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Sample records for butyric alcohols

  1. Supplementation of sodium butyrate protects mice from the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng Jun; Sellmann, Cathrin; Engstler, Anna Janina; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-12-14

    Overnutrition, insulin resistance and an impaired intestinal barrier function are discussed as critical factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Not only butyrate-producing probiotics as well as supplementation of sodium butyrate (SoB) have been suggested to bear protective effects on liver damage of various aetiologies. However, whether an oral consumption of SoB has a protective effect on Western-style diet (WSD)-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and if so molecular mechanism involved has not yet been determined. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed either a liquid control or WSD±0·6 g/kg body weight SoB. After 6 weeks, markers of liver damage, inflammation, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 signalling, lipid peroxidation and glucose as well as lipid metabolism were determined in the liver tissue. Tight junction protein levels were determined in the duodenal tissue. SoB supplementation had no effects on the body weight gain or liver weight of WSD-fed mice, whereas liver steatosis and hepatic inflammation were significantly decreased (e.g. less inflammatory foci and neutrophils) when compared with mice fed only a WSD. Tight junction protein levels in duodenum, hepatic mRNA expression of TLR-4 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c were altered similarly in both WSD groups when compared with controls, whereas protein levels of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthase, 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts and F4/80 macrophages were only significantly induced in livers of mice fed only the WSD. In summary, these data suggest that an oral supplementation of SoB protects mice from inflammation in the liver and thus from the development of WSD-induced NASH. PMID:26450277

  2. DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE), POLYVINYL BUTYRAL RESIN AND POLYIMIDE AT LOW TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R

    2008-01-01

    Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. For this reason dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low temperature power applications. In this work we report the dielectric properties of four polymers: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polyvinyl butyral resin (PVB), and polyimide (PI--Kapton\\textregistered). The dielectric measurements are performed with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 45K to 350K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the polymers are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure. It is observed that PI and \\pmma\\ dissolved in toluene have the lowest dielectric losses for temperatures lower than $100\\ \\kelvin$. \\Blx\\ and PI have the smallest spread in their breakdown strength data.

  3. Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.

    PubMed

    López-Carballo, Gracia; Cava, David; Lagarón, Jose M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2005-09-01

    The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold. PMID:16131132

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  9. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  10. Microbial electrosynthesis of butyrate from carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ganigué, R; Puig, S; Batlle-Vilanova, P; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2015-02-21

    This work proves for the first time the bioelectrochemical production of butyrate from CO2 as a sole carbon source. The highest concentration of butyrate achieved was 20.2 mMC, with a maximum butyrate production rate of 1.82 mMC d(-1). The electrochemical characterisation demonstrated that the CO2 reduction to butyrate was hydrogen driven. Production of ethanol and butanol was also observed opening up the potential for biofuel production. PMID:25608945

  11. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  12. Butyric acid in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Załęski, Andrzej; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid (butanoic acid) belongs to a group of short-chain fatty acids and is thought to play several beneficial roles in the gastrointestinal tract. Butyric anion is easily absorbed by enteric cells and used as a main source of energy. Moreover, butyric acid is an important regulator of colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis, gastrointestinal tract motility and bacterial microflora composition in addition to its involvement in many other processes including immunoregulation and anti-inflammatory activity. The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal condition, is complex, and its precise mechanisms are still unclear. This article describes the potential benefits of butyric acid in IBS. PMID:24868283

  13. Butyric acid in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Załęski, Andrzej; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid (butanoic acid) belongs to a group of short-chain fatty acids and is thought to play several beneficial roles in the gastrointestinal tract. Butyric anion is easily absorbed by enteric cells and used as a main source of energy. Moreover, butyric acid is an important regulator of colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis, gastrointestinal tract motility and bacterial microflora composition in addition to its involvement in many other processes including immunoregulation and anti-inflammatory activity. The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal condition, is complex, and its precise mechanisms are still unclear. This article describes the potential benefits of butyric acid in IBS. PMID:24868283

  14. The Future of Butyric Acid in Industry

    PubMed Central

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Park, Jae-Yeon; Mitchell, Robert J.; Sang, Byoung-In

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the different applications of butyric acid and its current and future production status are highlighted, with a particular emphasis on the biofuels industry. As such, this paper discusses different issues regarding butyric acid fermentations and provides suggestions for future improvements and their approaches. PMID:22593687

  15. Restricted Distribution of the Butyrate Kinase Pathway among Butyrate-Producing Bacteria from the Human Colon

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Petra; Duncan, Sylvia H.; McCrae, Sheila I.; Millar, Jacqueline; Jackson, Michelle S.; Flint, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    The final steps in butyrate synthesis by anaerobic bacteria can occur via butyrate kinase and phosphotransbutyrylase or via butyryl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase. Degenerate PCR and enzymatic assays were used to assess the presence of butyrate kinase among 38 anaerobic butyrate-producing bacterial isolates from human feces that represent three different clostridial clusters (IV, XIVa, and XVI). Only four strains were found to possess detectable butyrate kinase activity. These were also the only strains to give PCR products (verifiable by sequencing) with degenerate primer pairs designed within the butyrate kinase gene or between the linked butyrate kinase/phosphotransbutyrylase genes. Further analysis of the butyrate kinase/phosphotransbutyrylase genes of one isolate, L2-50, revealed similar organization to that described previously from different groups of clostridia, along with differences in flanking sequences and phylogenetic relationships. Butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase activity was detected in all 38 strains examined, suggesting that it, rather than butyrate kinase, provides the dominant route for butyrate formation in the human colonic ecosystem that contains a constantly high concentration of acetate. PMID:15028695

  16. Catalytic upgrading of butyric acid towards fine chemicals and biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Sjöblom, Magnus; Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation-based production of butyric acid is robust and efficient. Modern catalytic technologies make it possible to convert butyric acid to important fine chemicals and biofuels. Here, current chemocatalytic and biocatalytic conversion methods are reviewed with a focus on upgrading butyric acid to 1-butanol or butyl-butyrate. Supported Ruthenium- and Platinum-based catalyst and lipase exhibit important activities which can pave the way for more sustainable process concepts for the production of green fuels and chemicals. PMID:26994015

  17. Searching for Synbiotics to increase Colonic Butyrate Concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate is produced by microbial fermentation of plant fiber in the gut and a preferred substrate for gut epithelial cells. In ruminants, butyrate contributes to 70% of energy metabolism. In monogastric species, butyrate also plays an important role in energy metabolism in the hindgut. Moreover, bu...

  18. Biogas Production on Demand Regulated by Butyric Acid Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, K.; Schiffels, J.; Krafft, S.; Kuperjans, I.; Elbers, G.; Selmer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Investigating effects of volatile fatty acids on the biogas process it was observed that butyric acid can be used for transient stimulation of the methane production in biogas plants operating with low energy substrates like cattle manure. Upon addition of butyrate the methane output of the reactors doubled within 24 h and reached almost 3-times higher methane yields within 3-4 days. Butyrate was quantitatively eliminated and the reactors returned to the original productivity state within 3 days when application of butyrate was stopped. The opportunity to use butyrate feeding for increased biogas production on demand is discussed.

  19. Concentration of clobetasone butyrate in aqueous humour.

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, S C; Richards, A B

    1983-01-01

    The concentrations of clobetasone butyrate and betamethasone were measured in aqueous humour of patients undergoing cataract extraction 12.5 to 18.5 hours after application into the lower conjunctival sac of an ointment containing 0.1% of the steroid. Samples were assayed from 10 patients receiving clobetasone butyrate and 13 patients receiving betamethasone phosphate. There were measurable concentrations in only 2 samples in the former group, and both were 0.1 ng/ml. In the betamethasone group measurable concentrations were found in 11 samples, and the concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 20.3 ng/ml, with the highest concentrations between 12.5 and 13.5 hours after application. The concentration of betamethasone in the aqueous humour decreased by about 90% in the 6 hours from 12.5 to 18.5 hours after application. It is speculative as to whether it is these differences in pharmacokinetic behaviour, or other differences in biological or physicochemical properties, which are responsible for the minimal effect on intraocular pressure induced by clobetasone butyrate compared with betamethasone. PMID:6824626

  20. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. PMID:26672465

  1. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of methyl butyrate using heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dange, P N; Kulkarni, A V; Rathod, V K

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound assisted esterification of butyric acid with methanol was investigated in an ultrasound irradiated isothermal batch reactor using acid ion-exchange resin (amberlyst-15) as a catalyst. Effect of parameters such as temperature (323-353 K), catalyst loading (0-8.5%w/w), alcohol to acid ratio, M (2-6), ultrasound power (0-145 W), duty cycle (0-85%) and amount of molecular sieves added (0-11%w/w) on the rate of reaction was studied. At optimized parameters, a maximum conversion of 91.64% was obtained in 120 min in presence of ultrasound. Experimental kinetic data were correlated by using Eley-Rideal (ER) and Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHH W) models taking into account reverse reaction. Studies showed that single site LHHW with reactants and products both adsorbing on catalyst surface was most suited for the obtained experimental data. Activation energy determined based on heterogeneous kinetics was in the range 49.31-57.54 kJ/mol while it was 18.29 kJ/mol using homogeneous model. PMID:25825149

  2. Converting Carbon Dioxide to Butyrate with an Engineered Strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. PMID:25336453

  3. Specific cell cycle synchronization with butyrate and cell cycle analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchronized cells have been invaluable for many kinds of cell cycle and cell proliferation studies. Butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDBK cells. To explore the possibility of using butyrate-blocked cells to obtain synchronized cells, we investigated the property of the cell cyc...

  4. Reductive Carboxylation of Propionate to Butyrate in Methanogenic Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Tholozan, J. L.; Samain, E.; Grivet, J. P.; Moletta, R.; Dubourguier, H. C.; Albagnac, G.

    1988-01-01

    During the batch degradation of sodium propionate by the anaerobic sludge from an industrial digestor, we observed a significant amount of butyrate formation. Varying the initial propionate concentrations did not alter the ratio of maximal butyrate accumulation to initial propionate concentration within a large range. By measuring the decrease in the radioactivity of [1-14C]butyrate during propionate degradation, we estimated that about 20% of the propionate was converted to butyrate. Labeled butyrate was formed from [1-14C]propionate with the same specific radioactivity, suggesting a possible direct pathway from propionate to butyrate. We confirmed this hypothesis by nuclear magnetic resonance studies with [13C]propionate. The results showed that [1-13C]-, [2-13C]-, and [3-13C]propionate were converted to [2-13C]-, [3-13C]-, and [4-13C]butyrate, respectively, demonstrating the direct carboxylation on the carboxyl group of propionate without randomization of the other two carbons. In addition, we observed an exchange reaction between C-2 and C-3 of the propionate, indicating that acetogensis may proceed through a randomizing pathway. The physiological significance and importance of various metabolic pathways involved in propionate degradation are discussed, and an unusual pathway of butyrate synthesis is proposed. PMID:16347557

  5. Isolation of unique butyrate-producing bacteria from swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate-producing bacteria in humans contribute to a healthy gastrointestinal tract and are known to be species from clostridial clusters IV, IX, XIVa, and XVI - with the community dominated by clusters XIVa and IV. However, the composition of the butyrate-producing bacterial community in swine is...

  6. The combined use of ultrasound and molecular sieves improves the synthesis of ethyl butyrate catalyzed by immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase.

    PubMed

    Paludo, Natalia; Alves, Joana S; Altmann, Cintia; Ayub, Marco A Z; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Rodrigues, Rafael C

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the combined use of ultrasound energy and molecular sieves was investigated for the synthesis of ethyl butyrate, ester with mango and banana notes, catalyzed by the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM). Initially, the best concentrations of biocatalysts (35%) and butyric acid (0.7M) were tested using ultrasound as an alternative to mechanical agitation. The amount of acid in the reaction could be increased by 2-fold when compared to previous works where mechanical agitation was used. In the next step, substrate molar ratio and reaction temperature were optimized and the best conditions were at their lowest levels: 1:1 (acid:alcohol), and 30°C, reaching 61% of conversion in 6h. Molecular sieves (3Å) were added to optimized reaction medium in order to remove the formed water and improve the maximum yield. The reaction yield increased 1.5 times, reaching 90% of conversion in 6h, when 60mg of molecular sieves per mmol of butyric acid was used. Finally, the reuse of Lipozyme TL-IM for the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of ethyl butyrate was verified for 10 batches, without any appreciable loss of activity, whereas in systems using mechanical agitation, the biocatalyst was completely inactivated after 5 batches. These results suggest that the combined use of ultrasound and molecular sieves greatly improve esterification reactions by stabilizing the enzyme and increasing yields. PMID:24844439

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  8. Rationale for the luminal provision of butyrate in intestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wächtershäuser, A; Stein, J

    2000-08-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), especially butyrate, play central metabolic roles in maintaining the mucosal barrier in the gut. A lack of SCFA, leading to endogenous starvation of enterocytes, may be the cause of ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory conditions. The main source of SCFA is dietary fibre, but they can also be derived from structured lipids, e. g. tributyrin. Once absorbed by non-ionic diffusion or carrier-mediated anion exchanges, SCFA are either used locally as fuel for the enterocytes or enter the portal bloodstream. Butyrate has been shown to increase wound healing and to reduce inflammation in the small intestine. In the colon, butyrate is the dominant energy source for epithelial cells and affects cellular proliferation and differentiation by yet unknown mechanisms. Recent data suggest that the luminal provision of butyrate may be an appropriate means to improve wound healing in intestinal surgery and to ameliorate symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:11079736

  9. Impact of butyric acid on butanol formation by Clostridium pasteurianum.

    PubMed

    Regestein, Lars; Doerr, Eric Will; Staaden, Antje; Rehmann, Lars

    2015-11-01

    The butanol yield of the classic fermentative acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) process has been enhanced in the past decades through the development of better strains and advanced process design. Nevertheless, by-product formation and the incomplete conversion of intermediates still decrease the butanol yield. This study demonstrates the potential of increasing the butanol yield from glycerol though the addition of small amounts of butyric acid. The impact of butyric acid was investigated in a 7L stirred tank reactor. The results of this study show the positive impact of butyric acid on butanol yield under pH controlled conditions and the metabolic stages were monitored via online measurement of carbon dioxide formation, pH value and redox potential. Butyric acid could significantly increase the butanol yield at low pH values if sufficient quantities of primary carbon source (glycerol) were present. PMID:26233327

  10. Clinical evaluation of clobetasone butyrate eye drops in episcleritis.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Jones, D; Tokarewicz, A; Watson, P G

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients took part in a double-blind, between-patient clinical trial to compare clobetasone butyrate, betamethasone phosphate, and placebo eye drops in the treatment of episcleritis. Although from the symptom scores the patients given placebo appeared to do as well as the other patients in the first week of treatment, they did significantly less well after this time. Clobetasone butyrate and betamethasone phosphate eye drops seemed to be equally effective in the treatment of this disease. PMID:7028088

  11. Comparison of desoximetasone and hydrocortisone butyrate in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Zachariae, H

    1976-01-01

    Thirty psoriatics were treated for 2 weeks on a double-blind controlled basis with desoximetasone (0.25%) and with hydrocortisone butyrate (0.1%). It was a randomised left-right comparative trial. Thirteen out of 27 patients preferred desoximetasone, 3 patients preferred hydrocortisone butyrate. There was also a significantly better effect of desoximetasone as judged by the observer after the second week of treatment. PMID:60029

  12. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis. PMID:7890244

  13. Microbial metabolite butyrate facilitates M2 macrophage polarization and function

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jian; Shu, Dingming; Zheng, Mingzhu; Wang, Jie; Luo, Chenglong; Wang, Yan; Guo, Fuyou; Zou, Xian; Lv, Xiaohui; Li, Ying; Liu, Tianfei; Qu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites from intestinal microbes modulate the mucosal immune system by regulating the polarization and expansion of T cells. Whether the microbial metabolites influence macrophage polarization, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that the large bowel microbial fermentation product, butyrate, facilitates M2 macrophage polarization, in vitro and in vivo. The supernatant from butyrate-treated M2 macrophage increased the migration and enhanced the wound closure rate of MLE-12 cells. Butyrate attenuated intestinal inflammation in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, with a significant increase in colonic expression of the M2 macrophage-associated protein, Arg1. M2 macrophage treated with butyrate, had increased activation of the H3K9/STAT6 signaling pathway, suggesting a mechanism for butyrate facilitated M2 macrophage polarization. Collectively, our study indicated that commensal microbe-derived butyrate is a novel activator of STAT6-mediated transcription through H3K9 acetylation driving M2 macrophage polarization, and delineated new insights into the immune interplay underlying inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27094081

  14. Microbial metabolite butyrate facilitates M2 macrophage polarization and function.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Shu, Dingming; Zheng, Mingzhu; Wang, Jie; Luo, Chenglong; Wang, Yan; Guo, Fuyou; Zou, Xian; Lv, Xiaohui; Li, Ying; Liu, Tianfei; Qu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites from intestinal microbes modulate the mucosal immune system by regulating the polarization and expansion of T cells. Whether the microbial metabolites influence macrophage polarization, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that the large bowel microbial fermentation product, butyrate, facilitates M2 macrophage polarization, in vitro and in vivo. The supernatant from butyrate-treated M2 macrophage increased the migration and enhanced the wound closure rate of MLE-12 cells. Butyrate attenuated intestinal inflammation in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, with a significant increase in colonic expression of the M2 macrophage-associated protein, Arg1. M2 macrophage treated with butyrate, had increased activation of the H3K9/STAT6 signaling pathway, suggesting a mechanism for butyrate facilitated M2 macrophage polarization. Collectively, our study indicated that commensal microbe-derived butyrate is a novel activator of STAT6-mediated transcription through H3K9 acetylation driving M2 macrophage polarization, and delineated new insights into the immune interplay underlying inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27094081

  15. Converting carbon dioxide to butyrate with an engineered strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodard, Trevor L; Lovley, Derek R

    2014-01-01

    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. Importance: The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors

  16. Converting Carbon Dioxide to Butyrate with an Engineered Strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    SciTech Connect

    Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Woodard, TL; Lovley, DR

    2014-08-26

    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H-2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. IMPORTANCE The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors

  17. Preparation of chitin butyrate by using phosphoryl mixed anhydride system.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Lok Ranjan; Kim, Bo Mi; Hyun, Kim; Kang, Kyung Hee; Lu, Chichong; Chai, Kyu Yun

    2011-04-01

    Acylation of chitin with butyric acid was performed in the presence of trifluoroacetic anhydride/phosphoric acid mediated system. The products were characterized by (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy and their solubility was tested in different organic solvents. Inclusion of butyric acid moieties into the parent molecule was confirmed from the (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectra. FT-IR analysis revealed that the degree of acid substitution (DS) of the products was in a range of 1.9-2.38, which increased with increasing the amounts of butyric acid added to the reaction system. Degree of N-deacetylation (DD) of the products, as determined by (1)H NMR was between 54.2% and 65.6%. The products with DS >2.0 were soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, methanol, acetone, chloroform, and acetic acid. PMID:21353204

  18. N-Butyrate alters chromatin accessibility to DNA repair enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Current evidence suggests that the complex nature of mammalian chromatin can result in the concealment of DNA damage from repair enzymes and their co-factors. Recently it has been proposed that the acetylation of histone proteins in chromatin may provide a surveillance system whereby damaged regions of DNA become exposed due to changes in chromatin accessibility. This hypothesis has been tested by: (i) using n-butyrate to induce hyperacetylation in human adenocarcinoma (HT29) cells; (ii) monitoring the enzymatic accessibility of chromatin in permeabilised cells; (iii) measuring u.v. repair-associated nicking of DNA in intact cells and (iv) determining the effects of n-butyrate on cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. The results indicate that the accessibility of chromatin to Micrococcus luteus u.v. endonuclease is enhanced by greater than 2-fold in n-butyrate-treated cells and that there is a corresponding increase in u.v. repair incision rates in intact cells exposed to the drug. Non-toxic levels of n-butyrate induce a block to G1 phase transit and there is a significant growth delay on removal of the drug. Resistance of HT29 cells to u.v.-radiation and adriamycin is enhanced in n-butyrate-treated cells whereas X-ray sensitivity is increased. Although changes in the responses of cells to DNA damaging agents must be considered in relation to the effects of n-butyrate on growth rate and cell-cycle distribution, the results are not inconsistent with the proposal that increased enzymatic-accessibility/repair is biologically favourable for the resistance of cells to u.v.-radiation damage. Overall the results support the suggested operation of a histone acetylation-based chromatin surveillance system in human cells.

  19. Liquid chromatographic determination of clobetasone-17-butyrate in ointments.

    PubMed

    Patel, A G; Patel, R B; Patel, M R

    1990-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method has been developed for determination of clobetasone-17-butyrate in ointment using clobetasone propionate as an internal standard. Separation was carried out on a C18 reverse-phase column using water-methanol as a mobile phase. Methylparaben and propylparaben (both sodium salt) used as preservatives did not interfere with separation. Compounds are detected photometrically at 235 nm. Mean assay results for 0.05% commercial ointments were 100.36% (n = 5). Mean recovery of clobetasone-17-butyrate added to commercial ointment was 99.89%. PMID:2289922

  20. Transcriptome characterization by deep-RNA-sequencing underlies the mechanisms of butyrate-induced epigenomic regulation in bovine cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate), especially butyrate, alter cell differentiation, proliferation, motility, and in particular, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition activity. Butyrate is a great inducer of ...

  1. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  2. Alternate splicing regulated by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a signaling molecule and a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HADCs), butyrate exerts its impacts on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. In this study, we examined the effect of...

  3. 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid (MCPB)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - ( 2 - Methyl - 4 - chlorophenoxy ) butyric acid ( MCPB ) ; CASRN 94 - 81 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  4. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay for cortisol 17-butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.N.; Lee, Y.F.; Bu'Lock, D.E.; August, P.; Anderson, D.C.

    1983-07-01

    We describe the development and validation of an assay for cortisol 17-butyrate in blood in which there is no significant cross reaction with endogenous corticosteroids at levels encountered normally in man. Preliminary data on blood levels of the drug in absorption studies are presented.

  5. EFFECT OF LEAD ON GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project studies the inhibitory effect of lead on the enzymatic activity of brain glutamic amino acid decarboxylase (GADC). The enzyme is responsible for the catalytic formation of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons which is believed to be involved with the tra...

  6. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  7. BUTYRATE DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATES CYTOKINES AND PROLIFERATION IN PORCINE PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although butyrate modulates proliferation and cytokine production by PBMC in some species, the role of butyrate as a regulator of immunocyte function in the pig has not been studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to determine whether butyrate influences peripheral blood mononuc...

  8. Swine Intestinal Tract Harbors a High Diversity of Butyrate-Producing Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate is a preferred energy source of human colonic epithelial cells, and changes in the communities of butyrate-producing bacteria have been associated with adverse health. We hypothesize that in swine, like in humans, butyrate-producing bacteria contribute to a healthy intestinal ecosystem. T...

  9. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  10. Role of rumen butyrate in regulation of nitrogen utilization and urea nitrogen kinetics in growing sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate, a major rumen VFA, has been indirectly linked to enhancement of urea recycling based on increased expression of urea transporter (UT-B) in the rumen epithelia of steers fed a rumen butyrate-enhancing diet. Two studies were conducted to quantify the effect of elevated rumen butyrate concent...

  11. Induction of peroxisomes by butyrate-producing probiotics.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huachun; Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Kito, Naoko; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11a (Pex11a) deficiency is associated with a reduction in peroxisome abundance and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes, and results in steatosis. In the present study, we investigated whether butyrate induces Pex11a expression and peroxisome proliferation, and studied its effect on lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-PBA), or the butyrate-producing probiotics (Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 [CBM]) plus inulin (dietary fiber), and the body weight, white adipose tissue, serum triglycerides, mRNA expression, and peroxisome abundance were evaluated. Tributyrin or 4-PBA treatment significantly decreased body weight and increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and Pex11a. In addition, 4-PBA treatment increased peroxisome abundance and the expression of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 and hydroxysteroid [17-beta] dehydrogenase 4). CBM and inulin administration reduced adipose tissue mass and serum triglycerides, induced Pex11a, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, and hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 genes, and increased peroxisome abundance in mice fed standard chow or an HFD. In conclusion, elevation of butyrate availability (directly through administration of butyrate or indirectly via administration of butyrate-producing probiotics plus fiber) induces PPARα and Pex11a and the genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, increases peroxisome abundance, and improves lipid metabolism. These results may provide a new therapeutic strategy against hyperlipidemia and obesity. PMID:25659146

  12. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaro, Christopher; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulates butyrate's effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulation of butyrate's effects differ by cell context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G{sub 1} to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that prevent or

  13. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  14. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  15. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  16. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  17. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  18. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  19. Strategies for production of butanol and butyl-butyrate through lipase-catalyzed esterification.

    PubMed

    Xin, Fengxue; Basu, Anindya; Yang, Kun-Lin; He, Jianzhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a fermentation process for production of butanol and butyl-butyrate by using Clostridium sp. strain BOH3 is developed. This strain is able to produce butyric acid and butanol when it ferments 60 g/L xylose. Meanwhile, it also excreted indigenous lipases (induced by olive oil) which naturally convert butyric acid and butanol into 1.2 g/L of butyl-butyrate. When Bio-OSR was used as both an inducer for lipase and extractant for butyl-butyrate, the butyl-butyrate concentration can reach 6.3 g/L. To further increase the yield, additional lipases and butyric acid are added to the fermentation system. Moreover, kerosene was used as an extractant to remove butyl-butyrate in situ. When all strategies are combined, 22.4 g/L butyl-butyrate can be produced in a fed-batch reactor spiked with 70 g/L xylose and 7.9 g/L butyric acid, which is 4.5-fold of that in a similar system (5 g/L) with hexadecane as the extractant. PMID:26710347

  20. Transcriptomic Sequencing Reveals a Set of Unique Genes Activated by Butyrate-Induced Histone Modification.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong-Jun; Li, Robert W; Baldwin, Ransom L; Blomberg, Le Ann; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes in the bovine epithelial cells using RNA sequencing technology, a set of unique genes that are activated only after butyrate treatment were revealed. A complementary bioinformatics analysis of the functional category, pathway, and integrated network, using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, indicated that these genes activated by butyrate treatment are related to major cellular functions, including cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Our results offered insight into the butyrate-induced transcriptomic changes and will accelerate our discerning of the molecular fundamentals of epigenomic regulation. PMID:26819550

  1. Transcriptomic Sequencing Reveals a Set of Unique Genes Activated by Butyrate-Induced Histone Modification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong-Jun; Li, Robert W.; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Blomberg, Le Ann; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes in the bovine epithelial cells using RNA sequencing technology, a set of unique genes that are activated only after butyrate treatment were revealed. A complementary bioinformatics analysis of the functional category, pathway, and integrated network, using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, indicated that these genes activated by butyrate treatment are related to major cellular functions, including cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Our results offered insight into the butyrate-induced transcriptomic changes and will accelerate our discerning of the molecular fundamentals of epigenomic regulation. PMID:26819550

  2. Biosynthesis of heparin. Effects of n-butyrate on cultured mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsson, K.G.; Riesenfeld, J.; Lindahl, U.

    1985-10-05

    Murine mastocytoma cells were incubated in vitro with inorganic (TVS)sulfate, in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM n-butyrate, and labeled heparin was isolated. The polysaccharide produced in the presence of butyrate showed a lower charge density on anion exchange chromatography than did the control material and a 3-fold increased proportion of components with high affinity for antithrombin. Structural analysis of heparin labeled with (TH) glucosamine in the presence of butyrate showed that approximately 35% of the glucosamine units were N-acetylated, as compared to approximately 10% in the control material; the nonacetylated glucosamine residues were N-sulfated. The presence of butyrate thus leads to an inhibition of the N-deacetylation/N-sulfation process in heparin biosynthesis, along with an augmented formation of molecules with high affinity for antithrombin. Preincubation of the mastocytoma cells with butyrate was required for manifestation of either effect; when the preincubation period was reduced from 24 to 10 h the effects of butyrate were no longer observed. A polysaccharide formed on incubating mastocytoma microsomal fraction with UDP-(TH)glucuronic acid, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, and 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate in the presence of 5 mM butyrate showed the same N-acetyl/N-sulfate ratio as did the corresponding control polysaccharide, produced in the absence of butyrate. These findings suggest that the effect of butyrate on heparin biosynthesis depends on the integrity of the cell.

  3. Butyrate-induced changes in nuclease sensitivity of chromatin cannot be correlated with transcriptional activation

    SciTech Connect

    Birren, B.W.; Taplitz, S.J.; Herschman, H.R.

    1987-11-01

    The authors examined in the H4IIE rat heptoma cell line the relationship between butyrate-induced changes in the nuclease sensitivity of chromatin and changes in transcriptional activity of specific genes. The butyrate-inducible metallothionein I (MT-I) gene underwent a dramatic increase in DNase I sensitivity after 3 h of butyrate treatment. However, genes not transcribed in H4IIE cells underwent the same changes in DNase I sensitivity. Thus, butyrate-induced increases in DNase I sensitivity are not sufficient for the transcriptional activation of a gene. Butyrate treatment has also been reported to alter the sensitivity of sequence to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) in a manner reflecting their tissue-specific expression. Butyrate exposure caused increased digestion of the MT-I gene by MNase. However, butyrate-induced MNase sensitivity also occurred for genes which are neither transcribed in untreated cells nor butyrate inducible. Moreover, cadmium, a potent transcriptional activator of the MT-I gene, does not alter the sensitivity of the MT-I gene to MNase. Thus, the butyrate-induced alterations in MNase sensitivity are neither sufficient for, necessary for, nor indicative of transcriptional activation.

  4. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased

  5. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  6. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  7. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  8. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H

    2005-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563

  9. Butyrate-rich colonic microenvironment is a relevant selection factor for metabolically adapted tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Serpa, Jacinta; Caiado, Francisco; Carvalho, Tânia; Torre, Cheila; Gonçalves, Luís G; Casalou, Cristina; Lamosa, Pedro; Rodrigues, Margarida; Zhu, Zhenping; Lam, Eric W F; Dias, Sérgio

    2010-12-10

    The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is a product of colonic fermentation of dietary fibers. It is the main source of energy for normal colonocytes, but cannot be metabolized by most tumor cells. Butyrate also functions as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor to control cell proliferation and apoptosis. In consequence, butyrate and its derived drugs are used in cancer therapy. Here we show that aggressive tumor cells that retain the capacity of metabolizing butyrate are positively selected in their microenvironment. In the mouse xenograft model, butyrate-preselected human colon cancer cells gave rise to subcutaneous tumors that grew faster and were more angiogenic than those derived from untreated cells. Similarly, butyrate-preselected cells demonstrated a significant increase in rates of homing to the lung after intravenous injection. Our data showed that butyrate regulates the expression of VEGF and its receptor KDR at the transcriptional level potentially through FoxM1, resulting in the generation of a functional VEGF:KDR autocrine growth loop. Cells selected by chronic exposure to butyrate express higher levels of MMP2, MMP9, α2 and α3 integrins, and lower levels of E-cadherin, a marker for epithelial to mesenchymal transition. The orthotopic model of colon cancer showed that cells preselected by butyrate are able to colonize the animals locally and at distant organs, whereas control cells can only generate a local tumor in the cecum. Together our data shows that a butyrate-rich microenvironment may select for tumor cells that are able to metabolize butyrate, which are also phenotypically more aggressive. PMID:20926374

  10. Acetylcarnitine potentiates the anticarcinogenic effects of butyrate on SW480 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Elimrani, Ihsan; Dionne, Serge; Saragosti, Dan; Qureshi, Ijaz; Levy, Emile; Delvin, Edgar; Seidman, Ernest G

    2015-08-01

    Butyrate is a potent anticarcinogenic compound against colon cancer cells in vitro. However, its rapid metabolism is hypothesized to limit its anticancer benefits in colonic epithelial cells. Carnitine, a potent antioxidant, is essential to fatty acid oxidation. The aims of this study were to identify a colon cancer cell line capable of transporting carnitine. We evaluated the effect of carnitine and acetylcarnitine (ALCAR) on the response of colon carcinoma cells to butyrate. We explored the mechanisms underlying the anticarcinogenic benefit. SW480 cells were incubated with butyrate ± carnitine or ALCAR. Carnitine uptake was assessed using [3H]-carnitine. Apoptosis and cell viability were assessed using an ELISA kit and flow cytometry, respectively. Modulation of proteins implicated in carnitine transport, cell death and proliferation were assessed by western blotting. SW480 cells were found to transport carnitine primarily via the OCTN2 transporter. Butyrate induced SW480 cell death occurred at concentrations of 2 mM and higher. Cells treated with the combination of butyrate (3 mM) with ALCAR exhibited increased mortality. The addition of carnitine or ALCAR also increased butyrate-induced apoptosis. Butyrate increased levels of cyclin D1, p21 and PARP p86, but decreased Bcl-XL and survivin levels. Butyrate also downregulated dephospho-β-catenin and increased acetylated histone H4 levels. Butyrate and carnitine decreased survivin levels by ≥25%. ALCAR independently induced a 20% decrease in p21. These results demonstrate that butyrate and ALCAR are potentially beneficial anticarcinogenic nutrients that inhibit colon cancer cell survival in vitro. The combination of both agents may have superior anticarcinogenic properties than butyrate alone. PMID:26043725

  11. Butyrate enhances antibacterial effects while suppressing other features of alternative activation in IL-4-induced macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Maria R; Saxena, Alpana; Reyes, José-Luis; McKay, Derek M

    2016-05-15

    The short-chain fatty acid butyrate is produced by fermentation of dietary fiber by the intestinal microbiota; butyrate is the primary energy source of colonocytes and has immunomodulatory effects. Having shown that macrophages differentiated with IL-4 [M(IL-4)s] can suppress colitis, we hypothesized that butyrate would reinforce an M(IL-4) phenotype. Here, we show that in the presence of butyrate M(IL-4)s display reduced expression of their hallmark markers Arg1 and Ym1 and significantly suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide, IL-12p40, and IL-10 production. Butyrate treatment likely altered the M(IL-4) phenotype via inhibition of histone deacetylation. Functionally, M(IL-4)s treated with butyrate showed increased phagocytosis and killing of bacteria, compared with M(IL-4) and this was not accompanied by enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production. Culture of regulatory T cells with M(IL-4)s and M(IL-4 + butyrate)s revealed that both macrophage subsets suppressed expression of the regulatory T-cell marker Foxp3. However, Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4 + butyrate) produced less IL-17A than Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4). These data illustrate the importance of butyrate, a microbial-derived metabolite, in the regulation of gut immunity: the demonstration that butyrate promotes phagocytosis in M(IL-4)s that can limit T-cell production of IL-17A reveals novel aspects of bacterial-host interaction in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis. PMID:27012776

  12. Butyrate inhibits inflammatory responses through NFκB inhibition: implications for Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Segain, J; de la Bletiere, D R.; Bourreille, A; Leray, V; Gervois, N; Rosales, C; Ferrier, L; Bonnet, C; Blottiere, H; Galmiche, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM—Proinflammatory cytokines are key factors in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), which is involved in their gene transcription, is increased in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients. As butyrate enemas may be beneficial in treating colonic inflammation, we investigated if butyrate promotes this effect by acting on proinflammatory cytokine expression.
METHODS—Intestinal biopsy specimens, isolated lamina propria cells (LPMC), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with or without butyrate for assessment of secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and mRNA levels. NFκB p65 activation was determined by immunofluorescence and gene reporter experiments. Levels of NFκB inhibitory protein (IκBα) were analysed by western blotting. The in vivo efficacy of butyrate was assessed in rats with trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis.
RESULTS—Butyrate decreased TNF production and proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression by intestinal biopsies and LPMC from CD patients. Butyrate abolished lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced expression of cytokines by PBMC and transmigration of NFκB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. LPS induced NFκB transcriptional activity was decreased by butyrate while IκBα levels were stable. Butyrate treatment also improved TNBS induced colitis.
CONCLUSIONS—Butyrate decreases proinflammatory cytokine expression via inhibition of NFκB activation and IκBα degradation. These anti-inflammatory properties provide a rationale for assessing butyrate in the treatment of CD.


Keywords: inflammation; butyrate; Crohn's disease; nuclear factor kappa B; cytokines PMID:10940278

  13. TRAPPING YELLOWJACKETS (HYMENOPTERA: VESPIDAE) WITH HEPTYL BUTYRATE EMITTED FROM CONTROLLED-RELEASE DISPENSERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numbers of workers of Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure) (western yellowjacket) and V. atropilosa (Sladen) trapped with heptyl butyrate in Washington increased with increased release of the attractant from vial dispensers, up to an estimated 2.3 milligrams heptyl butyrate per hour. Vespula germanica F...

  14. Butyrate enema therapy stimulates mucosal repair in experimental colitis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Butzner, J D; Parmar, R; Bell, C J; Dalal, V

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate provides energy for colonocytes, stimulates colonic fluid and electrolyte absorption and is recognised as an effective treatment for multiple types of colitis. AIM--To examine the impact of butyrate enema therapy on the clinical course, severity of inflammation, and SCFA stimulated Na+ absorption in a chronic experimental colitis. METHODS--Distal colitis was induced in rats with a trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) enema. Five days after induction, rats were divided into groups to receive: no treatment, saline enemas, or 100 mM Na-butyrate enemas daily. On day 24, colonic damage score and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated. Colon was mounted in Ussing chambers and Na+ transport and electrical activities were measured during a basal period and after stimulation with 25 mM butyrate. RESULTS--In the untreated and the saline enema treated TNBS groups, diarrhoea and extensive colonic damage were seen, associated with increased tissue MPO activities and absent butyrate stimulated Na+ absorption. In contrast, in the butyrate enema treated TNBS group, diarrhoea ceased, colonic damage score improved, and tissue MPO activity as well as butyrate stimulated Na+ absorption recovered to control values. CONCLUSION--Butyrate enema therapy stimulated colonic repair, as evidenced by clinical recovery, decreased inflammation, and restoration of SCFA stimulated electrolyte absorption. PMID:8707089

  15. Intraperitoneal administration of butyrate prevents the severity of acetic acid colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malago, Joshua J.; Sangu, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Intrarectal infusion of butyrate improves colorectal disorders including ulcerative colitis (UC). However, it is not established whether systemically administered butyrate benefits such patients. The current study aimed at exploring and comparing the potential of intraperitoneally, intrarectally, and orally administered butyrate against acetic acid (AA)-induced UC in rats. Intrarectal administration of 2 ml of 50% AA was done after or without prior treatment of rats for 7 consecutive days with 100 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB) intraperitoneally, intrarectally, or orally. Rats were sacrificed after 48 h of AA-treatment. Subsequently, colon sections were processed routinely for histopathological examination. We clinically observed diarrhea, loose stools, and hemoccult-positive stools, and histologically, epithelial loss and ulceration, crypt damage, goblet cell depletion, hemorrhage, and mucosal infiltration of inflammatory cells. The changes were significantly reduced by intraperitoneal, intrarectal, or oral butyrate, with intraperitoneal butyrate exhibiting the highest potency. It is concluded that intraperitoneal administration of butyrate abrogates the lesions of AA-induced UC and its potency surpasses that of intrarectal or oral butyrate. PMID:25743124

  16. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found producing butyrate under strict anaerobic conditions. This strain produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from MRS media (0.48 g/g glucose). RPT-4213 was also used to ferment dilute acid pretreated hydrolysates including wheat straw (WSH), corn fiber (CFH...

  17. Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyric acid is a major short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced in the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacterial fermentation which has been demonstrated to have beneficial health effects in many species including poultry. To understand the immunomodulating effects of butyrate on chicken macropha...

  18. Butyric acid stimulates bovine neutrophil functions and potentiates the effect of platelet activating factor.

    PubMed

    Carretta, M D; Hidalgo, A I; Burgos, J; Opazo, L; Castro, L; Hidalgo, M A; Figueroa, C D; Taubert, A; Hermosilla, C; Burgos, R A

    2016-08-01

    Increased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production is associated with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and activation of inflammatory processes. In humans and rodents, SCFAs modulate inflammatory responses in the gut via free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2). In bovines, butyric acid is one of the most potent FFA2 agonists. Its expression in bovine neutrophils has recently been demonstrated, suggesting a role in innate immune response in cattle. This study aimed to evaluate if butyric acid modulates oxidative and non-oxidative functions or if it can potentiate other inflammatory mediators in bovine neutrophils. Our results showed that butyric acid can activate bovine neutrophils, inducing calcium (Ca(2+)) influx and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, two second messengers involved in FFA2 activation. Ca(2+) influx induced by butyric acid was dependent on the extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) source and phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Butyric acid alone had no significant effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and chemotaxis; however, a priming effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator, was observed. Butyric acid increased CD63 expression and induced the release of neutrophil granule markers matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and lactoferrin. Finally, we observed that butyric acid induced neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation without affecting cellular viability. These findings suggest that butyric acid, a component of the ruminal fermentative process, can modulate the innate immune response of ruminants. PMID:27288853

  19. Bioinformatic dissecting of TP53 regulation pathway underlying butyrate-induced histone modification in epigenetic regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate affects cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. Butyrate inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. TP53 is one of the most active upstream regulators discovered by IPA in our RNA sequencing data set. The TP53 signaling pathway pl...

  20. FLOW CYTOMETRIC EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SODIUM BUTYRATE ON APOPTOSIS OF BOVINE NEUTROPHILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood neutrophils(PMN) from four clinically healthy cows were suspended in Dulbecco's minimal essential medium and incubated at 37C for 0, 2 or 6 hours in medium alone, with 100ng/ml bacterial endotoxin, 160nM sodium butyrate, 16uM actinomycin D, mixture of sodium butyrate and bacterial endot...

  1. Butyrate production from dietary fibre and protection against large bowel cancer in a rat model.

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, A; Gibson, P R; Young, G P

    1993-01-01

    Butyrate slows the growth of cancer cells cultured in vitro. To determine the relevance of the fermentative production of butyrate in vivo, colonic butyrate concentrations were manipulated by feeding different dietary fibres and were related to tumour development in the rat dimethylhydrazine model of large bowel cancer. It has previously been shown that guar gum and oat bran, while highly fermentable, are associated with low butyrate levels in the distal colon, while wheat bran causes significantly higher concentrations. Diets containing these fibres (nominally 10% w:w) were administered for 3 weeks before, for 10 weeks during, and for 20 weeks after dimethylhydrazine administration, after which animals were killed and examined for tumours. Significantly fewer tumours were seen in the rats fed wheat bran compared with those fed guar or oat bran, and the total tumour mass was lowest in rats fed wheat bran. Rats on a 'no added fibre diet' had an intermediate tumour mass. Regression analysis, performed regardless of dietary group, showed that the concentration in stools of butyrate but not of acetate or stool volume, correlated significantly (and negatively) with tumour mass. These findings indicate that fibre which is associated with high butyrate concentrations in the distal large bowel is protective against large bowel cancer, while soluble fibres that do not raise distal butyrate concentrations, are not protective. Thus, butyrate production in vivo does bear a significant relationship to suppression of tumour formation. PMID:8386131

  2. Conversion of N-butyrate to N-butanol with Continuous Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of our study is to optimize n-butanol production from n-butyrate, using pure cultures of solventogenic Clostridia. In addition to butyrate as a substrate, glucose was used as a source of energy and to provide reducing equivalents to facilitate the conversion. To prevent product inhibition...

  3. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain RPT-4213

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found to produce butyrate under anaerobic conditions. Fermentations using Lactobacilli MRS Broth produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from glucose (0.48 g/g glucose). However, the strain was not capable of utilizing five carbon sugars. To assess the a...

  4. Transcriptomic sequencing reveals a set of unique genes activated by butyrate-induced histone modification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes induced by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell using deep RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq), a set of unique gen...

  5. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Growth Performance and Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Weanling Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to E. coli. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In the first 28 d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg d...

  6. Butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1 with high butyric acid yield and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Kyung Min; Youn, Sung Hun; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Oh, Min-Kyu; Um, Youngsoon

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1. Results showed that Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid by simultaneously utilizing glucose and mannose in softwood hydrolysate and, more remarkably, it consumed acetic acid in hydrolysate. Clostridium sp. S1 utilized each of glucose, mannose, and xylose as well as mixed sugars simultaneously with partially repressed xylose utilization. When softwood (Japanese larch) hydrolysate containing glucose and mannose as the main sugars was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 21.17g/L butyric acid with the yield of 0.47g/g sugar and the selectivity of 1 (g butyric acid/g total acids) owing to the consumption of acetic acid in hydrolysate. The results demonstrate potential of Clostridium sp. S1 to produce butyric acid selectively and effectively from hydrolysate not only by utilizing mixed sugars simultaneously but also by converting acetic acid to butyric acid. PMID:27474955

  7. Vimentin, colon cancer progression and resistance to butyrate and other HDACis.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer (CRC) most likely through the activity of its fermentation product, butyrate. Butyrate functions as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that hyperactivates Wnt signalling and induces apoptosis of CRC cells. However, individuals who consume a high-fibre diet may still develop CRC; therefore, butyrate resistance may develop over time. Furthermore, CRC cells that are resistant to butyrate are cross-resistant to clinically relevant therapeutic HDACis, suggesting that the development of butyrate resistance in vivo can result in HDACi-resistant CRCs. Butyrate/HDACi-resistant CRC cells differ from their butyrate/HDACi-sensitive counterparts in the expression of many genes, including the gene encoding vimentin (VIM) that is usually expressed in normal mesenchymal cells and is involved in cancer metastasis. Interestingly, vimentin is overexpressed in butyrate/HDACi-resistant CRC cells although Wnt signalling is suppressed in such cells and that VIM is a Wnt activity-targeted gene. The expression of vimentin in colonic neoplastic cells could be correlated with the stage of neoplastic progression. For example, comparative analyses of LT97 microadenoma cells and SW620 colon carcinoma cells revealed that although vimentin is not detectable in LT97 cells, it is highly expressed in SW620 cells. Based upon these observations, we propose that the differential expression of vimentin contributes to the phenotypic differences between butyrate-resistant and butyrate-sensitive CRC cells, as well as to the differences between early-stage and metastatic colorectal neoplastic cells. We discuss the hypothesis that vimentin is a key factor integrating epithelial to mesenchymal transition, colonic neoplastic progression and resistance to HDACis. PMID:27072512

  8. Butyrate regulates the expression of inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines in human acute leukemic cells during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pulliam, Stephanie R; Pellom, Samuel T; Shanker, Anil; Adunyah, Samuel E

    2016-08-01

    Butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor implicated in many studies as a potential therapy for various forms of cancer. High concentrations of butyrate (>1.5mM) have been shown to activate apoptosis in several cancer cell lines including prostate, breast, and leukemia. Butyrate is also known to influence multiple signaling pathways that are mediators of cytokine production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of high concentrations of butyrate on the cancer microenvironment vis-à-vis apoptosis, cellular migration, and capacity to modulate cytokine expression in cancer cells. The results indicate that high concentrations of butyrate induced a 2-fold activation of caspase-3 and reduced cell viability by 60% in U937 leukemia cells. Within 24h, butyrate significantly decreased the levels of chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 in HL-60 and U937 cells, and decreased CCL5 in THP-1 leukemia cells. Differential effects were observed in treatments with valproic acid for CCL2 and CCL5 indicating butyrate-specificity. Many of the biological effects examined in this study are linked to activation of the AKT and MAPK signaling pathways; therefore, we investigated whether butyrate alters the levels of phosphorylated forms of these signaling proteins and how it correlated with the expression of chemokines. The results show that butyrate may partially regulate CCL5 production via p38 MAPK. The decrease in p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT levels correlated with the decrease in CCL2 production. These data suggest that while promoting apoptosis, butyrate has the potential to influence the cancer microenvironment by inducing differential expression of cytokines. PMID:27253488

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  10. [Pharmacological study on hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Otomo, S; Higuchi, S; Nakaike, S; Takeshita, K; Tanaka, M; Gotoh, Y; Osada, Y; Tsuchida, K; Inoue, K; Kyogoku, K; Tarumoto, Y; Sasajima, M; Ohzeki, M

    1981-12-01

    The topical and systemic anti-inflammatory activities of hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate (HBP) were studied. The systemic anti-inflammatory activities of HBP and reference steroids were examined for their effects on dinitrochlorobenzene dermatitis, carrageenin edema, cotton pellet granuloma and adjuvant arthritis in rats and by the delayed allergic edema test in mice. The topical anti-inflammatory activities of these steroids were examined for their effects on croton oil dermatitis, croton oil ear edema, carrageenin edema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats. Furthermore, effects of these steroids on liver glycogen deposition in mice, thymolysis, and decrease of serum corticosterone level in rats were examined. Systemically administered HBP was less potent than betamethasone 17-valerate (BV), but was almost equal to hydrocortisone 17-butyrate (HB) in anti-inflammatory activity, and its effects on liver glycogen deposition, thymolysis, and the decrease of serum corticosterone level. However, the topical anti-inflammatory activity of HBP was more potent than that of BV and HB, although in the same experiment, thymolytic activity of HBP was less potent than that of BV, but was almost equal to HB. The inhibitory effect of HBP on hypotonic induced hemolysis was weaker than that of BV, but was stronger than that of HB in vitro. The affinity of HBP was higher than that of BV and HB to polymorphonuclear leucocytes used as the inflammatory cells in vitro. On the other hand no marked difference was observed in the affinity to erythrocytes used as the non-inflammatory cells in vitro. These results suggest that HBP is a useful drug which has superior topical anti-inflammatory activity, but has a weak systemic effect. PMID:7333567

  11. Butyrate plays differential roles in cellular signaling in cancerous HCT116 and noncancerous NCM460 colon cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects in colon. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate at the cellular level remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate plays differential roles in cancerous and non-cancerous cells through si...

  12. In vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption of calcium [1-14C]butyrate in free or protected forms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate is a by-product of microbial carbohydrate fermentation that occurs primarily in the large intestine. When added to feed, butyrate quickly disappears in the upper digestive tract. Because butyrate is important for the epithelial cell development and for mucosal integrity, and for animal grow...

  13. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  14. Butyrate upregulates endogenous host defense peptides to enhance disease resistance in piglets via histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Haitao; Guo, Bingxiu; Gan, Zhenshun; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Yi, Hongbo; Wu, Yueming; Wang, Yizhen; Du, Huahua

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate has been used to treat different inflammatory disease with positive outcomes, the mechanisms by which butyrate exerts its anti-inflammatory effects remain largely undefined. Here we proposed a new mechanism that butyrate manipulate endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) which contributes to the elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and thus affects the alleviation of inflammation. An experiment in piglets treated with butyrate (0.2% of diets) 2 days before E. coli O157:H7 challenge was designed to investigate porcine HDP expression, inflammation and E. coli O157:H7 load in feces. The mechanisms underlying butyrate-induced HDP gene expression and the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of macrophage 3D4/2 cells in vitro were examined. Butyrate treatment (i) alleviated the clinical symptoms of E. coli O157:H7-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and the severity of intestinal inflammation; (ii) reduced the E. coli O157:H7 load in feces; (iii) significantly upregulated multiple, but not all, HDPs in vitro and in vivo via histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition; and (iv) enhanced the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of 3D4/2 cells. Our findings indicate that butyrate enhances disease resistance, promotes the clearance of E. coli O157:H7, and alleviates the clinical symptoms of HUS and inflammation, partially, by affecting HDP expression via HDAC inhibition. PMID:27230284

  15. Butyrate upregulates endogenous host defense peptides to enhance disease resistance in piglets via histone deacetylase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haitao; Guo, Bingxiu; Gan, Zhenshun; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Yi, Hongbo; Wu, Yueming; Wang, Yizhen; Du, Huahua

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate has been used to treat different inflammatory disease with positive outcomes, the mechanisms by which butyrate exerts its anti-inflammatory effects remain largely undefined. Here we proposed a new mechanism that butyrate manipulate endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) which contributes to the elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and thus affects the alleviation of inflammation. An experiment in piglets treated with butyrate (0.2% of diets) 2 days before E. coli O157:H7 challenge was designed to investigate porcine HDP expression, inflammation and E. coli O157:H7 load in feces. The mechanisms underlying butyrate-induced HDP gene expression and the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of macrophage 3D4/2 cells in vitro were examined. Butyrate treatment (i) alleviated the clinical symptoms of E. coli O157:H7-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and the severity of intestinal inflammation; (ii) reduced the E. coli O157:H7 load in feces; (iii) significantly upregulated multiple, but not all, HDPs in vitro and in vivo via histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition; and (iv) enhanced the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of 3D4/2 cells. Our findings indicate that butyrate enhances disease resistance, promotes the clearance of E. coli O157:H7, and alleviates the clinical symptoms of HUS and inflammation, partially, by affecting HDP expression via HDAC inhibition. PMID:27230284

  16. Genotype-dependency of butyrate efficacy in children with congenital chloride diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by life-long, severe diarrhea with intestinal Cl- malabsorption. It results from a reduced activity of the down regulated in adenoma exchanger (DRA), due to mutations in the solute carrier family 26, member 3 (SLC26A3) gene. Currently available therapies are not able to limit the severity of diarrhea in CLD. Conflicting results have been reported on the therapeutic efficacy of oral butyrate. Methods We investigated the effect of oral butyrate (100 mg/kg/day) in seven CLD children with different SLC26A3 genotypes. Nasal epithelial cells were obtained to assess the effect of butyrate on the expression of the two main Cl- transporters: DRA and putative anion transporter-1 (PAT-1). Results A variable clinical response to butyrate was observed regarding the stool pattern and fecal ion loss. The best response was observed in subjects with missense and deletion mutations. Variable response to butyrate was also observed on SLC26A3 (DRA) and SLC26A6 (PAT1) gene expression in nasal epithelial cells of CLD patients. Conclusions We demonstrate a genotype-dependency for butyrate therapeutic efficacy in CLD. The effect of butyrate is related in part on a different modulation of the expression of the two main apical membrane Cl- exchangers of epithelial cells, members of the SLC26 anion family. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical trial Registry ACTRN12613000450718. PMID:24350656

  17. Butyrate protects rat liver against total hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury with bowel congestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Qian, Jianmin; Wang, Qingbao; Wang, Fangrui; Ma, Zhenyu; Qiao, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable consequence of major liver surgery, especially in liver transplantation with bowel congestion, during which endotoxemia is often evident. The inflammatory response aggravated by endotoxin after I/R contributes to liver dysfunction and failure. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of butyrate, a naturally occurring four-carbon fatty acid in the body and a dietary component of foods such as cheese and butter, on hepatic injury complicated by enterogenous endotoxin, as well as to examine the underlying mechanisms involved. SD rats were subjected to a total hepatic ischemia for 30 min after pretreatment with either vehicle or butyrate, followed by 6 h and 24 h of reperfusion. Butyrate preconditioning markedly improved hepatic function and histology, as indicated by reduced transaminase levels and ameliorated tissue pathological changes. The inflammatory factors levels, macrophages activation, TLR4 expression, and neutrophil infiltration in live were attenuated by butyrate. Butyrate also maintained the intestinal barrier structures, reversed the aberrant expression of ZO-1, and decreased the endotoxin translocation. We conclude that butyrate inhibition of endotoxin translocation, macrophages activation, inflammatory factors production, and neutrophil infiltration is involved in the alleviation of total hepatic I/R liver injury in rats. This suggests that butyrate should potentially be utilized in liver transplantation. PMID:25171217

  18. Destructive effects of butyrate on the cell envelope of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kurata, Satoshi; Zaman, Cynthia; Woo, Timothy Derk Hoong; Takahashi, Motomichi; Matsubara, Sachie; Kawakami, Hayato; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori can be found in the oral cavity and is mostly detected by the use of PCR techniques. Growth of H. pylori is influenced by various factors in the mouth, such as the oral microflora, saliva and other antimicrobial substances, all of which make colonization of the oral cavity by H. pylori difficult. In the present study, we analysed the effect of the cell supernatant of a representative periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis on H. pylori and found that the cell supernatant destroyed the H. pylori cell envelope. As P. gingivalis produces butyric acid, we focused our research on the effects of butyrate and found that it significantly inhibited the growth of H. pylori. H. pylori cytoplasmic proteins and DNA were detected in the extracellular environment after treatment with butyrate, suggesting that the integrity of the cell envelope was compromised and indicating that butyrate has a bactericidal effect on H. pylori. In addition, levels of extracellular H. pylori DNA increased following treatment with the cell supernatant of butyric acid-producing bacteria, indicating that the cell supernatant also has a bactericidal effect and that this may be due to its butyric acid content. In conclusion, butyric acid-producing bacteria may play a role in affecting H. pylori colonization of the oral cavity. PMID:22194341

  19. In vivo measurement of colonic butyrate metabolism in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, E; Chapman, M; Dawson, J; Berry, D; Macdonald, I; Cole, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Butyrate, a short chain fatty acid produced by bacterial fermentation, is a major fuel source for the colonocyte. In vitro work has shown that ulcerative colitis may be characterised by a metabolic defect in colonocyte butyrate oxidation.
AIMS—To investigate the rate of metabolism of rectally administered butyrate in patients with quiescent colitis.
METHODS—[1-13C]-butyrate enemas were administered to 11 patients with long standing quiescent ulcerative colitis and to 10 control patients. The rate of production of 13CO2 in exhaled breath over four hours was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with indirect calorimetry in order to measure CO2 production. This allowed calculation of the patients' resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient.
RESULTS—Over a four hour period, 325 (SEM 21) µmol 13CO2 was recovered in breath samples from the colitis group compared with 322 (17) µmol from the control group (NS). The respiratory quotient of the colitic group was significantly lower than that of the control group.
CONCLUSION—There was no difference in the rate of metabolism of butyrate between the two groups. It is unlikely that there is a primary metabolic defect of butyrate metabolism in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis.


Keywords: ulcerative colitis; in vivo butyrate metabolism PMID:10601058

  20. Butyrate enemas upregulate Muc genes expression but decrease adherent mucus thickness in mice colon.

    PubMed

    Gaudier, E; Rival, M; Buisine, M-P; Robineau, I; Hoebler, C

    2009-01-01

    Colonic mucosal protection is provided by the mucus gel, mainly composed of mucins. Several factors can modulate the formation and the secretion of mucins, and among them butyrate, an end-product of carbohydrate fermentation. However, the specific effect of butyrate on the various colonic mucins, and the consequences in terms of the mucus layer thickness are not known. Our aim was to determine whether butyrate modulates colonic MUC genes expression in vivo and whether this results in changes in mucus synthesis and mucus layer thickness. Mice received daily for 7 days rectal enemas of butyrate (100 mM) versus saline. We demonstrated that butyrate stimulated the gene expression of both secreted (Muc2) and membrane-linked (Muc1, Muc3, Muc4) mucins. Butyrate especially induced a 6-fold increase in Muc2 gene expression in proximal colon. However, butyrate enemas did not modify the number of epithelial cells containing the protein Muc2, and caused a 2-fold decrease in the thickness of adherent mucus layer. Further studies should help understanding whether this last phenomenon, i.e. the decrease in adherent mucus gel thickness, results in a diminished protective function or not. PMID:18198997

  1. Sodium butyrate mitigates in vitro ammonia generation in cecal content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anping; Wang, Yan; Di Liao, Xin; Wu, Yinbao; Liang, Juan Boo; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    One of the environmental challenges that modern poultry industry faced is odor pollution caused by ammonia emission. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of sodium butyrate on the production of ammonia in the cecal contents of laying hens using in vitro gas production study and to elucidate the mechanism behind it. The study consisted of a control (without sodium butyrate), and three experimental groups added with 10, 15, and 20 mg of sodium butyrate, respectively. Results showed that ammonia production in headspace of the syringe decreased by 8.2, 23, and 23 %, respectively, while ammonium production from the fermentation broth decreased by 6.3, 14.4, and 13.7 %, respectively. Sodium butyrate had no significant effect on the contents of uric acid and urea, nitrate-N, or total N in all treatments. However, sodium butyrate decreased the urease and uricase activities (P < 0.05) in the fermentation broth. Sodium butyrate also altered volatile fatty acids profile of the fermentation broth by decreasing the production of isovalerate (P < 0.05) and increasing those of acetate, butyrate, and isobutyrate (P < 0.05). The MiSeq System Sequencing results showed that sodium butyrate increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium (P < 0.05) and decreased the relative abundance of Desulfovibrio, Helicobacter, and Campylobacter (P < 0.05).Our results concluded that sodium butyrate changes the diversity and relative abundance of the microbes which altered the fermentation characteristics leading to reduction in ammonia production. PMID:27154844

  2. Short-chain fatty acids and colon cancer cells: the vitamin D receptor--butyrate connection.

    PubMed

    Gaschott, Tanja; Stein, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Butyrate and its prodrug tributyrin, as well as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3), have important physiological effects on proliferation and differentiation in a variety of malignant cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in butyrate-induced cell differentiation and cell cycle arrest in Caco-2 cells, a human colon cancer cell line. Cell differentiation was evaluated by analyzing the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP). Protein of VDR, cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) and of cdk inhibitors was quantified by Western blot analysis, VDR-mRNA by PCR. Pre- and postconfluent cells were assessed for VDR binding activity. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Tributyrin significantly increased VDR-mRNA level (250% vs. control) and VDR binding activity. Butyrate also enhanced VDR protein content in the nucleus in a time- and dose-dependent manner and more potently than other short-chain fatty acids of a related structure. Both butyrate (640% vs. control) and 1,25-(OH)2D3 (350% vs. control) significantly stimulated differentiation, whereas combined treatment with butyrate and 1,25-(OH)2D3 resulted in a synergistic amplification of AP activity (1400% vs. control). In the presence of the VDR antagonist ZK 191732, butyrate-induced differentiation was completely abolished (150% vs. control). While butyrate alone increased p21Waf1/Cip1 expression and down-regulated cdk 6 and cyclin A, and combined exposure with 1,25-(OH)2D3 resulted in a synergistic enhancement of butyrate-induced changes, expressions did not change from control level after treatment with butyrate and ZK 191732. G1 cell cycle arrest induced by butyrate was also abolished after combined treatment with butyrate and ZK 191732. In conclusion, differentiation and cell cycle arrest of Caco-2 cells induced by butyrate are mediated by up-regulation of VDR, followed by a stimulation of the negative cell cycle regulator p21Waf1/Cip1 and by a down

  3. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jintao; Yi, Man; Zha, Longying; Chen, Siqiang; Li, Zhijia; Li, Cheng; Gong, Mingxing; Deng, Hong; Chu, Xinwei; Chen, Jiehua; Zhang, Zheqing; Mao, Limei; Sun, Suxia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells. Methods Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5–5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining), and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot. Results Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II), beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg)3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin

  4. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  5. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  6. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  7. Cellular Metabolism and Dose Reveal Carnitine-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms of Butyrate Oxidation in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Anna; Bennett, Natalie; MacDonald, Amber; Johnstone, Megan; Whelan, Jay; Donohoe, Dallas R

    2016-08-01

    Dietary fiber has been suggested to suppress colorectal cancer development, although the mechanisms contributing to this beneficial effect remain elusive. Butyrate, a fermentation product of fiber, has been shown to have anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on colorectal cancer cells. The metabolic fate of butyrate in the cell is important in determining whether, it acts as an HDAC inhibitor or is consumed as a short-chain fatty acid. Non-cancerous colonocytes utilize butyrate as the primary energy source whereas cancerous colonocytes increase glucose utilization through the Warburg effect. In this study, we show that butyrate oxidation is decreased in cancerous colonocytes compared to non-cancerous colonocytes. We demonstrate that colorectal cancer cells utilize both a carnitine-dependent and carnitine-independent mechanism that contributes to butyrate oxidation. The carnitine-dependent mechanism is contingent on butyrate concentration. Knockdown of CPT1A in colorectal cancer cells abolishes butyrate oxidation. In terms of selectivity, the carnitine-dependent mechanism only regulated butyrate oxidation, as acetate and propionate oxidation were carnitine-independent. Carnitine decreased the action of butyrate as an HDAC inhibitor and suppressed induction of H3 acetylation by butyrate in colorectal cancer cells. Thus, diminished oxidation of butyrate is associated with decreased HDAC inhibition and histone acetylation. In relation to the mechanism, we find that dichloroacetate, which decreases phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, increased butyrate oxidation and that this effect was carnitine-dependent. In conclusion, these data suggest that colorectal cancer cells decrease butyrate oxidation through inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which is carnitine-dependent, and provide insight into why butyrate shows selective effects toward colorectal cancer cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1804-1813, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26661480

  8. n-Butyrate inhibits Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and cytokine transcription in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Diakos, Christos; Prieschl, Eva E.; Saeemann, Marcus D.; Boehmig, Georg A.; Csonga, Robert; Sobanov, Yury; Baumruker, Thomas; Zlabinger, Gerhard J. . E-mail: gerhard.zlabinger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-10-20

    Mast cells are well known to contribute to type I allergic conditions but only recently have been brought in association with chronic relapsing/remitting autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease and ulcerative colitis. Since the bacterial metabolite n-butyrate is considered to counteract intestinal inflammation we investigated the effects of this short chain fatty acid on mast cell activation. Using RNAse protection assays and reporter gene technology we show that n-butyrate downregulates TNF-{alpha} transcription. This correlates with an impaired activation of the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) but not other MAP kinases such as ERK and p38 that are largely unaffected by n-butyrate. As a consequence, we observed a decreased nuclear activity of AP-1 and NF-AT transcription factors. These results indicate that n-butyrate inhibits critical inflammatory mediators in mast cells by relatively selectively targeting the JNK signalling.

  9. Sodium butyrate protects the intestinal barrier function in peritonitic mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaofeng; Song, Huimin; Wang, Yunlei; Sheng, Yingmo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Peritonitis is a commonly seen disease with high morbidity and mortality. It is prevalently considered that the impaired intestinal barrier during peritonitis is the access point of gut microbes into the blood system, and acts as the engine of the following systemic infection. In our previous study, we found that Sodium Butyrate (NaB) was protective on intestinal barrier function. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effects of NaB on overwhelming infection animal models of peritonitis. Methods: Mouse cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model was used to study the effects of NaB on the intestinal barrier. Experimental animals were fed of NaB by gavage. Post-CLP mortality, gut permeability and intestinal histological alterations were studied. Results: Gastrointestinal NaB pharmacodynamics profiles after medication were studied. Measurements of NaB concentration in chyme showed significantly higher intestinal concentration of NaB in the NaB treated group than that of the control group. CLP-induced mortality was significantly decreased by oral NaB treatments. Gut permeability was largely increased after CLP, which was partially prevented by NaB feeding. Histological study showed that intestinal, especially ileal injury following peritonitis was substantially alleviated by NaB treatments. Moreover, tissue regeneration was also prompted by NaB. Conclusion: NaB has a potential protective effect on intestinal barrier function in peritonitis. PMID:26064302

  10. ALA-Butyrate prodrugs for Photo-Dynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovitch, G.; Nudelman, A.; Ehenberg, B.; Rephaeli, A.; Malik, Z.

    2010-05-01

    The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration has led to many applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer. However, the hydrophilic nature of ALA limits its ability to penetrate the cells and tissues, and therefore the need for ALA derivatives became an urgent research target. In this study we investigated the activity of novel multifunctional acyloxyalkyl ester prodrugs of ALA that upon metabolic hydrolysis release active components such as, formaldehyde, and the histone deacetylase inhibitory moiety, butyric acid. Evaluation of these prodrugs under photo-irradiation conditions showed that butyryloxyethyl 5-amino-4-oxopentanoate (ALA-BAC) generated the most efficient photodynamic destruction compared to ALA. ALA-BAC stimulated a rapid biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in human glioblastoma U-251 cells which resulted in generation of intracellular ROS, reduction of mitochondrial activity, leading to apoptotic and necrotic death of the cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by ALA / ALA-BAC followed by PDT equally activate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals and both pathways may occur simultaneously. The main advantage of ALA-BAC over ALA stems from its ability to induce photo-damage at a significantly lower dose than ALA.

  11. Sodium butyrate alleviates adipocyte inflammation by inhibiting NLRP3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xukai; He, Gang; Peng, Yan; Zhong, Weitian; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature of Type II diabetes, metabolic disorders, hypertension and other vascular diseases. Recent studies showed that obesity-induced inflammation may be critical for IR. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on obesity-induced inflammation, the db/db mice were intraperitoneally injected with NaB for 6 weeks. Glucose control was evaluated by glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT). Adipose tissue was harvested for gene expression analysis. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with Tnf-α to mimic the inflammatory state and gene expression was detected by realtime PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed that NaB treatment improved glucose control in db/db mice as determined by GTT and ITT tests. Gene expression analysis showed that NaB inhibited cytokines and immunological markers including CD68, Interferon-γ and Mcp in adipose tissues in db/db mice. Moreover, NaB inhibited cytokine releasing in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TNF-α. Further analysis of inflammation pathway showed that NLRP3 was activated in db/db mice, which was efficiently inhibited by NaB treatment. Our data suggest that inhibition of obesity-induced inflammation alleviates IR, and NaB might be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for obesity. PMID:26234821

  12. Sodium butyrate alleviates adipocyte inflammation by inhibiting NLRP3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xukai; He, Gang; Peng, Yan; Zhong, Weitian; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature of Type II diabetes, metabolic disorders, hypertension and other vascular diseases. Recent studies showed that obesity-induced inflammation may be critical for IR. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on obesity-induced inflammation, the db/db mice were intraperitoneally injected with NaB for 6 weeks. Glucose control was evaluated by glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT). Adipose tissue was harvested for gene expression analysis. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with Tnf-α to mimic the inflammatory state and gene expression was detected by realtime PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed that NaB treatment improved glucose control in db/db mice as determined by GTT and ITT tests. Gene expression analysis showed that NaB inhibited cytokines and immunological markers including CD68, Interferon-γ and Mcp in adipose tissues in db/db mice. Moreover, NaB inhibited cytokine releasing in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TNF-α. Further analysis of inflammation pathway showed that NLRP3 was activated in db/db mice, which was efficiently inhibited by NaB treatment. Our data suggest that inhibition of obesity-induced inflammation alleviates IR, and NaB might be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for obesity. PMID:26234821

  13. Comparative pharmaceutical evaluation of brand and generic clobetasone butyrate ointments.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Fukami, Toshiro; Koide, Tatsuo; Onuki, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Metori, Koichi; Katori, Noriko; Hiyama, Yukio; Tomono, Kazuo

    2014-03-10

    In the present study, we performed comprehensive pharmaceutical evaluation among an original clobetasone butyrate (CLB) ointment product and three generic products. Although spherocrystal images were observed under a polarizing microscope for only Kindavate®, the original product, distribution of active and inactive ingredients was chemically equivalent between the original and generic medicine by the attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. These results suggest that the spherocrystals observed in Kindavate® are composed of hydrocarbon. On GC/MS, it was revealed that linear alkanes having 25-27 carbon atoms are densely present in Sun White®, the base used in Kindavate®. On the other hand, linear alkanes having 22-31 carbon atoms were broadly distributed in most other white petrolatums. In the CLB ointment products, the distribution equivalent of linear alkane to Sun White® was observed only in Kindavate®. Thus, the GC/MS method is extremely useful for identification of white petrolatum used in the ointment. A similar amount of CLB among the pharmaceutical products was detected in the skin tissue by skin accumulation test, although there were the differences in rheological properties and the quality of white petrolatum. The present results will be very useful for pharmacists in selecting medicine products that match the needs of the patient. Such pharmaceutical information will help spread objective knowledge about products in the future, and will contribute to the appropriate selection of medication. PMID:24406671

  14. Butyrate and glucose metabolism by colonocytes in experimental colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, M; Krishnan, S; Ramakrishna, B; Mathan, M; Pulimood, A; Murthy, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Impaired colonocyte metabolism of butyrate has been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Colonocyte butyrate metabolism was investigated in experimental colitis in mice.
METHODS—Colitis was induced in Swiss outbred white mice by oral administration of 4% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Colonocytes isolated from colitic and normal control mice were incubated with [14C]butyrate or glucose, and production of 14CO2, as well as of intermediate metabolites (acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate), was measured. The effect of different substrate concentrations on oxidation was also examined.
RESULTS—Butyrate oxidation (µmol/h per mg protein; mean (SEM)) was significantly reduced in DSS colitis, values on day 7 of DSS administration being 0.177 (0.007) compared with 0.406 (0.035) for control animals (p<0.001). Glucose oxidation (µmol/h per mg protein; mean (SEM)) on day 7 of DSS administration was significantly higher than in controls (0.06 (0.006) v 0.027 (0.004), p<0.001). Production of β-hydroxybutyrate was decreased and production of lactate increased in DSS colitis compared with controls. Increasing butyrate concentration from 10 to 80 mM enhanced oxidation in DSS colitis (0.036 (0.002) to 0.285 (0.040), p<0.001), although it continued to remain lower than in controls. Surface and crypt epithelial cells showed similar ratios of butyrate to glucose oxidation. When 1 mM DSS was added to normal colonocytes in vitro, it did not alter butyrate oxidation. The initial histological lesion of DSS administration was very patchy and involved crypt cells. Abnormal butyrate oxidation became apparent only after six days of DSS administration, at which time histological abnormalities were more widespread.
CONCLUSIONS—Colonocyte metabolism of butyrate, but not of glucose, is impaired in DSS colitis, and may be important in pathophysiology. Histological abnormalities preceded measurable defects in butyrate

  15. Butyrate-mediated acquisition of chemoresistance by human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyang Ri; Choi, Hyeon Gyeom; Jeon, Chae Kyung; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, So Hee

    2016-08-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid produced by the intestinal microflora and it not only induces apoptosis but also inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells. Recently, it has been reported that butyrate may cause resistance in colon cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the effects of increased resistance to butyrate in HCT116 colon cancer cells. We established HCT116 cells resistant to butyrate (HCT116/BR) by treating HCT116 parental cells (HCT116/PT) with increasing concentrations of butyrate to a maximum of 1.6 mM for 3 months. The butyrate concentrations that inhibited cell growth by 50% (IC50) were 0.508 and 5.50 mM in HCT116/PT and HCT116/BR cells. The values after treatment with paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin and trichostatin A (TSA) were 2.42, 2.36, 4.31 and 11.3-fold higher, respectively, in HCT116/BR cells compared with HCT116/PT cells. The protein expression of drug efflux pumps, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer-resistant protein (BCRP) and the multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1), did not differ between HCT116/PT and HCT116/BR cells. The expression level of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL protein was increased while those of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bim proteins were reduced in HCT116/BR cells. There were no significant differences in cell motility and invasion. This study suggests that exposure of colon cancer cells to butyrate results in development of resistance to butyrate, which may play a role in the acquisition of chemoresistance in colon cancer. PMID:27277338

  16. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  17. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  18. Activation of PPAR{gamma} is not involved in butyrate-induced epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, S.; Waechtershaeuser, A.; Loitsch, S.; Knethen, A. von; Bruene, B.; Stein, J. . E-mail: j.stein@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2005-10-15

    Histone deacetylase-inhibitors affect growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing expression of several transcription factors, e.g. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) or vitamin D receptor (VDR). While activation of VDR by butyrate mainly seems to be responsible for cellular differentiation, the activation of PPAR{gamma} in intestinal cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PPAR{gamma} in butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition and differentiation induction in Caco-2 cells. Treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl) enhanced butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas cell differentiation was unaffected after treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands rosiglitazone and MCC-555. Experiments were further performed in dominant-negative PPAR{gamma} mutant cells leading to an increase in cell growth whereas butyrate-induced cell differentiation was again unaffected. The present study clearly demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} is involved in butyrate-induced inhibition of cell growth, but seems not to play an essential role in butyrate-induced cell differentiation.

  19. Molecular Genetics of Alcohol Dependence and Related Endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas; Schumann, Gunter; Gorwood, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a worldwide public health problem, and involves both environmental and genetic vulnerability factors. The heritability of alcohol dependence is rather high, ranging between 50% and 60%, although alcohol dependence is a polygenic, complex disorder. Genome-wide scans on large cohorts of multiplex families, including the collaborative study on genetics of alcoholism (COGA), emphasized the role of many chromosome regions and some candidate genes. The genes encoding the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, or those involved in brain reward pathways, have been involved. Since dopamine is the main neurotransmitter in the reward circuit, genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway represent candidates of interest. Furthermore, gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter mediates the acute actions of alcohol and is involved in withdrawal symptomatology. Numerous studies showed an association between variants within GABA receptors genes and the risk of alcohol dependence. In accordance with the complexity of the “alcohol dependence” phenotype, another field of research, related to the concept of endophenotypes, received more recent attention. The role of vulnerability genes in alcohol dependence is therefore re-assessed focusing on different phenotypes and endophenotypes. The latter include brain oscillations, EEG alpha and beta variants and alpha power, and amplitude of P300 amplitude elicited from a visual oddball task. Recent enhancement on global characterizations of the genome by high-throughput approach for genotyping of polymorphisms and studies of transcriptomics and proteomics in alcohol dependence is also reviewed. PMID:19506733

  20. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  1. Effects of Sodium Butyrate on Methamphetamine-Sensitized Locomotor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Harkness, John H.; Hitzemann, Robert J.; Edmunds, Stephanie; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroadaptations associated with behavioral sensitization induced by repeated exposure to methamphetamine (MA) appear to be involved in compulsive drug pursuit and use. Increased histone acetylation, an epigenetic effect resulting in altered gene expression, may promote sensitized responses to psychostimulants. The role of histone acetylation in the expression and acquisition of MA-induced locomotor sensitization was examined by measuring the effect of histone deacetylase inhibition by sodium butyrate (NaB). For the effect on expression, vehicle or NaB (630 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered 30 min prior to MA challenge in mice treated repeatedly with MA (10 days of 2 mg/kg MA) or saline (10 days), and then locomotor response to MA challenge was measured. NaB treatment increased the locomotor response to MA in both acutely MA treated and sensitized animals. For acquisition, NaB was administered 30 min prior to each MA exposure (10 days of 1 or 2 mg/kg), but not prior to the MA challenge test. Treatment with NaB during the sensitization acquisition period significantly increased locomotor activation by MA in sensitized mice only. NaB alone did not significantly alter locomotor activity. Acute NaB or MA, but not the combination, appeared to increase striatal acetylation at histone H4. Repeated treatment with MA, but not NaB or MA plus NaB, increased striatal acetylation at histone H3. Although increased histone acetylation may alter the expression of genes involved in acute locomotor response to MA and in the acquisition of MA-induced sensitization, results for acetylation at H3 and H4 showed little correspondence with behavior. PMID:23137698

  2. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    PubMed Central

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  3. Butyrate delivered by butyrylated starch increases distal colonic epithelial apoptosis in carcinogen-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julie M; Young, Graeme P; Topping, David L; Bird, Anthony R; Cobiac, Lynne; Scherer, Benjamin L; Winkler, Jessica G; Lockett, Trevor J

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies show that increasing large bowel butyrate concentration through ingestion of butyrylated or resistant starches opposes carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, which is consistent with population data linking greater fiber consumption with lowered colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Butyrate has been shown to regulate the apoptotic response to DNA damage. This study examined the impact of increasing large bowel butyrate concentration by dietary butyrylated starch on the colonic epithelium of rats treated with the genotoxic carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). Four groups of 10 male rats were fed AIN-93G based-diets containing either low amylose maize starch (LAMS), LAMS with 3% tributyrin, 10% high amylose maize starch (HAMS) or 10% butyrylated HAMS (HAMSB). HAMS and HAMSB starches were cooked by heating in water. After 4 weeks, rats were injected once with AOM and killed 6 h later. Rates of apoptosis and proliferation were measured in colonic epithelium. Short-chain fatty acid concentrations in large bowel digesta and hepatic portal venous plasma were higher in HAMSB than all other groups. Apoptotic rates in the distal colon were increased by HAMSB and correlated with luminal butyrate concentrations but cellular proliferation rates were unaffected by diet. The increase in apoptosis was most marked in the base and proliferative zone of the crypt. Regulation of luminal butyrate using HAMSB increases the rates of apoptotic deletion of DNA-damaged colonocytes. We propose this pro-apoptotic function of butyrate plays a major role reducing tumour formation in the AOM-treated rat and that these data support a potential protective role of butyrate in CRC. PMID:22080572

  4. Butyrate modulates antioxidant enzyme expression in malignant and non-malignant human colon tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Franziska; Wilhelm, Anne; Jablonowski, Nadja; Mothes, Henning; Greulich, Karl Otto; Glei, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The induction of antioxidant enzymes is an important mechanism in colon cancer chemoprevention, but the response of human colon tissue to butyrate, a gut fermentation product derived from dietary fiber, remains largely unknown. Therefore, our study investigated the effect of a butyrate treatment on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in matched human colon tissues of different transformation stages (n = 3-15 in each group) ex vivo. By performing quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and spectrophotometric measurements, we found an increase in SOD2 at expression and activity level in colonic adenocarcinomas (mRNA: 1.96-fold; protein: 1.41-fold, activity: 1.8-fold; P < 0.05). No difference was detectable for CAT between normal, adenoma, and carcinoma colon tissues. Treatment of normal colon epithelium (12 h) with a physiologically relevant concentration of butyrate (10 mM) resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CAT mRNA (1.24-fold) and protein (1.39-fold), without affecting the enzymatic activity. Consequently, preliminary experiments failed to show any protective effect of butyrate against H2 O2 -mediated DNA damage. Despite a significantly lowered SOD2 transcript (0.51-fold, P < 0.01) and, to a lesser extent, protein level (0.86-fold) after butyrate exposure of normal colon cells, the catalytic activity was significantly enhanced (1.19-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting an increased protection against tissue superoxide radicals. In malignant tissues, greater variations in response to butyrate were observed. Furthermore, both enzymes showed an age-dependent decrease in activity in normal colon epithelium (CAT: r = -0.49, P = 0.09; SOD2: r = -0.58, P = 0.049). In conclusion, butyrate exhibited potential antioxidant features ex vivo but cellular consequences need to be investigated more in depth. PMID:24677319

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of sodium butyrate preconditioning during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    HU, XIAORONG; ZHANG, KAI; XU, CHANGWU; CHEN, ZHIQAING; JIANG, HONG

    2014-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) has an important role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been shown to inhibit HMGB1 expression. In the present study, the effect of sodium butyrate on myocardial I/R injury in rats was investigated. Anesthetized male rats were intraperitoneally administered sodium butyrate (100 or 300 mg/kg) 30 min prior to the induction of ischemia. The rats were then subjected to ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 4 h. Infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were then measured. The expression of HMGB1 was assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that pretreatment with sodium butyrate (300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the infarct size, as well as the levels of LDH and CK (P<0.05). In addition, sodium butyrate (300 mg/kg) was shown to significantly inhibit the I/R-induced increase in the level of MDA and reduction in the level of SOD (P<0.05). Furthermore, treatment with sodium butyrate (300 mg/kg) was found to significantly inhibit the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and HMGB1 induced by I/R injury (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results from the present study suggest that preconditioning with sodium butyrate may attenuate myocardial I/R injury by inhibition of the expression of inflammatory mediators during myocardial I/R. PMID:24944626

  6. Characterization of butyrate transport across the luminal membranes of equine large intestine.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Taoufik; Moran, Andrew W; Al-Rammahi, Miran A; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-10-01

    The diet of the horse, pasture forage (grass), is fermented by the equine colonic microbiota to short-chain fatty acids, notably acetate, propionate and butyrate. Short-chain fatty acids provide a major source of energy for the horse and contribute to many vital physiological processes. We aimed to determine both the mechanism of butyrate uptake across the luminal membrane of equine colon and the nature of the protein involved. To this end, we isolated equine colonic luminal membrane vesicles. The abundance and activity of cysteine-sensitive alkaline phosphatase and villin, intestinal luminal membrane markers, were significantly enriched in membrane vesicles compared with the original homogenates. In contrast, the abundance of GLUT2 protein and the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, known markers of the intestinal basolateral membrane, were hardly detectable. We demonstrated, by immunohistochemistry, that monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) protein is expressed on the luminal membrane of equine colonocytes. We showed that butyrate transport into luminal membrane vesicles is energized by a pH gradient (out < in) and is not Na(+) dependent. Moreover, butyrate uptake is time and concentration dependent, with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 5.6 ± 0.45 mm and maximal velocity of 614 ± 55 pmol s(-1) (mg protein)(-1). Butyrate transport is significantly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, phloretin and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, all potent inhibitors of MCT1. Moreover, acetate and propionate, as well as the monocarboxylates pyruvate and lactate, also inhibit butyrate uptake. Data presented here support the conclusion that transport of butyrate across the equine colonic luminal membrane is predominantly accomplished by MCT1. PMID:25172888

  7. Efficient production of butyric acid from Jerusalem artichoke by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Cai, Jin; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Huang, Lei; Yang, Shang-Tian; Xu, Zhinan

    2011-02-01

    Butyric acid is an important specialty chemical with wide industrial applications. The feasible large-scale fermentation for the economical production of butyric acid requires low-cost substrate and efficient process. In the present study, butyric acid production by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully performed in a fibrous-bed bioreactor using Jerusalem artichoke as the substrate. Repeated-batch fermentation was carried out to produce butyric acid with a high butyrate yield (0.44 g/g), high productivity (2.75 g/L/h) and a butyrate concentration of 27.5 g/L. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using sulfuric acid pretreated Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate resulted in a high butyric acid concentration of 60.4 g/L, with the yield of 0.38 g/g and the selectivity of ∼ 85.1 (85.1g butyric acid/g acetic acid). Thus, the production of butyric acid from Jerusalem artichoke on a commercial scale could be achieved based on the system developed in this work. PMID:21169015

  8. Oncogenic ras alters sensitivity of mouse colonocytes to butyrate and fatty acid mediated growth arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nancy D; Zhang, Jianhu; Davidson, Laurie A; Lupton, Joanne R; Chapkin, Robert S

    2002-12-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and butyrate favorably modulate colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis. In order to elucidate how oncogenic Ras modulates responses to these chemopreventive nutrients, we incubated isogenic non-transformed and Ras malignant transformed mouse colon cells with butyrate and DHA or linoleic acid (LA). Combining DHA with 1mM butyrate decreased proliferation relative to LA or no PUFA treatment in both cell lines. At a higher butyrate dose (5mM), caspase 3 activity was elevated to a greater extent in Ras transformed cells. Only non-transformed cells were sensitive to the apoptogenic effects of DHA, indicating that Ras transformation alters sensitivity to dietary chemopreventive agents. PMID:12183072

  9. Mechanism of Butyrate Stimulation of Triglyceride Storage and Adipokine Expression during Adipogenic Differentiation of Porcine Stromovascular Cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2015-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), products of microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, exert multiple metabolic effects in cells. Previously, we had demonstrated that soluble fiber influenced fat mass accumulation, gut microbial community structure and SCFA production in pigs. The current study was designed to identify effects of SCFA treatment during adipogenic differentiation of porcine stromovascular cells on lipid metabolism and adipokine expression. Differentiating cells were treated with varying concentrations of butyrate. Results show that butyrate treatment enhanced adipogenesis and lipid accumulation, perhaps through upregulation of glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis and other mechanisms that include induction of SREBP-1c, C/EBPα/β, GLUT4, LPL, PPARγ, GPAT4, DGAT1 and DGAT2 expression. In addition, butyrate induced adiponectin expression, resulting in activation of downstream target genes, such as AMPK and AKT. Activation of AMPK by butyrate led to phosphorylation of ACC. Although increased ACO gene expression was seen with butyrate treatment, experiments with the peroxisomal fatty acid inhibitor, thioridazine, suggest that butyrate may have an inhibitory effect on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Our studies also provide evidence that butyrate may inhibit lipolysis, perhaps in an FFAR3-dependent manner. Therefore, this study presents a novel paradigm for butyrate action in adipocytes and shows that adipocytes are capable of utilizing butyrate, leading to increased expression of adiponectin for enhanced glucose uptake and improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:26713737

  10. Butyrate production in phylogenetically diverse Firmicutes isolated from the chicken caecum

    PubMed Central

    Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska; De Baere, Siegrid; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Louis, Petra; Vandamme, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Sixteen butyrate‐producing bacteria were isolated from the caecal content of chickens and analysed phylogenetically. They did not represent a coherent phylogenetic group, but were allied to four different lineages in the Firmicutes phylum. Fourteen strains appeared to represent novel species, based on a level of ≤ 98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity towards their nearest validly named neighbours. The highest butyrate concentrations were produced by the strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV and XIVa, clusters which are predominant in the chicken caecal microbiota. In only one of the 16 strains tested, the butyrate kinase operon could be amplified, while the butyryl‐CoA : acetate CoA‐transferase gene was detected in eight strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV, XIVa and XIVb. None of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates carried this gene based on degenerate PCR analyses. However, another CoA‐transferase gene more similar to propionate CoA‐transferase was detected in the majority of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates. Since this gene is located directly downstream of the remaining butyrate pathway genes in several human cluster XVI bacteria, it may be involved in butyrate formation in these bacteria. The present study indicates that butyrate producers related to cluster XVI may play a more important role in the chicken gut than in the human gut. PMID:21375722

  11. Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2009-07-01

    Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1). PMID:19297150

  12. Production of Butyrate from Lactate by a Newly Isolated Clostridium sp. BPY5.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Hu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Jin, Hong; Xu, Zhancheng; Tang, Qinglan; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-06-01

    Lactate-utilizing bacteria play important roles in the production of Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL). However, the identity of these bacteria and their lactate-utilizing properties are largely unknown. Here, a lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium BPY5 was isolated from an old fermentation pit for CSFL production. The isolate represented a novel species belonging to Clostridium cluster XIVa of family Lachnospiraceae based on phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain BPY5 could ferment lactate into butyrate as the major metabolic product. Butyrate was significantly formed at initial lactate concentration from 66 to 104 mM, but substantially declined when initial lactate exceeded 133 mM. At initial lactate concentration of 66 mM, lactate conversion was independent on initial pH from 5.5 to 7.0, but the conversion was completely inhibited when pH dropped below 4.8. Nevertheless, the inhibition on lactate conversion was largely relieved by the addition of acetate, suggesting that exogenous acetate could enhance lactate conversion at low pH condition. Additionally, lactate in CSFL-brewing wastewater was dramatically removed when inoculated with strain BPY5. These results implicate that the isolate may be applied for the industrial production of butyrate or the recovery of butyrate from lactate-containing wastewater. PMID:26842597

  13. New holographic polymeric composition based on plexiglass, polyvinyl butyral, and phenanthrenquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusevich, Vladislav; Tolstik, Elen; Kowarschik, Richard; Egorova, Elena; Matusevich, Yuri I.; Krul, Leonid

    2013-05-01

    The newly developed Plexiglas films containing polyvinyl butyral resins and phenanthrenequinone molecules as photosensitive dopant, which are proposed for the practical application as interlayer of laminated safety glass, are shown for the first time. The injection of the phenanthrenequinone-poly(methyl methacrylate) into the polyvinyl butyral protective interlayer provides a homogenous distribution of the recording holographic medium in the layer and allows fixing the entire surface grating in the laminated glass. In addition, the original properties of polyvinyl butyral as a connecting material were preserved during manufacturing of the laminated glass. This allows a recording of holographic structures directly after baking of the laminated glass, thus reducing the destruction of the gratings due to the elevated temperatures. The diffractive structures in phenanthrenequinone-poly(methyl methacrylate)-polyvinyl butyral polymeric layers with thicknesses of hundreds of microns are sealed between two panels of glass (so-called laminated glass) and are generated by illumination with an Argon-laser of 514 nm. Efficiently fixed and long-term stable holographic gratings recorded in the phenanthrenequinone-poly(methyl methacrylate)-polyvinyl butyral layer enable to produce transparent laminated glass with inserted diffractive elements, which can be used e.g. for Head-up Displays in automobile windshields or as holographic light concentrators for solar cells.

  14. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    PubMed Central

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-01-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l−1 of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v−1) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60–80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g−1 of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9–1.0 g g−1 of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. PMID:26230610

  15. Direct block of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) channel by butyrate and phenylbutyrate.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, P

    2001-01-12

    Chloride permeation through the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel is inhibited by a broad range of intracellular organic anions. Here it is shown, using patch clamp recording from CFTR-transfected mammalian cell lines, that the fatty acids butyrate and 4-phenylbutyrate cause a voltage-dependent block of CFTR Cl(-) currents when applied to the cytoplasmic face of membrane patches, with apparent K(d)s (at 0 mV) of 29.6 mM for butyrate and 6.6 mM for 4-phenylbutyrate. At the single channel level, both these fatty acids caused an apparent reduction in CFTR current amplitude, suggesting a kinetically fast blocking mechanism. The concentration-dependence of block suggests that CFTR-mediated Cl(-) currents in vivo may be affected by both 4-phenylbutyrate used in the treatment of various diseases, including cystic fibrosis, and by butyrate produced endogenously within the colonic lumen. PMID:11164382

  16. Butyrate production from high-fiber diet protects against lymphoma tumor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Sun, Wei; Yu, Shanshan; Yang, Yu; Ai, Limei

    2016-10-01

    Gut microbiota and dietary fiber are critical for protecting body from obesity, diabetes and cancer. Butyrate, produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers, is demonstrated to be protective against the development of colorectal cancer as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. We report that high-fiber diet and butyrate significantly inhibited the growth lymphoma tumors. Butyrate induced apoptosis of lymphoma tumor cells and significantly up-regulated histone 3 acetylation (H3ac) level and target genes such as Fas, P21, P27. Our results unravel an instrumental role of fiber diet and their metabolites on lymphoma tumor and demonstrate an intervention potential on the prevention and therapy of lymphoma. PMID:26885564

  17. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  18. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  19. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  20. The SCFA butyrate stimulates the epithelial production of retinoic acid via inhibition of epithelial HDAC.

    PubMed

    Schilderink, Ronald; Verseijden, Caroline; Seppen, Jurgen; Muncan, Vanesa; van den Brink, Gijs R; Lambers, Tim T; van Tol, Eric A; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2016-06-01

    In the intestinal mucosa, retinoic acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule. RA is derived from dietary vitamin A (retinol) through conversion by aldehyde dehydrogenases (aldh). Reduced levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are associated with pathological microbial dysbiosis, inflammatory disease, and allergy. We hypothesized that SCFAs contribute to mucosal homeostasis by enhancing RA production in intestinal epithelia. With the use of human and mouse epithelial cell lines and primary enteroids, we studied the effect of SCFAs on the production of RA. Functional RA conversion was analyzed by Adlefluor activity assays. Butyrate (0-20 mM), in contrast to other SCFAs, dose dependently induced aldh1a1 or aldh1a3 transcript expression and increased RA conversion in human and mouse epithelial cells. Epithelial cell line data were replicated in intestinal organoids. In these organoids, butyrate (2-5 mM) upregulated aldh1a3 expression (36-fold over control), whereas aldh1a1 was not significantly affected. Butyrate enhanced maturation markers (Mucin-2 and villin) but did not consistently affect stemness markers or other Wnt target genes (lgr5, olfm4, ascl2, cdkn1). In enteroids, the stimulation of RA production by SCFA was mimicked by inhibitors of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) but not by HDAC1/2 inhibitors nor by agonists of butyrate receptors G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)43 or GPR109A, indicating that butyrate stimulates RA production via HDAC3 inhibition. We conclude that the SCFA butyrate inhibits HDAC3 and thereby supports epithelial RA production. PMID:27151945

  1. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  2. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  3. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  4. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is regulated by butyrate induced epigenetic modulation of gene expression in bovine cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present evidence that butyrate induced histone acetylation regulates miRNA expression. MicroRNA expression microarray profiling revealed that 35 miRNA transcripts are significantly (p <0.05) differentially expressed after cells were treated with 10 mM butyrate. Among them, 11 transcripts are dif...

  5. INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS BY BUTYRATE CORRELATES WITH INCREASING LEVEL OF PROTEIN UBIQUITINATION IN BOVINE KIDNEY EPITHELIAL CELLS (MDBK)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While butyrate (BT) is largely regarded as the minor short-chain fatty acid ([butyrate]< [acetate] or [proiponate]) formed during microbial fermatation in ruminants, an increasing body of evidence has clearly shown effects beyond those attributable to its function in nutrition. BT modulates cell d...

  6. Communities stimulated with ethanol to perform direct interspecies electron transfer for syntrophic metabolism of propionate and butyrate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Yu, Qilin; Dang, Yan; Li, Yang; Quan, Xie

    2016-10-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) has been considered as an alternative to interspecies H2 transfer (IHT) for syntrophic metabolism, but the microorganisms capable of metabolizing the key intermediates, such as propionate and butyrate, via DIET have yet to be described. A strategy of culturing the enrichments with ethanol as a DIET substrate to stimulate the communities for the syntrophic metabolism of propionate and/or butyrate was proposed in this study. The results showed that the syntrophic propionate and/or butyrate degradation was significantly improved in the ethanol-stimulated reactor when propionate/butyrate was the sole carbon source. The conductivity of the ethanol-stimulated enrichments was as 5 folds (for propionate)/76 folds (for butyrate) as that of the traditional enrichments (never ethanol fed). Microbial community analysis revealed that Geobacter species known to proceed DIET were only detected in the ethanol-stimulated enrichments. Together with the significant increase of Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina species in these enrichments, the potential DIET between Geobacter and Methanosaeta or Methanosarcina species might be established to improve the syntrophic propionate and/or butyrate degradation. Further experiments demonstrated that granular activated carbon (GAC) could improve the syntrophic metabolism of propionate and/or butyrate of the ethanol-stimulated enrichments, while almost no effects on the traditional enrichments. Also, the high H2 partial pressure could inhibit the syntrophic propionate and/or butyrate degradation of the traditional enrichments, but its effect on that of the ethanol-stimulated enrichments was negligible. PMID:27403870

  7. Butyrate modulates bacterial adherence on LS174T human colorectal cells by stimulating mucin secretion and MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tae-Hwan; Park, Jeong Hyeon; Han, Kyoung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Fermentation of dietary fiber results in production of various short chain fatty acids in the colon. In particular, butyrate is reported to regulate the physical and functional integrity of the normal colonic mucosa by altering mucin gene expression or the number of goblet cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether butyrate modulates mucin secretion in LS174T human colorectal cells, thereby influencing the adhesion of probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains and subsequently inhibiting pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli. In addition, possible signaling pathways involved in mucin gene regulation induced by butyrate treatment were also investigated. MATERIALS/METHODS Mucin protein content assay and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining were performed in LS174T cells treated with butyrate at various concentrations. Effects of butyrate on the ability of probiotics to adhere to LS174T cells and their competition with E. coli strains were examined. Real time polymerase chain reaction for mucin gene expression and Taqman array 96-well fast plate-based pathway analysis were performed on butyrate-treated LS174T cells. RESULTS Treatment with butyrate resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mucin protein contents in LS174T cells with peak effects at 6 or 9 mM, which was further confirmed by PAS staining. Increase in mucin protein contents resulted in elevated adherence of probiotics, which subsequently reduced the adherent ability of E. coli. Treatment with butyrate also increased transcriptional levels of MUC3, MUC4, and MUC12, which was accompanied by higher gene expressions of signaling kinases and transcription factors involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS Based on our results, butyrate is an effective regulator of modulation of mucin protein production at the transcriptional and translational levels, resulting in changes in the adherence of gut microflora. Butyrate

  8. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  9. Morphological development of polypropylene in immiscible blends with cellulose acetate butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isotactic polypropylenes (iPP) with different melt flow indexes were melt blended with cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and then prepared into microspheres or nanofibers following a novel process of producing well dispersed CAB/iPP immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The morp...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Butyric Acid Producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain CIP I-776 (IFP923)

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Benjamin; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CIP I-776 (IFP923), an efficient producer of butyric acid. The genome consists of a single chromosome of 3.19 Mb and provides useful data concerning the metabolic capacities of the strain. PMID:26941139

  11. Intermediary Metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum: Levels of Enzymes Involved in the Formation of Acetate and Butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Hartmanis, Maris G. N.; Gatenbeck, Sten

    1984-01-01

    The levels of seven intermediary enzymes involved in acetate and butyrate formation from acetyl coenzyme A in the saccharolytic anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum were investigated as a function of time in solvent-producing batch fermentations. Phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, which are known to form acetate from acetyl coenzyme A, both showed a decrease in specific activity when the organism reached the solvent formation stage. The three consecutive enzymes thiolase, β-hydroxybutyrylcoenzyme A dehydrogenase, and crotonase exhibited a coordinate expression and a maximal activity after growth had ceased. Only low levels of butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity were found. Phosphate butyryltransferase activity rapidly decreased after 20 h from 5 to 11 U/mg of protein to below the detection limit (1 mU/mg). Butyrate no longer can be formed, and the metabolic flux may be diverted to butanol. Butyrate kinase showed a 2.5- to 10-fold increase in specific activity after phosphate butyryltransferase activity no longer could be detected. These results suggest that the uptake of acetate and butyrate during solvent formation can not proceed via a complete reversal of the phosphate transferase and kinase reactions. The activities of all enzymes investigated as a function of time in vitro are much higher than the metabolic fluxes through them in vivo. This indicates that none of the maximal activities of the enzymes assayed is rate limiting in C. acetobutylicum. PMID:16346566

  12. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed. PMID:26779817

  13. Production of butyrate from lysine and the Amadori product fructoselysine by a human gut commensal

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thi Phuong Nam; Ritari, Jarmo; Boeren, Sjef; de Waard, Pieter; Plugge, Caroline M.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2015-01-01

    Human intestinal bacteria produce butyrate, which has signalling properties and can be used as energy source by enterocytes thus influencing colonic health. However, the pathways and the identity of bacteria involved in this process remain unclear. Here we describe the isolation from the human intestine of Intestinimonas strain AF211, a bacterium that can convert lysine stoichiometrically into butyrate and acetate when grown in a synthetic medium. Intestinimonas AF211 also converts the Amadori product fructoselysine, which is abundantly formed in heated foods via the Maillard reaction, into butyrate. The butyrogenic pathway includes a specific CoA transferase that is overproduced during growth on lysine. Bacteria related to Intestinimonas AF211 as well as the genetic coding capacity for fructoselysine conversion are abundantly present in colonic samples from some healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that protein can serve as a source of butyrate in the human colon, and its conversion by Intestinimonas AF211 and related butyrogens may protect the host from the undesired side effects of Amadori reaction products. PMID:26620920

  14. Simultaneous Clostridial fermentation, lipase-catalyzed esterification, and ester extraction to enrich diesel with butyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Corjan; Heeres, Arjan S; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of 1-butanol from fermentation broth is energy-intensive since typical concentrations in fermentation broth are below 20 g L(-1). To prevent butanol inhibition and high downstream processing costs, we aimed at producing butyl esters instead of 1-butanol. It is shown that it is possible to perform simultaneously clostridial fermentation, esterification of the formed butanol to butyl butyrate, and extraction of this ester by hexadecane. The very high partition coefficient of butyl butyrate pulls the esterification towards the product side even at fermentation pH and relatively low butanol concentrations. The hexadecane extractant is a model diesel compound and is nontoxic to the cells. If butyl butyrate enriched diesel can directly be used as car fuel, no product recovery is required. A proof-of-principle experiment for the one-pot bio-ester production from glucose led to 5 g L(-1) butyl butyrate in the hexadecane phase. The principle may be extended to a wide range of esters, especially to longer chain ones. PMID:22833369

  15. Perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbiota in response to exogenous butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity of the rumen microbiota to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA) has important implications in animal well-being and production. We investigated temporal changes of the rumen microbiota in response to butyrate infusion using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Phyla were identified in ...

  16. 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-DB)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - ( 2,4 - Dichlorophenoxy ) butyric acid ( 2,4 - DB ) ; CASRN 94 - 82 - 6 Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of chronic toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several Program Offices and the Office of Research and

  17. Exploring the Genome of a Butyric Acid Producer, Clostridium butyricum INCQS635

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda Gomes; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Miranda, Milene; Pereira, Nei; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Clostridium butyricum INCQS635 was obtained by means of ion sequencing. The genome provides further insight into the genetic repertoire involved with metabolic pathways related to the fermentation of different compounds and organic solvents synthesis (i.e., butyric acid) with biofuel applications. PMID:25414496

  18. Exploring the Genome of a Butyric Acid Producer, Clostridium butyricum INCQS635.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Thiago; Leite, Fernanda Gomes; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Miranda, Milene; Pereira, Nei; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Clostridium butyricum INCQS635 was obtained by means of ion sequencing. The genome provides further insight into the genetic repertoire involved with metabolic pathways related to the fermentation of different compounds and organic solvents synthesis (i.e., butyric acid) with biofuel applications. PMID:25414496

  19. Enhanced butyrate formation by cross-feeding between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    PubMed

    Rios-Covian, David; Gueimonde, Miguel; Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J; de los Reyes-Gavilan, Clara G

    2015-11-01

    Cross-feeding is an important metabolic interaction mechanism of bacterial groups inhabiting the human colon and includes features such as the utilization of acetate by butyrate-producing bacteria as may occur between Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium genera. In this study, we assessed the utilization of different carbon sources (glucose, starch, inulin and fructooligosaccharides) by strains of both genera and selected the best suited combinations for evidencing this cross-feeding phenomenon. Co-cultures of Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32 with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii S3/L3 with fructooligosaccharides as carbon source, as well as with F. prausnitzii A2-165 in starch, were carried out and the production of short-chain fatty acids was determined. In both co-cultures, acetate levels decreased between 8 and 24 h of incubation and were lower than in the corresponding B. adolescentis monocultures. In contrast, butyrate concentrations were higher in co-cultures as compared to the respective F. prausnitzii monocultures, indicating enhanced formation of butyrate by F. prausnitzii in the presence of the bifidobacteria. Variations in the levels of acetate and butyrate were more pronounced in the co-culture with fructooligosaccharides than with starch. Our results provide a clear demonstration of cross-feeding between B. adolescentis and F. prausnitzii. PMID:26420851

  20. Butyrate: A dietary inhibitor of histone deacetylases and an epigenetic regulator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, also known as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are produced in the gastrointestinal tract by microbial fermentation. Consumption of dietary fibers has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as increasing satiety, an...

  1. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical corticosteroids: clobetasol propionate and clobetasone butyrate.

    PubMed

    Dooms-Goossens, A; Vanhee, J; Vanderheyden, D; Gevers, D; Willems, L; Degreef, H

    1983-11-01

    2 case reports are given of patients with positive patch test reactions to clobetasol propionate. One of the patients also reacted to clobetasone butyrate. 30 other steroids that were chemically very closely related to these two 21-chloro-9-alpha-fluoro-corticosteroids, were patch test negative. The literature on contact dermatitis reactions to corticosteroids is reviewed. PMID:6653104

  3. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and...

  4. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of D...

  5. Effects of 5-azacytidine and butyrate on differentiation and apoptosis of hepatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X M; Wang, X; Li, J; Evers, B M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cellular effects of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) and sodium butyrate on two human liver cancers, HepG2 and Hep3B. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Primary liver cancer is a significant health problem; treatment options are limited and prognosis is poor. Recent studies have focused on the role that programmed cell death (i.e., apoptosis) plays in both normal and neoplastic growth: certain genes can either suppress (e.g., Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) or promote (e.g., Bik, Bax, Bak) apoptosis. The identification of novel agents targeted to specific molecular pathways may be beneficial in the treatment of this disease. METHODS: Human liver cancer cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B were treated with 5-azaC alone, butyrate alone, or 5-azaC and butyrate. Morphologic and proliferative changes were assessed by light microscopy and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine staining; flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle characteristics. Apoptosis was assessed by DNA laddering and the in situ apoptosis detection assay using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. In addition, total RNA and protein were analyzed by ribonuclease protection and Western blot, respectively, to assess changes in the expression of apoptosis-related genes. RESULTS: Treatment with either 5-azaC or butyrate inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells; the combination of 5-azaC and butyrate was not more effective than either agent alone. 5-azaC alone resulted in a more differentiated-appearing morphology and G2 cell cycle arrest in both cell lines. Treatment with 5-azaC or butyrate affected the expression levels of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. CONCLUSIONS: Both 5-azaC and butyrate induced apoptosis in the HepG2 and Hep3B liver cancer cells; 5-azaC treatment alone produced G2 arrest in both cell lines. Proteins of the Bcl-2 family may play a role in the cellular changes that occur with treatment, but further studies are required to define this potential role. Products of the

  6. Eumovate (clobetasone butyrate 0.05%) cream: a review of clinical efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Goustas, P; Cork, M J; Higson, D

    2003-06-01

    Topical steroid creams and ointments have been available as over-the-counter (OTC) medications for the self treatment of acute dermatitis and other steroid responsive skin disorders for more than ten years. Despite earlier fears, widespread availability and use of these creams is not associated with clinically significant adverse effects. In dermatological practice, hydrocortisone 1% remains the mainstay of treatment for facial eczema, but it is often not effective in eczema affecting other body areas. Eumovate(TM) (clobetasone butyrate 0.05%) cream has recently been made available as a pharmacy medication for the short-term management of acute eczema and allergic dermatitis by adults and children aged 10 or older, based on evidence derived from clinical trials involving over 3500 patients. This review summarises the key efficacy and safety data derived from 29 clinical trials and the post-licensing pharmacovigilance safety information, which supported the reclassification of this product for OTC use. These data show clobetasone butyrate 0.05% is more effective than 1.0% hydrocortisone in the treatment of eczema and more effective than flurandrenolone 0.0125% (p=0.01%) and a potent topical steroid hydrocortisone butyrate (p<0.05), in the treatment of psoriasis. A review of the effect of topical steroids on skin thickness concluded that, following short term application, there was no clinically significant difference between hydrocortisone 1.0% and clobetasone butyrate 0.05% in terms of potential for skin thinning. Similarly, even under extreme conditions, clobetasone butyrate 0.05% has negligible systemic absorption and has almost no effect on HPA axis function. PMID:12775314

  7. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  8. Involvement of the Antioxidant Effect and Anti-inflammatory Response in Butyrate-Inhibited Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Omana P.; Ranganna, Kasturi; Milton, Shirlette G.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms by altering the expression and, in turn, functions of target genes have potential to modify cellular processes that are characteristics of atherosclerosis, including inflammation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis/cell death. Butyrate, a natural epigenetic modifier and a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), is an inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, a critical event in atherogenesis. Here, we examined whether glutathione peroxidases (GPxs), a family of antioxidant enzymes, are modulated by butyrate, contributing to its antiproliferation action on VSMC through the regulation of the inflammatory response by using western blotting, immunostaining methods and activity assay. Treatment of VSMC with butyrate not only upregulates glutathione peroxidase (GPx) 3 and GPx4, but also increases the overall catalytic activity of GPx supporting involvement of antioxidant effect in butyrate arrested VSMC proliferation. Moreover, analysis of the redox-sensitive NF-κB transcription factor system, the target of GPx, reveals that butyrate causes downregulation of IKKα, IKKβ, IkBα and NF-κBp65 expression and prevents NF-κBp65 phosphorylation at serine536 causing inhibition of the expression NF-κB target inflammatory genes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, VCAM-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. Overall, these observations suggest a link between the antioxidant effect and anti-inflammatory response in butyrate-arrested VSMC proliferation, accentuating the atheroprotective and therapeutic potential of natural products, like butyrate, in vascular proliferative diseases. PMID:25390157

  9. Butyrate downregulates α2β1 integrin: a possible role in the induction of apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Buda, A; Qualtrough, D; Jepson, M A; Martines, D; Paraskeva, C; Pignatelli, M

    2003-01-01

    Background: Integrins mediate cell matrix adhesion and regulate cell growth and survival. In colonic epithelial cells, α2β1 integrin controls glandular differentiation and proliferation. Butyrate stimulates differentiation and induces apoptosis in vitro. Aims: We investigated whether butyrate induction of apoptosis was associated with perturbation of integrin mediated cell matrix adhesion. Methods: Three colonic cancer cell lines (SW1222, SW620, LS174T) were studied. Adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins, expression of α2β1 integrin, and apoptosis were studied in adherent cells after treatment with 4 mM butyrate. Results: Butyrate decreased the attachment to type I collagen in SW620 cells and type I and IV collagen in LS174T cells. The decreased cell attachment was associated with downregulation of α2β1 integrin and increased apoptosis in adherent cells. No changes in α2β1 expression or matrix adhesion were seen in SW1222 cells, which were also found to be less sensitive to butyrate induction of apoptosis. Downregulation of α2β1 integrin preceded the detection of apoptosis. Conclusion: Apoptosis induced by butyrate is associated with downregulation of expression and functional activity of α2β1 integrin. Perturbation of cell matrix adhesion may be a novel mechanism by which butyrate induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. PMID:12692060

  10. Comparison of the butyrate effects on neurotransmitter receptors in neurohybrids NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, X.Z.; Chuang, D.M.

    1987-08-31

    The authors previous study demonstrated that long term treatment of NCB-20 cells with sodium butyrate resulted in a marked increase in the density of delta-opioid receptors with a much lesser effect on muscarinic cholinergic and no effect on alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on these three types of receptors in NG108-15 cells whose neuroblastoma parent is the same as that of NCB-20 cells. Long term treatment of NG108-15 cells with sodium butyrate (0.5 mM) induced a 2-fold increase in the density of the specific binding of /sup 3/H-clonidine. A comparable increase in the number of binding sites was detected when /sup 3/H-yohimbine was used as the receptor ligand. The butyrate-induced increase in the alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptor binding could be totally abolished by treatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that synthesis of receptor protein is involved. The same butyrate treatment had no significant effect on opioid and muscarinic cholinergic receptor bindings. Thus, butyrate effects on the expression of these three types of receptors in NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells are dramatically different. These data suggest that induction by butyrate of neurotransmitter receptors requires concerted action of genetic factors of both parents of the neurohybrids. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  13. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10. PMID:26921420

  14. Efficacy of sodium butyrate adjunct therapy in shigellosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of shigellosis in rabbits with butyrate reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18) in the large intestinal epithelia. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether butyrate can be used as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of shigellosis in patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group designed clinical trial was conducted. Eighty adult patients with shigellosis were randomized to either the Intervention group (butyrate, n = 40) or the Placebo group (normal saline, n = 40). The Intervention group was given an enema containing sodium butyrate (80 mM), twice daily for 3 days, while the Placebo group received the same dose of normal saline. The primary endpoint of the trial was to assess the efficacy of butyrate in improving clinical, endoscopic and histological features of shigellosis. The secondary endpoint was to study the effect of butyrate on the induction of antimicrobial peptides in the rectum. Clinical outcomes were assessed and concentrations of antimicrobial peptides (LL-37, human beta defensin1 [HBD-1] and human beta defensin 3 [HBD-3]) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β] and interleukin-8 [IL-8]) were measured in the stool. Sigmoidoscopic and histopathological analyses, and immunostaining of LL-37 in the rectal mucosa were performed in a subgroup of patients. Results Compared with placebo, butyrate therapy led to the early reduction of macrophages, pus cells, IL-8 and IL-1β in the stool and improvement in rectal histopathology. Butyrate treatment induced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia. Stool concentration of LL-37 remained significantly higher in the Intervention group on days 4 and 7. Conclusion Adjunct therapy with butyrate during shigellosis led to early reduction of inflammation and enhanced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia with prolonged release of LL-37 in the stool. Trial Registration Clinical

  15. The hypophagic response to heat stress is not mediated by GPR109A or peripheral β-OH butyrate.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Chelsea; Foy, Caroline E; Higgins, Mark R; Renquist, Benjamin J

    2016-05-15

    Rising temperatures resulting from climate change will increase the incidence of heat stress, negatively impacting the labor force and food animal production. Heat stress elevates circulating β-OH butyrate, which induces vasodilation through GPR109a. Interestingly, both heat stress and intraperitoneal β-OH butyrate administration induce hypophagia. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of β-OH butyrate in heat stress hypophagia in mice. We found that niacin, a β-OH butyrate mimetic that cannot be oxidized to generate ATP, also reduces food intake. Interestingly, the depression in food intake as a result of 8-h intraperitoneal niacin or 48-h heat exposure did not result from changes in hypothalamic expression of orexigenic or anorexigenic signals (AgRP, NPY, or POMC). Genetically eliminating GPR109a expression did not prevent the hypophagic response to heat exposure, intraperitoneal β-OH butyrate (5.7 mmol/kg), or niacin (0.8 mmol/kg). Hepatic vagotomy eliminated the hypophagic response to β-OH butyrate and niacin but did not affect the hypophagic response to heat exposure. We subsequently hypothesized that the hypophagic response to heat stress may depend on direct effects of β-OH butyrate at the central nervous system: β-OH butyrate induced hormonal changes (hyperinsulinemia, hypercorticosteronemia, and hyperleptinemia), or gene expression changes. To test these possibilities, we blocked expression of hepatic hydroxyl methyl glutaryl CoA synthase II (HMGCS2) to prevent hepatic β-OH butyrate synthesis. Mice that lack HMGCS2 maintain a hypophagic response to heat stress. Herein, we establish that the hypophagia of heat stress is independent of GPR109a, the hepatic vagus afferent nerve, and hepatic ketone body synthesis. PMID:26936786

  16. Co-culturing a novel Bacillus strain with Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 to produce butyric acid from sucrose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, the most promising microorganism used for the bio-production of butyric acid is Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T; however, it is unable to use sucrose as a sole carbon source. Consequently, a newly isolated strain, Bacillus sp. SGP1, that was found to produce a levansucrase enzyme, which hydrolyzes sucrose into fructose and glucose, was used in a co-culture with this strain, permitting C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to ferment sucrose to butyric acid. Results B. sp. SGP1 alone did not show any butyric acid production and the main metabolite produced was lactic acid. This allowed C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to utilize the monosaccharides resulting from the activity of levansucrase together with the lactic acid produced by B. sp. SGP1 to generate butyric acid, which was the main fermentative product within the co-culture. Furthermore, the final acetic acid concentration in the co-culture was significantly lower when compared with pure C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T cultures grown on glucose. In fed-batch fermentations, the optimum conditions for the production of butyric acid were around pH 5.50 and a temperature of 37°C. Under these conditions, the final butyrate concentration was 34.2±1.8 g/L with yields of 0.35±0.03 g butyrate/g sucrose and maximum productivity of 0.3±0.04 g/L/h. Conclusions Using this co-culture, sucrose can be utilized as a carbon source for butyric acid production at a relatively high yield. In addition, this co-culture offers also the benefit of a greater selectivity, with butyric acid constituting 92.8% of the acids when the fermentation was terminated. PMID:23452443

  17. Clinical evaluation of clobetasone butyrate eye drops in the treatment of anterior uveitis and its effects on intraocular pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Eilon, L A; Walker, S R

    1981-01-01

    Clobetasone butyrate has been formulated as a new steroid preparation of use in ophthalmology and has been compared with prednisolone phosphate and betamethasone phosphate in the treatment of anterior uveitis. The results from 4 double-blind, between-patient studies have shown that all 3 treatments are effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of this intraocular disease. 87% of those patients receiving clobetasone butyrate had a good or satisfactory response, but no differences in therapeutic efficacy were observed between these 3 steroid treatments. Clobetasone butyrate had little effect on intraocular pressure when compared with dexamethasone or hydrocortisone, both of which cause a significant rise in intraocular pressure. PMID:7028089

  18. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  19. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  20. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  1. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  2. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  3. Carboxymethyl Cellulose Acetate Butyrate: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Samir; Salama, Ahmed; Sarhan, Hebat-Allah

    2014-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) has gained increasing importance in several fields, particularly in coating technologies and pharmaceutical research. CMCAB is synthesized by esterification of CMC sodium salt with acetic and butyric anhydrides. CMCAB mixed esters are relatively high molecular weight (MW) thermoplastic polymers with high glass transition temperatures (Tg). CMCAB ester is dispersible in water and soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, allowing varied opportunity to the solvent choice. It makes application of coatings more consistent and defect-free. Its ability to slow down the release rate of highly water-soluble compounds and to increase the dissolution of poorly soluble compounds makes CMCAB a unique and potentially valuable tool in pharmaceutical and amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) formulations. PMID:25548679

  4. Resorufin butyrate as a soluble and monomeric high-throughput substrate for a triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Lam, Vincent; Henault, Martin; Khougaz, Karine; Fortin, Louis-Jacques; Ouellet, Marc; Melnyk, Roman; Partridge, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    Triglyceride lipases such as lipoprotein lipase, endothelial lipase, and hepatic lipase play key roles in controlling the levels of plasma lipoprotein. Accordingly, small-molecule modulation of these species could alter patient lipid profiles with corresponding health effects. Screening of these enzymes for small-molecule therapeutics has historically involved the use of lipid-based particles to mimic native substrates. However, particle-based artifacts can complicate the discovery of therapeutic molecules. As a simplifying solution, the authors sought to develop an approach involving a soluble and monomeric lipase substrate. Using purified bovine lipoprotein lipase as a model system, they show that the hydrolysis of resorufin butyrate can be fluorescently monitored to give a robust assay (Z' > 0.8). Critically, using parallel approaches, they show that resorufin butyrate is soluble and monomeric under assay conditions. The presented assay should be useful as a simple and inexpensive primary or secondary screen for the discovery of therapeutic lipase modulators. PMID:21956174

  5. Butyrate Infusions in the Ovine Fetus Delay the Biologic Clock for Globin Gene Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrine, Susan P.; Rudolph, Abraham; Faller, Douglas V.; Roman, Christine; Cohen, Ruth A.; Chen, Shao-Jing; Kan, Yuet Wai

    1988-11-01

    The switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin expression is regulated in many mammalian species by a developmental clock-like mechanism and determined by the gestational age of the fetus. Prolonging fetal globin gene expression is of considerable interest for therapeutic potential in diseases caused by abnormal β -globin genes. Butyric acid, which is found in increased plasma concentrations in infants of diabetic mothers who have delayed globin gene switching, was infused into catheterized fetal lambs in utero during the time of the normal globin gene switch period. The globin gene switch was significantly delayed in three of four butyrate-treated fetuses compared with controls and was entirely prevented in one fetus in whom the infusion was begun before the globin switch was under way. These data provide a model for investigating and arresting the biologic clock of hemoglobin switching.

  6. Structural Analysis and Quantitative Determination of Clevidipine Butyrate Impurities Using an Advanced RP-HPLC Method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuxia; Zhou, Fan; Yan, Fei; Yang, Feng; Yao, Yuxian; Zou, Qiaogen

    2016-03-01

    Eleven potential impurities, including process-related compounds and degradation products, have been analyzed by comprehensive studies on the manufacturing process of clevidipine butyrate. Possible formation mechanisms could also be devised. MS and NMR techniques have been used for the structural characterization of three previously unreported impurities (Imp-3, Imp-5 and Imp-11). To separate and quantify the potential impurities in a simultaneous fashion, an efficient and advanced RP-HPLC method has been developed. In doing so, four major degradation products (Imp-2, Imp-4, Imp-8 and Imp-10) can be observed under varying stress conditions. This analytical method has been validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, accuracy, linearity, robustness and stability. The method described has been demonstrated to be applicable in routine quality control processes and stability evaluation studies of clevidipine butyrate. PMID:26489435

  7. Isolation of lipase producer and its performance in enantioselective hydrolysis of glycidyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shi-Ying; Xu, Jian-He; Li, Qing Shan; Yu, Jun Tang

    2003-01-01

    A racemic glycidyl butyrate resolving strain, preliminarily identified as a Rhizopus sp., had been isolated from soil. Its extracellular lipase was found to enantioselectively hydrolyze the (S)-enantiomer of the chiral ester, with optimal activities at pH 5.3 and 42 degrees C. Higher enantioselectivity of the enzyme was observed at lower temperatures, while the best enantioselectivity was obtained at pH 5.5-6.0, with an E value (enantiomeric ratio) of 57. PMID:12495206

  8. An Acute Butyr-Fentanyl Fatality: A Case Report with Postmortem Concentrations.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Trochta, Amber; Gary, Ray D; Wright, Jennifer; Mena, Othon

    2016-03-01

    In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of butyr-fentanyl in a fatality attributed principally to the drug. A man who had a history of intravenous drug abuse was found unresponsive on the bathroom floor of his home. Drug paraphernalia was located on the bathroom counter. Toxicology testing, which initially screened positive for fentanyl by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, subsequently confirmed butyr-fentanyl, which was then quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-specific ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM) analysis following liquid-liquid extraction. The butyr-fentanyl peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 58 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 97 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 320 ng/g, the vitreous was 40 ng/mL, the urine was 670 ng/mL and the gastric contained 170 mg. Acetyl-fentanyl was also detected in all biological specimens tested. Peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 38 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 32 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 110 ng/g, the vitreous was 38 ng/mL, the urine was 540 ng/mL and the gastric contained <70 mg. The only other drug detected was a relatively low concentration of benzoylecgonine. The cause of death was certified as acute butyr-fentanyl, acetyl-fentanyl and cocaine intoxication, and the manner of death was certified as accident. PMID:26683128

  9. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  10. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  11. Impact of butyrate on microbial selection in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shamim A; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2014-01-01

    Microbial selection in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal system was investigated in a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor fed exclusively with butyrate as a carbon source. As reported in the few previous studies, butyrate uptake was slow and phosphorus (P) release occurred during the entire anaerobic period. Polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO), i.e. Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (named as Accumulibacter), glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs), i.e. Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis (named as Competibacter) and Defluviicoccus-related, tetrad-forming alphaproteobacteria (named as Defluviicoccus) were identified using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The results show that Accumulibacter and Defluviicoccus were selected in the butyrate-fed reactor, whereas Competibacter was not selected. P removal was efficient at the beginning of the experiment with an increasing percentage relative abundance (% RA) of PAOs. The % RA of Accumulibacter and Defluviicoccus increased from 13% to 50% and 8% to 16%, respectively, and the % RA of Competibacter decreased from 8% to 2% during the experiment. After 6 weeks, P removal deteriorated with the poor correlation between the percentage of P removal and % RA of GAOs. PMID:25189844

  12. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99 U mg−1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg−1 protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24–7.64 U mg−1 protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  13. Severity of atopic disease inversely correlates with intestinal microbiota diversity and butyrate-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nylund, L; Nermes, M; Isolauri, E; Salminen, S; de Vos, W M; Satokari, R

    2015-02-01

    The reports on atopic diseases and microbiota in early childhood remain contradictory, and both decreased and increased microbiota diversity have been associated with atopic eczema. In this study, the intestinal microbiota signatures associated with the severity of eczema in 6-month-old infants were characterized. Further, the changes in intestinal microbiota composition related to the improvement of this disease 3 months later were assessed. The severity of eczema correlated inversely with microbiota diversity (r = -0.54, P = 0.002) and with the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria (r = -0.52, P = 0.005). During the 3-month follow-up, microbiota diversity increased (P < 0.001) and scoring atopic dermatitis values decreased (P < 0.001) in all infants. This decrease coincided with the increase in bacteria related to butyrate-producing Coprococcus eutactus (r = -0.59, P = 0.02). In conclusion, the high diversity of microbiota and high abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria were associated with milder eczema, thus suggesting they have a role in alleviating symptoms of atopic eczema. PMID:25413686

  14. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23-0.99 U mg(-1) protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg(-1) protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24-7.64 U mg(-1) protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  15. The microbial metabolite butyrate regulates intestinal macrophage function via histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pamela V; Hao, Liming; Offermanns, Stefan; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2014-02-11

    Given the trillions of microbes that inhabit the mammalian intestines, the host immune system must constantly maintain a balance between tolerance to commensals and immunity against pathogens to avoid unnecessary immune responses against otherwise harmless bacteria. Misregulated responses can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The mechanisms by which the immune system maintains this critical balance remain largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that the short-chain fatty acid n-butyrate, which is secreted in high amounts by commensal bacteria, can modulate the function of intestinal macrophages, the most abundant immune cell type in the lamina propria. Treatment of macrophages with n-butyrate led to the down-regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, IL-6, and IL-12, but did not affect levels of TNF-α or MCP-1. These effects were independent of toll-like receptor signaling and activation of G-protein-coupled receptors, two pathways that could be affected by short-chain fatty acids. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence that suggest that these effects are due to the inhibition of histone deacetylases by n-butyrate. These findings elucidate a pathway in which the host may maintain tolerance to intestinal microbiota by rendering lamina propria macrophages hyporesponsive to commensal bacteria through the down-regulation of proinflammatory effectors. PMID:24390544

  16. Feed-drug interaction of orally applied butyrate and phenobarbital on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in chickens.

    PubMed

    Mátis, G; Kulcsár, A; Petrilla, J; Hermándy-Berencz, K; Neogrády, Zs

    2016-08-01

    The expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes may be affected by several nutrition-derived compounds, such as by the commonly applied feed additive butyrate, possibly leading to feed-drug interactions. The aim of this study was to provide some evidence if butyrate can alter the activity of hepatic CYPs in chickens exposed to CYP-inducing xenobiotics, monitoring for the first time the possibility of such interaction. Ross 308 chickens in the grower phase were treated with daily intracoelomal phenobarbital (PB) injection (80 mg/kg BW), applied as a non-specific CYP-inducer, simultaneously with two different doses of intra-ingluvial sodium butyrate boluses (0.25 and 1.25 g/kg BW) for 5 days. Activity of CYP2H and CYP3A subfamilies was assessed by specific enzyme assays from isolated liver microsomes. According to our results, the lower dose of orally administered butyrate significantly attenuated the PB-triggered elevation of both hepatic CYP2H and CYP3A activities, which might be in association with the partly common signalling pathways of butyrate and CYP-inducing drugs, such as that of PB. Based on these data, butyrate may take part in pharmacoepigenetic interactions with simultaneously applied drugs or other CYP-inducing xenobiotics, with possible consequences for food safety and pharmacotherapy. Butyrate was found to be capable to maintain physiological CYP activity by attenuating CYP induction, underlining the safety of butyrate application in poultry nutrition. PMID:26614344

  17. Molecular pathways: gene-environment interactions regulating dietary fiber induction of proliferation and apoptosis via butyrate for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Bultman, Scott J

    2014-02-15

    Gene-environment interactions are so numerous and biologically complicated that it can be challenging to understand their role in cancer. However, dietary fiber and colorectal cancer prevention may represent a tractable model system. Fiber is fermented by colonic bacteria into short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. One molecular pathway that has emerged involves butyrate having differential effects depending on its concentration and the metabolic state of the cell. Low-moderate concentrations, which are present near the base of colonic crypts, are readily metabolized in the mitochondria to stimulate cell proliferation via energetics. Higher concentrations, which are present near the lumen, exceed the metabolic capacity of the colonocyte. Unmetabolized butyrate enters the nucleus and functions as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that epigenetically regulates gene expression to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis as the colonocytes exfoliate into the lumen. Butyrate may therefore play a role in normal homeostasis by promoting turnover of the colonic epithelium. Because cancerous colonocytes undergo the Warburg effect, their preferred energy source is glucose instead of butyrate. Consequently, even moderate concentrations of butyrate accumulate in cancerous colonocytes and function as HDAC inhibitors to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. These findings implicate a bacterial metabolite with metaboloepigenetic properties in tumor suppression. PMID:24270685

  18. Increased growth of Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium by germinated barley foodstuff, accompanied by enhanced butyrate production in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kanauchi, O; Fujiyama, Y; Mitsuyama, K; Araki, Y; Ishii, T; Nakamura, T; Hitomi, Y; Agata, K; Saiki, T; Andoh, A; Toyonaga, A; Bamba, T

    1999-02-01

    Germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) derived from the aleurone and scutellum fractions of germinated barley mainly consists of low-lignified hemicellulose and glutamine-rich protein. GBF improves the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and defecation, through the bacterial production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), especially butyrate. In this study we investigated the mechanism of production of butyrate by microflora in humans and in vitro. Daily administration of 9 g GBF for 14 successive days significantly increased fecal butyrate content. Fecal Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium were also significantly increased by GBF administration in healthy volunteers. Ten anaerobic micro-organisms selected from intestinal microflora were cultured in vitro in the medium containing GBF as a sole carbon source (GBF medium). After a 3-day incubation, 7 strains (Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Bacteroides ovatus, Clostridium butyricum, and Eubacterium limosum) lowered the medium pH producing SCFA. Eubacterium grown together with Bifidobacterium in GBF medium efficiently produced butyrate. On the other hand, GBF changed the intestinal microflora and increased probiotics such as Bifidobacterium in the intestinal tract. As a result, butyrate was produced by the mutual action of Eubacterium and Bifidobacterium. This butyrate is considered to enhance the proliferation of colonic epithelial cells. PMID:9917526

  19. Butyrate produced by commensal bacteria potentiates phorbol esters induced AP-1 response in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M

    2012-01-01

    The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

  20. Proboscis conditioning experiments with honeybees, Apis mellifera caucasica, with butyric acid and DEET mixture as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul; Mixson, T Andrew; Nolf, Sondra L; Wells, Harrington; Kence, Aykut; Kence, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment DEET and butyric acid readily led to standard acquisition and extinction effects, which are comparable to the use of cinnamon as a conditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that the odor of DEET or butyric acid is not intrinsically repellent to honey bees. In a second experiment, with DEET and butyric acid mixed with sucrose as an unconditioned stimulus, proboscis conditioning was not established. After several trials, few animals responded to the unconditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that these chemicals are gustatory repellents when in direct contact. In the last experiment a conditioned suppression paradigm was used. Exposing animals to butyric acid or DEET when the proboscis was extended by direct sucrose stimulation or by learning revealed that retraction of the proboscis was similar to another novel odor, lavender, and in all cases greatest when the animal was not permitted to feed. These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee. PMID:20879917

  1. Butyrate alleviates metabolic impairments and protects pancreatic β cell function in pregnant mice with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-Ping; Chen, Xuan; Li, Ming-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The relative or absolute deficiency of pancreatic β-cell mass function underlies the pathogenesis of diabetes. It is necessary to alleviate the metabolic stress and reduce the demand for insulin to decrease the effects of mutations affecting β-cell expansion. Butyrate is a natural nutrient existed in food and can also be produced physiologically through the intestinal fermentation of fiber. Pregnancy and obesity model would be helpful for understanding how β-cell adapt to insulin resistance and how butyrate alleviate the metabolic impairment and protect pancreatic β cell function in pregnant mice with obesity. C57BL/6J female mice were divided into three groups and fed with high fat food (HF group, 40% energy from fat), high fat with sodium butyrate food (HSF group, 95% HF with 5% butyrate), or control food (CF group, 14% energy from fat), respectively. The feeding would last for 14 weeks before mating and throughout the gestation period. A subset of dams were sacrificed at gestational day (GD) 14.5 to evaluate the changes of metabolism and β-cell function, mass, proliferation and apoptosis, inflammatory reaction of islet from different diet. Pancreases were double immuno-labeled to assess the islet morphology, insulin expression, expression of proliferation gene PCNA and anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2. Moreover, we detected the expression of NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB (pNF-κB) to evaluate the islet inflammatory response with immunohistochemistry. Mice fed with HSF showed obviously changes including the decreased values of weight gain, glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol level of blood compared with high fat diet group, and the reduced circulating maternal pro-inflammation factors at GD14.5. Mice fed with HF displayed β-cell hyperplasia with a greater β-cell size and β-cell area in pancreas. Furthermore, the higher ratio of apoptosis and inflammatory response were found in HF group compared with HSF and CF group, while the proliferation

  2. [Alcoholism and aging. 2. Alcoholic dementia or alcoholic cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in considerable damage to many of the body's organs, and particularly to the brain. Beyond the confusional state occurring with acute intoxication or withdrawal, alcohol abuse is responsible of a constellation of neuropsychiatric syndromes including cognitive dysfunction, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and alcohol-related dementia, ARD. ARD would account for nearly 20% of all admissions to state mental hospitals in the United-States. According to the DSM-IV, ARD is defined by a dementia associated with alcohol abuse. However, the concept of a dementia directly related to the neurotoxicity of alcohol for brain neurons is still a matter of debate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of cognitive deficits related to chronic alcohol intoxication. This paper presents the epidemiological, neuropathological, neurochemical and clinical data on ARD. Alcoholism is responsible for cognitive deficits of various severity, which could be reversible or not with alcohol abstinence, but can also participate to the cognitive impairment related to other pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease. On account of this review, it is suggested that the term alcohol-related cognitive impairment should be more convenient than that of ARD, more restrictive and more confusing. Presently, there are no established treatment for alcohol-related cognitive impairment. Alcohol abstinence is a most important step. Psychosocial interventions are essential to support the patients in the daily life. PMID:15683959

  3. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  4. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  5. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  6. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  8. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  9. Increased Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Is Associated With Altered Gut Microbiota Composition and Butyrate Production in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Morrison, Mark; Dekker Nitert, Marloes

    2016-10-01

    The risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia is higher in obese pregnant women. In obesity, the composition of the gut microbiota is altered. Obesity is also associated with low-grade inflammation. Metabolites from the gut microbiota may contribute to both hypertension and inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese pregnant women is associated with blood pressure and levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The composition of the gut microbiota was determined with 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing in 205 women at 16 weeks gestation from the SPRING study (the Study of Probiotics in Gestational Diabetes). Expression of butyrate-producing genes in the gut microbiota was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were measured in fasting serum of a subset of 70 women. Blood pressure was slightly but significantly higher in obese compared with overweight women. The abundance of the butyrate-producing genus Odoribacter was inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Butyrate production capacity was decreased, but plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations increased in obese pregnant women. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were inversely correlated with expression of butyrate kinase and Odoribacter abundance. This study shows that in overweight and obese pregnant women at 16 weeks gestation, the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate production in the gut microbiota is significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Increasing butyrate-producing capacity may contribute to maintenance of normal blood pressure in obese pregnant women. PMID:27528065

  10. Enhanced production of IL-18 in butyrate-treated intestinal epithelium by stimulation of the proximal promoter region.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Uwe; Koyama, Noriko; Hosoda, Tomoko; Nuernberger, Heike; Sato, Kazuto; Hoelzer, Dieter; Herweck, Frank; Manigold, Tobias; Singer, Manfred V; Rossol, Siegbert; Böcker, Ulrich

    2002-09-01

    Expression of IL-18 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) has been implicated in Th1 cell-mediated chronic intestinal inflammation and anti-tumor immunity. However, physiological regulatory factors have not been identified. Besides their effects on proliferation and restitution, immunomodulatory functions have been attributed to short chain fatty acids (SCFA). We investigated the effect of SCFA (butyrate, propionate, acetate) on expression of IL-18 in IEC in vitro and in vivo. Expression of IL-18 mRNA and protein in human carcinoma-derived HT-29 and Caco-2 cells was analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. Transcriptional regulation of IL-18 gene expression was determined by transient transfection of wild-type and mutated IL-18 promoter. Further, in vivo expression of IL-18 in the intestine from butyrate-treated and untreated mice was assessed by immunohistochemistry. IL-18 mRNA and the IL-18 protein were expressed in IEC, while IL-18 secretion was not observed. Butyrate and acetate increased intracellular IL-18 content in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. In contrast to proinflammatory stimuli butyrate potently activated the IL-18 promoter, indicating that IL-18 is regulated at the transcriptional level by SCFA. Furthermore, a 108-bp sequence in the proximal region was identified to be essential for IL-18 promoter activation by butyrate. As proof of principle butyrate effects were confirmed in vivo by demonstration of increased IL-18 protein expression in IEC from butyrate-treated mice. In conclusion, SCFA up-regulate IL-18 protein expression in IEC, suggesting a potential regulatory contribution of these luminal constituents to T cell mediated inflammatory and neoplastic intestinal conditions. PMID:12207348

  11. Exposure to sodium butyrate leads to functional downregulation of calcium-activated potassium channels in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roy, Jeremy; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M; Linsdell, Paul; Cowley, Elizabeth A

    2006-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by genetic mutations that lead to dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel. The most common mutation, DeltaF508, causes inefficient trafficking of mutant CFTR protein from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane. Therapeutic efforts have been aimed at increasing the level of DeltaF508-CFTR protein in the membrane using agents such as sodium butyrate. In this study, we investigated the effects of culturing a human airway epithelial cell line, Calu-3, in the presence of 5 mM sodium butyrate. Within 24 h, butyrate exposure caused a significant decrease in the basal, as well as Ca(2+)-activated, anion secretion by Calu-3 cell monolayers, determined by the change in transepithelial short-circuit current in response to the Ca(2+)-elevating agent thapsigargin. The secretory response to 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone, an activator of the basolateral Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel KCNN4, was similarly reduced by butyrate treatment. Quantitative PCR revealed that these functional effects were associated with dramatic decreases in mRNA for both KCNN4 and CFTR. Furthermore, the KCNQ1 K(+) channel was upregulated after butyrate treatment. We suggest that prolonged exposure to sodium butyrate downregulates the expression of both KCNN4 and CFTR, leading to a functional loss of Ca(2+)-activated anion secretion. Thus, butyrate may inhibit, rather than stimulate, the anion secretory capacity of human epithelial cells that express wild-type CFTR, particularly in tissues that normally exhibit robust Ca(2+)-activated secretion. PMID:17047984

  12. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n=38), Aves (n=8) and Reptilia (n=8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large ‘unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  13. Control of placental alkaline phosphatase gene expression in HeLa cells: induction of synthesis by prednisolone and sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, J.Y.; Takahashi, S.

    1987-06-16

    HeLa S/sub 3/ cells produce an alkaline phosphatase indistinguishable from the enzyme from human term placenta. The phosphatase activity in these cells was induced by both prednisolone and sodium butyrate. Both agents stimulated de novo synthesis of the enzyme. The increase in phosphatase activity paralleled the increase in immunoactivity and biosynthesis of placental alkaline phosphatase. The fully processed phosphatase monomer in control, prednisolone-treated or butyrate-treated cells was a 64.5 K polypeptide, measured by both incorporation of L-(/sup 35/S)methionine into enzyme protein and active-site labeling. The 64.5K polypeptide was formed by the incorporation of additional N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties to a precursor polypeptide of 61.5K. However, this biosynthetic pathway was identified only in butyrate-treated cells. In prednisolone-treated cells, the processing of 61.5K to 64.5K monomer was accelerated, and the presence of the 61.5 precursor could only be detected by either neuraminidase or monensin treatment. Phosphatase mRNA which comigrated with the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA of 2.7 kilobases was induced in the presence of either prednisolone or butyrate. Alkaline phosphatase mRNA is untreated HeLa S/sub 3/ cells migrated slightly faster than the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Butyrate also induced a second still faster migrating alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Both prednisolone and butyrate increased the steady-state levels of placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. The data indicate that the increase in phosphatase mRNA by prednisolone and butyrate resulted in the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity and biosynthesis in HeLa S/sub 3/ cells. Furthermore, both agents induced the expression of different alkaline phosphatase gene transcripts without altering its protein product.

  14. Steering Endogenous Butyrate Production in the Intestinal Tract of Broilers as a Tool to Improve Gut Health.

    PubMed

    Onrust, Lonneke; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Driessche, Karolien; De Maesschalck, Celine; Vermeulen, Karen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The ban on antimicrobial growth promoters and efforts to reduce therapeutic antibiotic usage has led to major problems of gastrointestinal dysbiosis in livestock production in Europe. Control of dysbiosis without the use of antibiotics requires a thorough understanding of the interaction between the microbiota and the host mucosa. The gut microbiota of the healthy chicken is highly diverse, producing various metabolic end products, including gases and fermentation acids. The distal gut knows an abundance of bacteria from within the Firmicutes Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa that produce butyric acid, which is one of the metabolites that are sensed by the host as a signal. The host responds by strengthening the epithelial barrier, reducing inflammation, and increasing the production of mucins and antimicrobial peptides. Stimulating the colonization and growth of butyrate-producing bacteria thus may help optimizing gut health. Various strategies are available to stimulate butyrate production in the distal gut. These include delivery of prebiotic substrates that are broken down by bacteria into smaller molecules which are then used by butyrate producers, a concept called cross-feeding. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are such compounds as they can be converted to lactate, which is further metabolized to butyrate. Probiotic lactic acid producers can be supplied to support the cross-feeding reactions. Direct feeding of butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa strains are a future tool provided that large scale production of strictly anaerobic bacteria can be optimized. Current results of strategies that promote butyrate production in the gut are promising. Nevertheless, our current understanding of the intestinal ecosystem is still insufficient, and further research efforts are needed to fully exploit the capacity of these strategies. PMID:26734618

  15. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-04-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  16. Steering Endogenous Butyrate Production in the Intestinal Tract of Broilers as a Tool to Improve Gut Health

    PubMed Central

    Onrust, Lonneke; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Driessche, Karolien; De Maesschalck, Celine; Vermeulen, Karen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The ban on antimicrobial growth promoters and efforts to reduce therapeutic antibiotic usage has led to major problems of gastrointestinal dysbiosis in livestock production in Europe. Control of dysbiosis without the use of antibiotics requires a thorough understanding of the interaction between the microbiota and the host mucosa. The gut microbiota of the healthy chicken is highly diverse, producing various metabolic end products, including gases and fermentation acids. The distal gut knows an abundance of bacteria from within the Firmicutes Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa that produce butyric acid, which is one of the metabolites that are sensed by the host as a signal. The host responds by strengthening the epithelial barrier, reducing inflammation, and increasing the production of mucins and antimicrobial peptides. Stimulating the colonization and growth of butyrate-producing bacteria thus may help optimizing gut health. Various strategies are available to stimulate butyrate production in the distal gut. These include delivery of prebiotic substrates that are broken down by bacteria into smaller molecules which are then used by butyrate producers, a concept called cross-feeding. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are such compounds as they can be converted to lactate, which is further metabolized to butyrate. Probiotic lactic acid producers can be supplied to support the cross-feeding reactions. Direct feeding of butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa strains are a future tool provided that large scale production of strictly anaerobic bacteria can be optimized. Current results of strategies that promote butyrate production in the gut are promising. Nevertheless, our current understanding of the intestinal ecosystem is still insufficient, and further research efforts are needed to fully exploit the capacity of these strategies. PMID:26734618

  17. Use of Additives to Improve Performance of Methyl Butyrate-Based Lithium-Ion Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    This work addresses the need for robust rechargeable batteries that can operate well over a wide temperature range. To this end, a number of electrolyte formulations have been developed that incorporate the use of electrolyte additives to improve the high-temperature resilience, low-temperature power capability, and life characteristics of methyl butyrate-based electrolyte solutions. These electrolyte additives include mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium oxalate, vinylene carbonate (VC), and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), which have been shown to result in improved high-temperature resilience of all carbonate-based electrolytes. Improved performance has been demonstrated of Li-ion cells with methyl butyrate-based electrolytes, including 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %); 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 4% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + lithium oxalate; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% VC; and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 0.10M LiBOB. These electrolytes have been shown to improve performance in MCMB-LiNiCoO2 and graphite-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 experimental Li-ion cells. A number of LiPF6-based mixed carbonate electrolyte formulations have been developed that contain ester co-solvents, which have been optimized for operation at low temperature, while still providing reasonable performance at high temperature. For example, a number of ester co-solvents were investigated, including methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), and butyl butyrate (BB) in multi-component electrolytes of the following composition: 1.0M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + X (20:60:20 v/v %) [where X = ester co-solvent]. ["Optimized Car bon ate and Ester-Based Li-Ion Electrolytes", NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 2008), p. 56.] Focusing upon improved rate

  18. Butyrivibrio hungatei sp. nov. and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans sp. nov., butyrate-producing bacteria from the rumen.

    PubMed

    Kopecný, Jan; Zorec, Masa; Mrázek, Jakub; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Marinsek-Logar, Romana

    2003-01-01

    Two novel Gram-negative, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, butyrate-producing bacterial species, strains Mz 5T and JK 615T, were isolated from the rumen fluid of cow and sheep. Both strains were curved rods that were motile by means of single polar or subpolar flagellum and common in the rumen microbial ecosystem. Strain Mz 5T produced high xylanase, proteinase, pectin hydrolase and DNase activities; 1,4-beta-endoglucanase was also detected in the culture medium. The bacterium utilized a wide range of carbohydrates. Glucose was fermented to formate, butyrate, lactate, succinate and ethanol. The DNA G + C content was 42.1 mol%. The complete 16S rDNA sequence was obtained and phylogenetic relationships were determined. Strain Mz 5T and related isolates were located in clostridial cluster XIVa and were closely related to Pseudobutyrivibrio ruminis, Butyrivibrio crossotus, Roseburia cecicola and Eubacterium rectale. The name proposed for this novel bacterium is Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans; the type strain is Mz 5T (=DSM 14809T =ATCC BAA-455T). Strain JK 615T produced no fibrolytic activity, but utilized a wide range of carbohydrates. Glucose was fermented to formate, acetate, butyrate and ethanol. The DNA G + C content was 44-8 mol%. The complete 16S rDNA sequence was obtained and phylogenetic relationships were determined. Strain JK 615T was located in clostridial cluster XIVa and was closely related to Clostridium proteoclasticum, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Eubacterium halii. The name proposed for this novel bacterium is Butyrivibrio hungatei; the type strain is JK 615T (=DSM 14810T =ATCC BAA-456T). PMID:12656174

  19. Direct interspecies electron transfer accelerates syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in paddy soil enrichments.

    PubMed

    Li, Huijuan; Chang, Jiali; Liu, Pengfei; Fu, Li; Ding, Dewen; Lu, Yahai

    2015-05-01

    Syntrophic interaction occurs during anaerobic fermentation of organic substances forming methane as the final product. H2 and formate are known to serve as the electron carriers in this process. Recently, it has been shown that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) occurs for syntrophic CH4 production from ethanol and acetate. Here, we constructed paddy soil enrichments to determine the involvement of DIET in syntrophic butyrate oxidation and CH4 production. The results showed that CH4 production was significantly accelerated in the presence of nanoFe3 O4 in all continuous transfers. This acceleration increased with the increase of nanoFe3 O4 concentration but was dismissed when Fe3 O4 was coated with silica that insulated the mineral from electrical conduction. NanoFe3 O4 particles were found closely attached to the cell surfaces of different morphology, thus bridging cell connections. Molecular approaches, including DNA-based stable isotope probing, revealed that the bacterial Syntrophomonadaceae and Geobacteraceae, and the archaeal Methanosarcinaceae, Methanocellales and Methanobacteriales, were involved in the syntrophic butyrate oxidation and CH4 production. Among them, the growth of Geobacteraceae strictly relied on the presence of nanoFe3 O4 and its electrical conductivity in particular. Other organisms, except Methanobacteriales, were present in enrichments regardless of nanoFe3 O4 amendment. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the nanoFe3 O4 -facilitated DIET occurred in syntrophic CH4 production from butyrate, and Geobacter species played the key role in this process in the paddy soil enrichments. PMID:25059331

  20. Tarsi of Male Heliothine Moths Contain Aldehydes and Butyrate Esters as Potential Pheromone Components.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Park, Kye-Chung; Meer, Robert Vander; Cardé, Ring T; Jurenka, Russell

    2016-05-01

    The Noctuidae are one of the most speciose moth families and include the genera Helicoverpa and Heliothis. Females use (Z)-11-hexadecenal as the major component of their sex pheromones except for Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa gelotopoeon, both of which utilize (Z)-9-hexadecenal. The minor compounds found in heliothine sex pheromone glands vary with species, but hexadecanal has been found in the pheromone gland of almost all heliothine females so far investigated. In this study, we found a large amount (0.5-1.5 μg) of hexadecanal and octadecanal on the legs of males of four heliothine species, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa armigera, H. assulta, and Heliothis virescens. The hexadecanal was found on and released from the tarsi, and was in much lower levels or not detected on the remaining parts of the leg (tibia, femur, trochanter, and coxa). Lower amounts (0.05-0.5 μg) of hexadecanal were found on female tarsi. This is the first known sex pheromone compound to be identified from the legs of nocturnal moths. Large amounts of butyrate esters (about 16 μg) also were found on tarsi of males with lower amounts on female tarsi. Males deposited the butyrate esters while walking on a glass surface. Decapitation did not reduce the levels of hexadecanal on the tarsi of H. zea males, indicating that hexadecanal production is not under the same neuroendocrine regulation system as the production of female sex pheromone. Based on electroantennogram studies, female antennae had a relatively high response to hexadecanal compared to male antennae. We consider the possible role of aldehydes and butyrate esters as courtship signals in heliothine moths. PMID:27155602

  1. Oral butyrate reduces oxidative stress in atherosclerotic lesion sites by a mechanism involving NADPH oxidase down-regulation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Edenil C; Santos, Lana Claudinez Dos; Leonel, Alda J; de Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; Santos, Elândia Aparecida; Navia-Pelaez, Juliana M; da Silva, Josiane Fernandes; Mendes, Bárbara Pinheiro; Capettini, Luciano S A; Teixeira, Lilian G; Lemos, Virginia S; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I

    2016-08-01

    Butyrate is a 4-carbon fatty acid that has antiinflammatory and antioxidative properties. It has been demonstrated that butyrate is able to reduce atherosclerotic development in animal models by reducing inflammatory factors. However, the contribution of its antioxidative effects of butyrate on atherogenesis has not yet been studied. We investigated the influence of butyrate on oxidative status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release and oxidative enzymes (NADPH oxidase and iNOS) in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE(-/-) mice and in oxLDL-stimulated peritoneal macrophages and endothelial cells (EA.hy926). The lesion area in aorta was reduced while in the aortic valve, although lesion area was unaltered, superoxide production and protein nitrosylation were reduced in butyrate-supplemented mice. Peritoneal macrophages from the butyrate group presented a lower free radical release after zymosan stimulus. When endothelial cells were pretreated with butyrate before oxLDL stimulus, the CCL-2 and superoxide ion productions and NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox were reduced. In macrophage cultures, in addition to a reduction in ROS release, nitric oxide and iNOS expression were down-regulated. The data suggest that one mechanism related to the effect of butyrate on atherosclerotic development is the reduction of oxidative stress in the lesion site. The reduction of oxidative stress related to NADPH oxidase and iNOS expression levels associated to butyrate supplementation attenuates endothelium dysfunction and macrophage migration and activation in the lesion site. PMID:27261536

  2. Radiation induces acid tolerance of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and enhances bioproduction of butyric acid through a metabolic switch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Butyric acid as a renewable resource has become an increasingly attractive alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of acids. However, it has been reported that butyrate inhibits its growth, and the accumulation of acetate also inhibits biomass synthesis, making production of butyric acid from conventional fermentation processes economically challenging. The present study aimed to identify whether irradiation of C. tyrobutyricum cells makes them more tolerant to butyric acid inhibition and increases the production of butyrate compared with wild type. Results In this work, the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 g·L-1 equivalents were studied. The results showed that, regardless of the irradiation used, there was a gradual inhibition of cell growth at butyric acid concentrations above 10.8 g·L-1, with no growth observed at butyric acid concentrations above 3.6 g·L-1 for the wild-type strain during the first 54 h of fermentation. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also showed significantly different expression levels of proteins with molecular mass around the wild-type and irradiated strains. The results showed that the proportion of proteins with molecular weights of 85 and 106 kDa was much higher for the irradiated strains. The specific growth rate decreased by 50% (from 0.42 to 0.21 h-1) and the final concentration of butyrate increased by 68% (from 22.7 to 33.4 g·L-1) for the strain irradiated at 114 AMeV and 40 Gy compared with the wild-type strains. Conclusions This study demonstrates that butyric acid production from glucose can be significantly improved and enhanced by using 12C6+ heavy ion-irradiated C. tyrobutyricum. The approach is economical, making it competitive compared with similar fermentation processes. It may prove useful as

  3. Protective activity of butyrate on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in isolated human colonocytes and HT29 tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Rosignoli, P; Fabiani, R; De Bartolomeo, A; Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Pelli, M A; Morozzi, G

    2001-10-01

    Epidemiological studies support the involvement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in colon physiology and the protective role of butyrate on colon carcinogenesis. Among the possible mechanisms by which butyrate may exert its anti-carcinogenicity an antioxidant activity has been recently suggested. We investigated the effects of butyrate and mixtures of SCFA (butyrate, propionate and acetate) on DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) in isolated human colonocytes and in two human colon tumour cell lines (HT29 and HT29 19A). Human colonocytes were isolated from endoscopically obtained samples and the DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay. H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage in normal colonocytes in a dose-dependent manner which was statistically significant at concentrations over 10 microM. At 15 microM H(2)O(2) DNA damage in HT29 and HT29 19A cells was significantly lower than that observed in normal colonocytes (P < 0.01). Pre-incubation of the cells with physiological concentrations of butyrate (6.25 and 12.5 mM) reduced H(2)O(2) (15 microM) induced damage by 33 and 51% in human colonocytes, 45 and 75% in HT29 and 30 and 80% in HT29 19A, respectively. Treatment of cells with a mixture of 25 mM acetate + 10.4 mM propionate + 6.25 mM butyrate did not induce DNA damage, while a mixture of 50 mM acetate + 20.8 mM propionate + 12.5 mM butyrate was weakly genotoxic only towards normal colonocytes. However, both mixtures were able to reduce the H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage by about 50% in all cell types. The reported protective effect of butyrate might be important in pathogenetic mechanisms mediated by reactive oxygen species, and aids understanding of the apparent protection toward colorectal cancer exerted by dietary fibres, which enhance the butyrate bioavailability in the colonic mucosa. PMID:11577008

  4. Butyrate Induced IGF2 Activation Correlated with Distinct Chromatin Signatures Due to Histone Modification.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joo Heon; Li, Robert W; Gao, Yuan; Bickhart, Derek M; Liu, George E; Li, Weizhong; Wu, Sitao; Li, Cong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Histone modification has emerged as a very important mechanism regulating the transcriptional status of the genome. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a peptide hormone controlling various cellular processes, including proliferation and apoptosis. H19 gene is closely linked to IGF2 gene, and IGF2 and H19 are reciprocally regulated imprinted genes. The epigenetic signature of H19 promoter (hypermethylation) on the paternal allele plays a vital role in allowing the expression of the paternal allele of IGF2.46 Our previous studies demonstrate that butyrate regulates the expression of IGF2 as well as genes encoding IGF Binding proteins. To obtain further understanding of histone modification and its regulatory potentials in controlling IGF2/H19 gene expression, we investigated the histone modification status of some key histones associated with the expression of IGF2/H19 genes in bovine cells using RNA-seq in combination with Chip-seq technology. A high-resolution map of the major chromatin modification at the IGF2/H19 locus induced by butyrate was constructed to illustrate the fundamental association of the chromatin modification landscape that may play a role in the activation of the IGF2 gene. High-definition epigenomic landscape mapping revealed that IGF2 and H19 have distinct chromatin modification patterns at their coding and promoter regions, such as TSSs and TTSs. Moreover, the correlation between the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of IGF2/H19 locus and histone modification (acetylation and methylation) indicated that epigenetic signatures/markers of DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation were differentially distributed on the expressed IGF2 and silenced H19 genes. Our evidence also suggests that butyrate-induced regional changes of histone acetylation statusin the upstream regulation domain of H19 may be related to the reduced expression of H19 and strong activation of IGF2. Our results provided insights into the mechanism

  5. Discoloration of poly(vinyl butyral) in cells exposed to real and simulated solar environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Q.; Shumka, A.

    1984-01-01

    The discoloration of poly(vinl butyral) (PVB) films used in solar cell modules is described. Transmission absorption, Fourier transformation IR absorption and atomic absorption spectroscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy were used for this study. The discoloration of the PVB has been found to be affected by oxygen, moisture, temperature and light. However, the most severe discoloration observed is clearly associated with the migration of positive silver ions, which can be accelerated in the presence of electric fields. The metallization is the source of the silver, and the data are consistent with an interfacial reaction between the silver and PVB followed by transport into the polymer.

  6. In Vitro Effects of Dietary Inulin on Human Fecal Microbiota and Butyrate Production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Hwan; Jeon, Woo-Min; Han, Kyoung-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Administration of dietary fibers has various health benefits, mainly by increasing numbers of beneficial bacteria and enhancing production of short-chain fatty acids in the colon. There has been growing interest in the addition of dietary fiber to human diet, due to its prebiotic effects. This study aimed to evaluate the prebiotic activity of inulin using an in vitro batch fermentation system with human fecal microbiota. Fermentation of inulin resulted in a significantly greater ratio of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacteria to Enterobacteria strains as an index of healthy human intestine and elevated butyrate concentration, which are related to improvement of gut health. PMID:26095388

  7. Untangling the fiber yarn: butyrate feeds Warburg to suppress colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Carlos; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2014-12-01

    Dietary composition has an important role in shaping the gut microbiota. In turn, changes in the diet directly impinge on bacterial metabolites present in the intestinal lumen. Whether such metabolites play a role in intestinal cancer has been a topic of hot debate. In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Donohoe and colleagues show that dietary fiber protects against colorectal carcinoma in a microbiota-dependent manner. Furthermore, fiber-derived butyrate acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells experiencing the Warburg effect. PMID:25477104

  8. Sterically controlled azomethine ylide cycloaddition polymerization of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Meera; Ramanitra, Hasina H; Santos Silva, Hugo; Dowland, Simon; Bégué, Didier; Genevičius, Kristijonas; Arlauskas, Kęstutis; Juška, Gytis; Morse, Graham E; Distler, Andreas; Hiorns, Roger C

    2016-05-01

    Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is polymerized simply using a one-pot reaction to yield soluble, high molecular weight polymers. The sterically controlled azomethine ylide cycloaddition polymerization (SACAP) is demonstrated to be highly adaptable and yields polymers with probable Mn≈ 24 600 g mol(-1) and Mw≈ 73 800 g mol(-1). Products are metal-free and of possible benefit to organic and hybrid photovoltaics and electronics as they form thin films from solution and have raised LUMOs. The promising electronic properties of this new polymer are discussed. PMID:27066898

  9. Accelerated dysbiosis of gut microbiota during aggravation of DSS-induced colitis by a butyrate-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianpeng; Wu, Yanqiu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Guojun; Long, Wenmin; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Chenhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria (BPB) are potential probiotic candidates for inflammatory bowel diseases as they are often depleted in the diseased gut microbiota. However, here we found that augmentation of a human-derived butyrate-producing strain, Anaerostipes hadrus BPB5, significantly aggravated colitis in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-treated mice while exerted no detrimental effect in healthy mice. We explored how the interaction between BPB5 and gut microbiota may contribute to this differential impact on the hosts. Butyrate production and severity of colitis were assessed in both healthy and DSS-treated mice, and gut microbiota structural changes were analysed using high-throughput sequencing. BPB5-inoculated healthy mice showed no signs of colitis, but increased butyrate content in the gut. In DSS-treated mice, BPB5 augmentation did not increase butyrate content, but induced significantly more severe disease activity index and much higher mortality. BPB5 didn't induce significant changes of gut microbiota in healthy hosts, but expedited the structural shifts 3 days earlier toward the disease phase in BPB5-augmented than DSS-treated animals. The differential response of gut microbiota in healthy and DSS-treated mice to the same potentially beneficial bacterium with drastically different health consequences suggest that animals with dysbiotic gut microbiota should also be employed for the safety assessment of probiotic candidates. PMID:27264309

  10. Vancomycin treatment and butyrate supplementation modulate gut microbe composition and severity of neointimal hyperplasia after arterial injury.

    PubMed

    Ho, Karen J; Xiong, Liqun; Hubert, Nathaniel J; Nadimpalli, Anuradha; Wun, Kelly; Chang, Eugene B; Kibbe, Melina R

    2015-12-01

    Gut microbial metabolites are increasingly recognized as determinants of health and disease. However, whether host -: microbe crosstalk influences peripheral arteries is not understood. Neointimal hyperplasia, a proliferative and inflammatory response to arterial injury, frequently limits the long-term benefits of cardiovascular interventions such as angioplasty, stenting, and bypass surgery. Our goal is to assess the effect of butyrate, one of the principal short chain fatty acids produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, on neointimal hyperplasia development after angioplasty. Treatment of male Lewis Inbred rats with oral vancomycin for 4 weeks changed the composition of gut microbes as assessed by 16S rRNA-based taxonomic profiling and decreased the concentration of circulating butyrate by 69%. In addition, rats treated with oral vancomycin had exacerbated neointimal hyperplasia development after carotid angioplasty. Oral supplementation of butyrate reversed these changes. Butyrate also inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and cell cycle progression in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Our results suggest for the first time that gut microbial composition is associated with the severity of arterial remodeling after injury, potentially through an inhibitory effect of butyrate on VSMC. PMID:26660548

  11. Butyrate induces profound changes in gene expression related to multiple signal pathways in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W; Li, CongJun

    2006-01-01

    Background Global gene expression profiles of bovine kidney epithelial cells regulated by sodium butyrate were investigated with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The bovine microarray with 86,191 distinct 60mer oligonucleotides, each with 4 replicates, was designed and produced with Maskless Array Synthesizer technology. These oligonucleotides represent approximately 45,383 unique cattle sequences. Results 450 genes significantly regulated by butyrate with a median False Discovery Rate (FDR) = 0 % were identified. The majority of these genes were repressed by butyrate and associated with cell cycle control. The expression levels of 30 selected genes identified by the microarray were confirmed using real-time PCR. The results from real-time PCR positively correlated (R = 0.867) with the results from the microarray. Conclusion This study presented the genes related to multiple signal pathways such as cell cycle control and apoptosis. The profound changes in gene expression elucidate the molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of butyrate on biological processes. These findings enable better recognition of the full range of beneficial roles butyrate may play during cattle energy metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, and possibly in fighting gastrointestinal pathogens. PMID:16972989

  12. Accelerated dysbiosis of gut microbiota during aggravation of DSS-induced colitis by a butyrate-producing bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianpeng; Wu, Yanqiu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Guojun; Long, Wenmin; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Chenhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria (BPB) are potential probiotic candidates for inflammatory bowel diseases as they are often depleted in the diseased gut microbiota. However, here we found that augmentation of a human-derived butyrate-producing strain, Anaerostipes hadrus BPB5, significantly aggravated colitis in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-treated mice while exerted no detrimental effect in healthy mice. We explored how the interaction between BPB5 and gut microbiota may contribute to this differential impact on the hosts. Butyrate production and severity of colitis were assessed in both healthy and DSS-treated mice, and gut microbiota structural changes were analysed using high-throughput sequencing. BPB5-inoculated healthy mice showed no signs of colitis, but increased butyrate content in the gut. In DSS-treated mice, BPB5 augmentation did not increase butyrate content, but induced significantly more severe disease activity index and much higher mortality. BPB5 didn’t induce significant changes of gut microbiota in healthy hosts, but expedited the structural shifts 3 days earlier toward the disease phase in BPB5-augmented than DSS-treated animals. The differential response of gut microbiota in healthy and DSS-treated mice to the same potentially beneficial bacterium with drastically different health consequences suggest that animals with dysbiotic gut microbiota should also be employed for the safety assessment of probiotic candidates. PMID:27264309

  13. Butyric acid production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Liu, Xiaoguang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-02-01

    A fermentation process using Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) was developed for butyric acid production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate. SCB was first treated with dilute acid and then hydrolyzed with cellulases. The hydrolysate containing glucose and xylose was used as carbon source for the fermentation without detoxification. The bacterium was able to grow at a specific growth rate of ∼0.06 h(-1) in media containing 15-20% (w/v) SCB in serum bottles. In batch cultures in the FBB, both glucose and xylose in the SCB hydrolysate were simultaneously converted to butyrate with a high yield (0.45-0.54 g/gsugar) and productivity (0.48-0.60 g/Lh). A final butyrate concentration of 20.9 g/L was obtained in a fed-batch culture, with an overall productivity of 0.51 g/Lh and butyrate yield of 0.48 g/g sugar consumed. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using SCB as a low-cost feedstock to produce butyric acid. PMID:23270719

  14. Fed-batch strategies using butyrate for high cell density cultivation of Pseudomonas putida and its use as a biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Cerrone, Federico; Duane, Gearoid; Casey, Eoin; Davis, Reeta; Belton, Ian; Kenny, Shane T; Guzik, Maciej W; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P; O'Connor, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    A mathematically based fed-batch bioprocess demonstrated the suitability of using a relatively cheap and renewable substrate (butyric acid) for Pseudomonas putida CA-3 high cell density cultivation. Butyric acid fine-tuned addition is critical to extend the fermentation run and avoid oxygen consumption while maximising the biomass volumetric productivity. A conservative submaximal growth rate (μ of 0.25 h(-1)) achieved 71.3 g L(-1) of biomass after 42 h of fed-batch growth. When a more ambitious feed rate was supplied in order to match a μ of 0.35 h(-1), the volumetric productivity was increased to 2.0 g L(-1) h(-1), corresponding to a run of 25 h and 50 g L(-1) of biomass. Both results represent the highest biomass and the best biomass volumetric productivity with butyrate as a sole carbon source. However, medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) accumulation with butyrate grown cells is low (4 %). To achieve a higher mcl-PHA volumetric productivity, decanoate was supplied to butyrate grown cells. This strategy resulted in a PHA volumetric productivity of 4.57 g L(-1) h(-1) in the PHA production phase and 1.63 g L(-1) h(-1)over the lifetime of the fermentation, with a maximum mcl-PHA accumulation of 65 % of the cell dry weight. PMID:25104034

  15. Selective oxidation of trimethylolpropane to 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)butyric acid using growing cells of Corynebacterium sp. ATCC 21245.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Mahmoud; Dishisha, Tarek; Sayed, Waiel F; Salem, Wesam M; Temerk, Hanan A; Pyo, Sang-Hyun

    2016-03-10

    Multifunctional chemicals including hydroxycarboxylic acids are gaining increasing interest due to their growing applications in the polymer industry. One approach for their production is a biological selective oxidation of polyols, which is difficult to achieve by conventional chemical catalysis. In the present study, trimethylolpropane (TMP), a trihydric alcohol, was subjected to selective oxidation using growing cells of Corynebacterium sp. ATCC 21245 as a biocatalyst and yielding the dihydroxy-monocarboxylic acid, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)butyric acid (BHMB). The study revealed that co-substrates are crucial for this reaction. Among the different evaluated co-substrates, a mixture of glucose, xylose and acetate at a ratio of 5:5:2 was found optimum. The optimal conditions for biotransformation were pH 8, 1v/v/m airflow and 500rpm stirring speed. In batch mode of operation, 70.6% of 5g/l TMP was converted to BHMB in 10 days. For recovery of the product the adsorption pattern of BHMB to the anion exchange resin, Ambersep(®) 900 (OH(-)), was investigated in batch and column experiments giving maximum static and dynamic binding capacities of 135 and 144mg/g resin, respectively. BHMB was separated with 89.7% of recovery yield from the fermentation broth. The approach is applicable for selective oxidation of other highly branched polyols by biotransformation. PMID:26804932

  16. Depletion of Butyrate-Producing Clostridia from the Gut Microbiota Drives an Aerobic Luminal Expansion of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Zhang, Lillian F; Faber, Franziska; Lopez, Christopher A; Byndloss, Mariana X; Olsan, Erin E; Xu, Gege; Velazquez, Eric M; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-04-13

    The mammalian intestine is host to a microbial community that prevents pathogen expansion through unknown mechanisms, while antibiotic treatment can increase susceptibility to enteric pathogens. Here we show that streptomycin treatment depleted commensal, butyrate-producing Clostridia from the mouse intestinal lumen, leading to decreased butyrate levels, increased epithelial oxygenation, and aerobic expansion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Epithelial hypoxia and Salmonella restriction could be restored by tributyrin treatment. Clostridia depletion and aerobic Salmonella expansion were also observed in the absence of streptomycin treatment in genetically resistant mice but proceeded with slower kinetics and required the presence of functional Salmonella type III secretion systems. The Salmonella cytochrome bd-II oxidase synergized with nitrate reductases to drive luminal expansion, and both were required for fecal-oral transmission. We conclude that Salmonella virulence factors and antibiotic treatment promote pathogen expansion through the same mechanism: depletion of butyrate-producing Clostridia to elevate epithelial oxygenation, allowing aerobic Salmonella growth. PMID:27078066

  17. Postnatal development of the myenteric glial network and its modulation by butyrate.

    PubMed

    Cossais, François; Durand, Tony; Chevalier, Julien; Boudaud, Marie; Kermarrec, Laetitia; Aubert, Philippe; Neveu, Isabelle; Naveilhan, Philippe; Neunlist, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The postnatal period is crucial for the development of gastrointestinal (GI) functions. The enteric nervous system is a key regulator of GI functions, and increasing evidences indicate that 1) postnatal maturation of enteric neurons affect the development of GI functions, and 2) microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids can be involved in this maturation. Although enteric glial cells (EGC) are central regulators of GI functions, the postnatal evolution of their phenotype remains poorly defined. We thus characterized the postnatal evolution of EGC phenotype in the colon of rat pups and studied the effect of short-chain fatty acids on their maturation. We showed an increased expression of the glial markers GFAP and S100β during the first postnatal week. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, a structured myenteric glial network was observed at 36 days in the rat colons. Butyrate inhibited EGC proliferation in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on glial marker expression. These results indicate that the EGC myenteric network continues to develop after birth, and luminal factors such as butyrate endogenously produced in the colon may affect this development. PMID:27056724

  18. Butyrate, neuroepigenetics and the gut microbiome: Can a high fiber diet improve brain health?

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Megan W; Alim, Ishraq; Bultman, Scott J; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2016-06-20

    As interest in the gut microbiome has grown in recent years, attention has turned to the impact of our diet on our brain. The benefits of a high fiber diet in the colon have been well documented in epidemiological studies, but its potential impact on the brain has largely been understudied. Here, we will review evidence that butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of fiber in the colon, can improve brain health. Butyrate has been extensively studied as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor but also functions as a ligand for a subset of G protein-coupled receptors and as an energy metabolite. These diverse modes of action make it well suited for solving the wide array of imbalances frequently encountered in neurological disorders. In this review, we will integrate evidence from the disparate fields of gastroenterology and neuroscience to hypothesize that the metabolism of a high fiber diet in the gut can alter gene expression in the brain to prevent neurodegeneration and promote regeneration. PMID:26868600

  19. Reduction of butyrate- and methane-producing microorganisms in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pozuelo, Marta; Panda, Suchita; Santiago, Alba; Mendez, Sara; Accarino, Anna; Santos, Javier; Guarner, Francisco; Azpiroz, Fernando; Manichanh, Chaysavanh

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains unclear. Here we investigated the microbiome of a large cohort of patients to identify specific signatures for IBS subtypes. We examined the microbiome of 113 patients with IBS and 66 healthy controls. A subset of these participants provided two samples one month apart. We analyzed a total of 273 fecal samples, generating more than 20 million 16S rRNA sequences. In patients with IBS, a significantly lower microbial diversity was associated with a lower relative abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria (P = 0.002; q < 0.06), in particular in patients with IBS-D and IBS-M. IBS patients who did not receive any treatment harboured a lower abundance of Methanobacteria compared to healthy controls (P = 0.005; q = 0.05). Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between several bacterial taxa and sensation of flatulence and abdominal pain (P < 0.05). Altogether, our findings showed that IBS-M and IBS-D patients are characterized by a reduction of butyrate producing bacteria, known to improve intestinal barrier function, and a reduction of methane producing microorganisms a major mechanism of hydrogen disposal in the human colon, which could explain excess of abdominal gas in IBS. PMID:26239401

  20. Butyrate and bioactive proteolytic form of Wnt-5a regulate colonic epithelial proliferation and spatial development.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Hasebe, Takumu; Musch, Mark W; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasushi; He, Tong-Chuan; Lichtenstein, Lev; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Jabri, Bana; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Chang, Eugene B

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo, intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical β-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial β-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation. PMID:27561676

  1. Sodium butyrate ameliorates histone hypoacetylation and neurodegenerative phenotypes in a mouse model for DRPLA.

    PubMed

    Ying, Mingyao; Xu, Rener; Wu, Xiaohui; Zhu, Huaxing; Zhuang, Yuan; Han, Min; Xu, Tian

    2006-05-01

    Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by polyglutamine expansion within the Atrophin-1 protein. To study the mechanism of this disease and to test potential therapeutic methods, we established Atro-118Q transgenic mice, which express in neurons a mutant human Atrophin-1 protein that contains an expanded stretch of 118 glutamines. Consistent with the results from previous studies on transgenic mice that expressed mutant Atrophin-1 with 65 glutamines, Atro-118Q mice exhibited several neurodegenerative phenotypes that are commonly seen in DRPLA patients, including ataxia, tremors, and other motor defects. Overexpression of wild-type human Atrophin-1 could not rescue the motor and survival defects in Atro-118Q mice, indicating that the mutant protein with polyglutamine expansion does not simply function in a dominant negative manner. Biochemical analysis of Atro-118Q mice revealed hypoacetylation of histone H3 in brain tissues and thus suggested that global gene repression is an underlying mechanism for neurodegeneration in this mouse model. We further show that intraperitoneal administration of sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, ameliorated the histone acetylation defects, significantly improved motor performance, and extended the average life span of Atro-118Q mice. These results support the hypothesis that transcription deregulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of polyglutamine expansion diseases and suggest that reversion of transcription repression with small molecules such as sodium butyrate is a feasible approach to treating DRPLA symptoms. PMID:16407196

  2. Melatonin and its precursors in Y79 human retinoblastoma cells: Effect of sodium butyrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Mei Hua; Coviella, Ignacio Lopez G.; Lynch, Harry J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    The release of melatonin and the production of its precursors, S-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin, in cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells were studied. This biosynthetic capability was found to be dependent on cell differentiation, which was initiated by culturing Y79 cells for 7 days in dishes coated with poly-D-lysine to promote cell adhesion to the surface of the culture dishes. Differentiation was further induced by exposing the cell monolayer to sodium butyrate (3 mM) for 3 days. This protocol dramatically increased the release of melatonin, and the syntheses of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin in response to forskolin stimulation. Exposure to dopamine (10 micro-M) or L-DOPA (100 micro-M) markedly diminished the forskolin-stimulated release of melatonin, as well as the production of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin. These observations indicate that Y79 cells represent a primitive cell line which, following appropriate differentiation (e.g. treatment with sodium butyrate) can display biochemical characteristics similar to those of the human retina. Moreover, serotonin synthesis and melatonin release appear to be coupled in Y79 cells. The inhibition of melatonin release by dopamine supports the hypothesis that in these cells, melatonin and dopamine are components of a retinal feedback loop.

  3. Prebiotic stimulation of human colonic butyrate-producing bacteria and bifidobacteria, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Scott, Karen P; Martin, Jennifer C; Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J

    2014-01-01

    Dietary macronutrients affect the composition of the gut microbiota, and prebiotics are used to improve and maintain a healthy gut. The impact of prebiotics on dominant gut bacteria other than bifidobacteria, however, is under-researched. Here, we report carbohydrate utilisation patterns for representative butyrate-producing anaerobes, belonging to the Gram-positive Firmicutes families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, by comparison with selected Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium species. Growth assessments using anaerobic Hungate tubes and a new rapid microtitre plate assay were generally in good agreement. The Bacteroides strains tested showed some growth on basal medium with no added carbohydrates, utilising peptides in the growth medium. The butyrate-producing strains exhibited different growth profiles on the substrates, which included starch, inulin, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and xylooligosaccharides (XOS). Eleven were able to grow on short-chain FOS, but this number decreased as the chain length of the fructan substrates increased. Long-chain inulin was utilised by Roseburia inulinivorans, but by none of the Bifidobacterium species examined here. XOS was a more selective growth substrate than FOS, with only six of the 11 Firmicutes strains able to use XOS for growth. These results illustrate the selectivity of different prebiotics and help to explain why some are butyrogenic. PMID:23909466

  4. The proteomic study of sodium butyrate antiproliferative/cytodifferentiation effects on K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Grebenová, Dana; Kuzelová, Katerina; Pluskalová, Michaela; Peslová, Gabriela; Halada, Petr; Hrkal, Zbynek

    2006-01-01

    Employing methods of cell biology and proteome analysis tools, we examined effects of an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, sodium butyrate (SB), on the proliferation/differentiation characteristics of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)-derived cells K562. SB suppressed proliferation of K562 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, which was followed by their transition to G0 phase (decrease of Ki-67 antigen-positive cells) and erythroid differentiation (increased glycophorin A expression and synthesis of hemoglobins). Neither terminal apoptosis (low counts of TUNEL-positive cells) nor necrosis (moderate counts of propidium iodide-positive cells) occurred. Importantly, SB attenuated protein expression of CML-related chimeric kinase BCR-ABL that is responsible for the deregulated proliferation of CML cells. The proteomic analysis (2-D electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and/or Western blotting) revealed several proteins that were differentially expressed or their mobility was altered due to butyrate treatment, namely, HSP90, HSP70, p23, cyclophilin A (CYPA), prefoldin2 (PFD2) and alpha-, gamma-, epsilon-human globin chains. Perturbation of HSP90 multichaperone complex of which BCR-ABL is the client protein is presumably a cause of BCR-ABL suppression. Changes in other proteins with chaperonic functions, CYPA and PFD2, may reflect SB antiproliferative and cytodifferentiation effects. PMID:16978890

  5. Dietary toxicity of calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate (CaHMB).

    PubMed

    Baxter, J H; Carlos, J L; Thurmond, J; Rehani, R N; Bultman, J; Frost, D

    2005-12-01

    HMB, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl butyrate, is of interest as a dietary supplement and a possible component of functional and medical foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the calcium salt of HMB, calcium 3-hydroxy-3-methyl butyrate (CaHMB, monohydrate, food grade), when administered daily in the diet of rats for at least 90 days. Male and female Crl:CD (SD)IGS BR animals were assigned to four groups. Each group received diets containing the carrier or 1%, 2%, or 5% of CaHMB mixed with diet. Assessment of toxicity was based on mortality, clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, and clinical and anatomic pathology evaluations. Administration of CaHMB in basal diet for 91 days was tolerated well. There were no unscheduled sacrifices or deaths. There were no CaHMB-related adverse effects on clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical chemistry, hematology, absolute or relative organ weights, or macroscopic or microscopic observations. A statistically significant increase in inorganic phosphorous was observed in male animals in the 5% feeding group; however, this effect was not considered adverse. Based on the results of this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was considered to be 5% of CaHMB mixed with diet (3.49 g/kg BW for males and 4.16 g/kg BW for females). PMID:16006030

  6. Butyrate and bioactive proteolytic form of Wnt-5a regulate colonic epithelial proliferation and spatial development

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Hasebe, Takumu; Musch, Mark W.; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasushi; He, Tong-Chuan; Lichtenstein, Lev; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Jabri, Bana; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Chang, Eugene B.

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo, intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical β-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial β-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation. PMID:27561676

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Clostridium butyricum against Vascular Dementia in Mice via Metabolic Butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaming; Sun, Jing; Wang, Fangyan; Yu, Xichong; Ling, Zongxin; Li, Haixiao; Zhang, Huiqing; Jin, Jiangtao; Chen, Wenqian; Pang, Mengqi; Yu, Junjie; He, Yiwen; Xu, Jiru

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics actively participate in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the role of gut microbiota in brain disorders and vascular dementia (VaD) remains unclear. We used a mouse model of VaD induced by a permanent right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO) to investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of Clostridium butyricum. Following rUCCAO, C. butyricum was intragastrically administered for 6 successive weeks. Cognitive function was estimated. Morphological examination was performed by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. The BDNF-PI3K/Akt pathway-related proteins were assessed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The diversity of gut microbiota and the levels of butyrate in the feces and the brains were determined. The results showed that C. butyricum significantly attenuated the cognitive dysfunction and histopathological changes in VaD mice. C. butyricum not only increased the levels of BDNF and Bcl-2 and decreased level of Bax but also induced Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt) and ultimately reduced neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, C. butyricum could regulate the gut microbiota and restore the butyrate content in the feces and the brains. These results suggest that C. butyricum might be effective in the treatment of VaD by regulating the gut-brain axis and that it can be considered a new therapeutic strategy against VaD. PMID:26523278

  8. Alcohol in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorabaugh, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of alcohol use in the United States from the colonial period to the present. Discusses changes in public attitudes toward drinking. Explores attempts at prohibition, alcohol preferences, the relationship between alcohol consumption and economic prosperity, and the dichotomy of alcohol as a part of a European heritage that is…

  9. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  10. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  11. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  12. Butyrate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in intestinal cells and Crohn's mucosa through modulation of antioxidant defense machinery.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ilaria; Luciani, Alessandro; De Cicco, Paola; Troncone, Edoardo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CrD). High levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) induce the activation of the redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB), which in turn triggers the inflammatory mediators. Butyrate decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by the lamina propria mononuclear cells in CrD patients via inhibition of NF-κB activation, but how it reduces inflammation is still unclear. We suggest that butyrate controls ROS mediated NF-κB activation and thus mucosal inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa by triggering intracellular antioxidant defense systems. Intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and colonic mucosa from 14 patients with CrD and 12 controls were challenged with or without lipopolysaccaride from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS) in presence or absence of butyrate for 4 and 24 h. The effects of butyrate on oxidative stress, p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation, p65-NF-κB activation and mucosal inflammation were investigated by real time PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Our results suggest that EC-LPS challenge induces a decrease in Gluthation-S-Transferase-alpha (GSTA1/A2) mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity; enhanced levels of ROS induced by EC-LPS challenge mediates p65-NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. Furthermore butyrate treatment was seen to restore GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity and to control NF-κB activation, COX-2, ICAM-1 and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In conclusion, butyrate rescues the redox machinery and controls the intracellular ROS balance thus switching off EC-LPS induced inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. PMID:22412931

  13. Improved In Vitro Antileukemic Activity of All-Trans Retinoic Acid Loaded in Cholesteryl Butyrate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Lima, Flávia Alves; Carneiro, Guilherme; Ramos Jonas Periera; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; de Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2016-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid, a hydrophobic drug, has become one of the most successful examples of differentiation agents used for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. On the other hand, histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as cholesteryl butyrate, present differentiating activity and.can potentiate action of drugs such as all-trans retinoic acid. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent a promising alternative for administration of hydrophobic drugs such as ATRA. This study aimed to develop, characterize, and evaluate the cytotoxicity of all-trans retinoic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for leukemia treatment. The influence of in situ formation of an ion pairing between all-trans retinoic acid and lipophilic amines on the characteristics of the particles (size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency) was evaluated. Cholesteryl butyrate, a butyric acid donor, was used as a component of the lipid matrix. In vitro activity on cell viability and distribution of cell cycle phases were evaluated for HL-60, Jurkat, and THP-1 cell lines. The encapsulation efficiency of all-trans retinoic acid in cholesteryl butyrate-solid lipid nanoparticles was significantly increased by the presence of the amine. Inhibition of cell viability by all-trans retinoic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was more pronounced than the free drug. Analysis of the distribution of cell cycle phases also showed increased activity for all-trans retinoic acid-loaded cholesteryl butyrate-solid lipid nanoparticles, with a clear increase in subdiploid DNA content. The ion pair formation in SLN containing cholesteryl butyrate can be explored as a simple and inexpensive strategy to improve the efficacy and bioavail-ability of ATRA in the treatment of the cancer and metabolic diseases in which this retinoid plays an important role. PMID:27433579

  14. Induction of cellular deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in butyrate-treated cells by simian virus 40 deoxyribonucleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, S.; Diamond, L.; Baserga, R.

    1981-11-01

    Sodium butyrate (3mM) inhibited the entry into the S phase of quiescent 3T3 cells stimulated by serum, but had no effect on the accumulation of cellular ribonucleic acid. Simian virus 40 infection or manual microinjection of cloned fragments from the simian virus 40 A gene caused quiescent 3T3 cells to enter the S phase even in the presence of butyrate. NGI cells, a line of 3T3 cells transformed by simian virus 40, grew vigorously in 3 mM butyrate. Homokaryons were formed between G/sub 1/ and S-phase 3T3 cells. Butyrate inhibited the induction of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis that usually occurs in G/sub 1/ nuclei when G/sub 1/ cells are fused with S-phase cells. However, when G/sub 1/ 3T3 cells were fused with exponentially growing NGI cells, the 3T3 nuclei were induced to enter deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. In tsAF8 cells, a ribonucleic acid polymerase II mutant that stops in the G/sub 1/ phase of the cell cycle, no temporal sequence was demonstrated between the butyrate block and the temperature-sensitive block. These results confirm previous reports that certain virally coded proteins can induce cell deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in the absence of cellular functions that are required by serum-stimulated cells. The author's interpretation of these data is that butyrate inhibited cell growth by inhibiting the expression of genes required for the G/sub o/ ..-->.. G/sub 1/ ..-->.. S transition and that the product of the simian virus 40 A gene overrode this inhibition by providing all of the necessary functions for the entry into the S phase.

  15. Only fibres promoting a stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem decrease the rate of aberrant crypt foci in rats

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, P; Pierre, F; Patry, Y; Champ, M; Berreur, M; Pradal, G; Bornet, F; Meflah, K; Menanteau, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Dietary fibres have been proposed as protective agents against colon cancer but results of both epidemiological and experimental studies are inconclusive.
AIMS—Hypothesising that protection against colon cancer may be restricted to butyrate producing fibres, we investigated the factors needed for long term stable butyrate production and its relation to susceptibility to colon cancer.
METHODS—A two part randomised blinded study in rats, mimicking a prospective study in humans, was performed using a low fibre control diet (CD) and three high fibre diets: starch free wheat bran (WB), type III resistant starch (RS), and short chain fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Using a randomised block design, 96 inbred rats were fed for two, 16, 30, or 44 days to determine the period of adaptation to the diets, fermentation profiles, and effects on the colon, including mucosal proliferation on day 44. Subsequently, 36 rats fed the same diets for 44 days were injected with azoxymethane and checked for aberrant crypt foci 30 days later.
RESULTS—After fermentation had stabilised (44 days), only RS and FOS produced large amounts of butyrate, with a trophic effect in the large intestine. No difference in mucosal proliferation between the diets was noted at this time. In the subsequent experiment one month later, fewer aberrant crypt foci were present in rats fed high butyrate producing diets (RS, p=0.022; FOS, p=0.043).
CONCLUSION—A stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem related to selected fibres appears to be less conducive to colon carcinogenesis.


Keywords: fibre; fermentation; butyrate; colon carcinogenesis; aberrant crypt foci; rat PMID:11115823

  16. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  17. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  18. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    PubMed

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture. PMID:26529563

  19. Direct hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol over a ruthenium-tin bimetallic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Min; Upare, Pravin P; Chang, Jong-San; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho; Hwang, Dong Won; Hong, Do-Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Young Dok; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids and their esters, for example, cellulosic ethanol from fermentation of acetic acid and hydrogenation of ethyl acetate is a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. A hybrid conversion process based on selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose has been developed for producing biobutanol. ZnO-supported Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts exhibits unprecedentedly superior performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol (>98% yield) for 3500 h without deactivation. PMID:25123894

  20. Clinical evaluation of clobetasone butyrate: a comparative study of its effects in postoperative inflammation and on intraocular pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsell, T G; Bartholomew, R S; Walker, S R

    1980-01-01

    Clobetasone butyrate, a new corticosteroid with a high topical activity, has been compared with prednisolone phosphate and a placebo in the treatment of inflammation following cataract extraction. These 2 steroids were more effective in relieving postoperative inflammation than placebo (P less than 0.05), though no obvious clinical differences between the 2 compounds emerged from this investigation. However, a single-blind comparative study against betamethasone phosphate in patients suspected of having steroid-induced glaucoma showed that, while betamethasone phosphate significantly raised intraocular pressure, clobetasone butyrate had only a minimal effect, and this difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.02). PMID:6986899

  1. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  2. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  3. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  4. Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid interaction with the transgenic flax fibers: FT-IR and Raman spectra of the composite extracted from a GM flax.

    PubMed

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Maczka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-07-15

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman studies have been performed on commercial 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, commercial poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid as well as poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid (PHB) produced by bacteria. The data were compared to those obtained for poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid extracted from natural and genetically modified flax. Genetically modified flax was generated by expression of three bacterial genes coding for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid. Thus transgenic flaxes were enhanced with different amount of the PHB. The discussion of polymer structure and vibrational properties has been done in order to get insight into differences among these materials. The interaction between the cellulose of flax fibers and embedded poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid has been also discussed. The spectroscopic data provide evidences for structural changes in cellulose and in PHB when synthesized in fibers. Based on this data it is suggesting that cellulose and PHB interact by hydrogen and ester bonds. PMID:19328737

  5. Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid interaction with the transgenic flax fibers: FT-IR and Raman spectra of the composite extracted from a GM flax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Żuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-07-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman studies have been performed on commercial 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, commercial poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid as well as poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid (PHB) produced by bacteria. The data were compared to those obtained for poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid extracted from natural and genetically modified flax. Genetically modified flax was generated by expression of three bacterial genes coding for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid. Thus transgenic flaxes were enhanced with different amount of the PHB. The discussion of polymer structure and vibrational properties has been done in order to get insight into differences among these materials. The interaction between the cellulose of flax fibers and embedded poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid has been also discussed. The spectroscopic data provide evidences for structural changes in cellulose and in PHB when synthesized in fibers. Based on this data it is suggesting that cellulose and PHB interact by hydrogen and ester bonds.

  6. The response of gastrointestinal microbiota to avilamycin, butyrate, and plant extracts in early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M; Martín-Orúe, S M; Roca, M; Manzanilla, E G; Badiola, I; Perez, J F; Gasa, J

    2006-10-01

    An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of 3 different additives on the gastrointestinal microbiota of early-weaned pigs. Early-weaned (18 to 22 d; n = 32) pigs (6.0 +/- 0.10 kg of BW) from 8 litters were randomly distributed into 8 pens. Each pen was assigned 1 of 4 dietary treatments: a prestarter or control diet, the control diet with 0.04% avilamycin (AB), with 0.3% sodium butyrate, or with 0.03% plant extract mixture (XT; standardized mixture with 5% (wt/wt) carvacrol extracted from Origanum spp., 3% cinnamaldehyde extracted from Cinnamonum spp., and 2% capsicum oleoresin from Capsicum annum). At the end of the experimental period, 8 pigs per treatment were killed, and samples of their intestinal content were taken. The total bacterial load along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT; stomach, jejunum, cecum, and distal colon) and the lactobacilli and enterobacteria in the jejunum and cecum were measured by quantitative PCR. The total microbial counts along the GIT did not differ among the diets, but there was an increase in the lactobacilli:enterobacteria ratio in the cecum of the piglets on the XT diet (P = 0.003). Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR-amplified V3, V4, and V5 regions of the 16S rDNA gene showed changes in the structure of the microbial community in the jejunum. Dendrograms grouped animals by diets; control with 0.3% sodium butyrate was the treatment that promoted the biggest changes in the microbial ecosystem, followed by AB and then XT. Biodiversity increased when using additives compared with the control diet (P = 0.002). Microbial metabolic activity along the hindgut was studied using the concentration of purine bases and carbohydrase activities. Different patterns for purine bases were observed between diets (diet x intestinal section, P = 0.01). The control diet reached a maximum purine base concentration at the end of the colon, whereas that of the AB diet was reached at the cecum. We could not detect any cellulase

  7. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  8. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  9. Preparation, release and physicochemical characterisation of ethyl butyrate and hexanal inclusion complexes with β- and γ-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Yibin; Cao, Shengnan; Li, Songnan; Jin, Shanshan; Zhang, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Complexes of ethyl butyrate and hexanal encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) were prepared by coprecipitation, and gas chromatography was used to quantity the flavour compounds in the complexes. The ethyl butyrate-γ-CD complex had the highest inclusion ratio (12.20%) followed by the ethyl butyrate-β-CD, hexanal-β-CD and hexanal-γ-CD complexes (11.29, 4.41 and 3.33%, respectively). Release experiments were performed under different relative humidities (RH 93, 75 and 52%) and temperatures (4 and 25 °C). The flavour release behaviours of the complexes were described by the Avrami equation. The rate of flavour release was enhanced with both increasing temperature and RH, although the effect of RH was stronger. Physicochemical characterisation using FT-IR, XRD, DSC and SEM analyses demonstrated that crystalline complexes were formed. Both β-CD and γ-CD were able to encapsulate ethyl butyrate and hexanal, and lower RH and temperature were more suitable for the storage of these complexes. PMID:26471403

  10. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on net nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of growing lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if supplying butyrate to the post-ruminal gastrointestinal tract of growing lambs alters blood flow and nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic tissues. Polled Dorset wether lambs (n = 10; initial BW = 55 ± 3.3 kg) had cathet...

  11. Fabrication of Tunable Submicro- or Nano-structured Polyethylene Materials form Immiscible Blends with Cellulose Acetate Butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) was prepared into micro- or submicro-spheres or nanofibers via melt blending or extrusion of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)/LDPE immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The sizes of the PE spheres or fibers can be successfully controlled by varyi...

  12. Beneficial effects of sodium butyrate in 6-OHDA induced neurotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities: Modulation of histone deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev; Singh, Sumel

    2015-09-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have investigated the involvement of epigenetic modifications in PD. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been reported to be beneficial in cognitive and motor deficit states. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) - induced experimental PD like symptoms in rats. To produce motor deficit, 6-OHDA was administered unilaterally in the right medial forebrain bundle. Three weeks after 6-OHDA administration, the rats were challenged with apomorphine. Following this, the animals were treated with sodium butyrate (150 and 300 mg/kg i.p.) once daily for 14 days. Movement abnormalities were assessed by battery of behavioral tests. Biochemically, oxidative stress markers, neuroinflammation and dopamine were measured in striatal brain homogenate. Further, to explore the molecular mechanism(s), we measured the level of global H3 histone acetylation and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). 6-OHDA administration results in significant motor deficit along with reduction in striatal dopamine level. 6-OHDA treated rats showed elevated oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory markers. Treatment with sodium butyrate results in significant attenuation of motor deficits and increased striatal dopamine level. Moreover, sodium butyrate treatment attenuated the oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory markers. These effects occur concurrently with increased global H3 histone acetylation and BDNF levels. Thus, the observed results of the present study are indicative for the therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors in PD. PMID:26048426

  13. Pathways analysis identifies perturbation of genetic networks induced by butyrate in a bovine kidney epithelial cell line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant species have evolved to metabolize the short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), acetate, propionate, and butyrate to fulfill up to 70% of their nutrient energy requirements. The inherent VFA dependence of ruminant cells was exploited in order to add a level of increased sensitivity to the s...

  14. Effects of butyrate on the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in bovine kidney epithelial cells primarily via down-regulating cell cycle-related gene expression and enhancing expression of pro-apoptotic genes. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an essential role in these processes as well a...

  15. Butyrate Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Bovine Cells through Targeting Gene Expression relevance to DNA Replication Apparatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using both real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in bovine kidney epithelial cells, we systematically investigated the gene expression relevance to DNA replication apparatus targeted by butyrate. The real-time PCR and Western blot data generally confirmed the microarray analysis. From the quan...

  16. ChIp-seq of bovine cells (MDBK) to study butyrate-induced histone modification with 10 datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next-generation sequencing was combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technology to analyze histone modification (acetylation) induced by butyrate and to map the epigenomic landscape of normal histone H3, H4 in rumen cells of the cow. Ten variants of histone H3 and H4 modification were m...

  17. Effects of dietary humic and butyric acid on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic acid (MFG) and fat protected butyric acid (BA) has been shown to modulate energy metabolism and inflammation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of MFG and BA, alone and in combination, on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced in...

  18. [Susceptibility of spore-forming butyric acid bacteria to antimicrobial agents].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Naofumi; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Ichikawa, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents occasionally cause certain adverse effects, such as diarrhea and loose stool, by altering the composition of the intestinal flora. Antibiotic-resistant lactic acid bacteria are used to prevent these adverse effects. Although these bacteria are not resistant to several recently introduced antimicrobial agents, bacterial preparations are still sometimes prescribed concomitantly with these antimicrobial agents. In this study, we investigated whether the administration of the spore-forming butyric acid bacteria Clostridium butyricum improves the adverse clinical effects by preventing diarrhea. Inhibition of C. butyricum growth was observed with 17 of the 20 antimicrobial agents used. However, dilution of 11 of these 17 agents resulted in the regrowth of C. butyricum. These results suggest that C. butyricum may survive exposure to several antibiotic agents by forming spores. Further, a decrease in the antimicrobial agent concentration in the gastrointestinal tract permits the vegetative growth of C. butyricum, which functions as a probiotic. PMID:22790032

  19. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  20. Polyethylene-supported polyvinylidene fluoride-cellulose acetate butyrate blended polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Weishan; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Liu, Shengqi; Li, Zhao

    2013-03-01

    The polyethylene (PE)-supported polymer membranes based on the blended polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) are prepared for gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of lithium ion battery. The performances of the prepared membranes and the resulting GPEs are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear potential sweep, and charge-discharge test. The effect of the ratio of PVDF to CAB on the performance of the prepared membranes is considered. It is found that the GPE based on the blended polymer with PVDF:CAB = 2:1 (in weight) has the largest ionic conductivity (2.48 × 10-3 S cm-1) and shows good compatibility with anode and cathode of lithium ion battery. The LiCoO2/graphite battery using this GPE exhibits superior cyclic stability at room temperature, storage performance at elevated temperature, and rate performance.

  1. Regulation of T-type calcium channel expression by sodium butyrate in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Erika M; Zamora, Francis J; Puplampu-Dove, Yvonne A; Kiessu, Ezechielle; Hearne, Jennifer L; Martin-Caraballo, Miguel

    2015-02-15

    Several cellular mechanisms contribute to the neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells, including exposure to sodium butyrate (NaBu), a naturally occurring salt of the short chain fatty acid n-butyric acid. NaBu belongs to a class of histone deacetylase inhibitors with potential anticancer function. T-type calcium channel expression constitutes an important route for calcium influx in tumor cells that may trigger changes in cell proliferation and differentiation. In this work we investigated the role NaBu on the differentiation of lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cells and its effect on T-type Ca(2+) channel expression. NaBu stimulates the morphological and molecular differentiation of LNCaP cells. Stimulation of LNCaP cells with NaBu evokes a significant increase in the expression of the Cav3.2 T-type channel subunits. Furthermore, the increased Cav3.2 expression promotes membrane insertion of T-type Ca(2+) channels capable of generating fast inactivating Ca(2+) currents, sensitive to 100μM Ni(2+) ions. Inhibition of T-type Ca(2+) channel function reduces the outgrowth of neurite-like processes in LNCaP cells. NaBu-evoked expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels is also involved in the regulation of cell viability. Inhibition of T-type Ca(2+) channels causes a significant reduction in the viability of LNCaP cells treated with 1mM NaBu, suggesting that Ca(2+) influx via T-type channels can promote cell proliferation. However, increased expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels enhanced the cytotoxic effect of thapsigargin and paclitaxel on cell proliferation. These findings demonstrate that NaBu stimulates T-type Ca(2+) channel expression, thereby regulating both the morphological differentiation and growth of prostate cancer cells. PMID:25557765

  2. Low doses of arginine butyrate derivatives improve dystrophic phenotype and restore membrane integrity in DMD models.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Sara; Consolaro, Francesca; Bich, Claudia; Cancela, José-Manuel; Roulot, Morgane; Lanchec, Erwan; Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Israël, Maurice; Benoit, Evelyne; de la Porte, Sabine

    2014-06-01

    A new approach to treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy was investigated by using the ester or amide covalent association of arginine [nitric oxide (NO) pathway] and butyrate [histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition] in mdx mice and patient myotubes. Two prodrugs were synthesized, and the beneficial effects on dystrophic phenotype were studied. Nerve excitability abnormalities detected in saline-treated mice were almost totally rescued in animals treated at low doses (50-100 mg/kg/d). Force and fatigue resistance were improved ≈60% and 3.5-fold, respectively, and the percentage of necrosis in heart sections was reduced ≈90% in the treated mice. A decrease of >50% in serum creatine kinase indicated an overall improvement in the muscles. Restoration of membrane integrity was studied directly by measuring the reduction (≈74%) of Evans blue incorporation in the limb muscles of the treated animals, the increase in utrophin level, and the normalization of lipid composition of the heart. In cultures of human myotubes (primary cells and cell line), both prodrugs and HDAC inhibitors increased by 2- to 4-fold the utrophin level, which was correctly localized at the membrane. β-Dystroglycan and embryonic myosin protein levels were also increased. Finally, a 50% reduction in the number of spontaneous Ca(2+) spikes was observed after treatment with NO synthase substrate and HDAC inhibitors. Overall, the beneficial effects were obtained with doses 10 (in vivo) and 5 (in vitro) times lower than those of the salt formulation. Altogether, these data constitute proof of principle of the beneficial effects of low doses of arginine butyrate derivatives on muscular dystrophy, enhancing the NO pathway and inhibiting HDAC. PMID:24604079

  3. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on net nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if supplying butyrate to the postruminal gastrointestinal tract of growing lambs alters blood flow and nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic tissues. Polled Dorset wether lambs ( = 10; initial BW = 55 ± 3.3 kg) had catheters surgically implanted into the portal vein, a branch of the hepatic vein, a mesenteric vein, and the abdominal aorta. A cannula was placed in the abomasum to deliver the treatment. Lambs were fed a pelleted ration once daily consisting of 69.7% dehydrated alfalfa, 30.0% ground corn, and 0.3% salt at 1.3 × NE requirement. The experimental design was a crossover balanced in time, so that each lamb received both treatments. Treatments consisted of either a pulse dose infusion of butyrate (buffered solution) to supply butyrate (10 mg/kg BW) or a buffered saline solution (1 mL/kg BW) once daily at the time of feeding. On d 14 of the treatment period, nutrient fluxes were measured using para-aminohippuric acid as a blood flow marker. Blood samples were collected from the aorta, portal vein, and hepatic vein every hour for 9 h beginning at 30 min prior to treatment/feeding. There was a tendency for a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.05) for portal vein blood flow, indicating that blood flow began to decrease earlier postprandial in lambs receiving butyrate. The butyrate treatment tended to increase the uptake of O ( = 0.07) and increased the uptake of glucose ( = 0.002), glutamate ( = 0.04), and glutamine ( = 0.02) by the PDV. There was a treatment × time interaction ( < 0.01) for flux of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and valerate across the PDV. The interaction was mainly due to an earlier postprandial peak and associated decrease in the flux rate of the VFA. The alteration in timing of the postprandial peak of VFA flux was also observed in hepatic fluxes of VFA. It appears that supplying butyrate to the postruminal tissues through an abomasal cannula

  4. Effects of Early Intervention with Sodium Butyrate on Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jumei; Chen, Xue; Yu, Shuiqing; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P < 0.05). Genera Acinetobacter, Actinobacillus, Facklamia, Globicatella, Kocuria, Rothia, unclassified Leptotrichiaceae, unclassified Neisseriaceae, and unclassified Prevotellaceae in the stomach were increased in relative abundance by SB treatment, whereas the abundances of Lactobacillus decreased on day 8 (P < 0.05). At the genus and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels, SB had low impact on bacterial community in the ileum and colon on days 8 and 21. SB treatment decreased the expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the ileum of piglets on day 8

  5. Biocatalytic reduction of short-chain carboxylic acids into their corresponding alcohols with syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jose M; Richter, Hanno; Loftus, Sarah E; Angenent, Largus T

    2013-04-01

    Short-chain carboxylic acids generated by various mixed- or pure-culture fermentation processes have been considered valuable precursors for production of bioalcohols. While conversion of carboxylic acids into alcohols is routinely performed with catalytic hydrogenation or with strong chemical reducing agents, here, a biological conversion route was explored. The potential of carboxydotrophic bacteria, such as Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium ragsdalei, as biocatalysts for conversion of short-chain carboxylic acids into alcohols, using syngas as a source of electrons and energy is demonstrated. Acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, isobutyric acid, n-valeric acid, and n-caproic acid were converted into their corresponding alcohols. Furthermore, biomass yields and fermentation stoichiometry from the experimental data were modeled to determine how much metabolic energy C. ljungdahlii generated during syngas fermentation. An ATP yield of 0.4-0.5 mol of ATP per mol CO consumed was calculated in the presence of hydrogen. The ratio of protons pumped across the cell membrane versus electrons transferred from ferredoxin to NAD(+) via the Rnf complex is suggested to be 1.0. Based on these results, we provide suggestions how n-butyric acid to n-butanol conversion via syngas fermentation can be further improved. PMID:23172270

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  7. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  8. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  9. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  10. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  11. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication ...

  12. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  13. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  14. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  15. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  16. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  19. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  20. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. PMID:16475245

  1. In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

  2. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  3. Alcohol Use among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paula; Friedman, Lora

    1987-01-01

    States that adolescents begin to drink alcohol at ever younger ages, partly because they receive mixed messages from the media. Argues that drug prevention groups must project accurate, consistent, and effective messages about alcohol for youth and that schools must provide education about the specific health risks of alcohol beginning in grade…

  4. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Leslie A., Comp.

    This document reports on the relationship between alcohol abuse and battering. Several theories, e.g., the disinhibition, disavowal, and learned behavior theories concerning the relationship between alcohol abuse and family violence are discussed. Literature on the relationship between alcohol and family violence is reviewed. Five intervention and…

  5. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  6. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  7. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  8. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  9. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  10. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  11. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  12. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  13. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  14. Dose-dependent stimulatory and inhibitory effects of luminal and serosal n-butyric acid on epithelial cell proliferation of pig distal colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Akiko; Sakata, Takashi

    2005-06-01

    Large bowel bacteria convert various carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA stimulate epithelial cell proliferation of the large intestine in vivo and inhibit that of various cells in vitro. Supposing that too high concentration of SCFA on the serosal side is responsible for their inhibitory effect in vitro, we studied effects of luminal and serosal n-butyric acid (0, 0.1, 1, or 10 mmol/L, adjusted to neutral pH) on the epithelial cell proliferation rate of pig colonic mucosa in organ culture taking crypt cell production rate (CCPR) as the measure of proliferative activity. With 0 or 0.1 mmol/L n-butyric acid on the serosal side, luminal n-butyric acid increased CCPR at 1.0 mmol/L, and decreased CCPR at 10 mmol/L when compared to the luminal 0 mmol/L control. With 1.0 or 10 mmol/L serosal n-butyric acid, luminal n-butyric acid depressed CCPR dose-dependently. The above results indicated that n-butyric acid stimulated colonic epithelial cell proliferation at low concentration and inhibit it at high concentration with interaction effect to enhance the inhibitory action. The stimulatory effect of a low dose of serosal n-butyric acid may be responsible for the distant trophic effect of SCFA. PMID:16161765

  15. The short chain fatty acid, butyrate, stimulates MUC2 mucin production in the human colon cancer cell line, LS174T

    SciTech Connect

    Hatayama, Hajime; Iwashita, Jun; Kuwajima, Akiko; Abe, Tatsuya . E-mail: abetats@akita-pu.ac.jp

    2007-05-11

    The short fatty acid, butyrate, which is produced by intestinal anaerobic bacteria in the colon, has inhibitory activity on histone deacetylases (HDACs). Treatment of the human colon cancer cell line, LS174T, with 1-2 mM sodium butyrate stimulated MUC2 mucin production, as determined by histological PAS staining of carbohydrate chains of mucin, and confirmed at the protein and mRNA levels by immunoblotting with anti-MUC2 antibody and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Increases in acetylated histone H3 in the LS174T cells treated with butyrate suggest inhibition of HDACs in these cells. Butyrate-stimulated MUC2 production in the LS174T cells was inhibited by the MEK inhibitor, U0126, implicating the involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascades in this process. Proliferation of the LS174T cells was inhibited by butyrate treatment. Although apoptotic nuclear DNA fragmentation could not be detected, cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in the butyrate-treated cells was demonstrated by flow cytometry. Thus butyrate, an HDAC inhibitor, inhibits proliferation of LS174T cells but stimulates MUC2 production in individual cells.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity. PMID:26770185

  17. Butyrate greatly enhances derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells by promoting epigenetic remodeling and the expression of pluripotency-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Mali, Prashant; Chou, Bin-Kuan; Yen, Jonathan; Ye, Zhaohui; Zou, Jizhong; Dowey, Sarah; Brodsky, Robert A; Ohm, Joyce E; Yu, Wayne; Baylin, Stephen B; Yusa, Kosuke; Bradley, Allan; Meyers, David J; Mukherjee, Chandrani; Cole, Philip A; Cheng, Linzhao

    2010-04-01

    We report here that butyrate, a naturally occurring fatty acid commonly used as a nutritional supplement and differentiation agent, greatly enhances the efficiency of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell derivation from human adult or fetal fibroblasts. After transient butyrate treatment, the iPS cell derivation efficiency is enhanced by 15- to 51-fold using either retroviral or piggyBac transposon vectors expressing 4 to 5 reprogramming genes. Butyrate stimulation is more remarkable (>100- to 200-fold) on reprogramming in the absence of either KLF4 or MYC transgene. Butyrate treatment did not negatively affect properties of iPS cell lines established by either 3 or 4 retroviral vectors or a single piggyBac DNA transposon vector. These characterized iPS cell lines, including those derived from an adult patient with sickle cell disease by either the piggyBac or retroviral vectors, show normal karyotypes and pluripotency. To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of butyrate stimulation, we conducted genome-wide gene expression and promoter DNA methylation microarrays and other epigenetic analyses on established iPS cells and cells from intermediate stages of the reprogramming process. By days 6 to 12 during reprogramming, butyrate treatment enhanced histone H3 acetylation, promoter DNA demethylation, and the expression of endogenous pluripotency-associated genes, including DPPA2, whose overexpression partially substitutes for butyrate stimulation. Thus, butyrate as a cell permeable small molecule provides a simple tool to further investigate molecular mechanisms of cellular reprogramming. Moreover, butyrate stimulation provides an efficient method for reprogramming various human adult somatic cells, including cells from patients that are more refractory to reprogramming. PMID:20201064

  18. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  19. Alcohol's effect on lactation.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J

    2001-01-01

    Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce milk production. Furthermore, some of the alcohol consumed by a lactating woman is transferred to her milk and thus consumed by the infant. This alcohol consumption may adversely affect the infant's sleep and gross motor development and influence early learning about alcohol. Based on this science, it would seem that the recommendation for a nursing mother to drink a glass of beer or wine shortly before nursing may actually be counterproductive. PMID:11810962

  20. Contributions of GABA to alcohol responsivity during adolescence: Insights from preclinical and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a considerable body of literature demonstrating that adolescence is a unique age period, which includes rapid and dramatic maturation of behavioral, cognitive, hormonal and neurobiological systems. Most notably, adolescence is also a period of unique responsiveness to alcohol effects, with both hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity observed to the various effects of alcohol. Multiple neurotransmitter systems are undergoing fine-tuning during this critical period of brain development, including those that contribute to the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. The role of developmental maturation of the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, however, has received less attention in contributing to age-specific alcohol sensitivities. This review integrates GABA findings from human magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies as they may translate to understanding adolescent-specific responsiveness to alcohol effects. Better understanding of the vulnerability of the GABA system both during adolescent development, and in psychiatric conditions that include alcohol dependence, could point to a putative mechanism, boosting brain GABA, that may have increased effectiveness for treating alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24631274

  1. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  2. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  3. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Regulation of Gene Expression for Lipid Catabolism in Young Broilers by Butyrate Glycerides

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fugui; Yu, Hai; Lepp, Dion; Shi, Xuejiang; Yang, Xiaojian; Hu, Jielun; Leeson, Steve; Yang, Chengbo; Nie, Shaoping; Hou, Yongqing; Gong, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Butyrate has been shown to potently regulate energy expenditure and lipid metabolism in animals, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of butyrate (in the form of butyrate glycerides, BG)-induced lipid metabolism at the level of gene expression in the jejunum and liver of broilers. Methodology/Principal Findings Two animal experiments were included in this study. In Experiment 1, two hundred and forty male broiler chickens were equally allocated into two groups: 1) basal diet (BD), 2) BG diets (BD + BG). Growth performance was compared between treatments for the 41-day trial. In Experiment 2, forty male broiler chickens were equally allocated into two groups. The general experimental design, group and management were the same as described in Experiment 1 except for reduced bird numbers and 21-day duration of the trial. Growth performance, abdominal fat deposition, serum lipid profiles as well as serum and tissue concentrations of key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were compared between treatments. RNA-seq was employed to identify both differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and treatment specifically expressed genes (TSEGs). Functional clustering of DEGs and TSEGs and signaling pathways associated with lipid metabolism were identified using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) and DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.7 (DAVID-BR). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were subsequently conducted to further examine the expression of genes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) signaling pathway identified by DAVID-BR. Dietary BG intervention significantly reduced abdominal fat ratio (abdominal fat weight/final body weight) in broilers. The decreased fat deposition in BG-fed chickens was in accordance with serum lipid profiles as well as the level of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the serum, abdominal adipose, jejunum and liver. RNA-seq analysis

  4. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  5. Cholesteryl butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles as a butyric acid pro-drug: effects on cell proliferation, cell-cycle distribution and c-myc expression in human leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Serpe, Loredana; Laurora, Stefano; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Ugazio, Elena; Ponti, Renata; Canaparo, Roberto; Briatore, Federica; Barrera, Giuseppina; Gasco, Maria Rosa; Bernengo, Maria Grazia; Eandi, Mario; Zara, Gian Paolo

    2004-06-01

    Cholesteryl butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles (chol-but SLN) have been proposed as a pro-drug to deliver butyric acid. We compared the effects on cell growth, cell-cycle distribution and c-myc expression of chol-but SLN and sodium butyrate (Na-but) in the human leukemic cell lines Jurkat, U937 and HL-60. In all the cell lines 0.5 and 1.0 mM chol-but SLN provoked a complete block of cell growth. Cell-cycle analysis demonstrated in Jurkat cells that 0.25 mM chol-but SLN caused a pronounced increase of G2/M cells and a decrease of G0/G1 cells, whereas in U937 and HL-60 cells chol-but SLN led to a dose-dependent increase of G0/G1 cells, with a decrease of G2/M cells. In Jurkat and HL-60 cells 0.5 mM chol-but SLN induced a significant increase of sub-G0/G1 apoptotic cells. Cell growth and cell-cycle distribution were unaffected by the same concentrations of Na-but. A concentration of 0.25 mM chol-but SLN was able to cause a rapid and transient down-regulation of c-myc expression in all the cell lines, whereas 1 mM Na-but caused a slight reduction of c-myc expression only in U937 cells. The results show how chol-but SLN affects the proliferation pattern of both myeloid and lymphoid cells to an extent greater than the natural butyrate. PMID:15166628

  6. Women's alcohol use and alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kim, Sungjae

    2008-07-01

    Recently South Korean society has experienced an increase in alcohol use related problems, as well as alcohol use among women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural context of and to summarize the current state of knowledge of women's drinking in South Korea. Subscribing to Confucian principles, traditional Korean society has allowed drinking for men, but not for women. However, as society has changed, contemporary women drink at a younger age and consume larger amounts of alcohol than their prior generations. The current trends suggest an urgent need for research on the etiology and trajectory of women's alcohol use among various populations and the need to develop intervention programs tailored to the specific needs of women. PMID:18649231

  7. The effect of butyric acid with autogenous omental graft on healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Jahani, S; Moslemi, H. R.; Dehghan, M. M.; Sedaghat, R; Mazaheri Nezhad, R; Rezaee Moghaddam, D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the role of local injection of butyric acid (BA) with autogenous omental graft was evaluated in healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits. Nine adult male New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized and a partial thickness tenotomy was created on both hindlimbs. In treated group, omental graft was secured in place using BA soaked polygalactin 910 suture. In control group, the graft was sutured without BA. Butyric acid and normal saline were injected daily to treatment and control groups for three days, respectively. Based on the findings, on day 15 after injury, the tendon sections showed that healing rate in BA treated group was higher than that in control group. Furthermore, at days 28 and 45, comparison between BA treated and control groups demonstrated that BA increased the healing rate but with no significance. In summary, results of this study show that application of BA with autogenous omental graft can improve healing process of damaged Achilles tendon. PMID:27175160

  8. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth. PMID:21452895

  9. Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society. A major goal of alcohol research is to understand the neural underpinnings associated with the transition from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Positive reinforcement is important in the early stages of alcohol use and abuse. Negative reinforcement can be important early in alcohol use by people self-medicating coexisting affective disorders, but its role likely increases following the transition to dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol induces changes in neural circuits that control motivational processes, including arousal, reward, and stress. These changes affect systems utilizing the signaling molecules dopamine, opioid peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and serotonin, as well as systems modulating the brain’s stress response. These neuroadaptations produce changes in sensitivity to alcohol’s effects following repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization and tolerance) and a withdrawal state following discontinuation of alcohol use. Chronic alcohol exposure also results in persistent neural deficits, some of which may fully recover following extended periods of abstinence. However, the organism remains susceptible to relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Recent research focusing on brain arousal, reward, and stress systems is accelerating our understanding of the components of alcohol dependence and contributing to the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:19881886

  10. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  11. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-05-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  12. Modes and nodes explain the mechanism of action of vortioxetine, a multimodal agent (MMA): modifying serotonin's downstream effects on glutamate and GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) release.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2015-08-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with multiple pharmacologic modes of action at targets where serotonin neurons connect with other neurons. These actions modify the release of both glutamate and GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) within various brain circuits. PMID:26062900

  13. The Bacterial Fermentation Product Butyrate Influences Epithelial Signaling via Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Changes in Cullin-1 Neddylation1

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amrita; Wu, Huixia; Collier-Hyams, Lauren S.; Kwon, Young-Man; Hanson, Jason M.; Neish, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    The human enteric flora plays a significant role in intestinal health and disease. Populations of enteric bacteria can inhibit the NF-κB pathway by blockade of IκB-α ubiquitination, a process catalyzed by the E3-SCFβ-TrCP ubiquitin ligase. The activity of this ubiquitin ligase is regulated via covalent modification of the Cullin-1 subunit by the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8. We previously reported that interaction of viable commensal bacteria with mammalian intestinal epithelial cells resulted in a rapid and reversible generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulated neddylation of Cullin-1 and resulted in suppressive effects on the NF-κB pathway. Herein, we demonstrate that butyrate and other short chain fatty acids supplemented to model human intestinal epithelia in vitro and human tissue ex vivo results in loss of neddylated Cul-1 and show that physiological concentrations of butyrate modulate the ubiquitination and degradation of a target of the E3-SCFβ-TrCP ubiquitin ligase, the NF-κB inhibitor IκB-α. Mechanistically, we show that physiological concentrations of butyrate induces reactive oxygen species that transiently alters the intracellular redox balance and results in inactivation of the NEDD8-conjugating enzyme Ubc12 in a manner similar to effects mediated by viable bacteria. Because the normal flora produces significant amounts of butyrate and other short chain fatty acids, these data provide a functional link between a natural product of the intestinal normal flora and important epithelial inflammatory and proliferative signaling pathways. PMID:19109186

  14. Butyrate activates the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 expression in breast cancer cells and enhances the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate.

    PubMed

    Queirós, Odília; Preto, Ana; Pacheco, António; Pinheiro, Céline; Azevedo-Silva, João; Moreira, Roxana; Pedro, Madalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Baltazar, Fátima; Casal, Margarida

    2012-02-01

    Most malignant tumors exhibit the Warburg effect, which consists in increased glycolysis rates with production of lactate, even in the presence of oxygen. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), maintain these glycolytic rates, by mediating the influx and/or efflux of lactate and are overexpressed in several cancer cell types. The lactate and pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an inhibitor of the energy metabolism, which has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. In the present study, we aimed at determining the effect of 3-BP in breast cancer cells and evaluated the putative role of MCTs on this effect. Our results showed that the three breast cancer cell lines used presented different sensitivities to 3-BP: ZR-75-1 ER (+)>MCF-7 ER (+)>SK-BR-3 ER (-). We also demonstrated that 3-BP reduced lactate production, induced cell morphological alterations and increased apoptosis. The effect of 3-BP appears to be cytotoxic rather than cytostatic, as a continued decrease in cell viability was observed after removal of 3-BP. We showed that pre-incubation with butyrate enhanced significantly 3-BP cytotoxicity, especially in the most resistant breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. We observed that butyrate treatment induced localization of MCT1 in the plasma membrane as well as overexpression of MCT4 and its chaperone CD147. Our results thus indicate that butyrate pre-treatment potentiates the effect of 3-BP, most probably by increasing the rates of 3-BP transport through MCT1/4. This study supports the potential use of butyrate as adjuvant of 3-BP in the treatment of breast cancer resistant cells, namely ER (-). PMID:22350013

  15. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant. PMID:25288957

  16. Polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinyl butyral composite as a stable binder for castable supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Herbeck-Engel, P.; Grobelsek, I.; Presser, V.

    2015-04-01

    Mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinyl butyral (PVP/PVB) are attractive binders for the preparation of carbon electrodes for aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors. The use of PVP/PVB offers several key advantages: They are soluble in ethanol and can be used to spray coat or drain cast activated carbon (AC) electrodes directly on a current collector. Infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements show that the PVP-to-PVB ratio determines the degree of binder hydrophilicity. Within our study, the most favorable performance was obtained for AC electrodes with a composition of AC + 1.5 mass% PVP + 6.0 mass% PVB; such electrodes were mechanically stabile and water resistant with a PVP release of less than 5% of total PVP while PVB itself is water insoluble. Compared to when using PVDF, the specific surface area (SSA) of the assembled electrodes was 10% higher, indicating a reduced pore blocking tendency. A good electrochemical performance was observed in different aqueous electrolytes for composite electrodes with the optimized binder composition: 160 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 for 1 M H2SO4 and 6 M KOH and 120 F g-1 for 1 M NaCl. The capacitance was slightly reduced by 2.5% after cycling to 1.2 V with 1.28 A g-1 in 1 M NaCl for 10,000 times.

  17. Recycling of waste automotive laminated glass and valorization of polyvinyl butyral through mechanochemical separation.

    PubMed

    Swain, Basudev; Ryang Park, Jae; Yoon Shin, Dong; Park, Kyung-Soo; Hwan Hong, Myung; Gi Lee, Chan

    2015-10-01

    Due to strong binding, optical clarity, adhesion to many surfaces, toughness and flexibility polyvinyl butyral (PVB) resin films are commonly used in the automotive and architectural application as a protective interlayer in the laminated glass. Worldwide million tons of PVB waste generated from end-of-life automotive associated with various environmental issues. Stringent environmental directive, higher land cost eliminates land filling option, needs a study, we have developed a mechanochemical separation process to separate PVB resins from glass and characterized the separated PVB through various techniques, i.e., scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Commercial nonionic surfactants D201 used for the mechanochemical separation purpose. Through parameter optimization following conditions are considered to be the optimum condition; 30v ol% D201, stirring speed of 400 rpm, 35 °C temperature, operation time 1h, and dilute D201 volume to waste automotive laminated glass weight ratio of ≈25. The technology developed in our laboratory is sustainable, environmentally friendly, techno-economical feasible process, capable of mass production (recycling). PMID:26318256

  18. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants.

    PubMed

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut. PMID:26394008

  19. Structural alterations of adhesion mediating components in cells cultured on poly-beta-hydroxy butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Nebe, B; Forster, C; Pommerenke, H; Fulda, G; Behrend, D; Bernewski, U; Schmitz, K P; Rychly, J

    2001-09-01

    Polymers may serve as a biodegradable material in tissue engineering. To assess the biocompatibility of poly-beta-hydroxy butyric acid (PHB), we studied the structural organization of cellular molecules involved in adhesion using osteoblastic and epithelial cell lines. On PHB, both cell lines revealed a rounded cell shape due to reduced spreading. The filamentous organization of the actin cytoskeleton was impaired. In double immunofluorescence analyses we demostrated that the colocalization of the fibronectin fibrils with the actin filaments was lost in cultures on PHB. Similarly, collagen II distribution was altered, whereas the organization of collagen I was not obviously affected. Further evidence for impaired structural organization was obtained for the beta1-integrin receptor and vinculin which mediate the interaction of the cytoskeleton with the extracellular matrix. In confluent epithelial cells, the tight junction protein ZO-1 showed a larger lateral extension in the cell-cell contacts when cells were grown on PHB. Because structural organization of components which mediate cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion controls cell physiology these parameters could be a sensitive indicator for the biocompatibility of implant materials. PMID:11511040

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T.; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Nagler, Cathryn R.

    2015-09-22

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceaemore » (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. As a result, our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.« less

  1. Cortical and subcortical gamma amino acid butyric acid deficits in anxiety and stress disorders: Clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and stress disorders are a major public health issue. However, their pathophysiology is still unclear. The gamma amino acid butyric acid (GABA) neurochemical system has been strongly implicated in their pathogenesis and treatment by numerous preclinical and clinical studies, the most recent of which have been highlighted and critical review in this paper. Changes in cortical GABA appear related to normal personality styles and responses to stress. While there is accumulating animal and human neuroimaging evidence of cortical and subcortical GABA deficits across a number of anxiety conditions, a clear pattern of findings in specific brain regions for a given disorder is yet to emerge. Neuropsychiatric conditions with anxiety as a clinical feature may have GABA deficits as an underlying feature. Different classes of anxiolytic therapies support GABA function, and this may be an area in which newer GABA neuroimaging techniques could soon offer more personalized therapy. Novel GABAergic pharmacotherapies in development offer potential improvements over current therapies in reducing sedative and physiologic dependency effects, while offering rapid anxiolysis. PMID:27014597

  2. pH sensitivity of emeraldine salt polyaniline and poly(vinyl butyral) blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyen Nguyen, Hoa; Nguyen, Thi Ha; Hoang, Ngoc Vu; Ngan Le, Nguyen; Nhien Nguyen, Thi Ngoc; Chanh Tin Doan, Duc; Chien Dang, Mau

    2014-12-01

    pH sensitivity of emeraldine salt polyaniline (ES-PANI) and poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) blend film was investigated. This blend film can be used as a pH sensing element in new-type pH sensors to replace traditional instruments based on fragile glass electrodes for pH measurement of water in aquaculture farming. Structural and optical characteristic of PANI were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). Electrical characterization of ES-PANI:PVB blend films versus pH was performed with chemiresistors fabricated by micro-lithography. A ES-PANI:PVB layer was drop-coated on comb-shaped platinum electrodes patterned on SiO2/Si substrates. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope were used to investigate morphology of the fabricated platinum electrodes and the coated polymer blend films. I-V measurements of the polymer-coated chemiresistors were performed at very low relative humidity after the polymer films were exposed to pH 1-8. The results showed that logarithm of electrical resistance of the ES-PANI:PVB films increased almost linearly as pH increased from 1 to 8. The initial results showed that the PANI blend-coated chemiresistors can be used as pH sensors for water quality monitoring.

  3. Electron Affinity of Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Bryon W.; Whitaker, James B.; Wang, Xue B.; Popov, Alexey A.; Rumbles, Garry; Kopidakis, Nikos; Strauss, Steven H.; Boltalina, Olga V.

    2013-07-25

    The gas-phase electron affinity (EA) of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), one of the best-performing electron acceptors in organic photovoltaic devices, is measured by lowtemperature photoelectron spectroscopy for the first time. The obtained value of 2.63(1) eV is only ca. 0.05 eV lower than that of C60 (2.68(1) eV), compared to a 0.09 V difference in their E1/2 values measured in this work by cyclic voltammetry. Literature E(LUMO) values for PCBM that are typically estimated from cyclic voltammetry, and commonly used as a quantitative measure of acceptor properties, are dispersed over a wide range between -4.3 and -3.62 eV; the reasons for such a huge discrepancy are analyzed here, and the protocol for reliable and consistent estimations of relative fullerene-based acceptor strength in solution is proposed.

  4. Preparation and characterization of nanoparticles of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate containing acyclovir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Venkata Bharadwaz; Chopra, Maulick; Joseph, Emil; Mazumder, Sonal

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate complexed with the poorly soluble antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) were produced by precipitation process and the formulation process and properties of nanoparticles were investigated. Two different particle synthesis methods were explored—a conventional precipitation method and a rapid precipitation in a multi-inlet vortex mixer. The particles were processed by rotavap followed by freeze-drying. Particle diameters as measured by dynamic light scattering were dependent on the synthesis method used. The conventional precipitation method did not show desired particle size distribution, whereas particles prepared by the mixer showed well-defined particle size ~125-450 nm before and after freeze-drying, respectively, with narrow polydispersity indices. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed chemical stability and intactness of entrapped drug in the nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the drug was in amorphous state in the polymer matrix. ACV drug loading was around 10 wt%. The release studies showed increase in solution concentration of drug from the nanoparticles compared to the as-received crystalline drug.

  5. Negative polarity of phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester adjacent to donor macromolecule domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, Olivia J.; Wu, Meng-Yin; Johns, Gary L.; Dawidczyk, Thomas J.; Hardigree, Josué F. Martínez; Markovic, Nina; Arnold, Michael S.; Katz, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial fields within organic photovoltaics influence the movement of free charge carriers, including exciton dissociation and recombination. Open circuit voltage (Voc) can also be dependent on the interfacial fields, in the event that they modulate the energy gap between donor HOMO and acceptor LUMO. A rise in the vacuum level of the acceptor will increase the gap and the Voc, which can be beneficial for device efficiency. Here, we measure the interfacial potential differences at donor-acceptor junctions using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, and quantify how much of the potential difference originates from physical contact between the donor and acceptor. We see a statistically significant and pervasive negative polarity on the phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) side of PCBM/donor junctions, which should also be present at the complex interfaces in bulk heterojunctions. This potential difference may originate from molecular dipoles, interfacial interactions with donor materials, and/or equilibrium charge transfer due to the higher work function and electron affinity of PCBM. We show that the contact between PCBM and poly(3-hexylthiophene) doubles the interfacial potential difference, a statistically significant difference. Control experiments determined that this potential difference was not due to charges trapped in the underlying substrate. The direction of the observed potential difference would lead to increased Voc, but would also pose a barrier to electrons being injected into the PCBM and make recombination more favorable. Our method may allow unique information to be obtained in new donor-acceptor junctions.

  6. Synthesis of ZSM-5 with intracrystal or intercrystal mesopores by polyvinyl butyral templating method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Zhicheng; Kong, Dejin; Wang, Yangdong; Yuan, Xiaohong; Xie, Zaiku

    2009-03-15

    Three facile routes were utilized to synthesize ZSM-5 materials with intracrystal or intercrystal mesopores, where the polyvinyl butyral gel served as mesopore directing template. The three routes were divided into two synthesis strategies: the hydrothermal treatment of silica/PVB composite and re-crystallization of preformed zeolite precursor with the assistance of PVB gel. The fabrication of silica/PVB composite was accomplished by two routes including sol-gel process and impregnation method. The resulting composite was undergone hydrothermal treatment. During the crystallization PVB was occluded in the ZSM-5 crystal, creating intracrystal mesopores in the zeolite. The last route for the synthesis of mesoporous ZSM-5 was realized by re-crystallization of preformed ZSM-5 zeolite in the presence of PVB. This route involved the pre-crystallization of the amorphous aluminosilicate to produce the pre-formed ZSM-5 precursor. Upon further crystallization of the mixture of PVB gel and pre-formed ZSM-5, the ZSM-5 precursor was transformed into ZSM-5 aggregate of nanocrystals, while the PVB gel was occluded in the ZSM-5 particles. Removal of the template generated the typical microporosity associated with ZSM-5 structure along with intercrystal mesoporosity produced from the PVB. The mesoporous ZSM-5 exhibited enhanced catalytic activity in the toluene disproportionation and transalkylation with C(9) and C(10) aromatics. PMID:19101681

  7. Melatonin and its precursors in Y79 human retinoblastoma cells - Effect of sodium butyrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Mei H.; Lopez G.-Coviella, Ignacio; Lynch, Harry J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the release of melatonin and the production of its precursors, 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin, in cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells. This biosynthetic capability was found to be dependent on cell differentiation, which was initiated by culturing Y79 cells for 7 days in dishes coated with poly-D-lysine to promote cell adhesion to the surface of the culture dishes. Differentiation was further induced by exposing the cell monolayer to sodium butyrate (3 mM) for three days. This protocol dramatically increased the release of melatonin, and the syntheses of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin in response to forskolin stimulation. Exposure to dopamine or L-DOPA markedly diminished the forskolin-stimulated release of melatonin, as well as the production of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin. These observations indicate that Y79 cells represent a primitive cell line which, following appropriate differentiation can display biochemical characteristics similar to those of the human retina. Moreover, serotonin synthesis and melatonin release appear to be coupled in Y79 ceils.

  8. Arginine butyrate per os protects mdx mice against cardiomyopathy, kyphosis and changes in axonal excitability.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Sara; Bouyon, Sophie; Benoit, Evelyne; Sebrié, Catherine; Boerio, Delphine; Herbin, Marc; Roulot, Morgane; Fromes, Yves; de la Porte, Sabine

    2014-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive neuromuscular disease caused by lack of dystrophin, a sub-sarcolemmal protein, which leads to dramatic muscle deterioration. We studied in mdx mice, the effects of oral administration of arginine butyrate (AB), a compound currently used for the treatment of sickle cell anemia in children, on cardiomyopathy, vertebral column deformation and electromyographic abnormalities. Monthly follow-up by echocardiography from the 8th month to the 14th month showed that AB treatment protected the mdx mice against drastic reduction (20-23%) of ejection fraction and fractional shortening, and also against the ≈20% ventricular dilatation and 25% cardiac hypertrophy observed in saline-treated mdx mice. The phenotypic improvement was corroborated by the decrease in serum CK level and by better fatigue resistance. Moreover, AB treatment protected against the progressive spinal deformity observed in mdx mice, another similarity with DMD patients. The value of the kyphosis index in AB-treated mice reached 94% of the value in C57BL/10 mice. Finally, axonal excitability parameters such as the membrane resting potential, the threshold and amplitude of the action potential, the absolute and relative refractory periods and the supernormal and subnormal periods, recorded from caudal and plantar muscles in response to excitability tests, that were modified in saline-treated mdx mice were not significantly changed, compared with wild-type animals, in AB-treated mdx mice. All of these results suggest that AB could be a potential treatment for DMD patients. PMID:25167832

  9. Cortical and subcortical gamma amino acid butyric acid deficits in anxiety and stress disorders: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Andrew W

    2016-03-22

    Anxiety and stress disorders are a major public health issue. However, their pathophysiology is still unclear. The gamma amino acid butyric acid (GABA) neurochemical system has been strongly implicated in their pathogenesis and treatment by numerous preclinical and clinical studies, the most recent of which have been highlighted and critical review in this paper. Changes in cortical GABA appear related to normal personality styles and responses to stress. While there is accumulating animal and human neuroimaging evidence of cortical and subcortical GABA deficits across a number of anxiety conditions, a clear pattern of findings in specific brain regions for a given disorder is yet to emerge. Neuropsychiatric conditions with anxiety as a clinical feature may have GABA deficits as an underlying feature. Different classes of anxiolytic therapies support GABA function, and this may be an area in which newer GABA neuroimaging techniques could soon offer more personalized therapy. Novel GABAergic pharmacotherapies in development offer potential improvements over current therapies in reducing sedative and physiologic dependency effects, while offering rapid anxiolysis. PMID:27014597

  10. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  11. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  12. Conductive Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Accelerate Syntrophic Methane Production from Butyrate Oxidation in Two Different Lake Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianchao; Lu, Yahai

    2016-01-01

    Syntrophic methanogenesis is an essential link in the global carbon cycle and a key bioprocess for the disposal of organic waste and production of biogas. Recent studies suggest direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is involved in electron exchange in methanogenesis occurring in paddy soils, anaerobic digesters, and specific co-cultures with Geobacter. In this study, we evaluate the possible involvement of DIET in the syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in the enrichments from two lake sediments (an urban lake and a natural lake). The results showed that the production of CH4 was significantly accelerated in the presence of conductive nanoscale Fe3O4 or carbon nanotubes in the sediment enrichments. Observations made with fluorescence in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscope indicated that microbial aggregates were formed in the enrichments. It appeared that the average cell-to-cell distance in aggregates in nanomaterial-amended enrichments was larger than that in aggregates in the non-amended control. These results suggested that DIET-mediated syntrophic methanogenesis could occur in the lake sediments in the presence of conductive materials. Microbial community analysis of the enrichments revealed that the genera of Syntrophomonas, Sulfurospirillum, Methanosarcina, and Methanoregula were responsible for syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in lake sediment samples. The mechanism for the conductive-material-facilitated DIET in butyrate syntrophy deserves further investigation. PMID:27597850

  13. Subclinical ketosis on dairy cows in transition period in farms with contrasting butyric acid contents in silages.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). PMID:25525616

  14. Experimental and Pathalogical study of Pistacia atlantica, butyrate, Lactobacillus casei and their combination on rat ulcerative colitis model.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Mahdi; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Maqbool, Faheem; Baeeri, Maryam; Memariani, Zahra; Pousti, Iraj; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Pistacia atlantica (P. atlantica), butyrate, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and especially their combination therapy on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis model. Rats were divided into seven groups. Four groups received oral P. atlantica, butyrate, L. casei and the combination of three agents for 10 consecutive days. The remaining groups were negative and positive controls and a sham group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were carried out along with determination of the specific biomarker of colonic oxidative stress, the myeloperoxidase (MPO). Compared with controls, the combination therapy exhibited a significant alleviation of colitis in terms of pathological scores and reduction of MPO activity (55%, p=0.0009). Meanwhile, the macroscopic appearance such as stool consistency, tissue and histopathological scores (edema, necrosis and neutrophil infiltration) were improved. Although single therapy by each P. atlantica, butyrate, and L. casei was partially beneficial in reduction of colon oxidative stress markers, the combination therapy was much more effective. In conclusion, the combination therapy was able to reduce the severity of colitis that is clear from biochemical markers. Future studies have to focus on clinical effects of this combination in management of human ulcerative colitis. Further molecular and signaling pathway studies will help to understand the mechanisms involved in the treatment of colitis and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26972417

  15. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  16. Conductive Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Accelerate Syntrophic Methane Production from Butyrate Oxidation in Two Different Lake Sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianchao; Lu, Yahai

    2016-01-01

    Syntrophic methanogenesis is an essential link in the global carbon cycle and a key bioprocess for the disposal of organic waste and production of biogas. Recent studies suggest direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is involved in electron exchange in methanogenesis occurring in paddy soils, anaerobic digesters, and specific co-cultures with Geobacter. In this study, we evaluate the possible involvement of DIET in the syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in the enrichments from two lake sediments (an urban lake and a natural lake). The results showed that the production of CH4 was significantly accelerated in the presence of conductive nanoscale Fe3O4 or carbon nanotubes in the sediment enrichments. Observations made with fluorescence in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscope indicated that microbial aggregates were formed in the enrichments. It appeared that the average cell-to-cell distance in aggregates in nanomaterial-amended enrichments was larger than that in aggregates in the non-amended control. These results suggested that DIET-mediated syntrophic methanogenesis could occur in the lake sediments in the presence of conductive materials. Microbial community analysis of the enrichments revealed that the genera of Syntrophomonas, Sulfurospirillum, Methanosarcina, and Methanoregula were responsible for syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in lake sediment samples. The mechanism for the conductive-material-facilitated DIET in butyrate syntrophy deserves further investigation. PMID:27597850

  17. Subclinical Ketosis on Dairy Cows in Transition Period in Farms with Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents in Silages

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). PMID:25525616

  18. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  19. A comparison of three pH control methods for revealing effects of undissociated butyric acid on specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    pH control has been essential for butanol production with Clostridium acetobutylicum. However, it is not very clear at what pH level the acid crash will occur, at what pH level butanol production will be dominant, and at what pH level butyric acid production will be prevailing. Furthermore, contradictory results have been reported about required acidic conditions for initiation of solventogenesis. In this study, with the aim of further understanding the role of undissociated butyric acid in butanol production, we investigated the correlation between undissociated butyric acid concentration and specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum by comparing three pH control approaches: NaOH neutralization (at 12, 24 or 36 h), CaCO3 supplementation (2, 5, or 8 g/l) and NaOAc buffering (pH 4.6, 5.0 or 5.6). By neutralizing the fermentation pH to ~5.0 at different time, we observed that neutralization should take place at the beginning of exponential phase (12 h), and otherwise resulting in lower concentrations of undissociated butyric acid, cell biomass and final butanol. CaCO3 supplementation extended cell growth to 36 h and resulted in higher butyrate yield under 8 g/L of CaCO3. In the NaOAc buffering, the highest specific butanol rate (0.58 h−1) was associated with the highest undissociated butyric acid (1.92 g/L). The linear correlation of the undissociated butyric acid with the specific butanol production rates suggested the undissociated butyric acid could be the major driving force for butanol production. PMID:23294525

  20. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  1. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  2. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  3. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  4. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  5. Efficacy of the dietary histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate alone or in combination with vitamin A against proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Andrade, F O; Nagamine, M K; Conti, A De; Chaible, L M; Fontelles, C C; Jordão Junior, A A; Vannucchi, H; Dagli, M L Z; Bassoli, B K; Moreno, F S; Ong, T P

    2012-09-01

    The combined treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and retinoids has been suggested as a potential epigenetic strategy for the control of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treatment with butyrate, a dietary HDACi, combined with vitamin A on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the crystal violet staining method. MCF-7 cells were plated at 5 x 10(4) cells/mL and treated with butyrate (1 mM) alone or combined with vitamin A (10 µM) for 24 to 120 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was 34, 10 and 46% following treatment with butyrate, vitamin A and their combination, respectively, suggesting that vitamin A potentiated the inhibitory activities of butyrate. Furthermore, exposure to this short-chain fatty acid increased the level of histone H3K9 acetylation by 9.5-fold (Western blot), but not of H4K16, and increased the expression levels of p21WAF1 by 2.7-fold (Western blot) and of RARβ by 2.0-fold (quantitative real-time PCR). Our data show that RARβ may represent a molecular target for butyrate in breast cancer cells. Due to its effectiveness as a dietary HDACi, butyrate should be considered for use in combinatorial strategies with more active retinoids, especially in breast cancers in which RARβ is epigenetically altered. PMID:22714808

  6. Glucocorticoid receptor-dependent disruption of a specific nucleosome on the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter is prevented by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed Central

    Bresnick, E H; John, S; Berard, D S; LeFebvre, P; Hager, G L

    1990-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously developed cell lines derived from mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and C127 mammary tumor cells that stably express mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat fusion genes in bovine papillomavirus-based episomes. Glucocorticoid hormone strongly activates transcription from episomes and induces the disruption of a single nucleosome in an array of phased nucleosomes on the MMTV promoter. Sodium butyrate inhibits the glucocorticoid hormone-dependent development of a nuclease-hypersensitive site that is due to the displacement of this nucleosome, and inhibits induction of RNA transcripts from episomes. Saturation binding studies show that butyrate treatment does not significantly affect the amount or the hormone-binding affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor. In a transient transfection assay, glucocorticoid hormone can activate transcription from a MMTV long terminal repeat-driven luciferase gene construct equivalently in untreated and butyrate-treated cells, indicating that the soluble factors necessary for transactivation of the MMTV promoter are unaffected by butyrate. The differential effect of butyrate on the induction of stable chromatin templates and transiently expressed plasmids suggests that butyrate prevents nucleosome displacement and represses transcription by inducing a modification of chromatin. Images PMID:2160080

  7. Attendance at Alcohol-Free and Alcohol-Service Parties and Alcohol Consumption among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P.; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. Method A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Results Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. Conclusions The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. PMID:20188482

  8. Three Aspects of Alcoholism: The Recovering Alcoholic, Adult Child of an Alcoholic, and Mother of an Alcoholic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briles, Amanda

    This paper focuses on shedding light on three aspects--or faces--of alcoholism. The paper, in an interview format, presents the perspectives of the recovering alcoholic, a mother of the recovering alcoholic, and the adult child of an alcoholic. It also provides brief medical definitions of the various types of alcoholism. The paper points out that…

  9. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  11. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

  12. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  13. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  14. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  15. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  16. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  17. Effect of feeding sodium butyrate in the late finishing period on Salmonella carriage, seroprevalence, and growth of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Walia, Kavita; Argüello, Hector; Lynch, Helen; Leonard, Finola C; Grant, Jim; Yearsley, Dermot; Kelly, Sinead; Duffy, Geraldine; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2016-09-01

    Pork is an important source of human salmonellosis and low-cost on-farm control measures may provide a useful element in reducing the prevalence of this pathogen in food. This study investigated the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with sodium butyrate administered to finisher pigs for ∼4-weeks prior to slaughter to control Salmonella shedding on highly contaminated farms. Two trials (A and B) were conducted on two commercial pig farms, which had a history of high Salmonella seroprevalence. In both trials, pens (14 pens of 12 pigs/pen in Trial A and 12 pens of 12-17 pigs/pen in Trial B) were randomly assigned to a control (finisher feed without additive) or a treatment group (the same feed with 3kg sodium butyrate/t) for 24-28days, depending on the trial. Faeces were collected from each pig on days 0, 12 and 24/28, and blood, caecal digesta and ileocaecal/mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from the slaughterhouse. Pigs were weighed at the start and end of the trials, feed intake was recorded, and carcass quality parameters were recorded at slaughter. In Trial A, Salmonella shedding was reduced in the treatment compared to the control group at the end of the trial (30% versus 57% probability of detecting Salmonella in faeces, respectively; p<0.001). This reflected the serology results, with detection of a lower seroprevalence in the treatment compared to the control group using the 20% optical density cut-off (69.5% versus 89%; p=0.001). However, no effect on faecal shedding or seroprevalance was observed in Trial B, which may be explained by the detection of a concomitant infection with Lawsonia intracellularis. No significant differences in Salmonella recovery rates were observed in the caecal digesta or lymph nodes in either trial. Furthermore, feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) did not differ between groups (p>0.05) in either trial. Numerical improvements in weight gain and FCE were found with sodium butyrate treatment

  18. [Alcohol and myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Kaiser, A; Ferency, I; Maisch, B

    1996-08-01

    The direct toxic effect of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde has been demonstrated both in laboratory animals and in humans. Alterations in the mitochondrial ultrastructure and the dilatation of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum have been shown after an acute infusion of alcohol in the heart. These changes correlate with decreased mitochondrial function, defects in protein synthesis and the occurrence of arrhythmias. The risk of developing alcoholic cardiomyopathy is related to both the mean daily alcohol intake and the duration of drinking, but there is much individual susceptibility to the toxic effect of alcohol. Most patients, in whom alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops, have been drinking over 80 g/d for more than 5 years. The clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy reflects the coexistence of global myocardial dysfunction in a heavy drinker in whom no other cause for myocardial disease was found. In studies focussing on alcoholic cardiomyopathy the surprising histologic findings in endomyocardial biopsy in about 30% of all cases was myocarditis with a lymphocytic infiltrate in association with myocyte degeneration or focal necrosis. In myocarditis, the network of microtubules and intermediate filaments is also disrupted by the inflammatory reaction which involves resident cells (myocytes, fibroblasts, endothel cells) and systemic cells (granulocytes, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes). Changes in the cardiac cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix may affect contractile function, since the cytoskeleton organizes the intra- and intercellular architecture. After all, in patients with alcohol abuse and myocarditis the immune functioning appears to be compromised. Several studies suggest that heavy drinking alters both lymphocyte and granulocyte production and function. Alcohol consumption per se might harm the immune system. Furthermore, the myocardial damage due to alcohol consumption could initiate autoreactive mechanisms comparable to those in viral

  19. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  20. SKW 6.4 cell differentiation induced by interleukin 6 is stimulated by butyrate.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, T; Gohda, E; Iji, H; Fujiwara, M; Yamamoto, I

    1998-08-01

    We investigated if sodium butyrate (NaBu), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, and its analogs modulate cytokine-induced differentiation of the human B cell line SKW 6.4 transformed by the Epstein-Barr virus. NaBu markedly enhanced interleukin (IL)-6-induced IgM production with an accompanying increase in the level of histone H4 acetylation and augmented IgM production induced by IL-4 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. From both the enhancing effect of cell differentiation and the effect of inducing histone hyperacetylation in SKW 6.4 cells, other histone deacetylase inhibitors and NaBu analogs were divided into three groups: those that increased both IL-6-induced antibody production and histone acetylation, those that caused histone hyperacetylation, but failed to induce the differentiation, and those that were ineffective at inducing either activity. No agent that enhanced IgM production without inducing histone hyperacetylation was found among the inhibitors and analogs we tested. These results suggest that the increase in the histone acetylation is necessary, but it is insufficient to augment differentiation of SKW 6.4 cells. Thus another activity of NaBu in addition to the inhibition of histone deacetylase may be involved in promoting IL-6-induced differentiation. Our results also suggest that fatty acids that have a straight chain of four carbon atoms or are branched with four and five carbon atoms, which contain no hydrophilic substituents, or those with similar structures, show this other activity. PMID:9826026

  1. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves.

    PubMed

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Kiljanczyk, R; Flaga, J; Holst, J J; Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R

    2009-10-01

    Rumen development is an important factor determining early solid feed intake and performance in cattle. A popular trend towards early weaning of newborn dairy calves necessitated looking for ways of accelerating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. The present study aimed to determine the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment up to age of 26 days. Addition of NaB to milk replacer and starter diet had no effect on daily growth rate, but reduced the weight loss observed in C calves in first 11 days of age. Additionally, the NaB calves weighed more at the end of the study and tended to have higher growth rate in the whole trial period (P<0.15). The NaB calves showed a tendency toward higher reticulorumen weight (P=0.13) and higher reticulorumen weight expressed as a percent of whole stomach weight (P=0.02) as compared to control. Histometry analysis indicated larger rumen papillae length and width (P<0.01) in NaB group, and no change in muscle layer thickness, as compared to control. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 relative increase was higher in NaB group than in C group, and may be involved in rumen development. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet (milk replacer and starter diet) with NaB may enhance rumen development in neonatal calves. PMID:19996481

  2. Cell-associated alpha-amylases of butyrate-producing Firmicute bacteria from the human colon.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Alan G; Scott, Karen P; Martin, Jenny C; Rincon, Marco T; Flint, Harry J

    2006-11-01

    Selected butyrate-producing bacteria from the human colon that are related to Roseburia spp. and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens showed a good ability to utilize a variety of starches for growth when compared with the Gram-negative amylolytic anaerobe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. A major cell-associated amylase of high molecular mass (140-210 kDa) was detected in each strain by SDS-PAGE zymogram analysis, and genes corresponding to these enzymes were analysed for two representative strains. Amy13B from But. fibrisolvens 16/4 is a multi-domain enzyme of 144.6 kDa that includes a family 13 glycoside hydrolase domain, and duplicated family 26 carbohydrate-binding modules. Amy13A (182.4 kDa), from Roseburia inulinivorans A2-194, also includes a family 13 domain, which is preceded by two repeat units of approximately 116 aa rich in aromatic residues, an isoamylase N-terminal domain, a pullulanase-associated domain, and an additional unidentified domain. Both Amy13A and Amy13B have N-terminal signal peptides and C-terminal cell-wall sorting signals, including a modified LPXTG motif similar to that involved in interactions with the cell surface in other Gram-positive bacteria, a hydrophobic transmembrane segment, and a basic C terminus. The overexpressed family 13 domains showed an absolute requirement for Mg2+ or Ca2+ for activity, and functioned as 1,4-alpha-glucanohydrolases (alpha-amylases; EC 3.2.1.1). These major starch-degrading enzymes thus appear to be anchored to the cell wall in this important group of human gut bacteria. PMID:17074899

  3. The niacin/butyrate receptor GPR109A suppresses mammary tumorigenesis by inhibiting cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Elangovan, Selvakumar; Pathania, Rajneesh; Ramachandran, Sabarish; Ananth, Sudha; Padia, Ravi N.; Lan, Ling; Singh, Nagendra; Martin, Pamela M.; Hawthorn, Lesleyann; Prasad, Puttur D.; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Thangaraju, Muthusamy

    2014-01-01

    GPR109A, a G-protein-coupled receptor, is activated by niacin and butyrate. Upon activation in colonocytes, GPR109A potentiates anti-inflammatory pathways, induces apoptosis, and protects against inflammation-induced colon cancer. In contrast, GPR109A activation in keratinocytes induces flushing by activation of Cox-2-dependent inflammatory signaling and, the receptor expression is upregulated in human epidermoid carcinoma. Thus, depending on the cellular context and tissue, GPR109A functions either as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter. However, the expression status and the functional implications of this receptor in the mammary epithelium are not known. Here we show that GPR109A is expressed in normal mammary tissue and, irrespective of the hormone receptor status, its expression is silenced in human primary breast tumor tissues, breast cancer cell lines, and in tumor tissues of three different murine mammary tumor models. Functional expression of this receptor in human breast cancer cell lines decreases cAMP production, induces apoptosis, and blocks colony formation and mammary tumor growth. Transcriptome analysis revealed that GPR109A activation inhibits genes, which are involved in cell survival and anti-apoptotic signaling, in human breast cancer cells. In addition, deletion of Gpr109a in mice increased tumor incidence and triggered early onset of mammary tumorigenesis with increased lung metastasis in MMTV-Neu mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer. These findings suggest that GPR109A is a tumor suppressor in mammary gland and that pharmacological induction of this gene in tumor tissues followed by its activation with agonists could be an effective therapeutic strategy to treat breast cancer. PMID:24371223

  4. HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate augments the MEF2C enhancement of Nampt expression under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shao-Fei; You, Hong-Jie; Xing, Tian-Yu; Zhang, Chen-Guang; Ding, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the salvage biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Although elevated level of Nampt expression has been observed in various cancers, the involvement of Nampt promoter regulation was not well understood. We have identified a cluster of MEF2 recognition sites upstream of the functional hypoxia response elements (HREs) within the human Nampt promoter, and demonstrated that the two MEF2 sites at -1272 and -1200 were functional to upregulate the promoter activity by luciferase reporter assays. The Nampt promoter was able to be activated cooperatively following hypoxic stimulation by CoCl₂ treatment with associated MEF2C overexpression. During the investigation on MEF2C regulation of endogenous Nampt expression in HeLa cells, the most significant enhancement of Nampt expression observed was by overexpression of MEF2C in combination with sodium butyrate exposure. By chromatin immunoprecipitation with a MEF2C anti-body, we found that MEF2C indeed interacted with endogenous Nampt promoter. The requirement of HDAC inhibition for the MEF2C enhancement of Nampt transcription was verified by RNAi of HDAC. Our results were in support of reports indicating that MEF2 family transcription factors interacted with HDACs and regulated downstream gene expression at the epigenetic levels. Our study provided important evidence to demonstrate the sophisticated mechanism of endogenous Nampt promoter regulation, and therefore, will help to better understand the Nampt overexpression in cancer progression, especially in the context of MEF2C upregulation which frequently occurred in cancer development and drug resistance. PMID:23888946

  5. Rooting response of five pomegranate varieties to indole butyric acid concentration and cuttings age.

    PubMed

    Owais, Saed J

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cutting age and Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) treatments on five pomegranate varieties propagation by stem cuttings. The experiment was carried out in a partially controlled glasshouse conditions at Mutah University, Jordan. The treatments comprised of two types of cuttings, i.e., hardwood and semi-hardwood; five concentrations of IBA, i.e., 3,000, 6,000, 9,000 and 12,000 ppm as quick dip (10 sec) as well as five Jordanian pomegranate varieties (Kdaree Hello, Hmadee Hmaree, Kdaree Sfaree, Zeklabi, Maleese). In this study, the percentage of cuttings that rooted, the number of roots produced per cutting, root length and diameter and root weight per cutting were recorded. It was obvious that the rootability of pomegranate is influenced by the interactive effect of cuttings age, IBA concentration and variety as well as by the single effect of either. The cuttings taken from hardwood stems had higher rooting percentage than those taken from semi-hardwood stems with a considerable differences in rootability between varieties under this study. The highest percentage of cuttings that rooted was observed in Hmadee Hmaree (70%), Zeklabee (69%) and Malesse (73%), while the lowest rooting percentage in Khdaree Hello (58%) and Kdaree Sfaree (49%) varieties. Zeklabee and Hmadee Hmaree varieties when compared with other varieties gave more favorable results at 6000 to 9000 ppm IBA in terms of the percentage of cuttings that rooted, the number of roots produced per cutting and root weight per cutting using both semi- and hard-wood cuttings. It was concluded that the increasing dose of IBA could be useful in increasing rooting potential and other root characteristics in pomegranate. PMID:20415137

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Sodium Butyrate against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Fangyan; Li, Haixiao; Zhang, Huiqing; Jin, Jiangtao; Chen, Wenqian; Pang, Mengqi; Yu, Junjie; He, Yiwen; Liu, Jiaming; Liu, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaB) is a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber and serves as an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system. In this study, we further investigated that NaB attenuated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo and its possible mechanisms. NaB (5, 10 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically 3 h after the onset of reperfusion in bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) mice. After 24 h of reperfusion, neurological deficits scores were estimated. Morphological examination was performed by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. The levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Apoptotic neurons were measured by TUNEL; apoptosis-related protein caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, the phosphorylation Akt (p-Akt), and BDNF were assayed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that 10 mg/kg NaB treatment significantly ameliorated neurological deficit and histopathology changes in cerebral I/R injury. Moreover, 10 mg/kg NaB treatment markedly restored the levels of MDA, SOD, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-8. 10 mg/kg NaB treatment also remarkably inhibited the apoptosis, decreasing the levels of caspase-3 and Bax and increasing the levels of Bcl-2, p-Akt, and BDNF. This study suggested that NaB exerts neuroprotective effects on cerebral I/R injury by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties and BDNF-PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in antiapoptotic effect. PMID:26064905

  7. Alcohol and Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from computerized…

  8. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  9. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the tube change colors (from yellow to green), depending on the alcohol content. Carefully read the ... When 1 band is green, it means that the blood-alcohol level is 0.05% or lower. 2 green bands mean levels of 0.05% ...

  10. Alcohol on wheels.

    PubMed

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  11. Occupational therapy in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rotert, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gorski describes "abstinence plus a full return to biopsychosocial functioning as the indicator of successful recovery," and "relapse ... as the process of becoming dysfunctional in recovery." Occupational therapy supports a biopsychosocial premise in assisting the alcoholic to establish a sober lifestyle for recovery as a part of treatment. Adolph Meyer said, "If the goal of alcoholism treatment is abstinence, then the alcoholic patient must be instructed and guided to organize his time and build up habits of work and leisure which are free of alcohol." In order to attain satisfaction in recovery, the alcoholic must develop a balanced lifestyle. This balanced lifestyle will be for competent role performance in all roles. Sobriety can restore something the alcoholic has lost. The alcoholic can be a contributing member of society; have feelings of self respect; participate in relationships with family, friends, and coworkers; and return to work, social, and leisure environments. Zackon identified lifestyle rehabilitation as the second track of recovery. He also listed the key tasks of secondary recovery as deaddiction, learning new pleasures, social integration, and creating new goals. It is in these key tasks that occupational therapy can provide significant input and feedback to the alcoholic. PMID:2658155

  12. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  13. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks ... A baby with fetal alcohol syndrome may have the following symptoms: Poor growth while the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle ...

  14. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  17. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  18. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  19. [Changing alcohol abuse patterns].

    PubMed

    Batel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    While it has been steadily declining since the 1960s, though at a slower pace over the last 5 years, the average alcohol consumption per capita and per year in France remains one of the highest in Europe. The available general population surveys reveal that the most visible change is the type of alcohol abuse. Two emerging trends have been observed over the last ten years, and seem to be worsening: the transfer from daily drinking to weekend drinking, and the increase in isolated risk-taking related to acute alcoholization associated with more-or-less conscious inebriation episodes. These changes require adapting prevention messages, the development of alcohol risk screening strategies in emergency units and the assessment of therapeutic programs aiming at reducing the risks of alcohol consumption rather than maintaining abstinence. PMID:22288346

  20. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  1. Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Its Synthetic Amide Derivative on Liver Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in an Animal Model of Steatosis Induced by High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Simeoli, Raffaele; Russo, Roberto; Iacono, Anna; Santoro, Anna; Paciello, Orlando; Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Canani, Roberto Berni; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease. Insulin resistance (IR) appears to be critical in its pathogenesis. We evaluated the effects of sodium butyrate (butyrate) and its synthetic derivative N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide (FBA) in a rat model of insulin resistance and steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD). Methods After weaning, young male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups receiving different diets for 6 weeks: 1. control group (standard diet); 2. HFD; 3. HFD plus butyrate (20 mg/kg/die) and 4. HFD plus FBA (42.5 mg/Kg/die, the equimolecular dose of butyrate). Liver tissues of the rats were analyzed by Western blot and real-time PCR. Insulin resistance, liver inflammation and Toll-like pattern modifications were determined. Results Evaluation of these two preparations of butyrate showed a reduction of liver steatosis and inflammation in HFD fed animals. The compounds showed a similar potency in the normalisation of several variables, such as transaminases, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index, and glucose tolerance. Both treatments significantly reduced hepatic TNF-α expression and restored GLUTs and PPARs, either in liver or adipose tissue. Finally, FBA showed a higher potency in reducing pro-inflammatory parameters in the liver, via suppression of Toll-like receptors and NF-κB activation. Conclusions Our results demonstrated a protective effect of butyrate in limiting molecular events underlying the onset of IR and NAFLD, suggesting a potential clinical relevance for this substance. In particular, its derivative, FBA, could represent an alternative therapeutic option to sodium butyrate, sharing a comparable efficacy, but a better palatability and compliance. PMID:23861927

  2. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  3. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  4. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  6. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  7. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  8. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  9. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  10. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  11. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  12. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  13. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  14. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  15. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  16. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  17. Utilizing Alcohol Expectancies in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.

    The heterogeneity of alcoholic populations may be one reason that few specific therapeutic approaches to the treatment of alcoholism have been consistently demonstrated to improve treatment outome across studies. To individualize alcoholism treatment, dimensions which are linked to drinking or relapse and along which alcoholics display significant…

  18. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  19. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  20. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  1. A kinetic-metabolic model based on cell energetic state: study of CHO cell behavior under Na-butyrate stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ghorbaniaghdam, Atefeh; Henry, Olivier; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2013-04-01

    A kinetic-metabolic model approach describing and simulating Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell behavior is presented. The model includes glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, TCA cycle, respiratory chain, redox state and energetic metabolism. Growth kinetic is defined as a function of the major precursors for the synthesis of cell building blocks. Michaelis-Menten type kinetic is used for metabolic intermediates as well as for regulatory functions from energy shuttles (ATP/ADP) and cofactors (NAD/H and NADP/H). Model structure and parameters were first calibrated using results from bioreactor cultures of CHO cells expressing recombinant t-PA. It is shown that the model can simulate experimental data for all available experimental data, such as extracellular glucose, glutamine, lactate and ammonium concentration time profiles, as well as cell energetic state. A sensitivity analysis allowed identifying the most sensitive parameters. The model was then shown to be readily adaptable for studying the effect of sodium butyrate on CHO cells metabolism, where it was applied to the cases with sodium butyrate addition either at mid-exponential growth phase (48 h) or at the early plateau phase (74 h). In both cases, a global optimization routine was used for the simultaneous estimation of the most sensitive parameters, while the insensitive parameters were considered as constants. Finally, confidence intervals for the estimated parameters were calculated. Results presented here further substantiate our previous findings that butyrate treatment at mid-exponential phase may cause a shift in cellular metabolism toward a sustained and increased efficiency of glucose utilization channeled through the TCA cycle. PMID:22976819

  2. Butyric Acid- and Dimethyl Disulfide-Assimilating Microorganisms in a Biofilter Treating Air Emissions from a Livestock Facility▿

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Anja; Lindholst, Sabine; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Per H.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2011-01-01

    Biofiltration has proven an efficient tool for the elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia from livestock facilities, thereby reducing nuisance odors and ammonia emissions to the local environment. The active microbial communities comprising these filter biofilms have not been well characterized. In this study, a trickle biofilter treating air from a pig facility was investigated and proved efficient in removing carboxylic acids (>70% reduction), mainly attributed to the primary filter section within which reduced organic sulfur compounds were also depleted (up to 50%). The secondary filter eliminated several aromatic compounds: phenol (81%), p-cresol (89%), 4-ethylphenol (68%), indole (48%), and skatole (69%). The active butyric acid degrading bacterial community of an air filter sample was identified by DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and microautoradiography, combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH). The predominant 16S rRNA gene sequences from a clone library derived from “heavy” DNA from [13C4]butyric acid incubations were Microbacterium, Gordonia, Dietzia, Rhodococcus, Propionibacterium, and Janibacter, all from the Actinobacteria. Actinobacteria were confirmed and quantified by MAR-FISH as being the major bacterial phylum assimilating butyric acid along with several Burkholderiales-related Betaproteobacteria. The active bacterial community assimilating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was characterized by DNA-SIP and MAR-FISH and found to be associated with the Actinobacteria, along with a few representatives of Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. Interestingly, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria were also implicated in DMDS degradation, as were fungi. Thus, multiple isotope-based methods provided complementary data, enabling high-resolution identification and quantitative assessments of odor-eliminating Actinobacteria-dominated populations of these biofilter environments. PMID:22003018

  3. Management of traveller's diarrhoea with a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Mackiewicz, Jacek; Wejman-Matela, Anna; Krokowicz, Piotr; Drews, Michal; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Traveller's diarrhoea (TD), defined by UNICEF/WHO as three or more unformed stools with or without other symptoms, imposes a considerable burden on travellers from developed countries. Various efforts have focused on decreasing the prevalence and severity of this condition. Aim To assess the efficacy of a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide in treatment providing symptomatic relief of TD. Material and methods The study was conducted in accordance with a protocol presented to the Bioethical committee of Poznan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 278 patients travelling to countries with higher risk of diarrhoea for at least 10 days were divided into a study arm being administered, in case of TD, a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide (n = 139) and a placebo arm (n = 139) with placebo administration. Results Forty-seven patients completed the study (22 in the study arm and 25 in the placebo arm). The diarrhoea occurrence after initiation of treatment at first symptoms was significantly lower in the study arm as compared to the placebo arm (9% vs. 36%, p = 0.041). Also, subjects from the study arm more frequently reported that the regimen administered had been efficient for their symptoms in comparison to the placebo arm (72.7% vs. 32%, p = 0.008). No adverse effects of the administered medication were noted during the study. Conclusions Sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide can be successful in decreasing symptoms of TD. Because of its efficacy and lack of observed side effects it has a strong potential in the treatment of patients with TD. PMID:25396003

  4. Chemostat Enrichments of Human Feces with Resistant Starch Are Selective for Adherent Butyrate-Producing Clostridia at High Dilution Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Richard; Macfarlane, George T.

    2000-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) enrichments were made using chemostats inoculated with human feces from two individuals at two dilution rates (D = 0.03 h−1 and D = 0.30 h−1) to select for slow- and fast-growing amylolytic communities. The fermentations were studied by analysis of short-chain fatty acids, amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and viable counts of the predominant culturable populations and the use of 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Considerable butyrate was produced at D = 0.30 h−1, which corresponded with reduced branched-chain fatty acid formation. At both dilution rates, high levels of extracellular amylase activity were produced, while α-glucosidase was predominantly cell associated. Bacteroides and bifidobacteria predominated at the low dilution rate, whereas saccharolytic clostridia became more important at D = 0.30 h−1. Microscopic examination showed that within 48 h of inoculation, one particular bacterial morphotype predominated in RS enrichments at D = 0.30 h−1. This organism attached apically to RS granules and formed rosette-like structures which, with glycocalyx formation, agglomerated to form biofilm networks in the planktonic phase. Attempts to isolate this bacterium in pure culture were repeatedly unsuccessful, although a single colony was eventually obtained. On the basis of its 16S rDNA sequence, this RS-degrading, butyrate-producing organism was identified as being a previously unidentified group I Clostridium sp. A 16S rRNA-targeted probe was designed using this sequence and used to assess the abundance of the population in the enrichments. At 240 h, its contributions to total rRNA in the chemostats were 5 and 23% at D = 0.03 and 0.30 h−1, respectively. This study indicates that bacterial populations with significant metabolic potential can be overlooked using culture-based methodologies. This may provide a paradigm for explaining the discrepancy between the low numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria that are

  5. Bifidobacteria and Butyrate-Producing Colon Bacteria: Importance and Strategies for Their Stimulation in the Human Gut

    PubMed Central

    Rivière, Audrey; Selak, Marija; Lantin, David; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing amount of evidence linking certain disorders of the human body to a disturbed gut microbiota, there is a growing interest for compounds that positively influence its composition and activity through diet. Besides the consumption of probiotics to stimulate favorable bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, prebiotics such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be consumed to increase the number of bifidobacteria in the colon. Several functions have been attributed to bifidobacteria, encompassing degradation of non-digestible carbohydrates, protection against pathogens, production of vitamin B, antioxidants, and conjugated linoleic acids, and stimulation of the immune system. During life, the numbers of bifidobacteria decrease from up to 90% of the total colon microbiota in vaginally delivered breast-fed infants to <5% in the colon of adults and they decrease even more in that of elderly as well as in patients with certain disorders such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, allergies, and regressive autism. It has been suggested that the bifidogenic effects of ITF and AXOS are the result of strain-specific yet complementary carbohydrate degradation mechanisms within cooperating bifidobacterial consortia. Except for a bifidogenic effect, ITF and AXOS also have shown to cause a butyrogenic effect in the human colon, i.e., an enhancement of colon butyrate production. Butyrate is an essential metabolite in the human colon, as it is the preferred energy source for the colon epithelial cells, contributes to the maintenance of the gut barrier functions, and has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown that the butyrogenic effects of ITF and AXOS are the result of cross-feeding interactions between bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (clostridial cluster IV

  6. Nanostructured, highly aligned poly(hydroxy butyrate) electrospun fibers for differentiation of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Polini, Alessandro; Genchi, Giada G; Ciofani, Gianni; Iandolo, Donata; Mattoli, Virgilio; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Pisignano, Dario

    2011-01-01

    The influence of novel nanostructured anisotropically electrospun poly(hydroxy butyrate) matrices on skeletal and cardiac muscle-like cell proliferation and differentiation was investigated, in comparison with isotropic and no-topographically cues-provided substrates. After the matrix characterization, in terms of surface SEM imaging and mechanical properties, cell differentiation on the different substrates was evaluated. Myogenin and F-actin staining at several differentiation time-points suggested that aligned nanofibers promote differentiation of both cell types. Moreover, quantitative parameters for each cell line are provided to clarify which aspects of the differentiation process are influenced by the different matrix topographies. PMID:22255117

  7. Bifidobacteria and Butyrate-Producing Colon Bacteria: Importance and Strategies for Their Stimulation in the Human Gut.

    PubMed

    Rivière, Audrey; Selak, Marija; Lantin, David; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing amount of evidence linking certain disorders of the human body to a disturbed gut microbiota, there is a growing interest for compounds that positively influence its composition and activity through diet. Besides the consumption of probiotics to stimulate favorable bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, prebiotics such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be consumed to increase the number of bifidobacteria in the colon. Several functions have been attributed to bifidobacteria, encompassing degradation of non-digestible carbohydrates, protection against pathogens, production of vitamin B, antioxidants, and conjugated linoleic acids, and stimulation of the immune system. During life, the numbers of bifidobacteria decrease from up to 90% of the total colon microbiota in vaginally delivered breast-fed infants to <5% in the colon of adults and they decrease even more in that of elderly as well as in patients with certain disorders such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, allergies, and regressive autism. It has been suggested that the bifidogenic effects of ITF and AXOS are the result of strain-specific yet complementary carbohydrate degradation mechanisms within cooperating bifidobacterial consortia. Except for a bifidogenic effect, ITF and AXOS also have shown to cause a butyrogenic effect in the human colon, i.e., an enhancement of colon butyrate production. Butyrate is an essential metabolite in the human colon, as it is the preferred energy source for the colon epithelial cells, contributes to the maintenance of the gut barrier functions, and has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown that the butyrogenic effects of ITF and AXOS are the result of cross-feeding interactions between bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (clostridial cluster IV

  8. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in children with atopic dermatitis treated with clobetasone butyrate and its clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Boner, A L; Richelli, C; De Stefano, G; Valletta, E A; Ferrari, S; Mengoni, M

    1985-02-01

    Twenty-nine patients with symmetrical eczematous lesions were treated with 0.05% clobetasone butyrate cream. Clinical conditions and cortisol and ACTH concentrations were evaluated at the beginning and after 1 week in 12 children and after 2 weeks of treatment in 17 patients respectively. The lesions and symptoms improved steadily and no significant change in cortisol and ACTH plasma levels was observed throughout the study in all children. This steroid offers clinically effective topical antiinflammatory activity with a wide margin of safety. PMID:2985514

  9. Solvent Stability Study with Thermodynamic Analysis and Superior Biocatalytic Activity of Burkholderia cepacia Lipase Immobilized on Biocompatible Hybrid Matrix of Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Hypromellose.

    PubMed

    Badgujar, Kirtikumar C; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2014-12-26

    In the present study, we have synthesized a biocompatible hybrid carrier of hypromellose (HY) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL). The immobilized biocatalyst HY:PVA:BCL was subjected to determination of half-life time (τ) and deactivation rate constant (K(D)) in various organic solvents. Biocatalyst showed higher τ-value in a nonpolar solvent like cyclohexane (822 h) as compared to that of a polar solvent such as acetone (347 h), which signifies better compatibility of biocatalyst in the nonpolar solvents. Furthermore, the K(D)-value was found to be less in cyclohexane (0.843 × 10(-3)) as compared to acetone (1.997 × 10(-3)), indicating better stability in the nonpolar solvents. Immobilized-BCL (35 mg) was sufficient to achieve 99% conversion of phenethyl butyrate (natural constituent of essential oils and has wide industrial applications) using phenethyl alcohol (2 mmol) and vinyl butyrate (6 mmol) at 44 °C in 3 h. The activation energy (E(a)) was found to be lower for immobilized-BCL than crude-BCL, indicating better catalytic efficiency of immobilized lipase BCL. The immobilized-BCL reported 6-fold superior biocatalytic activity and 8 times recyclability as compared to crude-BCL. Improved catalytic activity of immobilized enzyme in nonpolar media was also supported by thermodynamic activation parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH(⧧)), entropy (ΔS(⧧)) and Gibb's free energy (ΔG(⧧)) study, which showed that phenethyl butyrate synthesis catalyzed by immobilized-BCL was feasible as compared to crude-BCL. The present work explains a thermodynamic investigation and superior biocatalytic activity for phenethyl butyrate synthesis using biocompatible immobilized HY:PVA:BCL in nonaqueous media for the first time. PMID:25474503

  10. Unhealthy Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Holt, Stephen; Tetrault, Jeanette

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is common and routine screening is essential to identify patients and initiate appropriate treatment. At-risk or hazardous drinking is best managed with brief interventions, which can be performed by any provider and are designed to enhance patients' motivations and promote behavioral change. Alcohol withdrawal can be managed, preferably with benzodiazepines, using a symptom-triggered approach. Twelve-step programs and provider-driven behavioral therapies have robust data supporting their effectiveness and patients with alcohol use disorder should be referred for these services. Research now support the use of several FDA-approved medications that aid in promoting abstinence and reducing heavy drinking. PMID:27373607

  11. Alcohol induced liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, K A; McGee, J O

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol induces a variety of changes in the liver: fatty change, hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The histopathological appearances of these conditions are discussed, with special attention to differential diagnosis. Many forms of alcoholic liver disease are associated with Mallory body formation and fibrosis. Mallory bodies are formed, at least in part, from intermediate filaments. Associated changes in intermediate filament organisation in alcoholic liver disease also occur. Their significance in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte death may be related to abnormalities in messenger RNA function. The mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrogenesis are also discussed. Images PMID:6086722

  12. [Alcohol and working life].

    PubMed

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  13. Electron transport phosphorylation in rumen butyrivibrios: unprecedented ATP yield for glucose fermentation to butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Hackmann, Timothy J.; Firkins, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    From a genomic analysis of rumen butyrivibrios (Butyrivibrio and Pseudobutyrivibrio sp.), we have re-evaluated the contribution of electron transport phosphorylation (ETP) to ATP formation in this group. This group is unique in that most (76%) genomes were predicted to possess genes for both Ech and Rnf transmembrane ion pumps. These pumps act in concert with the NifJ and Bcd-Etf to form a electrochemical potential (ΔμH+ and ΔμNa+), which drives ATP synthesis by ETP. Of the 62 total butyrivibrio genomes currently available from the Hungate 1000 project, all 62 were predicted to possess NifJ, which reduces oxidized ferredoxin (Fdox) during pyruvate conversion to acetyl-CoA. All 62 possessed all subunits of Bcd-Etf, which reduces Fdox and oxidizes reduced NAD during crotonyl-CoA reduction. Additionally, 61 genomes possessed all subunits of the Rnf, which generates ΔμH+ or ΔμNa+ from oxidation of reduced Fd (Fdred) and reduction of oxidized NAD. Further, 47 genomes possessed all six subunits of the Ech, which generates ΔμH+ from oxidation of Fdred. For glucose fermentation to butyrate and H2, the electrochemical potential established should drive synthesis of ∼1.5 ATP by the F0F1-ATP synthase (possessed by all 62 genomes). The total yield is ∼4.5 ATP/glucose after accounting for three ATP formed by classic substrate-level phosphorylation, and it is one the highest yields for any glucose fermentation. The yield was the same when unsaturated fatty acid bonds, not H+, served as the electron acceptor (as during biohydrogenation). Possession of both Ech and Rnf had been previously documented in only a few sulfate-reducers, was rare in other rumen prokaryotic genomes in our analysis, and may confer an energetic advantage to rumen butyrivibrios. This unique energy conservation system might enhance the butyrivibrios’ ability to overcome growth inhibition by unsaturated fatty acids, as postulated herein. PMID:26157432

  14. Li-Ion Cells Employing Electrolytes With Methyl Propionate and Ethyl Butyrate Co-Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring Mars and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate at low temperatures to satisfy the requirements of such applications as landers, rovers, and penetrators. A number of terrestrial applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) also require energy storage devices that can operate over a wide temperature range (i.e., -40 to +70 C), while still providing high power capability and long life. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-30 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. These limitations at very low temperatures are due to poor electrolyte conductivity, poor lithium intercalation kinetics over the electrode surface layers, and poor ionic diffusion in the electrode bulk. Two wide-operating-temperature-range electrolytes have been developed based on advances involving lithium hexafluorophosphate-based solutions in carbonate and carbonate + ester solvent blends, which have been further optimized in the context of the technology and targeted applications. The approaches employed include further optimization of electrolytes containing methyl propionate (MP) and ethyl butyrate (EB), which are effective co-solvents, to widen the operating temperature range beyond the baseline systems. Attention was focused on further optimizing ester-based electrolyte formulations that have exhibited the best performance at temperatures ranging from -60 to +60 C, with an emphasis upon improving the rate capability at -20 to -40 C. This was accomplished by increasing electrolyte salt concentration to 1.20M and increasing the ester content to 60 percent by volume to increase the ionic conductivity at low temperatures. Two JPL-developed electrolytes 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MP (20:20:60 v/v %) and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+EB (20:20:60 v/v %) operate effectively over a wide

  15. The Long and Winding Road to Gamma-Amino-Butyric Acid as Neurotransmitter.

    PubMed

    Avoli, Massimo; Krnjević, Krešimir

    2016-03-01

    This review centers on the discoveries made during more than six decades of neuroscience research on the role of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) as neurotransmitter. In doing so, special emphasis is directed to the significant involvement of Canadian scientists in these advances. Starting with the early studies that established GABA as an inhibitory neurotransmitter at central synapses, we summarize the results pointing at the GABA receptor as a drug target as well as more recent evidence showing that GABAA receptor signaling plays a surprisingly active role in neuronal network synchronization, both during development and in the adult brain. Finally, we briefly address the involvement of GABA in neurological conditions that encompass epileptic disorders and mental retardation. RESUMÉ: Le chemin long et sinueux pour que le GABA soit reconnu comme un neurotransmetteur. Cette revue est axée sur les découvertes réalisées durant plus de six décennies de recherche en neurosciences sur l'acide gamma-aminobutyrique (GABA) comme neurotransmetteur. À cet effet, nous mettons une emphase particulière sur le rôle significatif de chercheurs canadiens dans ce domaine de recherche. En prenant comme point de départ les premières études qui ont établi que le GABA était un neurotransmetteur au niveau de synapses centrales, nous faisons le sommaire des résultats identifiant le récepteur GABA comme étant une cible thérapeutique ainsi que des données plus récentes montrant que la signalisation du récepteur GABAA joue, de façon surprenante, un rôle actif dans la synchronisation du réseau neuronal, tant au cours du développement que dans le cerveau adulte. Finalement, nous traitons brièvement du rôle de GABA dans les maladies neurologiques incluant les troubles épileptiques et l'arriération mentale. PMID:26763167

  16. Effect of different doses of coated butyric acid on growth performance and energy utilization in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Barri, A; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A

    2016-04-01

    We recently applied four dietary treatments in experiments I and II to determine the effect of protected calcium butyrate (BP) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. A group of one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks (total 960, 480 per trial) were used in the study. In experiment I, the basal diets were fed with protected BP inclusion (0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 g/kg of finished feed) (BP) or without (C). In experiment II, 4 different diets were tested: 1) basal diet with no supplementation (C), 2) basal diet supplemented with protected BP (0.3 g/kg) (BP), 3) basal diet supplemented with avilamycin (6 mg/kg, active substance) a common antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) (Av), and 4) basal diet supplemented with the combination of both avilaymicin and BP. In experiment I, considering the entire study period, the use of BP improved feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) irrespective of the dose. Apparent total tract crude fat digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEN) were improved after BP supplementation (P<0.05). In experiment II, A or AB diets improved (P<0.05) body weight gain compared to the control treatment. The diets Av, BP, and AvB improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment. Birds from the treatment diet were characterized by having the thickest mucosa (P<0.05). On days 14, 35, and 42, the use of AB diets improved AMENcontent compared to the control treatment (P<0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility of amino acid data showed that Av or AvB treated birds were characterized by higher Asp, Glu, Cys, Gly, and Ala ileal digestibility than the control animals (P<0.05). The use of Av, BP, or AvB increased ileal digestibility of Thr, Ser, and Pro (P<0.05). There is an indication that BP, alone or in combination with avilamycin, improve the digestion and absorptive processes and consequently birds performance results. PMID:26740137

  17. Marital Interaction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Couples: Alcoholic Subtype Variations and Wives’ Alcoholism Status

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103

  18. The microbe-derived short chain fatty acid butyrate targets miRNA-dependent p21 gene expression in human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shien; Dong, Tien Sy; Dalal, Sushila R; Wu, Feng; Bissonnette, Marc; Kwon, John H; Chang, Eugene B

    2011-01-01

    Colonic microbiota ferment non-absorbed dietary fiber to produce prodigious amounts of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that benefit the host through a myriad of metabolic, trophic, and chemopreventative effects. The chemopreventative effects of the SCFA butyrate are, in part, mediated through induction of p21 gene expression. In this study, we assessed the role of microRNA(miRNA) in butyrate's induction of p21 expression. The expression profiles of miRNAs in HCT-116 cells and in human sporadic colon cancers were assessed by microarray and quantitative PCR. Regulation of p21 gene expression by miR-106b was assessed by 3' UTR luciferase reporter assays and transfection of specific miRNA mimics. Butyrate changed the expression of 44 miRNAs in HCT-116 cells, many of which were aberrantly expressed in colon cancer tissues. Members of the miR-106b family were decreased in the former and increased in the latter. Butyrate-induced p21 protein expression was dampened by treatment with a miR-106b mimic. Mutated p21 3'UTR-reporter constructs expressed in HCT-116 cells confirmed direct miR-106b targeting. Butyrate decreased HCT-116 proliferation, an effect reversed with the addition of the miR-106b mimic. We conclude that microbe-derived SCFAs regulate host gene expression involved in intestinal homeostasis as well as carcinogenesis through modulation of miRNAs. PMID:21283757

  19. Sodium Butyrate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Reverses Behavioral and Mitochondrial Alterations in Animal Models of Depression Induced by Early- or Late-life Stress.

    PubMed

    Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Budni, Josiane; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Réus, Gislaine Z; Carvalho, André F; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Furlanetto, Camila B; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate on depressive-like behavior and mitochondrial alteration parameters in animal models of depression induced by maternal deprivation or chronic mild stress in Wistar rats. maternal deprivation was established by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day 1 to day 10. Chronic mild stress was established by water deprivation, food deprivation, restraint stress, isolation and flashing lights. Sodium butyrate or saline was administered twice a day for 7 days before the behavioral tests. Depressive behavior was evaluated using the forced swim test. The activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase) and of mitochondrial chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) was measured in the striatum of rats. From these analyses it can be observed that sodium butyrate reversed the depressive-like behavior observed in both animal models of depression. Additionally, maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress inhibited mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and increased the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Sodium butyrate treatment reversed -maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress- induced dysfunction in the striatum of rats. In conclusion, sodium butyrate showed antidepressant effects in maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress-treated rats, and this effect can be attributed to its action on the neurochemical pathways related to depression. PMID:26216027

  20. Enzymatic production of a solvent-free menthyl butyrate via response surface methodology catalyzed by a novel thermostable lipase from Geobacillus zalihae

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Roswanira Abdul; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul; Chaibakhsh, Naz; Leow, Thean Chor

    2014-01-01

    Most substrate for esterification has the inherent problem of low miscibility which requires addition of solvents into the reaction media. In this contribution, we would like to present an alternative and feasible option for an efficient solvent-free synthesis of menthyl butyrate using a novel thermostable crude T1 lipase. We investigated the effects of incubation time, temperature, enzyme loading and substrate molar ratio and determined the optimum conditions. The high conversion of menthyl butyrate catalyzed by crude T1 lipase in a solvent-free system is greatly affected by temperature and time of the reaction media. The highest yield of menthyl butyrate was 99.3% under optimized conditions of 60 °C, incubation time of 13.15 h, 2.53 mg, 0.43% (w/w) enzyme to substrate ratio and at molar ratio of butyric anhydride/menthol 2.7:1. Hence, the investigation revealed that the thermostable crude T1 lipase successfully catalyzed the high-yield production of menthyl butyrate in a solvent-free system. The finding suggests that the crude T1 lipase was a promising alternative to overcome shortcomings associated with solvent-assisted enzymatic reactions. PMID:26740782

  1. Alcohol and Staff Leisure Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the problem of alcohol use and abuse by camp staff. Describes alcohol policies of two different camps. Camp Highlands allows responsible drinking but not intoxication. Camp Olympia requires total abstinence from alcohol. A policy that clearly expresses the camp's philosophy toward alcohol and spells out all expectations and results is…

  2. Theories of the Alcoholic Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles

    Several theories of the alcoholic personality have been devised to determine the relationship between the clusters of personality characteristics of alcoholics and their abuse of alcohol. The oldest and probably best known theory is the dependency theory, formulated in the tradition of classical psychoanalysis, which associates the alcoholic's…

  3. Alcohol Policies on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin

    2005-01-01

    State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…

  4. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  5. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink other beverages instead, such as water, fruit juices or milk. Questions to Ask Your Doctor If your baby was born with fetal alcohol syndrome: What health problems does my baby have? Does my baby ...

  7. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  8. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  9. Indian Alcoholism and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Wayne; Patch, Kenneth

    1981-01-01

    Educational programs about alcohol should be presented in the formal school setting for Indian youth and in the communities for the general population. The primary outcome of these programs would be the development of self-management skills. (Author)

  10. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... want to watch how much you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you find you are having trouble cutting back on alcohol , talk with your doctor. Here is a list ...

  11. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a non-drinker with hepatitis C has. Alcohol and hepatitis C both damage the liver, so together, the risk of serious liver damage (cirrhosis) is much higher than with either alone. < Previous Living with Hepatitis ...

  12. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  13. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  14. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  15. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combat Veterans & their Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning ... break of 1 hour between drinks. Drink soda, water, or juice after a drink with alcohol. Do ...

  16. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... time to break down the alcohol in your system. The caffeine in coffee may help you stay awake. However, it will not improve your coordination or decision-making skills. These can be impaired for several hours ...

  17. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a range of acute consequences, including injuries, sexual assaults, and even deaths—including those from car crashes. ... of 18 and 24 report experiencing alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 28 Roughly 20 percent of ...

  18. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... teenage years could interfere with normal adolescent brain development and increase the risk of developing an AUD. ...

  19. Electrophysiological studies in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Blackstock, Eileen; Rushworth, Geoffrey; Gath, Dennis

    1972-01-01

    Using a range of electrophysiological techniques, it has been possible to demonstrate impaired function in smaller calibre motor fibres and in distal large cutaneous sensory nerve fibres in both alcoholic patients without neuropathy and in those alcoholics with clinical manifestations of peripheral nerve disease. Evidence of more proximal involvement of Ia sensory fibres was obtained, but in the majority of our patients, large motor fibres functioned normally. The nature of the underlying pathological process is discussed. Images PMID:4338445

  20. Stress and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105

  1. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism. PMID:25307599

  2. Potential enhancement of direct interspecies electron transfer for syntrophic metabolism of propionate and butyrate with biochar in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Holmes, Dawn E; Dang, Yan; Woodard, Trevor L; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

    2016-06-01

    Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) to enhance syntrophic metabolism may be a strategy for accelerating the conversion of organic wastes to methane, but microorganisms capable of metabolizing propionate and butyrate via DIET under methanogenic conditions have yet to be identified. In an attempt to establish methanogenic communities metabolizing propionate or butyrate with DIET, enrichments were initiated with up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), similar to those that were previously reported to support communities that metabolized ethanol with DIET that relied on direct biological electrical connections. In the absence of any amendments, microbial communities enriched were dominated by microorganisms closely related to pure cultures that are known to metabolize propionate or butyrate to acetate with production of H2. When biochar was added to the reactors there was a substantial enrichment on the biochar surface of 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related to Geobacter and Methanosaeta species known to participate in DIET. PMID:26967338

  3. Alclometasone dipropionate cream 0.05% versus clobetasone butyrate cream 0.05%. A controlled clinical comparison in the treatment of atopic dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Lassus, A

    1984-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted comparing the efficacy and safety of alclometasone dipropionate cream 0.05% and clobetasone butyrate cream 0.05% in the treatment of atopic dermatitis in 43 children. The medications were applied to study areas as a thin layer of cream twice daily for 2 weeks. Efficacy was assessed by evaluation of three disease signs (erythema, induration, and pruritus) and by mean of a physician's global evaluation following treatment. Safety was evaluated through patient-reported and clinically observed adverse experiences. Both treatments were effective. At the end of the trial, average reduction in disease signs was 85% for alclometasone dipropionate-treated patients and 86% in the clobetasone butyrate-treated group. In the global evaluation, the physician rated symptoms as cleared in 9 of 22 alclometasone dipropionate-treated patients and in 10 of 21 clobetasone butyrate-treated patients. PMID:6389385

  4. Comparative effects of sodium butyrate and flavors on feed intake of lactating sows and growth performance of piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Mei; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effects of sodium butyrate and flavors on feed intake of lactating sows and growth performance of piglets. A total of 52 primiparous sows (Large White) were randomly divided into four treatments (n = 13) and received 6 g/kg sodium butyrate (SB), fruit-milk (FM) flavor and fruit-milk-anise (FMA) flavor with pair feeding to the mothers receiving the control diet. The feeding trial lasted for 29 days, including 21 days of nursing and 8 days of post-weaning period, respectively. The nursing and weaning piglets received creep diets with the same flavor or SB supplement as their mother. The results showed that FMA flavor increased average daily feed intake (ADFI) of lactating sows (P < 0.01), as well as improved litter weight gain (P = 0.05) and ADFI (P < 0.01) of nursing pigs among treatments. Indeed, greater ADFI and average daily gain of weaning piglets for the initial 8 days after weaning was observed in the FMA group compared with those in the control group (P < 0.01). These findings indicated that adding FMA flavor was superior to SB for increasing feed intake of lactating sows and improving growth performance of piglets. PMID:24773759

  5. Fractal Analysis of Lipase-Catalysed Synthesis of Butyl Butyrate in a Microbioreactor Under the Influence of Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaik, Pratap R.

    2013-03-01

    Microbioreactors operated in real environments are often subject to noise from the environment. This is commonly manifested as fluctuations in the flow rates of the feed streams. Previous studies with larger bioreactors have shown that noise can seriously impair the performance. Given this possibility, the effects of noise on the performance of a microbioreactor have been analyzed for the trans-esterification of vinyl butyrate by 1-butanol by immobilized lipase B to produce butyl butyrate. As in previous work for macrobioreactors, the analysis was done with (i) no noise, (ii) unfiltered noise, and (iii) noise filtered by four different methods, and the fractal dimension of the product was used as an index of the performance. All fractal dimensions decreased with increasing dilution rates, and significant stochastic chaos was likely at low dilution rates. Of the four types of filters, the auto-associative neural filter (ANF) was the most effective in reducing chaos and restoring of smooth, nearly noise-free performance. The ANF also does not require a process model, which is a significant advantage for real systems. Simulations also revealed that even in the absence of noise, deterministic chaos is possible at low dilution rates; this underscores the importance of efficient filtering under such conditions when external noise too is present. The results thus establish the importance of noise in microbioreactor behavior and the usefulness of the fractal dimension in characterizing the effects.

  6. Butyrate-induced proapoptotic and antiangiogenic pathways in EAT cells require activation of CAD and downregulation of VEGF

    SciTech Connect

    Belakavadi, Madesh . E-mail: belakama@umdnj.edu; Prabhakar, B.T.; Salimath, Bharathi P.

    2005-10-07

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced in the colon, induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in transformed cell lines. In this report, we study the effects of butyrate (BuA) on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo. BuA, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p) into mice, inhibited proliferation of EAT cells. Further, induction of apoptosis in EAT cells was monitored by nuclear condensation, annexin-V staining, DNA fragmentation, and translocation of caspase-activated DNase into nucleus upon BuA-treatment. Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor, completely inhibited BuA-induced apoptosis, indicating that activation of caspase-3 mediates the apoptotic pathway in EAT cells. The proapoptotic effect of BuA also reflects on the antiangiogenic pathway in EAT cells. The antiangiogenic effect of BuA in vivo was demonstrated by the downregulation of the secretion of VEGF in EAT cells. CD31 immunohistochemical staining of peritoneum sections clearly indicated a potential angioinhibitory effect of BuA in EAT cells. These results suggest that BuA, besides regulating other fundamental cellular processes, is able to modulate the expression/secretion of the key angiogenic growth factor VEGF in EAT cells.

  7. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. PMID:25307566

  8. Effects of Na-butyrate supplementation in milk formula on plasma concentrations of GH and insulin, and on rumen papilla development in calves.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Katsuyoshi; Chida, Haruka; Roh, Sang-Gun; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Sato, Shusuke; Guilloteau, Paul; Katoh, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Although the growth-promoting action of sodium-butyrate (Na-butyrate) used as a feed additive has been observed in calves and pigs, the precise mechanisms involved remain to be clarified. In this study, pre-weaning calves were given milk formula (MF) supplemented with butyrate for 6 weeks to investigate its effects on postprandial changes in the plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones, and, simultaneously, on growth performance, the weight of the digestive organs and rumen papilla development. Ingestion of MF increased (P<0.05) the plasma concentrations of GH and insulin as well as the glucose level, but decreased the non-esterified fatty acid concentration. Na-butyrate supplementation in MF or in lactose solution (with the same quantity of lactose contained in the MF, 5%) suppressed the increase in plasma insulin and GH concentrations, and the plasma IGF1 level was not changed. The length of the rumen papilla and the weight of the perirenal fat tended to increase in the calves fed with Na-butyrate-supplemented MF, but the weight of the liver, spleen, and stomach were not changed. In addition, there was no difference in the expression of mRNA for sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 in the small intestinal epithelial tissues. We conclude that the accelerated growth performance related to the intake of Na-butyrate used as a feed additive reported previously in several species is partly due to improved insulin sensitivity and a better digestive functional development. These data could be applicable to animal and human nutrition. PMID:21911440

  9. The effect of short-chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate, and acetate on urothelial cell kinetics in vitro: potential therapy in augmentation cystoplasty.

    PubMed

    Dyer, J P; Featherstone, J M; Solomon, L Z; Crook, T J; Cooper, A J; Malone, P S

    2005-07-01

    The intestinal element of enterocystoplasty is affected by chronic inflammatory changes, which lead to excess mucus production, urinary tract infections, and stone formation. There is also an increased risk of malignancy. These inflammatory changes may be due to diversion colitis, which affects colonic segments excluded from the faecal stream and likewise may respond to intraluminal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) therapy. The SCFAs have interesting antiproliferative, differentiating, and pro-apoptotic effects, which are protective against colorectal cancer and may influence the risk of malignancy in enterocystoplasty. Before intravesical therapy can be considered, the effect on normal urothelium must be investigated. Primary urothelial cells cultured from biopsy specimens and transformed urothelial (RT112 and MGH-U1) and intestinal cell lines (HT29 and CaCo-2) were incubated with SCFAs. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure the residual viable biomass to assess cell proliferation. Proliferation of primary and transformed urothelial cells in culture was inhibited by all SCFAs in a similar time- and dose-dependent manner. The concentration of SCFA required to inhibit growth of primary cells by 50% (IC50) was 20 mM of butyrate, 120 mM of propionate, and 240 mM of acetate after incubation for 1 h. After 72 h the IC50 was 2 mM of butyrate, 4 mM of propionate, and 20 mM of acetate. Transformed urothelial and colon cancer cell lines demonstrated similar growth inhibition. Butyrate was the most potent inhibitor of cell proliferation, followed by propionate and then acetate. Growth inhibition is not an immediate cytotoxic effect, and urothelial cells show a degree of adaptation to butyrate and growth recovery after incubation with butyrate. In conclusion, butyrate- and propionate-induced growth inhibition is potentially clinically significant and may have therapeutically beneficial implications in vivo. PMID:15864601

  10. Driving carbon flux through exogenous butyryl-CoA: Acetate CoA-transferase to produce butyric acid at high titer in Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Mao, Yin; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-12-20

    Butyric acid, a 4-carbon short chain fatty acid, is widely used in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. The low activity of butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase in Thermobifida fusca muS, a thermophilic actinobacterium whose optimal temperature was 55°C, was found to hinder the accumulation of high yield of butyric acid. In order to solve this problem, an exogenous butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene (actA) from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM571 was integrated into the chromosome of T. fusca muS by replacing celR gene, forming T. fusca muS-1. We demonstrated that on 5g/L cellulose, the yield of butyric acid by the engineered muS-1 strain was increased by 42.9 % compared to the muS strain. On 100g/L of cellulose, the muS-1 strain could consume 90.5% of total cellulose in 144h, with 33.2g/L butyric acid produced. Furthermore, on the mix substrates including the major components of biomass: cellulose, xylose, mannose and galactose, 70.4g/L butyric acid was produced in 168h by fed-batch fermentation. To validate the ability of fermenting biomass, the muS-1 strain was grown on the milled corn stover ranging from 200 to 250μm. The muS-1 strain had the highest butyrate titer 17.1g/L on 90g/L corn stover. PMID:26535965

  11. Effects of supplementary butyrate on butanol production and the metabolic switch in Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052: genome-wide transcriptional analysis with RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Butanol (n-butanol) has high values as a promising fuel source and chemical feedstock. Biobutanol is usually produced by the solventogenic clostridia through a typical biphasic (acidogenesis and solventogenesis phases) acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process. It is well known that the acids produced in the acidogenic phase are significant and play important roles in the switch to solventogenesis. However, the mechanism that triggers the metabolic switch is still not clear. Results Sodium butyrate (40 mM) was supplemented into the medium for the ABE fermentation with Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. With butyrate addition (reactor R1), solvent production was triggered early in the mid-exponential phase and completed quickly in < 50 h, while in the control (reactor R2), solventogenesis was initiated during the late exponential phase and took > 90 h to complete. Butyrate supplementation led to 31% improvement in final butanol titer, 58% improvement in sugar-based yield, and 133% improvement in butanol productivity, respectively. The butanol/acetone ratio was 2.4 versus 1.8 in the control, indicating a metabolic shift towards butanol production due to butyrate addition. Genome-wide transcriptional dynamics was investigated with RNA-Seq analysis. In reactor R1, gene expression related to solventogenesis was induced about 10 hours earlier when compared to that in reactor R2. Although the early sporulation genes were induced after the onset of solventogenesis in reactor R1 (mid-exponential phase), the sporulation events were delayed and uncoupled from the solventogenesis. In contrast, in reactor R2, sporulation genes were induced at the onset of solventogenesis, and highly expressed through the solventogenesis phase. The motility genes were generally down-regulated to lower levels prior to stationary phase in both reactors. However, in reactor R2 this took much longer and gene expression was maintained at comparatively higher levels

  12. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  13. WOMEN ALCOHOLICS : ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM MEN ALCOHOLICS ?

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, V.; Suveera, Prasad; Ashok, M.V.; Appaya, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Women alcoholics seeking psychiatric help have been increasing steadily over the years. The data on this subgroup however, is limited. Eighteen women alcoholics who presented to us over one year have been compared to twenty-eight men alcoholics who presented to us over one calendar month. Gender differences in the functions and effects of problem drinking were found. Men and women alcoholics differed in marital and occupational status, initiating and maintaining factors for drinking, course of alcoholism and alcohol related damage. PMID:21584094

  14. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  15. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  16. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  17. Alcohol and porphyrin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Doss, M O; Kühnel, A; Gross, U

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a porphyrinogenic agent which may cause disturbances in porphyrin metabolism in healthy persons as well as biochemical and clinical manifestations of acute and chronic hepatic porphyrias. After excessive consumption of alcohol, a temporary, clinically asymptomatic secondary hepatic coproporphyrinuria is observable, which can become persistent in cases of alcohol-induced liver damage. Nowadays, the alcohol-liver-porphyrinuria syndrome is the first to be mentioned in secondary hepatic disturbances of porphyrin metabolism. Acute hepatic porphyrias (acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria) are considered to be molecular regulatory diseases, in contrast to non-acute, chronic hepatic porphyria, clinically appearing as porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). Porphyrins do not accumulate in the liver in acute porphyrias, whereas in chronic hepatic porphyrias they do. Thus, chronic hepatic porphyria is a porphyrin-accumulation disease, whereas acute hepatic porphyrias are haem-pathway-dysregulation diseases, characterized in general by induction of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase in the liver and excessive stimulation of the pathway without storage of porphyrins in the liver. The clinical expression of acute hepatic porphyrias can be triggered by alcohol, because alcohol augments the inducibility of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. In chronic hepatic porphyrias, however, which are already associated with liver damage, alcohol potentiates the disturbance of the decarboxylation of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrinogen, which is followed by a hepatic accumulation of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrin and their sometimes extreme urinary excretion. Especially in persons with a genetic deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, but also in patients with the so-called sporadic variety of PCT, alcohol is able to transform an asymptomatic coproporphyrinuria into PCT. Alcohol has many biochemical and clinical effects on porphyrin and haem

  18. Genome-wide ChIP-seq mapping and analysis of butyrate-induced H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and epigenomic landscapes alteration in bovine cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (VFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are nutrients especially critical to ruminants. Beyond their nutritional impact, clear evidence is beginning to link modifications in chromatin structure induced by butyrate to cell cycle progression, DNA replication and over...

  19. Spectrum of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Kristina Rachel; Reinus, John

    2016-08-01

    Liver disease from excessive alcohol consumption is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a clear relationship between alcohol and a variety of health and socioeconomic problems. According to the World Health Organization, 3.3 million people die of alcohol-related causes annually. Despite public knowledge of its potential adverse effects, alcohol consumption and the morbidity and mortality from alcoholic liver disease (ALD) have increased. ALD comprises a spectrum of injury, including simple steatosis, acute alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Rather than being distinct disease entities, these pathologic processes frequently overlap. PMID:27373606

  20. Consumption of Alcohol Surrogates Among Alcohol-Dependent Women.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first in-depth study of alcohol and surrogate drinking patterns, types, reasons, and correlates among alcohol-dependent women in Belarus. The structured interviews were performed in 2013 with 103 alcohol-dependent women admitted to a narcological clinic in Grodno, Belarus. The results suggest that at least 30.3% of alcohol-dependent women regularly consume samogon (moonshine) and 10.8% of women use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that samogon exceeds licensed vodka in quality is the main motive for its consumption. The results from the present study confirm that noncommercial alcohol use is common among alcohol-dependent women although its use may be underreported. These findings emphasize that the implementation of a comprehensive alcohol policy must take fully into account the consumption of alcohol from illicit sources. PMID:26549001

  1. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL ... this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  4. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  5. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  6. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  7. Doxasozin for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Kenna, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical evidence using prazosin indicates that a1-blockade may represent a new approach to treat alcohol dependence (AD). While most of the alcohol research on a1-blockade has been conducted testing prazosin, O’Neil and colleagues recently performed a set of preclinical experiments testing another a1-blocker, i.e. doxazosin that has a longer half-life that may enhance clinical utility. Doxazosin and prazosin share the same chemical structure, in which the central element is a piperazine ring. O’Neil et al.’s main results are that doxazosin significantly reduced alcohol intake without affecting locomotor activity. As such, O’Neil and colleagues provide the first preclinical evidence of the possible role of doxazosin in AD. Additional translational research is needed to further test this hypothesis. PMID:23278505

  8. Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Cardenas, Valerie A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive—or the need to fulfill desires—and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence. PMID:26259093

  9. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  10. [Pathogenesis of alcoholic chronic hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Saito, Takashi; Kakuda, Masahiro; Matsue, Yasuhiro; Minato, Takashiro; Fukumura, Atsushi; Ozaki, Kazuaki; Tsuchisima, Mutsumi; Tsutsumi, Mikihiro

    2014-10-01

    In 1983, Nei et al. reported that alcoholic chronic hepatitis (ACH)(chronic hepatitis induced tal area. Recently, the number of alcoholics patients diagnosed with ACH has been increased In this review, we discussed the characteristics of liver histopathology and blood chemistry of ACH patients. In ACH, pericellular fibrosis, ballooned hepatocytes and/or bridging fibrosis, and infiltration of mononuclear lymphocytes is decreased after 6 to 8 weeks of abstinence from results suggest that ACH could be one type of alcoholic liver disease. The precise mechanism by alcohol) as one type of alcoholic liver disease. Since then, it has been discussed whether alcohol abuse, suggesting that alcohol may play a role in the infiltration of mononuclear lym ACH is one type of alcoholic liver disease, because there could be infection of unknown hepatitis virus in alcoholics and it is not clear why mononuclear lymphocytes infiltrate into the porphocytes in portal region. After abstinence of alcohol, serum levels of AST, ALT, and γ-GTP in patients with ACH returned to normal as in other types of alcoholic liver disease such as alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic fibrosis, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. These results suggest that ACH could be one type of alcoholic liver disease. The precise mechanism of the infiltration of mononuclear lymphocytes into portal areas of ACH patients is not known. We propose that the reason for the infiltration of natural killer (T) cells into portal areas could be due to the influx of endotoxin into portal vein resulting from the increased permeability of gut induced by alcohol. PMID:25651616

  11. Effect of alcohol treatment on the performance of PTB7:PC71BM bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuai; Cao, Biye; Wang, Weijia; Moulin, Jean-François; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The effect of an environmentally friendly alcohol treatment on bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells using the low-bandgap copolymer based on thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-alt-benzodithiophene units and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester is systematically investigated. Different alcohols are tested, and besides the most commonly used methanol treatment, other alcohols such as ethanol, 2-propanol, and 1-butanol also improve the device performance to certain extents as compared to the untreated solar cells. Changes of the surface structure caused by the alcohol treatment are probed with atomic force microscopy, and the modification of inner film morphology is probed by time-of-flight-grazing incidence small-angle neutron scattering (TOF-GISANS). UV/vis measurements show that the thickness of all BHJ films remains unchanged by the different solvent treatments. Thus, the enhanced device performance induced by the alcohol treatments is correlated to the reconstruction of the inner film structures probed with TOF-GISANS and the modified energy levels at the interfaces between the BHJ layer and the aluminum electrodes, evident by the enhanced short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of the I-V curves. PMID:25668222

  12. Managing alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease continues to be a significant cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality throughout the world. A number of diagnostic and prognostic models have been developed in the management of this condition, although specific roles for liver biopsy still remain particularly in the setting of alcoholic hepatitis. Despite a large number of recent treatment trials, the ideal pharmacotherapy approach remains undefined. Most essential is the supportive care and focus on abstinence and nutrition. Owing in part to a great deal of attention from governmental funding sources, a number of new treatment approaches are undergoing rigorous evaluation, hopefully providing future treatment options in this very severe condition. PMID:26523266

  13. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  14. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. PMID:27373613

  15. Alcohol fuel from sugarbeets

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.

  16. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  17. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  18. Alcohol Promotional Clothing Items and Alcohol Use by Underage Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.

    2003-01-01

    Of 154 female and 106 male adolescents, 76.3% had tried alcohol; more than 36% owned alcohol promotional clothing and more than half had seen such clothing at school. Ownership increased with alcohol use status. Those who received such clothing from their parents were more likely to perceive parental approval of their drinking. (Contains 59…

  19. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    The purpose of this study was to compare with an alcohol information warning card the utility of two common alcohol nomograms (statistical information tables) in impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, the development of knowledge of the relations between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and…

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…