites. Phenotypic plasticity for ageing is an integral component of the monarch butterflies' migration-diapause syndrome. PMID:11749703

  6. 2. Barn 41. North side. 'Butterfly' roof line is similar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Barn 41. North side. 'Butterfly' roof line is similar to those of barns in middle barn area (Barns 1A through 8B). Part of 'panorama' with photo WA-201-13-1. - Longacres, Barn 41, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  7. 21. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: LOOKING AT THE TRUNION FOR THE BUTTERFLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: LOOKING AT THE TRUNION FOR THE BUTTERFLY VALVE AND DRAIN FOR SCROLL CASE FOR UNIT 32. THESE ARE LOCATED ON THE SAME LEVEL IN THE POWERHOUSE AS THE LOWER OIL ROOM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  8. Becoming Butterflies: Making Metamorphosis Meaningful for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Baggett, Paige V.; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although butterflies are a common topic of study in many early childhood classrooms, integrating art production broadens the scope of the study and allows children to deepen their knowledge and understanding through creative self-expression. This article presents a set of integrated activities that focus on helping children fully grasp the process…

  9. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  10. Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in Driven SU(2) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jiao; Gong Jiangbin

    2009-06-19

    The Floquet spectrum of a class of driven SU(2) systems is shown to display a butterfly pattern with multifractal properties. The level crossing between Floquet states of the same parity or different parities is studied. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, coherent destruction of tunneling, and the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

  11. 112. Detail of butterfly valve for turbine unit no. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Detail of butterfly valve for turbine unit no. 2. Beyond is a General Electric AC generator directly connected to turbine unit no. 2. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  12. Butterfly Chronicles: Imagination and Desire in Natural & Literary Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    Fragile, ethereal, beautiful, the butterfly is at the same time decidedly strange in appearance. They are without mandibles, unlike most insects, but sport instead a proboscis, sometimes one and a half times their body length, which they use to drink liquids as if through a straw. They have large, compound eyes, tiny nails or claws, and strange…

  13. Young Scientists Explore Butterflies and Moths. Book 4 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on butterflies and moths and their stages of development. The first section contains exercises on recognizing insect body…

  14. Intensity contrast as a crucial cue for butterfly landing.

    PubMed

    Koshitaka, Hisaharu; Arikawa, Kentaro; Kinoshita, Michiyo

    2011-11-01

    Papilio butterflies use a tetrachromatic color vision to discriminate a rewarding flower, approach, land and take nectar from the flower. In the course of further analyzing their foraging behavior in a laboratory condition, we found that some butterflies could not land on the target flower even they discriminated and tried to land on it, especially when the target was dark. This phenomenon, which we call "landing suppression", indicates that the cue for landing differs from the cue for visually locating a flower. We hypothesized that a possible cue for landing was intensity contrast between the target and background, and have initiated to test this hypothesis. We tested the butterflies' landing behavior to targets of various colors and intensities presented on background of black or various densities of gray. As a result, the landing was most strongly suppressed when the intensity contrast was close to zero irrespective of the target colors, suggesting that the butterflies used the target-background intensity contrast when landing. PMID:21847617

  15. The Butterfly "Sight"--Using the Internet in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Kathy; Baggott, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Describes an environmental project which involved the collection and exchange of data on butterflies, including information on climate and vegetation, to monitor their distribution. Schools in several European countries exchanged information via e-mail, and the resulting website has evolved into a site offering information, survey data, curriculum…

  16. Attack risk for butterflies changes with eyespot number and size.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sebastian; Schachat, Sandra R; Piel, William H; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly eyespots are known to function in predator deflection and predator intimidation, but it is still unclear what factors cause eyespots to serve one function over the other. Both functions have been demonstrated in different species that varied in eyespot size, eyespot number and wing size, leaving the contribution of each of these factors to butterfly survival unclear. Here, we study how each of these factors contributes to eyespot function by using paper butterfly models, where each factor is varied in turn, and exposing these models to predation in the field. We find that the presence of multiple, small eyespots results in high predation, whereas single large eyespots (larger than 6 mm in diameter) results in low predation. These data indicate that single large eyespots intimidate predators, whereas multiple small eyespots produce a conspicuous, but non-intimidating signal to predators. We propose that eyespots may gain an intimidation function by increasing in size. Our measurements of eyespot size in 255 nymphalid butterfly species show that large eyespots are relatively rare and occur predominantly on ventral wing surfaces. By mapping eyespot size on the phylogeny of the family Nymphalidae, we show that these large eyespots, with a potential intimidation function, are dispersed throughout multiple nymphalid lineages, indicating that phylogeny is not a strong predictor of eyespot size. PMID:26909190

  17. BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

  18. Subcutaneous infusion: non-metal cannulae vs metal butterfly needles.

    PubMed

    Torre, Maria Carrion

    2002-07-01

    This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of non-metal cannulae compared to metal butterfly needles in maintaining subcutaneous infusion sites in patients receiving palliative care. The Cochrane Library, Medline, Pre-Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Amed and Cancerlit were searched for relevant studies. Controlled trials comparing non-metal cannulae with metal butterfly needles for giving subcutaneous infusion to palliative care patients were included. The outcome considered was site duration in terms of hours of patency or until change was required. Four trials met the inclusion criteria although overall quality was poor due to low follow-up. Studies examined either Teflon or Vialon-coated catheters. All studies showed non-metal cannulae to be superior to metal. In individual studies estimates in mean increase in duration of the site range from 21 to 159 hours. It seems that non-metal cannulae are more effective in maintaining the duration of subcutaneous infusion sites than butterfly needles. Both types of non-metal catheter showed clear benefits. This review has not examined other outcomes but in general adverse effects lead to the removal of the catheter and so would be reflected in the outcome of considered. Although historically non-metal cannulae have been considerably more expensive there is now little difference between metal and Teflon-coated catheters. This review recommends the use of non-metal cannulae in preference to butterfly needles. PMID:12131852

  19. Airspeed adjustment and lipid reserves in migratory Neotropical butterflies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that migrant fliers should reduce their speed of flight as endogenous energy reserves are gradually consumed. This prediction was tested for butterfly species that engage in annual rainy season migrations through central Panama. Direct airspeed measurements together wit...

  20. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26798308

  1. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  2. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    PubMed

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. PMID:22278732

  3. A meta-analysis of dispersal in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Virginie M; Turlure, Camille; Baguette, Michel

    2010-08-01

    Dispersal has recently gained much attention because of its crucial role in the conservation and evolution of species facing major environmental changes such as habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, and their interactions. Butterflies have long been recognized as ideal model systems for the study of dispersal and a huge amount of data on their ability to disperse has been collected under various conditions. However, no single 'best' method seems to exist leading to the co-occurrence of various approaches to study butterfly mobility, and therefore a high heterogeneity among data on dispersal across this group. Accordingly, we here reviewed the knowledge accumulated on dispersal and mobility in butterflies, to detect general patterns. This meta-analysis specifically addressed two questions. Firstly, do the various methods provide a congruent picture of how dispersal ability is distributed across species? Secondly, is dispersal species-specific? Five sources of data were analysed: multisite mark-recapture experiments, genetic studies, experimental assessments, expert opinions, and transect surveys. We accounted for potential biases due to variation in genetic markers, sample sizes, spatial scales or the level of habitat fragmentation. We showed that the various dispersal estimates generally converged, and that the relative dispersal ability of species could reliably be predicted from their relative vagrancy (records of butterflies outside their normal habitat). Expert opinions gave much less reliable estimates of realized dispersal but instead reflected migration propensity of butterflies. Within-species comparisons showed that genetic estimates were relatively invariable, while other dispersal estimates were highly variable. This latter point questions dispersal as a species-specific, invariant trait. PMID:20055815

  4. Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Frost, Barrie J

    2002-07-23

    A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly approximately southwest, those 6-h time-advanced fly southeast, and 6-h time-delayed butterflies fly in northwesterly directions. Moreover, butterflies flown in the same apparatus under simulated overcast in natural magnetic fields were randomly oriented and did not change direction when magnetic fields were rotated. Therefore, these experiments do not provide any evidence that monarch butterflies use a magnetic compass during migration. PMID:12107283

  5. The aerodynamic costs of warning signals in palatable mimetic butterflies and their distasteful models.

    PubMed Central

    Srygley, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Bates hypothesized that some butterfly species that are palatable gain protection from predation by appearing similar to distasteful butterflies. When undisturbed, distasteful butterflies fly slowly and in a straight line, and palatable Batesian mimics also adopt this nonchalant behaviour. When seized by predators, distasteful butterflies are defended by toxic or nauseous chemicals. Lacking chemical defences, Batesian mimics depend on flight to escape attacks. Here, I demonstrate that flight in warning-coloured mimetic butterflies and their distasteful models is more costly than in closely related non-mimetic butterflies. The increased cost is the result of differences in both wing shape and kinematics. Batesian mimics and their models slow the angular velocity of their wings to enhance the colour signal but at an aerodynamic cost. Moreover, the design for flight in Batesian mimics has an additional energetic cost over that of its models. The added cost may cause Batesian mimics to be rare, explaining a general pattern that Bates first observed. PMID:15156916

  6. K+ excretion: the other purpose for puddling behavior in Japanese Papilio butterflies.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi A; Ito, Tetsuo; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Yokohari, Fumio; Niihara, Kinuko

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water with a Na+ concentration of up to 10 mM appears to be optimal for the health of male Japanese Papilio butterflies. The molar ratio of K+ to Na+ observed in leaves was 43.94 and that observed in flower nectars was 10.93. The Na+ amount in 100 g of host plant leaves ranged from 2.11 to 16.40 mg, and the amount in 100 g of flower nectar ranged from 1.24 to 108.21 mg. Differences in host plants did not explain the differences in the frequency of puddling observed for different Japanese Papilio species. The amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the meconium of both male and female butterflies were also measured, and both males and females excreted more K+ than the other three ions. Thus, the fluid that was excreted by butterflies at emergence also had a role in the excretion of the excessive K+ in their bodies. The quantities of Na+ and K+ observed in butterfly eggs were approximately 0.50 μg and 4.15 μg, respectively; thus, female butterflies required more K+ than male butterflies. Therefore, female butterflies did not puddle to excrete K+. In conclusion, the purpose of puddling for male Papilio butterflies is not only to absorb Na+ to correct deficiencies but also to excrete excessive K+. PMID:25955856

  7. K+ Excretion: The Other Purpose for Puddling Behavior in Japanese Papilio Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water with a Na+ concentration of up to 10 mM appears to be optimal for the health of male Japanese Papilio butterflies. The molar ratio of K+ to Na+ observed in leaves was 43.94 and that observed in flower nectars was 10.93. The Na+ amount in 100 g of host plant leaves ranged from 2.11 to 16.40 mg, and the amount in 100 g of flower nectar ranged from 1.24 to 108.21 mg. Differences in host plants did not explain the differences in the frequency of puddling observed for different Japanese Papilio species. The amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the meconium of both male and female butterflies were also measured, and both males and females excreted more K+ than the other three ions. Thus, the fluid that was excreted by butterflies at emergence also had a role in the excretion of the excessive K+ in their bodies. The quantities of Na+ and K+ observed in butterfly eggs were approximately 0.50 μg and 4.15 μg, respectively; thus, female butterflies required more K+ than male butterflies. Therefore, female butterflies did not puddle to excrete K+. In conclusion, the purpose of puddling for male Papilio butterflies is not only to absorb Na+ to correct deficiencies but also to excrete excessive K+. PMID:25955856

  8. An assessment of riparian environmental quality by using butterflies and disturbance susceptibility scores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, S. Mark; Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    The butterfly community at a revegetated riparian site on the lower Colorado River near Parker, Arizona, was compared to that found in a reference riparian site. Data indicated that the herbaceous plant community, which was lacking at the revegetated site, was important to several butterfly taxa. An index using butterfly sensitivity to habitat change (species classified into risk groups) and number of taxa was developed to monitor revegetation projects and to determine restoration effectiveness.

  9. [Butterfly species diversity and its conservation in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Zhou, Hong-Chun; Tan, Ji-Cai; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2011-06-01

    By using line-transect method, an investigation was conducted on the species diversity of butterfly in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Changde City of Hunan Province from June 2008 to September 2010. Aiming at the main factors including plant species richness (D) , mean elevation (E) , average distance from stream/river (F), and human interference level (K) that affecting the species richness of butterfly in 31 segment-level transects in 4 line-transects, multiple regression analysis was made, and the diversity and similarity of the butterfly communities in the experimental zone, buffer zone, and core zone of the Reserve were compared. A total of 147 butterfly species were collected, belonging to 94 genera and 10 families, among which, 4 species was nationally conserved species. Multiple regression analysis showed that D, E, and K were the three most major factors affecting the distribution of butterfly. The species richness of butterfly had significant positive correlation with D (P < 0.01), and negative correlations with E and K (P < 0.05). The species diversity and evenness index of butterfly were higher in core zone than in experimental zone and buffer zone, dominance index was the highest in experimental zone, and a higher similarity index (0.526) was observed between buffer zone and core zone. To conserve the species diversity of butterfly in the Reserve, efforts should be made to protect the plant species richness, keep the natural forest succession, decrease the human interference properly, and tighten up the management of butterfly habitat. PMID:21941763

  10. [History and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe and related development strategies for China].

    PubMed

    Fang, Li-Jun; Xu, Hai-Gen; Guan, Jian-Ling

    2013-09-01

    Butterfly is an important bio-indicator for biodiversity monitoring and ecological environment assessment. In Europe, the species composition, population dynamics, and distribution pattern of butterfly have been monitored for decades, and many long-term monitoring schemes with international effects have been implemented. These schemes are aimed to assess the regional and national variation trends of butterfly species abundance, and to analyze the relationships of this species abundance with habitat, climate change, and other environmental factors, providing basic data for researching, protecting, and utilizing butterfly resources and predicting environmental changes, and playing important roles in the division of butterfly' s threatened level, the formulation of related protection measures, and the protection and management of ecological environment. This paper reviewed the history and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe, with the focus on the well-known long-term monitoring programs, e. g. , the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme and the Germany and European Union Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Some specific proposals for conducting butterflies monitoring in China were suggested. PMID:24417131

  11. Probing viscosity of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva by magnetic rotational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarev, Alexander; Kaufman, Bethany; Gu, Yu; Andrukh, Taras; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic rotational spectroscopy was employed for rheological analysis of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva. Saliva viscosity of butterflies is 4-5 times greater than that of water and similar to that of 30%-40% sucrose solutions at 25 °C. Hence, viscosity stratification would not be expected when butterflies feed on nectar with 30%-40% sugar concentrations. We did not observe any viscoelastic effects or non-Newtonian behavior of saliva droplets. Thus, butterfly saliva is significantly different rheologically from that of humans, which demonstrates a viscoelastic behavior.

  12. On the Disposition of Maunders' Origninal Butterfly Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, T. J.

    2000-05-01

    On 21 May 1940, Annie S. D. Maunder mailed the original drawing of the celebrated ``Maunder Butterfly Diagram" to Stephen A., and his daughter Margaret L., Ionides. Later that same year Stephen and Margaret gave the diagram ``on indefinite loan" to Walter Orr Roberts, then the Superintendent of Fremont Pass Station of the Harvard College Observatory. The framed diagram remains on display today at the scion of that organization, the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in Boulder Colorado. Drawing upon the original correspondences, this contribution recounts the story behind the travels of the ``Maunder Butterfly" during the second World War. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

  13. Adaptive Introgression across Species Boundaries in Heliconius Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Salazar, Camilo; Baxter, Simon W.; Merot, Claire; Figueiredo-Ready, Wilsea; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely documented that hybridisation occurs between many closely related species, but the importance of introgression in adaptive evolution remains unclear, especially in animals. Here, we have examined the role of introgressive hybridisation in transferring adaptations between mimetic Heliconius butterflies, taking advantage of the recent identification of a gene regulating red wing patterns in this genus. By sequencing regions both linked and unlinked to the red colour locus, we found a region that displays an almost perfect genotype by phenotype association across four species, H. melpomene, H. cydno, H. timareta, and H. heurippa. This particular segment is located 70 kb downstream of the red colour specification gene optix, and coalescent analysis indicates repeated introgression of adaptive alleles from H. melpomene into the H. cydno species clade. Our analytical methods complement recent genome scale data for the same region and suggest adaptive introgression has a crucial role in generating adaptive wing colour diversity in this group of butterflies. PMID:22737081

  14. Annotated checklist of Albanian butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)

    PubMed Central

    Verovnik, Rudi; Popović, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Republic of Albania has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. However, due to its political isolation, it has never been studied in great depth, and consequently, the existing list of butterfly species is outdated and in need of radical amendment. In addition to our personal data, we have studied the available literature, and can report a total of 196 butterfly species recorded from the country. For some of the species in the list we have given explanations for their inclusion and made other annotations. Doubtful records have been removed from the list, and changes in taxonomy have been updated and discussed separately. The purpose of our paper is to remove confusion and conflict regarding published records. However, the revised checklist should not be considered complete: it represents a starting point for further research. PMID:24003315

  15. Scales affect performance of Monarch butterfly forewings in autorotational flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, Anya; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Butterfly wings are characterized by rows of scales (approximately 100 microns in length) that create a shingle-like pattern of cavities over the entire surface. It is hypothesized that these cavities influence the airflow around the wing and increase aerodynamic performance. A forewing of the Monarch butterfly (Danus plexippus) naturally undergoes autorotational flight in the laminar regime. Autorotational flight is an accurate representation of insect flight because the rotation induces a velocity gradient similar to that found over a flapping wing. Drop test flights of 22 forewings before and after scale removal were recorded with a high-speed camera and flight behavior was quantified. It was found that removing the scales increased the descent speed and decreased the descent factor, a measure of aerodynamic efficacy, suggesting that scales increased the performance of the forewings. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  16. Sun compass integration of skylight cues in migratory monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Stanley; Reppert, Steven M

    2011-01-27

    Migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate from eastern North America to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Here we describe the neuronal layout of those aspects of the butterfly's central complex likely to establish part of the internal sun compass and find them highly homologous to those of the desert locust. Intracellular recordings from neurons in the monarch sun compass network reveal responses tuned to specific E-vector angles of polarized light, as well as azimuth-dependent responses to unpolarized light, independent of spectral composition. The neural responses to these two stimuli in individual neurons are mediated through different regions of the compound eye. Moreover, these dual responses are integrated to create a consistent representation of skylight cues in the sun compass throughout the day. The results advance our understanding of how ambiguous sensory signals are processed by the brain to elicit a robust behavioral response. PMID:21262471

  17. Pretreated Butterfly Wings for Tuning the Selective Vapor Sensing.

    PubMed

    Piszter, Gábor; Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Biró, László Péter

    2016-01-01

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in the scales of Blue butterflies are responsible for their vivid blue wing coloration. These nanoarchitectures are quasi-ordered nanocomposites which are constituted from a chitin matrix with embedded air holes. Therefore, they can act as chemically selective sensors due to their color changes when mixing volatile vapors in the surrounding atmosphere which condensate into the nanoarchitecture through capillary condensation. Using a home-built vapor-mixing setup, the spectral changes caused by the different air + vapor mixtures were efficiently characterized. It was found that the spectral shift is vapor-specific and proportional with the vapor concentration. We showed that the conformal modification of the scale surface by atomic layer deposition and by ethanol pretreatment can significantly alter the optical response and chemical selectivity, which points the way to the efficient production of sensor arrays based on the knowledge obtained through the investigation of modified butterfly wings. PMID:27618045

  18. Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species

    PubMed Central

    Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Walters, James R.; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Davey, John W.; Whibley, Annabel; Nadeau, Nicola J.; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Martin, Simon H.; Salazar, Camilo; Lewis, James J.; Adler, Sebastian; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Baker, Dean A.; Baxter, Simon W.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Chauhan, Ritika; Counterman, Brian A.; Dalmay, Tamas; Gilbert, Lawrence E.; Gordon, Karl; Heckel, David G.; Hines, Heather M.; Hoff, Katharina J.; Holland, Peter W.H.; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Robert T.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Kersey, Paul; Lamas, Gerardo; Lawson, Daniel; Mapleson, Daniel; Maroja, Luana S.; Martin, Arnaud; Moxon, Simon; Palmer, William J.; Papa, Riccardo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Pauchet, Yannick; Ray, David A.; Rosser, Neil; Salzberg, Steven L.; Supple, Megan A.; Surridge, Alison; Tenger-Trolander, Ayse; Vogel, Heiko; Wilkinson, Paul A.; Wilson, Derek; Yorke, James A.; Yuan, Furong; Balmuth, Alexi L.; Eland, Cathlene; Gharbi, Karim; Thomson, Marian; Gibbs, Richard A.; Han, Yi; Jayaseelan, Joy C.; Kovar, Christie; Mathew, Tittu; Muzny, Donna M.; Ongeri, Fiona; Pu, Ling-Ling; Qu, Jiaxin; Thornton, Rebecca L.; Worley, Kim C.; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Linares, Mauricio; Blaxter, Mark L.; Constant, Richard H. ffrench; Joron, Mathieu; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Mullen, Sean P.; Reed, Robert D.; Scherer, Steven E.; Richards, Stephen; Mallet, James; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated1. We used genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation2-5 . We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,657 predicted genes for Heliconius, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organisation has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous, when butterflies split from the silkmoth lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, H. melpomene, H. timareta, and H. elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. Closely related Heliconius species clearly exchange protective colour pattern genes promiscuously, implying a major role for hybridization in adaptive radiation. PMID:22722851

  19. Evidence for positive density-dependent emigration in butterfly metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Piotr; Vrabec, Vladimir

    2011-11-01

    A positive effect of (meta)population density on emigration has been predicted by many theoretical models and confirmed empirically in various organisms. However, in butterflies, the most popular species for dispersal studies, the evidence for its existence has so far been equivocal, with negative relationships between density and emigration being reported more frequently. We analysed dispersal in sympatric metapopulations of two Maculinea butterflies, intensively surveyed with mark-release-recapture methods for 7 years. Dispersal parameters, derived using the virtual migration model, were assessed against butterfly densities, which fluctuated strongly over the study period. Emigration was positively correlated with density, and this effect was particularly strong at densities above carrying capacity, when emigration increased up to threefold in females and twofold in males compared with the normal levels. In turn, density had little impact on other dispersal parameters analysed. Our findings provide good evidence for positive density-dependence of emigration in butterflies. Emigrating at high densities is particularly beneficial for females, because it gives them a chance to lay part of their egg-load in less crowded patches, where offspring survival is higher due to lower intraspecific competition. Even though the rise in emigration becomes considerable at densities exceeding carrying capacity, i.e. relatively infrequently, it still has serious implications for many ecological phenomena, such as species range expansions, gene flow, and metapopulation persistence. Consequently, instead of treating emigration as a fixed trait, it is worth allowing for its density-dependence in applications such as population viability analyses, genetic models or metapopulation models. PMID:21625981

  20. Monarch butterfly migration in North America: Controversy and conservation.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, S B

    1987-05-01

    The monarch butterfly is the most spectacular example of insect migration known. Monarchs are threatened by the destruction of their over-wintering sites in Mexico, California and elsewhere, and many efforts are being made to conserve these sites. However, a controversial recent suggestion, that some monarch populations may not migrate at all, has jeopardized some of these efforts. This article assesses the evidence for and against the new suggestion. PMID:21227836

  1. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly, Junonia coenia

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, N.

    1999-01-22

    Study hypothesized that corridors increase patch colonization by Junonia coenia regardless of insects initial distance from patch, as the butterfly is known to move between patches preferentially through corridors. Neither corridor nor distance had significant effect on patch colonization, but significant interaction between presence or absence of corridors and distance. One critical factor is interpatch distance which may determine the relative effectiveness of corridors and other landscape configurations.

  2. Ovarian Dynamics in Heliconiine Butterflies: Programmed Senescence versus Eternal Youth.

    PubMed

    Dunlap-Pianka, H; Boggs, C L; Gilbert, L E

    1977-07-29

    New oocytes are generated throughout long lives in butterflies of the genus Heliconius, which as adults feed on amino acids from pollen. In Dryas julia, a related heliconiine that feeds only on nectar and is relatively short-lived, the original oocyte supply is eventually depleted. Such divergent ovarian dynamics in closely related organisms are significant in terms of both their evolutionary basis and their physiological controls. PMID:17783249

  3. Enhancement of chromatic contrast increases predation risk for striped butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many prey species have evolved defensive colour patterns to avoid attacks. One type of camouflage, disruptive coloration, relies on contrasting patterns that hinder predators' ability to recognize an object. While high contrasts are used to facilitate detection in many visual communication systems, they are thought to provide misleading information about prey appearance in disruptive patterns. A fundamental tenet in disruptive coloration theory is the principle of ‘maximum disruptive contrast’, i.e. disruptive patterns are more effective when higher contrasts are involved. We tested this principle in highly contrasting stripes that have often been described as disruptive patterns. Varying the strength of chromatic contrast between stripes and adjacent pattern elements in artificial butterflies, we found a strong negative correlation between survival probability and chromatic contrast strength. We conclude that too high a contrast leads to increased conspicuousness rather than to effective camouflage. However, artificial butterflies that sported contrasts similar to those of the model species Limenitis camilla survived equally well as background-matching butterflies without these stripes. Contrasting stripes do thus not necessarily increase predation rates. This result may provide new insights into the design and characteristics of a range of colour patterns such as sexual, mimetic and aposematic signals. PMID:18381256

  4. MonarchBase: the monarch butterfly genome database.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shuai; Reppert, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of the genome focused on the butterfly's migration biology. To make the extensive data associated with the genome accessible to the general biological and lepidopteran communities, we established MonarchBase (available at http://monarchbase.umassmed.edu). The database is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates all available data associated with the monarch butterfly genome. Moreover, MonarchBase provides access to an updated version of genome assembly (v3) upon which all data integration is based. These include genes with systematic annotation, as well as other molecular resources, such as brain expressed sequence tags, migration expression profiles and microRNAs. MonarchBase utilizes a variety of retrieving methods to access data conveniently and for integrating biological interpretations. PMID:23143105

  5. Predator mimicry, not conspicuousness, explains the efficacy of butterfly eyespots

    PubMed Central

    De Bona, Sebastiano; Valkonen, Janne K.; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Mappes, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Large conspicuous eyespots on butterfly wings have been shown to deter predators. This has been traditionally explained by mimicry of vertebrate eyes, but recently the classic eye-mimicry hypothesis has been challenged. It is proposed that the conspicuousness of the eyespot, not mimicry, is what causes aversion due to sensory biases, neophobia or sensory overloads. We conducted an experiment to directly test whether the eye-mimicry or the conspicuousness hypothesis better explain eyespot efficacy. We used great tits (Parus major) as model predator, and tested their reaction towards animated images on a computer display. Birds were tested against images of butterflies without eyespots, with natural-looking eyespots, and manipulated spots with the same contrast but reduced resemblance to an eye, as well as images of predators (owls) with and without eyes. We found that mimetic eyespots were as effective as true eyes of owls and more efficient in eliciting an aversive response than modified, less mimetic but equally contrasting eyespots. We conclude that the eye-mimicry hypothesis explains our results better than the conspicuousness hypothesis and is thus likely to be an important mechanism behind the evolution of butterfly eyespots. PMID:25854889

  6. Low Reynolds Number Drag Alteration Inspired by Butterfly Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforte, Brent; Kronenberger, Courtney; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Biomimetics is the process of looking towards nature's adaptations for answers to today's engineering obstacles. An age-old engineering dilemma is trying to find new methods to reduce the amount of drag over a body. This research finds inspiration from butterfly scales which are hypothesized to alter surface friction over the wings. Drop testing was performed on axisymmetric, streamlined, teardrop models which were rapid-prototyped such that the surface was covered with either streamwise or transverse cavities modeled after the Monarch butterfly. The drop tank contained silicone oil with a viscosity two hundred times that of water insuring flow similarity between the model cavities (2.5 mm cavity depth) and the butterfly scale structures (about 30 microns cavity depth). A variation in Reynolds number was achieved by altering the model weight such that terminal speeds ranged from 5 to 70 cm/s. Results showed a reduction in surface friction for the transverse cavity configurations based on the roller-bearing effect. These findings suggest that the cavity shape and ratio is directly correlated to the amount of drag alteration. Funded by NSF REU grant 1062611.

  7. Climate-driven changes in northeastern US butterfly communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breed, Greg A.; Stichter, Sharon; Crone, Elizabeth E.

    2013-02-01

    Climate warming is expected to change the distribution and abundance of many species. Range shifts have been detected in a number of European taxa for which long-term government-initiated or organized-survey data are available. In North America, well-organized long-term data needed to document such shifts are much less common. Opportunistic observations made by citizen scientist groups may be an excellent alternative to systematic surveys. From 1992 to 2010, 19,779 butterfly surveys were made by amateur naturalists in Massachusetts, a geographically small state located at the convergence of northern and southern bioclimatic zones in eastern North America. From these data, we estimated population trends for nearly all butterfly species (100 of 116 species present) using list-length analysis. Population trajectories indicate increases of many species near their northern range limits and declines in nearly all species (17 of 21) near their southern range limits. Certain life-history traits, especially overwintering stage, were strongly associated with declines. Our results suggest that a major, climate-induced shift of North American butterflies, characterized by northward expansions of warm-adapted and retreat of cold-adapted species, is underway.

  8. Predator mimicry, not conspicuousness, explains the efficacy of butterfly eyespots.

    PubMed

    De Bona, Sebastiano; Valkonen, Janne K; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Mappes, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    Large conspicuous eyespots on butterfly wings have been shown to deter predators. This has been traditionally explained by mimicry of vertebrate eyes, but recently the classic eye-mimicry hypothesis has been challenged. It is proposed that the conspicuousness of the eyespot, not mimicry, is what causes aversion due to sensory biases, neophobia or sensory overloads. We conducted an experiment to directly test whether the eye-mimicry or the conspicuousness hypothesis better explain eyespot efficacy. We used great tits (Parus major) as model predator, and tested their reaction towards animated images on a computer display. Birds were tested against images of butterflies without eyespots, with natural-looking eyespots, and manipulated spots with the same contrast but reduced resemblance to an eye, as well as images of predators (owls) with and without eyes. We found that mimetic eyespots were as effective as true eyes of owls and more efficient in eliciting an aversive response than modified, less mimetic but equally contrasting eyespots. We conclude that the eye-mimicry hypothesis explains our results better than the conspicuousness hypothesis and is thus likely to be an important mechanism behind the evolution of butterfly eyespots. PMID:25854889

  9. Liquid-feeding strategy of the proboscis of butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Chul; Lee, Sang Joon; CenterBiofluid; Biomimic Research Team

    2015-11-01

    The liquid-feeding strategy of the proboscis of butterflies was experimentally investigated. Firstly, the liquid uptake from a pool by the proboscis of a nectar-feeding butterfly, cabbage white (Pieris rapae) was tested. Liquid-intake flow phenomenon at the submerged proboscis was visualized by micro-particle image velocimetry. The periodic liquid-feeding flow is induced by the systaltic motion of the cibarial pump. Reynolds number and Womersley number of the liquid-intake flow in the proboscis are low enough to assume quasi-steady laminar flow. Next, the liquid feeding from wet surfaces by the brush-tipped proboscis of a nymphalid butterfly, Asian comma (Polygonia c-aureum) was investigated. The tip of the proboscis was observed especially brush-like sensilla styloconica. The liquid-feeding flow between the proboscis and wet surfaces was also quantitatively visualized. During liquid drinking from the wet surface, the sensilla styloconica enhance liquid uptake rate with accumulation of liquid. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  10. 77 FR 23745 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Bay Checkerspot Butterfly and Serpentine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Butterfly and Serpentine Grasslands, City of San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... ] addresses the potential for ``take'' of one listed animal, the Bay checkerspot butterfly; one listed plant... Conservation Plan for Bay checkerspot butterfly and serpentine grasslands, Santa Clara County California:...

  11. Characterization of regenerated butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) accessions for morphological, phenology, reproductive and potential nutraceutical, pharmaceutical trait utilization.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butterfly pea, Clitoria ternatea, has been used in Africa as a companion crop and in the United States as an ornamental. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates 28 butterfly pea accessions. Butterfly pea accessions were transplanted from about 30-day-old seedlings to the field in Griffin, GA, around 01 June ...

  12. Study of nano-architecture of the wings of Paris Peacock butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghate, Ekata; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kulkarni, G. R.

    Butterflies are one of the most colorful creatures in animal Kingdom. Wings of the male butterfly are brilliantly colored to attract females. Color of the wings plays an important role in camouflage. Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies are important for their biomimic and biophotonic applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light. Paris Peacock or Papilio paris butterfly belongs to the family Papilionidae. The basis of structural color of this butterfly is investigated in the present study. The upper surface of the wings in this butterfly is covered with blue, green and brown colored scales. Nano-architecture of these scales was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Photomicrographs were analyzed using image analysis software. Goniometric color or iridescence in blue and green colored scales of this butterfly was observed and studied with the help of gonio spectrophotometer in the visible range. No iridescence was observed in brown colored scales of the butterfly. Hues of the blue and green color were measured with spectrophotometer and were correlated with nano-architecture of the wing. Results of electron microscopy and reflection spectroscopy are used to explain the iridescent nature of blue and green scales. Sinusoidal grating like structures of these scales were prominently seen in the blue scales. It is possible that the structure of these wings can act as a template for the fabrication of sinusoidal gratings using nano-imprint technology.

  13. Combining Taxonomic and Functional Approaches to Unravel the Spatial Distribution of an Amazonian Butterfly Community.

    PubMed

    Graça, Márlon B; Morais, José W; Franklin, Elizabeth; Pequeno, Pedro A C L; Souza, Jorge L P; Bueno, Anderson Saldanha

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of an Amazonian fruit-feeding butterfly assemblage by linking species taxonomic and functional approaches. We hypothesized that: 1) vegetation richness (i.e., resources) and abundance of insectivorous birds (i.e., predators) should drive changes in butterfly taxonomic composition, 2) larval diet breadth should decrease with increase of plant species richness, 3) small-sized adults should be favored by higher abundance of birds, and 4) communities with eyespot markings should be able to exploit areas with higher predation pressure. Fruit-feeding butterflies were sampled with bait traps and insect nets across 25 km(2) of an Amazonian ombrophilous forest in Brazil. We measured larval diet breadth, adult body size, and wing marking of all butterflies. Our results showed that plant species richness explained most of the variation in butterfly taxonomic turnover. Also, community average diet breadth decreased with increase of plant species richness, which supports our expectations. In contrast, community average body size increased with the abundance of birds, refuting our hypothesis. We detected no influence of environmental gradients on the occurrence of species with eyespot markings. The association between butterfly taxonomic and functional composition points to a mediator role of the functional traits in the environmental filtering of butterflies. The incorporation of the functional approach into the analyses allowed for the detection of relationships that were not observed using a strictly taxonomic perspective and provided an extra insight into comprehending the potential adaptive strategies of butterflies. PMID:26643123

  14. The butterflies of Barro Colorado Island: Local extinction rates since the 1930's

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island ...

  15. El Niño and other determinants of butterfly migrations in a Neotropical wet forest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What factors regulate insect populations and their movement in the tropics? We censused butterflies flying across the Panama Canal at Barro Colorado Island (BCI) for 16 years to address two questions. What environmental factors determine the date on which the number of migrating butterflies peaked...

  16. Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

  17. Butterfly valve with metal seals controls flow of hydrogen from cryogenic through high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. D.

    1967-01-01

    Butterfly valve with metal seals operates over a temperature range of minus 423 degrees to plus 440 degrees F with hydrogen as a medium and in a radiation environment. Media flow is controlled by an internal butterfly disk which is rotated by an actuation shaft.

  18. Toxicity of "Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki" to the Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Richard; Nadal, Gerard; Kincaid, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Reports the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (BT), which is highly toxic, to a non-target lepidopteran, the Painted Lady butterfly. Indicates that BT kills some Painted Lady butterfly larvae at the lowest dilution tested after 48 hours. (ASK)

  19. Enhanced thrust and speed revealed in the forward flight of a butterfly with transient body translation.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2015-09-01

    A butterfly with broad wings, flapping at a small frequency, flies an erratic trajectory at an inconstant speed. A large variation of speed within a cycle is observed in the forward flight of a butterfly. A self-propulsion model to simulate a butterfly is thus created to investigate the transient translation of the body; the results, which are in accordance with experimental data, show that the shape of the variation of the flight speed is similar to a sinusoidal wave with a maximum (J=0.89) at the beginning of the downstroke, and a decrease to a minimum (J=0.17) during a transition from downstroke to upstroke; the difference between the extrema of the flight speed is enormous in a flapping cycle. At a high speed, a clapping motion of the butterfly wings decreases the generation of drag. At a small speed, a butterfly is able to capture the induced wakes generated in a downstroke, and effectively generates a thrust at the beginning of an upstroke. The wing motion of a butterfly skillfully interacts with its speed so as to enable an increased speed with the same motion. Considering a butterfly to fly in a constant inflow leads to either an underestimate of its speed or an overestimate of its generated lift, which yields an inaccurate interpretation of the insect's flight. Our results reveal the effect of transient translation on a butterfly in forward flight, which is especially important for an insect with a small flapping frequency. PMID:26465553

  20. Enhanced thrust and speed revealed in the forward flight of a butterfly with transient body translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2015-09-01

    A butterfly with broad wings, flapping at a small frequency, flies an erratic trajectory at an inconstant speed. A large variation of speed within a cycle is observed in the forward flight of a butterfly. A self-propulsion model to simulate a butterfly is thus created to investigate the transient translation of the body; the results, which are in accordance with experimental data, show that the shape of the variation of the flight speed is similar to a sinusoidal wave with a maximum (J =0.89 ) at the beginning of the downstroke, and a decrease to a minimum (J =0.17 ) during a transition from downstroke to upstroke; the difference between the extrema of the flight speed is enormous in a flapping cycle. At a high speed, a clapping motion of the butterfly wings decreases the generation of drag. At a small speed, a butterfly is able to capture the induced wakes generated in a downstroke, and effectively generates a thrust at the beginning of an upstroke. The wing motion of a butterfly skillfully interacts with its speed so as to enable an increased speed with the same motion. Considering a butterfly to fly in a constant inflow leads to either an underestimate of its speed or an overestimate of its generated lift, which yields an inaccurate interpretation of the insect's flight. Our results reveal the effect of transient translation on a butterfly in forward flight, which is especially important for an insect with a small flapping frequency.

  1. Evolution of the wave: aerodynamic and aposematic functions of butterfly wing motion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many unpalatable butterfly species use color to signal their distastefulness to birds, but motion cues may also be crucial to ward off predatory attacks. In previous research, captive passion-vine butterflies Heliconius mimetic in color pattern were also mimetic in motion. Here I investigate whethe...

  2. Topological map of the Hofstadter butterfly: Fine structure of Chern numbers and Van Hove singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2016-04-01

    The Hofstadter butterfly is a quantum fractal with a highly complex nested set of gaps, where each gap represents a quantum Hall state whose quantized conductivity is characterized by topological invariants known as the Chern numbers. Here we obtain simple rules to determine the Chern numbers at all scales in the butterfly fractal and lay out a very detailed topological map of the butterfly by using a method used to describe quasicrystals: the cut and projection method. Our study reveals the existence of a set of critical points that separates orderly patterns of both positive and negative Cherns that appear as a fine structure in the butterfly. This fine structure can be understood as a small tilting of the projection subspace in the cut and projection method and by using a Chern meeting formula. Finally, we prove that the critical points are identified with the Van Hove singularities that exist at every band center in the butterfly landscape.

  3. Lug- and water-type butterfly valves, fourth edition, June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers design criteria, face-to-face dimensions, pressure-temperature ratings, and examination and test requirements for cast iron, ductile iron, bronze, carbon steel, and alloy steel butterfly valves that provide tight shut-off in the closed position and are suitable for flow regulation, such as in petroleum refineries and pipelines. Two categories of butterfly valves included are Category A, cold working pressure (CWP) rated butterfly valves that normally have a concentric disc and seat, and Category B, pressure-temperature rated butterfly valves whose seat rating may be less than their body rating and that have an offset seat and either an eccentric or a concentric disc configuration. The valve sizes covered are NPS 2-48 for Category A valves and NPS 3-24 for pressure-temperature rated butterfly valves, corresponding to nominal pipe sizes in ASME B36.10M, with pressure ratings up to and including ASME Class 600.

  4. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2015-10-05

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day–night asymmetry in Earth’s magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. In conclusion, simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. Finally, the current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons.

  5. Improved injection needles facilitate germline transformation of the buckeye butterfly Junonia coenia.

    PubMed

    Beaudette, Kahlia; Hughes, Tia M; Marcus, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Germline transformation with transposon vectors is an important tool for insect genetics, but progress in developing transformation protocols for butterflies has been limited by high post-injection ova mortality. Here we present an improved glass injection needle design for injecting butterfly ova that increases survival in three Nymphalid butterfly species. Using the needles to genetically transform the common buckeye butterfly Junonia coenia, the hatch rate for injected Junonia ova was 21.7%, the transformation rate was 3%, and the overall experimental efficiency was 0.327%, a substantial improvement over previous results in other butterfly species. Improved needle design and a higher efficiency of transformation should permit the deployment of transposon-based genetic tools in a broad range of less fecund lepidopteran species. PMID:24641478

  6. Fractal butterflies of chiral fermions in bilayer graphene: Phase transitions and emergent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, Areg; Chakraborty, Tapash

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the influence of electron-electron interaction on the fractal butterfly spectrum of Dirac fermions in biased bilayer graphene in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) regime. We demonstrate that the butterfly spectrum exhibits remarkable phase transitions between the FQHE gap and the butterfly gap for chiral electrons in bilayer graphene, when the periodic potential strength or the bias voltage is varied. We also find that, in addition to those phase transitions, by varying the bias voltage one can effectively control the periodic potential strength experienced by the electrons. The electron-electron interaction causes the butterfly spectrum to exhibit new gaps inside the Bloch sub-bands not found in the single-particle case. We expect that both the observed phase transition and other new features in the butterfly spectrum of interacting Dirac fermions will be of great interest to researchers from diverse fields.

  7. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D N; Spence, H E; Funsten, H O; Blake, J B

    2015-01-01

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day-night asymmetry in Earth's magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. Simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. The current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons. PMID:26436770

  8. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day–night asymmetry in Earth's magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. Simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. The current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons. PMID:26436770

  9. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day-night asymmetry in Earth's magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. Simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. The current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons.

  10. Congruence and Diversity of Butterfly-Host Plant Associations at Higher Taxonomic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L.; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages. PMID:23717448

  11. Cardenolide fingerprint of monarch butterflies reared on common milkweed,Asclepias syriaca L.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, S B; Cockrell, B J; Brower, L P

    1989-03-01

    Monarch butterfly,Danaus plexippus (L.), larvae were collected during August 1983 from the common milkweed,Asclepias syriaca L., across its extensive North American range from North Dakota, east to Vermont, and south to Virginia. This confirms that the late summer distribution of breeding monarchs in eastern North America coincides with the range of this extremely abundant milkweed resource. Plant cardenolide concentrations, assayed by spectrophotometry in 158 samples from 27 collection sites, were biased towards plants with low cardenolide, and ranged from 4 to 229 μg/ 0.1 g dry weight, with a mean of 50 μg/0.1 g. Monarch larvae reared on these plants stored cardenolides logarithmically, and produced 158 adults with a normally distributed concentration range from 0 to 792 μg/0. l g dry butterfly, with a mean of 234 μg/0.1 g. Thus butterflies increased the mean plant cardenolide concentration by 4.7. The eastern plants and their resultant butterflies had higher cardenolide concentrations than those from the west, and in some areas monarchs sequestered more cardenolide from equivalent plants. Plants growing in small patches had higher cardenolide concentrations than those in larger patches, but this did not influence butterfly concentration. However, younger plants and those at habitat edges had higher cardenolide concentrations than either older, shaded, or open habitat plants, and this did influence butterfly storage. There were no apparent topographical differences reflected in the cardenolides of plants and butterflies. Twenty-eight cardenolides were recognized by thin-layer chromatography, with 27 in plants and 21 in butterflies. Butterflies stored cardenolides within the more polar 46% of the plantR d range, these being sequestered in higher relative concentrations than they occurred in the plants. By comparison with published TLC cardenolide mobilities, spots 3, 4, 9, 16, 24 or 25, 26, and 27, may be the cardenolides syrioside, uzarin, syriobioside

  12. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  13. Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments.

    PubMed

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-02-01

    Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod

  14. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect in Holographic Theories.

    PubMed

    Blake, Mike

    2016-08-26

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by D_{c}=Cv_{B}^{2}/(2πT), where v_{B} is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality C depends only on the scaling exponents of the infrared theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos. PMID:27610842

  15. Illuminating the circadian clock in monarch butterfly migration.

    PubMed

    Froy, Oren; Gotter, Anthony L; Casselman, Amy L; Reppert, Steven M

    2003-05-23

    Migratory monarch butterflies use a time-compensated Sun compass to navigate to their overwintering grounds in Mexico. Here, we report that constant light, which disrupts circadian clock function at both the behavioral and molecular levels in monarchs, also disrupts the time-compensated component of flight navigation. We further show that ultraviolet light is important for flight navigation but is not required for photic entrainment of circadian rhythms. Tracing these distinct light-input pathways into the brain should aid our understanding of the clock-compass mechanisms necessary for successful migration. PMID:12764200

  16. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    SciTech Connect

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  17. Structural colour: Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.

    2000-03-01

    Green coloration in the animal kingdom, as seen in birds' feathers and reptile integument, is often an additive mixture of structurally effected blue and pigmentary yellow. Here we investigate the origin of the bright green coloration of the wing scales of the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly, the microstructure of which generates an extraordinary combination of both yellow and blue iridescence. The dual colour arises from a modulation imposed on the multilayer, producing the blue component as a result of a previously undiscovered retro-reflection process.

  18. Multistability in the Lorenz System: A Broken Butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunbiao; Sprott, Julien Clinton

    In this paper, the dynamical behavior of the Lorenz system is examined in a previously unexplored region of parameter space, in particular, where r is zero and b is negative. For certain values of the parameters, the classic butterfly attractor is broken into a symmetric pair of strange attractors, or it shrinks into a small attractor basin intermingled with the basins of a symmetric pair of limit cycles, which means that the system is bistable or tristable under certain conditions. Although the resulting system is no longer a plausible model of fluid convection, it may have application to other physical systems.

  19. Hybrid speciation and independent evolution in lineages of alpine butterflies.

    PubMed

    Nice, Chris C; Gompert, Zachariah; Fordyce, James A; Forister, Matthew L; Lucas, Lauren K; Buerkle, C Alex

    2013-04-01

    The power of hybridization between species to generate variation and fuel adaptation is poorly understood despite long-standing interest. There is, however, increasing evidence that hybridization often generates biodiversity, including via hybrid speciation. We tested the hypothesis of hybrid speciation in butterflies occupying extreme, high-altitude habitats in four mountain ranges in western North America with an explicit, probabilistic model, and genome-wide DNA sequence data. Using this approach, in concert with ecological experiments and observations and morphological data, we document three lineages of hybrid origin. These lineages have different genome admixture proportions and distinctive trait combinations that suggest unique and independent evolutionary histories. PMID:23550755

  20. Controlling public speaking jitters: making the butterflies fly in formation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Hannah; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Nearly every person who has been asked to give a speech or who has volunteered to make a presentation to a group of strangers develops fear and anxiety prior to the presentation. Most of us, the authors included, start hyperventilating, our pulse quickens, and we feel a little weak in the knees. We grab the lectern and our knuckles turn white as we hold on for dear life. This is a normal response that everyone experiences. However, this stress can be controlled and made manageable by understanding the stress response cycle and practicing a few techniques that calm those butterflies flying around in the pit of your stomach. PMID:25807629

  1. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    PubMed

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest. PMID:26604009

  2. Direct and indirect responses of tallgrass prairie butterflies to prescribed burning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Debinski, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important tool in the conservation and restoration of tallgrass prairie ecosystems. We investigated how both the vegetation composition and butterfly community of tallgrass prairie remnants changed in relation to the elapsed time (in months) since prescribed fire. Butterfly richness and butterfly abundance were positively correlated with the time since burn. Habitat-specialist butterfly richness recovery time was greater than 70 months post-fire and habitat-specialist butterfly abundance recovery time was approximately 50 months post-fire. Thus, recovery times for butterfly populations after prescribed fires in our study were potentially longer than those previously reported. We used Path Analysis to evaluate the relative contributions of the direct effect of time since fire and the indirect effects of time since fire through changes in vegetation composition on butterfly abundance. Path models highlighted the importance of the indirect effects of fire on habitat features, such as increases in the cover of bare ground. Because fire return intervals on managed prairie remnants are often less than 5 years, information on recovery times for habitat-specialist insect species are of great importance. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Congruence among vascular plants and butterflies in the evaluation of grassland restoration success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccherini, Simona; Bacaro, Giovanni; Favilli, Leonardo; Piazzini, Sandro; Santi, Elisa; Marignani, Michela

    2009-03-01

    Using surrogate taxa in the monitoring of restoration success is strongly advocated but currently under debate. Are butterfly and vascular plant communities good surrogates for each other in monitoring the restoration of calcareous grassland grassland? The research was conducted in a small area in Tuscany (central Italy), which was the focus of a restoration project. We sampled vascular plants using 35 plots (1 m 2) and butterflies using 20 transects (100 m in length) belonging to four treatment types: control scrubland, restored ex-arable, restored grassland and reference grassland. A mixed model nested ANOVA showed that reference grassland, 3 years after restoration, had the highest number of vascular plant species and the highest number of butterfly species. The different treatments were found to be distinct from a compositional point of view: pRDA showed that the "treatment" factor, independent of spatial variables, accounted for 22.1 and 21.9% of the total variance in the plant community and butterfly community, respectively ( p < 0.01). The butterfly community was significantly correlated with the entire plant community data set and with the phanerophyte community (i.e. shrubs); larval host plants were significantly correlated with the composition of non-migratory butterflies. The results indicated that butterfly and vascular plant communities were congruent, suggesting the use of community composition of different taxa as a valuable tool for the evaluation of management success.

  4. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  5. Ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions created by parallel acceleration due to magnetosonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Baker, Daniel N.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Spence, Harlan E.; Kletzing, Craig A.; Kurth, William S.; Hospodarsky, George B.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Blake, J. Bernard.

    2016-04-01

    The Van Allen Probe observations during the recovery phase of a large storm that occurred on 17 March 2015 showed that the ultrarelativistic electrons at the inner boundary of the outer radiation belt (L* = 2.6-3.7) exhibited butterfly pitch angle distributions, while the inner belt and the slot region also showed evidence of sub-MeV electron butterfly distributions. Strong magnetosonic waves were observed in the same regions and at the same time periods as these butterfly distributions. Moreover, when these magnetosonic waves extended to higher altitudes (L* = 4.1), the butterfly distributions also extended to the same region. Combining test particle calculations and Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations, we successfully reproduced the formation of the ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions, which primarily result from parallel acceleration caused by Landau resonance with magnetosonic waves. The coexistence of ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions with magnetosonic waves was also observed in the 24 June 2015 storm, providing further support that the magnetosonic waves play a key role in forming butterfly distributions.

  6. Feeding responses and food preferences in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly, Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Anneke; Fischer, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    In the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae) essential components of fitness (such as fecundity and longevity) depend to a large degree on exogenous adult-derived nutrients, particularly carbohydrates. We investigated which of the nutrients/compounds found in the adult diet act as feeding stimuli, and whether butterflies show preferences for particular nutrients or combinations. Only sugars and alcohols acted as feeding stimuli, the highest responses being found for sucrose, glucose, ethanol, butanol and propanol. Various other compounds (e.g. amino acids, acetic acid, vitamins, lipids, salts, and yeast) did not elicit any probing or feeding responses. Behavioural tests revealed a clear preference hierarchy for sugars (sucrose>glucose>fructose>maltose), but not for alcohols. Butterflies did not discriminate between sucrose solutions enriched with different nutrients and plain sucrose solutions, although they showed a preference for acetic acid and an aversion to salts and ascorbic acid when offered in combination with sucrose. Throughout, both sexes showed very similar patterns. We conclude that locating carbohydrate sources seems sufficient to cover all the butterflies' nutritional needs, while alcohols function primarily as long range signals, guiding the butterflies to food sources. Thus, fruit-feeding butterflies, in contrast to nectar-feeding butterflies, appear not to have distinctive preferences for e.g. amino acids or salts, but do share a common primary preference for sucrose. PMID:18706418

  7. Larval starvation reduces responsiveness to feeding stimuli and does not affect feeding preferences in a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Tobias; Fischer, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that holometabolic insects such as Lepidoptera rely primarily on larval storage reserves for reproduction. Recent studies though have documented a prominent role of adult-derived carbohydrates for butterfly reproduction. Moreover, a few studies have shown that adult butterflies may also benefit from adult-derived amino acids, at least when larval storage reserves are reduced. Given that in holometabolous insects larval deficiencies are carried over into the adult stage, reduced storage reserves have the potential to modulate adult feeding preferences and responses in order to allow for a successful compensation. We tested this hypothesis here in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana using larval food stress to manipulate storage reserves. Alcohols (methanol, ethanol, butanol, propanol), sugars (maltose, glucose, fructose, sucrose), and acetic acid acted as feeding stimuli, while butterflies did not respond to other substances such as amino acids, yeast, salts, or vitamins. Contrary to expectations, stressed butterflies showed a weaker response than controls to several feeding stimuli. In preference tests, butterflies preferred sugar solutions containing proline, arginine, glutamic acid, acetic acid, or ethanol over plain sugar solutions, but discriminated against salts. However, there were no general differences among starved and control butterflies. We conclude that larval food-stress does not elicit compensatory feeding behavior such as a stronger preference for amino acids or other essential nutrients in B. anynana. Instead, the stress imposed by a period of starvation yielded negative effects. PMID:22634044

  8. Eyespot display in the peacock butterfly triggers antipredator behaviors in naïve adult fowl

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large conspicuous eyespots have evolved in multiple taxa and presumably function to thwart predator attacks. Traditionally, large eyespots were thought to discourage predator attacks because they mimicked eyes of the predators’ own predators. However, this idea is controversial and the intimidating properties of eyespots have recently been suggested to simply be a consequence of their conspicuousness. Some lepidopteran species include large eyespots in their antipredation repertoire. In the peacock butterfly, Inachis io, eyespots are typically hidden during rest and suddenly exposed by the butterfly when disturbed. Previous experiments have shown that small wild passerines are intimidated by this display. Here, we test whether eyespots also intimidate a considerably larger bird, domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, by staging interactions between birds and peacock butterflies that were sham-painted or had their eyespots painted over. Our results show that birds typically fled when peacock butterflies performed their display regardless of whether eyespots were visible or painted over. However, birds confronting butterflies with visible eyespots delayed their return to the butterfly, were more vigilant, and more likely to utter alarm calls associated with detection of ground-based predators, compared with birds confronting butterflies with eyespots painted over. Because production of alarm calls and increased vigilance are antipredation behaviors in the fowl, their reaction suggests that eyespots may elicit fear rather than just an aversion to conspicuous patterns. Our results, therefore, suggest that predators perceive large lepidopteran eyespots as belonging to the eyes of a potential predator. PMID:23243378

  9. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Wataru; Otaki, Joji M.

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns. PMID:26731532

  10. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    PubMed

    Taira, Wataru; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns. PMID:26731532

  11. Effects of spatial heterogeneity on butterfly species richness in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, S.; Simonson, S.E.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated butterfly responses to plot-level characteristics (plant species richness, vegetation height, and range in NDVI [normalized difference vegetation index]) and spatial heterogeneity in topography and landscape patterns (composition and configuration) at multiple spatial scales. Stratified random sampling was used to collect data on butterfly species richness from seventy-six 20 ?? 50 m plots. The plant species richness and average vegetation height data were collected from 76 modified-Whittaker plots overlaid on 76 butterfly plots. Spatial heterogeneity around sample plots was quantified by measuring topographic variables and landscape metrics at eight spatial extents (radii of 300, 600 to 2,400 m). The number of butterfly species recorded was strongly positively correlated with plant species richness, proportion of shrubland and mean patch size of shrubland. Patterns in butterfly species richness were negatively correlated with other variables including mean patch size, average vegetation height, elevation, and range in NDVI. The best predictive model selected using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc), explained 62% of the variation in butterfly species richness at the 2,100 m spatial extent. Average vegetation height and mean patch size were among the best predictors of butterfly species richness. The models that included plot-level information and topographic variables explained relatively less variation in butterfly species richness, and were improved significantly after including landscape metrics. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity greatly influences patterns in butterfly species richness, and that it should be explicitly considered in conservation and management actions. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Variation in cardiac glycoside content of monarch butterflies from natural populations in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Brower, L P; McEvoy, P B; Williamson, K L; Flannery, M A

    1972-08-01

    A new spectrophotometric assay has been used to determine the gross concentration of cardiac glycoside in individual monarch butterflies. Adults sampled during the fall migration in four areas of eastern North America exhibited a wide variation in cardiac glycoside concentration. The correlation between spectrophotometrically measured concentrations and emetic dose determinations supports the existence of a broad palatability spectrum in wild monarch butterflies. The cardiac gylcoside concentration is greater in females than in males and is independent of the dry weight of the butterflies; contrary to prediction, both the concentration mean and variance decrease southward. The defensive advantage of incorporating cardiac glycosides may be balanced by detrimental effects on individual viability. PMID:5043141

  13. Phosphorescent Molecular Butterflies with Controlled Potential-Energy Surfaces and Their Application as Luminescent Viscosity Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenkun; Yuan, Lin; Yuan, Zhao; Doyle, Nicholas Kelly; Dilbeck, Tristan; Bahadur, Divya; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Dearden, Albert; Huang, Chen; Ma, Biwu

    2016-09-01

    We report precise manipulation of the potential-energy surfaces (PESs) of a series of butterfly-like pyrazolate-bridged platinum binuclear complexes, by synthetic control of the electronic structure of the cyclometallating ligand and the steric bulkiness of the pyrazolate bridging ligand. Color tuning of dual emission from blue/red, to green/red and red/deep red were achieved for these phosphorescent molecular butterflies, which have two well-controlled energy minima on the PESs. The environmentally dependent photoluminescence of these molecular butterflies enabled their application as self-referenced luminescent viscosity sensor. PMID:27500886

  14. Reflectance and transmittance of light scattering scales stacked on the wings of pierid butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavenga, D. G.; Giraldo, M. A.; Hoenders, B. J.

    2006-05-01

    The colors of butterfly wings are determined by the structural as well as pigmentary properties of the wing scales. Reflectance spectra of the wings of a number of pierid butterfly species, specifically the small white, Pieris rapae, show that the long-wavelength reflectance of the scales in situ, on the wing, is distinctly higher than that of single, isolated scales. An optical model explains that this is due to multiple scattering on overlapping scales by treating the layers of scales on both sides of the wing as a stack of incoherently scattering plates. The model sheds new light on the adaptive significance and evolution of butterfly wing patterns.

  15. MonarchBase: the monarch butterfly genome database

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Shuai; Reppert, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of the genome focused on the butterfly’s migration biology. To make the extensive data associated with the genome accessible to the general biological and lepidopteran communities, we established MonarchBase (available at http://monarchbase.umassmed.edu). The database is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates all available data associated with the monarch butterfly genome. Moreover, MonarchBase provides access to an updated version of genome assembly (v3) upon which all data integration is based. These include genes with systematic annotation, as well as other molecular resources, such as brain expressed sequence tags, migration expression profiles and microRNAs. MonarchBase utilizes a variety of retrieving methods to access data conveniently and for integrating biological interpretations. PMID:23143105

  16. Hydrophobic–hydrophilic dichotomy of the butterfly proboscis

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, Matthew S.; Monaenkova, Daria; Andrukh, Taras; Beard, Charles E.; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2013-01-01

    Mouthparts of fluid-feeding insects have unique material properties with no human-engineered analogue: the feeding devices acquire sticky and viscous liquids while remaining clean. We discovered that the external surface of the butterfly proboscis has a sharp boundary separating a hydrophilic drinking region and a hydrophobic non-drinking region. The structural arrangement of the proboscis provides the basis for the wetting dichotomy. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that fluid uptake is associated with enlargement of hydrophilic cuticular structures, the legulae, which link the two halves of the proboscis together. We also show that an elliptical proboscis produces a higher external meniscus than does a cylindrical proboscis of the same circumference. Fluid uptake is additionally facilitated in sap-feeding butterflies that have a proboscis with enlarged chemosensory structures forming a brush near the tip. This structural modification of the proboscis enables sap feeders to exploit films of liquid more efficiently. Structural changes along the proboscis, including increased legular width and presence of a brush-like tip, occur in a wide range of species, suggesting that a wetting dichotomy is widespread in the Lepidoptera. PMID:23760299

  17. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands.

    PubMed

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D N; Vila, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation. PMID:27353723

  18. Natural Selection and Genetic Diversity in the Butterfly Heliconius melpomene.

    PubMed

    Martin, Simon H; Möst, Markus; Palmer, William J; Salazar, Camilo; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Francis M; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-05-01

    A combination of selective and neutral evolutionary forces shape patterns of genetic diversity in nature. Among the insects, most previous analyses of the roles of drift and selection in shaping variation across the genome have focused on the genus Drosophila A more complete understanding of these forces will come from analyzing other taxa that differ in population demography and other aspects of biology. We have analyzed diversity and signatures of selection in the neotropical Heliconius butterflies using resequenced genomes from 58 wild-caught individuals of Heliconius melpomene and another 21 resequenced genomes representing 11 related species. By comparing intraspecific diversity and interspecific divergence, we estimate that 31% of amino acid substitutions between Heliconius species are adaptive. Diversity at putatively neutral sites is negatively correlated with the local density of coding sites as well as nonsynonymous substitutions and positively correlated with recombination rate, indicating widespread linked selection. This process also manifests in significantly reduced diversity on longer chromosomes, consistent with lower recombination rates. Although hitchhiking around beneficial nonsynonymous mutations has significantly shaped genetic variation in H. melpomene, evidence for strong selective sweeps is limited overall. We did however identify two regions where distinct haplotypes have swept in different populations, leading to increased population differentiation. On the whole, our study suggests that positive selection is less pervasive in these butterflies as compared to fruit flies, a fact that curiously results in very similar levels of neutral diversity in these very different insects. PMID:27017626

  19. Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated. Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation. We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,669 predicted genes, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organization has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous period, when butterflies split from the Bombyx (silkmoth) lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, Heliconius melpomene, Heliconius timareta and Heliconius elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. We infer that closely related Heliconius species exchange protective colour-pattern genes promiscuously, implying that hybridization has an important role in adaptive radiation. PMID:22722851

  20. Hydrophobic-hydrophilic dichotomy of the butterfly proboscis.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Matthew S; Monaenkova, Daria; Andrukh, Taras; Beard, Charles E; Adler, Peter H; Kornev, Konstantin G

    2013-08-01

    Mouthparts of fluid-feeding insects have unique material properties with no human-engineered analogue: the feeding devices acquire sticky and viscous liquids while remaining clean. We discovered that the external surface of the butterfly proboscis has a sharp boundary separating a hydrophilic drinking region and a hydrophobic non-drinking region. The structural arrangement of the proboscis provides the basis for the wetting dichotomy. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that fluid uptake is associated with enlargement of hydrophilic cuticular structures, the legulae, which link the two halves of the proboscis together. We also show that an elliptical proboscis produces a higher external meniscus than does a cylindrical proboscis of the same circumference. Fluid uptake is additionally facilitated in sap-feeding butterflies that have a proboscis with enlarged chemosensory structures forming a brush near the tip. This structural modification of the proboscis enables sap feeders to exploit films of liquid more efficiently. Structural changes along the proboscis, including increased legular width and presence of a brush-like tip, occur in a wide range of species, suggesting that a wetting dichotomy is widespread in the Lepidoptera. PMID:23760299

  1. Natural Selection and Genetic Diversity in the Butterfly Heliconius melpomene

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Simon H.; Möst, Markus; Palmer, William J.; Salazar, Camilo; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of selective and neutral evolutionary forces shape patterns of genetic diversity in nature. Among the insects, most previous analyses of the roles of drift and selection in shaping variation across the genome have focused on the genus Drosophila. A more complete understanding of these forces will come from analyzing other taxa that differ in population demography and other aspects of biology. We have analyzed diversity and signatures of selection in the neotropical Heliconius butterflies using resequenced genomes from 58 wild-caught individuals of Heliconius melpomene and another 21 resequenced genomes representing 11 related species. By comparing intraspecific diversity and interspecific divergence, we estimate that 31% of amino acid substitutions between Heliconius species are adaptive. Diversity at putatively neutral sites is negatively correlated with the local density of coding sites as well as nonsynonymous substitutions and positively correlated with recombination rate, indicating widespread linked selection. This process also manifests in significantly reduced diversity on longer chromosomes, consistent with lower recombination rates. Although hitchhiking around beneficial nonsynonymous mutations has significantly shaped genetic variation in H. melpomene, evidence for strong selective sweeps is limited overall. We did however identify two regions where distinct haplotypes have swept in different populations, leading to increased population differentiation. On the whole, our study suggests that positive selection is less pervasive in these butterflies as compared to fruit flies, a fact that curiously results in very similar levels of neutral diversity in these very different insects. PMID:27017626

  2. Rapid diversification associated with ecological specialization in Neotropical Adelpha butterflies.

    PubMed

    Ebel, Emily R; DaCosta, Jeffrey M; Sorenson, Michael D; Hill, Ryan I; Briscoe, Adriana D; Willmott, Keith R; Mullen, Sean P

    2015-05-01

    Rapid diversification is often associated with morphological or ecological adaptations that allow organisms to radiate into novel niches. Neotropical Adelpha butterflies, which comprise over 200 species and subspecies, are characterized by extraordinary breadth in host plant use and wing colour patterns compared to their closest relatives. To examine the relationship between phenotypic and species diversification, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Adelpha and its temperate sister genus Limenitis using genomewide restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. Despite a declining fraction of shared markers with increasing evolutionary distance, the RAD-Seq data consistently generated well-supported trees using a variety of phylogenetic methods. These well-resolved phylogenies allow the identification of an ecologically important relationship with a toxic host plant family, as well as the confirmation of widespread, convergent wing pattern mimicry throughout the genus. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that evolutionary innovations in both larvae and adults have permitted the colonization of novel host plants and fuelled adaptive diversification within this large butterfly radiation. PMID:25809206

  3. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G.; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation.

  4. Spectral organization of the eye of a butterfly, Papilio.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, K

    2003-11-01

    This review outlines our recent studies on the spectral organization of butterfly compound eyes, with emphasis on the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, which is the most extensively studied species. Papilio has color vision when searching for nectar among flowers, and their compound eyes are furnished with six distinct classes of spectral receptors (UV, violet, blue, green, red, broadband). The compound eyes consist of many ommatidia, each containing nine photoreceptor cells. How are the six classes of spectral receptors arranged in the ommatidia? By studying their electrophysiology, histology, and molecular biology, it was found that the Papilio ommatidia can be divided into three types according to the combination of spectral receptors they contain. Different types of ommatidia are distributed randomly over the retina. Histologically, the heterogeneity appeared to be related to red or yellow pigmentation around the rhabdom. A subset of red-pigmented ommatidia contains 3-hydroxyretinol in the distal portion, fluorescing under UV epi-illumination. The red, yellow and fluorescing pigments all play crucial roles in determining the spectral sensitivities of receptors. Spectral heterogeneity and random array of ommatidia have also been found in other lepidopteran species. Similarities and differences between species are also discussed. PMID:14520495

  5. Investigations on color variations of Morpho rhetenor butterfly wing scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Guanglan; Zuo, Haibo; Jiang, Xuan; Yang, Xuefeng; Shi, Tielin

    2012-12-01

    Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the optical properties of Morpho rhetenor butterfly wing scales. The upper surface of a male Morpho rhetenor butterfly wing presents a single-layer of scales, the microstructures of which are responsible for the brilliant blue color. The color varies from cyan blue to yellow green and soon afterwards returns back to cyan blue when some ethanol is dropped on the upper surface. At the start of the ethanol volatilization process, the reflection spectrum remains stable. As the ethanol further volatilizes, the peak reflectance decreases slightly, then increases dramatically. Meanwhile, the peak wavelength keeps approximately constant, then decreases, and keeps almost stable at the end of the process. Therefore, the optical properties depend strongly on the varying ambient conditions, including the refractive index and the thickness of the packing medium. Moreover, the possible causes for the scales in dark green region after several dropping ethanol experiments are clarified. This research benefits our understanding of the color variation mechanisms of the wing scales, and provides inspiration for further studies and applications.

  6. Butterfly survival on an isolated island by improved grip.

    PubMed

    Duplouy, Anne; Hanski, Ilkka

    2013-04-23

    On small isolated islands, natural selection is expected to reduce the dispersal capacity of organisms, as short distances do not require a high rate of dispersal, which might lead to accidental emigration from the population. In addition, individuals foregoing the high cost of maintaining flight capacity may instead allocate resources to other functions. However, in butterflies and many other insects, flight is necessary not only for dispersal but also for most other activities. A weakly flying individual would probably do worse and have an elevated rather than reduced probability of accidental emigration. Here, we report results consistent with the hypothesis that a butterfly population on an isolated island, instead of having lost its flight capacity, has evolved better grip to resist the force of wind and to avoid being blown off the island. Our study suggests that local adaptation has occurred in this population in spite of its very small size (Ne ∼ 100), complete isolation, low genetic variation and high genetic load. PMID:23445946

  7. Wing shape variation associated with mimicry in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert T; Le Poul, Yann; Whibley, Annabel C; Mérot, Claire; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Joron, Mathieu

    2013-08-01

    Mimetic resemblance in unpalatable butterflies has been studied by evolutionary biologists for over a century, but has largely focused on the convergence in wing color patterns. In Heliconius numata, discrete color-pattern morphs closely resemble comimics in the distantly related genus Melinaea. We examine the possibility that the shape of the butterfly wing also shows adaptive convergence. First, simple measures of forewing dimensions were taken of individuals in a cross between H. numata morphs, and showed quantitative differences between two of the segregating morphs, f. elegans and f. silvana. Second, landmark-based geometric morphometric and elliptical Fourier outline analyses were used to more fully characterize these shape differences. Extension of these techniques to specimens from natural populations suggested that, although many of the coexisting morphs could not be discriminated by shape, the differences we identified between f. elegans and f. silvana hold in the wild. Interestingly, despite extensive overlap, the shape variation between these two morphs is paralleled in their respective Melinaea comimics. Our study therefore suggests that wing-shape variation is associated with mimetic resemblance, and raises the intriguing possibility that the supergene responsible for controlling the major switch in color pattern between morphs also contributes to wing shape differences in H. numata. PMID:23888854

  8. Effect of hand paddles and parachute on butterfly coordination.

    PubMed

    Telles, Thiago; Barroso, Renato; Barbosa, Augusto Carvalho; Salgueiro, Diego Fortes de Souza; Colantonio, Emilson; Andries Júnior, Orival

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hand paddles, parachute and hand paddles plus parachute on the inter-limb coordination of butterfly swimming. Thirteen male swimmers were evaluated in four random maximal intensity conditions: without equipment, with hand paddles, with parachute and with hand paddles + parachute. Arm and leg stroke phases were identified by 2D video analysis to calculate the total time gap (T1: time between hands' entry in the water and high break-even point of the first undulation; T2: time between the beginning of the hand's backward movement and low break-even point of the first undulation; T3: time between the hand's arrival in a vertical plane to the shoulders and high break-even point of the second undulation; T4: time between the hand's release from the water and low break-even point of the second undulation). The swimming velocity was reduced and T1, T2 and T3 increased in parachute and hand paddles + parachute. No changes were observed in T4. Total time gap decreased in parachute and hand paddles + parachute. It is concluded that hand paddles do not influence the arm-to-leg coordination in butterfly, while parachute and hand paddles + parachute do change it, providing a greater propulsive continuity. PMID:25583184

  9. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands

    PubMed Central

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G.; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation. PMID:27353723

  10. Higher mobility of butterflies than moths connected to habitat suitability and body size in a release experiment.

    PubMed

    Kuussaari, Mikko; Saarinen, Matias; Korpela, Eeva-Liisa; Pöyry, Juha; Hyvönen, Terho

    2014-10-01

    Mobility is a key factor determining lepidopteran species responses to environmental change. However, direct multispecies comparisons of mobility are rare and empirical comparisons between butterflies and moths have not been previously conducted. Here, we compared mobility between butterflies and diurnal moths and studied species traits affecting butterfly mobility. We experimentally marked and released 2011 butterfly and 2367 moth individuals belonging to 32 and 28 species, respectively, in a 25 m × 25 m release area within an 11-ha, 8-year-old set-aside field. Distance moved and emigration rate from the release habitat were recorded by species. The release experiment produced directly comparable mobility data in 18 butterfly and 9 moth species with almost 500 individuals recaptured. Butterflies were found more mobile than geometroid moths in terms of both distance moved (mean 315 m vs. 63 m, respectively) and emigration rate (mean 54% vs. 17%, respectively). Release habitat suitability had a strong effect on emigration rate and distance moved, because butterflies tended to leave the set-aside, if it was not suitable for breeding. In addition, emigration rate and distance moved increased significantly with increasing body size. When phylogenetic relatedness among species was included in the analyses, the significant effect of body size disappeared, but habitat suitability remained significant for distance moved. The higher mobility of butterflies than geometroid moths can largely be explained by morphological differences, as butterflies are more robust fliers. The important role of release habitat suitability in butterfly mobility was expected, but seems not to have been empirically documented before. The observed positive correlation between butterfly size and mobility is in agreement with our previous findings on butterfly colonization speed in a long-term set-aside experiment and recent meta-analyses on butterfly mobility. PMID:25614794

  11. Congenital ‘butterfly vertebra’ associated with low back pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Rachael M; JH, Abbott

    2015-01-01

    The butterfly vertebral defect is a rare congenital anomaly of the spine, which is generally considered benign. In this report we present the case of an active young man who presented with recurrent low back pain (LBP), and was found to have a butterfly vertebral defect at the symptomatic L4 lumbar spinal level. We describe the genesis of the butterfly vertebral defect, in the context of normal embryological development of the human vertebra and intervertebral disk. We report the clinical examination findings and therapeutic interventions undertaken prior to the radiographic discovery of the vertebral defect, and discuss the impact that the presence of a butterfly vertebral defect presented to therapeutic decision-making. PMID:26109830

  12. Generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum in a class of driven SU(2) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jiao; Gong Jiangbin

    2010-02-15

    A scheme for generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum, first proposed by Wang and Gong [Phys. Rev. A 77, 031405(R) (2008)], is extended to driven SU(2) systems such as a driven two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate. A class of driven systems without a link with the Harper-model context is shown to have an intriguing butterfly Floquet spectrum. The found butterfly spectrum shows remarkable deviations from the known Hofstadter's butterfly. In addition, the level crossings between Floquet states of the same parity and between Floquet states of different parities are studied and highlighted. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, and coherent destruction of tunneling, as well as the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

  13. Formation of energetic electron butterfly distributions by magnetosonic waves via Landau resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinxing; Ni, Binbin; Ma, Qianli; Xie, Lun; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Thorne, Richard M.; Bortnik, Jacob; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Wen; Baker, Daniel N.; Kletzing, Craig A.; Kurth, William S.; Hospodarsky, George B.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Spence, Harlan E.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Summers, Danny

    2016-04-01

    Radiation belt electrons can exhibit different types of pitch angle distributions in response to various magnetospheric processes. Butterfly distributions, characterized by flux minima at pitch angles around 90°, are broadly observed in both the outer and inner belts and the slot region. Butterfly distributions close to the outer magnetospheric boundary have been attributed to drift shell splitting and losses to the magnetopause. However, their occurrence in the inner belt and the slot region has hitherto not been resolved. By analyzing the particle and wave data collected by the Van Allen Probes during a geomagnetic storm, we combine test particle calculations and Fokker-Planck simulations to reveal that scattering by equatorial magnetosonic waves is a significant cause for the formation of energetic electron butterfly distributions in the inner magnetosphere. Another event shows that a large-amplitude magnetosonic wave in the outer belt can create electron butterfly distributions in just a few minutes.

  14. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  15. From Caterpillar to Butterfly: A Mathematics Teacher's Struggle To Grow Professionally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Doris P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a mathematics teacher's experience and change from a traditional behaviorist dispenser of knowledge to a constructivist facilitator of meaning during professional development. Compares the stages of teacher development metaphorically to the stages of a butterfly. Contains 11 references. (ASK)

  16. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  17. The First Light on Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, M.

    2008-09-01

    Butterfly diagrams drawn as the prototype created by Maunder are used to constrain dynamo models of the solar cycle, despite the fact they register the mere presence of sunspot groups, disregarding the different physical relevance that groups should be given because of their extension and, accordingly, their magnetic flux. Using sunspot data obtained at INAF -- Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania in the cycles 20 through 23 (1964-2005), I have obtained a new version of butterfly diagram (BD) in the form of a numerical array, whose elements are the average spotted areas registered for any Carrington rotation at any latitude. A graphic representation of this array by a set of contour lines connecting equally spotted points will be shown. The outest contour lines reveal frequent interruptions of the spot zone equatorward drift, and even repeated episodes of poleward drift. Higher and higher-level contour lines are characterized by concave arcs which more and more deeply penetrate the ''butterfly wings'', and eventually split into close lines, embracing small portions of the time-latitude diagram, for time intervals not longer than one or two years. The BD reveals, therefore, a markedly discrete structure, since the solar activity splits into pulses of activity, involving different photospheric regions at different epochs, throughout the whole cycle. The BD is, therefore, but a cluster of ''knots'' and the ''spot zone'' is the latitude range inside which knots form. Spots are not scattered about one latitude continuously drifting equatorward (as the so-called ''spot average latitude'' is commonly believed to do), but about as many latitudes as the knots are, at as many epochs in the cycle. Each knot is a special population of spots, whose latitude remains unchanged during its short lifetime. Rarely two knots are simultaneously active in the same hemisphere. The cycle history is but the history of a sequence of knots activations and extinctions. As a knot forms, the

  18. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s.

    PubMed

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923-1943) and a recent (1993-2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923-2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:26305111

  19. Transformation of a cubic precipitate to a butterfly shape due to localized instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Colin, J.; Grilhe, J.; Junqua, N.

    1998-02-13

    Localized surface instabilities have been used to explain the transformation to a butterfly shape of a cubic precipitate submitted to epitaxial stress. An energy variation calculation shows that each of the precipitate-matrix interfaces can develop by diffusion of a Mexican hat shaped instability to minimize the stored elastic energy. Using classical results of stress induced diffusion, the most probable dimension of the resulting fluctuations has been determined. A typical butterfly configuration can be obtained with characteristic dimensions.

  20. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s

    PubMed Central

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B.; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D.; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923–1943) and a recent (1993–2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923–2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:26305111

  1. Odour Maps in the Brain of Butterflies with Divergent Host-Plant Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Schäpers, Alexander; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Hansson, Bill S.; Janz, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, with extreme specialists and wide generalists found even among closely related species. Here we measured odour evoked Ca2+ activity in the antennal lobes of two nymphalid species with diverging host plant preferences, the specialist Aglais urticae and the generalist Polygonia c-album. The butterflies responded with stimulus-specific combinations of activated glomeruli to single plant-related compounds and to extracts of host and non-host plants. In general, responses were similar between the species. However, the specialist A. urticae responded more specifically to its preferred host plant, stinging nettle, than P. c-album. In addition, we found a species-specific difference both in correlation between responses to two common green leaf volatiles and the sensitivity to these compounds. Our results indicate that these butterflies have the ability to detect and to discriminate between different plant-related odorants. PMID:21901154

  2. Butterfly Eyespots: Their Potential Influence on Aesthetic Preferences and Conservation Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Manesi, Zoi; Van Lange, Paul A. M.; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the mere presence of stimuli that resemble eyes is sufficient to attract attention, elicit aesthetic responses, and can even enhance prosocial behavior. However, it is less clear whether eye-like stimuli could also be used as a tool for nature conservation. Several animal species, including butterflies, develop eye-like markings that are known as eyespots. In the present research, we explored whether the mere display of eyespots on butterfly wings can enhance: (a) liking for a butterfly species, and (b) attitudes and behaviors towards conservation of a butterfly species. Four online experimental studies, involving 613 participants, demonstrated that eyespots significantly increased liking for a butterfly species. Furthermore, eyespots significantly increased positive attitudes towards conservation of a butterfly species (Studies 1, 2 and 4), whereas liking mediated the eyespot effect on conservation attitudes (Study 2). However, we also found some mixed evidence for an association between eyespots and actual conservation behavior (Studies 3 and 4). Overall, these findings suggest that eyespots may increase liking for an animal and sensitize humans to conservation. We discuss possible implications for biodiversity conservation and future research directions. PMID:26544692

  3. Action spectrum of foraging behavior of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus.

    PubMed

    Koshitaka, H; Kmoshita, M; Arikawa, K

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the action spectrum of foraging behavior of a butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We first established an experimental protocol to evaluate learning and discrimination of monochromatic light by the butterflies. We trained butterflies to feed on sucrose solution at the window illuminated with certain monochromatic light produced through a monochromator. After confirming that they learned the monochromatic light, after 10 days of training, we tested the butterflies one by one. We presented training wavelengths for each individual at different intensities, and recorded whether they perform foraging behavior under freely-flying as well as tethered conditions. Freely-flying butterflies responded to light by visiting the window and searching for nectar around it, whereas tethered butterflies responded by extending their proboscides towards the window. The light intensity required to elicit 50% response for each tested monochromatic light was plotted. The resulting action spectrum for the visit was rather flat with the maximum sensitivity a 420 nm, whereas the spectrum for the proboscis extension had prominent peaks at 380, 500 and 600 nm. The difference in action spectra indicates that the visit and the proboscis extension are controlled by two independent mechanisms at least in part. PMID:15270220

  4. Spectrally tuned structural and pigmentary coloration of birdwing butterfly wing scales.

    PubMed

    Wilts, Bodo D; Matsushita, Atsuko; Arikawa, Kentaro; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2015-10-01

    The colourful wing patterns of butterflies play an important role for enhancing fitness; for instance, by providing camouflage, for interspecific mate recognition, or for aposematic display. Closely related butterfly species can have dramatically different wing patterns. The phenomenon is assumed to be caused by ecological processes with changing conditions, e.g. in the environment, and also by sexual selection. Here, we investigate the birdwing butterflies, Ornithoptera, the largest butterflies of the world, together forming a small genus in the butterfly family Papilionidae. The wings of these butterflies are marked by strongly coloured patches. The colours are caused by specially structured wing scales, which act as a chirped multilayer reflector, but the scales also contain papiliochrome pigments, which act as a spectral filter. The combined structural and pigmentary effects tune the coloration of the wing scales. The tuned colours are presumably important for mate recognition and signalling. By applying electron microscopy, (micro-)spectrophotometry and scatterometry we found that the various mechanisms of scale coloration of the different birdwing species strongly correlate with the taxonomical distribution of Ornithoptera species. PMID:26446560

  5. The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning coloration

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hsu, Jeremy; Haeger, Juan Fernández; Zalucki, Myron P.; Altizer, Sonia; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Reppert, Steven M.; Kronforst, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning coloration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. By sequencing 101 monarch genomes from around the globe, we uncover the history of the monarch's evolutionary origin and global dispersal, characterize the genes and pathways associated with migratory behavior, and identify the discrete genetic basis of warning coloration. The results rewrite our understanding of this classic system, showing that D. plexippus was ancestrally migratory and dispersed out of North America to occupy its broad distribution. We find the strongest signatures of selection associated with migration center on flight muscle function, resulting in greater flight efficiency among migratory monarchs, and that variation in monarch warning coloration is controlled by a single myosin gene not previously implicated in insect pigmentation. PMID:25274300

  6. Non-target effects of clothianidin on monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Pecenka, Jacob R; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2015-04-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) frequently consume milkweed in and near agroecosystems and consequently may be exposed to pesticides like neonicotinoids. We conducted a dose response study to determine lethal and sublethal doses of clothianidin using a 36-h exposure scenario. We then quantified clothianidin levels found in milkweed leaves adjacent to maize fields. Toxicity assays revealed LC10, LC50, and LC90 values of 7.72, 15.63, and 30.70 ppb, respectively. Sublethal effects (larval size) were observed at 1 ppb. Contaminated milkweed plants had an average of 1.14±0.10 ppb clothianidin, with a maximum of 4 ppb in a single plant. This research suggests that clothianidin could function as a stressor to monarch populations. PMID:25839080

  7. The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning colouration.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hsu, Jeremy; Haeger, Juan Fernández; Zalucki, Myron P; Altizer, Sonia; de Roode, Jacobus C; Reppert, Steven M; Kronforst, Marcus R

    2014-10-16

    The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning colouration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. Here we uncover the history of the monarch's evolutionary origin and global dispersal, characterize the genes and pathways associated with migratory behaviour, and identify the discrete genetic basis of warning colouration by sequencing 101 Danaus genomes from around the globe. The results rewrite our understanding of this classic system, showing that D. plexippus was ancestrally migratory and dispersed out of North America to occupy its broad distribution. We find the strongest signatures of selection associated with migration centre on flight muscle function, resulting in greater flight efficiency among migratory monarchs, and that variation in monarch warning colouration is controlled by a single myosin gene not previously implicated in insect pigmentation. PMID:25274300

  8. The Effects of Scales on Autorotation of Monarch Butterfly Forewings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechello, Nicole; Lang, Amy

    2014-11-01

    The wings of Monarch butterflies (Danus plexippus) have scales of approximately 100 micrometers that cover their wings in a roof-shingle pattern, and these scales are hypothesized to help improve flight efficiency for their long migration. The aerodynamic effects of the scales, particularly involving the leading edge vortex formation and resulting lift, were investigated by observing the natural autorotation of forewing specimen when dropped in quiescent air. A high-speed camera recorded drop tests of 32 forewings both with scales and after removal of the scales. It was found that the scales, on average, comprised 17% of the forewing mass. Tracking software was used to analyze the videos for several parameters, including descent speed and radius of rotation. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an research experience for undergraduate (REU) student.

  9. Is the Butterfly diagram due to meridional motions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, G.; Elstner, D.

    2002-07-01

    The dynamo equation is solved for the solar convection zone with the given (``observed'') rotation law and positive \\alf-effect. If the latter exists in the entire convection zone the resulting dynamo shows strong toroidal field belts in the polar region migrating equatorwards. The same happens for alpha concentrated at the bottom of the convection zone but then we get too many belts with higher amplitude. The cycle period is always too short. Including meridional circulation which is directed equatorwards at the bottom of the convection zone (where the eddy diffusivity is reduced), the amplitude of the toroidal field grows and the butterfly diagram reaches low-latitudes. The cycle time approaches the solar value. The dynamo regime is highly sensitive to the interplay between flow and diffusivity at the bottom of the convection zone. Stationary solutions are not very seldom.

  10. Structural colors from Morpho peleides butterfly wing scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yong; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-10-01

    A male Morpho peleides butterfly wing is decorated by two types of scales, cover and ground scales. We have studied the optical properties of each type of scales in conjunction with the structural information provided by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and computer simulation. The shining blue color is mainly from the Bragg reflection of the one-dimensional photonic structure, e.g., the shelf structure packed regularly in each ridges on cover scales. A thin-film-like interference effect from the base plate of the cover scale enhances such blue color and further gives extra reflection peaks in the infrared and ultraviolet regions. The analogy in the spectra acquired from the original wing and that from the cover scales suggests that the cover scales take a dominant role in its structural color. This study provides insight of using the biotemplates for fabricating smart photonic structures.