Sample records for c-c bond cleavage

  1. Catalyst-Free Approach to Construct C-C Bond Initiated by N-O Bond Cleavage under Thermal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan-Dan; Li, Zhong-Yuan; Wang, Guan-Wu

    2014-12-01

    An unexpected and novel approach to construct the sp(2) C-sp(3) C bond has been developed via N-O bond cleavage without any external catalysts or additives. It is a very simple, efficient, and environmentally friendly method and will be a very attractive radical process toward new C-C bond formation. PMID:25423187

  2. Palladium-catalyzed allylic esterification via C-C bond cleavage of a secondary homoallyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Kang, Qiang

    2014-08-15

    Palladium-catalyzed allylic esterifications of secondary homoallyl alcohols with acids via sequential retro-allylation and esterification are demonstrated, affording the corresponding allyl ester in up to 99% yield. The electron effect of the substituent of the secondary alcohol was found to be crucial to the selective C-C bond cleavage. PMID:25075757

  3. Nickel-Catalyzed Enantioselective C?C Bond Formation through C?sp?2?O Cleavage in Aryl Esters.

    PubMed

    Cornella, Josep; Jackson, Evan P; Martin, Ruben

    2015-03-23

    We report the first enantioselective C?C bond formation through C?O bond cleavage using aryl ester counterparts. This method is characterized by its wide substrate scope and results in the formation of quaternary stereogenic centers with high yields and asymmetric induction. PMID:25650559

  4. Structure sensitivity of hydrogenolytic cleavage of endocyclic and exocyclic C-C bonds in methylcyclohexane over supported iridium particles

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Hui; Gutierrez, Oliver Y.; Haller, Gary L.; Mei, Donghai; Rousseau, Roger J.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2013-01-02

    Structure sensitivities, H2 pressure effects and temperature dependencies for rates and selectivities of endo- and exocyclic CC bond cleavage in methylcyclohexane were studied over supported Ir catalysts. The rate of endocyclic CC bond cleavage first decreased and then increased with declining Ir dispersion from 0.65 to 0.035. The ring opening (RO) product distribution remained unchanged with varying H2 pressure on small Ir particles, while further shifting to methylhexanes with increasing H2 pressure on large particles. In contrast, the rate and selectivity of exocyclic CC bond cleavage decreased monotonically with increasing H2 pressure and decreasing Ir particle size. The distinct dependencies of endocyclic and exocyclic CC bond cleavage pathways on Ir dispersion and H2 pressure suggest that they are mediated by surface species with different ensemble size requirements. DFT calculations were performed on an Ir50 cluster and an Ir(111) surface, with or without pre-adsorbed hydrogen atoms, to provide insight into the observed effects of particle size and H2 pressure on RO pathways. On small Ir particles, the calculated dehydrogenation enthalpies for all endocyclic bonds were similar and affected to similar extents by H2 pressure; on large particles, the selectivity to n-heptane (via substituted C-C bond cleavage) was even lower than on small particles as a result of the least favorable adsorption and dehydrogenation energetics for hindered bonds. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The computing time is provided by the user project from EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  5. New reactivity of oxaziridine: Pd(II)-catalyzed aromatic C-H ethoxycarbonylation via C-C bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingao; Zhu, Yingguang; Ramirez, Thomas A; Zhao, Baoguo; Shi, Yian

    2011-10-01

    A novel Pd(II)-catalyzed aromatic C-H ethoxycarbonylation with oxaziridine involving C-C bond cleavage is described. Various aromatic 2-phenylpyridines and related compounds as well as aryl ureas can be effectively ethoxycarbonylated. A catalytic cycle involving Pd(II) and Pd(IV) is proposed. PMID:21875037

  6. Metal-free tandem oxidative aryl migration and C-C bond cleavage: synthesis of ?-ketoamides and esters from acrylic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Le; Du, Liang; Zhang-Negrerie, Daisy; Du, Yunfei; Zhao, Kang

    2014-11-01

    A novel tandem metal-free oxidative aryl migration/C-C bond-cleavage reaction, mediated by hypervalent iodine reagent, has been discovered. The presented transformation provided straightforward access to important ?-ketoamide and ?-ketoester derivatives from readily available acrylic derivatives via a concerted process of 1,2-aryl shift concomitant with C-C bond cleavage. PMID:25343425

  7. Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) catalyzed modification of ketones via two C-C bond cleavages with the retention of the oxo-group.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peng; Sun, Xiang; Su, Yijin; Li, Xinyao; Zhang, Li He; Shi, Xiaodong; Jiao, Ning

    2014-06-20

    A simple ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) catalyzed functionalization of ketones through double C-C bond cleavage strategy has been disclosed. This reaction provides a mild, practical method toward carbamoyl azides, which are versatile intermediates and building blocks in organic synthesis. Based on relevant mechanistic studies, a unique and plausible C-C bond and N-O bond cleavage process is proposed, where the oxyamination intermediate plays an important role in this reaction. PMID:24906031

  8. Direct approaches to nitriles via highly efficient nitrogenation strategy through C-H or C-C bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teng; Jiao, Ning

    2014-04-15

    Because of the importance of nitrogen-containing compounds in chemistry and biology, organic chemists have long focused on the development of novel methodologies for their synthesis. For example, nitrogen-containing compounds show up within functional materials, as top-selling drugs, and as bioactive molecules. To synthesize these compounds in a green and sustainable way, researchers have focused on the direct functionalization of hydrocarbons via C-H or C-C bond cleavage. Although researchers have made significant progress in the direct functionalization of simple hydrocarbons, direct C-N bond formation via C-H or C-C bond cleavage remains challenging, in part because of the unstable character of some N-nucleophiles under oxidative conditions. The nitriles are versatile building blocks and precursors in organic synthesis. Recently, chemists have achieved the direct C-H cyanation with toxic cyanide salts in the presence of stoichiometric metal oxidants. In this Account, we describe recent progress made by our group in nitrile synthesis. C-H or C-C bond cleavage is a key process in our strategy, and azides or DMF serve as the nitrogen source. In these reactions, we successfully realized direct nitrile synthesis using a variety of hydrocarbon groups as nitrile precursors, including methyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups. We could carry out C(sp(3))-H functionalization on benzylic, allylic, and propargylic C-H bonds to produce diverse valuable synthetic nitriles. Mild oxidation of C?C double-bonds and C?C triple-bonds also produced nitriles. The incorporation of nitrogen within the carbon skeleton typically involved the participation of azide reagents. Although some mechanistic details remain unclear, studies of these nitrogenation reactions implicate the involvement of a cation or radical intermediate, and an oxidative rearrangement of azide intermediate produced the nitrile. We also explored environmentally friendly oxidants, such as molecular oxygen, to make our synthetic strategy more attractive. Our direct nitrile synthesis methodologies have potential applications in the synthesis of biologically active molecules and drug candidates. PMID:24684545

  9. Deamination, oxidation, and C-C bond cleavage reactivity of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxycytosine.

    PubMed

    Schiesser, Stefan; Pfaffeneder, Toni; Sadeghian, Keyarash; Hackner, Benjamin; Steigenberger, Barbara; Schrder, Arne S; Steinbacher, Jessica; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Hfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Carell, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Three new cytosine derived DNA modifications, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (hmdC), 5-formyl-2'-deoxycytidine (fdC) and 5-carboxy-2'-deoxycytidine (cadC) were recently discovered in mammalian DNA, particularly in stem cell DNA. Their function is currently not clear, but it is assumed that in stem cells they might be intermediates of an active demethylation process. This process may involve base excision repair, C-C bond cleaving reactions or deamination of hmdC to 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (hmdU). Here we report chemical studies that enlighten the chemical reactivity of the new cytosine nucleobases. We investigated their sensitivity toward oxidation and deamination and we studied the C-C bond cleaving reactivity of hmdC, fdC, and cadC in the absence and presence of thiols as biologically relevant (organo)catalysts. We show that hmdC is in comparison to mdC rapidly oxidized to fdC already in the presence of air. In contrast, deamination reactions were found to occur only to a minor extent. The C-C bond cleavage reactions require the presence of high concentration of thiols and are acid catalyzed. While hmdC dehydroxymethylates very slowly, fdC and especially cadC react considerably faster to dC. Thiols are active site residues in many DNA modifiying enzymes indicating that such enzymes could play a role in an alternative active DNA demethylation mechanism via deformylation of fdC or decarboxylation of cadC. Quantum-chemical calculations support the catalytic influence of a thiol on the C-C bond cleavage. PMID:23980549

  10. Rh(I)-catalyzed benzo/[7+1] cycloaddition of cyclopropyl-benzocyclobutenes and CO by merging thermal and metal-catalyzed C-C bond cleavages.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xu-Fei; Xiang, Yu; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    A Rh-catalyzed benzo/[7+1] cycloaddition of cyclopropyl-benzocyclobutenes (CP-BCBs) and CO to benzocyclooctenones has been developed. In this reaction, CP-BCB acts as a benzo/7-C synthon and the reaction involves two C-C bond cleavages: a thermal electrocyclic ring-opening of the four-membered ring in CP-BCB and a Rh-catalyzed C-C cleavage of the cyclopropane ring. PMID:25612241

  11. Metal-catalyzed C-C bond cleavage in alkanes: effects of methyl substitution on transition-state structures and stability.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, David W; Hibbitts, David D; Iglesia, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    Methyl substituents at C-C bonds influence hydrogenolysis rates and selectivities of acyclic and cyclic C2-C8 alkanes on Ir, Rh, Ru, and Pt catalysts. C-C cleavage transition states form via equilibrated dehydrogenation steps that replace several C-H bonds with C-metal bonds, desorb H atoms (H*) from saturated surfaces, and form ? H2(g) molecules. Activation enthalpies (?H()) and entropies (?S()) and ? values for (3)C-(x)C cleavage are larger than for (2)C-(2)C or (2)C-(1)C bonds, irrespective of the composition of metal clusters or the cyclic/acyclic structure of the reactants. (3)C-(x)C bonds cleave through ?,?,?- or ?,?,?,?-bound transition states, as indicated by the agreement between measured activation entropies and those estimated for such structures using statistical mechanics. In contrast, less substituted C-C bonds involve ?,?-bound species with each C atom bound to several surface atoms. These ?,? configurations weaken C-C bonds through back-donation to antibonding orbitals, but such configurations cannot form with (3)C atoms, which have one C-H bond and thus can form only one C-M bond. (3)C-(x)C cleavage involves attachment of other C atoms, which requires endothermic C-H activation and H* desorption steps that lead to larger ?H() values but also larger ?S() values (by forming more H2(g)) than for (2)C-(2)C and (2)C-(1)C bonds, irrespective of alkane size (C2-C8) or cyclic/acyclic structure. These data and their mechanistic interpretation indicate that low temperatures and high H2 pressures favor cleavage of less substituted C-C bonds and form more highly branched products from cyclic and acyclic alkanes. Such interpretations and catalytic consequences of substitution seem also relevant to C-X cleavage (X = S, N, O) in desulfurization, denitrogenation, and deoxygenation reactions. PMID:24961991

  12. Discovery and mechanistic studies of facile N-terminal C?-C bond cleavages in the dissociation of tyrosine-containing peptide radical cations.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaoyan; Song, Tao; Xu, Minjie; Lai, Cheuk-Kuen; Siu, Chi-Kit; Laskin, Julia; Chu, Ivan K

    2014-04-24

    Fascinating N-terminal C?-C bond cleavages in a series of nonbasic tyrosine-containing peptide radical cations have been observed under low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID), leading to the generation of rarely observed x-type radical fragments, with significant abundances. CID experiments of the radical cations of the alanyltyrosylglycine tripeptide and its analogues suggested that the N-terminal C?-C bond cleavage, yielding its [x2 + H](+) radical cation, does not involve an N-terminal ?-carbon-centered radical. Theoretical examination of a prototypical radical cation of the alanyltyrosine dipeptide, using density functional theory calculations, suggested that direct N-terminal C?-C bond cleavage could produce an ion-molecule complex formed between the incipient a1(+) and x1() fragments. Subsequent proton transfer from the iminium nitrogen atom in a1(+) to the acyl carbon atom in x1() results in the observable [x1 + H](+). The barriers against this novel C?-C bond cleavage and the competitive N-C? bond cleavage, forming the complementary [c1 + 2H](+)/[z1 - H](+) ion pair, are similar (ca. 16 kcal mol(-1)). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus modeling revealed that [x1 + H](+) and [c1 + 2H](+) species are formed with comparable rates, in agreement with energy-resolved CID experiments for [AY](+). PMID:24678922

  13. Biosynthetic pathway toward carbohydrate-like moieties of alnumycins contains unusual steps for C-C bond formation and cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Oja, Terhi; Klika, Karel D.; Appassamy, Laura; Sinkkonen, Jari; Mntsl, Pekka; Niemi, Jarmo; Mets-Ketel, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate moieties are important components of natural products, which are often imperative for the solubility and biological activity of the compounds. The aromatic polyketide alnumycin A contains an extraordinary sugar-like 4?-hydroxy-5?-hydroxymethyl-2?,7?-dioxane moiety attached via a carbon-carbon bond to the aglycone. Here we have extensively investigated the biosynthesis of the dioxane unit through 13C labeling studies, gene inactivation experiments and enzymatic synthesis. We show that AlnA and AlnB, members of the pseudouridine glycosidase and haloacid dehalogenase enzyme families, respectively, catalyze C-ribosylation conceivably through Michael-type addition of d-ribose-5-phosphate and dephosphorylation. The ribose moiety may be attached both in furanose (alnumycin C) and pyranose (alnumycin D) forms. The C1?-C2? bond of alnumycin C is subsequently cleaved and the ribose unit is rearranged into an unprecedented dioxolane (cis-bicyclo[3.3.0]-2?,4?,6?-trioxaoctan-3??-ol) structure present in alnumycin B. The reaction is catalyzed by Aln6, which belongs to a previously uncharacterized enzyme family. The conversion was accompanied with consumption of O2 and formation of H2O2, which allowed us to propose that the reaction may proceed via hydroxylation of C1? followed by retro-aldol cleavage and acetal formation. Interestingly, no cofactors could be detected and the reaction was also conducted in the presence of metal chelating agents. The last step is the conversion of alnumycin B into the final end-product alnumycin A catalyzed by Aln4, an NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase. This characterization of the dioxane biosynthetic pathway sets the basis for the utilization of C-C bound ribose, dioxolane and dioxane moieties in the generation of improved biologically active compounds. PMID:22474343

  14. Hydroperoxide Oxidation of Difficult-to-Oxidize Substrates: An Unprecedented CC Bond Cleavage in Alkanes and the Oxidation of Molecular Nitrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Gekhman; I. P. Stolyarov; N. V. Ershova; N. I. Moiseeva; I. I. Moiseev

    2004-01-01

    In the V(V)H2O2\\/AcOH system, C5C20n-alkanes, isooctane, and neohexane undergo oxidation to ketones and alcohols; the oxidation products of branched alkanes are indicative of a CC bond cleavage in these substrates. A concept is developed, according to which the peroxo complexes of vanadium(V) are responsible for alkane oxidation. These complexes can transfer the oxygen atom or the O+ radical cation to

  15. A rhodium(i)-catalysed formal intramolecular C-C/C-H bond metathesis.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Takanori; Yuihara, Itaru

    2015-04-14

    Phenylcyclobutanes underwent skeletal reorganisation in the presence of Wilkinson's catalyst to afford indanes through a cascade process involving chelation-assisted C-C bond cleavage and intramolecular C-H bond cleavage. PMID:25823599

  16. An easy access to ?-aryl substituted ?-ketophosphonates: Lewis acid mediated reactions of 1,3-diketones with ?-hydroxyphosphonates and tandem regioselective C-C bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Pallikonda, Gangaram; Chakravarty, Manab; Sahoo, Manoj K

    2014-09-28

    A range of ?-aryl substituted ?-ketophosphonates is synthesised by Lewis acid mediated reactions of 1,3-diketones and easily accessible, inexpensive benzylic ?-hydroxyphosphonates in an operationally simple method under solvent-free conditions without exclusion of air/moisture. A regioselective C-C bond cleavage for 1,3-diketones in a tandem fashion has also been demonstrated. Synthesis of a ?-ketophosphonate with phenol functionality at the ?-position (structural analogue of raspberry ketone, a natural product) has also been presented. PMID:25098552

  17. Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds of Diphenylacetylene and Its Derivatives via Photolysis of Pt Complexes: Tuning the

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds of Diphenylacetylene and Its Derivatives via Photolysis of Pt analysis. While the C-C cleavage reaction occurs readily under photochemical conditions, thermal activation-withdrawing or electron-donating groups. Upon cleavage of the C-C bond in (dtbpe)Pt(2 -(p

  18. CarbonCarbon Bond Cleavage and Dehydrogenation of Isobutane Over HZSM-5 at Low Pressures and Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    CarbonCarbon Bond Cleavage and Dehydrogenation of Isobutane Over HZSM-5 at Low Pressures 2012 Abstract Carboncarbon bond cleavage and dehydroge- nation are observed following low.4 kJ mol-1 (CC bond cleavage) and 62.8 1.0 kJ mol-1 (dehydrogenation). Such low energy barriers

  19. Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Aromatic Nitriles Using Juventino J. Garcia, Nicole M. Brunkan, and William D. Jones*,

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Aromatic Nitriles Using Nickel(0) Juventino J. Garcia, Nicole M as dimetalated products. No C-C or C-N cleavage of the aromatic ring is seen with quinoline or acridine; only 2. Introduction The cleavage of a variety of strong C-X -bonds, including C-H, C-F, C-S, and C-C, has been

  20. Can laccases catalyze bond cleavage in lignin?

    PubMed

    Munk, Line; Sitarz, Anna K; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Mikkelsen, J Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Modification of lignin is recognized as an important aspect of the successful refining of lignocellulosic biomass, and enzyme-assisted processing and upcycling of lignin is receiving significant attention in the literature. Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are taking the centerstage of this attention, since these enzymes may help degrading lignin, using oxygen as the oxidant. Laccases can catalyze polymerization of lignin, but the question is whether and how laccases can directly catalyze modification of lignin via catalytic bond cleavage. Via a thorough review of the available literature and detailed illustrations of the putative laccase catalyzed reactions, including the possible reactions of the reactive radical intermediates taking place after the initial oxidation of the phenol-hydroxyl groups, we show that i) Laccase activity is able to catalyze bond cleavage in low molecular weight phenolic lignin model compounds; ii) For laccases to catalyze inter-unit bond cleavage in lignin substrates, the presence of a mediator system is required. Clearly, the higher the redox potential of the laccase enzyme, the broader the range of substrates, including o- and p-diphenols, aminophenols, methoxy-substituted phenols, benzenethiols, polyphenols, and polyamines, which may be oxidized. In addition, the currently available analytical methods that can be used to detect enzyme catalyzed changes in lignin are summarized, and an improved nomenclature for unequivocal interpretation of the action of laccases on lignin is proposed. PMID:25560931

  1. Understanding Rotation about a C=C Double Bond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The study focuses on the process and energetic cost of twisting around a C=C double bond and provides instructors with a simple vehicle for rectifying the common misrepresentation of C=C double bonds as rigid and inflexible. Discussions of cis and trans isomers of cycloalkenes are a good entry point for introducing students to the idea of a

  2. Selective cleavage of the C?-C? linkage in lignin model compounds via Baeyer-Villiger oxidation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nikhil D; Yao, Soledad G; Meier, Mark S; Mobley, Justin K; Crocker, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Lignin is an amorphous aromatic polymer derived from plants and is a potential source of fuels and bulk chemicals. Herein, we present a survey of reagents for selective stepwise oxidation of lignin model compounds. Specifically, we have targeted the oxidative cleavage of C?-C? bonds as a means to depolymerize lignin and obtain useful aromatic compounds. In this work, we prepared several lignin model compounds that possess structures, characteristic reactivity, and linkages closely related to the parent lignin polymer. We observed that selective oxidation of benzylic hydroxyl groups, followed by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the resulting ketones, successfully cleaves the C?-C? linkage in these model compounds. PMID:25641654

  3. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage and rearrangement of benzene by a trinuclear titanium hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaowei; Shima, Takanori; Hou, Zhaomin

    2014-08-01

    The cleavage of carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds by transition metals is of great interest, especially as this transformation can be used to produce fuels and other industrially important chemicals from natural resources such as petroleum and biomass. Carbon-carbon bonds are quite stable and are consequently unreactive under many reaction conditions. In the industrial naphtha hydrocracking process, the aromatic carbon skeleton of benzene can be transformed to methylcyclopentane and acyclic saturated hydrocarbons through C-C bond cleavage and rearrangement on the surfaces of solid catalysts. However, these chemical transformations usually require high temperatures and are fairly non-selective. Microorganisms can degrade aromatic compounds under ambient conditions, but the mechanistic details are not known and are difficult to mimic. Several transition metal complexes have been reported to cleave C-C bonds in a selective fashion in special circumstances, such as relief of ring strain, formation of an aromatic system, chelation-assisted cyclometallation and ?-carbon elimination. However, the cleavage of benzene by a transition metal complex has not been reported. Here we report the C-C bond cleavage and rearrangement of benzene by a trinuclear titanium polyhydride complex. The benzene ring is transformed sequentially to a methylcyclopentenyl and a 2-methylpentenyl species through the cleavage of the aromatic carbon skeleton at the multi-titanium sites. Our results suggest that multinuclear titanium hydrides could serve as a unique platform for the activation of aromatic molecules, and may facilitate the design of new catalysts for the transformation of inactive aromatics.

  4. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of the organic sulfur in coal constitutes one of the major challenges facing fossil fuel scientists today. A cost--effective of desulfurizing Illinois coal is non-existent at the present time. Research in our group aims to develop a simple protocol for sulfur removal by gaining understanding of how various additives can enhance the rates of C-S bond cleavage in Illinois coal and coal model compounds, relative to fragmentation of the coal macromolecule via C-C, C-O, and C-N bond cleavage. During this funding period, we plan to carry out examinations of: (a) the effects of various reaction conditions on radical-initiated and Lewis acid-catalyzed C-S bond cleavages; (b) the effects of caustic impregnation and subsequent alcoholic reflux on C-S bond cleavage strategies; (c) the reactions of coal model compounds with electron-deficient substrates; (d) examinations of photooxidative C-S bond cleavage reactions; (e) the effects of moderate (300--400{degrees}C) temperatures and pressures as well as ultrasonic radiation on (a) - (c). Also planned are differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) examinations of selected C-S bond cleavage protocols, including those on Illinois coals that possess varying amounts of organic and inorganic sulfur.

  5. Carbon-Oxygen Bond Activation in Esters by Platinum(0): Cleavage of the Less Reactive Bond

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Carbon-Oxygen Bond Activation in Esters by Platinum(0): Cleavage of the Less Reactive Bond Kimberly, they typically exchange the OR group for another incoming nucleophile by acyl-oxygen cleavage: e.g., in acidic hydrolysis reactions. SN1 cleavage of the alkyl-oxygen RCOO-R bond is seen only when the ester is protonated

  6. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frost

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms for cleavage of RCH-S bonds catalyzed by Escherichia coli can best be categorized by whether an alcohol RCHOH or an aldehyde RCHO are the products of the degradation. A study of the chemical processes involved has been used to establish the best formulation of carbon to sulfur bond cleavage. 2 figs.

  7. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms for cleavage of RCH{sub 2}-S bonds catalyzed by Escherichia coli can best be categorized by whether an alcohol RCH{sub 2}OH or an aldehyde RCHO are the products of the degradation. A study of the chemical processes involved has been used to establish the best formulation of carbon to sulfur bond cleavage. 2 figs.

  8. Alkali metal mediated C-C bond coupling reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2015-02-01

    Metal catalyzed carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation is one of the important reactions in pharmacy and in organic chemistry. In the present study, the electron and hole capture dynamics of a lithium-benzene sandwich complex, expressed by Li(Bz)2, have been investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics method. Following the electron capture of Li(Bz)2, the structure of [Li(Bz)2]- was drastically changed: Bz-Bz parallel form was rapidly fluctuated as a function of time, and a new C-C single bond was formed in the C1-C1' position of Bz-Bz interaction system. In the hole capture, the intermolecular vibration between Bz-Bz rings was only enhanced. The mechanism of C-C bond formation in the electron capture was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  9. Alkali metal mediated C-C bond coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2015-02-14

    Metal catalyzed carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation is one of the important reactions in pharmacy and in organic chemistry. In the present study, the electron and hole capture dynamics of a lithium-benzene sandwich complex, expressed by Li(Bz)2, have been investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics method. Following the electron capture of Li(Bz)2, the structure of [Li(Bz)2](-) was drastically changed: Bz-Bz parallel form was rapidly fluctuated as a function of time, and a new C-C single bond was formed in the C1-C1' position of Bz-Bz interaction system. In the hole capture, the intermolecular vibration between Bz-Bz rings was only enhanced. The mechanism of C-C bond formation in the electron capture was discussed on the basis of theoretical results. PMID:25681900

  10. Solvent Effects and Activation Parameters in the Competitive Cleavage of C-CN and C-H Bonds in 2-Methyl-3-Butenenitrile

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Solvent Effects and Activation Parameters in the Competitive Cleavage of C-CN and C-H Bonds in 2 significant differences in the ratio of C-H and C-CN activated products. C-H cleavage is favored in polar solvents, whereas C-C cleavage is favored in nonpolar solvents. This variation is attributed

  11. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage and rearrangement of benzene by a trinuclear titanium hydride.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowei; Shima, Takanori; Hou, Zhaomin

    2014-08-28

    The cleavage of carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds by transition metals is of great interest, especially as this transformation can be used to produce fuels and other industrially important chemicals from natural resources such as petroleum and biomass. Carbon-carbon bonds are quite stable and are consequently unreactive under many reaction conditions. In the industrial naphtha hydrocracking process, the aromatic carbon skeleton of benzene can be transformed to methylcyclopentane and acyclic saturated hydrocarbons through C-C bond cleavage and rearrangement on the surfaces of solid catalysts. However, these chemical transformations usually require high temperatures and are fairly non-selective. Microorganisms can degrade aromatic compounds under ambient conditions, but the mechanistic details are not known and are difficult to mimic. Several transition metal complexes have been reported to cleave C-C bonds in a selective fashion in special circumstances, such as relief of ring strain, formation of an aromatic system, chelation-assisted cyclometallation and ?-carbon elimination. However, the cleavage of benzene by a transition metal complex has not been reported. Here we report the C-C bond cleavage and rearrangement of benzene by a trinuclear titanium polyhydride complex. The benzene ring is transformed sequentially to a methylcyclopentenyl and a 2-methylpentenyl species through the cleavage of the aromatic carbon skeleton at the multi-titanium sites. Our results suggest that multinuclear titanium hydrides could serve as a unique platform for the activation of aromatic molecules, and may facilitate the design of new catalysts for the transformation of inactive aromatics. PMID:25164752

  12. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1994-10-25

    A microbial process is described for selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  13. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, II, John J. (Woodstock, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  14. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Quarterly report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M.

    1991-12-31

    Removal of the organic sulfur in coal constitutes one of the major challenges facing fossil fuel scientists today. A cost--effective of desulfurizing Illinois coal is non-existent at the present time. Research in our group aims to develop a simple protocol for sulfur removal by gaining understanding of how various additives can enhance the rates of C-S bond cleavage in Illinois coal and coal model compounds, relative to fragmentation of the coal macromolecule via C-C, C-O, and C-N bond cleavage. During this funding period, we plan to carry out examinations of: (a) the effects of various reaction conditions on radical-initiated and Lewis acid-catalyzed C-S bond cleavages; (b) the effects of caustic impregnation and subsequent alcoholic reflux on C-S bond cleavage strategies; (c) the reactions of coal model compounds with electron-deficient substrates; (d) examinations of photooxidative C-S bond cleavage reactions; (e) the effects of moderate (300--400{degrees}C) temperatures and pressures as well as ultrasonic radiation on (a) - (c). Also planned are differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) examinations of selected C-S bond cleavage protocols, including those on Illinois coals that possess varying amounts of organic and inorganic sulfur.

  15. Author's personal copy Bond cleavage reactions in substituted thiophenes

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    to decomposition. Insertion into the carbon sulfur bond had been observed with 2,5-dimethyl- thiophene, soAuthor's personal copy Bond cleavage reactions in substituted thiophenes by a rhodium complex of petroleum feedstocks to remove sulfur [1]. Derivatives of thiophenes, benzothiophenes, and dibenzothiophenes

  16. Reductive cleavage of the peptide bond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holian, J.; Garrison, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    In many biological research efforts, long chain organic molecules are studied by breaking large molecules into smaller components. Cleavage technique of recent interest is the use of solvated electrons. These are formed when aqueous solutions are bombarded with gamma radiation. Solvated electron is very reactive and can reduce most any species present, even to form free radicals.

  17. Activation of Propane C-H and C-C Bonds by Gas-Phase Pt Atom: A Theoretical Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang-Ming; Yang, Hua-Qing; Ju, Ting-Yong; Li, Xiang-Yuan; Hu, Chang-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of the gas-phase Pt atom with C3H8 has been systematically investigated on the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces at CCSD(T)//BPW91/6-311++G(d, p), Lanl2dz level. Pt atom prefers the attack of primary over secondary C-H bonds in propane. For the Pt + C3H8 reaction, the major and minor reaction channels lead to PtC3H6 + H2 and PtCH2 + C2H6, respectively, whereas the possibility to form products PtC2H4 + CH4 is so small that it can be neglected. The minimal energy reaction pathway for the formation of PtC3H6 + H2, involving one spin inversion, prefers to start at the triplet state and afterward proceed along the singlet state. The optimal C-C bond cleavages are assigned to C-H bond activation as the first step, followed by cleavage of a C-C bond. The C-H insertion intermediates are kinetically favored over the C-C insertion intermediates. From C-C to C-H oxidative insertion, the lowering of activation barrier is mainly caused by the more stabilizing transition state interaction ?E?int, which is the actual interaction energy between the deformed reactants in the transition state. PMID:22942766

  18. Carbon-Selenium Bond Cleavage by a Rhodium Complex

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Carbon-Selenium Bond Cleavage by a Rhodium Complex David A. Vicic, Andrew W. Myers, and William D metal complexes as models for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of sulfur compounds found in crude oil.1 with tel- lophene.4,5 As Angelici has pointed out,3 selenium is an attractive sulfur analog because of its

  19. Cleavage of thymine N3H bonds by low-energy electrons attached Magali Theodore 1

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    Cleavage of thymine N3H bonds by low-energy electrons attached to base p* orbitals Magali The the effects of base p-stacking on the rates of such bond cleavages. To date, our results suggest that sugarphosphate CO bonds have the lowest barriers to cleavage, that attach- ment of electrons with energies below 2

  20. Low-Energy (0.1 eV) Electron Attachment SS Bond Cleavage

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    Low-Energy (0.1 eV) Electron Attachment SS Bond Cleavage Assisted by Coulomb Stabilization and insights should be of substantial value to workers studying bond cleavage rates and fragmentation patterns Chem 102: 838846, 2005 Key words: electron attachment; bond cleavage; disulfide bridge Correspondence

  1. Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Effect of BPh3 on Competitive C-C and C-H Bond Activation Reactions in the

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Effect of BPh3 on Competitive C-C and C-H Bond Activation Reactions-H cleavage steps (larger Hq and positive Sq ). Addition of the Lewis acid BPh3 to 1 at low temperature yields exclusively the C-CN activation product (dippe)Ni(3 -allyl)(CNBPh3) (4). Independently prepared (dippe)Ni(crotononitrile-BPh

  2. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frost

    1991-01-01

    Cleavage of aliphatic organosulfonate carbon to sulfur (C-S) bonds, a critical link in the global biogeochemical sulfur cycle, has been identified in Escherichia coli K-12. Enormous quantities of inorganic sulfate are continuously converted (Scheme I) into methanesulfonic acid 1 and acylated 3-(6-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyranosyl)-L-glycerol 2. Biocatalytic desulfurization (Scheme I) of 1 and 2, which share the structural feature of an aliphatic carbon

  3. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Cleavage of aliphatic organosulfonate carbon to sulfur (C-S) bonds, a critical link in the global biogeochemical sulfur cycle, has been identified in Escherichia coli K-12. Enormous quantities of inorganic sulfate are continuously converted (Scheme I) into methanesulfonic acid 1 and acylated 3-(6-sulfo-{alpha}-D-quinovopyranosyl)-L-glycerol 2. Biocatalytic desulfurization (Scheme I) of 1 and 2, which share the structural feature of an aliphatic carbon bonded to a sulfonic acid sulfur, completes the cycle, Discovery of this desulfurization in E. coli provides an invaluable paradigm for study of a biotic process which, via the biogeochemical cycle, significantly influences the atmospheric concentration of sulfur-containing molecules.

  4. Carbon-hydrogen vs. carbon-carbon bond cleavage of 1,2-diarylethane radical cations in acetonitrile-water

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Franz, J.A.

    1984-05-04

    Radical cations of 1,2-diarylethanes and 1-phenyl-2-arylethanes (Ar = phenyl, p-tolyl, p-anisyl) were generated in acidic 70% acetonitrile-water by Cu/sup 2 +/-catalyzed peroxydisulfate oxidation. The radical cations fragment mainly by loss of benzylic protons (C-H cleavage) rather than by alkyl C-C bond cleavage. The 1,2-diarylethanol products undergo further selective oxidation to aryl aldehydes and arylmethanols via rapid equilibration of diarylethane and diarylethanol radical cations. The radical cation of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diphenylbutane fragments efficiently by C-C cleavage, forming cumyl radical and cumyl cation. Oxidations of bibenzyl-bicumyl mixtures show selective oxidation of bicumyl dependent on total substrate concentration, providing evidence of equilibrating radical cations and showing that bicumyl fragments faster than bibenzyl loses protons. The effects of reaction conditions and substrate structure on reactivity are discussed.

  5. FRONTIERS ARTICLE Mechanisms for SS and NCa bond cleavage in peptide ECD and ETD

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    FRONTIERS ARTICLE Mechanisms for SS and NCa bond cleavage in peptide ECD and ETD mass cleavages occur in mass spectrometry. The primary issues include where in the parent ion the electron, in polypeptides, one finds disulfide and NCa bond cleavage primarily. 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V. 1

  6. Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage of Methyl-Substituted Thiophenes with Iridium(III)

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Articles Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage of Methyl-Substituted Thiophenes with Iridium(III) Matthew R carbon-sulfur bond(s). In both cases the thiophenes are ring-opened and hydrogenated, resulting-methylthiophene and 2,5-dimethylthiophene at 120 °C in the presence of H2 results in the cleavage of the thiophene

  7. Density Functional Theory Study of Selectivity Considerations for CC Versus CO Bond Scission in Glycerol Decomposition on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Greeley, Jeffrey P.

    2012-05-01

    Glycerol decomposition via a combination of dehydrogenation, CC bond scission, and CO bond scission reactions is examined on Pt(111) with periodic Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Building upon a previous study focused on CC bond scission in glycerol, the current work presents a ?rst analysis of the competition between CO and CC bond cleavage in this reaction network. The thermochemistry of various species produced from CO bond breaking in glycerol dehydrogenation intermediates is estimated using an extension of a previously introduced empirical correlation scheme, with parameters ?t to DFT calculations. BrnstedEvansPolanyi (BEP) relationships are then used to estimate the kinetics of CO bond breaking. When combined with the previous results, the thermochemical and kinetic analyses imply that, while CO bond scission may be competitive with CC bond scission during the early stages of glycerol dehydrogenation, the overall rates are likely to be very low. Later in the dehydrogenation process, where rates will be much higher, transition states for CC bond scission involving decarbonylation are much lower in energy than are the corresponding transition states for CO bond breaking, implying that the selectivity for CC scission will be high for glycerol decomposition on smooth platinum surfaces. It is anticipated that the correlation schemes described in this work will provide an ef?cient strategy for estimating thermochemical and kinetic energetics for a variety of elementary bond breaking processes on Pt(111) and may ultimately facilitate computational catalyst design for these and related catalytic processes.

  8. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage of 1,2-hydroxy ethers b7 vanadium(V) dipicolinate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Susan K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gordon, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thorn, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, R Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternatives to current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals is becoming increasingly important due to concerns over climate change, growing world energy demand, and energy security issues. Using non-food derived biomass to produce renewable feedstocks for chemicals and fuels is a particularly attractive possibility. However, the majority of biomass is in the form of lignocellulose, which is often not fully utilized due to difficulties associated with breaking down both lignin and cellulose. Recently, a number of methods have been reported to transform cellulose directly into more valuable materials such as glucose, sorbitol, 5-(chloromethyl)furfural, and ethylene glycol. Less progress has been made with selective transformations of lignin, which is typically treated in paper and forest industries by kraft pulping (sodium hydroxide/sodium sulfide) or incineration. Our group has begun investigating aerobic oxidative C-C bond cleavage catalyzed by dipicolinate vanadium complexes, with the idea that a selective C-C cleavage reaction of this type could be used to produce valuable chemicals or intermediates from cellulose or lignin. Lignin is a randomized polymer containing methoxylated phenoxy propanol units. A number of different linkages occur naturally; one of the most prevalent is the {beta}-O-4 linkage shown in Figure 1, containing a C-C bond with 1,2-hydroxy ether substituents. While the oxidative C-C bond cleavage of 1,2-diols has been reported for a number of metals, including vanadium, iron, manganese, ruthenium, and polyoxometalate complexes, C-C bond cleavage of 1,2-hydroxy ethers is much less common. We report herein vanadium-mediated cleavage of C-C bonds between alcohol and ether functionalities in several lignin model complexes. In order to explore the scope and potential of vanadium complexes to effect oxidative C-C bond cleavage in 1,2-hydroxy ethers, we examined the reactivity of the lignin model complexes pinacol monomethyl ether (A), 2-phenoxyethanol (B), and 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethanol (C) (Figure 1). Reaction of (dipic)V{sup V}(O)O{sup i}Pr (1a) or (dipic)V{sup v}(O)OEt (lb) with A, B, or C in acetonitrile yielded new vanadium(V) complexes where the alcohol-ether ligand was bound in a chelating fashion. From the reaction of 1b with pinacol monomethyl ether (A) in acetonitrile solution, (dipic)V{sup v}(O)(pinOMe) (2) (PinOMe = 2,3-dimethyl-3-methoxy-2-butanoxide) was isolated in 61 % yield. Reaction of 1b with 2-phenoxyethanol (B) in acetonitrile gave the new complex (dipic)V{sup v}(O)(OPE) (3) (OPE = 2-phenoxyethoxide), which was isolated in 76% yield. In a similar fashion, 1a reacted with 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethanol (C) to give (dipic)V(O)(DPME) (4) (DPME = 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethoxide), which was isolated in 39% yield. Complexes 2, 3, and 4 were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. Compared to the previously reported vanadium(V) pinacolate complex (dipic)V(O)(pinOH) the X-ray structure of complex 2 reveals a slightly shorter V = O bond, 1.573(2) {angstrom} vs 1.588(2) {angstrom} for the pinOH structure. Complexes 3 and 4 display similar vanadium oxo bond distances of 1.568(2) {angstrom} and 1.576(2) {angstrom}, respectively. All three complexes show longer bonds to the ether-oxygen trans to the oxo (2.388(2) {angstrom} for 2, 2.547(2) {angstrom} for 3, and 2.438(2) {angstrom} for 4) than to the hydroxy-oxygen in the pinOH structure (2.252(2) {angstrom}).

  9. J. Am. Chem. Sot. 1986, 108, 2333-2340 2333 Mechanistic Studies of Phosphorus-Oxygen Bond Cleavages in

    E-print Network

    Collum, David B.

    J. Am. Chem. Sot. 1986, 108, 2333-2340 2333 Mechanistic Studies of Phosphorus-Oxygen Bond Cleavages mixtures of the P-O cleavage products (5 or 6 ) andfac-(CO),L,ReCl. Crossoverstudies showed-metal bond cleavage, and a novel dyotropic rearrangement. Reports of the cleavage of phosphorus-carbon bonds

  10. Recent advances in the gold-catalyzed additions to CC multiple bonds

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Zhou, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Summary CO, CN and CC bonds are the most widespread types of bonds in nature, and are the cornerstone of most organic compounds, ranging from pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals to advanced materials and polymers. Cationic gold acts as a soft and carbophilic Lewis acid and is considered one of the most powerful activators of CC multiple bonds. Consequently, gold-catalysis plays an important role in the development of new strategies to form these bonds in more convenient ways. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the gold-catalyzed chemistry of addition of XH (X = O, N, C) bonds to CC multiple bonds, tandem reactions, and asymmetric additions. This review covers gold-catalyzed organic reactions published from 2008 to the present. PMID:21804887

  11. The Transition State for Metal-Catalyzed Dehalogenation: C-I Bond Cleavage on Ag(111)

    E-print Network

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    The Transition State for Metal-Catalyzed Dehalogenation: C-I Bond Cleavage on Ag(111) Mark T cleavage on the Ag(111) surface have been measured in a set of 10 alkyl and fluoroalkyl iodides. All at temperatures below 200 K. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to monitor the rate of C-I cleavage during

  12. Cleavage of an amide bond by a ribozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, X.; De Mesmaeker, A.; Joyce, G. F.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A variant form of a group I ribozyme, optimized by in vitro evolution for its ability to catalyze magnesium-dependent phosphoester transfer reactions involving DNA substrates, also catalyzes the cleavage of an unactivated alkyl amide when that linkage is presented in the context of an oligodeoxynucleotide analog. Substrates containing an amide bond that joins either two DNA oligos, or a DNA oligo and a short peptide, are cleaved in a magnesium-dependent fashion to generate the expected products. The first-order rate constant, kcat, is 0.1 x 10(-5) min-1 to 1 x 10(-5) min-1 for the DNA-flanked substrates, which corresponds to a rate acceleration of more than 10(3) as compared with the uncatalyzed reaction.

  13. P-C Bond Scission at the TRIPHOS Ligand and C-CN Bond Cleavage in 2-Methyl-3-butenenitrile with [Ni(COD)2

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    P-C Bond Scission at the TRIPHOS Ligand and C-CN Bond Cleavage in 2-Methyl-3-butenenitrile with [Ni4 and 6 are the C-CN and P-C bond cleavage products, respectively. The persistent presence of benzene in a wide variety of metal-mediated and metal-catalyzed bond cleavage and formation reactions involving

  14. Sulfur in coal: Model studies of the role of ArS radicals in C-C and C-S bond formation and structural evolution in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, M.S.; Franz, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    Experiments in this paper show the importance of thiyl radicals in sulfur containing coals during coal liquefaction processes. The presence of arylthiyl radicals enhances the cleavage of C-C, C=C, and C=C bonds in these otherwise refactory systems. Abstraction reactions, 1,2-phenyl migration from sulfur to carbon and displacement reactions at sulfur may be important mechanisms of structural evolution during liquefaction. In addition to cleavage of arylalkyl structures, the results also show that undesirable retrograde formation of inert diaryl- and triarylmethanes may be a consequence of the presence of sulfur and the attending aryl thiol structures. Thus, while a reaction medium including sulfur and hydrogen has been demonstrated to lead to the enhance cleavage of the bibenzyl model structure the present results suggest that retrograde reactions may be significant undesired pathways in coal liquefaction in the presence of sulfur. 17 refs.

  15. Formation, preservation, and cleavage of the disulfide bond by vanadium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongren; Behrens, Axel; Farahbakhsh, Mahin; Gtjens, Jessica; Rehder, Dieter

    2003-04-14

    Reaction of the disulfide [HpicanS](2) (HpicanS is the carboxamide based on picolinate (pic) and o-mercaptoaniline (anS); the [] brackets are used to denote disulfides) with [VOCl(2)(thf)(2)] leads to reductive scission of the disulfide bond and formation of the mixed-valence (V(IV)/V(V)) complex anion [(OVpicanS)(2)mu-O](-) (1), with the dianionic ligand coordinating through the pyridine-N atom, the deprotonated amide-N atom, and thiophenolate-S atom. Reductive cleavage of the SbondS bond is also observed as [VCl(2)(tmeda)(2)] (tmeda=tetramethylethylenediamine) is treated with the disulfides [HsalanS](2) or [HvananS](2) (HsalanS and HvananS are the Schiff bases formed between o-mercaptoaniline and salicylaldehyde (Hsal) or vanillin (Hvan), respectively), yielding the V(III) complexes [VCl(tmeda)(salanS)] (2 a), or [VCl(tmeda)(vananS)] (2 b). The disulfide bond remains intact in the aerial reaction between [HsalanS](2) and [VCl(3)(thf)(3)] to yield the V(V) complex [VOCl[salanS](2)] (3), where (salanS)(2-) coordinates through the two phenolate and one of the imine functions. The S-S bond is also preserved as [VO(van)(2)] or [VO(nap)(2)] (Hnap=2-hydroxynaphthalene-1-carbaldehyde) is treated with bis(2-aminophenyl)disulfide, [anS](2), a reaction which is accompanied by condensation of the aldehyde and the diamine, and complexation of the resulting bis(Schiff bases) [HvananS](2) or [HnapanS](2) to form the complexes [VO[vananS](2)] (4 a) or [VO[napanS](2)] (4 b). In 4 a and 4 b, the phenolate and imine functions, and presumably also one of the disulfide-S atoms, coordinate to V(IV). 2-Mercaptophenyl-2'-pyridinecarboxamide (H(2)picanS) retains its identity in the presence of V(III); reaction between [VCl(3)(thf)(3)] and H(2)picanS yields [V[picanS](2)](-) (5). The dithiophenolate 2,6-bis(mercaptophenylthio)dimethylpyridine (6 a) is oxidized, mediated by VO(2+), to the bis(disulfide) octathiadiaza-cyclo-hexaeicosane 6 b. The relevance of these reactions for the speciation of vanadium under physiological conditions is addressed. [HNEt(3)]-1.0.5 NEt(3,) 3.3 CH(2)Cl(2), [HsalanS](2), [HNEt(3)]-5, and 6 b.4 THF have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:12698438

  16. Decarbonylative c?c bond-forming reactions of saccharins by nickel catalysis: homocoupling and cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Mi, Pengbing; Liao, Peiqiu; Tu, Tao; Bi, Xihe

    2015-03-27

    Decarbonylation of saccharins by nickel catalysis enables two kinds of C?C bond-forming reactions; homocoupling of saccharins to form biaryls and cycloaddition with alkynes to form benzosultams. The former represents the first reported nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative C?C homocoupling reaction, whereas the latter constitutes a powerful method to pharmaceutically relevant benzosultams. The reactions proceed with good functional-group tolerance and excellent regioselectivity. PMID:25689489

  17. Rhodium-Catalyzed Activation and Functionalization of the C-C Bond of Biphenylene

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Rhodium-Catalyzed Activation and Functionalization of the C-C Bond of Biphenylene Carl N. Iverson August 29, 2001 Biphenylene reacts with the rhodium(I) dimer [(dtbpm)RhCl]2 (1) (dtbpm ) bis have been stoichiometric, although catalytic reactions are known.2 Rhodium complexes in particular have

  18. Total synthesis of bryostatin 7 via C-C bond-forming hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Woo, Sang Kook; Krische, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    The marine macrolide bryostatin 7 is prepared in 20 steps (longest linear sequence) and 36 total steps with five C-C bonds formed using hydrogenative methods. This approach represents the most concise synthesis of any bryostatin reported, to date. PMID:21780806

  19. Microbial aldolases as CC bonding enzymesunknown treasures and new developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne K. Samland; Georg A. Sprenger

    2006-01-01

    Aldolases are a specific group of lyases that catalyze the reversible stereoselective addition of a donor compound (nucleophile) onto an acceptor compound (electrophile). Whereas most aldolases are specific for their donor compound in the aldolization reaction, they often tolerate a wide range of aldehydes as acceptor compounds. CC bonding by aldolases creates stereocenters in the resulting aldol products. This makes

  20. Enhancement of cyanogen bromide cleavage yields for methionyl-serine and methionyl-threonine peptide bonds.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, R; Metzka, L

    1999-01-01

    Cyanogen bromide (CNBr) is a common chemical used to hydrolyze peptide bonds C-terminal to methionine residues in peptides and proteins. In most cases, the efficiency of this bond cleavage is greater than 90% except in situations where a serine or threonine residue follows methionine in the amino acid sequence. We have explored the mechanism of the methionyl-serine and methionyl-threonine CNBr cleavage inefficiencies and have developed a simple methodology to more than double cleavage yields relative to standard literature conditions. This method entails increasing the concentration of water during the cleavage reaction either by reducing the formic acid concentration or by performing the cleavage in an acidic aqueous medium. This approach provides a more desirable methodology from the perspective of enhanced yields and greater ease of handling in cases of large-scale use. PMID:9887207

  1. Formation of CC Bonds via Iridium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation and Transfer Hydrogenation

    PubMed Central

    Bower, John F.; Krische, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of CC bonds via catalytic hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation enables carbonyl and imine addition in the absence of stoichiometric organometallic reagents. In this review, iridium-catalyzed CC bond-forming hydrogenations and transfer hydrogenations are surveyed. These processes encompass selective, atom-economic methods for the vinylation and allylation of carbonyl compounds and imines. Notably, under transfer hydrogenation conditions, alcohol dehydrogenation drives reductive generation of organoiridium nucleophiles, enabling carbonyl addition from the aldehyde or alcohol oxidation level. In the latter case, hydrogen exchange between alcohols and ?-unsaturated reactants generates electrophilenucleophile pairs en route to products of hydro-hydroxyalkylation, representing a direct method for the functionalization of carbinol CH bonds. PMID:21822399

  2. Bronsted-Evans-Polany relationships for C-C bond forming and C-C bond breaking reactions in thiamine-catalyzed decarboxylation of 2-keto acids using density functional theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, R. S.; Broadbelt, L. J.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2012-01-01

    The concept of generalized enzyme reactions suggests that a wide variety of substrates can undergo enzymatic transformations, including those whose biotransformation has not yet been realized. The use of quantum chemistry to evaluate kinetic feasibility is an attractive approach to identify enzymes for the proposed transformation. However, the sheer number of novel transformations that can be generated makes this impractical as a screening approach. Therefore, it is essential to develop structure/activity relationships based on quantities that are more efficient to calculate. In this work, we propose a structure/activity relationship based on the free energy of binding or reaction of non-native substrates to evaluate the catalysis relative to that of native substrates. While Broensted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relationships such as that proposed here have found broad application in heterogeneous catalysis, their extension to enzymatic catalysis is limited. We report here on density functional theory (DFT) studies for C-C bond formation and C-C bond cleavage associated with the decarboxylation of six 2-keto acids by a thiamine-containing enzyme (EC 1.2.7.1) and demonstrate a linear relationship between the free energy of reaction and the activation barrier. We then applied this relationship to predict the activation barriers of 17 chemically similar novel reactions. These calculations reveal that there is a clear correlation between the free energy of formation of the transition state and the free energy of the reaction, suggesting that this method can be further extended to predict the kinetics of novel reactions through our computational framework for discovery of novel biochemical transformations.

  3. Mo(CO)-promoted reductive cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Y. Luh; C. S. Wong

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the reductive cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds by Mo(CO, various organosulfur compounds are reacted with Mo(CO) in THF. Results of these experiments demonstrate that benzylic-, aryl-, or ..cap alpha..-acyl-activated carbon-sulfur bonds are reduced by treatment with Mo(CO). 1 table.

  4. Mo(CO)/sub 6/-promoted reductive cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bond

    SciTech Connect

    Luh, T.Y.; Wong, C.S.

    1985-12-13

    In order to study the reductive cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds by Mo(CO/sub 6/, various organosulfur compounds are reacted with Mo(CO)/sub 6/ in THF. Results of these experiments demonstrate that benzylic-, aryl-, or ..cap alpha..-acyl-activated carbon-sulfur bonds are reduced by treatment with Mo(CO)/sub 6/. 1 table.

  5. 2698 Organometallics 1992,11, 2698-2700 Thiophene Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage by Cobalt. Synthesis,

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    2698 Organometallics 1992,11, 2698-2700 Thiophene Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage by Cobalt. Synthesis that a carbon-sulfur bond has been cleavedand the sulfw and a-carbon bridgethe two metal centers. The compound to a transition metal. Earlier work in our lab has provided an example of this typeof C-S bond cleavage

  6. CC Bond formation catalyzed by natural gelatin and collagen proteins

    PubMed Central

    Khbeck, Dennis; Bijayi Dhar, Basab; Schn, Eva-Maria; Cativiela, Carlos; Gotor-Fernndez, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Summary The activity of gelatin and collagen proteins towards CC bond formation via Henry (nitroaldol) reaction between aldehydes and nitroalkanes is demonstrated for the first time. Among other variables, protein source, physical state and chemical modification influence product yield and kinetics, affording the nitroaldol products in both aqueous and organic media under mild conditions. Significantly, the scale-up of the process between 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and nitromethane is successfully achieved at 1 g scale and in good yield. A comparative kinetic study with other biocatalysts shows an increase of the first-order rate constant in the order chitosan < gelatin < bovine serum albumin (BSA) < collagen. The results of this study indicate that simple edible gelatin can promote CC bond forming reactions under physiological conditions, which may have important implications from a metabolic perspective. PMID:23843902

  7. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Technical report, March 1, 1992May 30, 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bausch

    1992-01-01

    Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. Unfortunately, several classes of reactions that lead to carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are not well understood. Planned in ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` are reactions in which organic sulfur-containing coal model compounds are subjected

  8. The rate of spontaneous cleavage of the glycosidic bond of adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Stockbridge, Randy B.; Schroeder, Gottfried K.; Wolfenden, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Previous estimates of the rate of spontaneous cleavage of the glycosidic bond of adenosine were determined by extrapolating the rates of the acid - and base-catalyzed reactions to neutral pH. Here we show that cleavage also proceeds through a pH-independent mechanism. Rate constants were determined as a function of temperature at pH 7 and a linear Arrhenius plot was constructed. Uncatalyzed cleavage occurs with a rate constant of 3.7 10?12 s?1 at 25 C, and the rate enhancement generated by the corresponding glycoside hydrolase is ~5 1012-fold. PMID:20580404

  9. Bond cleavage, fragment modification and reassembly in enantioselective three-component reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Zhou, Jun; Xia, Fei; Kang, Zhenghui; Hu, Wenhao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical bond cleavage and reconstruction are common processes in traditional rearrangement reactions. In contrast, the process that involves bond cleavage, fragment modification and then reconstruction of the modified fragment provides an efficient way to build structurally diversified molecules. Here, we report a palladium(II)/chiral phosphoric acid catalysed three-component reaction of aryldiazoacetates, enamines and imines to afford ?-amino-?-oxo pentanoic acid derivatives in good yields with excellent diastereoselectivities and high enantioselectivities. The stereoselective reaction went through a unique process that involves cleavage of a C-N bond, modification of the resulting amino fragment and selective reassembly of the modified fragment. This innovative multi-component process represents a highly efficient way to build structurally diversified polyfunctional molecules in an atom and step economic fashion. A keto-iminium is proposed as a key intermediate and a chiral palladium/phosphate complex is proposed as an active catalyst. PMID:25586817

  10. Bond cleavage, fragment modification and reassembly in enantioselective three-component reactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Zhou, Jun; Xia, Fei; Kang, Zhenghui; Hu, Wenhao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical bond cleavage and reconstruction are common processes in traditional rearrangement reactions. In contrast, the process that involves bond cleavage, fragment modification and then reconstruction of the modified fragment provides an efficient way to build structurally diversified molecules. Here, we report a palladium(II)/chiral phosphoric acid catalysed three-component reaction of aryldiazoacetates, enamines and imines to afford ?-amino-?-oxo pentanoic acid derivatives in good yields with excellent diastereoselectivities and high enantioselectivities. The stereoselective reaction went through a unique process that involves cleavage of a CN bond, modification of the resulting amino fragment and selective reassembly of the modified fragment. This innovative multi-component process represents a highly efficient way to build structurally diversified polyfunctional molecules in an atom and step economic fashion. A keto-iminium is proposed as a key intermediate and a chiral palladium/phosphate complex is proposed as an active catalyst. PMID:25586817

  11. The computation of C-C and N-N bond dissociation energies for singly, doubly, and triply bonded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    The bond dissociation energies (D sub e) of C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, N2, N2H2, and N2H4 are studied at various levels of correlation treatment. The convergence of D sub e with respect to the one particle basis is studied at the single reference modified coupled-pair functional (MCPF) level. At all levels of correlation treatment, the errors in the bond dissociation energies increase with the degree of multiple bond character. The multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) D sub e values, corrected for an estimate of higher excitations, are in excellent agreement with those determined using the size extensive averaged coupled pair functional (ACPF) method. It was found that the full valence complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF)/MRCI calculations are reproduced very well by MRCI calculations based on a CASSCF calculation that includes in the active space only those electrons involved in the C-C or N-N bonds. To achieve chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mole) for the D sub e values of the doubly bonded species C2H4 and N2H2 requires one particle basis sets including up through h angular momentum functions (l = 5) and a multireference treatment of electron correlation: still higher levels of calculation are required to achieve chemical accuracy for the triply bonded species C2H2 and N2.

  12. Metabolic Engineering to Develop a Pathway for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Nitrogen Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a biochemical pathway for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. Specifically a novel biochemical pathway will be developed for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in carbazole. The cleavage of the first C-N bond in carbazole is accomplished by the enzyme carbazole dioxygenase, that catalyzes the conversion of carbazole to 2-aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol. The genes encoding carbazole dioxygenase were cloned from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 and from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10. The selective cleavage of the second C-N bond has been challenging, and efforts to overcome that challenge have been the focus of recent research in this project. Enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating bacterial cultures that can metabolize 2-aminobiphenyl, but no enzyme capable of selectively cleaving the C-N bond in 2-aminobiphenyl has been identified. Aniline is very similar to the structure of 2-aminobiphenyl and aniline dioxygenase catalyzes the conversion of aniline to catechol and ammonia. For the remainder of the project the emphasis of research will be to simultaneously express the genes for carbazole dioxygenase and for aniline dioxygenase in the same bacterial host and then to select for derivative cultures capable of using carbazole as the sole source of nitrogen.

  13. Switchable conductance in functionalized carbon nanotubes via reversible sidewall bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Li, Elise Y; Poilvert, Nicolas; Marzari, Nicola

    2011-06-28

    We propose several covalent functionalizations for carbon nanotubes that display switchable on/off conductance in metallic tubes. The switching action is achieved by reversible control of bond-cleavage chemistry in [1 + 2] cycloadditions via the sp(3) ? sp(2) rehybridization that it induces; this leads to remarkable changes of conductance even at very low degrees of functionalization. Reversible bond-cleavage chemistry is achieved by identifying addends that provide optimal compensation between the bond-preserving through-space ? orbital interactions with the tube against the bond-breaking strain energy of the cyclopropane moiety. Several strategies for real-time control, based on redox or hydrolysis reactions, cis-trans isomerization or excited-state proton transfer are proposed. Such designer functional groups would allow for the first time direct control of the electrical properties of metallic carbon nanotubes, with extensive applications in nanoscale devices. PMID:21591731

  14. Involvement of the Arg-Asp-His Catalytic Triad in Enzymatic Cleavage of the Phosphodiester Bond

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Ming-Daw

    Involvement of the Arg-Asp-His Catalytic Triad in Enzymatic Cleavage of the Phosphodiester Bond-activating residue. In addition, His32 is associated with Asp274 in forming a catalytic triad with inositol 2-hydroxyl, and His82 is associated with Asp33 in forming a catalytic diad. The focus of this work

  15. Cleavage of the Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Thiophenes by a Binuclear Ruthenium Complex

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Notes Cleavage of the Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Thiophenes by a Binuclear Ruthenium Complex William D Hydrodesulfurization is the industrial process in which sulfur is removed from organosulfur compounds found metal complexes serve as particularly appropriate models for studying the binding modes of sulfur

  16. Carbon-sulfur bond cleavage reactions of dibenzothiophene derivatives mediated by iron and ruthenium carbonyls.

    PubMed

    Hirotsu, Masakazu; Tsuboi, Chiaki; Nishioka, Takanori; Kinoshita, Isamu

    2011-01-28

    A thermal reaction of 6-(4''-dibenzothienyl)-2,2'-bipyridine (bpyDBT) with [Ru(3)(CO)(12)] produced a sulfur-bridged triruthenium complex via double carbon-sulfur bond cleavage and CO insertion, while a diiron(I,I) complex containing a thiametallacycle was obtained by a photochemical reaction of bpyDBT with [Fe(CO)(5)]. PMID:21109886

  17. Ligand-free Ni-catalyzed reductive cleavage of inert carbon-sulfur bonds.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Nekane; Martin, Ruben

    2012-02-01

    A catalytic reductive cleavage of C(sp(2))- and C(sp(3))-SMe bonds under ligandless conditions is presented. The method is characterized by its wide scope and high chemoselectivity profile including challenging substrate combinations, allowing the design of orthogonal and site-selectivity approaches. PMID:22256952

  18. Direct enantiospecific substitution of primary ?-aminoalkylferrocenes via Lewis acid-catalyzed C-N bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng-Guang; Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Tian, Shi-Kai

    2014-12-01

    Highly enantioenriched primary ?-aminoalkylferrocenes were found to undergo zinc chloride-catalyzed substitution with various carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur nucleophiles in an enantiospecific fashion through C-N bond cleavage. The reaction tolerates air and moisture and exhibits high atom-economy by releasing ammonia as the sole byproduct. PMID:25307165

  19. Carbon monoxide-induced dinitrogen cleavage with group 4 metallocenes: reaction scope and coupling to N-H bond formation and CO deoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Donald J; Lobkovsky, Emil; Chirik, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    The scope of CO-induced N(2) cleavage in a series of zirconocene and hafnocene complexes containing activated, side-on bound dinitrogen ligands has been studied. In each case, bridging oxamidide ligands, [N(2)C(2)O(2)](4-), were formed from N-N bond cleavage coupled to N-C and C-C bond assembly. For the zirconium examples, [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(4)H)(2)Zr](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)) and [Me(2)Si(eta(5)-C(5)Me(4))(eta(5)-C(5)H(3)-3-(t)Bu)Zr](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)), dinitrogen loss became competitive with N(2) carbonylation, and significant quantities of the zirconocene dicarbonyl accompanied oxamidide formation. In contrast, the hafnocene complex [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(4)H)(2)Hf](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)) underwent clean carbonylative dinitrogen cleavage with no evidence of N(2) loss. CO-induced N(2) cleavage was also coupled to N-H bond formation by hydrogenation and C-H bond activation, as carbonylation of the zirconocene and hafnocene dinitrogen complexes in the presence of H(2) or phenylacetylene furnished isocyanato metallocene complexes with bridging imido (mu-NH) ligands. In the case of the ansa-hafnocene dinitrogen complex, replacing the dihydrogen atmosphere with various primary silanes yielded an isocyanato hafnocene mu-oxo hydride resulting from cleavage of N(2) and CO, the diatomics with the two strongest bonds in chemistry. PMID:20662528

  20. Rhodium-Catalyzed C-C Bond Formation via Heteroatom-Directed C-H Bond Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, Denise; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2010-05-13

    Once considered the 'holy grail' of organometallic chemistry, synthetically useful reactions employing C-H bond activation have increasingly been developed and applied to natural product and drug synthesis over the past decade. The ubiquity and relative low cost of hydrocarbons makes C-H bond functionalization an attractive alternative to classical C-C bond forming reactions such as cross-coupling, which require organohalides and organometallic reagents. In addition to providing an atom economical alternative to standard cross - coupling strategies, C-H bond functionalization also reduces the production of toxic by-products, thereby contributing to the growing field of reactions with decreased environmental impact. In the area of C-C bond forming reactions that proceed via a C-H activation mechanism, rhodium catalysts stand out for their functional group tolerance and wide range of synthetic utility. Over the course of the last decade, many Rh-catalyzed methods for heteroatom-directed C-H bond functionalization have been reported and will be the focus of this review. Material appearing in the literature prior to 2001 has been reviewed previously and will only be introduced as background when necessary. The synthesis of complex molecules from relatively simple precursors has long been a goal for many organic chemists. The ability to selectively functionalize a molecule with minimal pre-activation can streamline syntheses and expand the opportunities to explore the utility of complex molecules in areas ranging from the pharmaceutical industry to materials science. Indeed, the issue of selectivity is paramount in the development of all C-H bond functionalization methods. Several groups have developed elegant approaches towards achieving selectivity in molecules that possess many sterically and electronically similar C-H bonds. Many of these approaches are discussed in detail in the accompanying articles in this special issue of Chemical Reviews. One approach that has seen widespread success involves the use of a proximal heteroatom that serves as a directing group for the selective functionalization of a specific C-H bond. In a survey of examples of heteroatom-directed Rh catalysis, two mechanistically distinct reaction pathways are revealed. In one case, the heteroatom acts as a chelator to bind the Rh catalyst, facilitating reactivity at a proximal site. In this case, the formation of a five-membered metallacycle provides a favorable driving force in inducing reactivity at the desired location. In the other case, the heteroatom initially coordinates the Rh catalyst and then acts to stabilize the formation of a metal-carbon bond at a proximal site. A true test of the utility of a synthetic method is in its application to the synthesis of natural products or complex molecules. Several groups have demonstrated the applicability of C-H bond functionalization reactions towards complex molecule synthesis. Target-oriented synthesis provides a platform to test the effectiveness of a method in unique chemical and steric environments. In this respect, Rh-catalyzed methods for C-H bond functionalization stand out, with several syntheses being described in the literature that utilize C-H bond functionalization in a key step. These syntheses are highlighted following the discussion of the method they employ.

  1. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    The microbial desulfurization of organosulfur compounds occurs by unprecedented and largely unexplored biochemical processes. A study of such biotic desulfurizations can be expected to give rise to new and useful chemistry and enzymology. The potential value of understanding and harnessing these processes is seen in relation to the need for methods for the removal of organically bound sulfur from coal and the degradation of organic sulfur-containing pollutants. This research effort has been directed towards an examination of desulfurization ability in well characterized microorganisms, the isolation of bacteria with desulfurization ability from natural sources, the characterization and mechanistic evaluation of the observed biocatalytic processes, the development of biomimetic synthetic organic chemistry based on biotic desulfurization mechanisms and the design and preparation of improved coal model compounds for use in microbial selection processes. A systematic approach to studying biodesulfurizations was undertaken in which organosulfur compounds have been broken down into classes based on the oxidation state of the sulfur atom and the structure of the rest of the organic material. Microbes have been evaluated in terms of ability to degrade organosulfur compounds with sulfur in its sulfonic acid oxidation state. These compounds are likely intermediates in coal desulfurization and are present in the environment as persistent pollutants in the form of detergents. It is known that oxygen bonded to sulfur lowers the carbon-sulfur bond energy, providing a thermodynamic basis for starting with this class of compounds.

  2. Reaction Pathways and Energetics of Etheric C?O Bond Cleavage Catalyzed by Lanthanide Triflates

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Atesin, Abdurrahman C.; Li, Zhi; Curtiss, Larry A.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2013-07-15

    Efficient and selective cleavage of etheric C?O bonds is crucial for converting biomass into platform chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. In this contribution, computational methods at the DFT B3LYP level of theory are employed to understand the efficacy of lanthanide triflate catalysts (Ln(OTf)3, Ln = La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Yb, and Lu) in cleaving etheric C?O bonds. In agreement with experiment, the calculations indicate that the reaction pathway for C?O cleavage occurs via a C?H ? O?H proton transfer in concert with weakening of the C?O bond of the coordinated ether substrate to ultimately yield a coordinated alkenol. The activation energy for this process falls as the lanthanide ionic radius decreases, reflecting enhanced metal ion electrophilicity. Details of the reaction mechanism for Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed ring opening are explored in depth, and for 1-methyl-d3-butyl phenyl ether, the computed primary kinetic isotope effect of 2.4 is in excellent agreement with experiment (2.7), confirming that etheric ring-opening pathway involves proton transfer from the methyl group alpha to the etheric oxygen atom, which is activated by the electrophilic lanthanide ion. Calculations of the catalytic pathway using eight different ether substrates indicate that the more rapid cleavage of acyclic versus cyclic ethers is largely due to entropic effects, with the former C?O bond scission processes increasing the degrees of freedom/particles as the transition state is approached.

  3. From ketones to esters by a Cu-catalyzed highly selective C(CO)-C(alkyl) bond cleavage: aerobic oxidation and oxygenation with air.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xinyao; Zou, Miancheng; Song, Song; Tang, Conghui; Yuan, Yizhi; Jiao, Ning

    2014-10-22

    The Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of simple ketones via C-C bond cleavage has been developed. Varieties of common ketones, even inactive aryl long-chain alkyl ketones, are selectively converted into esters. The reaction tolerates a wide range of alcohols, including primary and secondary alcohols, chiral alcohols with retention of the configuration, electron-deficient phenols, as well as various natural alcohols. The usage of inexpensive copper catalyst, broad substrate scope, and neutral and open air conditions make this protocol very practical. (18)O labeling experiments reveal that oxygenation occurs during this transformation. Preliminary mechanism studies indicate that two novel pathways are mainly involved in this process. PMID:25251943

  4. Mercury Detoxification by Bacteria: Simulations of Transcription Activation and Mercury-Carbon Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize recent work from our laboratory and provide new perspective on two important aspects of bacterial mercury resistance: the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation by MerR, and the enzymatic cleavage of the Hg-C bond in methylmercury by the organomercurial lyase, MerB. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of MerR reveal an opening-and-closing dynamics, which may be involved in initiating transcription of mercury resistance genes upon Hg(II) binding. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on an active-site model of the enzyme reveal how MerB catalyzes the Hg-C bond cleavage using cysteine coordination and acid-base chemistry. These studies provide insight into the detailed mechanisms of microbial gene regulation and defense against mercury toxicity.

  5. Phospholipase D-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine occurs with P-O bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, P G; Pannell, L K; Daly, J W

    1991-07-01

    Mammalian phospholipase D has been implicated in signal-transduction mechanisms, most recently in association with stimuli that enhance phosphatidylcholine (PC) turnover. It was previously unknown whether hydrolysis of PC by phospholipase D proceeds via P-O or C-O bond cleavage. Commercially available phospholipase D isolated from Streptomyces chromofuscus was used to hydrolyse distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a detergent-containing buffer consisting of 90% 18O-water. The product of hydrolysis, phosphatidic acid (PA), was purified by thin-layer chromatography and analyzed using californium-252 plasma desorption mass spectrometry. An increase of two mass units was observed, compared to a distearoyl PA control, consistent with a reaction mechanism involving cleavage of the P-O bond. PMID:1854800

  6. A Homogeneous, Recyclable Polymer Support for Rh(I)-Catalyzed C-C Bond Formation

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Ranjan; Tunge, Jon A.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and practical polymer-supported, homogeneous, recyclable biphephos rhodium(I) catalyst has been developed for C-C bond formation reactions. Control of polymer molecular weight allowed tuning of the polymer solubility such that the polymer-supported catalyst is soluble in nonpolar solvents and insoluble in polar solvents. Using the supported rhodium catalysts, addition of aryl and vinylboronic acids to the electrophiles such as enones, aldehydes, N-sulfonyl aldimines, and alkynes occurs smoothly to provide products in high yields. Additions of terminal alkynes to enones and industrially relevant hydroformylation reactions have also been successfully carried out. Studies show that the leaching of Rh from the polymer support is low and catalyst recycle can be achieved by simple precipitation and filtration. PMID:21895010

  7. Reversible C-C bond activation enables stereocontrol in Rh-catalyzed carbonylative cycloadditions of aminocyclopropanes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Megan H; McCreanor, Niall G; Whittingham, William G; Bower, John F

    2015-01-14

    Upon exposure to neutral or cationic Rh(I)-catalyst systems, amino-substituted cyclopropanes undergo carbonylative cycloaddition with tethered alkenes to provide stereochemically complex N-heterocyclic scaffolds. These processes rely upon the generation and trapping of rhodacyclopentanone intermediates, which arise by regioselective, Cbz-directed insertion of Rh and CO into one of the two proximal aminocyclopropane C-C bonds. For cyclizations using cationic Rh(I)-systems, synthetic and mechanistic studies indicate that rhodacyclopentanone formation is reversible and that the alkene insertion step determines product diastereoselectivity. This regime facilitates high levels of stereocontrol with respect to substituents on the alkene tether. The option of generating rhodacyclopentanones dynamically provides a new facet to a growing area of catalysis and may find use as a (stereo)control strategy in other processes. PMID:25539136

  8. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bausch

    1991-01-01

    Removal of the organic sulfur in coal constitutes one of the major challenges facing fossil fuel scientists today. A cost--effective of desulfurizing Illinois coal is non-existent at the present time. Research in our group aims to develop a simple protocol for sulfur removal by gaining understanding of how various additives can enhance the rates of C-S bond cleavage in Illinois

  9. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage. Technical report, July 1, 1991September 30, 1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frost

    1991-01-01

    Cleavage of aliphatic organosulfonate carbon to sulfur (C-S) bonds, a critical link in the global biogeochemical sulfur cycle, has been identified in Escherichia coli K-12. Enormous quantities of inorganic sulfate are continuously converted (Scheme I) into methanesulfonic acid 1 and acylated 3-(6-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyranosyl)-L-glycerol 2. Biocatalytic desulfurization (Scheme I) of 1 and 2, which share the structural feature of an aliphatic carbon

  10. Photochemical carbonsulfur bond cleavage in some alkyl and benzyl sulfides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio M. Bonesi; Maurizio Fagnoni; Daniele Dondi; Angelo Albini

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation (254nm) of five alkyl and benzyl ethyl sulfides causes efficient (?r 0.270.90) homolytic cleavage of the CS bond. Of the resulting fragments, thiyl radicals mainly couple, while alkyl radicals abstract hydrogen, disproportionate or couple when stabilized (benzyl). Selective trapping of either of the two types of radicals occurs in the presence of nucleophilic (methyl vinyl ether and 1-hexene) and,

  11. Bimetallic cleavage of aromatic C-H bonds by rare-earth-metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenliang; Dulong, Florian; Khan, Saeed I; Cantat, Thibault; Diaconescu, Paula L

    2014-12-17

    A new type of C-H bond activation mediated by rare-earth metals under reducing conditions is reported. The synergy between reductants and rare-earth-metal complexes allows the cleavage of unactivated aromatic C-H bonds. The reaction between rare-earth-metal iodides supported by a 1,1'-ferrocenediamide ligand and potassium graphite in benzene leads to the formation of a 1:1 metal molar ratio of the corresponding metal hydride and metal phenyl complex. A proposed mechanism involving an inverse sandwich arene bimetallic intermediate is supported by experimental and computational studies. PMID:25431837

  12. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage. Technical report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    Cleavage of aliphatic organosulfonate carbon to sulfur (C-S) bonds, a critical link in the global biogeochemical sulfur cycle, has been identified in Escherichia coli K-12. Enormous quantities of inorganic sulfate are continuously converted (Scheme I) into methanesulfonic acid 1 and acylated 3-(6-sulfo-{alpha}-D-quinovopyranosyl)-L-glycerol 2. Biocatalytic desulfurization (Scheme I) of 1 and 2, which share the structural feature of an aliphatic carbon bonded to a sulfonic acid sulfur, completes the cycle, Discovery of this desulfurization in E. coli provides an invaluable paradigm for study of a biotic process which, via the biogeochemical cycle, significantly influences the atmospheric concentration of sulfur-containing molecules.

  13. C?-C? chromophore bond dissociation in protonated tyrosine-methionine, methionine-tyrosine, tryptophan-methionine, methionine-tryptophan and their sulfoxide analogs.

    PubMed

    Sunil Kumar, S; Lucas, B; Soorkia, S; Barat, M; Fayeton, J A

    2012-08-01

    C(?)-C(?) chromophore bond dissociation in some selected methionine-containing dipeptides induced by UV photons is investigated. In methionine containing dipeptides with tryptophan as the UV chromophore, the tryptophan side chain is ejected either as an ion or as a neutral fragment while in dipeptides with tyrosine, the tyrosine side chain is lost only as a neutral fragment. Mechanisms responsible for these fragmentations are proposed based on measured branching ratios and fragmentation times, and on the results of DFT/B3-LYP calculations. It appears that the C(?)-C(?) bond cleavage is a non-statistical dissociation for the peptides containing tyrosine, and occurs after internal conversion for those with tryptophan. The proposed mechanisms are governed by the ionization potential of the aromatic side chain compared to that of the rest of the molecule, and by the proton affinity of the aromatic side chain compared to that of the methionine side chain. In tyrosine-containing peptides, the presence of oxygen on sulfur of methionine presumably reduces the ionization potential of the peptide backbone, facilitating the loss of the side chain as a neutral fragment. In tryptophan-containing peptides, the presence of oxygen on methionyl-sulfur expedites the transfer of the proton from the side chain to the sulfoxide, which facilitates the loss of the neutral side chain. PMID:22722478

  14. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Technical report, December 1, 1992February 28, 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bausch; K. K. Ho

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. Planned in the second year of our project Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal are investigations of reactions in which organic sulfur-containing coal model compounds are subjected to different conditions of temperature, solvent mixtures

  15. [Polycationic catalysts for phosphodiester bond cleavage on the basis of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane].

    PubMed

    Burakova, E A; Kovalev, N A; Kuznetsova, I L; Zenkova, M A; Vlasov, V V; Sil'nikov, V N

    2007-01-01

    A number of tetracationic compounds capable of phosphodiester bond cleavage within a 21 -membered ribooligonucleotide were designed and synthesized. The artificial ribonucleases represent two residues of quaternized 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bearing alkyl substituents of various lengths and connected with a rigid linker. The efficiency of cleavage of phosphodiester bonds in an RNA target depends on the linker structure and the length of alkyl substituent. PMID:18050663

  16. Solvent Influence on Cellulose 1,4-?-Glycosidic Bond Cleavage: A Molecular Dynamics and Metadynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Loerbroks, Claudia; Boulanger, Eliot; Thiel, Walter

    2015-03-27

    We explore the influence of two solvents, namely water and the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc), on the conformations of two cellulose models (cellobiose and a chain of 40 glucose units) and the solvent impact on glycosidic bond cleavage by acid hydrolysis by using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. We investigate the rotation around the glycosidic bond and ring puckering, as well as the anomeric effect and hydrogen bonds, in order to gauge the effect on the hydrolysis mechanism. We find that EmimAc eases hydrolysis through stronger solvent-cellulose interactions, which break structural and electronic barriers to hydrolysis. Our results indicate that hydrolysis in cellulose chains should start from the ends and not in the centre of the chain, which is less accessible to solvent. PMID:25689773

  17. Central C-C Bonding Increases Optical and Chemical Stability of NIR Fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Hoon; Owens, Eric A.; Narayana, Lakshminarayana; Wada, Hideyuki; Gravier, Julien; Bao, Kai; Frangioni, John V.; Choi, Hak Soo; Henary, Maged

    2014-01-01

    Functional near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores have played a major role in the recent advances in bioimaging. However, the optical and physicochemical stabilities of NIR fluorophores in the biological and physiological environment are still a challenge. Especially, the ether linkage on the meso carbon of heptamethine core is fragile when exposed to serum proteins or other amine-rich biomolecules. To solve such a structural limitation, a rigid carbon-carbon bond was installed onto the framework of ether-linked NIR fluorophores through the Suzuki coupling. The robust fluorophores replaced as ZW800-1C and ZW800-3C displayed enhanced optical and chemical stability in various solvents and a 100% warm serum environment (> 99%, 24 h). The biodistribution and clearance of C-C coupled ZW800 compounds were almost identical to the previously developed oxygen-substituted ZW800 compounds. When conjugated with a small molecule ligand, ZW800-1C maintained the identical stable form in warm serum (>98%, 24 h), while ZW800-1A hydrolyzed quickly after 4 h incubation (34%, 24 h). PMID:25530846

  18. Competition between Covalent and Noncovalent Bond Cleavages in Dissociation of Phosphopeptide-Amine Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Yang, Zhibo; Woods, Amina S.

    2011-04-21

    Interactions between quaternary amino or guanidino groups with anions are ubiquitous in nature. Here, we present a first study focused on quantifying such interactions using complexes of phosphorylated A3pXA3-NH2 (X=S, T, Y) peptides with decamethonium (DCM) or diaguanidinodecane (DGD) ligands as model systems. Time- and collision energy-resolved surface-induced dissociation (SID) of the singly charged complexes was examined using a specially configured Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS). Dissociation thresholds and activation energies were obtained from RRKM modeling of the experimental data that has been described and carefully characterized in our previous studies. We demonstrate that covalent bond cleavages resulting in phosphate abstraction by the cationic ligand are characterized by low dissociation thresholds and relatively tight transition states. In contrast, high dissociation barriers and large positive activation entropies were obtained for cleavages of non-covalent bonds. Dissociation parameters obtained from the modeling of the experimental data are in excellent agreement with the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Comparison between the experimental data and theoretical calculations indicate that phosphate abstraction by the ligand is rather localized and mainly affected by the identity of the phosphorylated side chain. The hydrogen bonding in the peptide and ligand properties play a minor role in determining the energetics and dynamics of the phosphate abstraction channel

  19. Te-Te and Te-C bond cleavage reactions using a monovalent gallanediyl.

    PubMed

    Ganesamoorthy, Chelladurai; Bendt, Georg; Blser, Dieter; Wlper, Christoph; Schulz, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    LGa (L = [(2,6-i-Pr2-C6H3)NC(Me)]2CH) reacts with elemental tellurium with formation of the Te-bridged compound [LGa-?-Te]2, whereas the reactions with Ph2Te2 and i-Pr2Te occurred with cleavage of the Te-Te and Te-C bond, respectively, and subsequent formation of LGa(TePh)2 and LGa(i-Pr)Tei-Pr . were characterized by heteronuclear NMR ((1)H, (13)C, (125)Te) and IR spectroscopy and their solid state structures were determined by single crystal X-ray analyses. PMID:25680084

  20. Use of a Novel Fluorinated Organosulfur Compound To Isolate Bacteria Capable of Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. Van Hamme; Phillip M. Fedorak; Julia M. Foght; Murray R. Gray; Heather D. Dettman

    2004-01-01

    The vacuum residue fraction of heavy crudes contributes to the viscosity of these oils. Specific microbial cleavage of COS bonds in alkylsulfide bridges that form linkages in this fraction may result in dramatic viscosity reduction. To date, no bacterial strains have been shown conclusively to cleave COS bonds within alkyl chains. Screening for microbes that can perform this activity was

  1. Bond cleavages of adenosine 5'-triphosphate induced by monochromatic soft X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, K.; Narita, A.; Yokoya, A.

    2014-04-01

    To investigate which type of bond is likely to be cleaved by soft X-ray exposure to an adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), we observed spectral changes in X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) around nitrogen and oxygen K-edge of an ATP film by soft X-ray irradiation. Experiments were performed at a synchrotron soft X-ray beamline at SPring-8, Japan. The XANES spectra around the nitrogen and oxygen .K-edge slightly varied by exposure to 560 eV soft X-rays. These changes are originated from the cleavage of C-N bonds between a sugar and a nucleobase site and of C-O, P-O or O-H bond of sugar and phosphate site. From the comparison between the change in XANES intensity of ?* peak at nitrogen and that at oxygen K-edges, it is inferred that the C-O, P-O or O-H bond of sugar and phosphate is much efficiently cleaved than the C-N of N-glycoside bond by the exposure of 560 eV soft X-ray to ATP film.

  2. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project was focused on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate deaminase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative C-N bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments resulted in the isolation of microbial cultures that utilize aromatic amides as sole nitrogen sources, several amidase genes were cloned and were included in directed evolution experiments to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. During the second year of the project (October, 2003-September, 2004) enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating a mixed bacterial culture that can utilize 2-aminobiphenyl as a sole nitrogen source, directed evolution experiments were focused on the aniline dioxygenase enzyme that is capable of deaminating aniline, and expression vectors were constructed to enable the expression of genes encoding C-N bond cleaving enzymes in Rhodococcus hosts. The construction of a new metabolic pathway to selectively remove nitrogen from carbazole and other molecules typically found in petroleum should lead to the development of a process to improve oil refinery efficiency by reducing the poisoning, by nitrogen, of catalysts used in the hydrotreating and catalytic cracking of petroleum. Aromatic compounds such as carbazole are representative of the difficult-to-treat organonitrogen compounds most commonly encountered in petroleum. There are two C-N bonds in carbazole and the construction of a metabolic pathway for the removal of nitrogen from carbazole will require enzymes capable cleaving both C-N bonds. A multi-component enzyme, carbazole dioxygenase, which can selectively cleave the first C-N bond has been identified and the genes that encode this enzyme have been cloned, sequenced, and are being expressed in Rhodococcus erythropolis, a bacterial culture that tolerates exposure to petroleum. An enzyme capable of selectively cleaving the second C-N bond in carbazole has not yet been identified, but enrichment culture experiments have recently succeeded in isolating a bacterial culture that is a likely candidate and may possess a suitable enzyme. Research in the near future will verify if a suitable enzyme for the cleavage of the second C-N bond in carbazole has indeed been found, then the genes encoding a suitable enzyme will be identified, cloned, and sequenced. Ultimately genes encoding enzymes for selective cleavage of both C-N bonds in carbazole will be assembled into a new metabolic pathway and the ability of the resulting bacterial culture to remove nitrogen from petroleum will be determined.

  3. Synthesis of hydroxydiamines and triamines via reductive cleavage of N-N bond in substituted pyrazolidines.

    PubMed

    Sviridova, Ludmila A; Golubeva, Galina A; Tavtorkin, Alexander N; Kochetkov, Konstantin A

    2012-09-01

    Aliphatic polyamines, being a versatile class of organic compounds, are widely used in many fields of medicine and organic chemistry. However, the general approach to the synthesis of chiral aliphatic polyamines has been still undeveloped. Here, we describe a new method for the synthesis of chiral trifunctional amino compounds, namely hydroxydiamines and triamines. The initial compounds, namely substituted hydroxy- or aminopyrazolidines and pyrazolines, are readily available using convenient stereoselective methods developed earlier by us. The proposed method allows synthesizing of chiral diaminoalcohols and triamines, which are the analogs of a well-known anti-TB drug, namely ethambutol, and cannot be obtained alternatively. The key step of the synthesis is N-N bond cleavage in substituted hydroxy- or aminopyrazolidines and pyrazolines with borane-tetrahydrofuran complex; other known methods for N-N bond cleavage turned out to be ineffective. The main advantage of the proposed method is the retention of a certain configuration of stereocenters in the course of the reaction. Six new chiral diasteomerically pure substituted hydroxydiamines and triamines and the enantiomerically pure triamine with four chiral centers were synthesized and characterized using NMR, IR and mass spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. PMID:22418864

  4. RhI-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Spirocyclization via CC Cleavage of Benzocyclobutenones: An Efficient Approach to Access Functionalized Spirocycles

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Savage, Nikolas A.; Dong, Guangbin

    2014-01-01

    We describe a rhodium-catalyzed all-carbon spirocenter formation through a decarbonylative coupling of trisubstituted cyclic olefins and benzocyclobutenones via CC activation. A [Rh(CO)2Cl]2/P(C6F5)3 metal-ligand combination was found to catalyze this transformation most efficiently. A range of diverse spirocyclic rings were synthesized in good to excellent yields and many sensitive functional groups were tolerated. Mechanistic study supports the hydrogen-transfer process that occurs via a ?-H elimination/decarbonylation pathway. PMID:24446067

  5. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane III

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project will focus on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate amidase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative CN bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. The project is on schedule and no major difficulties have been encountered. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments have resulted in the isolation of promising cultures that may be capable of cleaving C-N bonds in aromatic amides, several amidase genes have been cloned and are currently undergoing directed evolution to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. Future research will address expression of these genes in Rhodococcus erythropolis. Enrichment culture experiments and directed evolution experiments continue to be a main focus of research activity and further work is required to obtain an appropriate amidase that will selectively cleave C-N bonds in aromatic substrates. Once an appropriate amidase gene is obtained it must be combined with genes encoding an enzyme capable of converting carbazole to 2'aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol: specifically carA genes. The carA genes from two sources have been cloned and are ready for construction of C-N bond cleavage pathway. The construction of a new metabolic pathway to selectively remove nitrogen from carbazole and other molecules typically found in petroleum should lead to the development of a process to improve oil refinery efficiency by reducing the poisoning, by nitrogen, of catalysts used in the hydrotreating and catalytic cracking of petroleum.

  6. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Ho, K.K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. Planned in the second year of our project Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal are investigations of reactions in which organic sulfur-containing coal model compounds are subjected to different conditions of temperature, solvent mixtures and radiation. Other investigations that will result in analyses of the likelihood of C-S bond cleavages resulting from various oxidative processes will also be undertaken. Summarized in this quarterly report are results of our investigations of the following topics: (a) desulfurization of coal model sulfones; (b) desulfurization of coal model sulfides; (c) photooxidation of organic sulfides; and (d) photolytic desulfurization of coal.

  7. Dioxygen activation and bond cleavage by mixed-valence cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Proshlyakov, Denis A.; Pressler, Michelle A.; Babcock, Gerald T.

    1998-01-01

    Elucidating the structures of intermediates in the reduction of O2 to water by cytochrome c oxidase is crucial to understanding both oxygen activation and proton pumping by the enzyme. In the work here, the reaction of O2 with the mixed-valence enzyme, in which only heme a3 and CuB in the binuclear center are reduced, has been followed by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy. The results show that O=O bond cleavage occurs within the first 200 ?s after reaction initiation; the presence of a uniquely stable FeOO(H) peroxy species is not detected. The product of this rapid reaction is a heme a3 oxoferryl (FeIV=O) species, which requires that an electron donor in addition to heme a3 and CuB must be involved. The available evidence suggests that the additional donor is an amino acid side chain. Recent crystallographic data [Yoshikawa, S., Shinzawa-Itoh, K., Nakashima, R., Yaono, R., Yamashita, E., Inoue, N., Yao, M., Fei, M. J., Libeu, C. P., Mizushima, T., et al. Science, in press; Ostermeier, C., Harrenga, A., Ermler, U. & Michel, H. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 1054710553] show that one of the CuB ligands, His240, is cross-linked to Tyr244 and that this cross-linked tyrosyl is ideally positioned to participate in dioxygen activation. We propose a mechanism for OO bond cleavage that proceeds by concerted hydrogen atom transfer from the cross-linked HisTyr species to produce the product oxoferryl species, CuB2+OH?, and the tyrosyl radical. This mechanism provides molecular structures for two key intermediates that drive the proton pump in oxidase; moreover, it has clear analogies to the proposed OO bond forming chemistry that occurs during O2 evolution in photosynthesis. PMID:9653133

  8. Phosphodiester and N-glycosidic bond cleavage in DNA induced by 4-15 eV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Cloutier, Pierre; Hunting, Darel J.; Wagner, J. Richard; Sanche, Lon

    2006-02-01

    Thin molecular films of the short single strand of DNA, GCAT, were bombarded under vacuum by electrons with energies between 4 and 15 eV. Ex vacuo analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography of the samples exposed to the electron beam revealed the formation of a multitude of products. Among these, 12 fragments of GCAT were identified by comparison with reference compounds and their yields were measured as a function of electron energy. For all energies, scission of the backbone gave nonmodified fragments containing a terminal phosphate, with negligible amounts of fragments without the phosphate group. This indicates that phosphodiester bond cleavage by 4-15 eV electrons involves cleavage of the C-O bond rather than the P-O bond. The yield functions exhibit maxima at 6 and 10-12 eV, which are interpreted as due to the formation of transient anions leading to fragmentation. Below 15 eV, these resonances dominate bond dissociation processes. All four nonmodified bases are released from the tetramer, by cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond, which occurs principally via the formation of core-excited resonances located around 6 and 10 eV. The formation of the other nonmodified products leading to cleavage of the phosphodiester bond is suggested to occur principally via two different mechanisms: (1) the formation of a core-excited resonance on the phosphate unit followed by dissociation of the transient anion and (2) dissociation of the CO bond of the phosphate group formed by resonance electron transfer from the bases. In each case, phosphodiester bond cleavage leads chiefly to the formation of stable phosphate anions and sugar radicals with minimal amounts of alkoxyl anions and phosphoryl radicals.

  9. A mechanistic study of Trichoderma reesei Cel7B catalyzed glycosidic bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yan, Shihai; Yao, Lishan

    2013-07-25

    An ONIOM study is performed to illustrate the mechanism of Trichoderma reesei Cel7B catalyzed p-nitrophenyl lactoside hydrolysis. In both the glycosylation and deglycosylation steps, the reaction proceeds in a concerted way, meaning the nucleophilic attack and the glycosidic bond cleavage occur simultaneously. The glycosylation step is rate limiting with a barrier of 18.9 kcal/mol, comparable to the experimental value derived from the kcat measured in this work. The function of four residues R108, Y146, Y170, and D172, which form a hydrogen-bond network involving the substrate, is studied by conservative mutations. The mutants, including R108K, Y146F, Y170F, and D172N, decrease the enzyme activity by about 150-8000-fold. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the mutations disrupt the hydrogen-bond network, cause the substrate to deviate from active binding and hinder either the proton transfer from E201 to O4(+1) or the nucleophilic attack from E196 to C1(-1). PMID:23822607

  10. The role of alkane coordination in CH bond cleavage at a Pt(II) center

    PubMed Central

    Chen, George S.; Labinger, Jay A.; Bercaw, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The rates of CH bond activation for various alkanes by [(NN)Pt(Me)(TFEd3)]+ (N N = ArNC(Me)C(Me)NAr; Ar = 3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl; TFE-d3 = CF3CD2OD) were studied. Both linear and cyclic alkanes give the corresponding alkene-hydride cation [(NN)Pt(H)(alkene)]+ via (i) rate determining alkane coordination to form a CH ? complex, (ii) oxidative cleavage of the coordinated CH bond to give a platinum(IV) alkyl-methyl-hydride intermediate, (iii) reductive coupling to generate a methane ? complex, (iv) dissociation of methane, and (v) ?-H elimination to form the observed product. Second-order rate constants for cycloalkane activation (CnH2n), are proportional to the size of the ring (k ? n). For cyclohexane, the deuterium kinetic isotope effect (kH/kD) of 1.28 (5) is consistent with the proposed rate determining alkane coordination to form a CH ? complex. Statistical scrambling of the five hydrogens of the Pt-methyl and the coordinated methylene unit, via rapid, reversible steps ii and iii, and interchange of geminal CH bonds of the methane and cyclohexane CH ? adducts, is observed before loss of methane. PMID:17416678

  11. Photodegradation of oligomeric polyesters containing anthraquinone and 1,2-diamine units. Single electron transfer induced cation radical bond cleavage in the solid state

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, J.W.; Whitten, D.G. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1995-03-01

    Oligomeric polyesters containing light-absorbing anthraquinone electron acceptor chromophores and fragmentable 1,2-diamine donors have been synthesized. Irradiation with [lambda] [ge] 340 nm in solution or as solid films results in photooxidative C-C bond cleavage of the 1,2-diamine units yielding essentially the same products in either case. The solid state photodegradation reaction was monitored using size exclusion chromatography and was found to be substantially less efficient than the corresponding solution reaction. This is attributed to an inefficient forward electron transfer step and the possibility of an induced reversibility of the fragmentation. The efficiency of photodegradation is suggested to be dependent on the donor/acceptor orientations in the solid state. 49 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. {{text{C}}_{? }} - {text{C}} Bond Cleavage of the Peptide Backbone in MALDI In-Source Decay Using Salicylic Acid Derivative Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Daiki; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2011-07-01

    The use of 5-formylsalicylic acid (5-FSA) and 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5-NSA) as novel matrices for in-source decay (ISD) of peptides in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is described. The use of 5-FSA and 5-NSA generated a- and x-series ions accompanied by oxidized peptides [M - 2 H + H]+. The preferential formation of a- and x-series ions was found to be dependent on the hydrogen-accepting ability of matrix. The hydrogen-accepting ability estimated from the ratio of signal intensity of oxidized product [M - 2 H + H]+ to that of non-oxidized protonated molecule [M + H]+ of peptide was of the order 5-NSA > 5-FSA > 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) ? 2,5-dihydroxyl benzoic acid (2,5-DHB) ? 0. The results suggest that the hydrogen transfer reaction from peptide to 5-FSA and 5-NSA occurs during the MALDI-ISD processes. The hydrogen abstraction from peptides results in the formation of oxidized peptides containing a radical site on the amide nitrogen with subsequent radical-induced cleavage at the {{{C}}_{? }} - {{C}} bond, leading to the formation of a- and x-series ions. The most significant feature of MALDI-ISD with 5-FSA and 5-NSA is the specific cleavage of the {{{C}}_{? }} - {{C}} bond of the peptide backbone without degradation of side-chain and post-translational modifications (PTM). The matrix provides a useful complementary method to conventional MALDI-ISD for amino acid sequencing and site localization of PTMs in peptides.

  13. 11704 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1995,117, 11704-11709 Regiochemical Selectivity in the Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    11704 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1995,117, 11704- 11709 Regiochemical Selectivity in the Carbon- Sulfur Bond Cleavage of 2-Methylbenzothiophene: Synthesis, Characterization, and Mechanistic Study of Reversible be an importantstep in the removal of sulfur from thiophene in the hydrodesulfur- ization (HDS) process.' Thiophene

  14. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. Unfortunately, several classes of reactions that lead to carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are not well understood. Planned in ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` are reactions in which organic sulfur-containing coal model compounds are subjected to different conditions of temperature, solvent mixtures and radiation. Summarized in this quarterly report are results of our investigations of the following topics: (a) the reactions of coal model compounds, namely, benzyl phenyl sulfide (BPS), diphenyl sulfide (hereafter referred to as phenylsulfide, PS) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) with various reagents (Lewis acid catalysts, radical initiators, electron acceptors) using different solvents and temperature in an attempt to maximize the degree of carbon-sulfur (C-S) bond cleavage; and (b) the results of photooxidation of coal model compounds under controlled conditions. Quantitative product analyses are presented in this report.

  15. Facile carbon-sulfur bond cleavage in diarylsulfonium ylides: a catalytic sulfur-to-silicon group transfer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xueliang; Goddard, Richard; Maulide, Nuno

    2013-05-14

    An unusual cleavage of the non-ylidic carbon-sulfur bond of a sulfonium ylide is reported. The reaction can be catalysed by a variety of palladium(II) complexes under mild conditions. Preliminary results show that coordination of the ylide to the metal center results in significant structural changes. PMID:23011230

  16. Cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal and substituted dibenzyl sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Green, T.K.; Wang, L.; Estill, W.J.; Bixler, B. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    S-methylation of a bituminous coal using {sup 13}C-enriched methyl iodide in the presence of silver tetrafluoroborate produces significant quantities of trimethylsulfonium ion as determined by {sup 13}C NMR. This result suggests that carbon-sulfur bonds in coal are being cleaved. In an effort to determine the types of structures in coal responsible for this ion, a series of model substituted dibenzyl sulfides were S-methylated. The substrates included 4,4{prime}dimethoxydibenzylsulfide (1), 4,4{prime}dimethyldibenzylsulfide (2), dibenzylsulfide (3), 4,4{prime}dichlorodibenzylsufide (4). All substrates are cleaved to varying degrees in refluxing DCE (83{degrees}C) to produce a mixture of methyldibenzyl-, dimethylbenzyl- and trimethylsulfonium ions. The relative amounts of these ions depends on the substituent, with the degree of C-S bond cleavage increasing with the electron-donating ability of the substituent in the order (1) > (2) > (3) > (4). A mechanism is proposed consistent with this substituent effect which involves an intermediate benzyl carbocation - sulfide ion-dipole complex.

  17. O-Glycosidic bond exocyclic cleavage of difructose led by acidic proton migration: Density functional theory calculation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Tuan; Chan, Tzu-Hsin; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin; Hayashi, Michitoshi

    2012-10-01

    We investigate proton migrations from (H2O)n (n = 1-3) to difructose, ?-D-fructofuranose-?-D-fructofuranose-2,3', using density functional theory. The proton migrations result in O-glycosidic bond cleavage. The highest transition barrier for proton migrations taking place from (H2O)3 to difructose is 11.67 kcal mol-1. The barriers are much lower than those for the direct breaking of a covalent bond in a difructose linkage. In addition, an autocatalysis process is also studied. An excess proton can migrate from a fructose molecule to a difructose molecule, leading to O-glycosidic bond cleavage. The transition barrier energy for this proton migration is 5.35 kcal mol-1.

  18. Spectroscopic properties and electronic structure of low-spin Fe(III)-alkylperoxo complexes: homolytic cleavage of the O-O bond.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, N; Ho, R Y; Que, L; Solomon, E I

    2001-08-29

    The spectroscopic properties, electronic structure, and reactivity of the low-spin Fe(III)-alkylperoxo model complex [Fe(TPA)(OH(x))(OO(t)Bu)](x+) (1; TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, (t)Bu = tert-butyl, x = 1 or 2) are explored. The vibrational spectra of 1 show three peaks that are assigned to the O-O stretch (796 cm(-1)), the Fe-O stretch (696 cm(-)(1)), and a combined O-C-C/C-C-C bending mode (490 cm(-1)) that is mixed with upsilon(FeO). The corresponding force constants have been determined to be 2.92 mdyn/A for the O-O bond which is small and 3.53 mdyn/A for the Fe-O bond which is large. Complex 1 is characterized by a broad absorption band around 600 nm that is assigned to a charge-transfer (CT) transition from the alkylperoxo pi*(upsilon) to a t(2g) d orbital of Fe(III). This metal-ligand pi bond is probed by MCD and resonance Raman spectroscopies which show that the CT state is mixed with a ligand field state (t(2g) --> e(g)) by configuration interaction. This gives rise to two intense transitions under the broad 600 nm envelope with CT character which are manifested by a pseudo-A term in the MCD spectrum and by the shapes of the resonance Raman profiles of the 796, 696, and 490 cm(-1) vibrations. Additional contributions to the Fe-O bond arise from sigma interactions between mainly O-O bonding donor orbitals of the alkylperoxo ligand and an e(g) d orbital of Fe(III), which explains the observed O-O and Fe-O force constants. The observed homolytic cleavage of the O-O bond of 1 is explored with experimentally calibrated density functional (DFT) calculations. The O-O bond homolysis is found to be endothermic by only 15 to 20 kcal/mol due to the fact that the Fe(IV)=O species formed is highly stabilized (for spin states S = 1 and 2) by two strong pi and a strong sigma bond between Fe(IV) and the oxo ligand. This low endothermicity is compensated by the entropy gain upon splitting the O-O bond. In comparison, Cu(II)-alkylperoxo complexes studied before [Chen, P.; Fujisawa, K.; Solomon, E. I. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 10177] are much less suited for O-O bond homolysis, because the resulting Cu(III)=O species is less stable. This difference in metal-oxo intermediate stability enables the O-O homolysis in the case of iron but directs the copper complex toward alternative reaction channels. PMID:11516278

  19. Catalytic C-C Bond Activation in Biphenylene and Cyclotrimerization of Alkynes: Increased Reactivity of

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    (iPr)2CH2CH2- NMe2 (PN).9 According to Pearson's concept of "hard" and "soft" Lewis acids and Lewis to its potential application in industrial petroleum refining and trans- formation processes. Because bases, the coordinated metal-nitrogen bond in (PN)Ni(2-alkyne) complexes is considered to be labile.10

  20. Far-UV photochemical bond cleavage of n-amyl nitrite: bypassing a repulsive surface.

    PubMed

    Minitti, Michael P; Zhang, Yao; Rosenberg, Martin; Brogaard, Rasmus Y; Deb, Sanghamitra; Slling, Theis I; Weber, Peter M

    2012-01-19

    We have investigated the deep-UV photoinduced, homolytic bond cleavage of amyl nitrite to form NO and pentoxy radicals. One-color multiphoton ionization with ultrashort laser pulses through the S(2) state resonance gives rise to photoelectron spectra that reflect ionization from the S(1) state. Time-resolved pump-probe photoionization measurements show that upon excitation at 207 nm, the generation of NO in the v = 2 state is delayed, with a rise time of 283 (16) fs. The time-resolved mass spectrum shows the NO to be expelled with a kinetic energy of 1.0 eV, which is consistent with dissociation on the S(1) state potential energy surface. Combined, these observations show that the first step of the dissociation reaction involves an internal conversion from the S(2) to the S(1) state, which is followed by the ejection of the NO radical on the predissociative S(1) state potential energy surface. PMID:22175717

  1. Metal-catalyzed activation of ethers via C-O bond cleavage: a new strategy for molecular diversity.

    PubMed

    Cornella, Josep; Zarate, Cayetana; Martin, Ruben

    2014-12-01

    In 1979, the seminal work of Wenkert set the standards for the utilization of aryl and vinyl ethers as coupling partners via C-O bond-cleavage. Although the topic remained dormant for almost three decades, the last few years have witnessed a renaissance in this area of expertise, experiencing an exponential growth and becoming a significant discipline within the cross-coupling arena. The means to utilize readily accessible aryl or vinyl ethers as counterparts does not only represent a practical, powerful and straightforward alternative to organic halides, but also constitutes an excellent opportunity to improve our chemical knowledge about a relatively unexplored area of expertise. This review summarizes the most significant developments in the area of C-O bond-cleavage when employing aryl or vinyl ethers, providing a detailed overview of the current state of the art and including future aspects, when applicable. PMID:25157613

  2. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Technical report, December 1, 1991February 29, 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bausch

    1992-01-01

    Planned in this project ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` are reactions in which organic free radicals and\\/or organic anions are allowed to react with physically cleaned Illinois coal and sulfur-containing coal model compounds. This quarterly report contains the results of photooxidation of coal model compounds, namely, benzyl phenyl sulfide, phenylsulfide, dibenzothiophene, benzothiophene and thiophene, in

  3. Structural and solvent effects on the C-S bond cleavage in aryl triphenylmethyl sulfide radical cations.

    PubMed

    Del Giacco, Tiziana; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Mazzonna, Marco; Mencarelli, Paolo

    2012-02-17

    Steady-state and laser flash photolysis (LFP) studies of a series of aryl triphenylmethyl sulfides [1, 3,4-(CH(3)O)(2)-C(6)H(3)SC(C(6)H(5))(3); 2, 4-CH(3)O-C(6)H(4)SC(C(6)H(5))(3); 3, 4-CH(3)-C(6)H(4)SC(C(6)H(5))(3); 4, C(6)H(5)SC(C(6)H(5))(3); and 5, 4-Br-C(6)H(4)SC(C(6)H(5))(3)] has been carried out in the presence of N-methoxyphenanthridinium hexafluorophosphate in CH(3)CN, CH(2)Cl(2), CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)CN, and CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH mixtures. Products deriving from the C-S bond cleavage in the radical cations 1(+)-5(+) have been observed in the steady-state photolysis experiments. Time-resolved LFP showed first-order decay of the radical cations accompanied by formation of the triphenylmethyl cation. A significant decrease of the C-S bond cleavage rate constants was observed by increasing the electron-donating power of the arylsulfenyl substituent, that is, by increasing the stability of the radical cations. DFT calculations showed that, in 2(+) and 3(+), charge and spin densities are mainly localized in the ArS group. In the TS of the C-S bond cleavage an increase of the positive charge in the trityl moiety and of the spin density on the ArS group is observed. The higher delocalization of the charge in the TS as compared to the initial state is probably at the origin of the observation that the C-S bond cleavage rates decrease by increasing the polarity of the solvent. PMID:22242842

  4. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Quarterly report, September 1, 1991November 30, 1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bausch

    1991-01-01

    Removal of the organic sulfur in coal constitutes one of the major challenges facing fossil fuel scientists today. A cost--effective of desulfurizing Illinois coal is non-existent at the present time. Research in our group aims to develop a simple protocol for sulfur removal by gaining understanding of how various additives can enhance the rates of C-S bond cleavage in Illinois

  5. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993May 31, 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bausch

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. Planned in the second year of our project ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` are investigations of reactions in which organic sulfur-containing coal model compounds are subjected to different conditions of temperature, solvent mixtures

  6. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1992August 31, 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bausch

    1993-01-01

    This report presents results of research pertaining to chemical reactions that aim to selectively cleave C-S bonds in model compounds as well as Illinois coal. Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. In the second year of the project {open_quotes}Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of

  7. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1992December 31, 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bausch

    1993-01-01

    Results of research pertaining to chemical reactions that aim to selectively cleave C-S bonds in model compounds as well as Illinois coal are summarized. Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. In the second year of the project ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur

  8. Photosensitized oxidation of alkyl phenyl sulfoxides. C-S bond cleavage in alkyl phenyl sulfoxide radical cations.

    PubMed

    Baciocchi, Enrico; Del Giacco, Tiziana; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Mencarelli, Paolo; Procacci, Barbara

    2008-08-01

    The 3-cyano-N-methylquinolinium perchlorate (3-CN-NMQ(+)ClO4(-))-photosensitized oxidation of phenyl alkyl sulfoxides (PhSOCR1R2R3, 1, R1 = R2 = H, R3 = Ph; 2, R1 = H, R2 = Me, R3 = Ph; 3, R1 = R2 = Ph, R3 = H; 4, R1 = R2 = Me, R3 = Ph; 5, R1 = R2 = R3 = Me) has been investigated by steady-state irradiation and nanosecond laser flash photolysis (LFP) under nitrogen in MeCN. Steady-state photolysis showed the formation of products deriving from the heterolytic C-S bond cleavage in the sulfoxide radical cations (alcohols, R1R2R3COH, and acetamides, R1R2R3CNHCOCH3) accompanied by sulfur-containing products (phenyl benzenethiosulfinate, diphenyl disulfide, and phenyl benzenethiosulfonate). By laser irradiation, the formation of 3-CN-NMQ(*) (lambda(max) = 390 nm) and sulfoxide radical cations 1(*+) , 2(*+), and 5(*+) (lambda(max) = 550 nm) was observed within the laser pulse. The radical cations decayed by first-order kinetics with a process attributable to the heterolytic C-S bond cleavage leading to the sulfinyl radical and an alkyl carbocation. The radical cations 3(*+) and 4(*+) fragment too rapidly, decaying within the laser pulse. The absorption band of the cation Ph2CH(+) (lambda(max) = 440 nm) was observed with 3 while the absorption bands of 3-CN-NMQ(*) and PhSO(*) (lambda(max) = 460 nm) were observed just after the laser pulse in the LFP experiment with 4. No competitive beta-C-H bond cleavage has been observed in the radical cations from 1-3. The C-S bond cleavage rates were measured for 1(*+), 2(*+), and 5(*+). For 3(*+) and 4(*+), only a lower limit (ca. >3 x 10(7) s(-1)) could be given. Quantum yields (Phi) and fragmentation first-order rate constants (k) appear to depend on the structure of the alkyl group and on the bond dissociation free energy (BDFE) of the C-S bond of the radical cations determined by a thermochemical cycle using the C-S BDEs for the neutral sulfoxides 1-5 obtained by DFT calculations. Namely, Phi and k increase as the C-S BDFE becomes more negative, that is in the order 1 < 5 < 2 < 3, 4, which is also the stability order of the alkyl carbocations formed in the cleavage. An estimate of the difference in the C-S bond cleavage rate between sulfoxide and sulfide radical cations was possible by comparing the fragmentation rate of 5(*+) (1.4 x 10(6) s(-1)) with the upper limit (10(4) s(-1)) given for tert-butyl phenyl sulfide radical cation (Baciocchi, E.; Del Giacco, T.; Gerini, M. F.; Lanzalunga, O. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 641-644). It turns out that sulfoxide radical cations undergo C-S bond breaking at a rate at least 2 orders of magnitude faster than that of corresponding sulfide radical cations. PMID:18578497

  9. Facile C-S, S-H, and S-S bond cleavage using a nickel(0) NHC complex.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Thomas; Backes, Marc; Plietzsch, Oliver; Radius, Udo

    2009-09-21

    [Ni2(iPr2Im)4(COD)] 1 (iPr2Im = 1,3-di(isopropyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene) reacts at room temperature with the thioethers methyl para-tolyl sulfide, ethyl phenyl sulfide, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene to afford the C-S bond cleavage products [Ni(iPr2Im)2(4-CH3-C6H4)(SMe)] 2, [Ni(iPr2Im)2(C6H5)(SEt)] 3, [Ni(iPr2Im)2(1,8-benzothiophenylato)] 4 and [Ni(iPr2Im)2(C,S-dibenzothiophenylato)] 5. In contrast to the reaction of thioethers or sulfoxides (reported earlier), no C-S bond cleavage was observed for the reaction of 1 with the sulfones bezothiophene-1,1-dioxide and methyl phenyl sulfone. In those cases the stable compounds [Ni(iPr2Im)2(eta2-2,3-benzothiophene-1,1-dioxide)] 6 and [Ni(iPr2Im)2(eta2-MeSO2C6H5)] 7 with a eta2-coordinated sulfone ligand have been isolated. Compound 6 has been structurally characterized. S-H bond cleavage was observed using 2-methyl-2-propanthiol to afford [Ni(iPr2Im)2(H)(StBu)] 8. The reaction of 1 with disulfides led to the dithiolato complexes [Ni(iPr2Im)2(SR)2] (R = tBu 9, Me 10, Ph 11) by S-S bond scission. PMID:20449150

  10. Characterization of a CC Bond Hydrolase from Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 with Novel Specificities towards Polychlorinated Biphenyl Metabolites?

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Stephen Y. K.; Ke, Jiyuan; Denis, Geoffroy; Horsman, Geoff P.; Fortin, Pascal D.; Whiting, Cheryl J.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2007-01-01

    Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 degrades chlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins via meta cleavage. We used inverse PCR to amplify dxnB2, a gene encoding one of three meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolases identified in the organism that are homologues of BphD involved in biphenyl catabolism. Purified DxnB2 catalyzed the hydrolysis of 8-OH 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoate (HOPDA) approximately six times faster than for HOPDA at saturating substrate concentrations. Moreover, the specificity of DxnB2 for HOPDA (kcat/Km = 1.2 107 M?1 s?1) was about half that of the BphDs of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 and Rhodococcus globerulus P6, two potent polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading strains. Interestingly, DxnB2 transformed 3-Cl and 4-OH HOPDAs, compounds that inhibit the BphDs and limit PCB degradation. DxnB2 had a higher specificity for 9-Cl HOPDA than for HOPDA but a lower specificity for 8-Cl HOPDA (kcat/Km = 1.7 106 M?1 s?1), the chlorinated analog of 8-OH HOPDA produced during dibenzofuran catabolism. Phylogenetic analyses based on structure-guided sequence alignment revealed that DxnB2 belongs to a previously unrecognized class of MCP hydrolases, evolutionarily divergent from the BphDs although the physiological substrates of both enzyme types are HOPDAs. However, both classes of enzymes have mainly small hydrophobic residues lining the subsite that binds the C-6 phenyl of HOPDA, in contrast to the bulky hydrophobic residues (Phe106, Phe135, Trp150, and Phe197) found in the class II enzymes that prefer substrates possessing a C-6 alkyl. Thr196 and/or Asn203 appears to be an important determinant of specificity for DxnB2, potentially forming hydrogen bonds with the 8-OH substituent. This study demonstrates that the substrate specificities of evolutionarily divergent hydrolases may be useful for degrading mixtures of pollutants, such as PCBs. PMID:17416660

  11. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M.

    1992-08-01

    Planned in this project ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` are reactions in which organic free radicals and/or organic anions are allowed to react with physically cleaned Illinois coal and sulfur-containing coal model compounds. This quarterly report contains the results of photooxidation of coal model compounds, namely, benzyl phenyl sulfide, phenylsulfide, dibenzothiophene, benzothiophene and thiophene, in the presence of 9,10-dicyanoanthracene or anthracene. Quantitative product analysis for the matrix of reactions whereby the coal model compounds are subjected to various solvents and temperature changes is presented in this quarterly report. Further quantitative analyses of the products are being undertaken.

  12. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991August 31, 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bausch

    1992-01-01

    Summarized in the final technical report for our project ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` are results of research pertaining to chemical reactions that aim to selectively cleave C-S bonds in model compounds as well as Illinois coal. Removal of the organic sulfur in coal constitutes one of the major challenges facing fossil fuel scientists today.

  13. .c"'''''... '" ~:c c: '"o ':l

    E-print Network

    .c"'''''... '" '".c '-'"c: .c: .D '" ~:c c: '"o ':l '" 0E ':l'" VI 0 '" "'0 '- '" · ·· '" ·· ··"'''' · .>c '""-'".c .c .c'"'".ca> V' '" C1'· - - - 0 0'" >'0 '" _.w 0 "'0 a>.c W:i:E· ' 0 :> '" "VI ~ 3:"" >,c: c: Vl __ 0 · -a. .D '"'" VI'" '"' '" · '" '" C >, c: · '"'- ..., C .c

  14. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. Planned in the second year of our project ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` are investigations of reactions in which organic sulfur-containing coal model compounds are subjected to different conditions of temperature, solvent mixtures and radiation. other investigations that will result in analyses of the likelihood of C-S bond cleavages resulting from various oxidative processes will also be undertaken. Summarized in this quarterly report are results of our investigations of the following topics: (a) desulfurization of coal model sulfones and sulfides; (b) photolytic desulfurization of coal; (c) differential scanning calorimetric experiments on photooxidized coal; and (d) discussions on C-S bond strengths in radical cations.

  15. C-H activation and C=C double bond formation reactions in iridium ortho-methyl arylphosphane complexes.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Walter; Ballico, Maurizio; Del Zotto, Alessandro; Zangrando, Ennio; Rigo, Pierluigi

    2007-01-01

    The Vaska-type iridium(I) complex [IrCl(CO){PPh(2)(2-MeC(6)H(4))}(2)] (1), characterized by an X-ray diffraction study, was obtained from iridium(III) chloride hydrate and PPh(2)(2,6-MeRC(6)H(3)) with R=H in DMF, whereas for R=Me, activation of two ortho-methyl groups resulted in the biscyclometalated iridium(III) compound [IrCl(CO){PPh(2)(2,6-CH(2)MeC(6)H(3))}(2)] (2). Conversely, for R=Me the iridium(I) compound [IrCl(CO){PPh(2)(2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))}(2)] (3) can be obtained by treatment of [IrCl(COE)(2)](2) (COE=cyclooctene) with carbon monoxide and the phosphane in acetonitrile. Compound 3 in CH(2)Cl(2) undergoes intramolecular C-H oxidative addition, affording the cyclometalated hydride iridium(III) species [IrHCl(CO){PPh(2)(2,6-CH(2)MeC(6)H(3))}{PPh(2)(2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))}] (4). Treatment of 2 with Na[BAr(f) (4)] (Ar(f)=3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)) gives the fluxional cationic 16-electron complex [Ir(CO){PPh(2)(2,6-CH(2)MeC(6)H(3))}(2)][BAr(f) (4)] (5), which reversibly reacts with dihydrogen to afford the delta-agostic complex [IrH(CO){PPh(2)(2,6-CH(2)MeC(6)H(3))}{PPh(2)(2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))}][BAr(f)(4)] (6), through cleavage of an Ir-C bond. This species can also be formed by treatment of 4 with Na[BAr(f)(4)] or of 2 with Na[BAr(f)(4)] through C-H oxidative addition of one ortho-methyl group, via a transient 14-electron iridium(I) complex. Heating of the coordinatively unsaturated biscyclometalated species 5 in toluene gives the trans-dihydride iridium(III) complex [IrH(2)(CO){PPh(2)(2,6-MeC(6)H(3)CH=CHC(6)H(3)Me-2,6)PPh(2)}][BAr(f) (4)] (7), containing a trans-stilbene-type terdentate ligand, as result of a dehydrogenative carbon-carbon double bond coupling reaction, possibly through an iridium carbene species. PMID:17535000

  16. Modeling aspects of hydrodesulfurization at molybdenum: Carbon-sulfur bond cleavage of thiophenes by ansa molybdenocene complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.G.; Bridgewater, B.M.; Parkin, G.

    2000-01-12

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS), the means by which sulfur is removed from crude petroleum feedstocks and fuels, has been cited as the largest volume and most important industrial catalytic application of transition metals. Of the sulfur impurities present in crude petroleum, thiophenes are among the most resistant towards HDS. A thorough understanding of the reactivity of thiophenes towards transition metal centers is, therefore, paramount to improving existing HDS technologies. The authors have, therefore, been prompted to investigate the reactivity of thiophenes towards molybdenum complexes in an effort to discover molybdenum chemistry of relevance to HDS. It was discovered that the ansa molybdenocene complexes, [Me{sub 2}Si(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}){sub 2}]MoH{sub 2} and [Me{sub 2}Si(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}){sub 2}]Mo(Ph)H, exhibit reactivity that models required aspects of the mechanism for thiophene HDS. Thus, upon photolysis, [Me{sub 2}Si(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}){sub 2}]MoH{sub 2} is capable of inducing C -S bond cleavage of thiophene (T) to give [Me{sub 2}Si(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}){sub 2}]Mo({mu}{sup 2}-C,S-T). The latter complex can also be obtained by the thermal reaction of [Me{sub 2}Si(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}){sub 2}]Mo(PH)H with thiophene. These reactions are not only of significance because they represent the first examples of thiophene C-S bond cleavage by a molybdenum compound, but are also of interest in view of the reports that the unsubstituted molybdenocene dihydride derivative, Cp{sub 2}MoH{sub 2}, does not achieve C-S bond cleavage of thiophene; in preference, Cp{sub 2}MoH{sub 2} reacts with the {alpha} C-H bond to give a thienyl complex, Cp{sub 2}Mo({mu}{sup 1}-C-SC{sub 4}H{sub 3})H.

  17. Mechanisms of Selective Cleavage of C?O Bonds in Di-aryl Ethers in Aqueous Phase

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jiayue; Zhao, Chen; Mei, Donghai; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2014-01-02

    A novel route for cleaving the C?O aryl ether bonds of p-substituted H?, CH3?, and OH? diphenyl ethers has been explored over Ni/SiO2 catalysts at very mild conditions. The C?O bond of diphenyl ether is cleaved by parallel hydrogenolysis and hydrolysis (hydrogenolysis combined with HO* addition) on Ni. The rates as a function of H2 pressure from 0 to 10 MPa indicate that the rate-determining step is the C?O bond cleavage on Ni. H* atoms compete with the organic reactant for adsorption leading to a maximum in the rate with increasing H2 pressure. In contrast to diphenyl ether, hydrogenolysis is the exclusive route for cleaving an ether C?O bond of di-p-tolyl ether to form p-cresol and toluene. 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether undergoes sequential surface hydrogenolysis, first to phenol and HOC6H4O* (adsorbed), which is then cleaved to phenol (C6H5O* with added H*) and H2O (O* with two added H*) in a second step. Density function theory supports the operation of this pathway. Notably, addition of H* to HOC6H4O* is less favorable than a further hydrogenolytic C-O bond cleavage. The TOFs of three aryl ethers with Ni/SiO2 in water followed the order 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether (69 h-1) > diphenyl ether (26 h-1) > di-p-tolyl ether (1.3 h-1), in line with the increasing apparent activation energies, ranging from 93 kJ?mol-1 (4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether) < diphenyl ether (98 kJ?mol-1) to di-p-tolyl ether (105 kJ?mol-1). D.M. thanks the support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). EMSL is a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and sponsored by DOEs Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  18. Million-fold activation of the [Fe2(?-O)2] diamond core for C-H bond cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Genqiang; De Hont, Raymond; Mnck, Eckard; Que, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    In biological systems, the cleavage of strong CH bonds is often carried out by iron centers such as the methane monooxygenase in methane hydroxylation through dioxygen activation mechanisms. High valent species with [Fe2(?-O)2] diamond cores are thought to act as the oxidizing moieties, but the synthesis of complexes that cleave strong CH bonds efficiently has remained a challenge. We report here the conversion of a synthetic complex with a valence-delocalized [Fe3.5(?-O)2Fe3.5]3+ diamond core (1) into a complex with a valence-localized [HO-FeIII-O-FeIV=O]2+ open core (4), which cleaves CH bonds over million-fold faster. This activity enhancement results from three factors: the formation of a terminal oxoiron(IV) moiety, the conversion of the low-spin (S = 1) FeIV=O center to a high-spin (S = 2) center, and the concentration of the oxidizing capability to the active terminal oxoiron(IV) moiety. This suggests that similar isomerization strategies might be employed by nonheme diiron enzymes. PMID:20414242

  19. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report presents results of research pertaining to chemical reactions that aim to selectively cleave C-S bonds in model compounds as well as Illinois coal. Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. In the second year of the project {open_quotes}Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal, the author has completed investigations of reactions in which organic sulfur-containing coal model compounds are subjected to different conditions of temperature, solvent mixtures, reagents, and radiation. He has also undertaken a series of reactions in which physically cleaned Illinois coal has been subjected to many of the same reaction conditions that were shown, via the use of model sulfides, to result in substantial C-S bond cleavage and or sulfur oxidation. Therefore, summarized in this interim final report are results of the investigations of the photooxidation reactions of coal model sulfones and sulfides; the photolytic desulfurization of coal; and various other topics, including a summary of the endeavors aimed at initiating C-S bond cleavage reactions using oxidation/chlorination/desulfurization protocols, and various tellurium reagents. Important experiments remain to be completed on this project; therefore, efforts in these areas will continue through the end of calendar year 1993.

  20. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M.

    1993-12-31

    Results of research pertaining to chemical reactions that aim to selectively cleave C-S bonds in model compounds as well as Illinois coal are summarized. Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. In the second year of the project ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` investigations of reactions in which organic sulfur-containing coal model compounds are subjected to different conditions of temperature, solvent mixtures, reagents, and radiation have been completed. A series of reactions have been undertaken in which physically cleaned Illinois coal has been subjected to many of the same reaction conditions that were shown, via the use of model sulfides, to result in substantial C-S bond cleavage and or sulfur oxidation. Therefore, summarized in this final report are results of the investigations of the photooxidation reactions of coal model sulfones and sulfides; the photolytic desulfurization of coal; and various other topics, including a summary of endeavors aimed at initiating C-S bond cleavage reactions using oxidation/chlorination/desulfurization protocols, and various tellurium reagents.

  1. Copper-mediated synthesis of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridines through oxidative linkage of C-C/N-N bonds.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Darapaneni Chandra; Ravi, Chitrakar; Rao, Sadu Nageswara; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa

    2015-03-11

    Copper-mediated synthesis of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carboxylates through oxidative linkage of C-C and N-N bonds under mild reaction conditions is described. This protocol is applicable to a variety of pyridyl esters as well as various benzonitriles including nicotinonitrile, isonicotinonitrile and thiophene-2-carbonitrile. Better yields were observed with electron withdrawing substituted benzonitriles. PMID:25679457

  2. C-H vs C-C Bond Activation of Acetonitrile and Benzonitrile via Oxidative Addition: Rhodium vs Nickel and Cp* vs Tp

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    C-H vs C-C Bond Activation of Acetonitrile and Benzonitrile via Oxidative Addition: Rhodium vs@chem.rochester.edu Abstract: The photochemical reaction of (C5Me5)Rh(PMe3)H2 (1) in neat acetonitrile leads to formation of the C-H activation product, (C5Me5)Rh(PMe3)(CH2CN)H (2). Thermolysis of this product in acetonitrile

  3. Silver-Mediated Radical Cyclization of Alkynoates and ?-Keto Acids Leading to Coumarins via Cascade Double C-C Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kelu; Yang, Daoshan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Fen; Shuai, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiannan; Wang, Hua

    2015-02-01

    A novel and convenient silver-mediated radical cyclization method for the synthesis of coumarin derivatives via the direct difunctionalization of alkynoates with ?-keto acids through double C-C bond formation under mild conditions has been developed. This new method is highly efficient and practical, and the starting materials are readily prepared. The present method should provide a useful strategy for the construction of coumarin motifs. PMID:25562802

  4. Formation of a sulfur-atom-inserted N-confused porphyrin iron nitrosyl complex by denitrosation and C-S bond cleavage of an S-nitrosothiol.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chen-Hsiung; Ching, Wei-Min; Chang, Gao-Fong; Chuang, Chuan-Hung; Chu, Han-Wei; Lee, Way-Zen

    2007-12-24

    The reaction of nitrosothiol, Ph3CSNO, with a divalent iron N-confused porphyrin complex, Fe(HCTPPH)Br, yields a {Fe(NO)}6 iron nitrosyl complex with a sulfur atom inserted in the Fe-C bond. The crystal structure reveals a bent Fe-N-O geometry and an eta2-(C,S) bonding mode between iron and the C-S bond. A reaction mechanism involving a transnitrosation and a nitrosothiol C-S bond cleavage is proposed. PMID:18031036

  5. Competitive Carbon-Sulfur vs Carbon-Carbon Bond Activation of 2-Cyanothiophene with [Ni(dippe)H]2

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Competitive Carbon-Sulfur vs Carbon-Carbon Bond Activation of 2-Cyanothiophene with [Ni(dippe)H]2: The processes of C-C and C-S bond cleavage have been studied with the homogeneous organometallic compound [Ni(dippe)H]2 (1). When 1 is reacted with 2-cyanothiophene at room temperature, cleavage of the nitrile

  6. Design and Synthesis of Chiral Zn2+ Complexes Mimicking Natural Aldolases for Catalytic CC Bond Forming Reactions in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Susumu; Sonoike, Shotaro; Kitamura, Masanori; Aoki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Extending carbon frameworks via a series of CC bond forming reactions is essential for the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceutically active compounds, active agrochemical ingredients, and a variety of functional materials. The application of stereoselective CC bond forming reactions to the one-pot synthesis of biorelevant compounds is now emerging as a challenging and powerful strategy for improving the efficiency of a chemical reaction, in which some of the reactants are subjected to successive chemical reactions in just one reactor. However, organic reactions are generally conducted in organic solvents, as many organic molecules, reagents, and intermediates are not stable or soluble in water. In contrast, enzymatic reactions in living systems proceed in aqueous solvents, as most of enzymes generally function only within a narrow range of temperature and pH and are not so stable in less polar organic environments, which makes it difficult to conduct chemoenzymatic reactions in organic solvents. In this review, we describe the design and synthesis of chiral metal complexes with Zn2+ ions as a catalytic factor that mimic aldolases in stereoselective CC bond forming reactions, especially for enantioselective aldol reactions. Their application to chemoenzymatic reactions in aqueous solution is also presented. PMID:24481060

  7. Effect of structure of the carbohydrate fragment on homolytic cleavage on N-glycosidic and phosphate ester bonds in nucleosides and nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Petryaev, E.P.; Moshchinskaya, S.V.; Timoshchuk, V.A.; Shadyro, O.I.

    1988-10-10

    The relationships governing the formation of free purine bases and phosphate ions during the /gamma/-irradiation of dilute aqueous solutions of compounds of the adenosine and guanosine series were studied. The degree of cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond in the reaction of radical particles with nucleosides depends significantly on the structure of the carbohydrate component. The presence of free hydroxyl groups at the C/sup 2//prime/ atom of the initial substances facilitates cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond, whereas combination of the hydroxyls or their absence makes it more resistant to homolytic cleavage. The possibility of the formation of ortho- and metaphospate ions during free-radical transformations of nucleotides was demonstrated experimentally. Mechanisms are proposed for the observed transformations of the nucleosides and their derivatives on the basis of the obtained and published data.

  8. A cascade of acid-promoted C-O bond cleavage and redox reactions: from oxa-bridged benzazepines to benzazepinones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuewei; Yang, Fengzhi; Zheng, Lianyou; Dang, Qun; Bai, Xu

    2014-12-01

    A sequence of C-O bond cleavage and redox reactions in oxa-bridged azepines was realized under acid promoted conditions. This protocol provides an atom-economical and straightforward approach to access benzo[b]azepin-5(2H)-ones in high yields. The formal synthesis of tolvaptan was achieved by exploiting this new transformation. PMID:25397583

  9. Palladium-catalyzed double alkylation of 3-aryl-2-fluoroallyl esters with malonate nucleophiles through the carbon-fluorine bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Mitsuaki; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Isa, Kazuki; Kawatsura, Motoi

    2014-02-01

    The alkylation of (Z)-3-aryl-2-fluoroallyl acetate with the malonate anion by the [Pd(C3H5)(cod)]BF4/2,2'-bpy catalyst proceeds through the carbon-fluorine bond cleavage, and 2 equiv of the malonate nucleophile was introduced to the allyl substrate. PMID:24479838

  10. Characterization of carbon-sulfur bond cleavage by axenic and mixed cultures of Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, K.J.; Bielaga, B.A.; Jackowski, K.; Oduson, O.; Kilbane, J. II

    1992-12-31

    Growth assays reveal that Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 can utilize a wide range of organosulfur compounds as the sole source of sulfur. Compounds that are utilized include thiophenes, sulfides, disulfides, mercaptans, sulfoxides, and sulfones. None of the organosulfur compounds tested can serve as a carbon source. A convenient spectrophotometric assay (Gibbs assay) based on the chromogenic reaction of 2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide with aromatic hydroxyl groups was developed and used in conjunction with GC/MS analysis to examine the kinetics of carbon-sulfur bond cleavage by axenic and mixed cell cultures of Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8. The desulfurization trait is expressed at uniform levels during the mid-exponential phase, reaches a maximum during idiophase, and then declines in stationary-phase cells. Desulfurization rates for dibenzothiophene (DBT) range from 8 to 15 {mu}M of DBT/10{sup 12} cells/hour. Mixtures of genetically marked Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 and an organisms incapable of cleaning carbon-sulfur bonds in relevant test compounds, Enterobacter cloacae, were prepared in ratios that varied over six orders of magnitude. Growth studies revealed that Enterobacter cloacae was able to gain access to sulfur liberated from organosulfur compounds by IGTS8; however, cell-to-cell contact was required. These data also indicate that the desulfurization activity of IGTS8 cells in mixed cultures may be as much as 200-fold higher than in axenic cultures.

  11. Evidence for carbon-sulfur bond cleavage in spontaneously adsorbed organosulfide-based monolayers at gold

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, C.J.; Porter, M.D. (Ames Lab.-USDOE, IA (United States) Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States))

    1994-12-14

    We have recently described several aspects of the electrode reactions of monolayers formed from alkanethiols and dialkyl disulfides at gold. This paper now discusses the findings and implications of two sets of electrochemical and surface characterization studies viz., X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and infrared reflection (IRS) spectroscopies. The first set of studies characterized monolayers formed at mica-supported Au(111) from dilute (0.1-1 mM) ethanolic solutions of butanethiol (BT) and butyl sulfide (BS/Au). The second set of experiments compared the monolayers formed from an asymmetric aryl sulfide, ethyl phenyl sulfide (PES), and a symmetric aryl sulfide, phenyl sulfide (PS), with those from thiophenol (TP) and ethanethiol (ET). The similarities in the E[sub p] and Q[sub d] values at TP/Au and PS/Au are consistent with the observations and subsequent interpretation of the electrochemical data at BT/Au and BS/Au. That is, the sulfur-gold interactions at TP/Au and PS/Au are effectively indistinguishable. Together, the above findings provide clear evidence for S-C cleavage in monolayers prepared at gold from organosulfides. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Promotion of exocyclic bond cleavages in the decomposition of 1,3-disilacyclobutane in the presence of a metal filament.

    PubMed

    Badran, I; Shi, Y J

    2015-01-29

    The primary decomposition of 1,3-disilacyclobutane (DSCB) on a tungsten filament and its secondary gas-phase reactions in a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor have been studied using laser ionization mass spectrometry. Under the collision-free conditions, DSCB decomposes on the W filament to produce H2 molecules with an activation energy of 43.6 4.1 kJmol(-1). With the help of the isotope labeling and chemical trapping methods, the mechanistic details in the secondary gas-phase reactions important in the hot-wire CVD reactor setup have been examined. The dominant pathway has been demonstrated to be the insertion of the cyclic 1,3-disilacyclobut-1-ylidene, generated by exocyclic Si-H bond rupture, into the Si-H bond in DSCB to form 1,1'-bis(1,3-disilacyclobutane) (174 amu). The successful trapping of 1,3-disilacyclobut-1-ylidene by both 1,3-butadiene and trimethylsilane provides compelling evidence for the existence of this cyclic silylene species in the hot-wire CVD reactor with DSCB. Other reactions operating in the reactor include the DSCB cycloreversion to form silene and the ring opening of DSCB via 1,2-H shift to produce silene/methylsilylene and 1-methylsilene/silylene. The introduction of an additional Si atom in the four-membered ring monosilacyclobutane molecule has caused two major changes in the reaction chemistry assumed by DSCB: (1) The endocyclic cycloreversion reactions that dominate in the decomposition of monosilacyclobutane molecules only play a much less important role in the dissociation of DSCB; and (2) the exocyclic bond cleavages are promoted in DSCB due to the ring stabilization caused by the introduction of one additional Si atom. PMID:25560235

  13. Mass Spectrometry and Theoretical Studies on N-C Bond Cleavages in the N-Sulfonylamidino Thymine Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobeti?, Renata; Kazazi?, Snjeana; Kova?evi?, Borislav; Glasovac, Zoran; Krstulovi?, Luka; Baji?, Miroslav; ini?, Biserka

    2015-03-01

    The reactivity of new biologically active thymine derivatives substituted with 2-(arylsulfonamidino)ethyl group at N1 and N3 position was investigated in the gas phase using CID experiments (ESI-MS/MS) and by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Both derivatives show similar chemistry in the negative mode with a retro-Michael addition (Path A-) being the most abundant reaction channel, which correlate well with the fluoride induced retro-Michael addition observed in solution. The difference in the fragmentation of N-3 substituted thymine 5 and N-1 substituted thymine 1 in the positive mode relates to the preferred cleavage of the sulfonyl group (m/z 155, Path B) in N-3 isomer and the formation of the acryl sulfonamidine 3 (m/z 309) via Path A in N-1 isomer. Mechanistic studies of the cleavage reaction conducted by DFT calculations give the trend of the calculated activation energies that agree well with the experimental observations. A mechanism of the retro-Michael reaction was interpreted as a McLafferty type of fragmentation, which includes H? proton shift to one of the neighboring oxygen atoms in a 1,5-fashion inducing N1(N3)-C? bond scission. This mechanism was found to be kinetically favorable over other tested mechanisms. Significant difference in the observed fragmentation pattern of N-1 and N-3 isomers proves the ESI-MS/MS technique as an excellent method for tracking the fate of similar sulfonamidine drugs. Also, the observed N-1 and/or N-3 thymine alkylation with in situ formed reactive acryl sulfonamidine 3 as a Michael acceptor may open interesting possibilities for the preparation of other N-3 substituted pyrimidines.

  14. A metal-free tandem C-C/C-O bond formation approach to densely functionalized indolyl [Formula: see text]-chromenes catalyzed by polystyrene-supported [Formula: see text]-toluenesulfonic acid under solvent-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Vijay Vilas; Jeong, Yong Seok; Jeong, Yeon Tae

    2015-05-01

    A new environmentally benign and highly convergent protocol for the synthesis of indolyl [Formula: see text]-chromene derivatives has been developed. This one-pot three-component condensation reaction of salicylaldehyde, cyclic 1,3-diketones, and indole is promoted by PS-PTSA as a reusable heterogeneous acid catalyst under solvent-free conditions. This protocol demonstrates several notable advantages such as that the catalyst is readily available and can be recovered and reused for at least five runs without any significant impact on product yields, high atom economy, excellent yields, and efficiency of producing three new bonds (two C-C and one C-O) and one stereo center in a single operation. PMID:25802172

  15. Facile C-H bond cleavage via a proton coupled electron transfer involving a C-H?CuII interaction

    PubMed Central

    Calle, Carlos; Poater, Albert; Casitas, Alicia; Gmez, Laura; Xifra, Ral; Parella, Teodor; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Schweiger, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The present study provides mechanistic details of a mild aromatic C-H activation effected by a copper(II) center ligated in a triazamacrocylic ligand, affording equimolar amounts of CuIII-aryl species and CuI as reaction products. At low-temperatures the CuII complex 1 forms a 3-center 3-electron C-H?CuII interaction, identified by pulse-EPR spectroscopy and supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. C-H bond cleavage is coupled with copper oxidation, as a CuIII-aryl product 2 is formed. This reaction proceeds to completion at 273 K within minutes through either a copper disproportionation reaction or, alternatively, an even faster reaction with one-equivalent of TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), quantitatively yielding 2. Kinetic studies of both reactions strongly implicate a rate-limiting proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) as the key C-H activation step, a mechanism that does not conform to either the C-H activation mechanism in a NiII analogue or to any previously proposed C-H activation mechanisms. PMID:20712320

  16. Active Metal Brazing and Adhesive Bonding of Titanium to C/C Composites for Heat Rejection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, Tarah; Cerny, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Robust assembly and integration technologies are critically needed for the manufacturing of heat rejection system (HRS) components for current and future space exploration missions. Active metal brazing and adhesive bonding technologies are being assessed for the bonding of titanium to high conductivity Carbon-Carbon composite sub components in various shapes and sizes. Currently a number of different silver and copper based active metal brazes and adhesive compositions are being evaluated. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Several mechanical tests have been employed to ascertain the effectiveness of different brazing and adhesive approaches in tension and in shear that are both simple and representative of the actual system and relatively straightforward in analysis. The results of these mechanical tests along with the fractographic analysis will be discussed. In addition, advantages, technical issues and concerns in using different bonding approaches will also be presented.

  17. Bonding and Integration of C-C Composite to Cu-Clad-Molybdenum for Thermal Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Singh, M.; Shpargel, T.P.

    2008-01-01

    Two- and three-dimensional carbon-carbon composites with either resin-derived matrix or CVI matrix were joined to Cu-clad-Mo using active Ag-Cu braze alloys for thermal management applications. The joint microstructure and composition were examined using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy, and the joint hardness was characterized using the Knoop microhardness testing. Observations on the infiltration of the composite with molten braze, dissolution of metal substrate, and solute segregation at the C-C surface have been discussed. The thermal response of the integrated assembly is also briefly discussed.

  18. Push-Pull Buta-1,2,3-trienes: Exceptionally Low Rotational Barriers of Cumulenic C?C Bonds and Proacetylenic Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Gawel, Przemyslaw; Wu, Yi-Lin; Finke, Aaron D; Trapp, Nils; Zalibera, Michal; Boudon, Corinne; Gisselbrecht, Jean-Paul; Schweizer, W Bernd; Gescheidt, Georg; Diederich, Franois

    2015-04-13

    A variety of asymmetrically donor-acceptor-substituted [3]cumulenes (buta-1,2,3-trienes) were synthesized by developed procedures. The activation barriers to rotation ?G(?) were measured by variable temperature NMR spectroscopy and found to be as low as 11.8?kcal?mol(-1) , in the range of the barriers for rotation around sterically hindered single bonds. The central C?C bond of the push-pull-substituted [3]cumulene moiety is shortened down to 1.22? as measured by X-ray crystallography, leading to a substantial bond length alternation (BLA) of up to 0.17?. All the experimental results are supported by DFT calculations. Zwitterionic transition states (TS) of bond rotation confirm the postulated proacetylenic character of donor-acceptor [3]cumulenes. Additional support for the proacetylenic character of these chromophores is provided by their reaction with tetracyanoethene (TCNE) in a cycloaddition-retroelectrocyclization (CA-RE) cascade characteristic of donor-polarized acetylenes. PMID:25765373

  19. Naphthoquinone-directed C-H annulation and C(sp)-H bond cleavage: one-pot synthesis of tetracyclic naphthoxazoles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meining; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Li-Ping; Ding, Chunyong; Zhang, Ao

    2014-05-16

    One-pot synthesis of tetracyclic naphthoxazole derivatives from electron-deficient naphthoquinones and alkynes was achieved via Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation and C(sp(3))-H bond cleavage for the first time. This approach proceeds through a tandem cascade process involving substrate tautomerization, C-H activation, oxidative addition, cyclization, and aromatization. In addition, broad substrate scope, simple starting materials, and steric tolerance make this strategy of great practicality. PMID:24746121

  20. Metal-Free Reductive Cleavage of CN and SN Bonds by Photoactivated Electron Transfer from a Neutral Organic Donor**

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Steven; Doni, Eswararao; Tuttle, Tell; Murphy, John A

    2014-01-01

    A photoactivated neutral organic super electron donor cleaves challenging arenesulfonamides derived from dialkylamines at room temperature. It also cleaves a) ArCNR and b) ArNC bonds. This study also highlights the assistance given to these cleavage reactions by the groups attached to N in (a) and to C in (b), by lowering LUMO energies and by stabilizing the products of fragmentation. PMID:24311295

  1. Novel enzymatic activity of cell free extract from thermophilic Geobacillus sp. UZO 3 catalyzes reductive cleavage of diaryl ether bonds of 2,7-dichlorodibenzo- p-dioxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuzoh Suzuki; Masaya Nakamura; Yuichiro Otsuka; Nao Suzuki; Keisuke Ohyama; Takeshi Kawakami; Kanna Sato; Shinya Kajita; Shojiro Hishiyama; Takeo Fujii; Atsushi Takahashi; Yoshihiro Katayama

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the ability of the cell free extract from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins degrading bacterium Geobacillus sp. UZO 3 to reduce even highly chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins such as octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins in incineration fly ash. The degradation of 2,7-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,7-DCDD) as a model dioxin catalyzed by the cell free extract from this strain implicates that the ether bonds of 2,7-DCDD molecule undergo reductive cleavage,

  2. Biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene and its derivatives through the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds by a moderately thermophilic bacterim Bacillus subtilis WU-S2B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohtaro Kirimura; Toshiki Furuya; Yasuhiro Nishii; Yoshitaka Ishii; Kuniki Kino; Shoji Usami

    2001-01-01

    Heterocyclic organosulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) in petroleum cannot be completely removed by hydrodesulfurization using chemical catalysts. A moderately thermophilic bacterium Bacillus subtilis WU-S2B, which could desulfurize DBT at 50C through the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C?S) bonds, was newly isolated. At 50C, growing cells of WU-S2B could degrade 0.54 mM DBT within 120 h to produce 2-hydroxybiphenyl, and

  3. Crystal structure of 2'-deoxycytidine hemidihydrogenphosphate reveals C+.C base pairs and tight, hydrogen-bonded (H2PO4-)infinity columns (1).

    PubMed

    Jasklski, M; Gdaniec, M; Gilski, M; Alejska, M; Bratek-Wiewirowska, M D

    1994-06-01

    2'-Deoxycytidine hemidihydrogenphosphate has been crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6(2) with a = 25.839(3), c = 12.529(1) A. The structure has been solved using the Patterson search method. The asymmetric unit contains two protonated, base-paired 2'-deoxycytidine dimers and two H2PO4- anions. The C+.C base pairs are composed of a protonated and a neutral species each and are triple H-bonded, the central N(3) ... N(3) bonds being 2.850(7) and 2.884(5) A. The conformations of the four nucleosides fall in the same category (sugar puckers 2'-endo, glycosidic links anti) but in one of them the glycosidic torsion angle is quite low with consequences in other geometrical parameters. The H2PO4- anions are located on twofold axes and form two types of tight columns with P ... P separations about 4.18 A. The neighboring units along a column are linked via two very short O ... H ... O hydrogen bonds (O ... O about 2.49 A) leading to effective equalization of the P-O bonds. The base pairs of the two dC+.dC cations are coplanar and form layers perpendicular to the phosphate columns repeating every c/3. Within the layers, the dimers form a network through O(5') ... O(2) hydrogen bonds but their primary intermolecular interactions have the form of H-bond anchors [N(4)-H ... O-P and O(3')-H ... O-P] to the phosphate groups. PMID:7946075

  4. Energetics of the homolytic C-H and C-Cl bond cleavages in polychlorobenzenes: The role of electronic and steric effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cioslowski, J.; Liu, G.; Moncrieff, D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)] [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1997-01-30

    Geometries of (poly)chlorosubstituted benzenes and phenyl radicals are optimized at the BLYP/6-311G{sup **} level of theory. The radicals, which are all planar and of the {sigma}-type, possess geometries that are influenced by both electronic and indirect steric effects. The total energies of the species under study are quantitatively analyzed with simple additive schemes involving the chlorine-chlorine and chlorine-trivalent carbon interactions. Comparisons with the few available experimental data reveal that the computed C-H and C-Cl bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of benzene and its chloro-derivatives are systematically too low by ca. 5 kcal/mol and that the experimental C-Cl BDE of 1,3-dichlorobenzene is most probably in error. The substituents are predicted to facilitate the homolytic C-Cl bond cleavage by up to 6.6 kcal/mol while making the C-H cleavage less favorable by as much as 3.8 kcal/mol. The trends in BDEs are readily accounted for by a superposition of electronic end steric effects. In all cases, the C-Cl bond cleavages are found to require significantly less energy than the C-H ones, implying kinetic control of the aryl radical formation in the course of pyrolysis of (poly)chlorobenzenes. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Selective scission of C-O and C-C bonds in ethanol using bimetal catalysts for the preferential growth of semiconducting SWNT arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuchen; Hu, Yue; Wu, Juanxia; Liu, Dan; Kang, Lixing; Zhao, Qiuchen; Zhang, Jin

    2015-01-28

    For the application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to electronic and optoelectronic devices, techniques to obtain semiconducting SWNT (s-SWNT) arrays are still in their infancy. We have developed herein a rational approach for the preferential growth of horizontally aligned s-SWNT arrays on a ST-cut quartz surface through the selective scission of C-O and C-C bonds of ethanol using bimetal catalysts, such as Cu/Ru, Cu/Pd, and Au/Pd. For a common carbon source, ethanol, a reforming reaction occurs on Cu or Au upon C-C bond breakage and produces C(ads) and CO, while a deoxygenating reaction occurs on Ru or Pd through C-O bond breaking resulting in the production of O(ads) and C2H4. The produced C2H4 by Ru or Pd can weaken the oxidative environment through decomposition and the neutralization of O(ads). When the bimetal catalysts with an appropriate ratio were used, the produced C(ads) and C2H4 can be used as carbon source for SWNT growth, and O(ads) promotes a suitable and durable oxidative environment to inhibit the formation of metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs). Finally, we successfully obtained horizontally aligned SWNTs on a ST-cut quartz surface with a density of 4-8 tubes/?m and an s-SWNT ratio of about 93% using an Au/Pd (1:1) catalyst. The synergistic effects in bimetallic catalysts provide a new mechanism to control the growth of s-SWNTs. PMID:25585016

  6. Carboncarbon bond activation of cyclobutenones enabled by the addition of chiral organocatalyst to ketone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Yuhuang; Jin, Zhichao; Zheng, Pengcheng; Ganguly, Rakesh; Chi, Yonggui Robin

    2015-01-01

    The activation of carboncarbon (CC) bonds is an effective strategy in building functional molecules. The CC bond activation is typically accomplished via metal catalysis, with which high levels of enantioselectivity are difficult to achieve due to high reactivity of metal catalysts and the metal-bound intermediates. It remains largely unexplored to use organocatalysis for CC bond activation. Here we describe an organocatalytic activation of CC bonds through the addition of an NHC to a ketone moiety that initiates a CC single bond cleavage as a key step to generate an NHC-bound intermediate for chemo- and stereo-selective reactions. This reaction constitutes an asymmetric functionalization of cyclobutenones using organocatalysts via a CC bond activation process. Structurally diverse and multicyclic compounds could be obtained with high optical purities via an atom and redox economic process. PMID:25652912

  7. Role of asparagine 510 in the relative timing of substrate bond cleavages in the reaction catalyzed by choline oxidase.

    PubMed

    Rungsrisuriyachai, Kunchala; Gadda, Giovanni

    2010-03-23

    The flavoprotein choline oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine with transient formation of an aldehyde intermediate and molecular oxygen as final electron acceptor. The enzyme has been grouped in the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase enzyme superfamily, which shares a highly conserved His-Asn catalytic pair in the active site. In this study, the conserved asparagine residue at position 510 in choline oxidase was replaced with alanine, aspartate, histidine, or leucine by site-directed mutagenesis, and the resulting mutant enzymes were purified and characterized in their biochemical and mechanistic properties. All of the substitutions resulted in low incorporation of FAD into the protein. The Asn510Asp enzyme was not catalytically active with choline and had 75% of the flavin associated noncovalently. The most notable changes in the catalytic parameters with respect to wild-type choline oxidase were seen in the Asn510Ala enzyme, with decreases of 4300-fold in the k(cat)/K(choline), 600-fold in the k(red), 660-fold in the k(cat), and 50-fold in the k(cat)/K(oxygen) values. Smaller, but nonetheless similar, changes were seen also in the Asn510His enzyme. Both the K(d) and K(m) values for choline changed < or = 7-fold. These data are consistent with Asn510 participating in both the reductive and oxidative half-reactions but having a minimal role in substrate binding. Substrate, solvent, and multiple kinetic isotope effects on the k(red) values indicated that the substitution of Asn510 with alanine, but not with histidine, resulted in a change from stepwise to concerted mechanisms for the cleavages of the OH and CH bonds of choline catalyzed by the enzyme. PMID:20163155

  8. Low-temperature N-O bond cleavage of nitrogen monoxide in heterometallic carbonyl complexes. An experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Garca, M Esther; Meln, Sonia; Ruiz, Miguel A; Lpez, Ramn; Sordo, Toms; Marchi, Luciano; Tiripicchio, Antonio

    2008-11-17

    The reaction of Na[RuCp(CO) 2] with [MnCp'(CO) 2(NO)]BF 4 gives the corresponding heterometallic derivative [MnRuCpCp'(mu-CO) 2(CO)(NO)] (Cp = eta (5)-C 5H 5; Cp' = eta (5)-C 5H 4Me). In contrast, the group 6 metal carbonyl anions [MCp(CO) 2L] (-) (M = Mo, W; L = CO, P(OMe) 3, PPh 3) react with the Mn and Re complexes [M'Cp'(CO) 2(NO)]BF 4 to give the heterometallic derivatives [MM'CpCp'(mu-N)(CO) 3L] having a nitride ligand linearly bridging the metal centers (W-N = 1.81(3) A, N-Re = 1.97(3) A, W-N-Re = 179(1) (o), in [WReCpCp'(mu-N)(CO) 3{P(OMe) 3}]). Density-functional theory calculations on the reactions of [WCp(CO) 3] (-) and [RuCp(CO) 2] (-) with [MnCp(CO) 2(NO)] (+) revealed a comparable qualitative behavior. Thus, two similar and thermodynamically allowed reaction pathways were found in each case, one implying the displacement of CO from the cation and formation of a metal-metal bond, the other implying the cleavage of the N-O bond of the nitrosyl ligand and release of a carbonyl from the anion as CO 2. The second pathway is more exoergonic and is initiated through an orbitally controlled attack of the anion on the N atom of the NO ligand in the cation. In contrast, the first pathway is initiated through a charge-controlled attack of the anion to the C atom of a CO ligand in the cation. The CO 2-elimination pathway requires at the intermediate stages a close approach of the NO and CO ligands, which is more difficult for the Ru compound because of its lower coordination number (compared to W). This effect, when combined with a stronger stabilization of the initial intermediate in the Ru reaction, makes the CO 2-elimination pathway slower in that case. PMID:18928276

  9. Low energy electron induced cytosine base release in 2?-deoxycytidine-3?-monophosphate via glycosidic bond cleavage: A time-dependent wavepacket study

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskaran, Renjith; Sarma, Manabendra, E-mail: msarma@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039 (India)

    2014-09-14

    Low energy electron (LEE) induced cytosine base release in a selected pyrimidine nucleotide, viz., 2?-deoxycytidine-3?-monophosphate is investigated using ab initio electronic structure methods and time dependent quantum mechanical calculations. It has been noted that the cytosine base scission is comparatively difficult process than the 3? CO bond cleavage from the lowest ?{sup *} shape resonance in energy region <1 eV. This is mainly due to the high activation energy barrier associated with the electron transfer from the ?{sup *} orbital of the base to the ?{sup *} orbital of the glycosidic NC bond. In addition, the metastable state formed after impinging LEE (01 eV) has very short lifetime (10 fs) which may decay in either of the two competing auto-detachment or dissociation process simultaneously. On the other hand, the selected NC mode may cleave to form the cytosine base anion at higher energy regions (>2 eV) via tunneling of the glycosidic bond. Resonance states generated within this energy regime will exist for a duration of ?3555 fs. Comparison of salient features of the two dissociation events, i.e., 3? CO single strand break and glycosidic NC bond cleavage in 3?-dCMPH molecule are also provided.

  10. Low energy electron induced cytosine base release in 2'-deoxycytidine-3'-monophosphate via glycosidic bond cleavage: a time-dependent wavepacket study.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Renjith; Sarma, Manabendra

    2014-09-14

    Low energy electron (LEE) induced cytosine base release in a selected pyrimidine nucleotide, viz., 2'-deoxycytidine-3'-monophosphate is investigated using ab initio electronic structure methods and time dependent quantum mechanical calculations. It has been noted that the cytosine base scission is comparatively difficult process than the 3' C-O bond cleavage from the lowest ?* shape resonance in energy region <1 eV. This is mainly due to the high activation energy barrier associated with the electron transfer from the ?* orbital of the base to the ?* orbital of the glycosidic N-C bond. In addition, the metastable state formed after impinging LEE (0-1 eV) has very short lifetime (10 fs) which may decay in either of the two competing auto-detachment or dissociation process simultaneously. On the other hand, the selected N-C mode may cleave to form the cytosine base anion at higher energy regions (>2 eV) via tunneling of the glycosidic bond. Resonance states generated within this energy regime will exist for a duration of ~35-55 fs. Comparison of salient features of the two dissociation events, i.e., 3' C-O single strand break and glycosidic N-C bond cleavage in 3'-dCMPH molecule are also provided. PMID:25217918

  11. Structure and bonding in a cyclobutyl tris(pyrazolyl)boratoniobium complex and the variation in agostic behaviour with ring size in the series Tp(Me2)NbCl(c-C(n)H(2n-1))(MeC[triple bond]CMe), n = 3-6.

    PubMed

    Besora, Maria; Maseras, Feliu; McGrady, John E; Ouli, Pascal; Dinh, Duy Hai; Duhayon, Carine; Etienne, Michel

    2006-05-21

    The synthesis and characterisation of the cyclobutyl complex Tp(Me2)NbCl(c-C4H7)(MeC[triple bond]CMe) completes the family of cycloalkyl complexes Tp(Me2)NbCl(c-C(n)H(2n-1)), n = 3-6. The properties of the cyclobutyl complex are qualitatively similar to those of its cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl analogues, and dramatically different from those of the cyclopropyl derivative. Most conspicuously, the cyclobutyl system has an alpha-C-H agostic interaction in the dominant isomer, with no evidence for the alpha-C-C agostic character found for the smaller ring. C-C agostic character therefore seems to be unique to the cyclopropyl complex, where the acute C-C-C angles destabilise the C-C bonding orbitals. PMID:16688324

  12. Tailored synthesis of various nanomaterials by using a graphene-oxide-based gel as a nanoreactor and nanohybrid-catalyzed C-C bond formation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arindam

    2014-12-01

    New graphene oxide (GO)-based hydrogels that contain vitamin B2/B12 and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) have been synthesized in water (at neutral pH value). These gel-based soft materials have been used to synthesize various metal nanoparticles, including Au, Ag, and Pd nanoparticles, as well as nanoparticle-containing reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-based nanohybrid systems. This result indicates that GO-based gels can be used as versatile reactors for the synthesis of different nanomaterials and hybrid systems on the nanoscale. Moreover, the RGO-based nanohybrid hydrogel with Pd nanoparticles was used as an efficient catalyst for C-C bond-formation reactions with good yields and showed high recyclability in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions. PMID:25224859

  13. High chemoselectivity of an advanced iron catalyst for the hydrogenation of aldehydes with isolated C?C bond: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Cheng, Runjiao; Turner, Nicholas; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Mingtao; Sun, Xiaomin

    2014-10-01

    Knlker's iron complex is a "green" catalyst that exhibits low toxicity and is abundant in nature. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to explore the highly chemoselective nature of the catalytic hydrogenation of CH2?CHCH2CHO. An outer-sphere concerted hydrogen transfer was found to be the most reasonable kinetic route for the hydrogenation of the olefin. However, the C?C hydrogenation reaction has a high free energy barrier of 28.1 kcal/mol, requiring a high temperature to overcome. By comparison, the CH?O bond concerted hydrogen-transfer reaction catalyzed using Knlker's iron catalyst has an energy barrier of only 14.0 kcal/mol. Therefore, only the CH?O of CH2?CHCH2CHO can be hydrogenated in the presence of Knlker's catalyst at room temperature, due to kinetic domination. All computational results were in good agreement with experimental results. PMID:25222376

  14. Bis(trifluoromethyl)methylene Addition to Vinyl-Terminated SAMs: A Gas-Phase CC Bond-Forming Reaction on a Surface

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silicon oxide substrates were chemically modified by the addition of a bis(trifluoromethyl)methylene group in a rare gas-phase CC bond-forming reaction to directly generate films carrying terminal CF3 groups. The vinyl-terminated films were treated with hexafluoroacetone azine (HFAA) for modification. The films were characterized with ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In this study, we find that for optimized conditions clean reactions occur on a surface between SAMs with terminal olefins and HFAA, and the product is consistent with bis(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropanation formation after nitrogen extrusion. PMID:24806554

  15. Formation of C?C Bond via Knoevenagel Reaction between Aromatic Aldehyde and Barbituric Acid at Liquid/HOPG and Vapor/HOPG Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yanfang; Dai, Hongliang; Chang, Shaoqing; Hu, Fangyun; Zeng, Qingdao; Wang, Chen

    2015-03-01

    Controlling chemical reactions on surface is of great importance to constructing self-assembled covalent nanostructures. Herein, Knoevenagel reaction between aromatic aldehyde compound 2,5-di(5-aldehyde-2-thienyl)-1,4-dioctyloxybenzene (PT2) and barbituric acid (BA) has been successfully performed for the first time at liquid/HOPG interface and vapor/HOPG interface. The resulting surface nanostructures and the formation of C?C bond are recorded through scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR/FT-IR) spectrometer and UV-vis absorption. The obtained results reveal that Knoevenagel condensation reaction can efficiently occur at both interfaces. This surface reaction would be an important step toward further reaction to produce innovative conjugated nanomaterial on the surface. PMID:25664650

  16. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Summarized in the final technical report for our project ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` are results of research pertaining to chemical reactions that aim to selectively cleave C-S bonds in model compounds as well as Illinois coal. Removal of the organic sulfur in coal constitutes one of the major challenges facing fossil fuel scientists today. A cost-effective means of desulfurizing Illinois coal is, at present, non-existent. Research in our group aims to develop a simple protocol for sulfur removal by gaining understanding of how various additives and reaction conditions, including solvents, bases, added reagents, catalysts, oxidizing agents, electron acceptors, temperature, pressure, and light energy, can enhance the rates of C-S bond cleavage in Illinois coal and coal model compounds. These experiments have been at the focus of our research effort for the past twelve months. Previous quarterly reports described research results in which simple aromatic and aliphatic sulfides were allowed to react with (a) Lewis Acids such as zinc chloride and tin chloride; (b) electron accepting substrates such as 9-fluorenone and benzoquinone; (c) strong bases such as NaOH and KOH; (d) radical initiators such as AIBN; (e) neat solvents at reflux temperatures and higher temperatures; (f) molecular oxygen in the presence of dyes or sensitizers such as anthracene. In this final report, we report on additional experiments involving the photooxidation of organic sulfides, as well as some experiments aimed at evaluating and comparing the reactivities of simple organic sulfones with their sulfidyl analogues. Also contained in this final report is a brief summary of the research described in the previous three quarterly reports for ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal.``

  17. Heterolytic cleavage of hydrogen by an iron hydrogenase model: an Fe-H???H-N dihydrogen bond characterized by neutron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianbiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Hoffmann, Christina; DuBois, Daniel L; Bullock, R Morris

    2014-05-19

    Hydrogenase enzymes in nature use hydrogen as a fuel, but the heterolytic cleavage of H-H bonds cannot be readily observed in enzymes. Here we show that an iron complex with pendant amines in the diphosphine ligand cleaves hydrogen heterolytically. The product has a strong Fe-H???H-N dihydrogen bond. The structure was determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction, and has a remarkably short H???H distance of 1.489(10)? between the protic N-H(?+) and hydridic Fe-H(?-) part. The structural data for [Cp(C5F4N)FeH(P(tBu)2N(tBu)2H)](+) provide a glimpse of how the H-H bond is oxidized or generated in hydrogenase enzymes. These results now provide a full picture for the first time, illustrating structures and reactivity of the dihydrogen complex and the product of the heterolytic cleavage of H2 in a functional model of the active site of the [FeFe] hydrogenase enzyme. PMID:24757087

  18. A copper complex supported by an N2S-tridentate ligand inducing efficient heterolytic O-O bond cleavage of alkylhydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Tano, Tetsuro; Mieda, Kaoru; Sugimoto, Hideki; Ogura, Takashi; Itoh, Shinobu

    2014-03-28

    We have recently reported a copper(II)-superoxide complex supported by an N3-tridentate ligand (L(N3)), which exhibits a similar structure and reactivity to those of a putative reactive intermediate involved in the catalytic reactions of copper monooxygenases such as peptidylglycine ?-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and dopamine ?-monooxygenase (D?M). In this study, we have synthesised and characterised copper complexes supported by a related sulphur-containing ligand (L(N2S)) to get insight into the notable electronic effect of the sulphur donor atom in the reaction with cumene hydroperoxide, inducing efficient heterolytic O-O bond cleavage. PMID:24492382

  19. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Ilg, Andrea; Bruno, Mark; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B), which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents. PMID:25057464

  20. Cleavage of the glycosidic C-O-C bond on size-selected subnanometer cobalt catalysts and on ALD-cobalt coated nanoporous membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, W.; Lee, S.; Libera, J. A.; Elam, J. W.; Vajda, S.; Marshall, C. L. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( CSE); ( ES)

    2011-02-15

    The cleavage of the C-O-C bond was studied under oxidizing conditions on nanostructured membrane supported cobalt-based catalysts using a cellulose model surrogate, 1-methoxy-2-methyl-2-propanol. The cobalt catalysts were found to break the C-O-C bond, producing alcohols and/or ketones by further oxidation. The size-selected sub-nanometer size cobalt clusters exhibited a per metal activity of up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than the with atomic layer deposition uniformly coated membranes. The large difference in activity is attributed to the high fraction of the surface atoms of the subnanometer clusters. The positioning of the clusters at the entrance vs. exit of the catalytic membrane allows for a control of the contact time and consequently of the selectivity of the catalyst.

  1. Cleavage of the C-O-C bond on size-selected subnanometer cobalt catalysts and on ALD-cobalt coated nanoporous membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, W.; Lee, S.; Libera, J. A.; Elam, J. W.; Vajda, S.; Marshall, C. L.; Yale Univ.

    2011-02-15

    The cleavage of the C-O-C bond was studied under oxidizing conditions on nanostructured membrane supported cobalt-based catalysts using a cellulose model surrogate, 1-methoxy-2-methyl-2-propanol. The cobalt catalysts were found to break the C-O-C bond, producing alcohols and/or ketones by further oxidation. The size-selected sub-nanometer size cobalt clusters exhibited a per metal activity of up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than the with atomic layer deposition uniformly coated membranes. The large difference in activity is attributed to the high fraction of the surface atoms of the subnanometer clusters. The positioning of the clusters at the entrance vs. exit of the catalytic membrane allows for a control of the contact time and consequently of the selectivity of the catalyst.

  2. Identification and cleavage of breakable single bonds by selective oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis. Annual report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Zevely, J.; Mayo, F.R.

    1981-11-12

    The objective of this project is to determine the structure of bituminous coal by determining the proportions of the various kinds of connecting bonds and how they can best be broken. Results obtained during the past quarter are presented for the following tasks: (1) extractions and fractionations of coal products which covers pyridine extraction, fractionation of TIPS fractions, EDA extraction of Illinois No. 6 coal and swelling ratios of coal samples; (2) experiments on breakable single bonds which cover reactions of ethylenediamine and model ethers, reaction of pyridine-extracted coal with Me/sub 3/SiI, Baeyer-Villiger oxidations, reaction to diphenylmethane with 15% HNO/sub 3/, cleavage of TIPS with ZnI/sub 2/, and cleavage of black acids; and (3) oxygen oxidation No. 18. Some of the highlights of these studies are: (1) some model ethers are not cleaved by EDA under extraction conditions; (2) oxidation of diaryl ketones with m-chloroperbenzoic acid and saponification of the resulting esters in promising for identifying ketones, (3) treatment of a black acid with pyridine hydroiodide reduced the acid's molecular weight and increased its solubility in pyridine, but treatment with ZnI/sub 2/ was ineffective; (4) in comparison with 0.1 M K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/, 0.01 M persulfate is relatively ineffective in accelerating oxidation of BnNH/sub 2/-extracted coal in water suspension. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  3. DNA degradation by bleomycin: evidence for 2'R-proton abstraction and for C-O bond cleavage accompanying base propenal formation.

    PubMed

    Ajmera, S; Wu, J C; Worth, L; Rabow, L E; Stubbe, J; Kozarich, J W

    1986-10-21

    Reaction of poly(dA-[2'S-3H]dU) with activated bleomycin yields [3H]uracil propenal that completely retains the tritium label. In contrast, we have previously shown that reaction of poly(dA-[2'R-3H]dU) with activated bleomycin affords unlabeled uracil propenal [Wu, J. C., Kozarich, J. W., & Stubbe, J. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 4694-4697]. We have also prepared both cis- and trans-thymine propenals by chemical synthesis and have observed that the trans isomer is the exclusive product of the bleomycin reaction. Moreover, the cis isomer was found to be stable to the conditions of bleomycin-induced DNA degradation. Taken together, these results establish that the formation of trans-uracil propenal occurs via an anti-elimination mechanism with the stereospecific abstraction of the 2'R proton. The question of phosphodiester bond cleavage during base propenal formation has also been addressed by the analysis of the fate of oxygen-18 in poly(dA-[3'-18O]dT) upon reaction with activated bleomycin. The 5'-monophosphate oligonucleotide ends produced from thymine propenal formation have been converted to inorganic phosphate by the action of alkaline phosphatase, and the phosphate has been analyzed for 18O content by 31P NMR spectroscopy. The oxygen-18 is retained in the inorganic phosphate, establishing that the formation of thymine propenal by activated bleomycin proceeds with C-O bond cleavage at the 3'-position. PMID:2431710

  4. Effect of thermal denaturation, inhibition, and cleavage of disulfide bonds on the low-frequency Raman and FTIR spectra of chymotrypsin and albumin.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Nikolay N; Chikishev, Andrey Yu; Mankova, Anna A; Sakodynskaya, Inna K

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of the structure-function relationship is extremely important in the study of proteins. The importance of function-related motions of large parts or subglobules of protein molecules stimulates the spectroscopic study in the low-frequency (terahertz) domain. However, only tentative assignments are available and the spectroscopic data are insufficiently discussed in terms of structural changes. This work is aimed at the analysis of regularities of changes in the low-frequency (100 to 600 cm(-1)) FTIR and Raman spectra of proteins related to their structural modifications. We study the spectra of two proteins with substantially different structures (albumin and chymotrypsin) and the spectra of samples in which the structures of protein molecules are modified using inhibition, thermal denaturation, and cleavage of disulfide bonds. The results indicate that the low-frequency spectral interval can be used to characterize protein conformations. Correlated variations in the intensities of several low-frequency bands are revealed in the spectra of the modified proteins. The strongest spectral changes are caused by thermal denaturation of proteins, and the effect of cleavage of disulfide bonds is generally weaker. It is demonstrated that the inhibitor binding in the active site causes spectral changes that can be compared to the changes induced by thermal denaturation. PMID:25478913

  5. Direct construction of 2-alkylbenzo-1,3-azoles via C-H activation of alkanes for C-C and C-X (X = O, S) bond formation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arvind K; Yadav, Lal Dhar S

    2015-02-18

    Copper catalyzed straightforward synthesis of 2-alkylbenzoxa(thia)azoles from aryl isocyanates/isothiocyanates and simple alkanes is reported. The protocol utilizes ditertiary butyl peroxide (DTBP) as a radical initiator and involves sequential formation of C-C and C-X (X = O, S) bonds followed by aromatization in a one-pot procedure. PMID:25578954

  6. Ln[N(SiMe3 )2 ]3 -catalyzed cross-diinsertion of C?N/C?C into an N?H bond: facile synthesis of 1,2,4-trisubstituted imidazoles from propargylamines and nitriles.

    PubMed

    Hong, Longcheng; Shao, Yinlin; Zhang, Lixin; Zhou, Xigeng

    2014-07-01

    A lanthanide-catalyzed sequential insertion of C?N and C?C into an N?H bond is presented. The convenient reaction, which proceeds under mild conditions, is an efficient method for preparing 1,2,4-trisubstituted imidazoles directly from readily available propargylamines and nitriles. PMID:24920226

  7. Regioselective functionalization of iminophosphoranes through Pd-mediated C-H bond activation: C-C and C-X bond formation.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, David; Navarro, Rafael; Soler, Tatiana; Urriolabeitia, Esteban P

    2010-11-21

    The orthopalladation of iminophosphoranes [R(3)P=N-C(10)H(7)-1] (R(3) = Ph(3) 1, p-Tol(3) 2, PhMe(2) 3, Ph(2)Me 4, N-C(10)H(7)-1 = 1-naphthyl) has been studied. It occurs regioselectively at the aryl ring bonded to the P atom in 1 and 2, giving endo-[Pd(?-Cl)(C(6)H(4)-(PPh(2=N-1-C(10)H(7))-2)-?-C,N](2) (5) or endo-[Pd(?-Cl)(C(6)H(3)-(P(p-Tol)(2)=N-C(10)H(7)-1)-2-Me-5)-?-C,N](2) (6), while in 3 the 1-naphthyl group is metallated instead, giving exo-[Pd(?-Cl)(C(10)H(6)-(N=PPhMe(2))-8)-?-C,N](2) (7). In the case of 4, orthopalladation at room temperature affords the kinetic exo isomer [Pd(?-Cl)(C(10)H(6)-(N=PPh(2)Me)-8)-?-C,N](2) (11exo), while a mixture of 11exo and the thermodynamic endo isomer [Pd(?-Cl)(C(6)H(4)-(PPhMe=N-C(10)H(7)-1)-2)-?-C,N](2) (11endo) is obtained in refluxing toluene. The heating in toluene of the acetate bridge dimer [Pd(?-OAc)(C(10)H(6)-(N=PPh(2)Me)-8)-?-C,N](2) (13exo) promotes the facile transformation of the exo isomer into the endo isomer [Pd(?-OAc)(C(6)H(4)-(PPhMe=N-C(10)H(7)-1)-2)-?-C,N](2) (13endo), confirming that the exo isomers are formed under kinetic control. Reactions of the orthometallated complexes have led to functionalized molecules. The stoichiometric reactions of the orthometallated complexes [Pd(?-Cl)(C(10)H(6)-(N=PPhMe(2))-8)-?-C,N](2) (7), [Pd(?-Cl)(C(6)H(4)-(PPh(2)[=NPh)-2)](2) (17) and [Pd(?-Cl)(C(6)H(3)-(C(O)N=PPh(3))-2-OMe-4)](2) (18) with I(2) or with CO results in the synthesis of the ortho-halogenated compounds [PhMe(2)P=N-C(10)H(6)-I-8] (19), [I-C(6)H(4)-(PPh(2)=NPh)-2] (21) and [Ph(3)P=NC(O)C(6)H(3)-I-2-OMe-5] (23) or the heterocycles [C(10)H(6)-(N=PPhMe(2))-1-(C(O))-8]Cl (20), [C(6)H(5)-(N=PPh(2)-C(6)H(4)-C(O)-2]ClO(4) (22) and [C(6)H(3)-(C(O)-1,2-N-PPh(3))-OMe-4]Cl (24). PMID:20927428

  8. Discovery and Mechanistic Studies of Facile N-Terminal C?C Bond Cleavages in the Dissociation of Tyrosine-Containing Peptide Radical Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Xiaoyan; Song, Tao; Xu, Minjie; Lai, Cheuk-Kuen; Siu, Chi-Kit; Laskin, Julia; Chu, Ivan K.

    2014-03-28

    Gas phase fragmentations of protein and peptide (M) ions in a mass spectrometerinduced by, for example, electron-capture dissociation1-2 and electron-transfer dissociation3-422 form the foundation for top-down amino acid sequencing approaches for the rapid identification of protein components in complex biological samples. During these processes, protonated protein and peptide radicals ([M + nH](n 1)+)58 are generated; their fragmentations are governed largely by the properties of the unpaired electron. Because of their importance in modern bioanalytical chemistry, considerable attention has been drawn recently toward understanding the radical cation chemistry behind the fragmentations of these odd-electron biomolecular ions in the gas phase.

  9. Solvent dependent branching between C-I and C-Br bond cleavage following 266 nm excitation of CH2BrI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Christopher P.; Spears, Kenneth G.; Wilson, Kaitlynn R.; Sension, Roseanne J.

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that ultraviolet photoexcitation of halomethanes results in halogen-carbon bond cleavage. Each halogen-carbon bond has a dominant ultraviolet (UV) absorption that promotes an electron from a nonbonding halogen orbital (nX) to a carbon-halogen antibonding orbital (?*C-X). UV absorption into specific transitions in the gas phase results primarily in selective cleavage of the corresponding carbon-halogen bond. In the present work, broadband ultrafast UV-visible transient absorption studies of CH2BrI reveal a more complex photochemistry in solution. Transient absorption spectra are reported spanning the range from 275 nm to 750 nm and 300 fs to 3 ns following excitation of CH2BrI at 266 nm in acetonitrile, 2-butanol, and cyclohexane. Channels involving formation of CH2Br + I radical pairs, iso-CH2Br-I, and iso-CH2I-Br are identified. The solvent environment has a significant influence on the branching ratios, and on the formation and stability of iso-CH2Br-I. Both iso-CH2Br-I and iso-CH2I-Br are observed in cyclohexane with a ratio of 2.8:1. In acetonitrile this ratio is 7:1 or larger. The observation of formation of iso-CH2I-Br photoproduct as well as iso-CH2Br-I following 266 nm excitation is a novel result that suggests complexity in the dissociation mechanism. We also report a solvent and concentration dependent lifetime of iso-CH2Br-I. At low concentrations the lifetime is >4 ns in acetonitrile, 1.9 ns in 2-butanol and 1.4 ns in cyclohexane. These lifetimes decrease with higher initial concentrations of CH2BrI. The concentration dependence highlights the role that intermolecular interactions can play in the quenching of unstable isomers of dihalomethanes.

  10. Significant evidence of CO and CC long-range contacts in several heterodimeric complexes of CO with CH3-X, should one refer to them as carbon and dicarbon bonds!

    PubMed

    Varadwaj, Pradeep R; Varadwaj, Arpita; Jin, Bih-Yaw

    2014-08-28

    Noncovalent interactions in 18 weakly bound binary complexes formed between either of the two end-on orientations of the CO molecule and the methylated carbon positive ?-hole associated with the hydrophobic part of the CH3-X molecules are exploited using the density functional theory to examine the physical chemistry of the recently introduced 'carbon bonds' (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 14377), where X = -NO2, -CN, -F, -Cl, -Br, -OH, -CF3, -CCl3, and -NH2. The two important types of interactions are identified as CO and CC, the latter has probably never studied before, and are found to be stabilized by charge-transfer delocalizations between the electron-acceptor and -donor natural bond orbitals of the interacting partners involved, unveiled using natural bond orbital analysis. Application of atoms in molecular theory revealed preferable quantum mechanical exchange-correlation energy channels and (3, -1) bond critical points (bcps) between the atoms of noncovalently bonded pairs in these complexes, in excellent agreement with the results of the noncovalent-interaction reduced-density-gradient (NCI-RDG) theory that revealed expected isosurfaces and troughs in the low density region of the RDG vs. sign(?2)? plots. The dependencies of the CO and CC bcp charge densities on their corresponding local energy densities, as well as on their corresponding bond electron delocalization indices are found to exhibit nontrivial roles of these topological descriptors to explain the stabilities of the investigated binary complexes. Moreover, the vibrational red- and blue-shifts in the CO bond stretching frequencies, and concomitant elongations and contractions of the corresponding bond lengths, both with respect to the monomer values, are observed upon the formation of the CO- and CC-bonded complexes, respectively. The increase and decrease in the complex dipole moments, relative to the sum of their respective monomer values, are found to be a characteristic that separates the aforementioned red- and blue-shifted interactions. In analogy with dihydrogen bonding, as well as that with the charge and electrostatic surface potential model descriptions, we suggest the CC interactions to be referred to as dicarbon bonds. PMID:25017184

  11. Protolytic Cleavage of Hg-C Bonds Induced by 1-Methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-selone: Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Mercury Complexes.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Joshua H; Parkin, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Multinuclear ((1)H, (77)Se, and (199)Hg) NMR spectroscopy demonstrates that 1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-selone, H(sebenzim(Me)), a structural analogue of the selenoamino acid, selenoneine, binds rapidly and reversibly to the mercury centers of HgX2 (X = Cl, Br, I), while X-ray diffraction studies provide evidence for the existence of adducts of composition [H(sebenzim(Me))]xHgX2 (X = Cl, x = 2, 3, 4; X = I, x = 2) in the solid state. H(sebenzim(Me)) also reacts with methylmercury halides, but the reaction is accompanied by elimination of methane resulting from protolytic cleavage of the Hg-C bond, an observation that is of relevance to the report that selenoneine demethylates CysHgMe, thereby providing a mechanism for mercury detoxification. Interestingly, the structures of [H(sebenzim(Me))]xHgX2 exhibit a variety of different hydrogen bonding patterns resulting from the ability of the N-H groups to form hydrogen bonds with chlorine, iodine, and selenium. PMID:25822075

  12. Cleavage of disulfide bonds leads to inactivation and degradation of the type IIa, but not type IIb sodium phosphate cotransporter expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Lambert, G; Traebert, M; Biber, J; Murer, H

    2000-07-15

    Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) reduces (cleaves) disulfide bonds of the renal proximal tubule type IIa Na/Pi- cotransporter (rat NaPi IIa) and thereby inhibits its function. We tested the effect of TCEP on the murine type IIa Na/P(i)-cotransporter and the corresponding IIb intestinal isoform both expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. After incubation with TCEP the function of NaPi IIa was inhibited and protein amount was decreased. Injection of the lysosomal inhibitor leupeptin prevented degradation of the protein. Exposure of oocytes to TCEP at 0 degrees C led to a reduction in transport function without concomitant loss in Na/Pi IIa protein. In contrast to NaPi type IIa, the type IIb isoform was neither inhibited, nor degraded after incubation with TCEP. These results suggest that cleavage of disulfide bonds led to changes within the confirmation of the type IIa transporter that result in (i) inhibition of the transport activity and (ii) internalization and subsequent lysosomal degradation of transporter protein. Sequence comparisons suggest the involvement/presence of different disulfide bonds in type IIa and type IIb Na/P(i)-cotransporters. PMID:10926679

  13. Peroxide-mediated selective cleavage of [60]fullerene skeleton bonds: towards the synthesis of open-cage fulleroid c55 o5.

    PubMed

    Gan, Liangbing

    2015-02-01

    Replacement of a pentagon in [60]fullerene with five oxygen atoms yields the open-cage compound C55 O5 with five carbonyl groups on the rim of the orifice. Our attempts to synthesize such a target molecule starting from C60 have led us to prepare the fullerene-mixed peroxides such as C60 (OO-t-Bu)6 with all the peroxo addends surrounding the same pentagon. Further investigations of the peroxide chemistry have generated various open-cage fullerene derivatives, including the carbon monoxide encapsulated endohedral compound CO@C59 O6 . This Personal Account mainly discusses peroxide-based processes resulting in selective cleavage of the fullerene skeleton bonds. PMID:25345399

  14. Hydrogen bonding constrains free radical reaction dynamics at serine and threonine residues in peptides.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel A; Sohn, Chang Ho; Gao, Jinshan; Beauchamp, J L

    2014-09-18

    Free radical-initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) mass spectrometry derives advantage from the introduction of highly selective low-energy dissociation pathways in target peptides. An acetyl radical, formed at the peptide N-terminus via collisional activation and subsequent dissociation of a covalently attached radical precursor, abstracts a hydrogen atom from diverse sites on the peptide, yielding sequence information through backbone cleavage as well as side-chain loss. Unique free-radical-initiated dissociation pathways observed at serine and threonine residues lead to cleavage of the neighboring N-terminal C?-C or N-C? bond rather than the typical C?-C bond cleavage observed with other amino acids. These reactions were investigated by FRIPS of model peptides of the form AARAAAXAA, where X is the amino acid of interest. In combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the experiments indicate the strong influence of hydrogen bonding at serine or threonine on the observed free radical chemistry. Hydrogen bonding of the side-chain hydroxyl group with a backbone carbonyl oxygen aligns the singly occupied ? orbital on the ?-carbon and the N-C? bond, leading to low-barrier ?-cleavage of the N-C? bond. Interaction with the N-terminal carbonyl favors a hydrogen-atom transfer process to yield stable c and z() ions, whereas C-terminal interaction leads to effective cleavage of the C?-C bond through rapid loss of isocyanic acid. Dissociation of the C?-C bond may also occur via water loss followed by ?-cleavage from a nitrogen-centered radical. These competitive dissociation pathways from a single residue illustrate the sensitivity of gas-phase free radical chemistry to subtle factors such as hydrogen bonding that affect the potential energy surface for these low-barrier processes. PMID:24605822

  15. On-line cleavage of disulfide bonds by soluble and immobilized tris-(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine using sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Mitani, Constantina; Anthemidis, Aristidis; Themelis, Demetrius G

    2012-07-15

    Reduction of disulfide bonds is - in many cases - a critical pretreatment step for the determination of thiols in real samples. This study reports the first systematic investigation of the potentials of the on-line reduction of disulfide bonds under flow conditions in a sequential injection setup. One of the most promising reducing agents, tris-(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) was selected for this purpose while the Ellman's disulfide (DTNB) was used as model compound. The study involved the investigation of several parameters that affected the kinetics and efficiency of the reaction, including stopped-flow experiments. Both soluble and immobilized TCEP on agarose beads were examined. The results confirmed that both forms of TCEP can be used as an advantageous on-line reducing reagent for disulfide bonds under flow conditions. PMID:22817922

  16. Anandamide hydrolysis in FAAH reveals a dual strategy for efficient enzyme-assisted amide bond cleavage via nitrogen inversion.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Campomanes, Pablo; Cavalli, Andrea; Rothlisberger, Ursula; De Vivo, Marco

    2015-01-22

    Herein, we combined classical molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations to unravel the whole catalytic cycle of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in complex with anandamide, the main neurotransmitters involved in the control of pain. While microsecond MD simulations of FAAH in a realistic membrane/water environment provided a solid model for the reactant state of the enzymatic complex (Palermo et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 1202-1213.), QM/MM simulations depict now a highly concerted two-step catalytic mechanism characterized by (1) acyl-enzyme formation after hydrolysis of the substrate amide bond and (2) deacylation reaction with restoration of the catalytic machinery. We found that a crucial event for anandamide hydrolysis is the inversion of the reactive nitrogen of the scissile amide bond, which occurs during the acylation rate-limiting step. We show that FAAH uses an exquisite catalytic strategy to induce amide bond distortion, reactive nitrogen inversion, and amide bond hydrolysis, promoting catalysis to completion. This new strategy is likely to be of general applicability to other amidases/peptidases that show similar catalytic site architectures, providing crucial insights for de novo enzyme design or drug discovery efforts. PMID:25205244

  17. Studies of hydrogen-hydrogen and carbon-sulfur bond cleavage: Progress report, August 1987July 1988. [((CpMo)(SCH)(. mu. -S)(. mu. SR))\\/sup +\\/

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DuBois

    1988-01-01

    Goal is to synthesize a series of cationic complexes of the general formula ((CpMo)(SCH)(..mu..-S)(..mu..-SR))\\/sup +\\/ and to study the reactivity of these complexes with hydrogen and with nucleophiles. Such reactions involve both the activation of hydrogen and the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and therefore provide relevant models for the reactivity of heterogeneous hydrodesulfurization catalysts.

  18. Selective benzylic and allylic alkylation of protic nucleophiles with sulfonamides through double Lewis acid catalyzed cleavage of sp3 carbon-nitrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong-Rong; Li, Man-Bo; Yang, Cui-Feng; Tian, Shi-Kai

    2009-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed benzylic and allylic alkylation of protic nucleophiles is fundamentally important for the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds, and it is a formidable challenge for benzylic and allylic amine derivatives to be used as the alkylating agents. Herein we report a highly efficient benzylic and allylic alkylation of protic carbon and sulfur nucleophiles with sulfonamides through double Lewis acid catalyzed cleavage of sp(3) carbon-nitrogen bonds at room temperature. In the presence of a catalytic amount of inexpensive ZnCl(2)-TMSCl (TMSCl: chlorotrimethylsilane), 1,3-diketones, beta-keto esters, beta-keto amides, malononitrile, aromatic compounds, thiols, and thioacetic acid can couple with a broad range of tosyl-activated benzylic and allylic amines to give diversely functionalized products in good to excellent yields and with high regioselectivity. Furthermore, the cross-coupling reaction of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with benzylic propargylic amine derivatives has been successfully applied to the one-step synthesis of polysubstituted furans and benzofurans. PMID:19035590

  19. Solvent dependent branching between C-I and C-Br bond cleavage following 266 nm excitation of CH2BrI.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher P; Spears, Kenneth G; Wilson, Kaitlynn R; Sension, Roseanne J

    2013-11-21

    It is well known that ultraviolet photoexcitation of halomethanes results in halogen-carbon bond cleavage. Each halogen-carbon bond has a dominant ultraviolet (UV) absorption that promotes an electron from a nonbonding halogen orbital (nX) to a carbon-halogen antibonding orbital (?*C-X). UV absorption into specific transitions in the gas phase results primarily in selective cleavage of the corresponding carbon-halogen bond. In the present work, broadband ultrafast UV-visible transient absorption studies of CH2BrI reveal a more complex photochemistry in solution. Transient absorption spectra are reported spanning the range from 275 nm to 750 nm and 300 fs to 3?ns following excitation of CH2BrI at 266 nm in acetonitrile, 2-butanol, and cyclohexane. Channels involving formation of CH2Br + I radical pairs, iso-CH2Br-I, and iso-CH2I-Br are identified. The solvent environment has a significant influence on the branching ratios, and on the formation and stability of iso-CH2Br-I. Both iso-CH2Br-I and iso-CH2I-Br are observed in cyclohexane with a ratio of ~2.8:1. In acetonitrile this ratio is 7:1 or larger. The observation of formation of iso-CH2I-Br photoproduct as well as iso-CH2Br-I following 266 nm excitation is a novel result that suggests complexity in the dissociation mechanism. We also report a solvent and concentration dependent lifetime of iso-CH2Br-I. At low concentrations the lifetime is >4 ns in acetonitrile, 1.9 ns in 2-butanol and ~1.4 ns in cyclohexane. These lifetimes decrease with higher initial concentrations of CH2BrI. The concentration dependence highlights the role that intermolecular interactions can play in the quenching of unstable isomers of dihalomethanes. PMID:24320326

  20. Solvent dependent branching between C-I and C-Br bond cleavage following 266 nm excitation of CH{sub 2}BrI

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher P.; Spears, Kenneth G.; Wilson, Kaitlynn R.; Sension, Roseanne J. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-21

    It is well known that ultraviolet photoexcitation of halomethanes results in halogen-carbon bond cleavage. Each halogen-carbon bond has a dominant ultraviolet (UV) absorption that promotes an electron from a nonbonding halogen orbital (n{sub X}) to a carbon-halogen antibonding orbital (?*{sub C-X}). UV absorption into specific transitions in the gas phase results primarily in selective cleavage of the corresponding carbon-halogen bond. In the present work, broadband ultrafast UV-visible transient absorption studies of CH{sub 2}BrI reveal a more complex photochemistry in solution. Transient absorption spectra are reported spanning the range from 275 nm to 750 nm and 300 fs to 3 ns following excitation of CH{sub 2}BrI at 266 nm in acetonitrile, 2-butanol, and cyclohexane. Channels involving formation of CH{sub 2}Br + I radical pairs, iso-CH{sub 2}Br-I, and iso-CH{sub 2}I-Br are identified. The solvent environment has a significant influence on the branching ratios, and on the formation and stability of iso-CH{sub 2}Br-I. Both iso-CH{sub 2}Br-I and iso-CH{sub 2}I-Br are observed in cyclohexane with a ratio of ?2.8:1. In acetonitrile this ratio is 7:1 or larger. The observation of formation of iso-CH{sub 2}I-Br photoproduct as well as iso-CH{sub 2}Br-I following 266 nm excitation is a novel result that suggests complexity in the dissociation mechanism. We also report a solvent and concentration dependent lifetime of iso-CH{sub 2}Br-I. At low concentrations the lifetime is >4 ns in acetonitrile, 1.9 ns in 2-butanol and ?1.4 ns in cyclohexane. These lifetimes decrease with higher initial concentrations of CH{sub 2}BrI. The concentration dependence highlights the role that intermolecular interactions can play in the quenching of unstable isomers of dihalomethanes.

  1. Heterolytic Cleavage of Hydrogen by an Iron Hydrogenase Model: An Fe-H - - - H-N Dihydorgen Bond Characterized by Neutron Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Wang, Xiaoping; Hoffmann, Christina; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2014-05-19

    Use of hydrogen as a fuel by [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes in nature requires heterolytic cleavage of the H-H bond into a proton (H+) and hydride (H-), a reaction that is also a critical step in homogeneous catalysts for hydrogenation of C=O and C=N bonds. An understanding of the catalytic oxidation of H2 by hydrogenases provides insights into the design of synthetic catalysts that are sought as cost-effective alternatives to the use of the precious metal platinum in fuel cells. Crystallographic studies on the [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzyme were critical to understanding of its reactivity, but the key H-H cleavage step is not readily observed experimentally in natural hydrogenases. Synthetic biomimics have provided evidence for H2 cleavage leading to hydride transfer to the metal and proton transfer to an amine. Limitations on the precise location of hydrogen atoms by x-ray diffraction can be overcome by use of neutron diffraction, though its use is severely limited by the difficulty of obtaining suitable crystals and by the scarcity of neutron sources. Here we show that an iron complex with a pendant amine in the diphosphine ligand cleaves hydrogen heterolytically under mild conditions, leading to [CpC5F4NFeH(PtBu2NtBu2H)]+BArF4-, [PtBu2NtBu2 = 1,5-di(tert-butyl)-3,7-di(tert-butyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; ArF = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]. The Fe-H- - - H-N moiety has a strong dihydrogen bond, with a remarkably short H H distance of 1.489(10) between the protic N-H?+ and hydridic Fe-H?-. The structural data for [CpC5F4NFeH(PtBu2NtBu2H)]+ provide a glimpse of how the H-H bond is oxidized or generated in hydrogenase enzymes, with the pendant amine playing a key role as a proton relay. The iron complex [CpC5F4NFeH(PtBu2NtBu2H)]+BArF4- is an electrocatalyst for oxidation of H2 (1 atm) at 22 C, so the structural data are obtained on a complex that is a functional model for catalysis by [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Geometric and Electronic Structure of [{Cu(MeAN)}2(?-?2:?2(O22?))]2+ with an Unusually Long OO Bond: OO Bond Weakening vs Activation for Reductive Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ga Young; Qayyum, Munzarin F.; Woertink, Julia; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Narducci Sarjeant, Amy A.; Solomon, Edward I.; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Certain side-on peroxo dicopper(II) species with particularly low ?OO (710730 cm?1) have been found in equilibrium with their bis-?-oxo dicopper(III) isomer. An issue is whether such side-on peroxo bridges are further activated for OO cleavage. In a previous study (Liang, H.-C., et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 41704171), we showed that oxygenation of the three-coordinate complex [CuI(MeAN)]+ (MeAN=N-methyl-N,N-bis[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]amine) leads to a low-temperature stable [{CuII(MeAN)}2(?-?2:?2-O22?)]2+ peroxo species with low ?OO (721 cm?1), as characterized by UV-Vis absorption and resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopies. Here, this complex has been crystallized as its SbF6? salt and an X-ray structure indicates the presence of an unusually long OO bond (1.540(5) ) consistent with the low ?OO. EXAFS and rR spectroscopic and reactivity studies indicate the exclusive formation of [{CuII(MeAN)}2(?-?2:?2-O22?)]2+ without any bis-?-oxo-dicopper(III) isomer present. This is the first structure of a side-on peroxo dicopper(II) species with a significantly long and weak OO bond. DFT calculations show that the weak OO bond results from strong ? donation from the MeAN ligand to Cu that is compensated by a decrease in the extent of peroxo to Cu charge transfer. Importantly, the weak OO bond does not reflect an increase in backbonding into the ?* orbital of the peroxide. Thus, although the OO bond is unusually weak, this structure is not further activated for reductive cleavage to form a reactive bis-?-oxo-dicopper(III) species. These results highlight the necessity of understanding electronic structure changes associated with spectral changes for correlations to reactivity. PMID:22571744

  3. Electron-deficient ruthenium and osmium complexes: From 14-electron species to C-F bond cleavage reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dejian

    1999-12-01

    Stepwise removal of the fluoride from RuRF(CO)L2 gives [RuR(CO)L 2]BAr'4 (L = PtBu 2Me, R = H, CH3, Ph, Ar' = 3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl). This 14-electron cation has a saw-horse shape with two bulky L trans and CO and R cis. The two vacant sites are in fact occupied weakly by C-H bonds from the phosphines. [RuH(CO)L2] + has a strong Lewis acidic but weakened ?- basic Ru center as it is illustrated by its reactivity pattern towards olefins and alkynes. While organic fluorocarbon is notorious for its inertness due to the strong C-F bond, the ?-C-F bond of a transition metal fluorocarbyl complex is activated. The chemistry in Chapter 3 illustrates this argument. Attempts to replace fluoride of MHF(CO)L2 with CF3 using Me 3SiCF3 do not give MH(CF3)(CO)L2, instead, M[HF(CF2)(CO)L2 is isolated. Fast equilibrium exists between RuHF(CF2)(CO)L2 and RuH(CF3)(CO)L 2 but not for OsHF(CF2)(CO)L2, which is converted to OsF2(CFH)(CO)L2 upon heating. In contrast, isomerization of RuHF(CF2)(CO)L2 gives RUF(CF2H)(CO)L 2.

  4. Organization of the BcgI restriction-modification protein for the cleavage of eight phosphodiester bonds in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel M.; Marshall, Jacqueline J. T.; Jacklin, Alistair J.; Retter, Susan E.; Halford, Stephen E.; Sobott, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Type IIB restriction-modification systems, such as BcgI, feature a single protein with both endonuclease and methyltransferase activities. Type IIB nucleases require two recognition sites and cut both strands on both sides of their unmodified sites. BcgI cuts all eight target phosphodiester bonds before dissociation. The BcgI protein contains A and B polypeptides in a 2:1 ratio: A has one catalytic centre for each activity; B recognizes the DNA. We show here that BcgI is organized as A2B protomers, with B at its centre, but that these protomers self-associate to assemblies containing several A2B units. Moreover, like the well known FokI nuclease, BcgI bound to its site has to recruit additional protomers before it can cut DNA. DNA-bound BcgI can alternatively be activated by excess A subunits, much like the activation of FokI by its catalytic domain. Eight A subunits, each with one centre for nuclease activity, are presumably needed to cut the eight bonds cleaved by BcgI. Its nuclease reaction may thus involve two A2B units, each bound to a recognition site, with two more A2B units bridging the complexes by proteinprotein interactions between the nuclease domains. PMID:23147005

  5. The Mechanism of SN2 Disulfide Bond Cleavage by Phosphorous Nucleophiles. Implications for Biochemical Disulfide Reducing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrenko, Olga; Thorpe, Colin; Bach, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    The B3LYP variant of DFT has been used to study the mechanism of S-S bond scission in dimethyl disulfide by phosphorus nucleophile, trimethylphospine (TMP). The reaction is highly endothermic in the gas phase and requires significant external stabilization of the charged products. DFT calculations (B3LYP) were performed with explicit (water molecules added) and implicit solvent corrections (COSMO model). The transition structures for this SN2 displacement reaction in a number of model systems have been located and fully characterized. The reaction barriers calculated with different approaches for different systems are quite close (around 11 kcal/mol). Remarkably, the calculations suggest, that the reaction is almost barrierless with respect to the pre-organized reaction complex and that the most of the activation energy is required to rearrange the disulfide and TMP to its most effective orientation for the SMe group transfer way. Different reactivities of different phosphorus nucleophiles were suggested to be the result of steric effects, as manifested largely by varying amounts of hindrance to solvation of the initial product phosphonium ion. These data indicate that the gas phase addition of a phosphine to the disulfide moiety will most likely form a phosphonium cation-thiolate anion salt, in the presence of four or more water molecules, that provide sufficient H-bonding stabilization to allow displacement of the thiolate anion, a normal uncomplicated SN2 transition state is to be expected. PMID:17914842

  6. Experimental and theoretical investigations of copper (I/II) complexes with triazine-pyrazole derivatives as ligands and their in situ C-N bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Xiao; Wang, Che; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Xin-Yu; Xing, Yong-Heng; Sun, Qiao

    2015-05-01

    Two copper complexes, Cu(SCN)(Mpz(?)T-(EtO)2) (1) (Mpz(?)T-(EtO)2=L3) and CuCl(H2O)(Mpz(?)T-O2) (2) (Mpz(?)T-O2=L4) were synthesized by the reaction of 2,4,6-tri(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (L1) or 2,4,6-tri(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (L2) with CuCl22H2O in anhydrous ethanol and methanol, respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction. The structural characterizations and quantum mechanical calculations of the two complexes were analyzed in detail. It was found that an in site reaction occurred during the synthesis process of complexes 1 and 2, likely due to catalytic property of copper ions which leads to the C-N bond cleavage to generate new organic species, namely, Mpz(?)T-(EtO)2 (L3) and Mpz(?)T-O2 (L4). PMID:25699694

  7. Mechanistic elucidation of the stepwise formation of a tetranuclear manganese pinned butterfly cluster via N-N bond cleavage, hydrogen atom transfer, and cluster rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Clifton R; Gau, Michael R; Baglia, Regina A; McWilliams, Sean F; Zdilla, Michael J

    2014-12-31

    A mechanistic pathway for the formation of the structurally characterized manganese-amide-hydrazide pinned butterfly complex, Mn4(?3-PhN-NPh-?(3)N,N')2(?-PhN-NPh-?(2)-N,N')(?-NHPh)2L4 (L = THF, py), is proposed and supported by the use of labeling studies, kinetic measurements, kinetic competition experiments, kinetic isotope effects, and hydrogen atom transfer reagent substitution, and via the isolation and characterization of intermediates using X-ray diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data support a formation mechanism whereby bis[bis(trimethylsilyl)amido]manganese(II) (Mn(NR2)2, where R = SiMe3) reacts with N,N'-diphenylhydrazine (PhNHNHPh) via initial proton transfer, followed by reductive N-N bond cleavage to form a long-lived Mn(IV) imido multinuclear complex. Coordinating solvents activate this cluster for abstraction of hydrogen atoms from an additional equivalent of PhNHNHPh resulting in a Mn(II)phenylamido dimer, Mn2(?-NHPh)2(NR2)2L2. This dimeric complex further assembles in fast steps with two additional equivalents of PhNHNHPh replacing the terminal silylamido ligands with ?(1)-hydrazine ligands to give a dimeric Mn2(?-NHPh)2(PhN-NHPh)2L4 intermediate, and finally, the addition of two additional equivalents of Mn(NR2)2 and PhNHNHPh gives the pinned butterfly cluster. PMID:25424971

  8. Chords: Em 022000 Em Em Em Em C C C C

    E-print Network

    Reiners, Peter W.

    Verse 1 Chorus Verse 2 Chorus Verse 3 Chords: Em 022000 C 035553 G 320002 F 133211 Intro: Em Em Em Em C C C C Em Em Em Em C C C C Em Em Em Em C C C C Em Em Em Em C C C C Verse: Em Em Em Em C C C C G G G G G G G G Em Em Em Em C C C C G G G G G G G G Em Em Em Em C C C C G G G G G G G G Em Em Em Em C C

  9. Enantioselective conversion of primary alcohols to ?-exo-methylene ?-butyrolactones via iridium-catalyzed C-C bond-forming transfer hydrogenation: 2-(alkoxycarbonyl)allylation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, T Patrick; Hassan, Abbas; Park, Boyoung Y; Krische, Michael J

    2012-07-11

    Upon exposure of acrylic ester 1 to alcohols 2a-i in the presence of a cyclometalated iridium catalyst modified by (-)-TMBTP, catalytic C-C coupling occurs, providing enantiomerically enriched 5-substituted ?-exo-methylene ?-butyrolactones 3a-i. Bromination of the methylene butyrolactone products followed by zinc-mediated reductive aldehyde addition provides the disubstituted ?-exo-methylene ?-butyrolactones 6a and 6b with good to excellent levels of diastereoselectivity. PMID:22734694

  10. Studies of hydrogen-hydrogen and carbon-sulfur bond cleavage: Progress report, August 1987-July 1988. [((CpMo)/sub 2/(S/sub 2/CH/sub 2/)(. mu. -S)(. mu. -SR))/sup +/

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Goal is to synthesize a series of cationic complexes of the general formula ((CpMo)/sub 2/(S/sub 2/CH/sub 2/)(..mu..-S)(..mu..-SR))/sup +/ and to study the reactivity of these complexes with hydrogen and with nucleophiles. Such reactions involve both the activation of hydrogen and the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and therefore provide relevant models for the reactivity of heterogeneous hydrodesulfurization catalysts.

  11. Reactivity of triruthenium thiophyne and furyne clusters: competitive S-C and P-C bond cleavage reactions and the generation of highly unsymmetrical alkyne ligands.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Begum, Noorjahan; Hassan, Mohammad R; Hogarth, Graeme; Kabir, Shariff E; Miah, Md Arzu; Nordlander, Ebbe; Tocher, Derek A

    2008-11-28

    The synthesis and reactivity of the thiophyne and furyne clusters [Ru3(CO)7(mu-dppm)(mu3-eta2-C4H2E)(mu-P(C4H3E)2)(mu-H)] (E = S, O) is reported. Addition of P(C4H3E)3 to [Ru3(CO)10(mu-dppm)] (1) at room temperature in the presence of Me3NO gives simple substitution products [Ru3(CO)9(mu-dppm)(P(C4H3E)3)] (E = S, 2; E = O, 3). Mild thermolysis in the presence of further Me3NO affords the thiophyne and furyne complexes [Ru3(CO)7(mu-dppm)(mu3-eta2-C4H2E)(mu-P(C4H3E)2)(mu-H)] (E = S, 4; E = O, 6) resulting from both carbon-hydrogen and carbon-phosphorus bond activation. In each the C4H2E (E = S, O) ligand donates 4-electrons to the cluster and the rings are tilted with respect to the mu-dppm and the phosphido-bridged open triruthenium unit. Heating 4 at 80 degrees C leads to the formation of the ring-opened cluster [Ru3(CO)5(mu-CO)(mu-dppm)(mu3-eta3-SC4H3)(mu-P(C4H3S)2)] (5) resulting from carbon-sulfur bond scission and carbon-hydrogen bond formation and containing a ring-opened mu3-eta3-1-thia-1,3-butadiene ligand. In contrast, a similar thermolysis of 3 affords the phosphinidene cluster [Ru3(CO)7(mu-dppm)(mu3-eta2-C4H2O)(mu3-P(C4H3O))] (7) resulting from a second phosphorus-carbon bond cleavage and (presumably) elimination of furan. Treatment of 4 and 6 with PPh3 affords the simple phosphine-substituted products [Ru3(CO)6(PPh3)(mu-dppm)(mu3-eta2-C4H2E)(mu-P(C4H3E)2)(mu-H)] (E = S, 8; E = O, 9). Both thiophyne and furyne clusters 4 and 6 readily react with hydrogen bromide to give [Ru3(CO)6Br(mu-Br)(mu-dppm)(mu3-eta2-eta1-C4H2E)(mu-P(C4H3E)2)(mu-H)] (E = S, 10; E = O, 11) containing both terminal and bridging bromides. Here the alkynes bind in a highly unsymmetrical manner with one carbon acting as a bridging alkylidene and the second as a terminally bonded Fisher carbene. As far as we are aware, this binding mode has only previously been noted in ynamine complexes or those with metals in different oxidation states. The crystal structures of seven of these new triruthenium clusters have been carried out, allowing a detailed analysis of the relative orientations of coordinated ligands. PMID:18985255

  12. Rapid carbon-carbon bond formation and cleavage revealed by carbon isotope exchange between the carboxyl carbon and inorganic carbon in hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glein, C. R.; Cody, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of organic compounds in water-rock systems (e.g., hydrothermal vents, sedimentary basins, and carbonaceous meteorites) is generally interpreted in terms of the isotopic composition of the sources of such molecules, and the kinetic isotope effects of metabolic or abiotic reactions that generate or transform such molecules. This hinges on the expectation that the carbon isotopic composition of many organic compounds is conserved under geochemical conditions. This expectation is reasonable in light of the strength of carbon-carbon bonds (ca. 81 kcal/mol); in general, environmental conditions conducive to carbon-carbon bond cleavage typically lead to transformations of organic molecules (decarboxylation is a notable example). Geochemically relevant reactions that involve isotopic exchange between carbon atoms in organic molecules and inorganic forms of carbon with no change in molecular structure appear to be rare. Notwithstanding such rarity, there have been preliminary reports of relatively rapid carbon isotope exchange between the carboxyl group in carboxylic acids and carbon dioxide in hot water [1,2]. We have performed laboratory hydrothermal experiments to gain insights into the mechanism of this surprising reaction, using phenylacetate as a model structure. By mass spectrometry, we confirm that the carboxyl carbon undergoes facile isotopic exchange with 13C-labeled bicarbonate at moderate temperatures (i.e., 230 C). Detailed kinetic analysis reveals that the reaction rate is proportional to the concentrations of both reactants. Further experiments demonstrate that the exchange reaction only occurs if the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxyl carbon is bonded to a hydrogen atom. As an example, no carbon isotope exchange was observed for benzoate in experiments lasting up to one month. The requirement of an alpha C-H bond suggests that enolization (i.e., deprotonation of the H) is a critical step in the mechanism of the exchange reaction. We confirmed this by determining the exchange kinetics for various ring-substituted phenylacetates, and we find that the observed rate constants are consistent with the amount of negative charge that would be expected on the alpha carbon of the enolate. The emerging picture of the reaction mechanism is that enolization allows fixation of labeled carbon dioxide as a beta-carboxy group, where subsequent heterolytic decarboxylation of the unlabeled carboxy group completes the exchange process. Solvent stabilization of ionic reaction intermediates would lead to faster than expected rates of exchange, and ultimately to an isotopic equilibrium over even short geologic timescales. For enolizable carboxylic acids in natural systems, one has to consider this exchange mechanism when interpreting the carbon isotopic composition. [1] Dias R.F. (2000) Ph.D. Dissertation, Penn. State Univ. [2] Seewald J.S. & Boekelheide N. (2005) Goldschmidt Conf., A558.

  13. Formation of a dinuclear copper(II) complex through the cleavage of CN bond of 1-benzoyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shardin, Rosidah; Pui, Law Kung; Yamin, Bohari M.; Kassim, Mohammad B.

    2014-09-01

    A simple mononuclear octahedral copper(II) complex was attempted from the reaction of three moles of 1-benzoyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole and one mole of copper(II) perchlorate hexahydrate in methanol. However, the product of the reaction was confirmed to be a dinuclear copper(II) complex with ?-{3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato} and 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole ligands attached to each of the Cu(II) centre atom. The copper(II) ion assisted the cleavage of the CbenzoylN bond afforded a 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole molecule. Deprotonation of the 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole gave a 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato, which subsequently reacted with the Cu(II) ion to give the {3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato}{3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole}Cu(II) product moiety. The structure of the dinuclear complex was confirmed by x-ray crystallography. The complex crystallized in a monoclinic crystal system with P2(1)/n space group and cell dimensions of a = 12.2029(8) , b = 11.4010(7) , c = 14.4052(9) and ? = 102.414(2). The compound was further characterized by mass spectrometry, CHN elemental analysis, infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy and the results concurred with the x-ray structure. The presence of d-d transition at 671 nm (? = 116 dm3 mol-1 cm-1) supports the presence of Cu(II) centres.

  14. Formation of a dinuclear copper(II) complex through the cleavage of CN bond of 1-benzoyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole

    SciTech Connect

    Shardin, Rosidah; Pui, Law Kung; Yamin, Bohari M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Kassim, Mohammad B. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    A simple mononuclear octahedral copper(II) complex was attempted from the reaction of three moles of 1-benzoyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole and one mole of copper(II) perchlorate hexahydrate in methanol. However, the product of the reaction was confirmed to be a dinuclear copper(II) complex with ?-(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato) and 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole ligands attached to each of the Cu(II) centre atom. The copper(II) ion assisted the cleavage of the C{sub benzoyl}N bond afforded a 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole molecule. Deprotonation of the 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole gave a 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato, which subsequently reacted with the Cu(II) ion to give the (3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato)(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole)Cu(II) product moiety. The structure of the dinuclear complex was confirmed by x-ray crystallography. The complex crystallized in a monoclinic crystal system with P2(1)/n space group and cell dimensions of a = 12.2029(8) , b = 11.4010(7) , c = 14.4052(9) and ? = 102.414(2). The compound was further characterized by mass spectrometry, CHN elemental analysis, infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy and the results concurred with the x-ray structure. The presence of d-d transition at 671 nm (? = 116 dm{sup 3} mol{sup ?1} cm{sup ?1}) supports the presence of Cu(II) centres.

  15. Sequence-Specific Ultrasonic Cleavage of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Grokhovsky, Sergei L.; Il'icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Golovkin, Michail V.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the phenomenon of ultrasonic cleavage of DNA by analyzing a large set of cleavage patterns of DNA restriction fragments using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The cleavage intensity of individual phosphodiester bonds was found to depend on the nucleotide sequence and the position of the bond with respect to the ends of the fragment. Therelative intensities of cleavage of the central phosphodiester bond in 16 dinucleotides and 256 tetranucleotides were determined by multivariate statistical analysis. We observed a remarkable enhancement of the mean values of the relative intensities of cleavage (cleavage rates) in phosphodiester bonds following deoxycytidine, which diminished in the row of dinucleotides: d(CpG)> d(CpA) > d(CpT) >> d(CpC). The cleavage rates for all pairs of complementary dinucleotides were significantly different from each other. The effect of flanking nucleotides in tetranucleotides on cleavage rates of all 16 types of central dinucleotides was also statistically significant. The sequence-dependent ultrasonic cleavage rates of dinucleotides are consistent with reported data on the intensity of the conformational motion of their 5?-deoxyribose. As a measure of local conformational dynamics, cleavage rates may be useful for characterizing functional regions of the genome. PMID:21190663

  16. Class I pathway Prediction of proteasomal cleavage and

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Class I pathway Prediction of proteasomal cleavage and TAP binding #12;Peptide generation" Eric Ritts #12;Proteasomal cleavage ~30% of all peptide bonds are cleaved Average peptide length 4-5 amino acids Not all peptide bonds are equally likely cleaved Cleavage more likely after hydrophobic

  17. A new mode of activation of CO2 by metal-ligand cooperation with reversible C-C and M-O bond formation at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Matthias; Gargir, Moti; Iron, Mark A; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2012-07-23

    Team work: Although CO(2) binding to metal centers usually involves ? coordination to a C=O group or ? bonds to the carbon or oxygen atom of the CO(2) molecule, a new mode of metal-ligand cooperative activation of CO(2) to a ruthenium PNP pincer complex involving aromatization/dearomatization steps is presented in experimental and theoretical studies (see scheme). PMID:22736579

  18. Determination of effective potentials for the stretching of C? ? C? virtual bonds in polypeptide chains for coarse-grained simulations of proteins from ab initio energy surfaces of N-methylacetamide and N-acetylpyrrolidine

    PubMed Central

    Sieradzan, Adam K.; Scheraga, Harold A.; Liwo, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The potentials of mean force (PMFs) for the deformation of the C? ? C? virtual bonds in polypeptide chains were determined from the diabatic energy surfaces of N-methylacetamide (modeling regular peptide groups) and N-acetylpyrrolidine (modeling the peptide groups preceding proline), calculated at the Mller-Plesset (MP2) ab initio level of theory with the 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The energy surfaces were expressed in the C? ? C? virtual-bond length (d) and the H-N-C? ? C? improper dihedral angle (?) that describes the pyramidicity of the amide nitrogen, or in the C?-C?(O)-N-C? dihedral angle (?) and the angle ?. For each grid point, the potential energy was minimized with respect to all remaining degrees of freedom. The PMFs obtained from the (d, ?) energy surfaces produced realistic free-energy barriers to the trans-cis transition (10 kcal/mol and 13 kcal/mol for the regular and proline peptide groups, respectively, compared to 12.6 13.9 kcal/mol and 17.3 19.6 kcal/mol determined experimentally for glycylglycine and N-acylprolines, respectively), while those obtained from the (?, ?) energy maps produced either low-quality PMF curves when direct Boltzmann summation was implemented to compute the PMFs or too-flat curves with too-low free-energy barriers to the trans-cis transition if harmonic extrapolation was used to estimate the contributions to the partition function. An analytical bimodal logarithmic-Gaussian expression was fitted to the PMFs, and the potentials were implemented in the UNRES force field. Test Langevin-dynamics simulations were carried out for the Gly-Gly and Gly-Pro dipeptides, which showed a 106-fold increase of the simulated rate of the trans-cis isomerization with respect to that measured experimentally; effectively the same result was obtained with the analytical Kramers theory of reaction rate applied to the UNRES representation of the peptide groups. Application of Kramers theory to compute the rate constants from the all-atom ab initio energy surfaces of the model compounds studied resulted in isomerization rates close to the experimental values, which demonstrates that the increase of the isomerization rate in UNRES simulations results solely from averaging out the secondary degrees of freedom. PMID:23087598

  19. Reactivity of [Fe 2(CO) 6(?-CO)(?-dppm)] towards unsaturated sulfur-containing compounds, SO 2, CS 2 and ArNCS: facile carbonsulfur bond cleavage at the diiron centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme Hogarth; Mark H Lavender; Khalid Shukri

    2000-01-01

    Photolysis of [Fe2(CO)6(?-CO)(?-dppm)] (1) with SO2, CS2 and ArNCS leads to the formation of [Fe2(CO)6(?-SO2)(?-dppm)] (2), [Fe4(CO)10(?3-S)(?-CS)(?-dppm)2] (3), [Fe2(CO)3(CNAr){?-SC(NAr)C(O)S}(?-dppm)] (45) and [Fe2(CO)4{?-SC(N-p-tolyl)C(O)S}(?-dppm)] (6), respectively. Complex 2 is a simple CO substitution product, while in 3 carbonsulfur cleavage and coupling of diiron units has occurred. Dithiolate-bridged 46 also result from carbonsulfur bond cleavage of one isothiocyanate and coupling of the sulfur

  20. Hydrogen migration and CC bond breaking in 1,3-butadiene in intense laser fields studied by coincidence momentum imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huailiang Xu; Tomoya Okino; Katsunori Nakai; Kaoru Yamanouchi; Stefan Roither; Xinhua Xie; Daniil Kartashov; Markus Schffler; Andrius Baltuska; Markus Kitzler

    2010-01-01

    Two-body dissociation processes of H2CCHCHCH22+ induced by an intense laser field were investigated by the coincidence momentum imaging method. Four dissociation pathways, C4H62+?CH2++C3H4+, C4H62+?CH3++C3H3+, C4H62+?C2H3++C2H3+ and C4H62+?C2H2++C2H4+, were identified. The existence of the second and fourth pathways can be regarded as evidences of the chemical bond rearrangement processes associated with hydrogen migration in the intense laser field. It was found

  1. Synthetic approaches to (smif)2Ti (smif = 1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl) reveal redox non-innocence and C-C bond-formation.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Brenda A; Wolczanski, Peter T; Keresztes, Ivan; DeBeer, Serena; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Pierpont, Aaron W; Cundari, Thomas R

    2012-08-01

    Attempted syntheses of (smif)(2)Ti (smif =1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl) based on metatheses of TiCl(n)L(m) (n = 2-4) with M(smif) (M = Li, Na), in the presence of a reducing agent (Na/Hg) when necessary, failed, but several apparent Ti(II) species were identified by X-ray crystallography and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy: (smif){Li(smif-smif)}Ti (1, X-ray), [(smif)Ti](2)(?-?(3),?(3)-N,N(py)(2)-smif,smif) (2), (smif)Ti(?(3)-N,N(py)(2)-smif,(smif)H) (3), and (smif)Ti(dpma) (4, dpma = di-2-pyridylmethyl-amide). NMR spectroscopy and K-edge XAS showed that each compound possesses ligands that are redox noninnnocent, such that d(1) Ti(III) centers AF-couple to ligand radicals: (smif){Li(smif-smif)(2-)}Ti(III) (1), [(smif(2-))Ti(III)](2)(?-?(3),?(3)-N,N(py)(2)-smif,smif) (2), [(smif(2-))Ti(III)](?(3)-N,N(py)(2)-smif,(smif)H) (3), and (smif(2-))Ti(III)(dpma) (4). The instability of (smif)(2)Ti relative to its C-C coupled dimer, 2, is rationalized via the complementary nature of the amide and smif radical dianion ligands, which are also common to 3 and 4. Calculations support this contention. PMID:22830452

  2. Synthetic Approaches to (smif)2Ti (smif = 1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl) Reveal Redox Non-Innocence and C-C Bond-Formation

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Brenda A.; Wolczanski, Peter T.; Keresztes, Ivan; DeBeer, Serena; Lobkovsky, Emil B.; Pierpont, Aaron W.; Cundari, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Attempted syntheses of (smif)2Ti (smif = 1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl) based on metatheses of TiClnLm (n = 24) with M(smif) (M = Li, Na), in the presence of a reducing agent (Na/Hg) when necessary, failed, but several apparent Ti(II) species were identified by X-ray crystallography and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy: (smif){Li(smif-smif)}Ti (1, X-ray), [(smif)Ti]2(?-?3,?3-N,N(py)2-smif,smif) (2), (smif)Ti(?3-N,N(py)2-smif,(smif)H) (3), and (smif)Ti(dpma) (4). NMR spectroscopy and K-edge XAS showed that each compound possesses ligands that are redox non-innnocent, such that d1 Ti(III) centers AF-couple to ligand radicals: (smif){Li(smif-smif)2?}TiIII (1), [(smif2?)TiIII]2(?-?3,?3-N,N(py)2-smif,smif) (2), [(smif2?)TiIII](?3-N,N(py)2-smif,(smif)H) (3), and (smif2?)TiIII(dpma) (4). The instability of the (smif)2Ti relative to its C-C coupled dimer, 2, is rationalized via the complementary nature of the amide and smif radical anion ligands, which are also common to 3 and 4. Calculations support this contention. PMID:22830452

  3. Exclusive selectivity in the one-pot formation of C-C and C-Se bonds involving Ni-catalyzed alkyne hydroselenation: optimization of the synthetic procedure and a mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Nikolay V; Chistyakov, Igor V; Khemchyan, Levon L; Ananikov, Valentine P; Beletskaya, Irina P; Starikova, Zoya A

    2014-12-19

    A unique Ni-catalyzed transformation is reported for the one-pot highly selective synthesis of previously unknown monoseleno-substituted 1,3-dienes starting from easily available terminal alkynes and benzeneselenol. The combination of a readily available catalyst precursor, Ni(acac)2, and an appropriately tuned phosphine ligand, PPh2Cy, resulted in the exclusive assembly of the s-gauche diene skeleton via the selective formation of C-C and C-Se bonds. The unusual diene products were stable under regular experimental conditions, and the products maintained the s-gauche geometry both in the solid state and in solution, as confirmed by X-ray analysis and NMR spectroscopy. Thorough mechanistic studies using ESI-MS revealed the key Ni-containing species involved in the reaction. PMID:25288369

  4. Methanol conversion to hydrocarbons over zeolite H-ZSM-5: Investigation of the role of CO and ketene in the formation of the initial C-C bond

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, G.J.; Johnston, P. (Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)); Hunter, R. (Univ. of Cape Town, Rondesbosch (South Africa)); Van Rensburg, L.J. (Univ. of Witwatersrand (South Africa))

    1993-08-01

    Mechanistic studies concerning the formation of the initial carbon-carbon bond in the methanol conversion reaction over zeolite H-ZSM-5 are described and discussed. In particular, the possible roles of CO as a reaction intermediate or as a catalyst, via the formation of ketene, are evaluated. Experiments using [sup 13]CH[sub 3]OH/[sup 12]CO reactant mixtures demonstrate that no CO is incorporated into ethene, the primary product of this reaction. In addition, CO is found to have no significant effect on the induction period for this reaction. Model experiments for the methylation of ketene by reaction with Me[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and Me[sub 3]O[sup +]SbCl[sub 6][sup [minus

  5. A Tungsten Complex with a Bidentate, Hemilabile N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand, Facile Displacement of the Weakly Bound W-(C=C) Bond, and the Vulnerability of the NHC Ligand Toward Catalyst Deactivation During Ketone Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Fan; Dioumaev, Vladimir K.; Szalda, David J.; Hanson, Jonathan; Bullock, R. Morris

    2007-09-24

    The initial reaction observed between N-heterocyclic carbene IMes (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene) and molybdenum and tungsten hydride complexes CpM(CO)2(PPh3)H (M = Mo, W) is deprotonation of the metal hydride by IMes, giving [(IMes)H]+[CpM(CO)2(PPh3)] . At longer reaction times and higher temperatures, the reaction of IMes with CpM(CO)2(PR3)H (M = Mo, W; R = Me, Ph) produces CpM(CO)2(IMes)H. Hydride transfer from CpW(CO)2(IMes)H to Ph3C+B(C6F5)4- gives CpW(CO)2(IMes)+B(C6F5)4- which was crystallographically characterized using x-ray radiation from a synchrotron. The IMes is bonded as a bidentate ligand, through the carbon of the carbene as well as forming a weak bond from the metal to a C=C bond of one mesityl ring. The weakly bound C=C ligand is hemilabile, being readily displaced by H2, THF, ketones or alcohols. Reaction of CpW(CO)2(IMes)+ with H2 gives the dihydride complex [CpW(CO)2(IMes)(H)2]+. Addition of Et2CHOH to CpW(CO)2(IMes)+B(C6F5)4- gives the alcohol complex [CpM(CO)2(IMes)(Et2CHOH)]+[B(C6F5)4] which was characterized by crystallography and exhibits no evidence for hydrogen bonding of the bound OH group. Addition of H2 to the ketone complex [CpW(CO)2(IMes)(Et2C=O)]+[B(C6F5)4] produces an equilibrium with the dihydride [CpW(CO)2(IMes)(H)2]+ (Keq = 1.1 ? 103 at 25 C). The tungsten ketone complex [CpW(CO)2(IMes)(Et2C=O)]+[B(C6F5)4] serves as a modest catalyst for hydrogenation of Et2C=O to Et2CHOH in neat ketone solvent. Decomposition of the catalyst produces [H(IMes)]+B(C6F5)4-, indicating that these catalysts with N-heterocyclic carbenes ligands are vulnerable to decomposition by a reaction that produces a protonated imidazolium cation.

  6. Mechanistic study on the cleavage and reorganization of C(sp3)-H and C=N bonds in carbodiimides: synthesis of 1,2-dihydrothiopyrimidines and 2,3-dihydropyrimidinthiones through four-component coupling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Fei; Zhou, Yi; Chi, Yue; Wang, Zitao; Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Xi, Zhenfeng

    2013-08-01

    This study sheds light on the cleavage and reorganization of C(sp(3))-H and C=N bonds of carbodiimides in a three-component reaction of terminal alkynes, sulfur, and carbodiimides by a combination of methods including 1)?isolation and X-ray analysis of six-membered-ring lithium species 2-S, 2)?trapping of the oxygen-analogues (B-O and D-O) of both four-membered-ring intermediate B-S and ring-opening intermediate D-S, 3)?deuterium labeling studies, and 4)?theoretical studies. These results show that 1)?the reaction rate-determining step is [2+2] cycloaddition, 2)?the C=N bond cleavage takes place before C(sp(3))-H bond cleavage, 3)?the hydrogen attached to C6 in 2-S originates from the carbodiimide, and 4)?three types of new aza-heterocycles, such as 1,2-dihydrothiopyrimidines, N-acyl 2,3-dihydropyrimidinthiones, and 1,2-dihydropyrimidinamino acids are constructed efficiently based on 2-S. All results strongly support the idea that the reaction proceeds through [2+2] cycloaddition/4? electrocyclic ring-opening/1,5-H shift/6? electrocyclic ring-closing as key steps. The research strategy on the synthesis, isolation, and reactivity investigation of important intermediates in metal-mediated reactions not only helps achieve an in-depth understanding of reaction mechanisms but also leads to the discovery of new synthetically useful reactions based on the important intermediates. PMID:23821475

  7. Reactions of heteronuclear dimetalated olefin complexes. Reactions of CpFe-(CO){sub 2}[{mu}-(Z)-(MeO{sub 2}C)C=C(CO{sub 2}Me)]Re -(CO){sub 4} with CO and p-tolyl isothiocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.D.; Huang, M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Addition of CO to the dimetalated olefin complex CpFe(CO){sub 2} [{mu}-(Z)-(MeO{sub 2}C)C=C(CO{sub 2}Me)]-Re(CO){sub 4}, 1, at 25{degree}C/700 psi of CO resulted in the formation of the adduct CpFe(CO){sub 2}[{mu}-(E)-(MeO{sub 2}C)C=C(CO{sub 2}Me)]-Re(CO){sub 5} , 2, in 52% yield by cleavage of the Re-O bond to the coordinated carboxylate group. In contrast the reaction of 1 with CO at 70{degree}C/ 900 psi of CO provided the new compound CpFe(CO){sub 2} [{mu}-(Z)-C=O(MeO{sub 2}C)C=C(CO{sub 2}Me)]-Re(CO){sub 4}, 3, in 77% yield. Compounds 2 and 3 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 2 is a Z-dimetalated olefin formed by addition of CO to the Re(CO){sub 4} group in 1, C-C = 1. 35(1) Hi. Compound 3 is an isomer of 2 in which a CO was added to 1 and inserted into the iron-carbon bond to the alkyne. Compound 1 reacts with EtNH{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O to yield the new compound CpFe(CO){sub 2}[(MeO{sub 2}C)C=C(CO{sub 2}Me)(H)], 6, by the cleavage of the rhenium grouping from the molecule. The reaction with H{sub 2}O is catalyzed by silica gel. 22 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Access to N-Thioalkenyl and N-(o-Thio)aryl-benzimidazol-2-ones by Ring Opening of Thiazolobenzimidazolium and Benzimidazobenzothiazolium Salts and C-O Bond Cleavage of an Alkoxide.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Federico; Kaid-Slimane, Radia; Coppola, Fabien; Farran, Daniel; Roussel, Christian; Vanthuyne, Nicolas

    2015-03-20

    We report herein the synthesis of highly functionalized 1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-ones via a ring opening of thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazolium or benzimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazol-6-ium salts and an unusual C-O bond cleavage of an alkoxide. A large variety of benzimidazolones bearing an original N-thioalkenyl or N-(o-thio)aryl group was obtained in high yields. The developed chemistry provides efficient and rapid access to the privileged benzimidazol-2-one scaffold. PMID:25723903

  9. Kinetic and Structural Insight into the Mechanism of BphD, a C-C Bond Hydrolase from the Biphenyl Degradation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Horsman, Geoff P.; Ke, Jiyuan; Dai, Shaodong; Seah, Stephen Y. K.; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2008-01-01

    Kinetic and structural analyses of 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) hydrolase from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphDLB400) provide insight into the catalytic mechanism of this unusual serine hydrolase. Single turnover stopped-flow analysis at 25 C showed that the enzyme rapidly (1/?1 ? 500 s?1) transforms HOPDA (?max = 434 nm) to a species with electronic absorption maxima at 473 and 492 nm. The absorbance of this enzyme-bound species (E:S) decayed in a biphasic manner (1/?2 = 54 s?1, 1/?3 = 6 s?1 ? kcat) with simultaneous biphasic appearance (48 and 8 s?1) of an absorbance band at 270 nm characteristic of one of the products, 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoic acid (HPD). Increasing solution viscosity with glycerol slowed 1/?1 and 1/?2, but affected neither 1/?3 nor kcat, suggesting that 1/?2 may reflect diffusive HPD dissociation, while 1/?3 represents an intramolecular event. Product inhibition studies suggested that the other product, benzoate, is released after HPD. Contrary to studies in a related hydrolase, we found no evidence that ketonized HOPDA is partially released prior to hydrolysis, and therefore postulate that the biphasic kinetics reflect one of two mechanisms, pending assignment of E:S (?max = 492 nm). Crystal structures of wild type, the S112C variant, and S112C incubated with HOPDA were each determined to 1.6 resolution. The latter reveals interactions between conserved active site residues and the dienoate moiety of the substrate. Most notably, the catalytic residue His265 is hydrogen-bonded to the 2-hydroxy/oxo substituent of HOPDA, consistent with a role in catalyzing ketonization. The data are more consistent with an acyl-enzyme mechanism than with the formation of a gem-diol intermediate. PMID:16964968

  10. Design of electrochemical detection of thiols based on the cleavage of the disulfide bond coupled with thionine modified gold nanoparticle-assisted amplification.

    PubMed

    Hun, Xu; Sun, Wei; Zhu, Huanhuan; Du, Feng; Liu, Fang; Xu, Yaqiong; He, Yunhua

    2013-10-25

    A new strategy for the electrochemical detection of thiols based on the disulfide cleavage combined with gold nanoparticle (AuNP) assisted signal amplification and an AuNP and graphene (GR) and ionic liquid (IL) modified carbon paste electrode (AuNP/GR/CILE). A superior detection limit of 0.4 pM toward glutathione could be achieved. PMID:24018771

  11. Chemical and quantum mechanical studies of the free radical C-C bond formation in the lipoxygenase-catalyzed dimerisation of octodeca-9,12-diynoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, W F; van Lenthe, J H; Blomsma, E J; Van der Kerk-Van Hoof, A C; Veldink, G A; Vliegenthart, J F

    1997-01-01

    Triple bond analogues of poly-unsaturated fatty acids are well-known inactivators of lipoxygenases. In an earlier study we proposed that, since 11-oxo-octadeca-9,12-diynoic acid (11-oxo-ODYA) is the only oxygenated product formed during the irreversible inactivation of soybean lipoxygenase-1, the inactivation should proceed via a C11 centered octadeca-9,12-diynoic acid radical (ODYA radical). In the present study we investigated the lipoxygenase-catalysed formation of the ODYA radical. In the reaction of lipoxygenase with ODYA in the absence of dioxygen and in the presence of 13(S)-hydroperoxy-octadeca-9Z, 11E-dienoic acid (13-HPOD), free ODYA radicals were formed which resulted in the formation of three dimeric ODYA products in which one ODYA moiety is linked via its C9 (12%), C11 (72%) or C13 (16%) to the C11 methylene of the other ODYA moiety. With the ab initio Hartree-Fock method, using the 2,5-heptadiynyl radical as a model compound, the electron spin in the ODYA radical was calculated to be located for 12.0, 75.0 and 12.0% on carbon atoms C9, C11 and C13 of the ODYA radical, respectively. The ODYA-ODYA dimer formation could thus be explained on the basis of the electron spin distribution in the ODYA radical. The dimer formation, i. e. reaction of an ODYA radical with an ODYA molecule was compared with the reaction of the ODYA radical with dioxygen. On the basis of this comparison it is concluded that a) the ODYA dimer formation occurs at the carbon atom with the highest electron spin population; b) ODYA dimer formation is predominantly a kinetically determined process; c) the electron spin distribution in the ODYA radical can be used to predict the composition of the dimer mixture; and d) the regiospecific oxygen addition in the formation of 11-oxo-ODYA is enzymatically controlled. PMID:9034248

  12. Theoretical studies of the solvent effect on the conformation of the HO-C-C-X (X = F, NH2, NO2) moiety with competing intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter I

    2012-07-26

    Theoretical calculations up to the ab initio IEF-PCM/CCSD(T)/CBS//IEF-PCM/B3LYP/6-311++G** and IEF-PCM/B97D/aug-cc-pvtz levels have been performed for 2X-ethanol and 2X-phenol systems with X = F, NH(2), NO(2) in chloroform and aqueous solution. The calculated relative free energies by means of the IEF-PCM continuum dielectric method do not differ very much at the DFT and ab initio levels. Application of explicit solvent models and the FEP/MC method for determining relative solvation free energies causes, however, large deviations in the predicted equilibrium compositions, although the predominant conformation for the solute is generally in agreement with that from the corresponding IEF-PCM calculations. Existence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond (HB structure) for species with the HO-C-C-X moiety is preferred compared with a conformation when the hydrogen bond is disrupted (NoHB) for the considered F- and NO(2)-substituted molecules both in chloroform and aqueous solution. For 2NH(2)-ethanol, the HB structure is predominant in chloroform, whereas the 93:7 ratio for the OCCN trans/gauche species was obtained in aqueous solution. 2NH(2)-phenol exhibits a subtle equilibrium of the HB and NoHB conformations in both solvents. Potential of mean force calculations predict about a 10% solute association for the trans 2NH(2)-ethanol solute even in the fairly dilute 0.22 molar solution, whereas direct MC simulations do not support the maintenance of a doubly hydrogen-bonded dimer. Aqueous solution characteristics, as coordination numbers and numbers of strongly bound water molecules to the solute at T = 298 K and p = 1 atm, correspond reasonably to the derived molecular structures. PMID:22731938

  13. Primary photodissociation pathways of epichlorohydrin and analysis of the C-C bond fission channels from an O(3P)+allyl radical intermediate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzPatrick, Benjamin L.; Alligood, Bridget W.; Butler, Laurie J.; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This study initially characterizes the primary photodissociation processes of epichlorohydrin, c-(H2COCH)CH2Cl. The three dominant photoproduct channels analyzed are c-(H2COCH)CH2+Cl, c-(H2COCH)+CH2Cl, and C3H4O+HCl. In the second channel, the c-(H2COCH) photofission product is a higher energy intermediate on C2H3O global potential energy surface and has a small isomerization barrier to vinoxy. The resulting highly vibrationally excited vinoxy radicals likely dissociate to give the observed signal at the mass corresponding to ketene, H2CCO. The final primary photodissociation pathway HCl+C3H4O evidences a recoil kinetic energy distribution similar to that of four-center HCl elimination in chlorinated alkenes, so is assigned to production of c-(H2COC)=CH2; the epoxide product is formed with enough vibrational energy to isomerize to acrolein and dissociate. The paper then analyzes the dynamics of the C3H5O radical produced from C-Cl bond photofission. When the epoxide radical photoproduct undergoes facile ring opening, it is the radical intermediate formed in the O(P3)+allyl bimolecular reaction when the O atom adds to an end C atom. We focus on the HCO+C2H4 and H2CO+C2H3 product channels from this radical intermediate in this report. Analysis of the velocity distribution of the momentum-matched signals from the HCO+C2H4 products at m/e=29 and 28 shows that the dissociation of the radical intermediate imparts a high relative kinetic energy, peaking near 20 kcal/mol, between the products. Similarly, the energy imparted to relative kinetic energy in the H2CO+C2H3 product channel of the O(P3)+allyl radical intermediate also peaks at high-recoil kinetic energies, near 18 kcal/mol. The strongly forward-backward peaked angular distributions and the high kinetic energy release result from tangential recoil during the dissociation of highly rotationally excited nascent radicals formed photolytically in this experiment. The data also reveal substantial branching to an HCCH+H3CO product channel. We present a detailed statistical prediction for the dissociation of the radical intermediate on the C3H5O potential energy surface calculated with coupled cluster theory, accounting for the rotational and vibrational energy imparted to the radical intermediate and the resulting competition between the H+acrolein, HCO+C2H4, and H2CO+C2H3 product channels. We compare the results of the theoretical prediction with our measured branching ratios. We also report photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves extending from 9.25 to 12.75 eV for the signal from the HCO+C2H4 and H2CO+C2H3 product channels. Using the C2H4 bandwidth-averaged absolute photoionization cross section at 11.27 eV and our measured relative photoion signals of C2H4 and HCO yields a value of 11.6+1/-3 Mb for the photoionization cross section of HCO at 11.27 eV. This determination puts the PIE curve of HCO measured here on an absolute scale, allowing us to report the absolute photoionization efficiency of HCO over the entire range of photoionization energies.

  14. Primary photodissociation pathways of epichlorohydrin and analysis of the C-C bond fission channels from an O({sup 3}P)+allyl radical intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, Benjamin L.; Alligood, Bridget W.; Butler, Laurie J. [Department of Chemistry and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Lee, Shih-Huang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jim Jr-Min [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 10617 (China)

    2010-09-07

    This study initially characterizes the primary photodissociation processes of epichlorohydrin, c-(H{sub 2}COCH)CH{sub 2}Cl. The three dominant photoproduct channels analyzed are c-(H{sub 2}COCH)CH{sub 2}+Cl, c-(H{sub 2}COCH)+CH{sub 2}Cl, and C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O+HCl. In the second channel, the c-(H{sub 2}COCH) photofission product is a higher energy intermediate on C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O global potential energy surface and has a small isomerization barrier to vinoxy. The resulting highly vibrationally excited vinoxy radicals likely dissociate to give the observed signal at the mass corresponding to ketene, H{sub 2}CCO. The final primary photodissociation pathway HCl+C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O evidences a recoil kinetic energy distribution similar to that of four-center HCl elimination in chlorinated alkenes, so is assigned to production of c-(H{sub 2}COC)=CH{sub 2}; the epoxide product is formed with enough vibrational energy to isomerize to acrolein and dissociate. The paper then analyzes the dynamics of the C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O radical produced from C-Cl bond photofission. When the epoxide radical photoproduct undergoes facile ring opening, it is the radical intermediate formed in the O({sup 3}P)+allyl bimolecular reaction when the O atom adds to an end C atom. We focus on the HCO+C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and H{sub 2}CO+C{sub 2}H{sub 3} product channels from this radical intermediate in this report. Analysis of the velocity distribution of the momentum-matched signals from the HCO+C{sub 2}H{sub 4} products at m/e=29 and 28 shows that the dissociation of the radical intermediate imparts a high relative kinetic energy, peaking near 20 kcal/mol, between the products. Similarly, the energy imparted to relative kinetic energy in the H{sub 2}CO+C{sub 2}H{sub 3} product channel of the O({sup 3}P)+allyl radical intermediate also peaks at high-recoil kinetic energies, near 18 kcal/mol. The strongly forward-backward peaked angular distributions and the high kinetic energy release result from tangential recoil during the dissociation of highly rotationally excited nascent radicals formed photolytically in this experiment. The data also reveal substantial branching to an HCCH+H{sub 3}CO product channel. We present a detailed statistical prediction for the dissociation of the radical intermediate on the C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O potential energy surface calculated with coupled cluster theory, accounting for the rotational and vibrational energy imparted to the radical intermediate and the resulting competition between the H+acrolein, HCO+C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}CO+C{sub 2}H{sub 3} product channels. We compare the results of the theoretical prediction with our measured branching ratios. We also report photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves extending from 9.25 to 12.75 eV for the signal from the HCO+C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and H{sub 2}CO+C{sub 2}H{sub 3} product channels. Using the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} bandwidth-averaged absolute photoionization cross section at 11.27 eV and our measured relative photoion signals of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and HCO yields a value of 11.6+1/-3 Mb for the photoionization cross section of HCO at 11.27 eV. This determination puts the PIE curve of HCO measured here on an absolute scale, allowing us to report the absolute photoionization efficiency of HCO over the entire range of photoionization energies.

  15. Effects of Peptide Backbone Amide-to-Ester Bond Substitution on the Cleavage Frequency in Electron Capture Dissociation and Collision-Activated Dissociation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Kjeldsen; Roman A. Zubarev

    2011-01-01

    Probing the mechanism of electron capture dissociation on variously modified model peptide polycations has resulted in discovering\\u000a many ways to prevent or reduce $$ {\\\\text{N}} - {{\\\\text{C}}_? } $$ bond fragmentation. Here we report on a rare finding of how to increase the backbone bond dissociation rate. In a number\\u000a of model peptides, amide-to-ester backbone bond substitution increased the frequency

  16. Bonding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... between teeth Make teeth look longer Change the shape or color of teeth Sometimes, bonding also is used to ... a color that will most closely match the color of the tooth. He or she will shape the tooth with a drill (handpiece) if necessary, ...

  17. Leukemogenic membrane glycoprotein encoded by Friend spleen focus-forming virus: Transport to cell surfaces and shedding are controlled by disulfide-bonded dimerization and by cleavage of a hydrophobic membrane anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Gliniak, B.C.; Kabat, D. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The leukemogenic glycoprotein (gp55) encoded by Friend spleen focus-forming virus is predominantly retained in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). However, a small proportion (ca. 5%) is processed to form a derivative that occurs on plasma membranes and causes mitosis of infected erythroblasts. The authors have now found that gp55 folds heterogeneously in the RER to form components with different disulfide bonds and that this difference may determine their processing fates. RER gp55 consists predominantly of monomers with intrachain disulfide bonds. In contrast, the processed molecules are disulfide-bonded dimers. These dimers are extensively modified in transit to cell surfaces by conversion of four N-linked high-mannose oligosaccharides to complex derivatives and by attachment of a sialylated O-linked oligosaccharide. The plasma membrane dimers are then slowly shed into the medium by a mechanism that involves proteolytic cleavage of approximately 25 membrane-anchoring hydrophobic amino acids from the carboxyl termini of the glycoproteins. Consequently, shed molecules have shorter polypeptide chains than cell-associated gp55. They conclude that gp55 folds into different disulfide-bonded components that do not substantially isomerize, and that only one specific dimer is competent for export from the RER. Mitogenic activity of gp55 could be caused by the cell surface dimers, by the shed derivative, or by the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic anchors that remain in the membranes after the shedding reaction.

  18. A Tungsten Complex with a Bidentate, Hemilabile N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand, Facile Displacement of the Weakly Bound W-(C=C) Bond, and the Vulnerability of the NHC Ligand Towards Catalyst Deactivation During Ketone Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu,F.; Dioumaev, V.; Szalda, D.; Hanson, J.; Bullock, R.

    2007-01-01

    The initial reaction observed between the N-heterocyclic carbene IMes (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) and molybdenum and tungsten hydride complexes CpM(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3})H (M = Mo, W) is deprotonation of the metal hydride by IMes, giving [(IMes)H]{sup +}[CpM(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3})]{sup -}. At longer reaction times and higher temperatures, the reaction of IMes with CpM(CO){sub 2}(PR{sub 3})H (M = Mo, W; R = Me, Ph) produces CpM(CO){sub 2}(IMes)H. Hydride transfer from CpW(CO)2(IMes)H to Ph{sub 3}C{sub +}B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}{sup -} gives CpW(CO){sub 2}(IMes){sup +}B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}{sup -}, which was crystallographically characterized using X-ray radiation from a synchrotron. The IMes is bonded as a bidentate ligand, through the carbon of the carbene as well as forming a weak bond from the metal to a C=C bond of one mesityl ring. The weakly bound C=C ligand is hemilabile, being readily displaced by H{sub 2}, THF, ketones, or alcohols. Reaction of CpW(CO){sub 2}(IMes){sup +} with H{sub 2} gives the dihydride complex [CpW(CO){sub 2}(IMes)(H){sub 2}]{sup +}. Addition of Et{sub 2}CH-OH to CpW(CO){sub 2}(IMes){sup +}B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}{sup -} gives the alcohol complex [CpW(CO){sub 2}(IMes)(Et{sub 2}CH-OH)]{sup +}[B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}]{sup -}, which was characterized by crystallography and exhibits no evidence for hydrogen bonding of the bound OH group. Addition of H{sub 2} to the ketone complex [CpW(CO){sub 2}(IMes)(Et{sub 2}C=O)]{sup +}[B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}]{sup -} produces an equilibrium with the dihydride [CpW(CO){sub 2}(IMes)(H){sub 2}]{sup +} (K{sub eq} = 1.1 x 10{sup 3} at 25 {sup o}C). The tungsten ketone complex [CpW(CO){sub 2}(IMes)(Et{sub 2}C=O)]{sup +}[B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}]{sup -}- serves as a modest catalyst for hydrogenation of Et{sub 2}C=O to Et{sub 2}CH-OH in neat ketone solvent. Decomposition of the catalyst produces [H(IMes)]{sup +}B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}{sup -}, indicating that these catalysts with N-heterocyclic carbene ligands are vulnerable to decomposition by a reaction that produces a protonated imidazolium cation.

  19. Reactivity studies of a pseudo three-coordinate vanadium(II) complex: Synthesis of terminal oxo and sulfido complexes of vanadium(IV) and S?S and Se?Se reductive bond cleavage reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Ba L.; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Mindiola, Daniel J. (Indiana)

    2012-02-07

    Terminal oxo and sulfido complexes in the form of (nacnac)V=E(Ntol{sub 2}) (nacnac = [ArNC(CH{sub 3})]{sub 2}CH{sup -}, Ar = 2,6-(CHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}, Ntol{sub 2} = {sup -}N(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-4-Me), E = O (1), S (2)) were isolated from treatment of the masked three-coordinate vanadium(II) complex, (nacnac)V(Ntol{sub 2}), with C{sub 5}H{sub 5}NO and S{sub 8}, respectively. Both vanadium(IV) species, 1 and 2, have been characterized by room temperature X-band EPR spectroscopic studies, and in the case of complex 1, a single crystal molecular structure confirmed the presence of a terminal oxo moiety. Moreover, reaction of (nacnac)V(Ntol{sub 2}) with diphenyl-disulfide and diphenyl-diselenide results in the reductive cleavage of these compounds to produce the vanadium(III) complexes (nacnac)V(XPh)(Ntol{sub 2}) (X = S, (3), Se (4)). A molecular structure of the phenylsulfide complex, 3, confirmed formation of the d{sup 2} complex resulting from reductive cleavage of the S-S bond.

  20. Transition metal catalyzed manipulation of non-polar carbonhydrogen bonds for synthetic purpose

    PubMed Central

    MURAI, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    The direct addition of ortho CH bonds in various aromatic compounds such as ketones, esters, imines, imidates, nitriles, and aldehydes to olefins and acetylenes can be achieved with the aid of transition metal catalysts. The ruthenium catalyzed reaction is usually highly efficient and useful as a general synthetic method. The coordination to the metal center by a heteroatom in a directing group such as carbonyl and imino groups in aromatic compounds is the key step in this process. Mechanistically, the reductive elimination to form a CC bond is the rate-determining step, while the CH bond cleavage step is not. PMID:21558759

  1. Applications of Bis(1-R-imidazol-2-yl)disulfides and Diselenides as Ligands for Main Group and Transition Metals: ?2-[N,N] Coordination, S-S Bond Cleavage and S-S/E-E (E = S, Se) Bond Metathesis Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Joshua S.; Yurkerwich, Kevin; Melnick, Jonathan; Buccella, Daniela; Parkin, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Bis(1-R-imidazol-2-yl)disulfides, (mimR)2 (R = Ph, But), and diselenides, (seimMes)2, serve as bidentate [N,N]-donor ligands for main group and transition metals. For example, [?2-(mimBut)2]MCl2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Zn), [?2-(mimPh)2]MCl2 (M = Co, Zn), [?2-(mimBut)2]CuX (X = Cl, I) and [?2-(seimMes)2]MCl2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) are obtained by treatment of (mimBut)2 or (seimMes)2 with the respective metal halide, and have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. On the other hand, the zerovalent nickel complex Ni(PMe3)4 effects cleavage of the disulfide bond of (mimBut)2 to give square planar trans-Ni(PMe3)2(mimBut)2 in which the (mimBut) ligands coordinate via nitrogen rather than sulfur, a most uncommon coordination mode for this class of ligands. Although [?2-(mimR)2]MCl2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) are not subject to homolytic cleavage of the S-S bond because the tetravalent state is not readily accessible, the observation that [?2-(mimPh)2]CoCl2 and [?2-(mimBut)2]CoCl2 form an equilibrium mixture with the asymmetric disulfide [?2-(mimPh)(mimBut)]CoCl2 indicates that S-S bond cleavage via another mechanism is possible. Likewise, metathesis between disulfide and diselenide ligands is observed in the formation of [?2-(mimBut)(seimMes)]CoCl2 upon treatment of [?2-(mimBut)2]CoCl2 with [?2-(seimMes)2]CoCl2. PMID:17900186

  2. Aromaticity effects on the profiles of the lowest triplet-state potential-energy surfaces for rotation about the C=C bonds of olefins with five-membered ring substituents: an example of the impact of Baird's rule.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Fogarty, Heather A; Mllerstedt, Helene; Brink, Maria; Ottosson, Henrik

    2013-08-01

    A density functional theory study on olefins with five-membered monocyclic 4n and 4n+2 ?-electron substituents (C4H3X; X=CH(+), SiH(+), BH, AlH, CH2, SiH2, O, S, NH, and CH(-)) was performed to assess the connection between the degree of substituent (anti)aromaticity and the profile of the lowest triplet-state (T1) potential-energy surface (PES) for twisting about olefinic C=C bonds. It exploited both Hckel's rule on aromaticity in the closed-shell singlet ground state (S0) and Baird's rule on aromaticity in the lowest ??* excited triplet state. The compounds CH2=CH(C4H3X) were categorized as set A and set B olefins depending on which carbon atom (C2 or C3) of the C4H3X ring is bonded to the olefin. The degree of substituent (anti)aromaticity goes from strongly S0 -antiaromatic/T1 -aromatic (C5H4 (+)) to strongly S0 -aromatic/T1- antiaromatic (C5H4(-)). Our hypothesis is that the shapes of the T1 PESs, as given by the energy differences between planar and perpendicularly twisted olefin structures in T1 [?E(T1)], smoothly follow the changes in substituent (anti)aromaticity. Indeed, correlations between ?E(T1) and the (anti)aromaticity changes of the C4 H3 X groups, as measured by the zz-tensor component of the nucleus-independent chemical shift ?NICS(T1;1)zz , are found both for sets A and B separately (linear fits; r(2) =0.949 and 0.851, respectively) and for the two sets combined (linear fit; r(2) =0.851). For sets A and B combined, strong correlations are also found between ?E(T1) and the degree of S0 (anti)aromaticity as determined by NICS(S0,1)zz (sigmoidal fit; r(2) =0.963), as well as between the T1 energies of the planar olefins and NICS(S0,1)zz (linear fit; r(2) =0.939). Thus, careful tuning of substituent (anti)aromaticity allows for design of small olefins with T1 PESs suitable for adiabatic Z/E photoisomerization. PMID:23794153

  3. Three new phosphoric triamides with a [C(O)NH]P(O)[N(C)(C)]2 skeleton: a database analysis of C-N-C and P-N-C bond angles.

    PubMed

    Pourayoubi, Mehrdad; Tarahhomi, Atekeh; Rheingold, Arnold L; Golen, James A

    2014-10-15

    In N,N,N',N'-tetraethyl-N''-(4-fluorobenzoyl)phosphoric triamide, C15H25FN3O2P, (I), and N-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)-N',N''-bis(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)phosphoric triamide, C19H28F2N3O2P, (II), the C-N-C angle at each tertiary N atom is significantly smaller than the two P-N-C angles. For the other new structure, N,N'-dicyclohexyl-N''-(2-fluorobenzoyl)-N,N'-dimethylphosphoric triamide, C21H33FN3O2P, (III), one C-N-C angle [117.08?(12)] has a greater value than the related P-N-C angle [115.59?(9)] at the same N atom. Furthermore, for most of the analogous structures with a [C(=O)NH]P(=O)[N(C)(C)]2 skeleton deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database [CSD; Allen (2002). Acta Cryst. B58, 380-388], the C-N-C angle is significantly smaller than the two P-N-C angles; exceptions were found for four structures with the N-methylcyclohexylamide substituent, similar to (III), one structure with the seven-membered cyclic amide azepan-1-yl substituent and one structure with an N-methylbenzylamide substituent. The asymmetric units of (I), (II) and (III) contain one molecule, and in the crystal structures, adjacent molecules are linked via pairs of N-HO=P hydrogen bonds to form dimers. PMID:25279604

  4. Dihydrogen catalysis of the reversible formation and cleavage of C-H and N-H bonds of aminopyridinate ligands bound to (?(5) -C5 Me5 )Ir(III.).

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Ana; Rendn, Nuria; Lpez-Serrano, Joaqun; Valpuesta, Jos E V; lvarez, Eleuterio; Carmona, Ernesto

    2015-02-01

    This study focuses on a series of cationic complexes of iridium that contain aminopyridinate (Ap) ligands bound to an (?(5) -C5 Me5 )Ir(III) fragment. The new complexes have the chemical composition [Ir(Ap)(?(5) -C5 Me5 )](+) , exist in the form of two isomers (1(+) and 2(+) ) and were isolated as salts of the BArF (-) anion (BArF =B[3,5-(CF3 )2 C6 H3 ]4 ). Four Ap ligands that differ in the nature of their bulky aryl substituents at the amido nitrogen atom and pyridinic ring were employed. In the presence of H2 , the electrophilicity of the Ir(III) centre of these complexes allows for a reversible prototropic rearrangement that changes the nature and coordination mode of the aminopyridinate ligand between the well-known ?(2) -N,N'-bidentate binding in 1(+) and the unprecedented ?-N,?(3) -pseudo-allyl-coordination mode in isomers 2(+) through activation of a benzylic C-H bond and formal proton transfer to the amido nitrogen atom. Experimental and computational studies evidence that the overall rearrangement, which entails reversible formation and cleavage of H-H, C-H and N-H bonds, is catalysed by dihydrogen under homogeneous conditions. PMID:25504864

  5. SiliconCarbon bond cleavage reactions of Ansa tungstenocene compounds: The [Me2Si] bridge as a site for metallocene functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Zachmanoglou, Cary E.; Lee, Hyosun; Jang, Seung Ho; Pang, Keliang; Parkin, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    [Me2Si(CpMe2)2]W(H)Cl is obtained via reaction of WCl6 with a mixture of [Me2Si(CpMe2)2]Li2 and NaBH4, from which the dichloride [Me2Si(CpMe2)2]WCl2 is obtained via treatment with CHCl3. [Me2Si(CpMe2)2]WCl2 provides a means to access other ansa tungstenocene compounds, such as [Me2Si(CpMe2)2]WH2, [Me2Si(CpMe2)2]WMe2, and [Me2Si(CpMe2)2]WCO. Of most interest, the reactions of [Me2Si(CpMe2)2]W(H)Cl with organolithium reagents do not yield simple ansa tungstenocene derivatives. Specifically, the reactions of [Me2Si(CpMe2)2]W(H)Cl with MeLi, BunLi, or PhLi result in the formation of mixed-ring tungstenocene compounds resulting from CSi cleavage and functionalization of the ansa bridge, namely (CpMe2)(?5,?1C5H2Me2SiMe2CH2)WH, (CpMe2)[?5,?1C5H2Me2Si(Me)(Bun)CH2]WH, and (CpMe2)[?5,?1C5H2Me2SiMe2(C6H4)]WH, respectively. In contrast to the CSi cleavage achieved by MeLi, BunLi, and PhLi, the ansa bridge of [Me2Si(CpMe2)2]W(H)Cl is inert to ButLi and the product obtained is the fulvene (tuck-in) complex [Me2Si(CpMe2)(?6C5MeH2CH2)]WH derived from dehydrohalogenation. PMID:18635687

  6. Solar photochemical oxidation of alcohols using catalytic hydroquinone and copper nanoparticles under oxygen: oxidative cleavage of lignin models.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Lorna J; Moody, Christopher J

    2014-11-21

    Alcohols are converted into to their corresponding carbonyl compounds using catalytic amounts of 1,4-hydroquinone with a copper nanoparticle electron transfer mediator with oxygen as the terminal oxidant in acetone as solvent under visible light irradiation. These conditions employing biorenewable hydroquinone as reagent were developed from initial experiments using stoichiometric amounts of 1,4-benzoquinone as oxidant. A range of benzylic and aliphatic primary and secondary alcohols are oxidized, affording the corresponding aldehydes or ketones in moderate to excellent yields. The methodology is also applicable to the oxidative degradation of lignin model compounds that undergo C-C bond cleavage to give simple aromatic compounds. PMID:25322456

  7. Structural insights into the role of ironhistidine bond cleavage in nitric oxide-induced activation of H-NOX gas sensor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Herzik, Mark A.; Jonnalagadda, Rohan; Kuriyan, John; Marletta, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Heme-nitric oxide/oxygen (H-NOX) binding domains are a recently discovered family of heme-based gas sensor proteins that are conserved across eukaryotes and bacteria. Nitric oxide (NO) binding to the heme cofactor of H-NOX proteins has been implicated as a regulatory mechanism for processes ranging from vasodilation in mammals to communal behavior in bacteria. A key molecular event during NO-dependent activation of H-NOX proteins is rupture of the hemehistidine bond and formation of a five-coordinate nitrosyl complex. Although extensive biochemical studies have provided insight into the NO activation mechanism, precise molecular-level details have remained elusive. In the present study, high-resolution crystal structures of the H-NOX protein from Shewanella oneidensis in the unligated, intermediate six-coordinate and activated five-coordinate, NO-bound states are reported. From these structures, it is evident that several structural features in the heme pocket of the unligated protein function to maintain the heme distorted from planarity. NO-induced scission of the ironhistidine bond triggers structural rearrangements in the heme pocket that permit the heme to relax toward planarity, yielding the signaling-competent NO-bound conformation. Here, we also provide characterization of a nonheme metal coordination site occupied by zinc in an H-NOX protein. PMID:25253889

  8. CO sub 2 ter dot minus radical induced cleavage of disulfide bonds in proteins. A gamma-ray and pulse radiolysis mechanistic investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Favaudon, V.; Tourbez, H.; Lhoste, J-M. (Institut Curie-Biologie, Orsay (France)); Houee-Levin, C. (Univ. Rene-Descartes, Paris (France))

    1990-12-01

    Disulfide bond reduction by the CO{sub 2}{sup {center dot}{minus}} radical was investigated in aponeocarzinostatin, aporiboflavin-binding protein, and bovine immunoglobulin. Protein-bound cysteine free thiols were formed under {gamma}-ray irradiation in the course of a pH-dependent and protein concentration dependent chain reaction. The chain efficiency increased upon acidification of the medium, with an apparent pK{sub a} around 5, and decreased abruptly below pH 3.6. It decreased also at neutral pH as cysteine accumulated. From pulse radiolysis analysis, CO{sub 2}{sup {center dot}{minus}} proved able to induce rapid one-electron oxidation of thiols and of tyrosine phenolic groups in addition to one-electron donation to exposed disulfide bonds. The bulk rate constant of CO{sub 2}{sup {center dot}{minus}} uptake by the native proteins was 5{minus} to 10-fold faster at pH 3 than at pH 8, and the protonated form of the disulfide radical anion, appeared to be the major protein radical species formed under acidic conditions. Formation of the disulfide radical cation, phenoxyl radical Tyr-O{sup {center dot}} disproportionation, and phenoxyl radical induced oxidation of preformed thiol groups should also be taken into consideration to explain the fate of the oxygen-centered phenoxyl radical.

  9. Structural insights into the role of iron-histidine bond cleavage in nitric oxide-induced activation of H-NOX gas sensor proteins.

    PubMed

    Herzik, Mark A; Jonnalagadda, Rohan; Kuriyan, John; Marletta, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Heme-nitric oxide/oxygen (H-NOX) binding domains are a recently discovered family of heme-based gas sensor proteins that are conserved across eukaryotes and bacteria. Nitric oxide (NO) binding to the heme cofactor of H-NOX proteins has been implicated as a regulatory mechanism for processes ranging from vasodilation in mammals to communal behavior in bacteria. A key molecular event during NO-dependent activation of H-NOX proteins is rupture of the heme-histidine bond and formation of a five-coordinate nitrosyl complex. Although extensive biochemical studies have provided insight into the NO activation mechanism, precise molecular-level details have remained elusive. In the present study, high-resolution crystal structures of the H-NOX protein from Shewanella oneidensis in the unligated, intermediate six-coordinate and activated five-coordinate, NO-bound states are reported. From these structures, it is evident that several structural features in the heme pocket of the unligated protein function to maintain the heme distorted from planarity. NO-induced scission of the iron-histidine bond triggers structural rearrangements in the heme pocket that permit the heme to relax toward planarity, yielding the signaling-competent NO-bound conformation. Here, we also provide characterization of a nonheme metal coordination site occupied by zinc in an H-NOX protein. PMID:25253889

  10. A theoretical study on the enthalpies of homolytic and heterolytic N-H bond cleavage in substituted melatonins in the gas-phase and aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Meysam; Farmanzadeh, Davood; Klein, Erik; Zahedi, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the study of melatonin and 60 meta- and ortho-substituted melatonins is presented. The reaction enthalpies related to the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single electron transfer - proton transfer (SET-PT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) have been calculated using DFT/B3LYP method in gas-phase and water. Results show that electron-withdrawing substituents increase the bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization potential (IP) and electron transfer enthalpy (ETE), while electron-donating ones cause a rise in the proton dissociation enthalpy (PDE) and proton affinity (PA). In ortho position, substituents show larger effect on reaction enthalpies than in meta position. In comparison to gas-phase, water attenuates the substituent effect on all reaction enthalpies. Results show that IP and BDE values can be successfully correlated with the indolic N-H bond length after electron abstraction, R(N-H(+*)), and the partial charge on the indolyl radical nitrogen atom, q(N). Furthermore, calculated IP and PA values for meta and ortho substituted melatonins show linear dependence on the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E(HOMO)) of studied molecules in the two environments. SPLET represents the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in water. PMID:23841331

  11. The Tautomeric Half-reaction of BphD, a C-C Bond Hydrolase Kinetic and Structural Evidence Supporting a Key Role for Histidine 265 of the Catalytic triad

    SciTech Connect

    Horsman, Geoff P.; Bhowmik, Shiva; Seah, Stephen Y.K.; Kumar, Pravindra; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Eltis, Lindsay D. (Purdue); (UBC)

    2010-01-07

    BphD of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 catalyzes an unusual C-C bond hydrolysis of 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) to afford benzoic acid and 2-hydroxy-2,4-pentadienoic acid (HPD). An enol-keto tautomerization has been proposed to precede hydrolysis via a gem-diol intermediate. The role of the canonical catalytic triad (Ser-112, His-265, Asp-237) in mediating these two half-reactions remains unclear. We previously reported that the BphD-catalyzed hydrolysis of HOPDA ({lambda}{sub max} is 434 nm for the free enolate) proceeds via an unidentified intermediate with a red-shifted absorption spectrum ({lambda}{sub max} is 492 nm) (Horsman, G. P., Ke, J., Dai, S., Seah, S. Y. K., Bolin, J. T., and Eltis, L. D. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 11071-11086). Here we demonstrate that the S112A variant generates and traps a similar intermediate ({lambda}{sub max} is 506 nm) with a similar rate, 1/{tau} {approx} 500 s{sup -1}. The crystal structure of the S112A:HOPDA complex at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution identified this intermediate as the keto tautomer, (E)-2,6-dioxo-6-phenyl-hex-3-enoate. This keto tautomer did not accumulate in either the H265A or the S112A/H265A double variants, indicating that His-265 catalyzes tautomerization. Consistent with this role, the wild type and S112A enzymes catalyzed tautomerization of the product HPD, whereas H265A variants did not. This study thus identifies a keto intermediate, and demonstrates that the catalytic triad histidine catalyzes the tautomerization half-reaction, expanding the role of this residue from its purely hydrolytic function in other serine hydrolases. Finally, the S112A:HOPDA crystal structure is more consistent with hydrolysis occurring via an acyl-enzyme intermediate than a gem-diol intermediate as solvent molecules have poor access to C6, and the closest ordered water is 7{angstrom} away.

  12. Bioinformatic and biochemical characterizations of C-S bond formation and cleavage enzymes in the fungus Neurospora crassa ergothioneine biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Song, Heng; Sae Her, Ampon; Bak, Daniel W; Naowarojna, Nathchar; Elliott, Sean J; Qin, Li; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Pinghua

    2014-10-17

    Ergothioneine is a histidine thiol derivative. Its mycobacterial biosynthetic pathway has five steps (EgtA-E catalysis) with two novel reactions: a mononuclear nonheme iron enzyme (EgtB) catalyzed oxidative C-S bond formation and a PLP-mediated C-S lyase (EgtE) reaction. Our bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicate that the fungus Neurospora crassa has a more concise ergothioneine biosynthetic pathway because its nonheme iron enzyme, Egt1, makes use of cysteine instead of ?-Glu-Cys as the substrate. Such a change of substrate preference eliminates the competition between ergothioneine and glutathione biosyntheses. In addition, we have identified the N. crassa C-S lyase (NCU11365) and reconstituted its activity in vitro, which makes the future ergothioneine production through metabolic engineering feasible. PMID:25275953

  13. Competitive carbon-sulfur vs carbon-carbon bond activation of 2-cyanothiophene with [Ni(dippe)H]2.

    PubMed

    Grochowski, Matthew R; Li, Ting; Brennessel, William W; Jones, William D

    2010-09-01

    The processes of C-C and C-S bond cleavage have been studied with the homogeneous organometallic compound [Ni(dippe)H](2) (1). When 1 is reacted with 2-cyanothiophene at room temperature, cleavage of the nitrile-substituted C-S bond occurs, forming the Ni-metallacycle complex (dippe)Ni(kappa(2)-S,C-SCH=CHCH=C(CN)) (2a), which has been fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. 2a was converted to the C-CN cleavage product (dippe)Ni(CN)(2-thiophenyl) (3) when heated in solution. On closer inspection, four other intermediates were observed by (31)P NMR spectroscopy at low temperature. Structures for the intermediates were elucidated through a combination of independent synthesis, theoretical calculations, chemical characterization, and experimental precedent. A kinetic product (dippe)Ni(kappa(2)-S,C-SC(CN)=CHCH=CH) (2b) was formed from cleavage of the nonsubstituted C-S bond, as well as a Ni(0) eta(2)-nitrile intermediate, (dippe)Ni(eta(2)-C,N-2-cyanothiophene) (4), and a dinuclear mixed Ni(0)-Ni(II) product (6b). A complete DFT analysis of this system has been carried out to reveal comparative details about the two bond cleavage transition states. PMID:20704269

  14. Synthesis and reaction of monomeric germanium(II) and lead(II) dimethylamide and the synthesis of germanium(II) hydrazide by cleavage of one N-H bond of hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Jana, Anukul; Roesky, Herbert W; Schulzke, Carola; Samuel, Prinson P; Dring, Alexander

    2010-06-21

    The beta-diketiminate substituted germanium(II) and lead(II) dimethylamides, LGeNMe(2) (1) and LPbNMe(2) (2), [L = CH{(CMe)(2)(2,6-iPr(2)C(6)H(3)N)(2)}] have been synthesized by the reaction of LiNMe(2) with LGeCl and LPbCl respectively. Reaction of compound 1 with an equivalent amount of elemental sulfur leads to the germanium analogue of thioamide, LGe(S)NMe(2) (3). 2 reacts with 2-benzoyl pyridine (PhCOPy-2) to form the lead(II) alkoxide LPbOC(NMe(2))Ph(2-Py) (4) by nucleophilic addition of "NMe(2)" to the carbon oxygen double bond. The reaction of stable N-heterocyclic germylene L(1)Ge [L(1) = CH{(C=CH(2))(CMe)(2,6-iPr(2)C(6)H(3)N)(2)}] with hydrazine yields the germanium(II) substituted hydrazide LGeNHNH(2) (5) by cleavage of one N-H bond of hydrazine. Finally, attempts to isolate lead(II) hydride LPbH from the reaction of 2 with phenylsilane (PhSiH(3)) failed, and instead LPbN(2,6-iPr(2)C(6)H(3)){C(CH(3))CHC(CH(3))=N(2,6-iPr(2)C(6)H(3))} (6) was obtained in very low yield. We are able to prove this only by single crystal X-ray structural analysis. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were characterized by microanalysis, electron impact (EI) mass spectrometry, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 were characterized by single crystal X-ray structural analysis, with the result that they are exhibiting monomeric structures in the solid state with trigonal-pyramidal environment at the metal center and a stereochemically active lone pair. PMID:20462254

  15. Iridium porphyrins in CD3OD: reduction of Ir(III), CD3-OD bond cleavage, Ir-D acid dissociation and alkene reactions.

    PubMed

    Bhagan, Salome; Imler, Gregory H; Wayland, Bradford B

    2013-04-15

    Methanol solutions of iridium(III) tetra(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin [(TSPP)Ir(III)] form an equilibrium distribution of methanol and methoxide complexes ([(TSPP)Ir(III)(CD3OD)(2-n)(OCD3)n]((3+n)-)). Reaction of [(TSPP)Ir(III) with dihydrogen (D2) in methanol produces an iridium hydride [(TSPP)Ir(III)-D(CD3OD)](4-) in equilibrium with an iridium(I) complex ([(TSPP)Ir(I)(CD3OD)](5-)). The acid dissociation constant of the iridium hydride (Ir-D) in methanol at 298 K is 3.5 10(-12). The iridium(I) complex ([(TSPP)Ir(I)(CD3OD)](5-)) catalyzes reaction of [(TSPP)Ir(III)-D(CD3OD)](4-) with CD3-OD to produce an iridium methyl complex [(TSPP)Ir(III)-CD3(CD3OD)](4-) and D2O. Reactions of the iridium hydride with ethene and propene produce iridium alkyl complexes, but the Ir-D complex fails to give observable addition with acetaldehyde and carbon monoxide in methanol. Reaction of the iridium hydride with propene forms both the isopropyl and propyl complexes with free energy changes (?G 298 K) of -1.3 and -0.4 kcal mol(-1) respectively. Equilibrium thermodynamics and reactivity studies are used in discussing relative Ir-D, Ir-OCD3 and Ir-CD2- bond energetics in methanol. PMID:23540797

  16. In Situ and Theoretical Studies for the Dissociation of Water on an Active Ni/CeO2 Catalyst: Importance of Strong Metal-Support Interactions for the Cleavage of O-H Bonds.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Javier; Lpez-Durn, David; Liu, Zongyuan; Ducho?, Tom; Evans, Jaime; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Crumlin, Ethan J; Matoln, Vladimir; Rodrguez, Jos A; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M Vernica

    2015-03-23

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, the effect of the support on O?H bond cleavage activity is elucidated for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O?1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO2 (111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO2 (111) compared with pyramidal Ni4 particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of this support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni(2+) species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO2 has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions. PMID:25651288

  17. Direct femtosecond observation of the transient intermediate in the -cleavage reaction of (CH3)2CO to 2CH3 CO: Resolving

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Direct femtosecond observation of the transient intermediate in the -cleavage reaction of (CH3)2CO resolution of the individual CC cleavage events was not possible. Here, for the elementary -cleavage example for addressing the issue of concertedness and belongs to the general class of -cleavage processes

  18. Transfer RNA Cleavages by Onconase Reveal Unusual Cleavage Sites*

    E-print Network

    Gates, Kent. S.

    Transfer RNA Cleavages by Onconase Reveal Unusual Cleavage Sites* Received for publication,April 25. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 1514215146). Cleavage site mapping using natural tRNA sub- strates, in vitro, revealed predominant cleavage sites at UG and GG residues. Cleavages at UG or the less intense cleavages

  19. Cleavage of peptide bonds bearing ionizable amino acids at P{sub 1} by serine proteases with hydrophobic S{sub 1} pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Qasim, Mohammad A., E-mail: qasimm@ipfw.edu [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne, 2101 E. Coliseum Blvd., Fort Wayne, IN 46805 (United States); Song, Jikui; Markley, John L. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Laskowski, Michael [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Large pK shifts in ionizable groups when buried in the protein interior. {yields} Substrate dependent shifts in pH optimum for serine proteases. {yields} Lys side chain is a stronger acid in serine protease S{sub 1} pocket than Asp side chain. -- Abstract: Enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Xxx-pNA (where Xxx = Leu, Asp or Lys) catalyzed by bovine chymotrypsin (CHYM) or Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) has been studied at different pH values in the pH range 3-11. The pH optima for substrates having Leu, Asp, and Lys have been found to be 7.5-8.0, 5.5-6.0, and {approx}10, respectively. At the normally reported pH optimum (pH 7-8) of CHYM and SGPB, the substrate with Leu at the reactive site is more than 25,000-fold more reactive than that with Asp. However, when fully protonated, Asp is nearly as good a substrate as Leu. The pK values of the side chains of Asp and Lys in the hydrophobic S{sub 1} pocket of CHYM and SGPB have been calculated from pH-dependent hydrolysis data and have been found to be about 9 for Asp and 7.4 and 9.7 for Lys for CHYM and SGPB, respectively. The results presented in this communication suggest a possible application of CHYM like enzymes in cleaving peptide bonds contributed by acidic amino acids between pH 5 and 6.

  20. Cleavage of the C-S bond with the formation of a binuclear copper complex with 2-thiolato-3-phenyl-5-(pyridine-2-ylmethylene)-3,5-dihydro-4H-imidazole-4-one. A new mimic of the active site of N2O reductase.

    PubMed

    Majouga, Alexander G; Beloglazkina, Elena K; Moiseeva, Anna A; Shilova, Olga V; Manzheliy, Eugeniy A; Lebedeva, Maria A; Davies, E Stephen; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Zyk, Nikolay V

    2013-05-14

    The treatment of the ligands with copper(II) chloride dihydrate led to the formation of a binuclear copper complex with a [Cu(+1.5)Cu(+1.5)] redox state as a result of C-S bond cleavage in the course of the reaction. This complex catalyses the electrochemical reduction of nitrous oxide and triphenyl phosphine oxidation under N2O action. PMID:23525195

  1. Copper ion mediated selective cleavage of C-S bond in ferrocenylthiosemicarbazone forming mixed geometrical [(PPh3)Cu(?-S)2Cu(PPh3)2] having Cu2S2 core: toward a new avenue in copper-sulfur chemistry.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Rathinasabapathi; Kalaivani, Palaniappan; Renukadevi, Somanur V; Huang, Rui; Senthilkumar, Kittusamy; Karvembu, Ramasamy; Natarajan, Karuppannan

    2012-03-19

    Unprecedented selective cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bond of the ferrocenylthiosemicarbazone moiety has been observed for the first time, resulting in the formation of mixed geometrical binuclear copper complex [(PPh(3))Cu(?-S)(2)Cu(PPh(3))(2)]. Upon trying direct synthesis of the title complex, an unusual tetranuclear [Cu(4)(?(3)-Cl)(4)(PPh(3))(4)] cubane resulted. PMID:22376179

  2. Si(111) cleavage and the (2 x 1) reconstruction process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, E. M.; Halicioglu, T.; Tiller, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    Using a computer simulation technique with a semiempirical potential, a Si crystal was cleaved along the (111) plane. The pi-bonded chain structural features of the Si(111) cleavage surface are observed and found to be a consequence of the dynamics of this cleavage process and seem not to be influenced by the final energetics.

  3. 4698 Biochemistry 1993, 32, 4698-4701 Sequence-Specific Cleavage of DNA via Nucleophilic Attack of Hydrogen

    E-print Network

    Tullius, Thomas D.

    4698 Biochemistry 1993, 32, 4698-4701 Sequence-Specific Cleavage of DNA via Nucleophilic Attack ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide is capable of effecting the cleavage of a specific phosphodiester bond in DNA phosphorus-xygen bond is broken in the reaction. Cleavage of DNA by peroxide also occurs with an inactive

  4. Backbone and Side-Chain Cleavages in Electron Detachment Dissociation (EDD) Iwona Anusiewicz,, Marek Jasionowski, Piotr Skurski,, and Jack Simons*,

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    Backbone and Side-Chain Cleavages in Electron Detachment Dissociation (EDD) Iwona Anusiewicz are computed for the observed CR-C backbone bond cleavage as well as for side-chain loss for a variety of side chains (valine, arginine, glutamic acid, and tyrosine). It is found that CR-C bond cleavage is favored

  5. The Oxygenase CAO-1 of Neurospora crassa Is a Resveratrol Cleavage Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Daz-Snchez, Violeta; F. Estrada, Alejandro; Limn, M. Carmen; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa encodes CAO-1 and CAO-2, two members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family that target double bonds in different substrates. Previous studies demonstrated the role of CAO-2 in cleaving the C40 carotene torulene, a key step in the synthesis of the C35 apocarotenoid pigment neurosporaxanthin. In this work, we investigated the activity of CAO-1, assuming that it may provide retinal, the chromophore of the NOP-1 rhodopsin, by cleaving ?-carotene. For this purpose, we tested CAO-1 activity with carotenoid substrates that were, however, not converted. In contrast and consistent with its sequence similarity to family members that act on stilbenes, CAO-1 cleaved the interphenyl C?-C? double bond of resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. CAO-1 did not convert five other similar stilbenes, indicating a requirement for a minimal number of unmodified hydroxyl groups in the stilbene background. Confirming its biological function in converting stilbenes, adding resveratrol led to a pronounced increase in cao-1 mRNA levels, while light, a key regulator of carotenoid metabolism, did not alter them. Targeted ?cao-1 mutants were not impaired by the presence of resveratrol, a phytoalexin active against different fungi, which did not significantly affect the growth and development of wild-type Neurospora. However, under partial sorbose toxicity, the ?cao-1 colonies exhibited faster radial growth than control strains in the presence of resveratrol, suggesting a moderate toxic effect of resveratrol cleavage products. PMID:23893079

  6. Non-bonding potentials for the atom⋯atom interactions F⋯C?, F⋯N?, ?C⋯C?, ?C⋯N? and ?N⋯N? as derived from conformational data using molecular mechanics calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavnebrekk, Per J.; Stlevik, Reidar

    1989-10-01

    Parameter values for the non-bonding interactions F⋯C?, F⋯N?, ?C⋯C?, ?C⋯N? and ?N⋯N? within the Morse potential formulation have been estimated from experimental data on HC?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?CH (BP), BrC?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?CH (BBP), Br BrC?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?CBr (DBBP), N?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?N, N?C?CF 2?CF 2?C?N, (N?C) 2?CH?CH?(C?N) 2, (N?C) 2?CCl?CCl? C?N) 2 and N? C?CH 2?CH 2?CH 2?C?N. Conformational energies, structures, torsional barrier heights and torsional force constants for BP, BBP and DBBP, for the eight cyanoethanes (C?H,F,Cl and Br) N?C?CX 2?CX 2?C?N and (N?C) 2?CX?CX?(C?N) 2, as well as for N?C?CH 2?CH 2?CH 2?C?N, have been estimated from molecular mechanics calculations.

  7. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Halide-promoted dioxygenolysis of a carbon-carbon bond by a copper(II) diketonate complex.

    PubMed

    Allpress, Caleb J; Mi?aczewska, Anna; Borowski, Tomasz; Bennett, Jami R; Tierney, David L; Arif, Atta M; Berreau, Lisa M

    2014-06-01

    A mononuclear Cu(II) chlorodiketonate complex was prepared, characterized, and found to undergo oxidative aliphatic carbon-carbon bond cleavage within the diketonate unit upon exposure to O2 at ambient temperature. Mechanistic studies provide evidence for a dioxygenase-type C-C bond cleavage reaction pathway involving trione and hypochlorite intermediates. Significantly, the presence of a catalytic amount of chloride ion accelerates the oxygen activation step via the formation of a Cu-Cl species, which facilitates monodentate diketonate formation and lowers the barrier for O2 activation. The observed reactivity and chloride catalysis is relevant to Cu(II) halide-catalyzed reactions in which diketonates are oxidatively cleaved using O2 as the terminal oxidant. The results of this study suggest that anion coordination can play a significant role in influencing copper-mediated oxygen activation in such systems. PMID:24826946

  11. Homolytic bond dissociation energies for C-H bonds adjacent to sulfur and aromatic moieties: The effects of substituents of C-H bond strengths of the benzylic positions in coal model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, M.S.; Franz, J.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Gleicher, G.J.; Truksa, S. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Bordwell, F.; Zhang, Xian-Man [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-09-01

    Sulfur-containing compounds are precursors for thiyl radicals at coal liquefaction temperatures due to the weakness of The and S-S bonds. Thiyl radicals play important roles in hydrogen atom shuttling between benzylic positions and catalyze the cleavage and the formation of strong C-C bonds. Although many reactions of thiyl and other sulfur-containing radicals are qualitatively understood, the homolytic bond dissociation energies (EDE`s) and the thermochemistry associated with many key high molecular weight hydrocarbon and sulfur-containing organic structures important to coal is lacking because they are inappropriate for gas-phase techniques. The measurement of BDE`s has been proven to be difficult even in the simplest of molecules.

  12. Selective cleavage of pepsin by molybdenum metallopeptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Yenjai, Sudarat; Malaikaew, Pinpinat; Liwporncharoenvong, Teerayuth [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Buranaprapuk, Apinya, E-mail: apinyac@swu.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand)

    2012-03-02

    Graphical abstract: Molybdenum metallopeptidase: the Mo(VI) cluster with six molybdenum cations has the ability to cleave protein under mild conditions (37 Degree-Sign C, pH 7) without reducing agents. The reaction required only low concentration of ammonium heptamolybdatetetrahydrate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O) (0.125 mM). The reaction undergoes possibly via a hydrolytic mechanism. This is the first demonstration of protein cleavage by a molybdenum cluster. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first demonstration of protein cleavage by a Mo(VI) cluster with six molybdenum cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cleavage reaction undergoes at mild conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No need of reducing agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only low concentration of Mo(VI) cluster and short time of incubation are needed. -- Abstract: In this study, the cleavage of protein by molybdenum cluster is reported for the first time. The protein target used is porcine pepsin. The data presented in this study show that pepsin is cleaved to at least three fragments with molecular weights of {approx}23, {approx}19 and {approx}16 kDa when the mixture of the protein and ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O) was incubated at 37 Degree-Sign C for 24 h. No self cleavage of pepsin occurs at 37 Degree-Sign C, 24 h indicating that the reaction is mediated by the metal ions. N-terminal sequencing of the peptide fragments indicated three cleavage sites of pepsin between Leu 112-Tyr 113, Leu 166-Leu 167 and Leu 178-Asn 179. The cleavage reaction occurs after incubation of the mixture of pepsin and (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O) only for 2 h. However, the specificity of the cleavage decreases when incubation time is longer than 48 h. The mechanism for cleavage of pepsin is expected to be hydrolytic chemistry of the amide bonds in the protein backbone.

  13. Structural basis of carotenoid cleavage: From bacteria to mammals Xuewu Sui, Philip D. Kiser, Johannes von Lintig, Krzysztof Palczewski

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Review Structural basis of carotenoid cleavage: From bacteria to mammals Xuewu Sui, Philip D. Kiser of evolution- arily conserved, non-heme iron-containing enzymes named carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs bond cleavage and/or isomerization reactions. In this review, we aim to integrate structural

  14. Purification, Molecular Cloning, and Expression of 2-Hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA Lyase, a Peroxisomal Thiamine Pyrophosphate-Dependent Enzyme that Catalyzes the Carbon-Carbon Bond Cleavage during alpha Oxidation of 3-Methyl-Branched Fatty Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veerle Foulon; Vasily D. Antonenkov; Kathleen Croes; Etienne Waelkens; Guy P. Mannaerts; Paul P. van Veldhoven; Minne Casteels

    1999-01-01

    In the third step of the alpha -oxidation of 3-methyl-branched fatty acids such as phytanic acid, a 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA is cleaved into formyl-CoA and a 2-methyl-branched fatty aldehyde. The cleavage enzyme was purified from the matrix protein fraction of rat liver peroxisomes and identified as a protein made up of four identical subunits of 63 kDa. Its activity proved to depend

  15. Cleavage and Fracture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-06-22

    In this activity, students will learn the properties of cleavage and fracture (how minerals break when struck with a hammer), and will use these properties as a diagnostic test for identifying minerals. Working in small groups, they will break a selection of specimens with a hammer, observe the results, and record their observations. A student worksheet and discussion questions are provided.

  16. Tyrosine deprotonation yields abundant and selective backbone cleavage in peptide anions upon negative electron transfer dissociation and ultraviolet photodissociation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jared B; Ledvina, Aaron R; Zhang, Xing; Julian, Ryan R; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2012-09-26

    Tyrosine deprotonation in peptides yields preferential electron detachment upon NETD or UVPD, resulting in prominent N-C? bond cleavage N-terminal to the tyrosine residue. UVPD of iodo-tyrosine-modified peptides was used to generate localized radicals on neutral tyrosine side chains by homolytic cleavage of the C-I bond. Subsequent collisional activation of the radical species yielded the same preferential cleavage of the adjacent N-terminal N-C? bond. LC-MS/MS analysis of a tryptic digest of BSA demonstrated that these cleavages are regularly observed for peptides when using high-pH mobile phases. PMID:22970927

  17. Conformational changes of 1-4-glucopyranosyl residues of a sulfated C-C linked hexasaccharide.

    PubMed

    Coletti, Alessia; Elli, Stefano; Macchi, Eleonora; Galzerano, Patrizia; Zamani, Leila; Guerrini, Marco; Torri, Giangiacomo; Vismara, Elena

    2014-05-01

    This work describes the structure of a fully sulfated maltotriose alpha-beta C-C linked dimer, where a central glycosidic bond was substituted by a non natural, hydrolase-resistant C-C bond. Such compound shows anti-metastatic properties being an inhibitor of the heparanase enzymatic activity and of P-selectin-mediated cell-cell interactions. NMR spectroscopy was applied to investigate the structure and conformational properties of this C-C linked hexasaccharide. The presence of sulfate substituents and the internal C-C bond drives the two internal rings in an unusual (1)C(4) chair conformation, while the external rings linked by glycosidic bonds retain the typical (4)C(1) conformation. The NMR results were confirmed by molecular mechanics calculations using structure corresponding di- and tetrasaccharides as models. PMID:24680506

  18. Palladium-catalyzed C-C, C-N and C-O bond formation

    E-print Network

    Huang, Xiaohua, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    New methods for Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides or arenesulfonates are described. Key to the success of these transformations is the proper choice of ligand and reaction conditions. Palladium catalysts ...

  19. Mechanisms of Catalytic Cleavage of Benzyl Phenyl Ether in Aqueous and Apolar Phases

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jiayue; Lu, Lu; Zhao, Chen; Mei, Donghai; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2014-03-03

    Catalytic pathways for the cleavage of the ether bonds in benzyl phenyl ether (BPE) in the condensed liquid phases using Ni and zeolite based catalysts are explored. In absence of catalysts, the C?O bond is selectively cleaved in water by hydrolysis forming phenol and benzyl alcohol as intermediates, followed by C?C bond alkylation. The hydronium ions catalyzing the reactions are provided by the dissociation of water at the high temperature (523 K). Upon addition of a solid acid (HZSM-5), rates of hydrolysis and alkylation are markedly increased in proportion to the acid concentrations. In the presence of a metal (Ni/SiO2), the selective hydrogenolysis dominates for cleaving the Caliphatic?O bond. Catalyzed by the dual-functional Ni/HZSM-5, hydrogenolysis occurs as the major route rather than hydrolysis (minor). In the apolar undecane, the non-catalytic thermal pyrolysis route dominates. Hydrogenolysis of BPE appears to be the major reaction pathway in undecane in presence of Ni/SiO2 or Ni/HZSM-5, almost suppressing the radical reactions completely. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations perfectly support the proposed C?O bond cleavage mechanisms on BPE in the aqueous and apolar phases. DFT calculations show that BPE is initially protonated and subsequently hydrolyzed in the aqueous phase. The radical reaction plays a significant role for generating primary benzyl and phenoxy radicals in undecane evidenced by DFT calculation, which leads to heavier condensation products without the aid of metals for providing dissociated hydrogen radicals. J.H., L.L., and C.Z. gratefully acknowledge support from the graduate school (Faculty Graduate Center of Chemistry) of the Technische Universitt Mnchen and the Elitenetzwerk Bayern (graduate school NanoCat). D.M. and J.A.L. thank the support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). EMSL is a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and sponsored by DOEs Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  20. CH Bond Functionalization in Complex Organic Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Godula; Dalibor Sames

    2006-01-01

    Direct and selective replacement of carbon-hydrogen bonds with new bonds (such as C-C, C-O, and C-N) represents an important and long-standing goal in chemistry. These transformations have broad potential in synthesis because C-H bonds are ubiquitous in organic substances. At the same time, achieving selectivity among many different C-H bonds remains a challenge. Here, we focus on the functionalization of

  1. Pyrimidine-specific cleavage by an endoribonuclease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, A.

    1985-10-01

    An endoribonuclease with pyrimidine cleavage site specificity was isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 6 to 7 and did not require a divalent cation. It was inhibited by 5 x 10/sup -5/ M hetidium bromide, although it appeared to be single strand specific. The enzyme gave a limited cleavage of yeast mRNA and rRNA, yielding products that were terminated with pyrimidine nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphate. The bonds between pyrimidine and A residues constituted more than 90% of the scission sites when the average product size was 50 nucloetides. Homopolyribonucleotides were cleaved poorly. Poly(A,U) was cleaved rapidly, and analysis of the products of poly(A,U) hydrolysis showed a very stringent cleavage of U-A bonds.

  2. Amino acid substitutions around the chromophore of the chromoprotein Rtms5 influence polypeptide cleavage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Turcic; Anne Pettikiriarachchi; Jion Battad; Pascal G. Wilmann; Jamie Rossjohn; Sophie G. Dove; Rodney J. Devenish; Mark Prescott

    2006-01-01

    Extension of the conjugated ?-system of many all-protein chromophores with an acylimine bond is the basis for their red-shifted optical properties. The presence of this post-translational modification is evident in crystal structures of these proteins. Harsh denaturation of proteins containing an acylimine bond results in partial polypeptide cleavage. For the red fluorescent protein DsRed, the extent of cleavage is quantitative.

  3. Aliphatic C-H to C-C conversion: synthesis of (-)-cameroonan-7?-ol.

    PubMed

    Taber, Douglass F; Nelson, Christopher G

    2011-03-18

    In the course of a synthesis of the tricyclic sesquiterpene (-)-cameroonan-7?-ol from the acyclic (+)-citronellal, seven aliphatic C-H bonds were converted to C-C bonds, and three rings and four new stereogenic centers were established. PMID:21344897

  4. Aliphatic C-H to C-C Conversion: Synthesis of (?)-Cameroonan-7?-ol

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Nelson, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of a synthesis of the tricyclic sesquiterpene (?)-cameroonan-7?-ol from the acyclic (+)-citronellal, seven aliphatic C-H bonds were converted to C-C bonds, and three rings and four new stereogenic centers were established. PMID:21344897

  5. volume g Number 14 ig8i Nucleic Acids Research Transient cleavage kinetics of the Eco RI restriction endonuclease measured in a pulsed quench-

    E-print Network

    Langowski, Jrg

    volume g Number 14 ig8i Nucleic Acids Research Transient cleavage kinetics of the Eco RI measurements of the cleavage rate of pBR 322 plasmid DNA by the restriction endonuclease Eco RI as a function sites). The catalytic constants for cleavage of the first and second phosphodiester bonds as measured

  6. Amino acid substitutions around the chromophore of the chromoprotein Rtms5 influence polypeptide cleavage.

    PubMed

    Turcic, Kristina; Pettikiriarachchi, Anne; Battad, Jion; Wilmann, Pascal G; Rossjohn, Jamie; Dove, Sophie G; Devenish, Rodney J; Prescott, Mark

    2006-02-24

    Extension of the conjugated pi-system of many all-protein chromophores with an acylimine bond is the basis for their red-shifted optical properties. The presence of this post-translational modification is evident in crystal structures of these proteins. Harsh denaturation of proteins containing an acylimine bond results in partial polypeptide cleavage. For the red fluorescent protein DsRed, the extent of cleavage is quantitative. However, this is not the case for the blue non-fluorescent chromoprotein Rtms5, even though all chromophores in tetrameric Rtms5 contain an acylimine bond. We have identified two positions around the chromophore of Rtms5 where substitutions can promote or suppress the extent of cleavage on harsh denaturation. We propose a model in which cleavage of Rtms5 is facilitated by a trans to cis isomerisation of the chromophore. PMID:16414348

  7. Mild P-P bond cleavage in the methyldiphosphenyl complex [Mo2Cp2(?-PCy2)(?-?(2):?(2)-P2Me)(CO)2] to give novel phosphide-bridged trinuclear derivatives.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Angeles; Garca, M Esther; Garca-Viv, Daniel; Lozano, Raquel; Ramos, Alberto; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2014-10-20

    Reactions of the title diphosphenyl complex with [Fe2(CO)9] and [W(CO)4(THF)2] gave the trinuclear species [Mo2FeCp2(?3-P)(?-PCy2)(?3-PMe)(CO)5] and [Mo2WCp2(?3-P)(?-PCy2)(?3-PMe)(CO)6] following from formal insertion of the 14-electron fragments Fe(CO)3 and W(CO)4, respectively, in the P-P bond of the diphosphenyl ligand and formation of a new heterometallic bond [Mo-Fe = 2.9294(6) and Mo-W = 3.146(1) ]. Reactions of the diphosphenyl complex with the tetrahydrofuran adducts [MLn(THF)] (MLn = MnCp'(CO)2, W(CO)5) led instead to trinuclear diphosphenyl complexes [Mo2MCp2(?-PCy2)(?3-?(2):?(2):?(1)-P2Me)(CO)2Ln] following from coordination in each case of the corresponding 16-electron fragment MLn to the lone-pair-bearing P atom of the P2Me ligand. However, these diphosphenyl complexes were unstable and decomposed at room temperature or under mild heating by the release of methylphosphinidene (PMe), to give the corresponding derivatives [Mo2MCp2(?3-P)(?-PCy2)(CO)2Ln] displaying trigonal-planar phosphide ligands, giving rise to strongly deshielded (31)P NMR resonances (?P ca. 1100 ppm), while being involved in strong ? bonding with the unsaturated Mo2 center of these molecules [Mo-Mo = 2.749(1) and Mo-P = ca. 2.30 when M = W]. An isolobal analogy could be established between the P?MLn fragments in these products and a carbyne ligand (CR), supported by density functional theory calculations on the tungsten compound, which also enabled an easy interpretation and prediction of their chemical behavior. Thus, the manganese complex could be reversibly carbonylated (pCO = ca. 3 atm, 293 K) to give the corresponding electron-precise pentacarbonyl [MnMo2Cp2Cp'(?3-P)(?-PCy2)(CO)5] [Mo-Mo = 3.1318(7) ], a process also involving a trans-to-cis rearrangement of the Mo2Cp2 subunit. On the other hand, decarbonylation of the tungsten complex was accomplished in a refluxing toluene solution to give the hexacarbonyl [Mo2WCp2(?3-P)(?-PCy2)(?-CO)(CO)5], a derivative containing an unsaturated 30-electron dimolybdenum center with an intermetallic triple bond. PMID:25300937

  8. Temperature effects on adsorption and diffusion dynamics of CH3CH2(ads) and H3C-C?C(ads) on Ag(111) surface and their self-coupling reactions: Ab initio molecular dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shao-Yu; Lin, Jyh-Shing

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT)-based molecular dynamics (DFTMD) simulations in combination with a Fourier transform of dipole moment autocorrelation function are performed to investigate the adsorption dynamics and the reaction mechanisms of self-coupling reactions of both acetylide (H3C-C(?)?C(?) (ads)) and ethyl (H3C(?)-C(?)H2(ads)) with I(ads) coadsorbed on the Ag(111) surface at various temperatures. In addition, the calculated infrared spectra of H3C-C(?)?C(?)(ads) and I coadsorbed on the Ag(111) surface indicate that the active peaks of -C(?)?C(?)- stretching are gradually merged into one peak as a result of the dominant motion of the stand-up -C-C(?)?C(?)- axis as the temperature increases from 200 K to 400 K. However, the calculated infrared spectra of H3C(?)-C(?)H2(ads) and I coadsorbed on the Ag(111) surface indicate that all the active peaks are not altered as the temperature increases from 100 K to 150 K because only one orientation of H3C(?)-C(?)H2(ads) adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface has been observed. These calculated IR spectra are in a good agreement with experimental reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy results. Furthermore, the dynamics behaviors of H3C-C(?)?C(?)(ads) and I coadsorbed on the Ag(111) surface point out the less diffusive ability of H3C-C(?)?C(?)(ads) due to the increasing s-character of C? leading to the stronger Ag-C? bond in comparison with that of H3C(?)-C(?)H2(ads) and I coadsorbed on the same surface. Finally, these DFTMD simulation results allow us to predict the energetically more favourable reaction pathways for self-coupling of both H3C-C(?)?C(?)(ads) and H3C(?)-C(?)H2(ads) adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface to form 2,4-hexadiyne (H3C-C?C-C?C-CH3(g)) and butane (CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3(g)), respectively. The calculated reaction energy barriers for both H3C-C?C-C?C-CH3(g) (1.34 eV) and CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3(g) (0.60 eV) are further employed with the Redhead analysis to estimate the desorption temperatures approximately at 510 K and 230 K, respectively, which are in a good agreement with the experimental low-coverage temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy measurements.

  9. Temperature effects on adsorption and diffusion dynamics of CH3CH2(ads) and H3C-C?C(ads) on Ag(111) surface and their self-coupling reactions: ab initio molecular dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-Yu; Lin, Jyh-Shing

    2014-01-14

    Density functional theory (DFT)-based molecular dynamics (DFTMD) simulations in combination with a Fourier transform of dipole moment autocorrelation function are performed to investigate the adsorption dynamics and the reaction mechanisms of self-coupling reactions of both acetylide (H3C-C(?)?C(?) (ads)) and ethyl (H3C(?)-C(?)H2(ads)) with I(ads) coadsorbed on the Ag(111) surface at various temperatures. In addition, the calculated infrared spectra of H3C-C(?)?C(?)(ads) and I coadsorbed on the Ag(111) surface indicate that the active peaks of -C(?)?C(?)- stretching are gradually merged into one peak as a result of the dominant motion of the stand-up -C-C(?)?C(?)- axis as the temperature increases from 200 K to 400 K. However, the calculated infrared spectra of H3C(?)-C(?)H2(ads) and I coadsorbed on the Ag(111) surface indicate that all the active peaks are not altered as the temperature increases from 100 K to 150 K because only one orientation of H3C(?)-C(?)H2(ads) adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface has been observed. These calculated IR spectra are in a good agreement with experimental reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy results. Furthermore, the dynamics behaviors of H3C-C(?)?C(?)(ads) and I coadsorbed on the Ag(111) surface point out the less diffusive ability of H3C-C(?)?C(?)(ads) due to the increasing s-character of C? leading to the stronger Ag-C? bond in comparison with that of H3C(?)-C(?)H2(ads) and I coadsorbed on the same surface. Finally, these DFTMD simulation results allow us to predict the energetically more favourable reaction pathways for self-coupling of both H3C-C(?)?C(?)(ads) and H3C(?)-C(?)H2(ads) adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface to form 2,4-hexadiyne (H3C-C?C-C?C-CH3(g)) and butane (CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3(g)), respectively. The calculated reaction energy barriers for both H3C-C?C-C?C-CH3(g) (1.34 eV) and CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3(g) (0.60 eV) are further employed with the Redhead analysis to estimate the desorption temperatures approximately at 510 K and 230 K, respectively, which are in a good agreement with the experimental low-coverage temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy measurements. PMID:24437901

  10. Understanding Selectivity in the Oxidative Addition of the Carbon-Sulfur Bonds of 2-Cyanothiophene to Pt(0)

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Understanding Selectivity in the Oxidative Addition of the Carbon-Sulfur Bonds of 2-Cyanothiophene the cleavage of the substituted and unsubstituted C--S bonds. While cleavage away from the cyano group is preferred kinetically, cleavage adjacent to the cyano group is preferred thermodynamically. Density

  11. Palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation via decarboxylative and retro-Claisen C-C cleavage methods

    E-print Network

    Grenning, Alexander James

    2012-05-31

    , DaA can rapidly construct 1,6-heptadienes (cycloisomerization substrates) via 1-pot 3-component coupling. We have also utilized the reaction to construct an important intermediate ¬en route ¬to the drug verapamil as well an asymmetric DaA reaction...

  12. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Isolation of BamHI variants with reduced cleavage activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, S Y; Schildkraut, I

    1991-03-01

    Derivation of the bamhIR sequence (Brooks, J. E., Nathan, P.D., Landry, D., Sznyter, L.A., Waite-Rees, P., Ives, C. C., Mazzola, L. M., Slatko, B. E., and Benner, J. S. (1991) Nucleic Acids Res., in press), the gene coding for BamHI endonuclease, has facilitated construction of an Escherichia coli strain that overproduces BamHI endonuclease (W. E. Jack, L. Greenough, L. F. Dorner, S. Y. Xu, T. Strezelecka, A. K. Aggarwal, and I. Schildkraut, submitted for publication). As expected, low-level constitutive expression of the bamhIR gene in E. coli from the Ptac promotor construct is lethal to the host unless the bamHIM gene, which encodes the BamHI methylase, is also expressed within the cell. We identified four classes of BamHI endonuclease variants deficient in catalysis by selecting for survival of a host deficient for bamHIM gene, transformed with mutagenized copies of the bamhIR gene, and then screening the surviving cell extracts for DNA cleavage and binding activities. Class I variants (G56S, G91S/T153I, T114I, G130R, E135K, T153I, T157I, G194D) displayed 0.1-1% of the wild-type cleavage activity; class II variant (D94N) lacked cleavage activity but retained wild-type DNA binding specificity; class III variants (E77K, E113K) lacked cleavage activity but bound DNA more tightly; class IV variants (G56D, G90D, G91S, R122H, R155H) lacked both binding and cleavage activities. Variants with residual cleavage activities induced the E. coli SOS response and thus are presumed to cleave chromosomal DNA in vivo. We conclude that Glu77, Asp94, and Glu113 residues are essential for BamHI catalytic function. PMID:1999426

  15. Anti-metastatic Semi-synthetic Sulfated Maltotriose C-C Linked Dimers. Synthesis and Characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Vismara, Elena; Coletti, Alessia; Valerio, Antonio; Naggi, AnnaMaria; Urso, Elena; Torri, Giangiacomo

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript describes the preparation and the spectroscopic characterisation of semi-synthetic sulfated maltotriose C-C linked dimers (SMTCs) where the natural C-O-C anomeric bond was substituted by one direct central C-C bond. This C-C bond induces conformation and flexibility changes with respect to the usual anomeric bond. SMTCs neutral precursors came from maltotriosyl bromide electroreduction through maltotriosyl radical intermediate dimerisation. The new C-C bond configuration, named for convenience ?,?, ?,? and ?,? as the natural anomeric bond, dictated the statistic ratio formation of three diastereoisomers. They were separated by silica gel flash chromatography followed by semi preparative HPLC chromatography. Each diastereoisomer was exhaustively sulfated to afford the corresponding SMTCs. SMTCs were huge characterised by NMR spectroscopy which provided the sulfation degree, too. ?,? and ?,? were found quite homogeneous samples with a high degree of sulfation (8595%). ?,? appeared a non-homogeneous sample whose average sulfation degree was evaluated at around 78%. Mass spectroscopy experiments confirmed the sulfation degree range. Some considerations were proposed about SMTCs structure-biological properties. PMID:22902885

  16. New Insight into the Cleavage Reaction of Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120 Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase in Natural and Nonnatural Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at a specific double bond to generate apocarotenoids. In this study, we investigated the activity and substrate preferences of NSC3, a CCD of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, in vivo and in vitro using natural and nonnatural carotenoid structures. NSC3 cleaved ?-apo-8?-carotenal at 3 positions, C-13C-14, C-15C-15?, and C-13?C-14?, revealing a unique cleavage pattern. NSC3 cleaves the natural structure of carotenoids 4,4?-diaponeurosporene, 4,4?-diaponeurosporen-4?-al, 4,4?-diaponeurosporen-4?-oic acid, 4,4?-diapotorulene, and 4,4?-diapotorulen-4?-al to generate novel cleavage products (apo-14?-diaponeurosporenal, apo-13?-diaponeurosporenal, apo-10?-diaponeurosporenal, apo-14?-diapotorulenal, and apo-10?-diapotorulenal, respectively). The study of carotenoids with natural or nonnatural structures produced by using synthetic modules could provide information valuable for understanding the cleavage reactions or substrate preferences of other CCDs in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23524669

  17. Exotic c c-bar Mesons

    E-print Network

    Eric Braaten

    2008-08-21

    A surprising number of new c c-bar mesons with masses above the D D-bar threshold have been discovered at the B factories. Some of them are ordinary charmonium states, but others are definitely exotic mesons. The current theoretical status of the new c c-bar mesons is summarized.

  18. Enhanced RNA cleavage within bulge-loops by an artificial ribonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Irina L.; Zenkova, Marina A.; Gross, Hans J.; Vlassov, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Cleavage of phosphodiester bonds by small ribonuclease mimics within different bulge-loops of RNA was investigated. Bulge-loops of different size (17 nt) and sequence composition were formed in a 3? terminal fragment of influenza virus M2 RNA (96 nt) by hybridization of complementary oligodeoxynucleotides. Small bulges (up to 4 nt) were readily formed upon oligonucleotide hybridization, whereas hybridization of the RNA to the oligonucleotides designed to produce larger bulges resulted in formation of several alternative structures. A synthetic ribonuclease mimic displaying PyrPu cleavage specificity cleaved CpA motifs located within bulges faster than similar motifs within the rest of the RNA. In the presence of 10 mM MgCl2, 75% of the cleavage products resulted from the attack of this motif. Thus, selective RNA cleavage at a single target phosphodiester bond was achieved by using bulge forming oligonucleotides and a small ribonuclease A mimic. PMID:15731340

  19. 100. Catalog HHistory 1, C.C.C., 34 Landscaping, Negative No. P ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. Catalog H-History 1, C.C.C., 34 Landscaping, Negative No. P 733c (Photographer and date unknown) SLOPE MAINTENANCE WORK BY CCC. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  20. 101. Catalog HHistory 1, C.C.C., 34 Landscaping, Negative No. 1340 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. Catalog H-History 1, C.C.C., 34 Landscaping, Negative No. 1340 (Photographer and date unknown) BANK BLENDING WORK BY CCC. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  1. 98. Catalog HHistory 1, C.C.C., 19 Tree Planting, Negative No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. Catalog H-History 1, C.C.C., 19 Tree Planting, Negative No. P 474c (Photographer and date unknown) TRANSPLANTING TREE. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  2. 99. Catalog HHistory 1, C.C.C., 23 Guard Rail Construction, Negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. Catalog H-History 1, C.C.C., 23 Guard Rail Construction, Negative No. P455e (Photographer and date unknown) GUARD RAIL INSTALLATION. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  3. NO Cleavage reactions of heterobicycloalkene-fused 2-isoxazolines

    PubMed Central

    Nagireddy, Jaipal R; Tranmer, Geoffrey K; Carlson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transition metal-mediated NO bond cleavage reactions of heterobicycloalkene-fused 3-methyl-2-isoxazolines were investigated. Optimal cleavage conditions were found with Raney nickel/AlCl3 mediation in aqueous methanol. The reaction provided a diverse collection of novel heterobicycle-fused ?-hydroxyketones with good to excellent yields (6695%) and without the need for chromatographic purification. PMID:25246978

  4. ?-Cleavage of cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingjing; Kong, Qingzhong

    2012-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrP (C) ) is subjected to various processing under physiological and pathological conditions, of which the ?-cleavage within the central hydrophobic domain not only disrupts a region critical for both PrP toxicity and PrP (C) to PrP (Sc) conversion but also produces the N1 fragment that is neuroprotective and the C1 fragment that enhances the pro-apoptotic effect of staurosporine in one report and inhibits prion in another. The proteases responsible for the ?-cleavage of PrP (C) are controversial. The effect of ADAM10, ADAM17, and ADAM9 on N1 secretion clearly indicates their involvement in the ?-cleavage of PrP (C) , but there has been no report of direct PrP (C) ?-cleavage activity with any of the three ADAMs in a purified protein form. We demonstrated that, in muscle cells, ADAM8 is the primary protease for the ?-cleavage of PrP (C) , but another unidentified protease(s) must also play a minor role. We also found that PrP (C) regulates ADAM8 expression, suggesting that a close examination on the relationships between PrP (C) and its processing enzymes may reveal novel roles and underlying mechanisms for PrP (C) in non-prion diseases such as asthma and cancer. PMID:23052041

  5. Mineral Cleavage: a practical experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sharon Browning

    In this geology activity, students investigate the physical property of mineral cleavage by physically trying to break down a block of halite and describing the results. This lab addresses many misunderstandings non-majors have about the physical properties of minerals and includes a brief write up of their conclusions.

  6. Does Electron Capture Dissociation Cleave Protein Disulfide Bonds?

    PubMed Central

    Ganisl, Barbara; Breuker, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Peptide and protein characterization by mass spectrometry (MS) relies on their dissociation in the gas phase into specific fragments whose mass values can be aligned as mass ladders to provide sequence information and to localize possible posttranslational modifications. The most common dissociation method involves slow heating of even-electron (M+n H)n+ ions from electrospray ionization by energetic collisions with inert gas, and cleavage of amide backbone bonds. More recently, dissociation methods based on electron capture or transfer were found to provide far more extensive sequence coverage through unselective cleavage of backbone NC? bonds. As another important feature of electron capture dissociation (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD), their unique unimolecular radical ion chemistry generally preserves labile posttranslational modifications such as glycosylation and phosphorylation. Moreover, it was postulated that disulfide bond cleavage is preferred over backbone cleavage, and that capture of a single electron can break both a backbone and a disulfide bond, or even two disulfide bonds between two peptide chains. However, the proposal of preferential disulfide bond cleavage in ECD or ETD has recently been debated. The experimental data presented here reveal that the mechanism of protein disulfide bond cleavage is much more intricate than previously anticipated. PMID:24363980

  7. Determination of the orientation of OH bond axes in layer silicates by infrared absorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serratosa, J.M.; Bradley, W.F.

    1958-01-01

    It is observed that, among the micas and related crystallizations, trioctahedral compositions exhibit an OH bond axis normal to the cleavage flake, with an infrared absorption frequency near 3700 cm.-1, but that dioctahedral compositions exhibit OH bond axes near the plane of the cleavage flake and of lesser absorption frequencies.

  8. On the Nature of Carbon-Hydrogen Bond Activation at Rhodium and Related Reactions

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    On the Nature of Carbon-Hydrogen Bond Activation at Rhodium and Related Reactions William D. Jones to cleave C-S bonds. Mechanistic information has been obtained indicating coordination through sulfur prior to cleavage. Relevant examples of nickel-based C-S cleavage will also be given. Introduction The activation

  9. Bond-dissociation using hybrid DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegbahn, Per E. M.; Blomberg, Margareta R. A.

    The calculation of potential curves and potential surfaces is the main approach for quantum chemical studies of reaction mechanisms. For a sufficient accuracy, qualitatively correct descriptions of bond cleavages and bond formations are required. When large models are used, such as for systems of biological interest, in practice the only available method is DFT. The most common variant is hybrid DFT with the B3LYP functional. In the present study, two cases of bond dissociation using B3LYP are discussed, one for the single O-O bond in hydrogen peroxide, the other one for the hextuple bond in the chromium dimer. Quite accurate results are obtained in both cases.

  10. Relationship between rolling textures and shear textures in F. C. C. and B. C. C. metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelscher, M.; Raabe, D.; Luecke, K. (Inst. fur Metallkunde und Metallphysik, Aachen (Germany))

    1994-03-01

    The rolling and shear textures of aluminum (f.c.c.) and Fe-16%Cr (b.c.c.) have been compared. First a 90[degree] rotation relationship about the transverse direction was found experimentally between the stable orientation of the rolling textures and the shear textures. This was explained with the symmetry of the glide systems and the orientation relationship between both coordinate systems. Second for both kinds of deformation namely rolling and shear a 90[degree] rotation relationship about the transverse direction was also found between the stable b.c.c. and f.c.c. orientations. This was explained with the Taylor theory and the Sachs model making use of the orientation relationship between f.c.c. and b.c.c. glide systems.

  11. Carbon-Fluorine Bond Cleavage by Zirconium Metal Hydride Complexes

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    the reaction rate nor the product ratio is affected by changes in H2 pressure or the concentration of C6F6 are CpH, Cp2Zr(C6F5)F, C6F5H, Cp2ZrF2, Cp4Zr, and Cp3ZrF. The reaction rate is first order in [Cp3Zr at ambient temperature to give Cp2Zr(C6F5)F as the major product along with Cp2ZrF2, C6F5H and H2. Neither

  12. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frost

    1994-01-01

    The microbial desulfurization of organosulfur compounds occurs by unprecedented and largely unexplored biochemical processes. A study of such biotic desulfurizations can be expected to give rise to new and useful chemistry and enzymology. The potential value of understanding and harnessing these processes is seen in relation to the need for methods for the removal of organically bound sulfur from coal

  13. The hammerhead cleavage reaction in monovalent cations

    E-print Network

    Bartel, David

    The hammerhead cleavage reaction in monovalent cations EDWARD A. CURTIS and DAVID P. BARTEL) concentrations of monovalent ions. We further characterized the hammerhead cleavage reaction in the absence, and that the effects of different metal ions on hammerhead cleavage rates primarily reflect structural contributions

  14. Photochemical DNA Cleavage by the Antitumor Agent

    E-print Network

    Gates, Kent. S.

    Photochemical DNA Cleavage by the Antitumor Agent 3-Amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-Dioxide, we ob- served light-dependent DNA cleavage by 1. We further investigated this phenomenon because-13 but that the photochemistry of benzotri- azine N-oxides was virtually unexplored. Results DNA cleavage in our studies

  15. Surface Structures on Cleaved Silicon by Cleavage Luminescence Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongguang

    This paper reports on further research into the structure and properties of the cleaved surfaces of silicon, using vacuum cleavage luminescence detection methods. Results show resistance partially recovers during the cleavage process through "crack healing". When the elasticity of the parts transmitting the applied stress temporarily absorbs the initial rupture stress, the crack stops and partially re-closes until the applied force "catches up" and reapplies stress. The high resistance created by the two Schottky barriers prevents resistance recovery from mere surfaces re-contact. Instead, resistance recovery from the atom-to-atom re-closure surface healing is more likely, as expected from a Three Bond Scission Model (TBS) silicon surface structure.

  16. [Ultrasonic cleavage of DNA in complexes with Ag(I), Cu(II), Hg(II)].

    PubMed

    Grokhovski?, S L; Il'icheva, I A; Panchenko, L A; Golovkin, M V; Nechipurenko, D Iu; Polozov, R V; Nechipurenko, Iu D

    2013-01-01

    We investigated a phenomenon of ultrasonic cleavage of DNA complexed with transition metal cations Ag(I), Cu(II) and Hg(II). We found the statistically significant dependence of relative intensity of cleavage on cation type and concentration. Each cation may cause two different types of distortion in the DNA double-helix depending on whether it binds to major or minor DNA groove. The intensity of ultrasonic cleavage decreases if cation binds to the major DNA groove; the intensity of cleavage increases if cation binds to the minor DNA groove and disturbs the hydrogen bonds of complementary base pairs or it intercalates between bases. Both types of DNA distortion can affect the intensity of N-S interconversion of deoxyribose. PMID:23650853

  17. 104. Catalog HHistory 1, C.C.C., 73 Picnic Furniture Construction, Negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. Catalog H-History 1, C.C.C., 73 Picnic Furniture Construction, Negative No. 8821 ca. 1936 WOOD UTILIZATION. COMPLETED RUSTIC BENCH MADE BY CCC ENROLLEES AT CAMP NP-3 FOR USE AT PARKING OVERLOOKS AND PICNIC GROUNDS. NOTE SAW IN BACKGROUND USED FOR HALVING CHESTNUT. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  18. 103. Catalog HHistory 1, C.C.C., 58 Landscaping, Negative No. 870 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. Catalog H-History 1, C.C.C., 58 Landscaping, Negative No. 870 10 ca. 1936 PROPAGATION AND PLANTING. ROOTED PLANTS TRANSPLANTED FROM HOT BEDS TO CANS TO SHADED BEDS IN PREPARATION FOR PLANTING ON ROAD SLOPES. NURSERY AT NORTH ENTRANCE. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  19. 102. Catalog HHistory 1, C.C.C., 34 Landscaping, Negative No. 6040a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Catalog H-History 1, C.C.C., 34 Landscaping, Negative No. 6040a (Photographer and date unknown) BEAUTIFICATION PROGRAM STARTED AS SOON AS GRADING ALONG THE DRIVE WAS COMPLETED. CCC CAMP 3 SHOWN PLANTING LAUREL. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  20. Failure mechanisms in wood joints bonded with urea-formaldehyde adhesives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. River; R. O. Ebewele; G. E. Myers

    1994-01-01

    Wood joints bonded with urea-formaldehyde (UF) are weakened by cyclic swelling and shrinking. To study the failure mecha- nisms in UF-bonded joints, specimens were bonded with unmod- ified, modified (amine), or phenol formaldehyde adhesive and subjected to accelerated aging. Modification of the adhesive properties increased the cleavage fracture toughness and shear strength of bonded joints and improved the resistance of

  1. CUDA C/C++ BASICS NVIDIA Corporation

    E-print Network

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    in this session? ! Start from "Hello World!" ! Write and launch CUDA C/C++ kernels ! Manage GPU memory() Asynchronous operation Handling errors Managing devices CONCEPTS #12;HELLO WORLD! Heterogeneous Computing results from GPU memory to CPU memory PCI Bus #12;Hello World! int main(void) { printf("Hello World

  2. CUDA C/C++ BASICS NVIDIA Corporation

    E-print Network

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    from "Hello World!" Write and launch CUDA C/C++ kernels Manage GPU memory Manage communication Managing devices CONCEPTS #12;HELLO WORLD! Heterogeneous Computing Blocks Threads Indexing Shared memory GPU memory to CPU memory PCI Bus #12;Hello World! int main(void) { printf("Hello World!\

  3. Hardware synthesis from C\\/C++ models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni De Micheli

    1999-01-01

    Software programming languages, such as C\\/C++, have been used as means for specifying hardware for quite a while. Different design methodologies have exploited the advantages of flexibility and fast simulation of models de- scribed with programming languages. At the same time, the mismatch (of software languages) in expressing power (for hardware systems) has caused several difficulties. In the recent past,

  4. Unusual nickel-mediated C-S cleavage of alkyl and aryl sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Thomas; Backes, Marc; Radius, Udo

    2007-05-28

    The first examples of transition metal mediated C-S cleavage of sulfoxides containing sp2- and sp3-hybridized carbon bonds attached to the sulfur atom and the first example of a structurally characterized complex featuring an oxygen-bound sulfinyl ligand are presented. PMID:17713070

  5. A large and accurate collection of peptidase cleavages in the MEROPS database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil D. Rawlings

    Peptidases are enzymes that hydrolyse peptide bonds in proteins and peptides. Peptidases are important in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, tumour and parasite invasion, and for processing viral polyproteins. The MEROPS database is an Internet resource containing information on peptidases, their substrates and inhibitors. The database now includes details of cleavage positions in substrates, both physiological and non-physiological, natural

  6. N-terminal cysteinyl proteins can be prepared using thrombin cleavage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongsheng Liu; Rong Xu; Kaushik Dutta; David Cowburn

    2008-01-01

    Expressed protein ligation which allows native proteins to be selectively linked together by a normal peptide bond in an aqueous environment has emerged as a powerful technique. The technique requires the formation of a C-terminal ?-thioester and an N-terminal Cys. An N-terminal Cys can be formed by enzymatic cleavage, commonly using the Factor Xa and TEV proteases. We

  7. Structural basis of carotenoid cleavage: from bacteria to mammals

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xuewu; Kiser, Philip D.; von Lintig, Johannes; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoids and their metabolic derivatives serve critical functions in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including pigmentation, photoprotection and photosynthesis as well as cell signaling. These organic compounds are also important for visual function in vertebrate and non-vertebrate organisms. Enzymatic transformations of carotenoids to various apocarotenoid products are catalyzed by a family of evolutionarily conserved, non-heme iron-containing enzymes named carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs). Studies have revealed that CCOs are critically involved in carotenoid homeostasis and essential for the health of organisms including humans. These enzymes typically display a high degree of regio- and stereo-selectivity, acting on specific positions of the polyene backbone located in their substrates. By oxidatively cleaving or isomerizing specific double bonds, CCOs generate a variety of apocarotenoid isomer products. Recent structural studies have helped illuminate the mechanisms by which CCOs mobilize their lipophilic substrates from biological membranes to perform their characteristic double bond cleavage and/or isomerization reactions. In this review, we aim to integrate structural and biochemical information about CCOs to provide insights into their catalytic mechanisms. PMID:23827316

  8. Rapid, Reversible Heterolytic Cleavage of Bound H2

    SciTech Connect

    Hulley, Elliott B.; Welch, Kevin D.; Appel, Aaron M.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-08-14

    Heterolytic cleavage of the H-H bond of H2 into a proton and hydride is a fundamentally important step in reactions of hydrogenase enzymes, oxidation of hydrogen in fuel cells, and catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds. Incorporation of a pendant amine as a proton acceptor has been shown to facilitate reactions of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzyme as well as synthetic catalysts for oxidation of H2. We report the facile, reversible heterolytic cleavage of H2 in a Mn complex bearing a pendant amine, leading to an Mn-H and N-H bond, with an estimated rate of >107 s-1 at 25 C. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, for support of the initial parts of this work. Current work is supported by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Histidine Residue Mediates Radical-induced Hinge Cleavage of Human IgG1

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Zac; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Zhou, Hongxing; Hu, Zhonghua; Liu, Zhi; Ketchem, Randal R.; Yan, Boxu

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyl radicals induce hinge cleavage in a human IgG1 molecule via initial radical formation at the first hinge Cys231 followed by electron transfer to the upper hinge residues. To enable engineering of a stable monoclonal antibody hinge, we investigated the role of the hinge His229 residue using structure modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. Direct involvement of His229 in the reaction mechanism is suggested by a 7585% reduction of the hinge cleavage for variants in which His229 was substituted with either Gln, Ser, or Ala. In contrast, mutation of Lys227 to Gln, Ser, or Ala increased hinge cleavage. However, the H229S/K227S double mutant shows hinge cleavage levels similar to that of the single H229S variant, further revealing the importance of His229. Examination of the hinge structure shows that His229 is capable of forming hydrogen bonds with surrounding residues. These observations led us to hypothesize that the imidazole ring of His229 may function to facilitate the cleavage by forming a transient radical center that is capable of extracting a proton from neighboring residues. The work presented here suggests the feasibility of engineering a new generation of monoclonal antibodies capable of resisting hinge cleavage to improve product stability and efficacy. PMID:20304919

  10. Cleavage of ?-dicarbonyl compounds by terpene hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Nagamatsu, Ryu-ichiro; Mitsuhashi, Shinya; Shigetomi, Kengo; Ubukata, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The highly reactive ?-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MGO), and 3-deoxyglucosone, react with the amino groups of proteins to form advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) which have been implicated in diabetic complications, aging, and Alzheimer's disease. We found that a test sample of terpinen-4-ol (T4) containing hydroperoxides showed cleaving activity toward an ?-dicarbonyl compound, but that the freshly isolated pure sample did not. Prepared terpinen-4-ol hydroperoxide (T4-H) also efficiently cleaved the C-C bond of the ?-dicarbonyl compounds via Baeyer-Villiger-like rearrangement and subsequent hydrolysis of an acid anhydride moiety in the rearranged product to give carboxylic acids. Other terpene hydroperoxides, as well as T4-H, showed significant cleaving activities, and all these hydroperoxides protected RNase A from the lowering of enzyme activity induced by MGO. The cleaving mechanism via Baeyer-Villiger-like rearrangement was confirmed by time-interval NMR measurements of the reaction mixture of the symmetrical ?-dicarbonyl compound, diacetyl with T4-H. PMID:23047102

  11. Pd(II)-Catalyzed CH Activation/CC Cross-Coupling Reactions: Versatility and Practicality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao; Engle, Keary M.; Wang, Dong-Hui; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, palladium-catalyzed CH activation/CC bond forming reactions have emerged as promising new catalytic transformations; however, development in this field is still at an early stage compared to the state of the art in cross-coupling reactions using aryl and alkyl halides. This Review begins with a brief introduction of four extensively investigated modes of catalysis for forming CC bonds from CH bonds: Pd(II)/Pd(0), Pd(II)/Pd(IV), Pd(0)/Pd(II)/Pd(IV) and Pd(0)/Pd(II) catalysis. More detailed discussion is then directed towards the recent development of Pd(II)-catalyzed coupling of CH bonds with organometallic reagents through a Pd(II)/Pd(0) catalytic cycle. Despite much progress made to date, improving the versatility and practicality of this new reaction remains a tremendous challenge. PMID:19557755

  12. Cleavage and creep fracture of rock salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); [Technion, Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)] [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The dominant failure mechanism in rock salt at ambient temperature is either cleavage or creep fracture. Since the transition of creep fracture to cleavage in a compressive stress field is not well understood, failure of rock salt by cleavage and creep fracture is analyzed in this paper to elucidate the effect of stress state on the competition between these two fracture mechanisms. For cleavage fracture, a shear crack is assumed to cause the formation and growth of a symmetric pair of wing cracks in a predominantly compressive stress field. The conditions for wing-crack instability are derived and presented as the cleavage fracture boundary in the fracture mechanism map. Using an existing creep fracture model, stress conditions for the onset of creep fracture and isochronous failure curves of specified times-to-rupture are calculated and incorporated into the fracture mechanism map. The regimes of dominance by cleavage and creep fracture are established and compared with experimental data. The result indicates that unstable propagation of cleavage cracks occurs only in the presence of tensile stress. The onset of creep fracture is promoted by a tensile stress, but can be totally suppressed by a high confining pressure. Transition of creep fracture to cleavage occurs when critical conditions of stress difference and tensile stress for crack instability are exceeded.

  13. The C & C Companion Transitional Semantics

    E-print Network

    Popeea, Corneliu - Chair for Foundations of Software Reliability and Theoretical Computer Science

    The C & C Companion Transitional Semantics Act ff : E ff ! E. Sum j If E j ff ! E 0 j and j 2 I then P i2I E i ff ! E 0 j . Com 1 If E ff ! E 0 then EjF ff ! E 0 jF . Com 2 If F ff ! F 0 then EjF ff ! EjF 0 . Com 3 If E ` ! E 0 and F ` ! F 0 then EjF ø ! E 0 jF 0 . Res If E ff ! E 0 and ff; ff 62 L

  14. Cleavage speed and implantation potential of early-cleavage embryos in IVF or ICSI cycles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Ju; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Lin, Ming-Huei; Hwu, Yuh-Ming

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether there is a correlation among early embryo cleavage, speed of cleavage, and implantation potential for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This retrospective study examined 112 cycles of IVF and 82 cycles of ICSI in patients less than 40 years of age. Early cleavage was defined as embryonic mitosis occurring 25-27 h after insemination. These day-3 embryos were then grouped according to cleavage speed (rapid, normal, and slow) and morphological quality (good or poor). A larger proportion of early-cleavage embryos developed normally compared to non-early-cleavage embryos (IVF: 69.1 % vs. 47.1 %, respectively; ICSI: 63.0 % vs. 45.6 %, respectively). The early-cleavage embryos also produced more good quality embryos than the non-early-cleavage embryos (IVF: 80.2 % vs. 56.4 %, respectively; ICSI: 73.4 % vs. 59.4 %). The implantation rate was significantly higher with early-cleavage embryos in both IVF (42.9 % vs. 19.7 %) and ICSI (48.1 % vs. 24 %). These results indicate that early-cleavage embryos have a higher rate of normal development and develop into better quality embryos on day 3, resulting in more and higher quality embryos to choose from for day-3 embryo transfer. Thus, early cleavage may be a useful criterion when selecting embryos for IVF or ICSI. PMID:22825967

  15. MODELING AND INFERRING CLEAVAGE PATTERNS IN PROLIFERATING EPITHELIA

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    MODELING AND INFERRING CLEAVAGE PATTERNS IN PROLIFERATING EPITHELIA A dissertation presented: Radhika Nagpal Author: Ankit B. Patel Title: Modeling and Inferring Cleavage Patterns in Proliferating questions arise: How does the local regulation of cleavage affect the global topology of proliferating

  16. Functional Interplay between Caspase Cleavage and Phosphorylation Sculpts

    E-print Network

    Cravatt, Benjamin

    Resource Functional Interplay between Caspase Cleavage and Phosphorylation Sculpts the Apoptotic proteolysis. We find that caspase cleavage can expose new sites for phosphorylation, and, conversely, that phosphor- ylation at the +3 position of cleavage sites can directly promote substrate proteolysis

  17. R, Science Service Feature Released on r c c c i p t

    E-print Network

    R, Science Service Feature Released on r c c c i p t but intended f o r use k y 2, 1928 Mailed t 8 of a clo.ud o r fog, under s u i t a b l e conditions of temperature4 C.G.Andrus, of t h e U*S'Weather Bureau, i n a r e c e n t discussion of such dcpOsit6, Points o u t t h a t t h e y a f f e c t t i e e f

  18. Control of blood proteins by functional disulfide bonds

    PubMed Central

    Butera, Diego; Cook, Kristina M.; Chiu, Joyce; Wong, Jason W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Most proteins in nature are chemically modified after they are made to control how, when, and where they function. The 3 core features of proteins are posttranslationally modified: amino acid side chains can be modified, peptide bonds can be cleaved or isomerized, and disulfide bonds can be cleaved. Cleavage of peptide bonds is a major mechanism of protein control in the circulation, as exemplified by activation of the blood coagulation and complement zymogens. Cleavage of disulfide bonds is emerging as another important mechanism of protein control in the circulation. Recent advances in our understanding of control of soluble blood proteins and blood cell receptors by functional disulfide bonds is discussed as is how these bonds are being identified and studied. PMID:24523239

  19. Chemical Bonds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Electrons are key to forming the two broad categories of chemical bonds: covalent and ionic. Atoms, which have a nucleus surrounded by electrons, are represented in several different ways. In the Chemical Bonds activity, students explore the different kinds of chemical bonds that can form, ranging from non-polar covalent to ionic. In the model depicted above students adjust the electronegativity of two atoms and see the effect it has on electron distribution and bond type.

  20. C.C. Berndt: Professional 1 Following your Passion while

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    C.C. Berndt: Professional 1 4/20/12 1 Following your Passion while Navigating the Bumps in the Road Chris Berndt Swinburne University of Technology; Melbourne Stony Brook University (SBU); NY-USA #12;C.C. Berndt: Professional Sydney Melbourne Where am I? Brisbane 2 2 #12;C.C. Berndt: Professional 3 85 km #1

  1. Binding and activation of small molecules by a quintuply bonded chromium dimer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jingmei; Yap, Glenn P A; Theopold, Klaus H

    2014-03-11

    The quintuply bonded [(H)L(iPr)Cr]2 reacts with various small molecules, revealing a pattern of two kinds of transformations. Unsaturated molecules that are neither polar nor oxidizing form binuclear [2+n] cycloaddition products retaining Cr-Cr quadruple bonds. In contrast, polar or oxidizing molecules effect the complete cleavage of the Cr-Cr bond. PMID:24463485

  2. Synthesis and reactivity of siloxide and silamide complexes pertaining to bond breaking and aggregation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolczanski, Peter T.

    1992-07-01

    The synthesis of siloxide and silamide complexes of tantalum has been carried out and their reactivity with respect to bond breaking and aggregation phenomena has been studied. Types of reactions include carbon monoxide cleavage to dicarbides and ketenylidene, carbon monoxide reduction, ketyl formation, ether cleavage, ligation of pyridine and related adducts, hydrocarbon activations, routes to early metal nitrides, and formation of cubic tantalum nitride.

  3. A new paradigm for enzymatic control of ?-cleavage and ?-cleavage of the prion protein.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Alex J; Dibble, Jessie P; Evans, Eric G B; Millhauser, Glenn L

    2014-01-10

    The cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C)) is found in both full-length and several different cleaved forms in vivo. Although the precise functions of the PrP(C) proteolytic products are not known, cleavage between the unstructured N-terminal domain and the structured C-terminal domain at Lys-109?His-110 (mouse sequence), termed ?-cleavage, has been shown to produce the anti-apoptotic N1 and the scrapie-resistant C1 peptide fragments. ?-Cleavage, residing adjacent to the octarepeat domain and N-terminal to the ?-cleavage site, is thought to arise from the action of reactive oxygen species produced from redox cycling of coordinated copper. We sought to elucidate the role of key members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) enzyme family, as well as Cu(2+) redox cycling, in recombinant mouse PrP (MoPrP) cleavage through LC/MS analysis. Our findings show that although Cu(2+) redox-generated reactive oxygen species do produce fragmentation corresponding to ?-cleavage, ADAM8 also cleaves MoPrP in the octarepeat domain in a Cu(2+)- and Zn(2+)-dependent manner. Additional cleavage by ADAM8 was observed at the previously proposed location of ?-cleavage, Lys-109?His-110 (MoPrP sequencing); however, upon addition of Cu(2+), the location of ?-cleavage shifted by several amino acids toward the C terminus. ADAM10 and ADAM17 have also been implicated in ?-cleavage at Lys-109?His-110; however, we observed that they instead cleaved MoPrP at a novel location, Ala-119?Val-120, with additional cleavage by ADAM10 at Gly-227?Arg-228 near the C terminus. Together, our results show that MoPrP cleavage is far more complex than previously thought and suggest a mechanism by which PrP(C) fragmentation responds to Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). PMID:24247244

  4. A New Paradigm for Enzymatic Control of ?-Cleavage and ?-Cleavage of the Prion Protein*

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Alex J.; Dibble, Jessie P.; Evans, Eric G. B.; Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) is found in both full-length and several different cleaved forms in vivo. Although the precise functions of the PrPC proteolytic products are not known, cleavage between the unstructured N-terminal domain and the structured C-terminal domain at Lys-109?His-110 (mouse sequence), termed ?-cleavage, has been shown to produce the anti-apoptotic N1 and the scrapie-resistant C1 peptide fragments. ?-Cleavage, residing adjacent to the octarepeat domain and N-terminal to the ?-cleavage site, is thought to arise from the action of reactive oxygen species produced from redox cycling of coordinated copper. We sought to elucidate the role of key members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) enzyme family, as well as Cu2+ redox cycling, in recombinant mouse PrP (MoPrP) cleavage through LC/MS analysis. Our findings show that although Cu2+ redox-generated reactive oxygen species do produce fragmentation corresponding to ?-cleavage, ADAM8 also cleaves MoPrP in the octarepeat domain in a Cu2+- and Zn2+-dependent manner. Additional cleavage by ADAM8 was observed at the previously proposed location of ?-cleavage, Lys-109?His-110 (MoPrP sequencing); however, upon addition of Cu2+, the location of ?-cleavage shifted by several amino acids toward the C terminus. ADAM10 and ADAM17 have also been implicated in ?-cleavage at Lys-109?His-110; however, we observed that they instead cleaved MoPrP at a novel location, Ala-119?Val-120, with additional cleavage by ADAM10 at Gly-227?Arg-228 near the C terminus. Together, our results show that MoPrP cleavage is far more complex than previously thought and suggest a mechanism by which PrPC fragmentation responds to Cu2+ and Zn2+. PMID:24247244

  5. DNA cleavage by metabolites of butylated hydroxytoluene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumiko Nagai; Keiko Ushiyama; Itsu Kano

    1993-01-01

    The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and its metabolites on DNA cleavage in vitro was studied with supercoiled plasmid DNA, pUC18, by agarose gel electrophoresis. Among several BHT metabolites, 2,6-di -t-butyl-p-benzoquinone (BHT-quinone) caused cleavage of supercoiled DNA (form I) at a concentration as low as 1 10?6 M. The relative amount of linear form (form III) was increased with

  6. Sequence-specific cleavage of dsRNA by Mini-III RNase.

    PubMed

    G?w, Dawid; Pianka, Dariusz; Sulej, Agata A; Koz?owski, ?ukasz P; Czarnecka, Justyna; Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Skowronek, Krzysztof J; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2015-03-11

    Ribonucleases (RNases) play a critical role in RNA processing and degradation by hydrolyzing phosphodiester bonds (exo- or endonucleolytically). Many RNases that cut RNA internally exhibit substrate specificity, but their target sites are usually limited to one or a few specific nucleotides in single-stranded RNA and often in a context of a particular three-dimensional structure of the substrate. Thus far, no RNase counterparts of restriction enzymes have been identified which could cleave double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in a sequence-specific manner. Here, we present evidence for a sequence-dependent cleavage of long dsRNA by RNase Mini-III from Bacillus subtilis (BsMiniIII). Analysis of the sites cleaved by this enzyme in limited digest of bacteriophage ?6 dsRNA led to the identification of a consensus target sequence. We defined nucleotide residues within the preferred cleavage site that affected the efficiency of the cleavage and were essential for the discrimination of cleavable versus non-cleavable dsRNA sequences. We have also determined that the loop ?5b-?6, a distinctive structural element in Mini-III RNases, is crucial for the specific cleavage, but not for dsRNA binding. Our results suggest that BsMiniIII may serve as a prototype of a sequence-specific dsRNase that could possibly be used for targeted cleavage of dsRNA. PMID:25634891

  7. Sequence-specific cleavage of dsRNA by Mini-III RNase

    PubMed Central

    G?w, Dawid; Pianka, Dariusz; Sulej, Agata A.; Koz?owski, ?ukasz P.; Czarnecka, Justyna; Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Skowronek, Krzysztof J.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2015-01-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) play a critical role in RNA processing and degradation by hydrolyzing phosphodiester bonds (exo- or endonucleolytically). Many RNases that cut RNA internally exhibit substrate specificity, but their target sites are usually limited to one or a few specific nucleotides in single-stranded RNA and often in a context of a particular three-dimensional structure of the substrate. Thus far, no RNase counterparts of restriction enzymes have been identified which could cleave double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in a sequence-specific manner. Here, we present evidence for a sequence-dependent cleavage of long dsRNA by RNase Mini-III from Bacillus subtilis (BsMiniIII). Analysis of the sites cleaved by this enzyme in limited digest of bacteriophage ?6 dsRNA led to the identification of a consensus target sequence. We defined nucleotide residues within the preferred cleavage site that affected the efficiency of the cleavage and were essential for the discrimination of cleavable versus non-cleavable dsRNA sequences. We have also determined that the loop ?5b-?6, a distinctive structural element in Mini-III RNases, is crucial for the specific cleavage, but not for dsRNA binding. Our results suggest that BsMiniIII may serve as a prototype of a sequence-specific dsRNase that could possibly be used for targeted cleavage of dsRNA. PMID:25634891

  8. C-C Activation in Biphenylene. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of (C5Me5)2M2(2,2-biphenyl) (M ) Rh, Co)

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    C-C Activation in Biphenylene. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of (C5Me5)2M2(2,2-biphenyl) (M cleavage of biphenylene was achieved with (C5Me5)M(C2H4)2 (M ) Rh, Co) to give the bimetallic species (C5Me on both binuclear species, and the energy barrier for interconversion of the two (C5Me5) fragments

  9. The Backbone Dynamics of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Transmembrane Helix Provides a Rationale for the Sequential Cleavage Mechanism of ?-Secretase

    PubMed Central

    Pester, Oxana; Barrett, Paul J.; Hornburg, Daniel; Hornburg, Philipp; Prbstle, Rasmus; Widmaier, Simon; Kutzner, Christoph; Drrbaum, Milena; Kapurniotu, Aphrodite; Sanders, Charles R.; Scharnagl, Christina; Langosch, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of Alzheimers disease depends on the relative abundance of different amyloid-? (A?) peptide species. These peptides are produced by sequential proteolytic cleavage within the transmembrane helix of the 99 residue C-terminal fragment of the amyloid precursor protein (C99) by the intramembrane protease ?-secretase. Intramembrane proteolysis is thought to require local unfolding of the substrate helix, which has been proposed to be cleaved as a homodimer. Here, we investigated the backbone dynamics of the substrate helix. Amide exchange experiments of monomeric recombinant C99 and of synthetic transmembrane domain peptides reveal that the N-terminal Gly-rich homodimerization domain exchanges much faster than the C-terminal cleavage region. MD simulations corroborate the differential backbone dynamics, indicate a bending motion at a di-glycine motif connecting dimerization and cleavage regions, and detect significantly different H-bond stabilities at the initial cleavage sites. Our results are consistent with the following hypotheses about cleavage of the substrate. First, the GlyGly hinge may precisely position the substrate within ?-secretase such that its catalytic center must start proteolysis at the known initial cleavage sites. Second, the ratio of cleavage products formed by subsequent sequential proteolysis could be influenced by differential extents of solvation and by the stabilities of H-bonds at alternate initial sites. Third, the flexibility of the Gly-rich domain may facilitate substrate movement within the enzyme during sequential proteolysis. Fourth, dimerization may affect substrate processing by decreasing the dynamics of the dimerization region and by increasing that of the C-terminal part of the cleavage region. PMID:23265086

  10. Enhancement of RNA self-cleavage by micellar catalysis.

    PubMed

    Riepe, A; Beier, H; Gross, H J

    1999-08-27

    It has been reported recently that naturally occurring catalytic RNAs like hammerhead and hairpin ribozyme do not require metal ions for efficient catalysis. It seems that the folded tertiary structure of the RNA contributes more to the catalytic function than was initially recognized. We found that a highly specific self-cleavage reaction can occur within a small bulge loop of four nucleotides in a mini-substrate derived from Arabidopsis thaliana intron-containing pre-tRNA(Tyr) in the absence of metal ions. NH(4)(+) cations and non-ionic or zwitter-ionic detergents at or above their critical micelle concentration are sufficient to catalyze this reaction. The dependence on micelles for the reaction leads to the assumption that physical properties, i.e. the hydrophobic interior of a micelle, are essential for this self-cleavage reaction. We suggest that NH(4)(+)-ions play a crucial role for the entry of the negatively charged RNA into the hydrophobic interior of a detergent micelle. A change of the pattern of hydration or hydrogen bonds caused by the hydrophobic surrounding enhances the reaction by a factor of 100. These findings suggest that highly structured RNAs may shift pK(a) values towards neutrality via the local environment and thereby enhance their ability to perform general acid-base catalysis without the participation of metal ions. PMID:10471777

  11. Rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanoacetylene (C2H5C?C-C?N), a compound of potential astrochemical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carles, S.; Mllendal, H.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2013-10-01

    Context. New radiotelescopes, such as the very sensitive ALMA, will enable the detection of interstellar molecules in much lower concentrations than previously possible. A successful identification of an interstellar molecule requires that laboratory microwave and millimeter-wave spectra are investigated. Several cyanopolyynes and alkynylcarbonitriles have already been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). Cyanoacetylene (HC?C-C?N) is abundant in the ISM and its methyl derivative, 2-butynenitrile (CH3C?C-C?N), is also present. The next derivative, ethyl cyanoacetylene, (2-pentynenitrile C2H5C?C-C?N) may also be present in interstellar space. Aims: We report the rotational spectrum of the ethyl cyanoacetylene (C2H5C?C-C?N). This is hoped to facilitate identifying gaseous ethyl cyanoacetylene in the ISM. Methods: We studied the rotational spectrum of C2H5C?C-C?N between 13 and 116 GHz with the microwave spectrometer of the University of Oslo. The spectroscopic study was augmented by high-level quantum-chemical calculations at B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and CCSD/cc-pVTZ levels of theory. Results: We present for the first time the rotational spectrum of the ethyl cyanoacetylene (C2H5C?C-C?N). We assigned 342 transitions of the vibrational ground state, accurate values were obtained for rotational and centrifugal distortion constants, and the dipole moment was determined as well.

  12. Peptide Ligation and RNA Cleavage via an Abiotic Template Interface.

    PubMed

    Piao, Xijun; Xia, Xin; Mao, Jie; Bong, Dennis

    2015-03-25

    We report herein DNA- and RNA-templated chemical transformation of bifacial peptide nucleic acid (bPNA) fragments directed by an abiotic triplex hybrid interface. Assembly of one bPNA strand with two unstructured oligo T/U strands enables facile insertion of DNA and RNA template sites within partially folded nucleic acids; this template topology is not easily accessed through native base-pairing. Triplex hybridization of reactive bPNA fragments on DNA and RNA templates is shown to catalyze amide bond ligation and controlled bPNA chain extension. RNA-templated oxidative coupling of bPNA fragments is found to result in the emergence of ribozyme cleavage function, thus establishing a connection between engineered and native reaction sites. These data demonstrate the use of new topologies in nucleic acid-templated chemistry that could serve as chemically sensitive DNA and RNA switches. PMID:25747470

  13. DNA and RNA Cleavage Mediated by Phenanthroline-Cuprous Oligonucleotides: From Properties to Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-C. Francois; M. Faria; D. Perrin; C. Giovannangeli

    \\u000a Several metallic ions when bound to a ligand bringing them in close proximity to nucleic acids are able to cleave phosphodiester\\u000a bonds, in the presence of oxygen. Redox-active iron and copper ions induced DNA cleavage in the presence of bleomycin, a well-known\\u000a antitumoral antibiotic interacting with DNA double helix. Small molecules such as ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA),\\u000a porphyrin, and 1,10-phenanthroline

  14. THE BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FERRET CAROTENE-9', 10'-MONOOXYGENASE CATALYZING CLEAVAGE OF CAROTENOIDS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that beta -carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (CMO1) catalyzes the cleavage of beta -carotene at the central carbon 15, 15-double bond, but cleaves lycopene with much lower activity. However, expressing the mouse carotene-9,10-monooxygenase (CMO2) in beta-carotene/lycopene...

  15. Determinants of chymotrypsinC cleavage specificity in the calcium-binding loop of human cationic trypsinogen.

    PubMed

    Szab, Andrs; Sahin-Tth, Mikls

    2012-12-01

    The pancreatic serine protease chymotrypsin C (CTRC) cleaves the Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond in the calcium-binding loop of human cationic trypsinogen and thereby promotes its degradation. This serves as a protective mechanism against ectopic trypsinogen activation in the pancreas. In the present study, we demonstrate that cleavage of the Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond by CTRC is highly specific, and other human pancreatic chymotrypsins (CTRB1, CTRB2 and CTRL1) and elastases (ELA2A, ELA3A and ELA3B) do not catalyze this reaction. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for CTRC specificity, we surveyed the primary (P1) cleavage preference of these pancreatic proteases on peptide substrates. We found that CTRC cleaved after a P1 Leu with at least tenfold higher catalytic efficiency than other enzymes tested. To assess extended sub-site interactions, we introduced Ala mutations into human cationic trypsinogen at the P3, P1' P3' and P4' amino acid positions, where P1-P1' corresponds to Leu81-Glu82. Interestingly, CTRC-mediated cleavage was stimulated threefold by mutation E82A and unaffected by mutations E79A and N84A, but all three mutations compromised specificity and resulted in increased cleavage by ELA2A. Mutation E85A decreased CTRC cleavage by twofold. Remarkably, other chymotrypsins and elastases did not cleave human cationic trypsinogen even with the L81F or L81A mutations, which introduced favorable P1 residues for these enzymes. We conclude that specific cleavage of the Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond in human cationic trypsinogen by CTRC is primarily determined by its distinctively high activity on leucyl peptide bonds, with the P1' Glu82, P3' Asn84 and P4' Glu85 residues serving as additional specificity determinants. PMID:23035638

  16. DNA hydrolytic cleavage catalyzed by synthetic multinuclear metallonucleases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changlin; Wang, Li

    2009-01-14

    Much effort has been directed at understanding the roles of metal ions in catalyzing the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds of nucleic acids. Nucleases are metalloenzymes that have a wide variety of active site motifs and that contain a variety of different metal ions. This property has made it difficult to propose a simple mechanism for these enzymes. Therefore, design and synthesis of metal complexes, which can mediate phosphodiester bond cleavage via hydrolytic pathways, are of important significance in elucidation of the catalytic mechanisms for the natural nucleases and in development of the biomacromolecule-targeted drugs. Recent progress has extended to the design of synthetic multinuclear metallonucleases containing two or more Fe(III), Zn(II), Cu(II), Co(II/III), or Ln(III/IV) ions. The ligands in these complexes include natural and nonnatural organic molecules, i.e., mainly benzimidazolyl- and pyridyl-based organic molecules, azamacrocyclic and aminocarboxylic derivatives, and their conjugates to polypeptides or oligonucleotides. The purpose of this perspective is to highlight: (1) the differences in structure and composition between natural and synthetic multinuclear metallonucleases; (2) the design strategies of synthetic multinuclear metallonucleases; (3) the relationship between the structures and nucleolytic activities of synthetic multinuclear metallonucleases; and (4) the cooperativities between metal sites, and between metal sites and ligands in the courses of phospodiester linkage hydrolysis. A comparison illustrates unifying themes in the catalysis of phosphodiester linkage hydrolysis by natural and synthetic multinuclear metallonucleases. Indeed, there are features that converge about the chemistry that provides insight into how changes in metal ions and ligands of both natural and synthetic metallonucleases may lead to the same overall outcome of phosphodiester backbone cleavage. In addition, we will also discuss the solvation effect of synthetic multinuclear metallonucleases and the challenges that should be faced toward the development of synthetic multinuclear metallonucleases with DNA sequence or structure selectivity by applying the principles of coordination and enzymatic chemistry. PMID:19089001

  17. The potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 catalyzes a single cleavage of ?-ionone ring-containing carotenes and non-epoxidated xanthophylls.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Mark; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2015-04-15

    Down-regulation of the potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (StCCD4) transcript level led to tubers with altered morphology and sprouting activity, which also accumulated higher levels of violaxanthin and lutein leading to elevated carotenoid amounts. This phenotype indicates a role of this enzyme in tuber development, which may be exerted by a cleavage product. In this work, we investigated the enzymatic activity of StCCD4, by expressing the corresponding cDNA in carotenoid accumulating Escherichia coli strains and by performing in vitro assays with heterologously expressed enzyme. StCCD4 catalyzed the cleavage of all-trans-?-carotene at the C9'-C10' double bond, leading to ?-ionone and all-trans-?-apo-10'-carotenal, both in vivo and in vitro. The enzyme also cleaved ?,?-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein either at the C9'-C10' or the C9-C10 double bond in vitro. In contrast, we did not observe any conversion of violaxanthin and only traces of activity with 9-cis-?-carotene, which led to 9-cis-?-apo-10'-carotenal. Our data indicate that all-trans-?-carotene is the likely substrate of StCCD4 in planta, and that this carotene may be precursor of an unknown compound involved in tuber development. PMID:25703194

  18. Class 5, fertilization and onset of cleavage September 23, 2009 Fertilization and Cleavage: the start of making a new organism

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    Class 5, fertilization and onset of cleavage September 23, 2009 1 Fertilization and Cleavage, fertilization and onset of cleavage September 23, 2009 2 7.4 Structure of the sea urchin egg at fertilization, fertilization and onset of cleavage September 23, 2009 3 7.11 The acrosome reaction in sea urchin sperm 7

  19. Does Cleavage Work at Work? Men, but Not Women, Falsely Believe Cleavage Sells a Weak Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Peter; Chrislock, Karyna; Petersik, Korinne; Vijay, Madhuri; Turek, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether men, but not women, would be distracted by a female sales representative's exposed cleavage, leading to greater perceived efficacy for a weak, but not for a strong product. A community sample of 88 men and 97 women viewed a video of a female pharmaceutical sales representative who (a) had exposed cleavage or dressed modestly

  20. Identification of an Acyl-Enzyme Intermediate in a meta-Cleavage Product Hydrolase Reveals the Versatility of the Catalytic Triad

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzzini, Antonio C.; Ghosh, Subhangi; Horsman, Geoff P.; Foster, Leonard J.; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Eltis, Lindsay D. (Purdue); (UBC)

    2014-10-02

    Meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolases are members of the {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase superfamily that utilize a Ser-His-Asp triad to catalyze the hydrolysis of a C-C bond. BphD, the MCP hydrolase from the biphenyl degradation pathway, hydrolyzes 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) to 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoic acid (HPD) and benzoate. A 1.6 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of BphD H265Q incubated with HOPDA revealed that the enzyme's catalytic serine was benzoylated. The acyl-enzyme is stabilized by hydrogen bonding from the amide backbone of 'oxyanion hole' residues, consistent with formation of a tetrahedral oxyanion during nucleophilic attack by Ser112. Chemical quench and mass spectrometry studies substantiated the formation and decay of a Ser112-benzoyl species in wild-type BphD on a time scale consistent with turnover and incorporation of a single equivalent of {sup 18}O into the benzoate produced during hydrolysis in H{sub 2}{sup 18}O. Rapid-scanning kinetic studies indicated that the catalytic histidine contributes to the rate of acylation by only an order of magnitude, but affects the rate of deacylation by over 5 orders of magnitude. The orange-colored catalytic intermediate, ES{sup red}, previously detected in the wild-type enzyme and proposed herein to be a carbanion, was not observed during hydrolysis by H265Q. In the newly proposed mechanism, the carbanion abstracts a proton from Ser112, thereby completing tautomerization and generating a serinate for nucleophilic attack on the C6-carbonyl. Finally, quantification of an observed pre-steady-state kinetic burst suggests that BphD is a half-site reactive enzyme. While the updated catalytic mechanism shares features with the serine proteases, MCP hydrolase-specific chemistry highlights the versatility of the Ser-His-Asp triad.

  1. The dual role of oxygen functions in coal pretreatment and liquefaction: Crosslinking and cleavage reactions. Seventh quarterly report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Solomon, P.R.

    1992-12-31

    The work during the past quarter under Task 2 has focused on the investigation of FT-IR methods for measuring carboxyl and phenolic functions. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of coal contain a wealth of information that can be utilized in the development of quantitative analysis routines based on least squares curvefitting. Because of the importance of the carboxylate groups in retrogressive reactions, recent efforts have focused on the C=O stretching region. Raw and modified coal samples (acid washed, demineralized, and cation exchanged) were analyzed in order to validate the proposed band assignments in the C=O stretching region. This parameter set differentiates free carbonyl (B2) and hydrogen-bonded carbonyl (B4) from carboxylic acid carbonyl (B3) and carboxylate (B7). One test of these assignments, which are based on literature data, is to plot B3 versus B7. This should be linear, assuming that the sum of the free carboxyl and carboxylate groups is constant and that the intensity of the overlapped aromatic ring band in B7 is also constant. This relationship was found to hold for a set of raw, acid washed, and acid washed/cation-exchanged Zap coals. The work under Task 3 has involved (1) completion of the synthesis of the -C-C-0- linked, methoxy substituted lignin-network polymer, -- C{sub 6}H{sub 3}(o-OMe)-O-CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}]{sub {eta}} -- polymer, (2) Analysis of the polymer via depolymerization under pyrolysis-FIMS (Py-FIMS) conditions, and (3) testing of several routes to selective cleavage of the O-Methyl bond so that the relative crosslinking tendencies of the methylated and unmethylated versions of the polymer could be determined.

  2. Kinetic Parameters of Cleavage of CpA and UpA Sequences in an Oligoribonucleotide by Compounds Functionally Mimicking Ribonuclease A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Beloglazova; N. L. Mironova; D. A. Konevets; V. A. Petyuk; V. N. Sil'nikov; V. V. Vlasov; M. A. Zenkova

    2002-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of cleavage of CpA and UpA sites in an oligoribonucleotide under the action of artificial ribonuclease ABL3C1 were measured. The compounds were built of RNA-binding domain B, catalytic fragment C, linker L3 comprising 3 methylene groups, and aliphatic fragment A. The rate of cleavage of phosphodiester bonds in the CpA site within decaribonucleotide UUCAUGUAAA was shown to be

  3. Understanding selectivity in the oxidative addition of the carbon-sulfur bonds of 2-cyanothiophene to Pt(0).

    PubMed

    Ate?in, Tlay A; Ate?in, Abdurrahman C; Skugrud, Karlyn; Jones, William D

    2008-06-01

    The reaction of 2-cyanothiophene with a zerovalent platinum bisalkylphosphine fragment yields two thiaplatinacycles derived from the cleavage of the substituted and unsubstituted C-S bonds. While cleavage away from the cyano group is preferred kinetically, cleavage adjacent to the cyano group is preferred thermodynamically. Density functional theory using B3LYP level of theory on a model of this system is consistent with experimental results in that the transition state energy leading to the formation of the kinetically favored C-S bond cleavage product is lower by 5.3 kcal mol(-1) than the barrier leading to the thermodynamically favored product. There is a 6.7 kcal mol(-1) difference between these two products. The cyano substituent at the 2- position of thiophene did not substantially change the mechanism involved in the C-S bond cleavage of thiophene previously reported. PMID:18447341

  4. Failure mechanisms in wood joints bonded with urea-formaldehyde adhesives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. River; R. O. Ebewele; G. E. Myers

    1994-01-01

    Wood joints bonded with urea-formaldehyde (UF) are weakened by cyclic swelling and shrinking. To study the failure mechanisms\\u000a in UF-bonded joints, specimens were bonded with unmodified, modified (amine), or phenol formaldehyde adhesive and subjected\\u000a to accelerated aging. Modification of the adhesive properties increased the cleavage fracture toughness and shear strength\\u000a of bonded joints and improved the resistance of joints to

  5. The high temperature strength of C/C and C/C-SIC composites under shear loading

    SciTech Connect

    Thielicke, B.; Soltesz, U. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Wekstoffmechanick, Freiburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    In this paper the influence of the temperature on the shear strength of a C/C-SiC composite is studied and compared with that one of two C/C materials. The Interlaminar Shear Strengths (ILSS) were measured in the range from room temperature up to 2000{degrees}C under inert gas atmosphere using an unsymmetrical compression shear test. With increasing temperature the shear strengths of all materials increase. However, in each case the values of C/C-SiC were significantly higher than those of C/C.

  6. On the Relative Merits of Non-Orthogonal and Orthogonal Valence Bond Methods Illustrated on the Hydrogen Molecule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Malrieu, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Valence bond (VB) is one of the cornerstone theories of quantum chemistry. Even if in practical applications the molecular orbital (MO) approach has obtained more attention, some basic chemical concepts (such as the nature of the chemical bond and the failure of the single determinant-based MO methods in describing the bond cleavage) are normally

  7. Roles of tryptophan residue and disulfide bond in the variable lid region of oxidized polyvinyl alcohol hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Jian; Guo, Rey-Ting; Du, Guocheng

    2014-09-26

    Oxidized polyvinyl alcohol hydrolase (OPH) catalyzes the cleavage of C-C bond in ?-diketone. It belongs to the ?/?-hydrolase family and contains a unique lid region that covers the active site. The lid is the most variable region when pOPH from Pseudomonas sp. VM15C and sOPH from Sphingopyxis sp. 113P3 are compared. The wild-type enzymes and the pOPH mutants W255A, W255Y and W255F were analyzed for lipase activity by using p-nitrophenyl (pNP) esters as the substrates. The wild-type enzymes showed increased Km and decreased kcat/Km with the acyl chain length, and the mutants showed reduced kcat/Km for pNP acetate, indicating the importance of Trp255 in sequestering the active site from solvent. The significantly lower activity for pNP butyrate can be a result of product inhibition, as suggested by the complex crystal structures, in which butyric acid, DMSO or PEG occupied the same substrate-binding cleft. The mutant activity was retained with pNP caprylate and pNP laurate as the substrates, reflecting the amphipathic nature of the cleft. Moreover, the disulfide bond formation of Cys257/267 is important for the activity of pOPH, but it is not essential for sOPH, which has a shorter lid structure. PMID:25173935

  8. Deprotonation of coordinated phosphanes in a rhenium complex: c?c coupling with diimine coligands.

    PubMed

    Arvalo, Rebeca; Prez, Julio; Riera, Luca

    2015-02-23

    The reaction of fac-[Re(bipy)(CO)3 (PMe3 )][OTf] (bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) with KN(SiMe3 )2 affords two neutral products: cis,trans-[Re(bipy)(CO)2 (CN)(PMe3 )], and a thermally unstable compound, which features a new C?C bond between a P-bonded methylene group (from methyl group deprotonation) and the C6 position of bipy. The solid-state structures of more stable 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene analogs, resulting from the deprotonation of PMe3 , PPhMe2 , and PPh2 Me ligands, are determined by X-ray diffraction. PMID:25604138

  9. Cleavage Specificity Analysis of Six Type II Transmembrane Serine Proteases (TTSPs) Using PICS with Proteome-Derived Peptide Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Bliveau, Franois; Leduc, Richard; Overall, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are a family of cell membrane tethered serine proteases with unclear roles as their cleavage site specificities and substrate degradomes have not been fully elucidated. Indeed just 52 cleavage sites are annotated in MEROPS, the database of proteases, their substrates and inhibitors. Methodology/Principal Finding To profile the active site specificities of the TTSPs, we applied Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites (PICS). Human proteome-derived database searchable peptide libraries were assayed with six human TTSPs (matriptase, matriptase-2, matriptase-3, HAT, DESC and hepsin) to simultaneously determine sequence preferences on the N-terminal non-prime (P) and C-terminal prime (P) sides of the scissile bond. Prime-side cleavage products were isolated following biotinylation and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The corresponding non-prime side sequences were derived from human proteome databases using bioinformatics. Sequencing of 2,405 individual cleaved peptides allowed for the development of the family consensus protease cleavage site specificity revealing a strong specificity for arginine in the P1 position and surprisingly a lysine in P1? position. TTSP cleavage between R?K was confirmed using synthetic peptides. By parsing through known substrates and known structures of TTSP catalytic domains, and by modeling the remainder, structural explanations for this strong specificity were derived. Conclusions Degradomics analysis of 2,405 cleavage sites revealed a similar and characteristic TTSP family specificity at the P1 and P1? positions for arginine and lysine in unfolded peptides. The prime side is important for cleavage specificity, thus making these proteases unusual within the tryptic-enzyme class that generally has overriding non-prime side specificity. PMID:25211023

  10. C?C coupling of ketones with methanol catalyzed by a N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complex.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xu; Kerdphon, Sutthichat; Andersson, Pher G

    2015-02-23

    An N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complex system was found to be a very efficient catalyst for the methylation of ketone via a hydrogen transfer reaction. Mild conditions together with low catalyst loading (1?mol?%) were used for a tandem process which involves the dehydrogenation of methanol, C?C bond formation with a ketone, and hydrogenation of the new generated double bond by iridium hydride to give the alkylated product. Using this iridium catalyst system, a number of branched ketones were synthesized with good to excellent conversions and yields. PMID:25589169

  11. f ompoundscontaininga o bond connectingcarbon \\r.v and copper(l) r.rsuallyshow a low order of thermal

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    cleavage of the carbon-metalbond.'rthe ionic characterof the bond,{and the magnitudeof(triethylphosphine)copperin sulfur dioxide solutionat 0o consistsof a sharpline at 6.ii) ppm downfield ttom internaltetramethyisilane

  12. Characterization of Brazed Joints of C-C Composite to Cu-clad-Molybdenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites with either pitch+CVI matrix or resin-derived matrix were joined to copper-clad molybdenum using two active braze alloys, Cusil-ABA (1.75% Ti) and Ticusil (4.5% Ti). The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of Ti at the composite/braze interface, and a tendency toward de-lamination in resin-derived C-C composite due to its low inter-laminar shear strength. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the pitch+CVI C-C composites was observed. The relatively low brazing temperatures (<950 C) precluded melting of the clad layer and restricted the redistribution of alloying elements but led to metallurgically sound composite joints. The Knoop microhardness (HK) distribution across the joint interfaces revealed sharp gradients at the Cu-clad-Mo/braze interface and higher hardness in Ticusil (approx.85-250 HK) than in Cusil-ABA (approx.50-150 HK). These C-C/Cu-clad-Mo joints with relatively low thermal resistance may be promising for thermal management applications.

  13. Homogeneous Gold Catalysis Highly Efficient Functionalization of CC Multiple Bonds and Electron-Rich CH Bonds

    E-print Network

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Homogeneous Gold Catalysis Highly Efficient Functionalization of CC Multiple Bonds and Electron references: Puddephatt, R. The Chemistry of Gold; E. L. Sevier Scientific Publication Co., Amsterdam, 1978. Hashmi, A. S. K. Gold Bulletin 2004, 37, 51-65. Parish, R. V. Gold Bulletin 1997, 30, 3-12. Parish, R. V

  14. Macrogeographical versus Microgeographical Cleavages in Contemporary Texas Politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Myers

    This study compares the importance of macrogeographical cleavages (i.e. differences across historical sub-regions) and microgeographical cleavages (e.g. differences across population density categories) to the contemporary electoral landscape of Texas. Results from statewide contests since 1994 will be used to show that the importance of macrogeographical cleavages is diminishing while the importance of microgeographical cleavages is growing. Additionally, results from the

  15. Unidirectional redox-stimulated movement around a C-C single bond.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Christina; Haberhauer, Gebhard

    2011-07-11

    A remarkable challenge for the design of molecular machines is the realization of a synchronized and unidirectional movement caused by an external stimulus. Such a movement can be achieved by a unidirectionally controlled change of the conformation or the configuration. Biphenol derivatives are one possibility to realize a redox-driven unidirectional molecular switch. For this reason, a 4,4'-biphenol derivative was fixed to a chiral cyclopeptidic scaffold and stimulated by chemical oxidants and reduction agents. The conformation of the switch was determined by DFT calculations by using B3LYP and the 6-31G* basis set. The switching process was observed by UV and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic measurements. Several oxidation agents and various conditions were tested, among which (diacetoxy)iodobenzene (DAIB) in methanol proved to be the best. In this way it was possible to synthesize a redox-stimulated molecular switch with a movement that is part of a rotation around a biaryl binding axis. PMID:21626582

  16. 1 Reactivity Differences of Pt0 Phosphine Complexes in C-C Bond

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Acetylenes 3 Ahmet Gunay, Christian Muller, Rene J. Lachicotte, William W. Brennessel, and 4 William D. Joneseq 1. The syntheses all involve reaction of a 1:1:1 mixture of *Corresponding author. E-mail: jones. J. Mol. Catal. A 2002, 189, 145. (6) (a) Gunay, A.; Jones, W. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 8729

  17. In Pursuit of an Ideal C-C Bond-Forming Reaction

    PubMed Central

    RajanBabu, T. V.

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to introduce the highly versatile vinyl group into other organic molecules in a chemo-, regio- and stereoselective fashion via catalytic activation of ethylene provided challenging opportunities to explore new ligand and salt effects in homogeneous catalysis. This review provides a personal account of the development of enantioselective reactions involving ethylene. PMID:19606231

  18. Aminocatalytic cross-coupling approach via iminium ions to different C - C Bonds.

    PubMed

    Mupparapu, Nagaraju; Battini, Narsaiah; Battula, Satyanarayana; Khan, Shahnawaz; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Ahmed, Qazi Naveed

    2015-02-01

    Given the attractive ability of iminium ions to functionalize molecules directly at ostensibly unreactive positions, the reactivity of iminium ions, in which an ? CH2 group is replaced by C?O was explored. Background studies on the ability of such iminium cations to promote reactions via an iminium-catalyzed or iminium-equivalent pathway are apparently unavailable. Previously, tandem cross-coupling reactions were reported, in which an iminium ion undergoes nucleophilic 1,2-addition to give a putative three-component intermediate that abstracts a proton in situ and undergoes self-deamination followed by unprecedented DMSO/aerobic oxidation to generate ?-ketoamides. However, later it was observed that iminium ions can generate valuable ?-ketoamides through simple aerobic oxidation. In all reactions, iminium ions were generated in situ by reaction of 2-oxoaldehydes with secondary amines. PMID:25524296

  19. Transferability of cleavage fracture parameters between notched and cracked geometries

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Transferability of cleavage fracture parameters between notched and cracked geometries C. Bouchet1 and specimen geometry dependence of cleavage fracture micromechanisms of a French pressure vessel steel (A508 of the defects involved in the cleavage triggering, (ii) the mechanical parameters (stress and strain) values

  20. Control of the Mitotic Cleavage Plane by Local Epithelial Topology

    E-print Network

    Perrimon, Norbert

    Theory Control of the Mitotic Cleavage Plane by Local Epithelial Topology William T. Gibson,1 cleavage plane (e.g., Hofmeister, 1863). However, we still understand little about the complex interplay between cell shape and cleavage-plane orientation in epithelia, where polygonal cell geome- tries emerge

  1. INTRODUCTION Spiral cleavage is characterized by cell divisions that are

    E-print Network

    Weisblat, David A.

    INTRODUCTION Spiral cleavage is characterized by cell divisions that are oriented obliquely with each round of divisions. The divisions are typically unequal, beginning with third cleavage as exhibiting spiral cleavage (Brusca and Brusca, 1990). Of these, all but the arthropods fall within

  2. Introduction Embryonic cleavage comprises the period of rapid and

    E-print Network

    Hertzler, Philip L.

    Introduction Embryonic cleavage comprises the period of rapid and usually synchronous cell division following fertilization. Cleavage transforms the egg into a multicellular embryo and in some instances of cleavage. A logical system in which cell division might play a role in gastrulation is one in which

  3. Control of the mitotic cleavage plane by local epithelial topology

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    1 Control of the mitotic cleavage plane by local epithelial topology William T. Gibson1 cleavage plane (e.g. Hofmeister, 1863). However, we still understand little about the complex interplay between cell shape and cleavage plane orientation in epithelia, where polygonal cell geometries emerge

  4. Accessibility of Deoxyribose Protons and Cleavage by Hydroxyl Radical

    E-print Network

    Schlick, Tamar

    Accessibility of Deoxyribose Protons and Cleavage by Hydroxyl Radical Daniel Strahs and Tamar property of gradually decreasing hydroxyl radical-catalyzed cleavage within the A-tract region, in the 5-tract region [3]. Deuterium isotope effect studies of the DNA cleavage reaction conducted by Tullius and cowork

  5. Photochemical -cleavage of ketones: revisiting acetone Yehuda Haas

    E-print Network

    Haas, Yehuda

    Photochemical -cleavage of ketones: revisiting acetone Yehuda Haas Department of Physical Chemistry on the web 30th September 2003 The photochemical -cleavage of acetone is analyzed in view of recent results -cleavage to form the triplet radical pair CH3 CH3CO . Direct reaction from the S1 is negligible

  6. Identification of succinimide sites in proteins by N-terminal sequence analysis after alkaline hydroxylamine cleavage.

    PubMed

    Kwong, M Y; Harris, R J

    1994-01-01

    Under favorable conditions, Asp or Asn residues can undergo rearrangement to a succinimide (cyclic imide), which may also serve as an intermediate for deamidation and/or isoaspartate formation. Direct identification of such succinimides by peptide mapping is hampered by their lability at neutral and alkaline pH. We determined that incubation in 2 M hydroxylamine, 0.2 M Tris buffer, pH 9, for 2 h at 45 degrees C will specifically cleave on the C-terminal side of succinimides without cleavage at Asn-Gly bonds; yields are typically approximately 50%. N-terminal sequence analysis can then be used to identify an internal sequence generated by cleavage of the succinimide, hence identifying the succinimide site. PMID:8142891

  7. Analysis of Carotenoid Isomerase Activity in a Prototypical Carotenoid Cleavage Enzyme, Apocarotenoid Oxygenase

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Analysis of Carotenoid Isomerase Activity in a Prototypical Carotenoid Cleavage Enzyme non-isomerizing member of the carotenoid cleavage enzyme family. Carotenoid cleavage enzymes (CCEs activity (13). Apocarotenoids are biologically important molecules gener- ated by the oxidative cleavage

  8. Mutations affecting cleavage at the p10-capsid protease cleavage site block Rous sarcoma virus replication.

    PubMed

    Vana, Marcy L; Chen, Aiping; Boross, Peter; Weber, Irene; Colman, Dalbinder; Barklis, Eric; Leis, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    A series of amino acid substitutions (M239F, M239G, P240F, V241G) were placed in the p10-CA protease cleavage site (VVAM*PVVI) to change the rate of cleavage of the junction. The effects of these substitutions on p10-CA cleavage by RSV PR were confirmed by measuring the kinetics of cleavage of model peptide substrates containing the wild type and mutant p10-CA sites. The effects of these substitutions on processing of the Gag polyprotein were determined by labeling Gag transfected COS-1 cells with 35S-Met and -Cys, and immunoprecipitation of Gag and its cleavage products from the media and lysate fractions. All substitutions except M239F caused decreases in detectable Gag processing and subsequent release from cells. Several of the mutants also caused defects in production of the three CA proteins. The p10-CA mutations were subcloned into an RSV proviral vector (RCAN) and introduced into a chick embryo fibroblast cell line (DF-1). All of the mutations except M239F blocked RSV replication. In addition, the effects of the M239F and M239G substitutions on the morphology of released virus particles were examined by electron microscopy. While the M239F particles appeared similar to wild type particles, M239G particles contained cores that were large and misshapen. These results suggest that mutations affecting cleavage at the p10-CA protease cleavage site block RSV replication and can have a negative impact on virus particle morphology. PMID:16188035

  9. Role of posttranslational cleavage in glycinin assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, C D; Hussein, E H; Nielsen, N C

    1989-01-01

    Glycinin, like other 11S seed storage proteins, undergoes a complex series of posttranslational events between the time proglycinin precursors are synthesized in endoplasmic reticulum and the mature glycinin subunits are deposited in vacuolar protein bodies. According to the current understanding of this process, proglycinin subunits aggregate into trimers in endoplasmic reticulum, and then the trimers move to the vacuolar protein bodies where a protease cleaves them into acidic and basic polypeptide chains. Stable glycinin hexamers, rather than trimers, are isolated from mature seeds. We used a re-assembly assay in this study to demonstrate that proteolytic cleavage of the proglycinin subunits is required for in vitro assembly of glycinin oligomers beyond the trimer stage. The possibility that the cleavage is a regulatory step and that it triggers the deposition of 11S seed storage proteins as insoluble aggregates in vivo is considered. PMID:2562565

  10. Sustained water cleavage by visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Borgarello, E.; Kiwi, J.; Pelizzetti, E.; Visca, M.; Graetzel, M.

    1981-10-21

    Sustained cleavage of water by 4 quanta of visible light is achieved in aqueous solutions by using a bifunctional redox catalyst composed of Pt and RuO/sub 2/ cosupported by colloidal TiO/sub 2/ particles. A photochemical model system containing Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/ as a sensitizer and methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) as an electron relay is used to test the effect of catalyst composition, sensitizer concentration, pH, and temperature on the efficiency of light-induced water decomposition. Electron relay free systems also exhibit high photoactivity. Direct band gap irradiation by uv light leads to efficient water cleavage in the absence of sensitizer and relay.

  11. Reductive cleavage of the positional isomers of benzoylated and methylated methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Rozanas, C R; Gray, G R

    1997-03-13

    The four O-benzoyl-tri-O-methyl positional isomers, the six di-O-benzoyl-di-O-methyl positional isomers, the four tri-O-benzoyl-O-methyl positional isomers, and the tetra-O-benzoyl derivative of methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside were synthesized, characterized, and subjected to reductive cleavage in the presence of triethylsilane and trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate. The reactions were monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy in order to establish the rates of the reactions and the identities of the products so formed. The tetra-O-benzoyl derivative, all tri-O-benzoyl-O-methyl positional isomers, and the 2.4-di-O-benzoyl-3.6-di-O-methyl positional isomer were fully stable to reductive-cleavage conditions, but the other di-O-benzoyl-di-O-methyl positional isomers and all O-benzoyl-tri-O-methyl positional isomers were converted to their respective 1.5-anhydro-D-mannitol derivatives via reductive cleavage of their anomeric carbon-oxygen bonds. For the mono-O-benzoyl positional isomers, the rate of reductive cleavage decreased in the order 2-O-benzoyl > 6-O-benzoyl > 3-O-benzoyl approximately 4-O-benzoyl. Moreover, all mono-O-benzoyl positional isomers were cleaved at a much faster rate than the di-O-benzoyl positional isomers. These results suggest that both anchimeric assistance and inductive effects of the ester groups contribute to the observed reaction rate. Based upon these results it is suggested that reductive cleavage of benzoylated polysaccharides might serve as a means to cleave selectively at branched residues. PMID:9098955

  12. DNA cleavage by metabolites of butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Nagai, F; Ushiyama, K; Kano, I

    1993-01-01

    The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and its metabolites on DNA cleavage in vitro was studied with supercoiled plasmid DNA, pUC18, by agarose gel electrophoresis. Among several BHT metabolites, 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-benzoquinone (BHT-quinone) caused cleavage of supercoiled DNA (form I) at a concentration as low as 1 x 10(-6) M. The relative amount of linear form (form III) was increased with increasing concentration of BHT-quinone. 2,6-Di-t-butyl-4-hydroperoxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT-peroxyquinol) and 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (BHT-CHO) also cleaved DNA, but to a lesser extent than BHT-quinone. No DNA cleavage was detected by BHT, 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxymethyl phenol (BHT-OH), 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHT-COOH), 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT-quinol) or 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT-quinone methide). The DNA cleavage by BHT-quinone was inhibited by oxygen radical scavengers including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, polyethylene glycol, t-butyl alcohol, dimethyl sulfoxide, sodium azide, sodium benzoate, bovine serum albumin and methionine, while it was enhanced by the addition of FeCl2. The production of superoxide radical in a solution of BHT-quinone was confirmed by cytochrome c reduction assay. Superoxide was not produced by BHT or other BHT metabolites except for BHT-quinone. These results suggest that BHT-quinone, one of the principal metabolites of BHT, cleaves DNA strands via its generation of oxygen radicals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8285854

  13. Intracellular RNA cleavage by the hairpin ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Seyhan, A A; Amaral, J; Burke, J M

    1998-01-01

    Studies involving ribozyme-directed inactivation of targeted RNA molecules have met with mixed success, making clear the importance of methods to measure and optimize ribozyme activity within cells. The interpretation of biochemical assays for determining ribozyme activity in the cellular environment have been complicated by recent results indicating that hammerhead and hairpin ribozymes can cleave RNA following cellular lysis. Here, we report the results of experiments in which the catalytic activity of hairpin ribozymes is monitored following expression in mammalian cells, and in which post-lysis cleavage is rigorously excluded through a series of biochemical and genetic controls. Following transient transfection, self-processing transcripts containing active and inactive hairpin ribozymes together with cleavable and non-cleavable substrates were generated within the cytoplasm of mouse OST7-1 cells using T7 RNA polymerase. Unprocessed RNA and products ofintracellular cleavage were detected and analyzed using a primer-extension assay. Ribozyme-containing transcripts accumulated to a level of 4 x 10(4) copies per cell, and self-processing proceeded to an extent of >75% within cells. Cellular RNA processing was blocked by mutations within the ribozyme (G8A, G21U) or substrate (DeltaA-1) that, in vitro , eliminate cleavage without affecting substrate binding. In addition to self-processing activity, trans -cleavage reactions were supported by the ribozyme-containing product of the self-processing reaction, and by the ribozyme linked to the non-cleavable substrate analog. Ribozyme activity was present in extracts of cells expressing constructs with active ribozyme domains. These results provide direct biochemical evidence for the catalytic activity of the hairpin ribozyme in a cellular environment, and indicate that self-processing ribozyme transcripts may be well suited for cellular RNA-inactivation experiments. PMID:9671810

  14. Sustained water cleavage by visible light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Borgarello; J. Kiwi; Ezio Pelizzetti; Mario Visca; Michael Graetzel

    1981-01-01

    Sustained cleavage of water by 4 quanta of visible light is achieved in aqueous solutions by using a bifunctional redox catalyst composed of Pt and RuO cosupported by colloidal TiO particles. A photochemical model system containing Ru(bpy)\\/sup 2 +\\/ as a sensitizer and methyl viologen (MV\\/sup 2 +\\/) as an electron relay is used to test the effect of catalyst

  15. Mechanochemistry: one bond at a time.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian; Fernndez, Julio M

    2009-07-28

    Single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy offers a novel platform for mechanically denaturing proteins by applying a constant force to a polyprotein. A powerful emerging application of the technique is that, by introducing a disulfide bond in each protein module, the chemical kinetics of disulfide bond cleavage under different stretching forces can be probed at the single-bond level. Even at forces much lower than that which can rupture the chemical bond, the breaking of the S-S bond at the presence of various chemical reducing agents is significantly accelerated. Our previous work demonstrated that the rate of thiol/disulfide exchange reaction is force-dependent and well-described by an Arrhenius term of the form r = A(exp((F?x(r) - E(a))/k(B)T)[nucleophile]). From Arrhenius fits to the force dependency of the reduction rate, we measured the bond elongation parameter, ?x(r), along the reaction coordinate to the transition state of the S(N)2 reaction cleaved by different nucleophiles and enzymes, never before observed by any other technique. For S-S cleavage by various reducing agents, obtaining the ?x(r) value can help depicting the energy landscapes and elucidating the mechanisms of the reactions at the single-molecule level. Small nucleophiles, such as 1,4-dl-dithiothreitol (DTT), tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP), and l-cysteine, react with the S-S bond with monotonically increasing rates under the applied force, while thioredoxin enzymes exhibit both stretching-favored and -resistant reaction-rate regimes. These measurements demonstrate the power of the single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy approach in providing unprecedented access to chemical reactions. PMID:19572737

  16. Facile displacement of ?5-cyclopentadienyl ligands from half-sandwich alkyl,NHC-nickel complexes: an original route to robust cis-C,C-nickel square planar complexes.

    PubMed

    Henrion, Mickal; Oertel, Anna Magdalena; Ritleng, Vincent; Chetcuti, Michael J

    2013-07-21

    The ?(5)-cyclopentadienyl (Cp) ligands of 18-electron half-sandwich alkyl,NHC-nickel complexes are readily displaced under acidic conditions to afford a novel class of cis-C,C-nickel square planar complexes. Remarkably, the nickel-alkyl and nickel-carbene bonds are not ruptured in these unprecedented Cp acidolysis reactions. PMID:23752919

  17. A Dynamic Pathway for Stone-Wales Bond Rotation on Carbon Nanotubes through Diamond-Like Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chen-Yu; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeong-Jae; Menon, Madhu

    2003-01-01

    A new lower energy barrier with a two-step pathway of Stone-Wales (SW) ,ond rotation on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is found through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of CNTs under tension. The first step involves going over to a stable sp3-like metastable configuration with half rotated and partially tilted C-C bond. The second step involves going over to the fully rotated C-C bond with the formation of a SW defect in the nanotube. The energy barrier for this two-step dynamic pathway is significantly lower than the previously known static barrier for in-plane rotation of the C-C bond on a tensile strained (> 4%) CNT.

  18. The EMBO Journal vol.6 no. 13 pp.4185 -4192, 1987 Specifilc pre-cleavage and post-cleavage complexes involved in the

    E-print Network

    Wickens, Marv

    The EMBO Journal vol.6 no. 13 pp.4185 -4192, 1987 Specifilc pre-cleavage and post-cleavage the polyadenylation [poly(A)] site. A specific 'pre-cleavage complex' forms on the pre- mRNA before cleavage in AAUAAA, and by annealing DNA oligo- nucleotides to that sequence. After cleavage, the 5' half- molecule

  19. In-line alignment and Mg2+ coordination at the cleavage site of the env22 twister ribozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Aiming; Kouti?, Marija; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Frener, Marina; Santner, Tobias; Westhof, Eric; Micura, Ronald; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2014-11-01

    Small self-cleaving nucleolytic ribozymes contain catalytic domains that accelerate site-specific cleavage/ligation of phosphodiester backbones. We report on the 2.9- crystal structure of the env22 twister ribozyme, which adopts a compact tertiary fold stabilized by co-helical stacking, double-pseudoknot formation and long-range pairing interactions. The U-A cleavage site adopts a splayed-apart conformation with the modelled 2?-O of U positioned for in-line attack on the adjacent to-be-cleaved P-O5? bond. Both an invariant guanosine and a Mg2+ are directly coordinated to the non-bridging phosphate oxygens at the U-A cleavage step, with the former positioned to contribute to catalysis and the latter to structural integrity. The impact of key mutations on cleavage activity identified an invariant guanosine that contributes to catalysis. Our structure of the in-line aligned env22 twister ribozyme is compared with two recently reported twister ribozymes structures, which adopt similar global folds, but differ in conformational features around the cleavage site.

  20. Oxidative cleavage of cellulose by fungal copper-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Beeson, William T; Phillips, Christopher M; Cate, Jamie H D; Marletta, Michael A

    2012-01-18

    Fungal-derived, copper-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs), formerly known as GH61 proteins, have recently been shown to catalyze the O(2)-dependent oxidative cleavage of recalcitrant polysaccharides. Different PMOs isolated from Neurospora crassa were found to generate oxidized cellodextrins modified at the reducing or nonreducing ends upon incubation with cellulose and cellobiose dehydrogenase. Here we show that the nonreducing end product formed by an N. crassa PMO is a 4-ketoaldose. Together with isotope labeling experiments, further support is provided for a mechanism involving oxygen insertion and subsequent elimination to break glycosidic bonds in crystalline cellulose. PMID:22188218

  1. Crystallographic Evidence for Water-assisted Photo-induced Peptide Cleavage in the Stony Coral Fluorescent Protein Kaede

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuko Hayashi; Hideaki Mizuno; Kit I. Tong; Toshiaki Furuta; Fujie Tanaka; Masato Yoshimura; Atsushi Miyawaki; Mitsuhiko Ikura

    2007-01-01

    A coral fluorescent protein from Trachyphyllia geoffroyi, Kaede, possesses a tripeptide of His62-Tyr63-Gly64, which forms a chromophore with green fluorescence. This chromophore's fluorescence turns red following UV light irradiation. We have previously shown that such photoconversion is achieved by a formal ?-elimination reaction, which results in a cleavage of the peptide bond found between the amide nitrogen and the ?-carbon

  2. DFT studies on the mechanism of palladium-catalyzed carbon-silicon cleavage for the synthesis of benzosilole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Jie; Lin, Zhenyang

    2014-08-01

    DFT calculations have been carried out to study the detailed mechanism of Pd-catalyzed intermolecular coupling reactions of 2-silylaryl bromides with alkynes via selective cleavage of C(sp(3))-Si bonds. Through our calculations, we found that, starting from the alkenylpalladium intermediate derived from oxidative addition of the substrate C-Br bond followed by alkyne insertion, there are two possible pathways leading to the formation of the benzosilole product. Furthermore, these two pathways were found to be competitive. In this paper, we will present the detailed mechanistic study and analyze the results we have obtained. PMID:24573107

  3. Investing in Bonds

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jason; Polk, Wade

    2002-08-12

    Bonds, which are issued by governments and corporations, can be an important part of one's investment portfolio. U.S. government bonds, municipal bonds, zero-coupon bonds and other types are described. Also learn strategies for coping with inflation...

  4. Specific inhibition of ectodomain shedding of glycoprotein Ib? by targeting its juxtamembrane shedding cleavage site

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xin; Russell, Susan R.; Estelle, Sandra; Jones, Limei H.; Cho, Sungyun; Kahn, Mark L.; Berndt, Michael C.; Bunting, Silvia T.; Ware, Jerry; Li, Renhao

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Ectodomain shedding of GPIb?, a proteolytic event in which metalloprotease ADAM17 cleaves the Gly464-Val465 bond and releases glycocalicin to the plasma, is considered a critical step in mediating clearance of stored platelets. Supporting evidence has largely come from studies using ADAM17 inhibitors. However, the definitive proof is lacking due to the broad substrate specificity of ADAM17. Objectives To achieve substrate-specific inhibition of GPIb? shedding. Methods Development of monoclonal antibodies that directly bind the sequence around the GPIb? shedding cleavage site and inhibit GPIb? shedding by blocking ADAM17 access to the cleavage site. Results Six anti-GPIb? monoclonal antibodies with varying binding affinities were obtained. The prototypic clone, designated 5G6, and its monomeric Fab fragment, bind specifically purified GPIb-IX complex, human platelets, and transgenic murine platelets expressing human GPIb?. 5G6 showed similar inhibitory potency as a widely used shedding inhibitor GM6001 in both constitutive and induced GPIb? shedding in human platelets. It does not recognize mouse GPIb?. Nor does it inhibit shedding of other platelet receptors. Finally, 5G6 binding displays no detectable effect on platelet activation and aggregation. Conclusion 5G6 specifically inhibits GPIb? shedding with no detectable effect on platelet functions. The method of substrate-specific shedding inhibition by macromolecular binding of the shedding cleavage site can be applicable to many other transmembrane receptors undergoing ectodomain shedding. PMID:24119228

  5. Characterization of a self-splicing mini-intein and its conversion into autocatalytic N- and C-terminal cleavage elements: facile production of protein building blocks for protein ligation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibylle Mathys; Thomas C. Evans; Ian C. Chute; Hong Wu; Shaorong Chong; Jack Benner; Xiang-Qin Liu; Ming-Qun Xu

    1999-01-01

    The determinants governing the self-catalyzed splicing and cleavage events by a mini-intein of 154 amino acids, derived from the dnaB gene of Synechocystis sp. were investigated. The residues at the splice junctions have a profound effect on splicing and peptide bond cleavage at either the N- or C-terminus of the intein. Mutation of the native Gly residue preceding the intein

  6. A Simple Test to Determine the Effectiveness of Different Braze Compositions for Joining Ti-Tubes to C/C Composite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah; Asthana, Rajiv

    2006-01-01

    A simple tube-plate joint tensile test was implemented to compare the effectiveness of commercial brazes, namely, TiCuNi, TiCuSil, and Cu-ABA, used for bonding Ti-tubes joined to C-C composite plates. The different braze systems yielded different; yet, repeatable results. The Cu-ABA system proved to have about twice the load-carrying ability of the other two systems due to the fact that the bonded area between the braze material and the C-C plate was largest for this system. The orientation of the surface fiber tows also had a significant effect on load-carrying ability with tows oriented perpendicular to the tube axis displaying the highest failure loads. Increasing the process load and modifying the surface of the C-C plate by grooving out channels for the Ti-Tube to nest in resulted in increased load-carrying ability for the TiCuSil and Cu-ABA systems due to increased bonded area and better penetration of the braze material into the C-C composite.

  7. Bonded Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

  8. Resistance of Actin to Cleavage during Apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qizhong; Wei, Tie; Lees-Miller, Susan; Alnemri, Emad; Watters, Dianne; Lavin, Martin F.

    1997-01-01

    A small number of cellular proteins present in the nucleus, cytosol, and membrane fraction are specifically cleaved by the interleukin-1? -converting enzyme (ICE)-like family of proteases during apoptosis. Previous results have demonstrated that one of these, the cytoskeletal protein actin, is degraded in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells upon serum withdrawal. Extracts from etoposide-treated U937 cells are also capable of cleaving actin. It was assumed that cleavage of actin represented a general phenomenon, and a mechanism coordinating proteolytic, endonucleolytic, and morphological aspects of apoptosis was proposed. We demonstrate here that actin is resistant to degradation in several different human cells induced to undergo apoptosis in response to a variety of stimuli, including Fas ligation, serum withdrawal, cytotoxic T-cell killing, and DNA damage. On the other hand, cell-free extracts from these cells and the ICE-like protease CPP32 were capable of cleaving actin in vitro. We conclude that while actin contains cleavage sites for ICE-like proteases, it is not degraded in vivo in human cells either because of lack of access of these proteases to actin or due to the presence of other factors that prevent degradation.

  9. Cleavage initiation in Ti microalloyed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, D.P.; Howden, D.G.; Clark, W.A.T. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The toughness of two microalloyed, thermomechanical control process steels were investigated (steels A and B). Steel A was microalloyed with 0.076V, 0.028Nb, and 0.011 Ti, while steel B contained 0.048Ti. Coarse grain heat affected zone (CGHAZ) specimens were produced by Gleeble simulation. Toughness was measured using instrumented precracked Charpy, Charpy-V-notch, and double crack, 4-point bend tests. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used for microstructural and fractographic analysis. In all cases, steel A showed better cleavage resistance than steel B. SEM fractography revealed no distinct features at the initiation sites of steel A. At the initiation sites of steel B, however, TiN inclusions were consistently found; their existence verified by EDS. Without exception, when a TiN related initiation site was located, a piece of TiN was found in each mating fracture surface. Evidence of matching river patterns within the inclusion halves, frequent sidecracks within the inclusions, and the absence of microvoiding established the cleavage initiation mechanism in steel B as the fracturing of brittle TiN particles. By quantitative microscopy it was estimated that about 0.0016wt% of steel B`s Ti (less than 3.5% of the total) was tied up in the TiN inclusions. This indicates that, depending on casting schedule, TiN related toughness degradation could potentially occur in steels with modest Ti content.

  10. Quantification of C?C and C?O Surface Carbons in Detonation Nanodiamond by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, J.-F.; Fang, X.-W.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2014-05-08

    The ability of solid-state 13C NMR to detect and quantify small amounts of sp2-hybridized carbon on the surface of ?5 nm diameter nanodiamond particles is demonstrated. The C?C carbon fraction is only 1.1 0.4% in pristine purified detonation nanodiamond, while a full single-layer graphitic or bucky diamond shell would contain ca. 25% of all C in a 5 nm diameter particle. Instead of large aromatic patches repeatedly proposed in the recent literature, sp3-hybridized CH and COH carbons cover most of the nanodiamond particle surface, accounting for ?5% each. C?O and COO groups also seen in X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) but not detected in previous NMR studies make up ca. 1.5% of all C. They are removed by heat treatment at 800 C, which increases the aromatic fraction. 13C{1H} NMR demonstrates that the various sp2-hybridized carbons are mostly not protonated, but cross-polarization shows that they are separated from 1H by only a few bond lengths, which proves that they are near the protonated surface. Together, the observed CH, COH, C?O, and C?C groups account for 1214% of all C, which matches the surface fraction expected for bulk-terminated 5 nm diameter diamond particles.

  11. Autocatalytic Cleavage within Classical Swine Fever Virus NS3 Leads to a Functional Separation of Protease and Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lamp, Benjamin; Riedel, Christiane; Wentz, Eveline; Tortorici, Maria-Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Pestivirus within the Flaviviridae family. Pivotal for processing of a large portion of the viral polyprotein is a serine protease activity within nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) that also harbors helicase and NTPase activities essential for RNA replication. In CSFV-infected cells, NS3 appears as two forms, a fully processed NS3 of 80 kDa and the precursor molecule NS2-3 of 120 kDa. Here we report the identification and mapping of additional autocatalytic intramolecular cleavages. One cleavable peptide bond occurs between Leu1781 and Met1782, giving rise to a helicase subunit of 55 kDa and, depending on the substrate, a NS2-3 fragment of 78 kDa (NS2-3p) or a NS3 protease subunit of 26 kDa (NS3p). In trans-cleavage assays using NS4-5 as a substrate, NS3p acts as a fully functional protease that is able to process the polyprotein. NS3p comprises the minimal essential protease, as deletion of Leu1781 results in inactivation. A second intramolecular cleavage was mapped to the Leu1748/Lys1749 peptide bond that yields a proteolytically inactive NS3 fragment. Deletion of either of the cleavage site residues resulted in a loss of RNA infectivity, indicating the functional importance of amino acid identity at the respective positions. Our data suggest that internal cleavage within the NS3 moiety is a common process that further extends the functional repertoires of the multifunctional NS2-3 or NS3 and represents another level of the complex polyprotein processing of Flaviviridae. PMID:23986594

  12. SUBJECT NAME 30033 1 Evolutionary Computation C C R

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    SUBJECT NAME 30033 1 Evolutionary Computation C C R 30034 1 Model Driven Formal Software Design C 30041 1 Connectivity Models C 30042 1 Computational Neuroscience I: Theoretical Models and Applications in Neuronal Computing C 30044 1 New Technologies for Communications C 30046 1 Information Recovery and Storage

  13. Mit Methanol iridiumkatalysiert C-C-Bindungen knpfen

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Karsten

    Mit Methanol iridiumkatalysiert C-C-Bindungen knüpfen i Die Reaktivität von Methanol (1) beruht meist auf dem nucleophilen Sauerstoffatom. Obwohl Methanol industriell im Monsanto-Prozess carbo, dass Methanol iridiumkatalysiert leicht an Allene (2) addiert. Damit entstehen 2,2-disub- stituierte

  14. C/C++ Thread Safety Analysis DeLesley Hutchins

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    C/C++ Thread Safety Analysis DeLesley Hutchins Google Inc. Email: delesley@google.com Aaron Ballman--Writing multithreaded programs is hard. Static analysis tools can help developers by allowing threading policies, and can detect potential race conditions and deadlocks. This paper describes Clang Thread Safety Analysis

  15. FROM EUCLID TO ENTROPY C. C. Rodr'iguez

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    FROM EUCLID TO ENTROPY C. C. Rodr'iguez Department of Mathematics and Statistics SUNY at Albany of geometry goes something like this... Once upon a time there was a greek man named Euclid who organized the mathematical knowledge in his time in six books known as The Elements. Euclid's work was so influential

  16. Chris Jesshope (c) C R Jesshope 211/2/2004

    E-print Network

    Jesshope, Chris

    on this assignment backtracking problems: - Sudoku - Eight queens - Chess / Go clustered data parallelism - N-body simulation - Game of life (c) C R Jesshope 711/2/2004 compression / decompression: - bzip - wavelet Group 3 Game of Life Thorben Kruger, Martin Lohstroh, Vasco Visser Group 4 ? Arram Visser, Zhang

  17. The Gas Leakage Analysis in C/C Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Hatta, Hiroshi; Bando, Takamasa; Sugibayashi, Toshio

    Gas leakage through carbon fiber reinforcement carbon composites, C/Cs, was discussed so as to apply C/Cs to heat exchangers in an engine system for a future space-plane. Since C/Cs include many cracks and pores, gas easily leaks through C/Cs. To predict and to prevent the gas flow through a C/C, leakage rate was measured as a function of pressure and gas flow path was identified by micro-observation of the C/C. Then, several analytical models were examined to clarify principal mechanism yielding gas flow resistance. It was found that laminar flow models gave far small flow resistance compared with experimental results, but a model based on adiabatic expansion and compression flow, used for gas leak through labyrinth seals, resulted in reasonable agreement. Finally, Si impregnation in a C/C was examined to minimize the gas leakage. This treatment was shown to be an excellent measure to reduce the gas leakage through C/C.

  18. Selective and nonselective cleavages in positive and negative CID of the fragments generated from in-source decay of intact proteins in MALDI-MS.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Mitsuo; Sekiya, Sadanori; Iimuro, Ryunosuke; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Selective and nonselective cleavages in ion trap low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments of the fragments generated from in-source decay (ISD) with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) of intact proteins are described in both positive and negative ion modes. The MALDI-ISD spectra of the proteins demonstrate common, discontinuous, abundant c- and z'-ions originating from cleavage at the N-C? bond of Xxx-Asp/Asn and Gly-Xxx residues in both positive- and negative-ion modes. The positive ion CID of the c- and z'-ions resulted in product ions originating from selective cleavage at Asp-Xxx, Glu-Xxx and Cys-Xxx residues. Nonselective cleavage product ions rationalized by the mechanism of a "mobile proton" are also observed in positive ion CID spectra. Negative ion CID of the ISD fragments results in complex product ions accompanied by the loss of neutrals from b-, c-, and y-ions. The most characteristic feature of negative ion CID is selective cleavage of the peptide bonds of acidic residues, Xxx-Asp/Glu/Cys. A definite influence of ?-helix on the CID product ions was not obtained. However, the results from positive ion and negative ion CID of the MALDI-ISD fragments that may have long ?-helical domains suggest that acidic residues in helix-free regions tend to degrade more than those in helical regions. PMID:24135807

  19. Selective and Nonselective Cleavages in Positive and Negative CID of the Fragments Generated from In-Source Decay of Intact Proteins in MALDI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Mitsuo; Sekiya, Sadanori; Iimuro, Ryunosuke; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Selective and nonselective cleavages in ion trap low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments of the fragments generated from in-source decay (ISD) with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) of intact proteins are described in both positive and negative ion modes. The MALDI-ISD spectra of the proteins demonstrate common, discontinuous, abundant c- and z'-ions originating from cleavage at the N-C? bond of Xxx-Asp/Asn and Gly-Xxx residues in both positive- and negative-ion modes. The positive ion CID of the c- and z'-ions resulted in product ions originating from selective cleavage at Asp-Xxx, Glu-Xxx and Cys-Xxx residues. Nonselective cleavage product ions rationalized by the mechanism of a "mobile proton" are also observed in positive ion CID spectra. Negative ion CID of the ISD fragments results in complex product ions accompanied by the loss of neutrals from b-, c-, and y-ions. The most characteristic feature of negative ion CID is selective cleavage of the peptide bonds of acidic residues, Xxx-Asp/Glu/Cys. A definite influence of ?-helix on the CID product ions was not obtained. However, the results from positive ion and negative ion CID of the MALDI-ISD fragments that may have long ?-helical domains suggest that acidic residues in helix-free regions tend to degrade more than those in helical regions.

  20. DNAzyme Hybridization, Cleavage, Degradation, and Sensing in Undiluted Human Blood Serum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Chen, Qingyun; Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2015-04-01

    RNA-cleaving DNAzymes provide a unique platform for developing biosensors. However, a majority of the work has been performed in clean buffer solutions, while the activity of some important DNAzymes in biological sample matrices is still under debate. Two RNA-cleaving DNAzymes (17E and 10-23) are the most widely used. In this work, we carefully studied a few key aspects of the 17E DNAzyme in human blood serum, including hybridization, cleavage activity, and degradation kinetics. Since direct fluorescence monitoring is difficult due to the opacity of serum, denaturing and nondenaturing gel electrophoresis were combined for studying the interaction between serum proteins and DNAzymes. The 17E DNAzyme retains its activity in 90% human blood serum with a cleavage rate of 0.04 min(-1), which is similar to that in the PBS buffer (0.06 min(-1)) with a similar ionic strength. The activity in serum can be accelerated to 0.3 min(-1) with an additional 10 mM Ca(2+). As compared to 17E, the 10-23 DNAzyme produces negligible cleavage in serum. Degradation of both the substrate and the DNAzyme strand is very slow in serum, especially at room temperature. Degradation occurs mainly at the fluorophore label (linked to DNA via an amide bond) instead of the DNA phosphodiester bonds. Serum proteins can bind more tightly to the 17E DNAzyme complex than to the single-stranded substrate or enzyme. The 17E DNAzyme hybridizes extremely fast in serum. With this understanding, the detection of DNA using the 17E DNAzyme is demonstrated in serum. PMID:25757186

  1. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Mara J.; Alquzar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

  2. Vicariance patterns in the Mediterranean Sea: eastwest cleavage and low

    E-print Network

    Teixeira, Sara

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Vicariance patterns in the Mediterranean Sea: eastwest cleavage and low dispersal oceanica is a clonal angiosperm endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies have suggested of the Mediterranean Sea as a whole, a strong eastwest cleavage was detected (amova). These results are in line

  3. Modeling and Inferring Cleavage Patterns in Proliferating Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ankit B.; Gibson, William T.; Gibson, Matthew C.; Nagpal, Radhika

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of cleavage plane orientation is one of the key mechanisms driving epithelial morphogenesis. Still, many aspects of the relationship between local cleavage patterns and tissue-level properties remain poorly understood. Here we develop a topological model that simulates the dynamics of a 2D proliferating epithelium from generation to generation, enabling the exploration of a wide variety of biologically plausible cleavage patterns. We investigate a spectrum of models that incorporate the spatial impact of neighboring cells and the temporal influence of parent cells on the choice of cleavage plane. Our findings show that cleavage patterns generate signature equilibrium distributions of polygonal cell shapes. These signatures enable the inference of local cleavage parameters such as neighbor impact, maternal influence, and division symmetry from global observations of the distribution of cell shape. Applying these insights to the proliferating epithelia of five diverse organisms, we find that strong division symmetry and moderate neighbor/maternal influence are required to reproduce the predominance of hexagonal cells and low variability in cell shape seen empirically. Furthermore, we present two distinct cleavage pattern models, one stochastic and one deterministic, that can reproduce the empirical distribution of cell shapes. Although the proliferating epithelia of the five diverse organisms show a highly conserved cell shape distribution, there are multiple plausible cleavage patterns that can generate this distribution, and experimental evidence suggests that indeed plants and fruitflies use distinct division mechanisms. PMID:19521504

  4. Caspase Cleavage of Mutant Huntingtin Precedes Neurodegeneration in Huntington's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl L. Wellington; Lisa M. Ellerby; Gutekunst Ca; Danny Rogers; Simon Warby; Rona K. Graham; Odell Loubser; Van Raamsdonk J; Roshni Singaraja; Yu-Zhou Yang; Juliette Gafni; Dale Bredesen; Steven M. Hersch; Blair R. Leavitt; Sophie Roy; Donald W. Nicholson; Michael R. Hayden

    2002-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) results from polyglutamine expan- sion in huntingtin (htt), a protein with several consensus caspase cleavage sites. Despite the identification of htt frag- ments in the brain, it has not been shown conclusively that htt is cleaved by caspases in vivo. Furthermore, no study has addressed when htt cleavage occurs with respect to the onset of neurodegeneration. Using

  5. CLEAVAGE FRACTURE MICROMECHANISMS RELATED TO WPS EFFECT IN RPV STEEL

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CLEAVAGE FRACTURE MICROMECHANISMS RELATED TO WPS EFFECT IN RPV STEEL S. R. Bordet1 , B. Tanguy1 , S by warm pre-stress (WPS) on the cleavage fracture micromechanisms of a 18MND5 (A533B) reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel. In this purpose, different WPS fracture test results obtained on compact tensile (CT

  6. Specific oxidative cleavage of carotenoids by VP14 of maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Schwartz; J. A. D. Zeevaart; D. A. Gage; Bao Cai Tan

    1997-01-01

    The plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA) is formed by the oxidative cleavage of an epoxy-carotenoid. The synthesis of other apocarotenoids, such as vitamin A in animals, may occur by a similar mechanism. In ABA biosynthesis, oxidative cleavage is the first committed reaction and is believed to be the key regulatory step. A new ABA-deficient mutant of maize has been

  7. FORNASA et al CD31 cleavage and shedding from TCR-stimulated T-cells TCR stimulation drives cleavage and shedding of the ITIM-receptor CD31

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    FORNASA et al CD31 cleavage and shedding from TCR-stimulated T-cells 1 TCR stimulation drives cleavage and shedding of the ITIM-receptor CD31 Running title: CD31 cleavage and shedding from TCR;184(10):5485-92" DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0902219 #12;FORNASA et al CD31 cleavage and shedding from TCR-stimulated T

  8. Evidence of a long C-C attractive interaction in cerussite mineral: QTAIM and ELF analyses.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Isaac; Navas, Antonio Snchez

    2014-09-01

    Cerussite, an orthorhombic lead carbonate mineral, has a structure and physical properties that cannot be understood merely in terms of ionic anion-cation interactions. The nature of the chemical bonding in cerussite is analyzed by means of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and the analysis of the electron localization function (ELF). A long C-C attractive interaction (3.077 ) along the c axis of the cerussite structure is evidenced by the presence of bond critical points between the C atoms of the CO(3)(2-) molecular groups. It is proposed that the Pb-O interactions, which are mostly ionic in nature, disturb the structure of the CO(3)(2-) molecular groups and promote their interaction along the c axis. The importance of this long-range interaction in the high-pressure crystal chemistry of carbonate minerals and in the explanation of some crystal growth features observed for orthorhombic carbonates is also discussed in this work. PMID:25129662

  9. Conformation and molecular structure of 1-bromo-1,5-hexadiyne, BrC?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?CH, by gas-phase electron diffraction. Molecular-mechanics calculations on HC?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?CH, BrC?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?CH and BrC?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?CBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogstad, E.; Stlevik, R.; Traetteberg, M.

    1984-05-01

    Gaseous BrC?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?CH or 1-bromo-bipropargyl (BBP) has been studied by electron diffraction at 50C. The ED data are best explained in terms of a conformational mixture of 43% gauche and 57% anti. Normal values of the structural parameters were determined. The experimental results for the three molecules HC?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?H, BrC?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?CH and BrC?C?CH 2?CH 2?C?CBr were used in order to establish values for the parameters of the non-bonded interaction potentials (BrC( sp) and C( sp)C( sp) to be used in the molecular-mechanics calculations.

  10. Primary photodissociation pathways of epichlorohydrin and analysis of the CC bond fission channels from an O,,3

    E-print Network

    Butler, Laurie J.

    Primary photodissociation pathways of epichlorohydrin and analysis of the CC bond fission channels This study initially characterizes the primary photodissociation processes of epichlorohydrin, c- H2COCH CH2

  11. An AB initio study of the geometry of the C?C(H)? group the fC?C 2 stretching force constant, and the fC?C,inC?C coupling constant in conjugated mono-substituted carbonyl compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Charles W.; Trachtman, Mendel; George, Philip

    1982-06-01

    The geometry of the C?C(H)?O group, the stretching force constant fC?C 2, and the coupling constant fC?O,C?C, calculated using the unscaled 4-31G basis set with full geometry optimization, are reported for various planar mono-substituted carbonyl compounds. The trends in rC?C, rC?H, ?CCO and ?HCO as rC?O increases are investigated, and an inverse relationship established between rC?O and rC?C, i.e. rC?O X rC?C = 1.782 0.013. Linear relationships are found in the plot of In fC?C 2 versus In rC?C in accord with the general form of Clark's equation, and in the plot of fC?O,C?C versus the quotient rC?Oit/rinC?C.

  12. Solar System planetary tests of \\dot c/c

    E-print Network

    Lorenzo Iorio

    2009-05-15

    Analytical and numerical calculations show that a putative temporal variation of the speed of light c, with the meaning of space-time structure constant c_ST, assumed to be linear over timescales of about one century, would induce a secular precession of the longitude of the pericenter \\varpi of a test particle orbiting a spherically symmetric body. By comparing such a predicted effect to the corrections \\Delta\\dot\\varpi to the usual Newtonian/Einsteinian perihelion precessions of the inner planets of the Solar System, recently estimated by E.V. Pitjeva by fitting about one century of modern astronomical observations with the standard dynamical force models of the EPM epehemerides, we obtained \\dot c/c =(0.5 +/- 2)\\times 10^-7 yr^-1. Moreover, the possibility that \\dot c/c\

  13. Determination of F.C.C. crystal orientation by indentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Chang; H. C. Chen

    1995-01-01

    A new method of determining the orientation of f.c.c. crystal by slip lines is presented. The angles between slip lines formed by hardness indentation were measured. Based on the angular relations, different (left brace) 111 (right brace) slip planes in accord with each set of slip lines could be defined unambiguously. Then, a system of non-linear equations representing the geometrical

  14. The Turbulent Alfvenic Aurora C. C. Chaston,1

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    The Turbulent Alfve´nic Aurora C. C. Chaston,1 C. Salem,1 J. W. Bonnell,1 C. W. Carlson,1 R. E) It is demonstrated from observations that the Alfve´nic aurora may be powered by a turbulent cascade transverse acceleration of electrons from near-Earth space to form the aurora. We find that regions of Alfve´n wave

  15. functions of APH-1 and PEN-2 are the same in Notch cleavage as in APP cleavage. This is

    E-print Network

    Blatt, Rainer

    functions of APH-1 and PEN-2 are the same in Notch cleavage as in APP cleavage. This is important--affect the expression and processing of APP and Notch9,10 ,wedonotyetknowifandhowsuch signals affect -secretase activity to be the enzyme that actually cleaves APP and Notch2 . If so, then nicastrin, APH-1 and PEN-2 might regulate

  16. Use of Cleavage as an Aid in the Optical Determination of Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Ernest G.

    1980-01-01

    Described is the use of cleavage as an aid to microscopic determination of unknown minerals by immersion methods. Cleavages are examined in relation to fragment shapes, types of extinction, and cleavage-optical relationships. (Author/DS)

  17. DNA cleavage induced by antitumor antibiotic leinamycin and its biological consequences

    E-print Network

    Gates, Kent. S.

    DNA cleavage induced by antitumor antibiotic leinamycin and its biological consequences Velliyur oligonucleotide duplex, we demonstrate spontaneous DNA strand cleavage at leinamycin-induced abasic sites through also induced strand cleavage in a synthetic oligonucleotide duplex even without thermal treatment

  18. Cleavage and gastrulation in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Malacostraca, Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata)

    E-print Network

    Hertzler, Philip L.

    Cleavage and gastrulation in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Malacostraca, Decapoda most malacostracan crustaceans develop through superficial cleavage, in the Amphipoda, Euphausiacea, and Dendrobranchiata (Decapoda) cleavage is complete. Euphausiaceans and dendrobranchiate shrimp share a similar early

  19. A Helical Twist-induced Conformational Switch Activates Cleavage in the Hammerhead Ribozyme

    E-print Network

    Scott, William

    A Helical Twist-induced Conformational Switch Activates Cleavage in the Hammerhead Ribozyme inter- mediate reveals how the attacking nucleophile is positioned prior to cleavage, and demonstrates, can inhibit cleavage. Analogous covalent crosslinking experiments have demonstrated that imposing

  20. Geometric order in proliferating epithelia: Impact of rearrangements and cleavage plane orientation

    E-print Network

    Dai, Yang

    Geometric order in proliferating epithelia: Impact of rearrangements and cleavage plane orientation. Our method realistically models the shape, size, geometry, lineage, cleavage plane orientation as well as topological properties of individual cells. We find that cellular rearrangements and cleavage plane

  1. Topological properties of hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds from charge densities obtained by the maximum entropy method (MEM)

    PubMed Central

    Netzel, Jeanette; van Smaalen, Sander

    2009-01-01

    Charge densities have been determined by the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) from the high-resolution, low-temperature (T ? 20?K) X-ray diffraction data of six different crystals of amino acids and peptides. A comparison of dynamic deformation densities of the MEM with static and dynamic deformation densities of multipole models shows that the MEM may lead to a better description of the electron density in hydrogen bonds in cases where the multipole model has been restricted to isotropic displacement parameters and low-order multipoles (l max = 1) for the H atoms. Topological properties at bond critical points (BCPs) are found to depend systematically on the bond length, but with different functions for covalent CC, CN and CO bonds, and for hydrogen bonds together with covalent CH and NH bonds. Similar dependencies are known for AIM properties derived from static multipole densities. The ratio of potential and kinetic energy densities |V(BCP)|/G(BCP) is successfully used for a classification of hydrogen bonds according to their distance d(H?O) between the H atom and the acceptor atom. The classification based on MEM densities coincides with the usual classification of hydrogen bonds as strong, intermediate and weak [Jeffrey (1997) ?. An Introduction to Hydrogen Bonding. Oxford University Press]. MEM and procrystal densities lead to similar values of the densities at the BCPs of hydrogen bonds, but differences are shown to prevail, such that it is found that only the true charge density, represented by MEM densities, the multipole model or some other method can lead to the correct characterization of chemical bonding. Our results do not confirm suggestions in the literature that the promolecule density might be sufficient for a characterization of hydrogen bonds. PMID:19767685

  2. Chemistry in Laser-Induced Plasmas: Formation of M-C?C-Cl (M = Ag or Cu) and their Characterization by Rotational Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zaleski, Daniel P; Tew, David P; Walker, Nicholas R; Legon, Anthony C

    2015-03-26

    The new linear molecule Ag-C?C-Cl has been detected and fully characterized by means of rotational spectroscopy. It was synthesized by laser ablation of a silver rod in the presence of a gaseous sample containing a low concentration of CCl4 in argon, cooled to a rotational temperature approaching ?1-3 K through supersonic expansion, and analyzed by chirped-pulse, Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Six isotopologues were investigated, and for each the spectroscopic constants B0, DJ and ?aa(Cl) were determined. The B0 values were interpreted to give the following bond lengths: r(Ag-C) = 2.015(14) and r(C-Cl) = 1.635(6) , with r(C?C) = 1.2219 assumed from an ab initio calculation at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z level of theory. The Cu analogue Cu-C?C-Cl was similarly identified and characterized. PMID:25732940

  3. Facile scission of isonitrile carbonnitrogen triple bond using a diborane(4) reagent

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Hiroki; Lee, Ka-Ho; Lin, Zhenyang; Yamashita, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal reagents and catalysts are generally effective to cleave all three bonds (one ? and two ?) in a triple bond despite its high bonding energy. Recently, chemistry of single-bond cleavage by using main-group element compounds is rapidly being developed in the absence of transition metals. However, the cleavage of a triple bond using non-transition-metal compounds is less explored. Here we report that an unsymmetrical diborane(4) compound could react with carbon monoxide and tert-butyl isonitrile at room temperature. In the latter case, the carbonnitrogen triple bond was completely cleaved in the absence of transition metal as confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis, 13C NMR spectroscopy with 13C labelling and DFT calculations. The DFT calculations also revealed the detailed reaction mechanism and indicated that the key for the carbonnitrogen triple-bond cleavage could be attributed to the presence of nucleophilic nitrogen atom in one of the intermediates. PMID:24967910

  4. 29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules ...

  5. 29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules ...

  6. 29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules ...

  7. 29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules ...

  8. 29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules ...

  9. Calculations of Cleavage Processes, Surface Structures and Electronic Structure of Silicon and Germanium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo.

    The cleavage processes, surface and step structures, and electronic structure of Si and Ge (111)2 x 1 surfaces were studied. The ab initio quantum chemistry programs KGNMOL-89 and DMol were used to study the cleavage of silicon and germanium clusters in the diamond structure. It was found that the potential energy of stretching and shearing glide planes increases much faster than for shuffle planes. The cleavage process is discussed and it is shown how glide -plane cleavage can occur, with consequences for surface structure models. The Keating strain-energy method has been applied to estimate the energies of surface and step structures on Si(111)2 x 1. Two minimum strain-energy TBS (Three -Bond Scission) model structures were obtained. Since angular strains are involved which go beyond the applicability limits of the Keating formula, a correction factor is used, derived by comparing Keating-type calculations of particular surface models of Si(111) with the results of more extensive calculations. The use of a simple correction factor gives results that agree with a calculation for the Pandey ( pi-bonded chain) model and one for the TBS model. Using this factor, a model for a 3-substep structure of the (322) step on Si is found to be quite stable, while the 2-substep structures are moderately stable. The surface band structure of the TBS and Pandey models have been computed using an ab initio HF LCAO program CRYSTAL-92. In the case of the TBS model, the results showed valence band dispersion that could be compatible with experiments. For the Pandey model, the calculated valence band dispersion seemed large. The surface band gap for both TBS and Pandey models was greatly overestimated. The significance is discussed. The surface electron density of states was calculated for the TBS model and the valence band generally matched experimental results from STM (scanning tunneling microscopy). The electron charge density of various surface regions was calculated. The corrugation amplitude at 5 A from the surface for the TBS model was found to be close to that of the Pandey model and STM measurements. STM would not be able to distinguish between the two models.

  10. Semiconductor wafer bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, M.

    2006-03-01

    When mirror-polished, flat, and clean wafers are brought into contact, they are locally attracted to each other and adhere or bond. This phenomenon is known as semiconductor wafer bonding. Different adhesion forces (van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding) are the reason for the bonding effect at room temperature. The different bonding mechanisms acting in dependence on the surface conditions (hydrophilic, hydrophobic) are reviewed. Variations of the properties of bonded interfaces (structural, mechanical, electrical) during annealing are discussed. The focus is on low-temperature bonding techniques. Reasons for the formation of interface defects are presented. Applications of semiconductor wafer bonding for future developments are briefly summarized.

  11. Rubber Oxygenase and Latex Clearing Protein Cleave Rubber to Different Products and Use Different Cleavage Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Birke, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Two types of enzyme for oxidative cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) are known. One is rubber oxygenase (RoxA) that is secreted by Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y and a few other Gram-negative rubber-degrading bacteria during growth on polyisoprene. RoxA was studied in the past, and the recently solved structure showed a structural relationship to bacterial cytochrome c peroxidases (J. Seidel et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110:1383313838, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305560110). The other enzyme is latex-clearing protein (Lcp) that is secreted by rubber-degrading actinomycetes, but Lcp has not yet been purified. Here, we expressed Lcp of Streptomyces sp. strain K30 in a ?roxA background of Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y and purified native (untagged) Lcp. The specific activities of Lcp and RoxA were 0.70 and 0.48 U/mg, respectively. Lcp differed from RoxA in the absence of heme groups and other characteristics. Notably, Lcp degraded polyisoprene via endo-type cleavage to tetra-C20 and higher oligo-isoprenoids with aldehyde and keto end groups, whereas RoxA used an exo-type cleavage mechanism to give the main end product 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD). RoxA was able to cleave isolated Lcp-derived oligo-isoprenoid molecules to ODTD. Inhibitor studies, spectroscopic investigations and metal analysis gave no indication for the presence of iron, other metals, or cofactors in Lcp. Our results suggest that Lcp could be a member of the growing group of cofactor-independent oxygenases and differs in the cleavage mechanism from heme-dependent RoxA. In conclusion, RoxA and Lcp represent two different answers to the same biochemical problem, the cleavage of polyisoprene, a polymer that has carbon-carbon double bonds as the only functional groups for enzymatic attack. PMID:24907333

  12. Cleavage of 3',5'-pyrophosphate-linked dinucleotides by ribonuclease A and angiogenin.

    PubMed

    Jardine, A M; Leonidas, D D; Jenkins, J L; Park, C; Raines, R T; Acharya, K R; Shapiro, R

    2001-08-28

    Recently, 3',5'-pyrophosphate-linked 2'-deoxyribodinucleotides were shown to be >100-fold more effective inhibitors of RNase A superfamily enzymes than were the corresponding monophosphate-linked (i.e., standard) dinucleotides. Here, we have investigated two ribo analogues of these compounds, cytidine 3'-pyrophosphate (P'-->5') adenosine (CppA) and uridine 3'-pyrophosphate (P'-->5') adenosine (UppA), as potential substrates for RNase A and angiogenin. CppA and UppA are cleaved efficiently by RNase A, yielding as products 5'-AMP and cytidine or uridine cyclic 2',3'-phosphate. The k(cat)/K(m) values are only 4-fold smaller than for the standard dinucleotides CpA and UpA, and the K(m) values (10-16 microM) are lower than those reported for any earlier small substrates (e.g., 500-700 microM for CpA and UpA). The k(cat)/K(m) value for CppA with angiogenin is also only severalfold smaller than for CpA, but the effect of lengthening the internucleotide linkage on K(m) is more modest. Ribonucleotide 3',5'-pyrophosphate linkages were proposed previously to exist in nature as chemically labile intermediates in the pathway for the generation of cyclic 2',3'-phosphate termini in various RNAs. We demonstrate that in fact they are relatively stable (t(1/2) > 15 days for uncatalyzed degradation of UppA at pH 6 and 25 degrees C) and that cleavage in vivo is most likely enzymatic. Replacements of the RNase A catalytic residues His12 and His119 by alanine reduce activity toward UppA by approximately 10(5)-and 10(3.3)-fold, respectively. Thus, both residues play important roles. His12 probably acts as a base catalyst in cleavage of UppA (as with RNA). However, the major function of His119 in RNA cleavage, protonation of the 5'-O leaving group, is not required for UppA cleavage because the pK(a) of the leaving group is much lower than that for RNA substrates. A crystal structure of the complex of RNase A with 2'-deoxyuridine 3'-pyrophosphate (P'-->5') adenosine (dUppA), determined at 1.7 A resolution, together with models of the UppA complex based on this structure suggest that His119 contributes to UppA cleavage through a hydrogen bond with a nonbridging oxygen atom in the pyrophosphate and through pi-pi stacking with the six-membered ring of adenine. PMID:11513604

  13. Cleavage fracture properties of high strength steel weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.K.; Ritter, J.C. [DSTO Aeronautical and Maritime Research Lab., Melbourne (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The qualification of consumables and welding of steels in critical naval applications, including submarine construction, is dependent upon the achievement of high levels of toughness at low temperature. The principal technique employed is the Charpy impact test at temperatures down to {minus}115 C ({minus}175 F). In the investigation described here, low temperature toughness properties were investigated by breaking notched specimens in slow four point bending and measuring the critical tensile stress for cleavage initiation. Multi-pass Flux Cored Arc (FCA) welds joining 690 MPa (100 ksi) yield strength, quenched and tempered steel were tested to identify cleavage fracture micromechanisms and to investigate the role of microstructural features in the cleavage fracture process. Cleavage fracture stress values in the range 2,018 to 2,381 MPa were recorded in weld metal when testing at sub-zero temperatures. Detailed examination of fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that weld metal inclusions play a critical role in acting as cleavage initiation sites. Changing welding position from downhand to vertical-up resulted in a small number of widely spaced inclusions approaching or exceeding 10 {micro}m in diameter but these were not observed to act as cleavage initiation sites. The cleavage fracture resistance of multi-pass Manual Metal Arc (MMA) welds which are currently under investigation is compared with FCA weldments.

  14. [On the classification of the cleavage patterns in amphibian embryos].

    PubMed

    Desnitski?, A G

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a brief survey and preliminary classification of embryonic cleavage patterns in the class Amphibia. We use published data on 41 anuran and 22 urodele species concerning the character of the third cleavage furrow (latitudinal or longitudinal) and the stage of transition from synchronous to asynchronous blastomere divisions in the animal hemisphere (4-8-celled stage, 8-16-celled stage or later). Based on this, four patterns of amphibian embryonic cleavage are recognized, and an attempt to elucidate the evolutionary relationships among these patterns is undertaken. The so-called "standard" cleavage pattern (the extensive series of synchronous blastomere divisions including latitudinal furrows of the third cleavage) with the typical model species Ambystoma mexicanum and Xenopus laevis seems to be derived and probably originated independently in the orders Anura and Caudata. The ancestral amphibian cleavage pattern seems to be represented by species with longitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and the loss ofsynchrony as early as the 8-celled stage (such as in primitive urodele species from the family Cryptobranchidae). PMID:25720261

  15. Bundled slaty cleavage in laminated argillite, north-central minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southwick, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Exceptional bundled slaty cleavage (defined herein) has been found in drill cores of laminated, folded, weakly metamorphosed argillite at several localities in the early Proterozoic Animikie basin of north-central Minnesota. The cleavage domains are more closely spaced within the cleavage bundles than outside them, the mean tectosilicate grain size of siltstone layers, measured normal to cleavage, is less in the cleavage bundles than outside them, and the cleavage bundles are enriched in opaque phases and phyllosilicates relative to extra-bundle segments. These facts suggest that pressure solution was a major factor in bundle development. If it is assumed that opaque phases have been conserved during pressure solution, the modal differences in composition between intra-bundle and extra-bundle segments of beds provide a means for estimating bulk material shortening normal to cleavage. Argillite samples from the central part of the Animikie basin have been shortened a minimum of about 22%, as estimated by this method. These estimates are similar to the shortening values derived from other strain markers in other rock types interbedded with the argillite, and are also consistent with the regional pattern of deformation. ?? 1987.

  16. Rhodium-catalyzed alkylation of C-H bonds in aromatic amides with ?,?-unsaturated esters.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Kaname; Chatani, Naoto

    2014-10-01

    The alkylation of C-H bonds with ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds by a rhodium-catalyzed reaction of aromatic amides containing an 8-aminoquinoline moiety is reported. The reaction is highly regioselective. The formation of C-C bonds occurs between the ortho C-H bonds in aromatic amides and the ?-position of the acyclic ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The reaction is applicable to various acyclic ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, such as acrylic esters, acrylamide, fumarate, maleate, and phenyl vinyl sulfone. PMID:25226267

  17. Stable alkanes containing very long carbon-carbon bonds.

    PubMed

    Fokin, Andrey A; Chernish, Lesya V; Gunchenko, Pavel A; Tikhonchuk, Evgeniya Yu; Hausmann, Heike; Serafin, Michael; Dahl, Jeremy E P; Carlson, Robert M K; Schreiner, Peter R

    2012-08-22

    The metal-induced coupling of tertiary diamondoid bromides gave highly sterically congested hydrocarbon (hetero)dimers with exceptionally long central C-C bonds of up to 1.71 in 2-(1-diamantyl)[121]tetramantane. Yet, these dimers are thermally very stable even at temperatures above 200 C, which is not in line with common C-C bond length versus bond strengths correlations. We suggest that the extraordinary stabilization arises from numerous intramolecular van der Waals attractions between the neighboring H-terminated diamond-like surfaces. The C-C bond rotational dynamics of 1-(1-adamantyl)diamantane, 1-(1-diamantyl)diamantane, 2-(1-adamantyl)triamantane, 2-(1-diamantyl)triamantane, and 2-(1-diamantyl)[121]tetramantane were studied through variable-temperature (1)H- and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. The shapes of the inward (endo) CH surfaces determine the dynamic behavior, changing the central C-C bond rotation barriers from 7 to 33 kcal mol(-1). We probe the ability of popular density functional theory (DFT) approaches (including BLYP, B3LYP, B98, B3LYP-Dn, B97D, B3PW91, BHandHLYP, B3P86, PBE1PBE, wB97XD, and M06-2X) with 6-31G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets to describe such an unusual bonding situation. Only functionals accounting for dispersion are able to reproduce the experimental geometries, while most DFT functionals are able to reproduce the experimental rotational barriers due to error cancellations. Computations on larger diamondoids reveal that the interplay between the shapes and the sizes of the CH surfaces may even allow the preparation of open-shell alkyl radical dimers (and possibly polymers) that are strongly held together exclusively by dispersion forces. PMID:22835264

  18. I 6 LA$:LTIGE I . 1 . l c K . A-I . Srm:lnllc ~ ~ O C C C C I ~ ?tn ~ I C ~ O I I C I~stenlnp*A re

    E-print Network

    Jonides, John

    I 6 LA$:LTIGE I . 1 . l c K . A- I . Srm:lnllc ~ ~ O C C C C I ~ ?tn ~ I C ~ O I I C I~stenlnp*A re . I ! , l p , * . , L ,$ I ,~,,,,II,PPI. ItJ71. 2, 641 646. Voluntary versus Automatic I I I ~ ~ ~ I I ~ , ~ ~ ~ .\\ \\ I . S ~ k r k .>I . 8 Cicl:~tle. C; Selcc~~vcaltcntlnn and

  19. Specific oxidative cleavage of carotenoids by VP14 of maize

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.H.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Gage, D.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Tan, Bao Cai [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); and others

    1997-06-20

    The plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA) is formed by the oxidative cleavage of an epoxy-carotenoid. The synthesis of other apocarotenoids, such as vitamin A in animals, may occur by a similar mechanism. In ABA biosynthesis, oxidative cleavage is the first committed reaction and is believed to be the key regulatory step. A new ABA-deficient mutant of maize has been identified and the corresponding gene, Vp14, has been cloned. The recombinant VP14 protein catalyzes the cleavage of 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoids to form C{sub 25} apo-aldehydes and xanthoxin, a precursor of ABA in higher plants.

  20. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor (Madison, WI); Olive, David Michael (Madison, WI); Prudent, James Robert (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  1. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation: the long and short of it

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Manley, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Cleavage and polyadenylation (C/P) of nascent transcripts is essential for maturation of the 3? ends of most eukaryotic mRNAs. Over the past three decades, biochemical studies have elucidated the machinery responsible for the seemingly simple C/P reaction. Recent genomic analyses have indicated that most eukaryotic genes have multiple cleavage and polyadenylation sites (pAs), leading to transcript isoforms with different coding potentials and/or variable 3? untranslated regions (UTRs). As such, alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) is an important layer of gene regulation impacting mRNA metabolism. Here, we review our current understanding of APA and recent progress in this field. PMID:23632313

  2. Reaction kinetics of catalyzed competitive heteropolymer cleavage.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, S Kashif; Knny, Balzs; Mller, Viktor; Coveney, Peter V

    2011-09-22

    A theoretical formulation for complete heteropolymer degradation is developed in terms of Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics under the quasi-steady-state approximation. This allows the concentration of the entire intermediate decomposition cascade to be accounted for as well as each species of emerging final product. The formulation is implemented computationally and results in stable reaction kinetics across a range of orders of magnitude for K(M) and k(cat). The model is compared with experiment, specifically in vitro HIV-1 protease-catalyzed retroviral Gag-polyprotein processing. Using an experimentally determined cleavage-polypeptide parameter set, good qualitative agreement is reached with Gag degradation kinetics, given the difference in experimental conditions. A parameter search within 1 order of magnitude of variation of the experimental set results in the determination of an optimal parameter set in complete agreement with experiment which allows the time evolution of each individual as well as intermediate species in Gag to be accurately followed. Future investigations that determine the required enzymatic parameters to populate such a scheme will allow for the model to be refined in order to track the time for viral maturation and infectivity. PMID:21823648

  3. Transcriptional activity regulates alternative cleavage and polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zhe; Luo, Wenting; Li, Wencheng; Hoque, Mainul; Pan, Zhenhua; Zhao, Yun; Tian, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Genes containing multiple pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation sites, or polyA sites, express mRNA isoforms with variable 3? untranslated regions (UTRs). By systematic analysis of human and mouse transcriptomes, we found that short 3?UTR isoforms are relatively more abundant when genes are highly expressed whereas long 3?UTR isoforms are relatively more abundant when genes are lowly expressed. Reporter assays indicated that polyA site choice can be modulated by transcriptional activity through the gene promoter. Using global and reporter-based nuclear run-on assays, we found that RNA polymerase II is more likely to pause at the polyA site of highly expressed genes than that of lowly expressed ones. Moreover, highly expressed genes tend to have a lower level of nucleosome but higher H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 levels at promoter-proximal polyA sites relative to distal ones. Taken together, our results indicate that polyA site usage is generally coupled to transcriptional activity, leading to regulation of alternative polyadenylation by transcription. PMID:21952137

  4. Hydrogen-bond-activated palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation via allylic alkyl ethers: challenging leaving groups.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xiaohong; Quan, Mao; Yang, Guoqiang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liu, Delong; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Wanbin

    2014-03-21

    C-O bond cleavage of allylic alkyl ether was realized in a Pd-catalyzed hydrogen-bond-activated allylic alkylation using only alcohol solvents. This procedure does not require any additives and proceeds with high regioselectivity. The applicability of this transformation to a variety of functionalized allylic ether substrates was also investigated. Furthermore, this methodology can be easily extended to the asymmetric synthesis of enantiopure products (99% ee). PMID:24621181

  5. Synthesis of sulfur-containing heterocycles through oxidative carbon-hydrogen bond functionalization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubo; Floreancig, Paul E

    2012-04-01

    Vinyl sulfides react rapidly and efficiently with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) to form ?,?-unsaturated thiocarbenium ions through oxidative carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage. These electrophiles couple with appended ?-nucleophiles to yield sulfur-containing heterocycles through carbon-carbon bond formation. Several nucleophiles are compatible with the procedure, and the reactions generally proceed through readily predictable transition states. PMID:22420412

  6. Non-stereospecific Reductive Cleavage of 2-Isoxazolines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Koroleva; Ya. M. Katok; F. A. Lakhvich

    2003-01-01

    Under conditions of reductive cleavage 13,15-isoxazolinoprostanoids with a bicycloheptane unit in the ?-chain underwent epimerization at atom C(2) of this unit to give non-stereospecific products of hydrogenolysis of the heterocycle.

  7. Transsynaptic signaling by activity-dependent cleavage of neuroligin-1.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Rui T; Kunz, Portia A; Kwon, Hyungbae; Mabb, Angela M; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Philpot, Benjamin D; Ehlers, Michael D

    2012-10-18

    Adhesive contact between pre- and postsynaptic neurons initiates synapse formation during brain development and provides a natural means of transsynaptic signaling. Numerous adhesion molecules and their role during synapse development have been described in detail. However, once established, the mechanisms of adhesive disassembly and its function in regulating synaptic transmission have been unclear. Here, we report that synaptic activity induces acute proteolytic cleavage of neuroligin-1 (NLG1), a postsynaptic adhesion molecule at glutamatergic synapses. NLG1 cleavage is triggered by NMDA receptor activation, requires Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and is mediated by proteolytic activity of matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9). Cleavage of NLG1 occurs at single activated spines, is regulated by neural activity in vivo, and causes rapid destabilization of its presynaptic partner neurexin-1? (NRX1?). In turn, NLG1 cleavage depresses synaptic transmission by abruptly reducing presynaptic release probability. Thus, local proteolytic control of synaptic adhesion tunes synaptic transmission during brain development and plasticity. PMID:23083741

  8. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages 02

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Mast, Andrea L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  9. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Mast, Andrea L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  10. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  11. Cleavages, social engagement and trust in post-communist euroupe

    E-print Network

    Rossbach, David Otto

    2009-05-15

    This dissertation addresses generalized trust in Post-Communist Europe. I examine trust stressing two sets of factors: the impact of attitudes associated with cleavages coming out of transition to democracy, and the importance of informal...

  12. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    He, Kaiyu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics (United States) [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhou, Hui-Ren [Food Science and Human Nutrition (United States)] [Food Science and Human Nutrition (United States); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics (United States); Food Science and Human Nutrition (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (? 25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (? 10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (? 300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-? and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. Highlights: ? Deoxynivalenol (DON) anisomycin, satratoxin G (SG) and ricin are ribotoxins. ? Ribotoxins induce 18s and 28s rRNA cleavage in the RAW 264.7 macrophage model. ? Ribotoxins induce rRNA cleavage via activation of p53, caspases and cathepsins. ? DON- and anisomycin-triggered rRNA cleavage is p38-dependent. ? SG- and ricin-induced rRNA cleavage is p38-independent.

  13. Catalytic mechanism of RNA backbone cleavage by ribonuclease H from quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations.

    PubMed

    Rosta, Edina; Nowotny, Marcin; Yang, Wei; Hummer, Gerhard

    2011-06-15

    We use quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations to study the cleavage of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) backbone catalyzed by ribonuclease H. This protein is a prototypical member of a large family of enzymes that use two-metal catalysis to process nucleic acids. By combining Hamiltonian replica exchange with a finite-temperature string method, we calculate the free energy surface underlying the RNA-cleavage reaction and characterize its mechanism. We find that the reaction proceeds in two steps. In a first step, catalyzed primarily by magnesium ion A and its ligands, a water molecule attacks the scissile phosphate. Consistent with thiol-substitution experiments, a water proton is transferred to the downstream phosphate group. The transient phosphorane formed as a result of this nucleophilic attack decays by breaking the bond between the phosphate and the ribose oxygen. In the resulting intermediate, the dissociated but unprotonated leaving group forms an alkoxide coordinated to magnesium ion B. In a second step, the reaction is completed by protonation of the leaving group, with a neutral Asp132 as a likely proton donor. The overall reaction barrier of ?15 kcal mol(-1), encountered in the first step, together with the cost of protonating Asp132, is consistent with the slow measured rate of ?1-100/min. The two-step mechanism is also consistent with the bell-shaped pH dependence of the reaction rate. The nonmonotonic relative motion of the magnesium ions along the reaction pathway agrees with X-ray crystal structures. Proton-transfer reactions and changes in the metal ion coordination emerge as central factors in the RNA-cleavage reaction. PMID:21539371

  14. Raman characterization of Avocado Sunblotch viroid and its response to external perturbations and self-cleavage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. To date the structural and conformational details of the cleavage of Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) and the catalytic role of Mg2+ ions in efficient self-cleavage are of crucial interest. Results We report the first Raman characterization of the structure and activity of ASBVd, for plus and minus viroid strands. Both strands exhibit a typical A-type RNA conformation with an ordered double-helical content and a C3?-endo/anti sugar pucker configuration, although small but specific differences are found in the sugar puckering and base-stacking regions. The ASBVd(-) is shown to self-cleave 3.5 times more actively than ASBVd(+). Deuteration and temperature increase perturb differently the double-helical content and the phosphodiester conformation, as revealed by corresponding characteristic Raman spectral changes. Our data suggest that the structure rigidity and stability are higher and the D2O accessibility to H-bonding network is lower for ASBVd(+) than for ASBVd(-). Remarkably, the Mg2+-activated self-cleavage of the viroid does not induce any significant alterations of the secondary viroid structure, as evidenced from the absence of intensity changes of Raman marker bands that, however exhibit small but noticeable frequency downshifts suggesting several minor changes in phosphodioxy, internal loops and hairpins of the cleaved viroids. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy in monitoring structural and conformational changes of the viroid and constitute the basis for further studies of its interactions with therapeutic agents and cell membranes. PMID:24655924

  15. Novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase catalyzes the first dedicated step in saffron crocin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Frusciante, Sarah; Diretto, Gianfranco; Bruno, Mark; Ferrante, Paola; Pietrella, Marco; Prado-Cabrero, Alfonso; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Beyer, Peter; Gomez-Gomez, Lourdes; Al-Babili, Salim; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Crocus sativus stigmas are the source of the saffron spice and accumulate the apocarotenoids crocetin, crocins, picrocrocin, and safranal, responsible for its color, taste, and aroma. Through deep transcriptome sequencing, we identified a novel dioxygenase, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2 (CCD2), expressed early during stigma development and closely related to, but distinct from, the CCD1 dioxygenase family. CCD2 is the only identified member of a novel CCD clade, presents the structural features of a bona fide CCD, and is able to cleave zeaxanthin, the presumed precursor of saffron apocarotenoids, both in Escherichia coli and in maize endosperm. The cleavage products, identified through high-resolution mass spectrometry and comigration with authentic standards, are crocetin dialdehyde and crocetin, respectively. In vitro assays show that CCD2 cleaves sequentially the 7,8 and 7?,8? double bonds adjacent to a 3-OH-?-ionone ring and that the conversion of zeaxanthin to crocetin dialdehyde proceeds via the C30 intermediate 3-OH-?-apo-8?-carotenal. In contrast, zeaxanthin cleavage dioxygenase (ZCD), an enzyme previously claimed to mediate crocetin formation, did not cleave zeaxanthin or 3-OH-?-apo-8?-carotenal in the test systems used. Sequence comparison and structure prediction suggest that ZCD is an N-truncated CCD4 form, lacking one blade of the ?-propeller structure conserved in all CCDs. These results constitute strong evidence that CCD2 catalyzes the first dedicated step in crocin biosynthesis. Similar to CCD1, CCD2 has a cytoplasmic localization, suggesting that it may cleave carotenoids localized in the chromoplast outer envelope. PMID:25097262

  16. Metal-organic frameworks with phosphotungstate incorporated for hydrolytic cleavage of a DNA-model phosphodiester.

    PubMed

    Han, Qiuxia; Zhang, Lejie; He, Cheng; Niu, Jiangyang; Duan, Chunying

    2012-05-01

    Five phosphotungstate-incorporated metal-organic frameworks {[Eu(4)(dpdo)(9)(H(2)O)(16)PW(12)O(40)]}(PW(12)O(40))(2)(dpdo)(3)Cl(3) (1); {ZnNa(2)(?-OH)(dpdo)(4)(H(2)O)(4)[PW(12)O(40)]}3H(2)O (2); {Zn(3)(dpdo)(7)}[PW(12)O(40)](2)3H(2)O (3); and [Ln(2)H(?-O)(2)(dpdo)(4)(H(2)O)(2)][PW(12)O(40)]3H(2)O (Ln = Ho for 4 and Yb for 5) (dpdo = 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide) have been synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal reaction and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural analyses indicate that 1-5 display diversity structure from one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) series of hybrids. Kinetic experiments for the hydrolytic cleavage of DNA-model phosphodiester BNPP (bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate) were followed spectrophotometrically for the absorbance increase at 400 nm in EPPS (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-propane sulfonic acid) buffer solution, because of the formation of p-nitrophenoxide with 1-5 under conditions of pH 4.0 and 50 C. Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy indicate that the cleavage of the phosphodiester bond proceeds with the pseudo-first-order rate constant in the range of 10(-7)-10(-6) s(-1), giving an inorganic phosphate and p-nitrophenol as the final products of hydrolysis. The results demonstrate that 1-5 have good catalytic activity and reusability for hydrolytic cleavage of BNPP. PMID:22486278

  17. Structure and electronic spectra of the C C6- anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoutene, D.; Hochlaf, M.; Senent, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    Ab initio calculations are employed for determining structures, spectroscopic parameters and transitions to the excited electronic states of the astrophysical relevant C C6- anion, which is a potential intermediate of chemical processes involving carbon chains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Calculations confirm the prominent stability of linear carbon chain anions which guarantees their formation. The lowest doublet potential energy surface of C? displays six isomers, whereas in the lowest quartet potential energy surface, a unique minimum energy geometry is found. The most stable form is the linear anion l-C? (X2?u) followed by the c-C?(X2A1')at 9291 cm-1 above in energy, which presents a distorted D3h structure. The other isomers are also located at more than 9000 cm-1 above l-C? (X2?u). For each isomer, a set of spectroscopic parameters including their equilibrium structures, rotational constants at equilibrium, harmonic wavenumbers, dipole moments and electron affinities are predicted. For linear C?, eight electronic states lying below the electron detachment threshold, are computed. Four doublet electronic states, which play important roles in the C? reactivity, lie below 2 eV. Spin-orbit constants for the upper electronic states of l-C? are predicted.

  18. Synthesis of uranium-ligand multiple bonds by cleavage of a trityl protecting group.

    PubMed

    Smiles, Danil E; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2014-01-01

    Addition of KSCPh3 to [U(NR2)3] (R = SiMe3) in tetrahydrofuran, followed by addition of 18-crown-6, results in formation of the U(IV) sulfide, [K(18-crown-6)][U(S)(NR2)3] (1) and Gomberg's dimer. Similarly, addition of KOCPh3 to [U(NR2)3] in tetrahydrofuran, followed by addition of 18-crown-6, results in formation of the U(IV) oxide, [K(18-crown-6)][U(O)(NR2)3] (3). Also observed in this transformation are the triphenylmethyl anion, [K(18-crown-6)(THF)2][CPh3] (5), and the U(IV) alkoxide, [U(OCPh3)(NR2)3] (4). PMID:24350685

  19. Bond cleavage reactions in oxygen and nitrogen heterocycles by a rhodium phosphine complex

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.D.; Dong, L.; Myers, A.W. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1995-02-01

    The reactions of (C[sub 5]Me[sub 5])Rh(PMe[sub 3])PhH with furan, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 2,3-dihydrofuran, dibenzofuran, pyrrole, 1-methylpyrrole, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole, 1,2,5-trimethylpyrrole, carbazole, 9-methylcarbazole, pyrrolidine, pyridine, 3,5-lutidine, 2,4,6-collidine, pyrazole, 3-methylpyrazole, and piperidine have been investigated. While the oxygen heterocycles give only C-H activation, the nitrogen heterocycles yield C-H and N-H insertion products. The chloro derivative (C[sub 5]Me[sub 5])Rh(PMe[sub 3])[2-(1-methylpyrrole)]Cl was found to crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/c with a = 13.753 (6) A, b = 9.665 (5) A, c = 30.14 (2) A, [beta] = 99.77 (5)-[degree], Z = 8, and V = 3949 (4.1) A[sup 3] while (C[sub 5]Me[sub 5])Rh(PMe[sub 5])[2-(3,5-lutidine)]Cl was found to crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2[sub 1]/c with a = 14.976 (8) A, b = 8.613 (5) A, c = 17.12 (2) A, [beta] = 101.90 (6)[degree], Z = 4, and V = 2160 (5.2) A[sup 3]. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Carbon-sulfur bond cleavage and hydrodesulfurization of thiophenes by tungsten.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Aaron; Parkin, Gerard

    2011-03-23

    The reactions of W(PMe(3))(4)(?(2)-CH(2)PMe(2))H, W(PMe(3))(5)H(2), W(PMe(3))(4)H(4) and W(PMe(3))(3)H(6) towards thiophenes reveal that molecular tungsten compounds are capable of achieving a variety of transformations that are relevant to hydrodesulfurization. For example, sequential treatment of W(PMe(3))(4)(?(2)-CH(2)PMe(2))H with thiophene and H(2) yields the butanethiolate complex, W(PMe(3))(4)(SBu(n))H(3), which eliminates but-1-ene at 100 C. Likewise, sequential treatment of W(PMe(3))(4)(?(2)-CH(2)PMe(2))H with benzothiophene and H(2) yields W(PMe(3))(4)(SC(6)H(4)Et)H(3), which releases ethylbenzene at 100 C. Moreover, W(PMe(3))(4)(?(2)-CH(2)PMe(2))H desulfurizes dibenzothiophene to form a dibenzometallacyclopentadiene complex, [(?(2)-C(12)H(8))W(PMe(3))](?-S)(?-CH(2)PMe(2))(?-PMe(2))[W(PMe(3))(3)]. PMID:21348517

  1. Stereochemistry of the C-S bond cleavage in cis-2-methylcyclopentyl phenyl sulfoxide radical cation.

    PubMed

    Baciocchi, Enrico; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Lapi, Andrea; Maggini, Laura

    2009-02-20

    The TiO(2) photocatalyzed oxidation of cis-2-methylcyclopentyl phenyl sulfoxide in the presence of Ag(2)SO(4) in MeCN/H(2)O leads to the formation of 1-methylcyclopentanol, 1-methylcyclopentyl acetamide, and phenyl benzenethiosulfonate as the main reaction products. It is suggested that the C-S heterolysis in the radical cation is an unimolecular process leading to an ion radical pair. Fast 1,2-hydride shift in the secondary carbocation leads to 1-methylcyclopentyl carbocation that forms the observed products by reaction with H(2)O and MeCN. Attack of H(2)O on the ion radical pair may also occur, but as a minor route (<3%), with formation of trans-2-methylcyclopentanol. PMID:19146449

  2. Evidence for carbon-sulfur bond cleavage in spontaneously adsorbed organosulfide-based monolayers at gold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan-Jian Zhong; Marc D. Porter

    1994-01-01

    We have recently described several aspects of the electrode reactions of monolayers formed from alkanethiols and dialkyl disulfides at gold. This paper now discusses the findings and implications of two sets of electrochemical and surface characterization studies viz., X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and infrared reflection (IRS) spectroscopies. The first set of studies characterized monolayers formed at mica-supported Au(111) from dilute (0.1-1

  3. Nitrogen dioxide reaction with proteins: Evidence for peptide bond cleavage at lysine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), an air pollutant produced by burning fossil fuels and a component of cigarette smoke, is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases, such as emphysema. To gain information on the mechanism by which NO{sub 2} damages the lung, in vitro exposures of {alpha}{sub 1}-proteinase inhibitor ({alpha}{sub 1}-PI), elastin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and synthetic poly-L-lysine were performed. A genetic deficiency of {alpha}{sup 1}-PI predisposes humans to emphysema and NO{sub 2} has been hypothesized to damage {alpha}{sub 1}-PI, which would leave proteases such as human neutrophil elastase, (HNE) free to attack lung structural proteins. The ability of {alpha}{sub 1}-PI to inhibit HNE declined with exposure to 50% of the control value at molar ratios of NO{sub 2}:{alpha}{sub 1}-PI of 400:1 and greater. Exposure of {alpha}{sub 1}-PI to NO{sub 2} resulted in a 50% lose of immunoreactivity with either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at molar ratios of NO{sub 2}:{alpha}{sub 1}-PI of essentially 100:1 and greater. The mechanisms of these effects were investigated via ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and amino acid analysis. The remaining target molecules were labeled by reductive methylation of amino groups with {sup 3}H-HCHO prior to treatment with NO{sub 2} in aqueous solutions at physiological pH. Time course exposure of 5 mg {sup 3}H-insoluble bovine ligamentum nuchae elastin suspensions with up to 120 {mu}moles of NO{sub 2} resulted in 90% solubilization of the label. Amino acid analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions from these exposures confirmed that 80% of the {sup 3}H-dimethyllysine residues were in the soluble fraction.

  4. Savings Bonds Value Calculator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, this site computes the redemption value of users's US savings bonds. Easy-to-use pull-down menus allow visitors to enter information such as the date of issue and face value of their Series E bonds, Series EE bonds, and Series S bonds. After entering the information, the Calculator will then show a chart of issue dates and denominations and actual worth of the bonds, if cashed within a set period of time.

  5. Iridium-catalyzed synthesis of diaryl ethers by means of chemoselective C-F bond activation and the formation of B-F bonds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianping; Zhao, Keyan; Ge, Bingyang; Xu, Chongying; Wang, Dawei; Ding, Yuqiang

    2015-02-01

    Transition-metal-catalyzed C?F activation, in comparison with C?H activation, is more difficult to achieve and therefore less fully understood, mainly because carbon-fluorine bonds are the strongest known single bonds to carbon and have been very difficult to cleave. Transition-metal complexes are often more effective at cleaving stronger bonds, such as C(sp(2) )?X versus C(sp(3) )?X. Here, the iridium-catalyzed C?F activation of fluorarenes was achieved through the use of bis(pinacolato)diboron with the formation of the B?F bond and self-coupling. This strategy provides a convenient method with which to convert fluoride aromatic compounds into symmetrical diaryl ether compounds. Moreover, the chemoselective products of the C?F bond cleavage were obtained at high yields with the C?Br and C?Cl bonds remaining. PMID:25393610

  6. Transition-metal mediated carbon-sulfur bond activation and transformations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liandi; He, Wei; Yu, Zhengkun

    2013-01-21

    C-S bond activation, cleavage and transformations by means of transition metal compounds have recently become more and more important in the petroleum industry and synthetic chemistry. Homogeneous transition metal compounds have been investigated in order to provide the fundamental insight into the C-S bond cleavage in problematic organosulfur compounds such as thiophene, benzo- and dibenzothiophene derivatives. Rendering transition-metal mediated reactions with organosulfur compounds catalytic may provide promising routes to deep hydrodesulfurization of petroleum feedstocks, and offer potentially useful synthetic protocols for cross-couplings and biomimetic organic synthesis. During the last few decades increasing work was documented on C-S bond activation and transformations by means of transition metal compounds. This review summarizes the recent advances in C-S bond cleavage via the insertion of transition metals into the inert C-S bonds of these problematic organosulfur compounds, and transition-metal mediated C-S bond transformations via C-S activation through cross-couplings of thioesters, ketene dithioacetals, sulfonyl chlorides, and other diverse organosulfur compounds. PMID:23079733

  7. Centrocortin Cooperates with Centrosomin to Organize Drosophila Embryonic Cleavage Furrows

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Ling-Rong; Megraw, Timothy L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary In the Drosophila early embryo the centrosome coordinates assembly of cleavage furrows [13]. Currently, the molecular pathway that links the centrosome and the cortical microfilaments is unknown. In centrosomin (cnn) mutants, where the centriole forms but the centrosome pericentriolar material (PCM) fails to assemble [4, 5], actin microfilaments are not organized into furrows at the syncytial cortex [6]. While CNN is required for centrosome assembly and function [4, 6, 7], little is known of its molecular activities. Here, we show the novel protein Centrocortin (CEN), which associates with centrosomes and also with cleavage furrows in early embryos, is required for cleavage furrow assembly. CEN binds to CNN within CNN Motif 2 (CM2), a conserved 60 amino-acid domain at CNNs C-terminus. The cnnB4 allele, which contains a missense mutation at a highly conserved residue within CM2, blocks the binding of CEN and disrupts cleavage furrow assembly. Together, these findings show that the C-terminus of CNN coordinates cleavage furrow formation through binding to CEN, providing a molecular link between the centrosome and cleavage furrow assembly. PMID:19427213

  8. Cleavage Events and Sperm Dynamics in Chick Intrauterine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Chul; Choi, Hee Jung; Park, Tae Sub; Lee, Sang In; Kim, Young Min; Rengaraj, Deivendran; Nagai, Hiroki; Sheng, Guojun; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions. PMID:24244702

  9. Preparation and characterization of SiC\\/C and C\\/SiC\\/C composites using pulse chemical vapor infiltration process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihito Sakai; Jun Gotoh; Seiji Motojima

    1996-01-01

    A porous carbon plate and carbon fiber\\/carbon composite (C\\/C) preforms were infiltrated with SiC using a pulse chemical vapor infiltration (Pulse-CVI) process, and the Pulse-CVI conditions for obtaining the densely infiltrated SiC\\/C or C\\/SiC\\/C composites were examined. The optimum reaction temperatures, at which the pores were uniformly filled with SiC deposits throughout the thickness, were 1173 K for the carbon

  10. Molecular Basis of Catalytic Chamber-assisted Unfolding and Cleavage of Human Insulin by Human Insulin-degrading Enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Manolopoulou, Marika; Guo, Qing; Malito, Enrico; Schilling, Alexander B.; Tang, Wei-Jen; (UC); (UIC)

    2009-06-02

    Insulin is a hormone vital for glucose homeostasis, and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) plays a key role in its clearance. IDE exhibits a remarkable specificity to degrade insulin without breaking the disulfide bonds that hold the insulin A and B chains together. Using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry to obtain high mass accuracy, and electron capture dissociation (ECD) to selectively break the disulfide bonds in gas phase fragmentation, we determined the cleavage sites and composition of human insulin fragments generated by human IDE. Our time-dependent analysis of IDE-digested insulin fragments reveals that IDE is highly processive in its initial cleavage at the middle of both the insulin A and B chains. This ensures that IDE effectively splits insulin into inactive N- and C-terminal halves without breaking the disulfide bonds. To understand the molecular basis of the recognition and unfolding of insulin by IDE, we determined a 2.6-A resolution insulin-bound IDE structure. Our structure reveals that IDE forms an enclosed catalytic chamber that completely engulfs and intimately interacts with a partially unfolded insulin molecule. This structure also highlights how the unique size, shape, charge distribution, and exosite of the IDE catalytic chamber contribute to its high affinity ( approximately 100 nm) for insulin. In addition, this structure shows how IDE utilizes the interaction of its exosite with the N terminus of the insulin A chain as well as other properties of the catalytic chamber to guide the unfolding of insulin and allowing for the processive cleavages.

  11. , 2006, . 47, 5, c. 557--567 http://www.izdatgeo.ru PP C C CX X

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    , 2006, . 47, 5, c. 557--567 http://www.izdatgeo.ru 550.834 PP C C CX X P P CP . p Republic pp c px px cx x, pcpcpxc p p p cp, c c c. c cc p P- S-, pcpcpxc px x - p. pp c p SH-, pcpcpxc c- c cp p p cp. xppc p- p c p c c p cpc. p, cc c cc p pcpcp p c pc pccp c . p c c p

  12. Transition Metal Catalyzed Hydroarylation of Multiple Bonds: Exploration of Second Generation Ruthenium Catalysts and Extension to Copper Systems

    SciTech Connect

    T. Brent Gunnoe

    2011-02-17

    Catalysts provide foundational technology for the development of new materials and can enhance the efficiency of routes to known materials. New catalyst technologies offer the possibility of reducing energy and raw material consumption as well as enabling chemical processes with a lower environmental impact. The rising demand and expense of fossil resources has strained national and global economies and has increased the importance of accessing more efficient catalytic processes for the conversion of hydrocarbons to useful products. The goals of the research are to develop and understand single-site homogeneous catalysts for the conversion of readily available hydrocarbons into useful materials. A detailed understanding of these catalytic reactions could lead to the development of catalysts with improved activity, longevity and selectivity. Such transformations could reduce the environmental impact of hydrocarbon functionalization, conserve energy and valuable fossil resources and provide new technologies for the production of liquid fuels. This project is a collaborative effort that incorporates both experimental and computational studies to understand the details of transition metal catalyzed C-H activation and C-C bond forming reactions with olefins. Accomplishments of the current funding period include: (1) We have completed and published studies of C-H activation and catalytic olefin hydroarylation by TpRu{l_brace}P(pyr){sub 3}{r_brace}(NCMe)R (pyr = N-pyrrolyl) complexes. While these systems efficiently initiate stoichiometric benzene C-H activation, catalytic olefin hydroarylation is hindered by inhibition of olefin coordination, which is a result of the steric bulk of the P(pyr){sub 3} ligand. (2) We have extended our studies of catalytic olefin hydroarylation by TpRu(L)(NCMe)Ph systems to L = P(OCH{sub 2}){sub 3}CEt. Thus, we have now completed detailed mechanistic studies of four systems with L = CO, PMe{sub 3}, P(pyr){sub 3} and P(OCH{sub 2}){sub 3}CEt, which has provided a comprehensive understanding of the impact of steric and electronic parameters of 'L' on the catalytic hydroarylation of olefins. (3) We have completed and published a detailed mechanistic study of stoichiometric aromatic C-H activation by TpRu(L)(NCMe)Ph (L = CO or PMe{sub 3}). These efforts have probed the impact of functionality para to the site of C-H activation for benzene substrates and have allowed us to develop a detailed model of the transition state for the C-H activation process. These results have led us to conclude that the C-H bond cleavage occurs by a {sigma}-bond metathesis process in which the C-H transfer is best viewed as an intramolecular proton transfer. (4) We have completed studies of Ru complexes possessing the N-heterocyclic carbene IMes (IMes = 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). One of these systems is a unique four-coordinate Ru(II) complex that catalyzes the oxidative hydrophenylation of ethylene (in low yields) to produce styrene and ethane (utilizing ethylene as the hydrogen acceptor) as well as the hydrogenation of olefins, aldehydes and ketones. These results provide a map for the preparation of catalysts that are selective for oxidative olefin hydroarylation. (5) The ability of TpRu(PMe{sub 3})(NCMe)R systems to activate sp{sup 3} C-H bonds has been demonstrated including extension to subsequent C-C bond forming steps. These results open the door to the development of catalysts for the functionalization of more inert C-H bonds. (6) We have discovered that Pt(II) complexes supported by simple nitrogen-based ligands serve as catalysts for the hydroarylation of olefins. Given the extensive studies of Pt-based catalytic C-H activation, we believe these results will provide an entry point into an array of possible catalysts for hydrocarbon functionalization.

  13. Anaerobic and aerobic cleavage of the steroid core ring structure by Steroidobacter denitrificans[S

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Po-Hsiang; Leu, Yann-Lii; Ismail, Wael; Tang, Sen-Lin; Tsai, Ching-Yen; Chen, Hsing-Ju; Kao, Ann-Tee; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2013-01-01

    The aerobic degradation of steroids by bacteria has been studied in some detail. In contrast, only little is known about the anaerobic steroid catabolism. Steroidobacter denitrificans can utilize testosterone under both oxic and anoxic conditions. By conducting metabolomic investigations, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans adopts the 9,10-seco-pathway to degrade testosterone under oxic conditions. This pathway depends on the use of oxygenases for oxygenolytic ring fission. Conversely, the detected degradation intermediates under anoxic conditions suggest a novel, oxygenase-independent testosterone catabolic pathway, the 2,3-seco-pathway, which differs significantly from the aerobic route. In this anaerobic pathway, testosterone is first transformed to 1-dehydrotestosterone, which is then reduced to produce 1-testosterone followed by water addition to the C-1/C-2 double bond of 1-testosterone. Subsequently, the C-1 hydroxyl group is oxidized to produce 17-hydroxy-androstan-1,3-dione. The A-ring of this compound is cleaved by hydrolysis as evidenced by H218O-incorporation experiments. Regardless of the growth conditions, testosterone is initially transformed to 1-dehydrotestosterone. This intermediate is a divergence point at which the downstream degradation pathway is governed by oxygen availability. Our results shed light into the previously unknown cleavage of the sterane ring structure without oxygen. We show that, under anoxic conditions, the microbial cleavage of steroidal core ring system begins at the A-ring. PMID:23458847

  14. Identification and expression pattern of a new carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene member from Bixa orellana.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-vila, N L; Narvez-Zapata, J A; Ramrez-Bentez, J E; Aguilar-Espinosa, M L; Rivera-Madrid, R

    2011-11-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a class of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of a broad diversity of secondary metabolites known as apocarotenoids. In plants, CCDs are part of a genetic family with members which cleave specific double bonds of carotenoid molecules. CCDs are involved in the production of diverse and important metabolites such as vitamin A and abscisic acid (ABA). Bixa orellana L. is the main source of the natural pigment annatto or bixin, an apocarotenoid accumulated in large quantities in its seeds. Bixin biosynthesis has been studied and the involvement of a CCD has been confirmed in vitro. However, the CCD genes involved in the biosynthesis of the wide variety of apocarotenoids found in this plant have not been well documented. In this study, a new CCD1 gene member (BoCCD1) was identified and its expression was charaterized in different plant tissues of B. orellana plantlets and adult plants. The BoCCD1 sequence showed high homology with plant CCD1s involved mainly in the cleavage of carotenoids in several sites to generate multiple apocarotenoid products. Here, the expression profiles of the BoCCD1 gene were analysed and discussed in relation to total carotenoids and other important apocarotenoids such as bixin. PMID:21813796

  15. Identification and expression pattern of a new carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene member from Bixa orellana

    PubMed Central

    Rodrguez-vila, N. L.; Narvez-Zapata, J. A.; Ramrez-Bentez, J. E.; Aguilar-Espinosa, M. L.; Rivera-Madrid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a class of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of a broad diversity of secondary metabolites known as apocarotenoids. In plants, CCDs are part of a genetic family with members which cleave specific double bonds of carotenoid molecules. CCDs are involved in the production of diverse and important metabolites such as vitamin A and abscisic acid (ABA). Bixa orellana L. is the main source of the natural pigment annatto or bixin, an apocarotenoid accumulated in large quantities in its seeds. Bixin biosynthesis has been studied and the involvement of a CCD has been confirmed in vitro. However, the CCD genes involved in the biosynthesis of the wide variety of apocarotenoids found in this plant have not been well documented. In this study, a new CCD1 gene member (BoCCD1) was identified and its expression was charaterized in different plant tissues of B. orellana plantlets and adult plants. The BoCCD1 sequence showed high homology with plant CCD1s involved mainly in the cleavage of carotenoids in several sites to generate multiple apocarotenoid products. Here, the expression profiles of the BoCCD1 gene were analysed and discussed in relation to total carotenoids and other important apocarotenoids such as bixin. PMID:21813796

  16. LET'S BOND! A Chemical Bonding Webquest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hicken

    2009-04-08

    Today we are going to use the internet to explore chemical bonding! Even though there are just a few questions for each website, you need to read the entire content. Don't worry about understanding all of it, but make sure that you are familiar with it! Stay on task and have fun! Let's start with some basics. Click on the link below and answer the questions on your worksheet under "Bonding Basics". Bonding Basics Good job! Lets move on and talk about ions. Ions are a big part of bonding, so make sure you get this section down pat! Click on the ...

  17. Molecular characterization of proteolytic cleavage sites of the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2

    E-print Network

    Sjlander, Kimmen

    Molecular characterization of proteolytic cleavage sites of the Pseudomonas syringae effector Avr proteolytic cleavage of a synthetic substrate, demonstrating that these sequences are cleavage recognition cleavage sites, and mutation of both sites resulted in cleav- age-resistant RIN4. Growth of Pseudomonas

  18. Cell, Vol. 84, 195198, January 26, 1996, Copyright 1996 by Cell Press Cleavage Plane Specification Minireview

    E-print Network

    Strome, Susan

    Cell, Vol. 84, 195198, January 26, 1996, Copyright 1996 by Cell Press Cleavage Plane visualized when the mechanical constraints of the egg-cleavages. The orientation and timing of cleavage in an shell are removed); the divisions are unequal and gener-animal cell are always such that the cleavage

  19. Coupling between ATP Binding and DNA Cleavage by DNA Topoisomerase II

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    Coupling between ATP Binding and DNA Cleavage by DNA Topoisomerase II A UNIFYING KINETIC cleavage. We dissected the DNA cleavage reaction by measuring rate and equilibrium constants is extremely slow but which allows DNA cleavage. A minimal kinetic and thermodynamic framework is established

  20. Kinetic Analysis of Ribozyme Cleavage Stephane Mercure, Daniel Lafontaine, Sirinart Ananvoranich, and Jean-Pierre Perreault*

    E-print Network

    Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    Kinetic Analysis of Ribozyme Cleavage Stephane Mercure, Daniel Lafontaine, Sirinart Ananvoranich ABSTRACT: The ability of ribozyme to catalyze the cleavage of an 11-mer RNA substrate was examined under. The cleavage reaction seems to be limited by the product release step at 37 C and by the chemical cleavage