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Sample records for c-coriolis interacting dyad

  1. High-resolution infrared and theoretical study of the fundamental bands ν2, ν4 and ν9 and the c-Coriolis interacting dyad ν5, ν14 of 1,3,4-thiadiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelund, F.; Larsen, R. Wugt; Aitken, R. A.; Palmer, M. H.

    2008-04-01

    The Fourier transform gas-phase IR spectrum of 1,3,4-thiadiazole, C 2H 2N 2S, has been recorded with a resolution of ca. 0.003 cm -1 in the 800-1500 cm -1 spectral region. Five fundamental bands ν2(A 1; 1391.9 cm -1), ν4(A 1; 964.4 cm -1), ν5(A 1; 894.6 cm -1), ν9(B 1; 821.5 cm -1), and ν14(B 2; 898.4 cm -1) have been analysed using the Watson model. Ground state rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants as well as upper state spectroscopic constants have been obtained from fits. The ν4 and ν9 bands are unperturbed while a strong c-Coriolis resonance perturbs the close-lying ν5 and ν14 bands. This dyad system has been analysed by a model including first and second order c-Coriolis resonance using the theoretically predicted Coriolis coupling constant ς14,5c. The ν2 band is strongly perturbed by a local resonance, and we obtain a set of spectroscopic parameters using a model including second order a-Coriolis resonance with the inactive ν10 + ν14 band. Ground state rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants, anharmonic frequencies, and vibration-rotational α-constants predicted by quantum chemical calculations using a cc-pVTZ basis and B3LYP methodology, have been compared with the present experimental data, where there is generally good agreement.

  2. The high-resolution infrared spectrum of thiophene between 600 and 1200 cm -1: A spectroscopic and theoretical study of the fundamental bands ν6, ν7, ν13, and the c-Coriolis interacting dyad ν5, ν19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelund, F.; Wugt Larsen, R.; Palmer, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of gaseous thiophene, C 4H 4S, has been recorded in the 600-1200 cm -1 spectral region with a resolution of ca. 0.0030 cm -1. Five fundamental bands ν13 ( B1, 712.1 cm -1), ν7 ( A1; 840.0 cm -1), ν6 ( A1; 1036.4 cm -1), ν5 ( A1; 1081.5 cm -1) and ν19 ( B2; 1084.0 cm -1) have been analysed by the standard Watson model (A-reduction). Ground state rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants have been obtained from a simultaneous fit of ground state combination differences from four of these bands and previous microwave transitions. Upper state spectroscopic constants have been obtained for all five bands from single band fits using the Watson model. A strong c-Coriolis resonance perturbs the close lying ν5 and ν19 bands. We have analysed this dyad system by a model including first and second order Coriolis resonance using the theoretically predicted Coriolis coupling constant ς19,5c. From this analysis we locate the previously unobserved ν19 band at 1083.969 cm -1. The rotational constants, ground state quartic centrifugal distortion constants, anharmonic frequencies, and vibration-rotational constants ( α-constants) predicted by quantum chemical calculations using a cc-pVTZ basis with B3LYP methodology, are compared with the present experimental data, where there is generally good agreement. A complete set of anharmonic frequencies and α-constants for all fundamental levels of the molecule is given.

  3. Comparison of Mother-Infant Interactions between Japanese Dyads and American Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Taiko; Shinoki, Eri; Hamada, Yuko

    Mother-infant interaction creates a context for socioemotional, behavioral, and cognitive development. This study used the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS) to examine mother-infant interaction in Japanese dyads. Subjects were residing in Hikkaido, Japan, and assessments were…

  4. The Interpersonal Dynamics of Collaborative Reasoning in Peer Interactive Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Kaartinen, Sinikka

    2003-01-01

    The authors investigated the microlevel processes of collaborative reasoning in heterogeneous peer dyads working on an open-design task in elementary geometry. Special attention was paid to the nature of student social interaction, problem-solving strategies, and mathematical language and how they shape collaborative problem-solving processes.…

  5. When Training with a Partner Is Inferior to Training Alone: The Importance of Dyad Type and Interaction Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Amy E.; Beier, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Dyad training, where trainees learn in pairs but ultimately perform individually, has been shown to be an effective method for training some skills. The effectiveness of this approach, however, may be tied to the type of task to be trained and the quality of the interaction in the dyad. We report two studies on the effectiveness of dyad training…

  6. Observed Sensitivity during Family Interactions and Cumulative Risk: A Study of Multiple Dyads per Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Dillon T.; Leckie, George; Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the family, individual, and dyad-specific contributions to observed cognitive sensitivity during family interactions. Moreover, the influence of cumulative risk on sensitivity at the aforementioned levels of the family was examined. Mothers and 2 children per family were observed interacting in a round robin…

  7. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  8. The Development of an Individuals-within-Dyads Multilevel Performance Measure for an Interactive Cheerleading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habeeb, Christine M.; Eklund, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Dyadic interactions generate direct relationships in which interdependent sport behaviors can be destructured. The focus of this investigation was to develop a two-level performance framework and corresponding measures of individual- and dyad-level sport performance. The described procedures surrounded a male-female cheerleading paired-stunt task,…

  9. Observed sensitivity during family interactions and cumulative risk: A study of multiple dyads per family.

    PubMed

    Browne, Dillon T; Leckie, George; Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    The present study sought to investigate the family, individual, and dyad-specific contributions to observed cognitive sensitivity during family interactions. Moreover, the influence of cumulative risk on sensitivity at the aforementioned levels of the family was examined. Mothers and 2 children per family were observed interacting in a round robin design (i.e., mother-older sibling, mother younger-sibling and sibling-dyad, N = 385 families). Data were dyadic, in that there were 2 directional scores per interaction, and were analyzed using a multilevel formulation of the Social Relations Model. Variance partitioning revealed that cognitive sensitivity is simultaneously a function of families, individuals and dyads, though the importance of these components varies across family roles. Cognitive sensitivity for mothers was primarily attributable to individual differences, whereas cognitive sensitivity for children was predominantly attributable to family and dyadic differences, especially for youngest children. Cumulative risk explained family and individual variance in cognitive sensitivity, particularly when actors were older or in a position of relative competence or authority (i.e., mother to children, older to younger siblings). Overall, this study demonstrates that cognitive sensitivity operates across levels of family organization, and is negatively impacted by psychosocial risk. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337515

  10. MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTION IMPROVES WITH A DEVELOPMENTAL INTERVENTION FOR MOTHER-PRETERM INFANT DYADS

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F.; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M.; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant‘s biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29–34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention Control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training–Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-minute play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (β = 2.03, p = .06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (

  11. Mother-infant interaction improves with a developmental intervention for mother-preterm infant dyads.

    PubMed

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-12-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (β = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (β = 0.75, p

  12. Challenges to bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) social groups: Mother-infant dyad and infant social interactions.

    PubMed

    Laudenslager, Mark L; Natvig, C; Mikulich-Gilbertson, S M; Blevins, M; Corcoran, C; Pierre, P J; Bennett, A J

    2010-07-01

    The mother-infant dyad is crucial to early development in a variety of species. The complexity of social groupings in nonhuman primates makes this relationship resilient as well as susceptible to early challenges associated with environmental chaos. Quantitative behavior observations of bonnet monkey mother-infant interactions were collected from 28 mother-infant dyads between one and twelve months of age. Social groups were subjected to several prenatal and/or postnatal housing relocations within a single year resulting in two study groups. One group experienced relocations (ATYPICAL, n = 14) and the second group (TYPICAL, n = 14) was conceived and reared in the same location. Behaviors in the ethogram included mother-infant interactions and infant social interactions with other members of the group. Observations between ages of two to four months were analyzed by a mixed model analysis of variance including fixed effects of per and postnatal history (TYPICAL, ATYPICAL), age, and history by age interaction and random effects of mother and infant nested within mother. A significant effect of relocation history was noted on a number of infant behaviors. ATYPICAL infants were out of direct contact with their mother at an earlier age but remained in her proximity. Control of proximity shifted to offsrping in the ATYPICAL group compared to the TYPICAL group. Furthermore, greater social interactions between two and four months of age with other members of the social group as well as the ir mother were observed in the ATYPICAL group. It is suggested that continuous challenge associated with relocation may affect the infant at later developmental ages due to these early differences in ways that are yet unclear. PMID:20583143

  13. Two-Photon Study on the Electronic Interactions between the First Excited Singlet States in Carotenoid-Tetrapyrrole Dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Pen-Nan; Pillai, Smitha; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Walla, Peter J.

    2011-03-22

    Electronic interactions between the first excited states (S1) of carotenoids (Car) of different conjugation lengths (8-11 double bonds) and phthalocyanines (Pc) in different Car-Pc dyad molecules were investigated by two-photon spectroscopy and compared with Car S1-chlorophyll (Chl) interactions in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes (LHCs). The observation of Chl/Pc fluorescence after selective two-photon excitation of the Car S1 state allowed sensitive monitoring of the flow of energy between Car S1 and Pc or Chl. It is found that two-photon excitation excites to about 80% to 100% exclusively the carotenoid state Car S1 and that only a small fraction of direct tetrapyrrole two-photon excitation occurs. Amide-linked Car-Pc dyads in tetrahydrofuran demonstrate a molecular gear shift mechanism in that effective Car S1 → Pc energy transfer is observed in a dyad with 9 double bonds in the carotenoid, whereas in similar dyads with 11 double bonds in the carotenoid, the Pc fluorescence is strongly quenched by Pc → Car S1 energy transfer. In phenylamino-linked Car-Pc dyads in toluene extremely large electronic interactions between the Car S1 state and Pc were observed, particularly in the case of a dyad in which the carotenoid contained 10 double bonds. This observation together with previous findings in the same system provides strong evidence for excitonic Car S1-Pc Qy interactions. Very similar results were observed with photosynthetic LHC II complexes in the past, supporting an important role of such interactions in photosynthetic down-regulation.

  14. Bids for Joint Attention by Parent-Child Dyads and by Dyads of Young Peers in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Before they are 3;0-3;6, children typically do not engage with peers in focused interaction, although they do with adults. With parents, children interact around the "here-and-now". We hypothesize that young peers do not attempt to establish joint attention to present objects. Using the CHILDES database, we compared attention-directives…

  15. Pattern of mother–child feeding interactions in preterm and term dyads at 18 and 24 months

    PubMed Central

    Salvatori, Paola; Andrei, Federica; Neri, Erica; Chirico, Ilaria; Trombini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Literature on mother–child feeding interactions during the transition to self-feeding in preterm populations is lacking, particularly through observational methods. The present research study aims to look at the longitudinal patterns of mother–toddler feeding interactions, comparing preterm and full term dyads. To this end, a multi-method approach was used to collect data from 27 preterm to 20 full-term toddlers and their mothers. For each dyad, mother–child interactions were observed during the snack time at 18 and 24 months of age and then assessed through the Italian version of the Feeding Scale. Higher scores on the scale indicate a less healthy pattern of interaction. Additionally, at both points in time, mothers completed the BDI-II questionnaire as a screen for maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage was assessed using the Griffiths Scales. A series of repeated measures Analysis of Variances were run to detect differences in feeding interactions between the two groups at the time of assessment. Our results show that preterm dyads report overall higher levels of maternal negative affection, interactional conflicts, and less dyadic reciprocity during the meal compared to full-term dyads. Additionally, longitudinal data show that dyadic conflict decreases in both groups, whereas the child’s food refusal behaviors increase in the preterm group from 18 to 24 months. No differences were reported for both the BDI-II and the child’s development for the two groups. The results reveal that regardless of maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage, the two groups show different trajectories in the pattern of feeding interactions during the transition to self –feeding, at 18 and 24 months, with overall less positive interactions in preterm mother–child dyads. PMID:26347699

  16. Drug-protein interactions assessed by fluorescence measurements in the real complexes and in model dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayá, Ignacio; Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Jiménez, M. Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2010-02-01

    In the present work, a systematic fluorescence study on supramolecular systems using two serum albumins (HSA or BSA) as hosts and the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs carprofen (CPF) or naproxen (NPX) as guests has been undertaken. In parallel, model dyads containing Tyr or Trp covalently linked to CPF or NPX have also been investigated. In HSA/(S)-CPF and BSA/(S)-CPF ( λexc = 266 nm), at 1:1 M ratio, an important degree (more than 40%) of singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) was observed to take place. The distance ( r) calculated for energy transfer from the SAs to (S)-CPF through a FRET mechanism was found to be ca. 21 Å. In the case of HSA/(S)-NPX and BSA/(S)-NPX, energy transfer occurred to a lower extent (ca. 7%), and r was determined as ca. 24 Å. In order to investigate the possible excited state interactions between bound ligands and the relevant amino acids present in the protein binding sites, four pairs of model dyads were designed and synthesised, namely ( S, S)-TyrCPF, ( S, R)-TyrCPF, ( S, S)-TrpCPF, ( S, R)-TrpCPF, ( S, S)-TyrNPX, ( S, R)-TyrNPX, ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX. A complete SSET was observed from Tyr or Trp to CPF, since no contribution from the amino acids was present in the emission of the dyads. Likewise, a very efficient Tyr or Trp to NPX energy transfer was observed. Remarkably, in ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX a configuration-dependent reduction in the emission intensity was observed, revealing a strong and stereoselective intramolecular quenching. This effect can be attributed to exciplex formation and is dynamic in nature, as the fluorescence lifetimes were much shorter in ( S, R)- and ( S, S)-TrpNPX (1.5 and 3.1 ns, respectively) than in (S)-NPX (11 ns).

  17. Analyte interactions with a new ditopic dansylamide-nitrobenzoxadiazole dyad: a combined photophysical, NMR, and theoretical (DFT) study.

    PubMed

    Bhoi, Abhas Kumar; Das, Sudhir Kumar; Majhi, Debashis; Sahu, Prabhat Kumar; Nijamudheen, A; N, Anoop; Rahaman, Abdur; Sarkar, Moloy

    2014-08-21

    We report herein the synthesis and photophysical studies on a new multicomponent chemosensor dyad comprising two fluorescing units, dansylamide (DANS) and nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD). The system has been developed to investigate receptor-analyte binding interactions in the presence of both cations and anions in a single molecular system. A dimethyl amino (in the DANS unit) group is used as a receptor for cations, and acidic hydrogens of sulfonamide and the NBD group are used as receptors for anions. The system is characterized by conventional analytical techniques. The photophysical properties of this supramolecular system in the absence and presence of various metal ions and nonmetal ions as additives are investigated in an acetonitrile medium. Utility of this system in an aqueous medium has also been demonstrated. The absorption and fluorescence spectrum of the molecular system consists of a broad band typical of an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition. A low quantum yield and lifetime of the NBD moiety in the present dyad indicates photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between DANS and the NBD moiety. The fluorescence intensity of the system is found to decrease in the presence of fluoride and acetate anions; however, the quenching is found to be much higher for fluoride. This quenching behavior is attributed to the enhanced PET from the anion receptor to the fluorophore moiety. The mechanistic aspect of the fluoride ion signaling behavior has also been studied by infrared (IR) and (1)H NMR experiments. The hydrogen bonding interaction between the acidic NH protons of the DPN moiety and F(-) is found to be primarily responsible for the fluoride selective signaling behavior. While investigating the cation signaling behavior, contrary to anions, significant fluorescence enhancement has been observed only in the presence of transition-metal ions. This behavior is rationalized by considering the disruption of PET communication between DANS and the NBD moiety

  18. Patterns of mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months among dyads with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Haabrekke, Kristin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of mother-infant interaction patterns from 3 to 12 months among three groups of mother-baby pairs recruited during pregnancy: one group from residential substance abuse treatment (n=28), a second group from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n=22), and a third group from well-baby clinics (n=30). The mother-infant interaction at 3 and 12 months was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA), which consists of maternal, child and dyadic subscales (Clark, 2006). Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze group differences and the changes in mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months. At 3 months, pairwise comparisons showed that the group with psychiatric problems had significantly more difficulties in the mother-infant interaction than the two other groups. The group with substance abuse problems was not significantly different from the two other groups. At 12 months, the mother-infant pairs in the substance abuse group showed significantly more relational disturbances than the non-clinical pairs, as well as a poorer affective quality of interaction than the dyads in the group with psychiatric problems. Analysis of change from 3 to 12 months showed that difficulties in the interaction increased among the mother-baby pairs in the substance abuse group, while improvements were displayed in the two other groups. These results underline that mother-infant pairs at double risk due to maternal substance abuse and other non-optimal factors, are in need for long-term follow up in order to prevent the development of negative interactional patterns. PMID:25459795

  19. The Preschool Teacher-Child Dyad: Sex Differences in Verbal Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Louise

    1975-01-01

    This study describes differences in the quantity and style of female preschool teachers' dyadic verbal interaction with the girls and boys in their classes. Sixteen hours of the spontaneous speech of 4 female teachers and 38 girls and boys were tape recorded in two classroom situations, then transcribed and analyzed. (Author/CS)

  20. Emotional interactions in European American mother-infant firstborn and secondborn dyads: A within-family study.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2016-09-01

    The developmental science literature is riven with respect to (a) parental similar versus different treatment of siblings and (b) sibling similarities and differences. Most methodologies in the field are flawed or confounded. To address these issues, this study employed a within-family longitudinal design to examine developmental processes of continuity and stability in emotional interactions in mothers with their firstborn and secondborn 5-month-old infants (ns = 61 mothers and 122 infants). As independently rated by the Emotional Availability Scales, mothers' observed and coded behavioral expressions of sensitivity, structuring, nonintrusiveness, and nonhostility were consistent in group mean levels between firstborns and secondborns and (largely) between daughters and sons. Neither firstborns and secondborns, nor girls and boys, differed in their responsiveness or involvement of mother. However, mothers' emotional interactions with their firstborn and secondborn children were uncorrelated, as were firstborn and secondborn infants' interactions with their mother. These group-mean consistencies and individual-differences inconsistencies in emotional interactions are discussed in relation to the shared and nonshared lives of siblings in the same family. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505695

  1. Novel zinc phthalocyanine-benzoquinone rigid dyad and its photoinduced electron transfer properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.-H.; Guo, J.; Chen, L. X.; Mandal, B. K.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-10-10

    While preparing the first structurally rigid zinc phthalocyanine-benzoquinone (ZnPc-BQ) dyad as a model for photoinduced charge separation mimicking natural photosynthesis, a convenient method is developed for in situ generation of a benzoquinone chromophore in the dyad using an iso-butyryl mask. The dyad has no rotamers and possesses a fixed distance between ZnPc and BQ moieties (center-to-center and edge-to-edge distances are 9.40 and 2.14 {angstrom}, respectively). The dyad displays unusual electronic perturbation in the ground state, resulting from the interactions between Pc and BQ, and exhibits photoinduced electron transfer with a lifetime of 40 ps of the charged separated states. The steady-state fluorescence and electrochemical behavior of the dyad are evaluated. This study opens a route to subsequent dyads, triads, and complex architectures of electron donor-acceptor arrays with rigid structures and long charge separation states.

  2. Difference without Dominance: Children's Talk in Mixed- and Same-Sex Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Laura A.; Coleman, Lerita M.

    1992-01-01

    This study assesses whether third graders verbalize gender differences in dominance in mixed- and same-sex interactions, using data from tape-recordings of 43 pairs of white children (14 female and 12 male same-sex dyads and 17 different-sex dyads) playing checkers in same- or mixed-sex conditions. Children develop gender-differentiated speech…

  3. The Effects of Student-Instructor Interaction on Achievement in a Dyad Computer-Based Training Environment. Interim Technical Paper for Period June 1991-August 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Stanley D.

    Most computer-based training (CBT) research has ignored variables other than the software itself. Yet other factors can influence achievement. This study explores the impact of interaction between the student and instructor when students work CBT in pairs. Compared to an earlier study in which such interaction positively influenced achievement…

  4. An Examination of Changes in Emotion Co-Regulation Among Mother and Child Dyads During the Strange Situation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuqing; Leu, Szu-Yun; Barnard, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Elaine A; Spieker, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied State Space Grid analysis to describe how preschooler-mother dyads co-regulate emotion in the Strange Situation. Second-to-second mother and child affect during pre-separation play (baseline) and the final reunion (post perturbation) episodes of the Strange Situation were coded for 80 dyads. Change in emotion co-regulation across the two Strange Situation episodes was examined with linear mixed models for groups with secure and insecure classifications. The groups did not differ at baseline. Change in content-specific emotion co-regulation but not content-free emotion co-regulation was found to be significantly different within and between groups. Both secure and insecure dyads reduced the time spent in positive interaction but increased the time in negative interaction across two episodes; the change in secure dyads was less pronounced than in the insecure dyads. After the separation, secure dyads had more positive interactions and fewer negative interactions compared to insecure dyads. Results highlight how secure dyads adapted to the stressful change, whereas insecure dyads were more reactive and less resilient to the stress of the study’s brief imposed separation. PMID:26726296

  5. An Ordinal Pattern Analysis of Four Hypotheses Describing the Interactions between Drug-Addicted, Chronically Disadvantaged, and Middle-Class Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinker, Richard P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated interactions among 18 African American mother-infant pairs participating in an early intervention program for infants with developmental delays or at risk for developmental disabilities. The hypothesis that mothers would become less responsive to infants over time as a function of drug addiction, poverty, or serious developmental…

  6. Mother and child characteristics and involvement in dyads in which very young children have eczema.

    PubMed

    Solomon, C R; Gagnon, C

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify statements made in the literature concerning the personality characteristics of mothers of children who have eczema, those of the children, and their dyadic interaction. Three observers made five 2-hour home visits to 14 mother-child dyads when the children were 29, 33, 37, 41, and 45 weeks old. Seven dyads included a child who had eczema. The results showed these dyads to be significantly different from the control dyads, in that they were less aware and less involved with each other, and less mutually positively reinforcing. However, neither the mothers nor the children, nor the interaction between them fit the descriptions made of them in the literature. The authors therefore caution against making generalizations about the psychological contributions to or psychomaintenance of childhood eczema. PMID:3611362

  7. Line Intensities of the Phosphine Dyad at 10 mu m

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Linda R.; Sams, Robert L.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Cottaz, C; Sagui, L

    2002-10-01

    Over 1000 measured line intensities of phosphine (PH3) are reported for the 830 to 1310 cm-1 region that contains the two lowest fundamentals in Coriolis interaction. These measurements are fitted to 1.5% for v2 at 992.13 cm-1 for v4 at 1118.31 cm-1, respectively, using five intensity parameters that include three Herman-Wallis type terms. In addition, some 60 intensities of the 2v2-v2 hot band are modeled. The corresponding assignments and line positions of the dyad from previous work [L. Fusina and G. Di Lonardo, J. Mol. Struct. 517-518, 67-78 (2000)] are combined with the present intensity study to provide an improved PH3 database for planetary studies. The total integrated intensity for the dyad is 156.(4) cm-2atm-1 at 296 K.

  8. Dogmatism within the Counselor-Client Dyad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Donald J.

    1970-01-01

    Different levels of counselor and client dogmatism combined additively in terms of their effect on client ratings of the relationship. Client ratings of the relationship were progressively higher as more openness occurred in the dyad. (Author)

  9. Modulation of Phenol Oxidation in Cofacial Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bon Jun; Huynh, Michael; Halbach, Robert L.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation of two phenols on a xanthene backbone is akin to the tyrosine dyad (Y730 and Y731) of ribonucleotide reductase. X-ray crystallography reveals that the two phenol moieties are cofacially disposed at 4.35 Å. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) reveals that phenol oxidation is modulated within the dyad, which exhibits a splitting of one-electron waves with the second oxidation of the phenol dyad occurring at larger positive potential than that of a typical phenol. In contrast, a single phenol appended to a xanthene exhibits a two-electron (ECE) process, consistent with reported oxidation pathways of phenols in acetonitrile. The perturbation of the phenol potential by stacking is reminiscent of a similar effect for guanines stacked within DNA base pairs. PMID:26305909

  10. Photoswitchable Spiropyran Dyads for Biological Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of a small-molecule dyad consisting of a far-red-emitting silicon rhodamine dye that is covalently linked to a photochromic spironaphthothiopyran unit, which serves as a photoswitchable quencher, is reported. This system can be switched reversibly between the fluorescent and nonfluorescent states using visible light at wavelengths of 405 and 630 nm, respectively, and it works effectively in aqueous solution. Live-cell imaging demonstrates that this dyad has several desirable features, including excellent membrane permeability, fast and reversible modulation of fluorescence by visible light, and good contrast between the bright and dark states. PMID:27456166

  11. Photoswitchable Spiropyran Dyads for Biological Imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yaoyao; Rivera-Fuentes, Pablo; Sezgin, Erdinc; Vargas Jentzsch, Andreas; Eggeling, Christian; Anderson, Harry L

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of a small-molecule dyad consisting of a far-red-emitting silicon rhodamine dye that is covalently linked to a photochromic spironaphthothiopyran unit, which serves as a photoswitchable quencher, is reported. This system can be switched reversibly between the fluorescent and nonfluorescent states using visible light at wavelengths of 405 and 630 nm, respectively, and it works effectively in aqueous solution. Live-cell imaging demonstrates that this dyad has several desirable features, including excellent membrane permeability, fast and reversible modulation of fluorescence by visible light, and good contrast between the bright and dark states. PMID:27456166

  12. Early Communication in Dyads with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattray, Julie; Zeedyk, M. Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    The ability of dyads with restricted access to the visual channel of communication to establish a reliable pre-linguistic communicative signalling system has traditionally been viewed as problematic. Such a conclusion is due in part to the emphasis that has been placed on vision as central to communication by traditional theory. The data presented…

  13. Covalent Photosensitizer-Polyoxometalate-Catalyst Dyads for Visible-Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Schönweiz, Stefanie; Rommel, Sebastian A; Kübel, Joachim; Micheel, Mathias; Dietzek, Benjamin; Rau, Sven; Streb, Carsten

    2016-08-16

    A general concept for the covalent linkage of coordination compounds to bipyridine-functionalized polyoxometalates is presented. The new route is used to link an iridium photosensitizer to an Anderson-type hydrogen-evolution catalyst. This covalent dyad catalyzes the visible-light-driven hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and shows superior HER activity compared with the non-covalent reference. Hydrogen evolution is observed over periods >1 week. Spectroscopic, photophysical, and electrochemical analyses give initial insight into the stability, electronic structure, and reactivity of the dyad. The results demonstrate that the proposed linkage concept allows synergistic covalent interactions between functional coordination compounds and reactive molecular metal oxides. PMID:27418410

  14. Working in Dyads and Alone: Examining Process Variables in Solving Insight Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidikis, Viktoria; Ash, Ivan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of working in dyads and their associated gender composition on performance (solution rate and time) and process variables (number of impasses, number of passed solutions, and number of problem solving suggestions and interactions) in a set of classic insight problem solving tasks. Two types of insight problems…

  15. Antecedents of Toddler Aggression: Dysfunctional Parenting in Mother-Toddler Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; O'Leary, Susan G.

    2006-01-01

    Aggression is stable as early as 2 years of age and predicts many negative adult outcomes. Although longitudinal predictors of child aggression have been identified, information is lacking regarding the proximal precursors of toddlers' aggression. During a 30-min interaction, 54 mother-toddler dyads were observed. Toddlers were categorized as…

  16. Photoinduced electron transfer in a porphyrin dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L.; Leggett, L.; Lin, S.; DeGraziano, J.M.; Hermant, R.M.; Nicodem, D.; Craig, P.; Seely, G.R.; Nieman, R.A. )

    1993-07-29

    A prophyrin dyad designed to facilitate vectorial interporphyrin electron transfer has been synthesized and studied using steady-state and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopies. The dyad features a zinc tetraaylporphyrin bearing electron-donating substituents linked by an amide bond to a free base porphyrin carrying electron-withdrawing groups. Excitation of the zinc porphyrin moiety in dichloromethane solution is followed by singlet energy transfer to the free base and concurrent electron transfer to the same moiety to yield a charge-separated state. The free base first excited singlet state decays by accepting an electron from the zinc porphyrin to form the same charge-separated state. Similar results are observed in butyronitrile. Transient absorption studies in butyronitrile verify the formation of a short-lived (8 ps) charge-separated state from the porphyrin first excited singlet states. The results support the suggestion that fluorescence quenching in related porphyrin dyads and carotenoid--diporphyrin triads is due to photoinduced electron transfer, rather than some other decay process. 17 refs., 8 refs.

  17. Synthesis of fullerene-acene dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Claire Eunhye

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells present potential for industrial use because of their possible low cost production. However, their relatively low efficiencies render them impractical for implementation. A comprehensive understanding of the photophysical process is necessary for eventual development of high efficiency OPV cells. Studying photophysical processes of well-defined structures such as dyad or triad molecules may give insight into their photophysical processes. In this study, we selected pentacene derivatives as electron donors and fullerenes as electron acceptors for dyad and triad molecules with well-defined structures. Several new types of organothiosubstituted 6,13-dihydropentacenes with terminal functionality including carboxylic acid, alcohol and amine groups were synthesized. A sterically hindered pentacene derivative was also prepared in order to prevent cycloaddition between C60 and pentacene. Functionalized fullerenes were synthesized for use as electron acceptors. Numerous reaction methods were attempted toward the synthesis of a donor/acceptor dyad with pentacene and fullerene derivatives. However, hydroamination of pristine C 60 using a diamino dihydropentacene derivative was the only successful method demonstrated to link C60 and dihydropentacene derivatives.

  18. Interpersonal Responses Among Sibling Dyads Tested for BRCA1/BRCA2 Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Heidi A.; Croyle, Robert T.; Smith, Timothy W.; Smith, Ken R.; Ruiz, John M.; Kircher, John C.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The familial context plays an important role in psychosocial responses to genetic testing. The purpose of this study was to compare sibling pairs with different combinations of BRCA1/BRCA2 test results on measures of affect, interpersonal responses, and physiological reactions. Design Forty-nine sibling dyads with different combinations of BRCA1/BRCA2 test results (i.e., mixed, positive, negative) completed a questionnaire, and 35 of the dyads also participated in a laboratory-based discussion of genetic testing. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome variables included participant reports of supportive actions toward their sibling, state anger and anxiety, perceptions of sibling behavior, and electrodermal responses. Results Compared to positive and negative dyads, mixed pairs reported less friendly general support actions, noted more anger, and perceived their sibling to be less friendly and more dominant during the interactions. In comparisons between same-result (i.e., positive, negative) pairs, positive dyads reported more dominant support behaviors and perceived their sibling to be friendlier during the interactions. Conclusion Data suggest that siblings who have different test results may experience more interpersonal strain than siblings who have the same test result. Future research on genetic testing and family relationships can expand upon these findings. PMID:18230020

  19. Intramolecular energy transfer in fullerene pyrazine dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Guldi, D.M.; Torres-Garcia, G.; Mattay, J.

    1998-11-26

    Excited-state properties of three different pyrazine derivatives 4--6 were probed by emission and transient absorption spectroscopy. They display emission maxima at 464 (4), 417 (5), and 515 nm (6) that are red-shifted with respect to their strong UV ground-state absorption and formed with overall quantum yields ({Phi}) of 0.156, 0.22, and 0.13, respectively. Once photoexcited, these triplet excited pyrazines undergo rapid intermolecular energy transfer to a monofunctionalized fullerene derivative (7) with bimolecular rate constants ranging from 3.64 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} (6) to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 10} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} (4). The product of these bimolecular energy-transfer reactions is in all cases the fullerene triplet excited state. Functionalization of pristine C{sub 60} with the investigated pyrazine derivatives promotes the UV-vis absorption characteristics and, in turn, improves the light-harvesting efficiency of the resulting dyads 1--3 relative to pristine C{sub 60}. Photoexcitation of the pyrazine moieties in dyads 1--3 leads to the formation of their singlet excited states. In contrast to the pyrazine models, photoexcitation of dyad 1--3 is followed by rapid intramolecular deactivation processes of the latter via energy transfer to the fullerene ground state with half-lives between 37 and 100 ps. In turn, energy transfer transforms the short-lived and moderately redox-active singlet excited states of pyrazine into the highly reactive fullerene triplet excited state. The latter is found to produce effectively singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) with quenching rate constants for 1--3 of (1--1.5) {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. Similarly, reductive quenching of the triplet excited states in dyads 1--3 via electron transfer with diazabicyclooctane (DABCO) occurs with rate constants of 5.2--9.4 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}.

  20. Transplant Trajectory and Relational Experience Within Living Kidney Dyads.

    PubMed

    Ummel, Deborah; Achille, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Living kidney donation is considered common practice across most Westernized countries. While extensive research has documented the experience of living donors, few studies have addressed the perspective of recipients, and even fewer have examined the experience of donor and recipient as an interactive dyad. In this study, our aim was to examine the reciprocal influence between donors and recipients across the transplantation process. We recruited a homogeneous sample of 10 donors and recipients, who were interviewed individually. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The presentation of results follows the stages of the transplantation process: the disease experience, the experience of offering and accepting a kidney, the screening period, the surgery, and the post-transplantation period. Results are discussed within the framework of Mauss's gift exchange theory, social roles, and altruism. This comprehensive description of the dyadic experience provides a way to frame and understand psychosocial aspects and relational implications of living renal transplantation. PMID:25700284

  1. Effects of mutual dyad support on quality of life in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Laura Bond; Erlen, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mutual dyadic support intervention between survivors and women newly diagnosed with breast cancer on the quality of life and interpersonal relationships of the participants. This matched-pairs, baseline-postintervention study included 31 survivors and 31 newly diagnosed women with stage I or II breast cancer. The women met in mutually supportive, self-directed dyads at least twice a week for 8 weeks. Instruments included contact Logs and Meaningful Observations Journals. Content analysis of the Logs showed that most dyad interactions were by telephone. Most participant dyadic conversations focused on the health and functioning of newly diagnosed partners, with survivors providing informational and emotional support. Meaningful Observations Journal thematic analysis supported the social exchange theory to describe dyad partner relationships. Most dyadic relationships were supportive, some were reciprocal, and some experienced conflict. Themes varied little between groups and from baseline to postintervention. Themes across time were support of others, health, changing priorities, and faith. Further quantitative study is needed to examine the effects of a dyad support intervention on quality of life in more diverse populations of women with breast cancer. Nurses need to evaluate the existing social-network support systems of patients with breast cancer and consider the need for dyadic peer support. PMID:17135823

  2. Enhancing motor learning through dyad practice: contributions of observation and dialogue.

    PubMed

    Granados, Carolina; Wulf, Gabriele

    2007-06-01

    It has been shown that practice in dyads, as compared to individual practice, can enhance motor learning and increase the efficiency of practice (as two participants can be trained at the same time; Shea, Wulf, & Whitacre, 1999). The dyad practice protocol used by Shea et al. included both observation and dialogue between partners. Thus, it was not clear whether the learning benefits of dyad practice were due to observation, dialogue, or both. The present study examined the individual and interactive effects of observation and dialogue. The task used was speed cup stacking. Participants practiced under one of four conditions: observation/dialogue, observation/no dialogue, no observation/dialogue, and no observation/no dialogue. The two conditions that included observational practice were more effective (i.e., produced faster movement times) than the two conditions without it, both during practice and on a retention test performed under individual performance conditions. This suggests that the learning advantages of dyad practice are primarily due to the opportunity to observe another learner. PMID:17679493

  3. Dyad Composition Effects on Cognitive Elaboration and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denessen, Eddie; Veenman, Simon; Dobbelsteen, Janine; van Schilt, Josie

    2008-01-01

    The authors addressed the following research question: Does composition of dyads in terms of gender and ability affect student participation, the level of cognitive elaborations during a collaborative activity, and individual student achievement? The study involved 24 6th-grade dyads paired as follows: a low-ability student with a medium-ability…

  4. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  5. Photocurrent in Multilayered Assemblies of Porphyrin-Fullerene Covalent Dyads: Evidence for Channels for Charge Transport.

    PubMed

    Konev, Alexander S; Khlebnikov, Alexander F; Levin, Oleg V; Lukyanov, Daniil A; Zorin, Ivan M

    2016-04-01

    Specially designed porphyrin-fullerene dyads have been synthesized to verify literature predictions based on quantum chemistry calculations that certain porphyrin-fullerene dyads are able to self-arrange into specific structures providing channels for charge transport in a bulk mass of organic compound. According to AFM and SEM data, the newly synthesized compounds were indeed prone to some kind of self-arrangement, although to a lesser degree than was expected. A dispersion corrected DFT study of the molecular non-covalent interactions performed at the DFT-D3 (B3LYP, 6-31G*) level of theory showed that the least energy corresponded to head-to-head dimers, with close contacts of porphyrin-porphyrin and fullerene-fullerene fragments, thus providing a unit building block of the channel for charge transport. Experimental proof for the existence of channels for charge transport was obtained by observing a photocurrent in a simple photovoltaic cell. PMID:26893269

  6. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. PMID:26580553

  7. Injecting Equipment Sharing in Russian Drug Injecting Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Li, Nan; Tobin, Karin E.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Sokolov, Nikolai; Levchenko, Julia; Batluk, Julia; Kozlov, Andrei A.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how individual attributes, dyad characteristics and social network characteristics may influence engaging in receptive syringe sharing, distributive syringe sharing and sharing cookers in injecting partnerships of IDUs in St Petersburg, Russia. We found that all three levels were associated with injecting equipment sharing, and that dyad characteristics were modified by characteristics of the social network. Self-reported HIV discordance and male gender concordance played a role in the risk of equipment sharing. Dyad interventions may not be sufficient to reduce injecting risk in IDU partnerships, but a combination of dyad and network interventions that target both IDU partnerships and the entire IDU population may be more appropriate to address injecting risk among IDUs. PMID:19214731

  8. Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents' Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12-16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison…

  9. Subcortical representation of musical dyads: individual differences and neural generators.

    PubMed

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    When two notes are played simultaneously they form a musical dyad. The sensation of pleasantness, or "consonance", of a dyad is likely driven by the harmonic relation of the frequency components of the combined spectrum of the two notes. Previous work has demonstrated a relation between individual preference for consonant over dissonant dyads, and the strength of neural temporal coding of the harmonicity of consonant relative to dissonant dyads as measured using the electrophysiological "frequency-following response" (FFR). However, this work also demonstrated that both these variables correlate strongly with musical experience. The current study was designed to determine whether the relation between consonance preference and neural temporal coding is maintained when controlling for musical experience. The results demonstrate that strength of neural coding of harmonicity is predictive of individual preference for consonance even for non-musicians. An additional purpose of the current study was to assess the cochlear generation site of the FFR to low-frequency dyads. By comparing the reduction in FFR strength when high-pass masking noise was added to the output of a model of the auditory periphery, the results provide evidence for the FFR to low-frequency dyads resulting in part from basal cochlear generators. PMID:25636498

  10. Effects of Strong Electronic Coupling in Chlorin and Bacteriochlorin Dyads.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Suk; Esemoto, Nopondo N; Diers, James R; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Greco, Jordan A; Akhigbe, Joshua; Yu, Zhanqian; Pancholi, Chirag; Bhagavathy, Ganga Viswanathan; Nguyen, Jamie K; Kirmaier, Christine; Birge, Robert R; Ptaszek, Marcin; Holten, Dewey; Bocian, David F

    2016-01-28

    Achieving tunable, intense near-infrared absorption in molecular architectures with properties suitable for solar light harvesting and biomedical studies is of fundamental interest. Herein, we report the photophysical, redox, and molecular-orbital characteristics of nine hydroporphyrin dyads and associated benchmark monomers that have been designed and synthesized to attain enhanced light harvesting. Each dyad contains two identical hydroporphyrins (chlorin or bacteriochlorin) connected by a linker (ethynyl or butadiynyl) at the macrocycle β-pyrrole (3- or 13-) or meso (15-) positions. The strong electronic communication between constituent chromophores is indicated by the doubling of prominent absorption features, split redox waves, and paired linear combinations of frontier molecular orbitals. Relative to the benchmarks, the chlorin dyads in toluene show substantial bathochromic shifts of the long-wavelength absorption band (17-31 nm), modestly reduced singlet excited-state lifetimes (τS = 3.6-6.2 ns vs 8.8-12.3 ns), and increased fluorescence quantum yields (Φf = 0.37-0.57 vs 0.34-0.39). The bacteriochlorin dyads in toluene show significant bathochromic shifts (25-57 nm) and modestly reduced τS (1.6-3.4 ns vs 3.5-5.3 ns) and Φf (0.09-0.19 vs 0.17-0.21) values. The τS and Φf values for the bacteriochlorin dyads are reduced substantially (up to ∼20-fold) in benzonitrile. The quenching is due primarily to the increased S1 → S0 internal conversion that is likely induced by increased contribution of charge-resonance configurations to the S1 excited state in the polar medium. The fundamental insights gained into the physicochemical properties of the strongly coupled hydroporphyrin dyads may aid their utilization in solar-energy conversion and photomedicine. PMID:26765839

  11. The Clinical Learning Dyad Model: An Innovation in Midwifery Education.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Susanna R; Thomas, Celeste R; Gerard, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    There is a national shortage of women's health and primary care providers in the United States, including certified nurse-midwives and certified midwives. This shortage is directly related to how many students can be trained within the existing system. The current model of midwifery clinical training is based on apprenticeship, with one-on-one interaction between a student and preceptor. Thus, the number of newly trained midwifery providers is limited by the number of available and willing preceptors. The clinical learning dyad model (CLDM), which pairs 2 beginning midwifery students with one preceptor in a busy practice, addresses this problem. In addition, this model brings in a senior midwife student as a near-peer mentor when the students are first oriented into outpatient clinical practice. The model began as a pilot project to improve the quality of training and increase available student spots in clinical education. This article discusses the origins of the model, the specifics of its design, and the results of a midterm and one-year postintervention survey. Students and preceptors involved in this model identified several advantages to the program, including increased student accountability, enhanced socialization into the profession, improved learning, and reduced teaching burden on preceptors. An additional benefit of the CLDM is that students form a learning community and collaborate with preceptors to care for women in busy clinical settings. Challenges of the model will also be discussed. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLDM. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. PMID:26605990

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic properties and photodynamic activity of porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyads with application in the photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ballatore, M Belén; Spesia, Mariana B; Milanesio, M Elisa; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2014-08-18

    A covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyad 5 was synthesized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition using 5-(4-formylphenyl)-10,15,20-tris[3-(N-ethylcarbazoyl)]porphyrin, N-methylglycine and fullerene C60. Methylation of 5 was used to obtain a cationic dyad 6. Spectroscopic properties were compared in toluene, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and toluene/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/water reverse micelles. Absorption spectra of the dyads were essentially a superposition of the spectra of the porphyrin and fullerene reference compounds, indicating a very weak interaction between the chromophores in the ground state. The fluorescence emission of the porphyrin moiety in the dyads was strongly quenched by the attached fullerene C60 unit. The singlet molecular oxygen, O2((1)Δg), productions (ΦΔ) were strongly dependent on the solvent polarity. Similar ΦΔ values were obtained for 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[3-(N-ethylcarbazoyl)]porphyrin (TCP) in both solvents. Also, dyad 5 showed a high O2((1)Δg) generation in toluene. However, O2((1)Δg) production mediated by 5 considerably diminished in the more polar solvent DMF. Also, a high photodynamic activity involving O2((1)Δg) was found for both dyads in a simple biomimetic system formed by AOT reverse micelles. The photoinactivation ability of these dyads was investigated in Staphylococcus aureus cell suspensions. Photosensitized inactivation of S. aureus by dyad 6 exhibits a 4.5 log decrease of cell survival (99.997% cell inactivation), when the cultures are treated with 5 μM photosensitizer and irradiated with visible light (350-800 nm) for 30 min. Under these conditions, a lower photocytotoxic effect was found for 5 (3.2 log decrease). Furthermore, photoinactivation induced by 6 was higher than those obtained with the separate moieties of the dyad. Therefore, molecular structures formed by porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyads represent interesting photosensitizers to inactivate S. aureus. PMID:25010938

  13. Peer Network Overlap in Twin, Sibling, and Friend Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Shirley; Segal, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sibling–peer connections are important for understanding adolescent problem behaviors. Using a novel behavioral genetic design, the current study investigated peer network overlap in 300 child–child pairs (aged 7-13 years) in 5 dyad types: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic twins, full siblings (FSs), friend pairs, and virtual…

  14. Parent-Caregiver Relationship Dyad in Greek Day Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2011-01-01

    High quality early childhood education and care programmes encourage frequent, positive communication with and positive, effective relationships between parents and early childhood educators. The present study aimed to examine the adult relationship aspects of childcare and, more precisely, the parent/caregiver relationship dyad. The way in which…

  15. Analysis of Relational Communication in Dyads: New Measurement Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, L. Edna; Farace, Richard

    Relational communication refers to the control or dominance aspects of message exchange in dyads--distinguishing it from the report or referential aspects of communication. In relational communicational analysis, messages as transactions are emphasized; major theoretical concepts which emerge are symmetry, transitoriness, and complementarity of…

  16. A qualitative analysis of a dyad approach to health-related quality of life measurement in children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Cara; Cousins, Martha; Boydell, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children often relies on parents as proxy respondents. Yet, several studies have shown poor to moderate correlations between parent and child responses, questioning the validity of the parent as proxy. This qualitative study examined a dyad approach, where parent and child were interviewed together. The objective was to observe and describe the interaction in a dyad interview, wherein both parent and child perspectives are used and where the parent may expand the child’s cognitive abilities to create a more meaningful description of the child’s HRQOL. Children aged 8–15 years with a clinical diagnosis of asthma and their primary caregivers were recruited from The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. The dyads were administered the Health Utilities Index Mark II/III, the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire and the PedsQL™ Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Interviews were audio-taped and a second researcher recorded observations. Consistent with Grounded Theory methodology, observations were indexed according to categories and subcategories related to the response process. Data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding and constant comparison. Saturation was achieved at 16 dyad interviews. A cultural review and reflexive role taking were included to minimize interviewer bias and enhance rigour. Findings were grouped in the following 11 themes: recall difficulty, respondent bias, interviewer bias, frustration, coercion/parental influence, inter-relational conflict, psychic discomfort for health states, emotional sensitivity, parent as advocate, parent as enabler and comprehension. The specification of these categories facilitated the creation of an interview guide to accompany the administration of standardized HRQOL questionnaires to parent–child dyads. Such a guide would facilitate discussion between parent and child and enhance the consistency of the interview

  17. USING THE PARENT-INFANT RELATIONSHIP GLOBAL ASSESSMENT SCALE TO IDENTIFY CAREGIVER-INFANT/TODDLER DYADS WITH ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIP PATTERNS IN SIX EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Hatzinikolaou, Kornilia; Karveli, Vassiliki; Skoubourdi, Aggeliki; Zarokosta, Foteini; Antonucci, Gianluca; Visci, Giovanni; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; MagalhÃes, Eunice; Essau, Cecilia; Allan, Sharon; Pithia, Jayshree; Walji, Fahreen; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Perez-Robles, Ruth; Fanti, Kostas A; Katsimicha, Evita; Hadjicharambous, Maria-Zoe; Nikolaidis, George; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-07-01

    The study examined whether the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised Edition (DC: 0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005) Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) is applicable to six European countries and contributes to the identification of caregiver-infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns. The sample consisted of 115 dyads with children's ages ranging from 1 to 47 months. Sixty-four dyads were recruited from community settings without known violence problems, and 51 dyads were recruited from clinical settings and already had been identified with violence problems or as being at risk for violence problems. To classify the dyads on the PIR-GAS categories, caregiver-child interactions were video-recorded and coded with observational scales appropriate for child age. To test whether the PIR-GAS allows for reliable identification of dyads with abusive relationship patterns, PIR-GAS ratings were compared with scores on the the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect's (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parental Version (ICAST-P; D.K. Runyan et al., ), a questionnaire measuring abusive parental disciplinary practices. It was found that PIR-GAS ratings differentiated between the general and the clinical sample, and the dyads with abusive patterns of relationship were identified by both the PIR-GAS and the ICAST-P. Interrater reliability for the PIR-GAS ranged from moderate to excellent. The value of a broader use of tools such as the DC: 0-3R to promote early identification of families at risk for infant and toddler abuse and neglect is discussed. PMID:27351372

  18. Nonverbal Communication in Across-Race Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Virginia C.; Powell, Evan R.

    This is one of a series of proxemic studies of dyadic communication behavior made by the authors in natural, academic and laboratory settings with the use of the DIAD. Based on the theory of anthropologists Hall (1966) and Birdwhistell (1970) and developed empirically as initial observations of dyadic interaction were made, the Dennis…

  19. Hydroquinone-pyrrole dyads with varied linkers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Karlsson, Christoffer; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin; Gogoll, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    A series of pyrroles functionalized in the 3-position with p-dimethoxybenzene via various linkers (CH2, CH2CH2, CH=CH, C≡C) has been synthesized. Their electronic properties have been deduced from (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and UV-vis spectra to detect possible interactions between the two aromatic subunits. The extent of conjugation between the subunits is largely controlled by the nature of the linker, with the largest conjugation found with the trans-ethene linker and the weakest with the aliphatic linkers. DFT calculations revealed substantial changes in the HOMO-LUMO gap that correlated with the extent of conjugation found experimentally. The results of this work are expected to open up for use of the investigated compounds as components of redox-active materials in sustainable, organic electrical energy storage devices. PMID:26877811

  20. Hydroquinone–pyrrole dyads with varied linkers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Karlsson, Christoffer; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of pyrroles functionalized in the 3-position with p-dimethoxybenzene via various linkers (CH2, CH2CH2, CH=CH, C≡C) has been synthesized. Their electronic properties have been deduced from 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV–vis spectra to detect possible interactions between the two aromatic subunits. The extent of conjugation between the subunits is largely controlled by the nature of the linker, with the largest conjugation found with the trans-ethene linker and the weakest with the aliphatic linkers. DFT calculations revealed substantial changes in the HOMO–LUMO gap that correlated with the extent of conjugation found experimentally. The results of this work are expected to open up for use of the investigated compounds as components of redox-active materials in sustainable, organic electrical energy storage devices. PMID:26877811

  1. Erotized Transference in the Male Patient–Female Therapist Dyad

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Martha B.

    2001-01-01

    Little has been published regarding male patients' erotic transferences to female therapists. It has been suggested that male patients do not develop full erotic transferences and rarely experience erotized transferences. The author presents a case report documenting erotization in a male patient–female therapist dyad and reviews current theories on the etiology, therapeutic significance, and treatment strategies indicated for such a transference. PMID:11121005

  2. Friendship in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder: mixed and non-mixed dyads.

    PubMed

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Aviezer, Anat; Heung, Kelly; Brown, John; Rogers, Sally J

    2008-08-01

    Friendships containing a child with autism and a friend with typical development ("mixed" friendships, n = 26) and those of children with autism and a friend with a disability ("non-mixed," n = 16) were contrasted with friendships of typically developing subjects and their friends (n = 31). Measures included dyadic interaction samples, and interview and questionnaire data from subjects, friends, and parents. Mixed friendship interactions resembled typical friendships. Participants in mixed friendships were more responsive to one another, had stronger receptive language skills, exhibited greater positive social orientation and cohesion, and demonstrated more complex coordinated play than in the non-mixed dyads. Exposure to typical peers appears to have significant effects on friendship behaviors. PMID:18058212

  3. Exchange and cohesion in dyads and triads: A test of Simmel's hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeongkoo; Thye, Shane R; Lawler, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    This paper uses social exchange theory to address a classic question posed by Simmel (1964) regarding dyads and triads. The question is whether exchanges in a triad will generate more cohesion at the group level than exchanges in an isolated dyad. The main hypotheses, integrating several ideas from Simmel and social exchange theories, are as follows. First, triads generate less variability of behavior than dyads; that is, there is more uniformity or convergence in triads. Second, in the context of repeated exchange, we predict higher levels of cohesion in triads than in dyads. Third, positive emotion or affect has a stronger impact on cohesion in dyads than in triads, whereas uncertainty reduction has a stronger impact on cohesion in triads. To test these hypotheses, an experiment compared isolated dyads to dyads nested in a triadic exchange network. Subjects engaged in exchanges across a series of distinct episodes, using standard experimental procedures from research on relational cohesion (Lawler and Yoon, 1996) and exchange networks (Molm and Cook, 1995; Willer, 1999). Consistent with the hypotheses, the results reveal more convergence of behavior and higher cohesion in triads than in dyads; moreover, uncertainty reduction is the primary basis for cohesion in the triad, whereas positive affect was the primary basis for cohesion in the dyad. These results are discussed in relation to Simmelian dyad-triad dynamics and the theory of relational cohesion. PMID:24090845

  4. Hole-transfer induced energy transfer in perylene diimide dyads with a donor-spacer-acceptor motif.

    PubMed

    Kölle, Patrick; Pugliesi, Igor; Langhals, Heinz; Wilcken, Roland; Esterbauer, Andreas J; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina; Riedle, Eberhard

    2015-10-14

    We investigate the photoinduced dynamics of perylene diimide dyads based on a donor-spacer-acceptor motif with polyyne spacers of varying length by pump-probe spectroscopy, time resolved fluorescence, chemical variation and quantum chemistry. While the dyads with pyridine based polyyne spacers undergo energy transfer with near-unity quantum efficiency, in the dyads with phenyl based polyyne spacers the energy transfer efficiency drops below 50%. This suggests the presence of a competing electron transfer process from the spacer to the energy donor as the excitation sink. Transient absorption spectra, however, reveal that the spacer actually mediates the energy transfer dynamics. The ground state bleach features of the polyyne spacers appear due to the electron transfer decay with the same time constant present in the rise of the ground state bleach and stimulated emission of the perylene energy acceptor. Although the electron transfer process initially quenches the fluorescence of the donor it does not inhibit energy transfer to the perylene energy acceptor. The transient signatures reveal that electron and energy transfer processes are sequential and indicate that the donor-spacer electron transfer state itself is responsible for the energy transfer. Through the introduction of a Dexter blocker unit into the spacer we can clearly exclude any through bond Dexter-type energy transfer. Ab initio calculations on the donor-spacer and the donor-spacer-acceptor systems reveal the existence of a bright charge transfer state that is close in energy to the locally excited state of the acceptor. Multipole-multipole interactions between the bright charge transfer state and the acceptor state enable the energy transfer. We term this mechanism coupled hole-transfer FRET. These dyads represent a first example that shows how electron transfer can be connected to energy transfer for use in novel photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:26347443

  5. Use of student clinical partner dyads as a teaching strategy to facilitate learning.

    PubMed

    Ott, Lora K; Succheralli, Lauren

    2015-03-01

    Collaborative learning has been used effectively in the classroom, but it is not well understood in the clinical setting. Student clinical partner (SCP) dyads were used as an intentional teaching method to foster teamwork, learning, and confidence. Students were assigned a patient and a student partner. SCP dyads were expected to provide complete care to their assigned patient, listen to report for their partner's patient, prioritize patient needs, participate in learning experiences for all assigned patients, and function as a team. Students (n = 26) compared their clinical rotation with SCP dyads to their clinical rotations without SCP dyads. The majority strongly agreed that SCP dyads had a positive impact on teamwork (74%), learning experiences (58%), and student clinical confidence (62%). Reflective journals stated that SCP dyads increased exposure to patient care activities, confidence in management, prioritization, teamwork, and time with the faculty. PMID:25692339

  6. O. J. Simpson as shared (and unshared) reality: the impact of consensually shared beliefs on interpersonal perceptions and task performance in different- and same-ethnicity dyads.

    PubMed

    Conley, Terri D; Rabinowitz, Joshua L; Hardin, Curtis D

    2010-09-01

    Shared reality theory postulates that interpersonal relationships are regulated by the degree to which people share experiences and beliefs (Hardin & Higgins, 1996). To assess consequences of shared (and unshared) reality for interpersonal relationships, we examined the effects of the 1990s Simpson trial on actual interpersonal interactions in same- and different-ethnicity dyads. In 3 experiments (conducted directly following, 5 years after, and 10 years after the trial), people who had been primed with Simpson participated in cooperative problem-solving tasks. Because the trial represented a dimension of belief discrepancy between Blacks and Whites but a dimension of shared beliefs within the two ethnic groups, shared reality theory predicts that activating memories of the trial would affect interpersonal interactions differently depending upon ethnic composition of dyads. As predicted, thoughts of Simpson caused decrements in quality of interpersonal perceptions and behaviors for different-ethnicity dyads but increases for same-ethnicity dyads. In addition, in a 4th study, we found that consensus predicted liking among partners in the previous 3 experiments and that these effects were significant in the expected direction for both same- and different-ethnicity pairs. PMID:20804262

  7. Langmuir-Blodgett films of self-assembled (alkylether-derivatized Zn phthalocyanine)-(C₆₀ imidazole adduct) dyad with controlled intermolecular distance for photoelectrochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Obraztsov, Ievgen; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Hart, Aaron; Gobeze, Habtom B; Kc, Chandra B; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; D'Souza, Francis

    2014-06-11

    A multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of the self-assembled electron donor-acceptor dyad of Zn phthalocyanine, appended with four long-chain aliphatic ether peripheral substituents, and an imidazole adduct of C60 was prepared and applied as a photoactive material in a photoelectrochemical cell. Changes in the simultaneously recorded surface pressure and surface potential vs area per molecule compression isotherms for Langmuir films of the dyad and, separately, of its components helped to identify phase transitions and mutual interactions of molecules in films. The Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) imaging of the Langmuir films showed circular condensed phase domains of the dyad molecules. The determined area per molecule was lower than that estimated for the dyad and its components, separately. The multilayer LB films of the dyad were transferred onto hydrophobized fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated (FTO) glass slides under different conditions. The presence of both components in the dyad LB films was confirmed with the UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. For the LB films transferred at different surface pressures, the PM-IRRAS measurements revealed that the phthalocyanine macrocycle planes and ether moieties in films were tilted with respect to the FTO surface. The AFM imaging of the LB films indicated formation of relatively uniform dyad LB films. Then, the femtosecond transient absorption spectral studies evidenced photoinduced electron transfer in the LB film. The obtained transient signals corresponding to both Zn(TPPE)(•+) and C60im(•-) confirmed the occurrence of intramolecular electron transfer. The determined rate constants of charge separation, kcs = 2.6 × 10(11) s(-1), and charge recombination, kcr = 9.7 × 10(9) s(-1), indicated quite efficient electron transfer within the film. In the photoelectrochemical studies, either photoanodic or photocathodic current was generated depending on the applied bias potential when the dyad LB film-coated FTO was used

  8. Disrupting aggregation of tethered rhodamine B dyads through inclusion in cucurbit[7]uril.

    PubMed

    Halterman, Ronald L; Moore, Jason L; Mannel, Lisa M

    2008-04-18

    Hexano- and dodecano-tethered diesters of rhodamine B were prepared. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of these flexibly tethered dyads were compared with those of the rhodamine 3B ethyl ester. Increased J- and H-type dimer formation and decreased fluorescence emission were observed for the tethered dyads. Complexation of the cationic chromophoric units in cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) hosts decreased H-dimer aggregation, especially for the dodecano-tethered dyad. The monomeric dye and both dye dyads exhibited enhanced fluorescence upon addition of CB7. PMID:18366221

  9. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lanjewar, Swapnil S; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Joshi, Saurabh; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Kothagundla, Chandrasekhar; Kaul, Sudesh; Spodick, David H

    2013-01-01

    Background The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration. Methods We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were computed and compared between the two subgroups. Results There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1) between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusion The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration. PMID:24293995

  10. PREPP: postpartum depression prevention through the mother-infant dyad.

    PubMed

    Werner, Elizabeth A; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Lee, Seonjoo; Feng, Tianshu; Jiang, Nan; Desai, Preeya; Monk, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Most interventions to prevent postpartum depression (PPD) focus on the mother rather than the mother-infant dyad. As strong relationships between infant sleep and cry behavior and maternal postpartum mood have been demonstrated by previous research, interventions targeted at the dyad may reduce symptoms of PPD. The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting (PREPP). PREPP is a new PPD prevention protocol that aims to treat women at risk for PPD by promoting maternally mediated behavioral changes in their infants, while also including mother-focused skills. Results of this randomized control trial (RCT) (n = 54) indicate that this novel, brief intervention was well tolerated and effective in reducing maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression, particularly at 6 weeks postpartum. Additionally, this study found that infants of mothers enrolled in PREPP had fewer bouts of fussing and crying at 6 weeks postpartum than those infants whose mothers were in the Enhanced TAU group. These preliminary results indicate that PREPP has the potential to reduce the incidence of PPD in women at risk and to directly impact the developing mother-child relationship, the mother's view of her child, and child outcomes. PMID:26231973

  11. Shared impression formation in the cognitively interdependent dyad.

    PubMed

    Ruscher, Janet B; Santuzzi, Alecia M; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost

    2003-09-01

    We examined the role of cognitive interdependence in determining how close friends form shared impressions of another person. Cognitive interdependence should provide a processing advantage, such that close friends are more efficient in forming shared impressions and are more successful at doing so. Under normal circumstances, the conversations of close friends should be marked by little necessity to make explicit requests for information, mutual recognition of who currently is controlling the flow of conversation, and willingness to express differences in opinion. Given these advantages, close friends also should be able to form complex shared impressions that go beyond mere one-sided stereotypic judgments and that instead resolve apparent discrepancies in the target's personality. However, if the cognitive interdependence system is disrupted by mutual distraction, these advantages should attenuate or even reverse. Dyads of varying degrees of closeness were mutually distracted or not while discussing their impressions of another female college student. Results supported predictions and are discussed with reference to how cognitive interdependence may help close dyads function within their mutual social networks. PMID:14567845

  12. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-03-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143 cm-1 are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97 cm-1 and 147 cm-1 which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene.

  13. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad

    PubMed Central

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143 cm−1 are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97 cm−1 and 147 cm−1 which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene. PMID:25797419

  14. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad.

    PubMed

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143 cm(-1) are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97 cm(-1) and 147 cm(-1) which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene. PMID:25797419

  15. Emotional Reactions of Mothers Facing Premature Births: Study of 100 Mother-Infant Dyads 32 Gestational Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Lempp, Franziska; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Dodane, Catherine; Bednarek, Nathalie; De Mare, Laurence; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. Methods A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. Results Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A “depressed” score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. Conclusions Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth. PMID:25153825

  16. Same-Sex Dyads and Toman's Theory of Birth-Order Compatability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidt, Rick J.

    Toman's theory of the relation of birth-order compatibility and interpersonal relations was extended to dyads (pairs) with members of the same sex. It was predicted that interpersonal compatibility between members of same-sex dyads (50 female, 27 male pairs of Vassar College roommates) would be positively correlated with birth-order compatibility…

  17. The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

  18. Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Nonmaltreating Mother-Child Dyads: Implications for Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Kimberly; Schneider, Renee; Sims, Chandler

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated maternal emotion socialization in physically maltreating and nonmaltreating mother-child dyads (N = 63 dyads) to examine the relation between maternal support in response to children's emotional displays and children's psychological adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Child participants…

  19. Enhancing Motor Learning through Dyad Practice: Contributions of Observation and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granados, Carolina; Wulf, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that practice in dyads, as compared to individual practice, can enhance motor learning and increase the efficiency of practice (as two participants can be trained at the same time; Shea, Wulf, & Whitacre, 1999). The dyad practice protocol used by Shea et al. included both observation and dialogue between partners. Thus, it was…

  20. Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment in Father-Child Dyads: The Case of Single Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly found that intergenerational transmission of attachment is more robust in mother-child dyads than it is in father-child dyads. They have proposed several explanations for the inconsistent father-child findings, including the use of the strange situation procedure, the young age of the children, and the fact that fathers…

  1. Perceptions of Conflict Strategies and Communication Competence in Task-Oriented Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael A.; Guerrero, Laura K.; Alberts, Jess K.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals in temporary task-oriented dyads or groups must manage conflict competently if they hope to be successful in reaching their goals. Thus far, however, research on the associations between conflict styles and communication competence has focused on acquainted dyads, such as relational partners and coworkers, rather than unacquainted…

  2. Syntheses, Charge Separation, and Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell Application of Phenothiazine-Fullerene Dyads.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Gwendolyn D; Hiltunen, Arto J; Lim, Gary N; KC, Chandra B; Kaunisto, Kimmo M; Vuorinen, Tommi K; Nesterov, Vladimir N; Lemmetyinen, Helge J; D'Souza, Francis

    2016-04-01

    A series of phenothiazine-fulleropyrrolidine (PTZ-C60) dyads having fullerene either at the C-3 aromatic ring position or at the N-position of phenothiazine macrocycle were newly synthesized and characterized. Photoinduced electron transfer leading to PTZ(•+)-C60(•-) charge-separated species was established from studies involving femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Because of the close proximity of the donor and acceptor entities, the C-3 ring substituted PTZ-C60 dyads revealed faster charge separation and charge recombination processes than that observed in the dyad functionalized through the N-position. Next, inverted organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were constructed using the dyads in place of traditionally used [6,6]-phenyl-C61- butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and an additional electron donor material poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The performance of the C-3 ring substituted PTZ-C60 dyad having a polyethylene glycol substituent produced a power conversion efficiency of 3.5% under inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) configuration. This was attributed to optimal BHJ morphology between the polymer and the dyad, which was further promoted by the efficient intramolecular charge separation and relatively slow charge recombination promoted by the dyad within the BHJ structure. The present finding demonstrate PTZ-C60 dyads as being good prospective materials for building organic photovoltaic devices. PMID:26990247

  3. Curricular Goals and Personal Goals in Master's Thesis Projects: Dutch Student-Supervisor Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…

  4. Socially Shared Metacognition of Dyads of Pupils in Collaborative Mathematical Problem-Solving Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiskala, Tuike; Vauras, Marja; Lehtinen, Erno; Salonen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how metacognition appears as a socially shared phenomenon within collaborative mathematical word-problem solving processes of dyads of high-achieving pupils. Four dyads solved problems of different difficulty levels. The pupils were 10 years old. The problem-solving activities were videotaped and transcribed in terms of…

  5. Evaluative Language Used by Mandarin-Chinese-Speaking Dyads in Personal Narratives: Age and Socioeconomic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…

  6. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Dyads for Estimating Global Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Patel, Ronak; Crawford, John R

    2015-08-01

    All possible two-subtest combinations of the core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) subtests were evaluated as possible viable short forms for estimating full-scale IQ (FSIQ). Validity of the dyads was evaluated relative to FSIQ in a large clinical sample (N = 482) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Sample validity measures included correlations, mean discrepancies, and levels of agreement between dyad estimates and FSIQ scores. In addition, reliability and validity coefficients were derived from WAIS-IV standardization data. The Coding + Information dyad had the strongest combination of reliability and validity data. However, several other dyads yielded comparable psychometric performance, albeit with some variability in their particular strengths. We also observed heterogeneity between validity coefficients from the clinical and standardization-based estimates for several dyads. Thus, readers are encouraged to also consider the individual psychometric attributes, their clinical or research goals, and client or sample characteristics when selecting among the dyadic short forms. PMID:25271008

  7. Cooperation beyond the dyad: on simple models and a complex society

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Players in Axelrod and Hamilton's model of cooperation were not only in a Prisoner's Dilemma, but by definition, they were also trapped in a dyad. But animals are rarely so restricted and even the option to interact with third parties allows individuals to escape from the Prisoner's Dilemma into a much more interesting and varied world of cooperation, from the apparently rare ‘parcelling’ to the widespread phenomenon of market effects. Our understanding of by-product mutualism, pseudo-reciprocity and the snowdrift game is also enriched by thinking ‘beyond the dyad’. The concepts of by-product mutualism and pseudo-reciprocity force us to think again about our basic definitions of cooperative behaviour (behaviour by a single individual) and cooperation (the outcome of an interaction between two or more individuals). Reciprocity is surprisingly rare outside of humans, even among large-brained ‘intelligent’ birds and mammals. Are humans unique in having extensive cooperative interactions among non-kin and an integrated cognitive system for mediating reciprocity? Perhaps, but our best chance for finding a similar phenomenon may be in delphinids, which also live in large societies with extensive cooperative interactions among non-relatives. A system of nested male alliances in bottlenose dolphins illustrates the potential and difficulties of finding a complex system of cooperation close to our own. PMID:20679112

  8. Photoinduced charge separation and stabilization in clusters of a fullerene-aniline dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.G.; Biju, V.; Guldi, D.M.; Kamat, P.V.; George, M.V.

    1999-10-21

    Fullerene-bridge-aniline dyad and the model fulleropyrrolidine compound form stable, optically transparent clusters in mixtures (3:1) of acetonitrile and toluene. Ground- and excited-state properties of the clusters of the dyad and the model compound are compared with their corresponding monomeric forms. Clustering of the dyad as well as the model compound exhibits a red-shifted emission maximum ({lambda}{sub max} {approximately}738 nm) compared to their monomeric forms ({lambda}{sub max} {approximately}714 nm). The electron transfer from the appended electron donor moiety to the parent fullerene core in the dyad cluster is evident from the decreased ({approximately}80%) fluorescence yield. The formation of fullerene radical anion (absorption maximum at 1010nm) with a lifetime of several hundreds of microseconds was further confirmed using nanosecond laser (337 nm) flash photolysis experiments. In contrast, the dyad molecules in their monomeric form did not yield any detectable yield of C{sub 60} radical anion following laser pulse excitation. The failure to observe any charge-transfer intermediates following laser pulse excitation. The failure to observe any charge-transfer intermediates following laser pulse excitation, even in polar solvents such as benzonitrile or nitromethane, suggested that fast back-electron-transfer process must be operative in the monomeric dyad system. On the other hand, clustering of the fullerene-based dyads in a mixed-solvent system can provide a unique way to decrease the rate of back electron transfer, thus stabilizing the electron-transfer products.

  9. Angular relationships regulate coordination tendencies of performers in attacker-defender dyads in team sports.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Pedro T; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Davids, Keith; Esteves, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the continuous interpersonal interactions of performers in dyadic systems in team sports, as a function of changing information constraints. As a task vehicle, we investigated how attackers attained success in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball by exploring angular relations with immediate opponents and the basket. We hypothesized that angular relations would convey information for the attackers to dribble past defenders. Four basketball players performed as an attacker and defender in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball, in which the co-positioning and orientation of participants relative to the basket was manipulated. After video recording performance behaviors, we digitized participant movement displacement trajectories and categorized trials as successful or unsuccessful (from the attackers' viewpoint). Results revealed that, to successfully dribble past a defender, attackers tended to explore the left hand side of the space by defenders by increasing their angular velocity and decreasing their angular variability, especially in the center of the court. Interpersonal interactions and goal-achievement in attacker-defender dyads appear to have been constrained by the angular relations sustained between participants relative to the scoring target. Results revealed the functionality of exploratory behaviors of participants attempting re-align spatial relations with an opponent in 1v1 sub-phases of team games. PMID:25625811

  10. Photodynamics of a constrained parachute-shaped fullerene-porphyrin dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, D.I.; Cheng, P.; Wilson, S.R.

    1999-12-15

    The pronounced ability of fullerene C{sub 60} to act as an electron and energy acceptor has led to the synthesis of a large number of compounds in which C{sub 60} is covalently linked to photoactivatable groups which can serve as potential donors. Such compounds are of interest as model systems for photosynthetic reaction centers and also have potential applications in photodynamic therapy because of the highly efficient photosensitization of singlet molecular oxygen formation by C{sub 60} and C{sub 60} derivatives. By far the largest number of such systems studied to date utilize porphyrins as antennas for efficient light capture in the visible region of the spectrum, and a variety of linkers. Photophysical studies as well as molecular modeling indicate that in conformationally flexible dyads the porphyrin (P) and C{sub 60} moieties are in close proximity, due to {pi}-stacking interactions, thus facilitating through-space interactions, as demonstrated by quenching of {sup 1}P{asterisk} fluorescence and generation of fullerene-excited states (by energy transfer) or P{sup +{sm{underscore}bullet}}-C{sub 60}{sup {minus}{sm{underscore}bullet}} ion-pair states (by electron transfer).

  11. The synthesis and aggregation-induced near-infrared emission of terrylenediimide-tetraphenylethene dyads.

    PubMed

    Xie, Nuo-Hua; Li, Chong; Liu, Jun-Xia; Gong, Wen-Liang; Tang, Ben Zhong; Li, Guigen; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2016-04-30

    We design and synthesize terrylenediimide-tetraphenylethene dyads, which exhibit featured aggregation-induced near-infrared fluorescence with a maximum emission wavelength of up to 800 nm. PMID:27035468

  12. Smoking Concordance in Lung and Colorectal Cancer Patient-Caregiver Dyads and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Kathryn E.; Rowland, Julia H.; Augustson, Erik; Atienza, Audie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Distress may be heightened among members of cancer patient-caregiver dyads that are mismatched on smoking status (either the patient or caregiver smokes, but the other does not), negatively affecting quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between patient-caregiver smoking concordance, caregiver psychological adjustment, and caregiver and patient mental and physical QoL. Methods Lung and colorectal patient-caregiver dyads (N= 742) were identified from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) and CanCORS Caregiver studies. The majority of the cancer patients were male (67.0 %) with local (45.6 %) or regional (12.9 %) disease. The majority of the informal caregivers were females (78.6%), under 65 years of age (69.6%), and often spouses (57.8%) of the patients. Results Lung and colorectal cancer caregivers who were members of dyads where one or both members continued to smoke, reported worse mental health QoL than non-smoking dyads. For colorectal cancer patients, continuing to smoke when the caregiver did not was associated with worse mental health QoL compared to non-smoking dyads. Dyad smoking was less strongly associated with physical QoL for both caregivers and patients. Conclusion Results highlight the importance of assessing smoking in both cancer patients and their caregivers and referring families to appropriate psychosocial and smoking cessation services. Impact This is the first study to show associations between cancer patient-caregiver smoking status and QoL for both dyad members. Future studies will need to confirm these associations longitudinally and investigate potential mechanisms linking dyad smoking and QoL. PMID:21177426

  13. Low molecular weight Neutral Boron Dipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads for fluorescence-based neural imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Dan; Benniston, Andrew C.; Clift, Sophie; Baisch, Ulrich; Steyn, Jannetta; Everitt, Nicola; Andras, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The neutral low molecular weight julolidine-based borondipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads JULBD and MJULBD were used for fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neurons in the crab stomatogastric ganglion. The fluorescence modulation of the dyads mirrors alterations in the membrane potential of the imaged neurons. The toxicity of the dyes towards the neurons is related to their structure in that methyl groups at the 3,5 positions results in reduced toxic effects.

  14. A tyrosine–tryptophan dyad and radical-based charge transfer in a ribonucleotide reductase-inspired maquette

    PubMed Central

    Pagba, Cynthia V.; McCaslin, Tyler G.; Veglia, Gianluigi; Porcelli, Fernando; Yohannan, Jiby; Guo, Zhanjun; McDaniel, Miranda; Barry, Bridgette A.

    2015-01-01

    In class 1a ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), a substrate-based radical is generated in the α2 subunit by long-distance electron transfer involving an essential tyrosyl radical (Y122O·) in the β2 subunit. The conserved W48 β2 is ∼10 Å from Y122OH; mutations at W48 inactivate RNR. Here, we design a beta hairpin peptide, which contains such an interacting tyrosine–tryptophan dyad. The NMR structure of the peptide establishes that there is no direct hydrogen bond between the phenol and the indole rings. However, electronic coupling between the tyrosine and tryptophan occurs in the peptide. In addition, downshifted ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) frequencies are observed for the radical state, reproducing spectral downshifts observed for β2. The frequency downshifts of the ring and CO bands are consistent with charge transfer from YO· to W or another residue. Such a charge transfer mechanism implies a role for the β2 Y-W dyad in electron transfer. PMID:26627888

  15. Conformation-Controlled Diplatinum(II)-Ferrocene Dyads to Achieve Long-Lived Charge-Separated States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ge-Xia; Feng, Ke; Crossley, Maxwell J; Xing, Ling-Bao; Xiao, Hong-Yan; Li, Wen; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-08-16

    Square-planar polypyridyl platinum(II) complexes possess a rich range of structural and spectroscopic properties that are ideal for designing artificial photosynthetic centers. Taking advantage of the directionality in the charge-transfer excitation from the metal to the polypyridyl ligand, we describe here diplatinum(II)-ferrocene dyads, open-butterfly-like dyad 1 and closed-butterfly-like dyad 2, which were designed to understand the conformation and orientation effects to prolong the lifetime of charge-separated state. In contrast to the open-butterfly-like dyad 1, the closed-butterfly-like dyad 2 shows three-times long lifetime of charge separated state upon photoexcitation, demonstrating that the orientation in the rigid structure of dyad 2 is a very important issue to achieve long-lived charge separated state. PMID:27339465

  16. Role of the bridge in photoinduced electron transfer in porphyrin-fullerene dyads.

    PubMed

    Pelado, Beatriz; Abou-Chahine, Fawzi; Calbo, Joaquín; Caballero, Rubén; de la Cruz, Pilar; Junquera-Hernández, José M; Ortí, Enrique; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Langa, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    The role of π-conjugated molecular bridges in through-space and through-bond electron transfer is studied by comparing two porphyrin-fullerene donor-acceptor (D-A) dyads. One dyad, ZnP-Ph-C60 (ZnP = zinc porphyrin), incorporates a phenyl bridge between D and A and behaves very similarly to analogous dyads studied previously. The second dyad, ZnP-EDOTV-C60, introduces an additional 3,4-ethylenedioxythienylvinylene (EDOTV) unit into the conjugated bridge, which increases the distance between D and A, but, at the same time, provides increased electronic communication between them. Two essential outcomes that result from the introduction of the EDOTV unit in the bridge are as follows: 1) faster charge recombination, which indicates enhanced electronic coupling between the charge-separated and ground electronic states; and 2) the disappearance of the intramolecular exciplex, which mediates photoinduced charge separation in the ZnP-Ph-C60 dyad. The latter can be interpreted as a gradual decrease in electronic coupling between locally excited singlet states of D and A when introducing the EDOTV unit into the D-A bridge. PMID:25737468

  17. Fast Triplet Formation via Singlet Exciton Fission in a Covalent Perylenediimide-β-apocarotene Dyad Aggregate.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Catherine M; Brown, Kristen E; Horwitz, Noah E; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    A covalent dyad was synthesized in which perylene-3,4,:9:10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) is linked to β-apocarotene (Car) using a biphenyl spacer. The dyad is monomeric in toluene and forms a solution aggregate in methylcyclohexane (MCH). Using femtosecond transient absorption (fsTA) spectroscopy, the monomeric dyad and its aggregates were studied both in solution and in thin films. In toluene, photoexcitation at 530 nm preferentially excites PDI, and the dyad undergoes charge separation in τ = 1.7 ps and recombination in τ = 1.6 ns. In MCH and in thin solid films, 530 nm excitation of the PDI-Car aggregate also results in charge transfer that competes with energy transfer from (1)*PDI to Car and with an additional process, rapid Car triplet formation in <50 ps. Car triplet formation is only observed in the aggregated PDI-Car dyad and is attributed to singlet exciton fission (SF) within the aggregated PDI, followed by rapid triplet energy transfer from (3)*PDI to the carotenoid. SF from β-apocarotene aggregation is ruled out by direct excitation of Car films at 414 nm, where no triplet formation is observed. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on aggregated PDI-Car show the formation of (3)*Car with a spin-polarization pattern that rules out radical-pair intersystem crossing as the mechanism of triplet formation as well. PMID:25961130

  18. A trident dithienylethene-perylenemonoimide dyad with super fluorescence switching speed and ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Yan, Hui; Zhao, Ling-Xi; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Hu, Zhe; Huang, Zhen-Li; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent diarylethenes are promising in molecular optical memory and photonic devices. However, the performance of current diarylethenes is far from satisfactory because of the scarcity of high-speed switching capability and large fluorescence on-off ratio. Here we report a trident perylenemonoimide dyad modified by triple dithienylethenes whose photochromic fluorescence quenching ratio at the photostationary state exceeds 10,000 and the fluorescence quenching efficiency is close to 100% within seconds of ultraviolet irradiation. The highly sensitive fluorescence on/off switching of the trident dyad enables recyclable fluorescence patterning and all-optical transistors. The prototype optical device based on the trident dyad enables the optical switching of incident light and conversion from incident light wavelength to transmitted light wavelength, which is all-optically controlled, reversible and wavelength-convertible. In addition, the trident dyad-staining block copolymer vesicles are observed via optical nanoimaging with a sub-100 nm resolution, portending a potential prospect of the dithienylethene dyad in super-resolution imaging.

  19. Coupling tendencies during exploratory behaviours of competing players in rugby union dyads.

    PubMed

    Correia, Vanda; Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Diniz, Ana; Kelso, J A Scott

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interpersonal coordination tendencies in 1vs.1 dyads in rugby union, here expressed by participants' movement velocity towards or away from the sideline as they competed to score or prevent a try. We examined whether coupling tendencies of members of each dyad shaped key performance outcomes (try or successful tackle). Data on movement displacement trajectories of eight male rugby union players (aged 11-12 years) were analysed during performance in 47 trials. To assess coordination tendencies during exploratory behaviours in the dyads, analyses of performance time series data were undertaken using variable time graphs, running correlations and cross-correlations. Results revealed distinct coupling patterns characterised by shifts between synchronous coordination and asynchronous coordination tendencies and uncoordinated actions. Observed behaviours were interpreted as attempts of competing participants to create and perceive possibilities for action while seeking to achieve specific performance goals. Findings also revealed that a variety of patterned relations between participants resulted in different performance outcomes. PMID:24814417

  20. A research on the thermal strength of dyad gas oven briquette

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Dongyao; Huang Zhongcheng; Wang Peilan

    1998-12-31

    Thermal strength characteristic curve of the dyad gas oven briquette during carbonization is introduced in this paper. The cohesiveness of the raw coal exercises a strong influence on the briquette thermal compressive strength during carbonization. The briquette is to be made from coking coal, and if the briquette is produced through the usual technique, will drop down and is not suitable for dyad gasoven. Also if a briquette rends to pieces during carbonization or removal from the coke oven, the briquette is not suitable for dyad gas oven. Some techniques to eliminate the cohesiveness of the raw coal and to preserve the briquette from rending to pieces is described in this paper. The methods decreasing the cohesiveness of briquette increase the porosity of the briquette and add powdery coke through a special briquetting technique.

  1. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) dyad monthly association rates by demographic group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary data from GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota indicated wolves had low association rates with packmates during summer. However, aerial-telemetry locations of very high frequency (VHF)-radioed wolves in this same area showed high associations among packmates during winter. We analyzed aerial-telemetry-location data from VHF-collared wolves in several packs (n=18 dyads) in this same area from 1994-2012 by month, and found lowest association rates occurred during June. While other studies have found low association among wolf packmates during summer, information on differences in association patterns depending on the wolf associates’ demographics is sparse. During May-July, association rates were greatest for breeding pairs, followed by sibling dyads, and lowest for parent– offspring dyads. Our findings improve our understanding of how individual wolf relationships affect monthly association rates. We highlight some important remaining questions regarding wolf packmate associations.

  2. Reversible Photomodulation of Electronic Communication in a π-Conjugated Photoswitch-Fluorophore Molecular Dyad.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Javier; Schweighöfer, Felix; Wachtveitl, Josef; Hecht, Stefan

    2016-01-18

    The extent of electronic coupling between a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophore and a diarylethene (DAE) photoswitch has been modulated in a covalently linked molecular dyad by irradiation with either UV or visible light. In the open isomer, both moieties can be regarded as individual chromophores, while in the closed form the lowest electronic (S0 →S1 ) transition of the dyad is slightly shifted, enabling photomodulation of its fluorescence. Transient spectroscopy confirms that the dyad behaves dramatically different in the two switching states: while in the open isomer it resembles an undisturbed BODIPY fluorophore, in the closed isomer no fluorescence occurs and instead a red-shifted DAE behavior prevails. PMID:26667670

  3. Near-infrared molecular imaging probes based on chlorin-bacteriochlorin dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptaszek, Marcin; Kee, Hooi Ling; Muthiah, Chinnasamy; Nothdurft, Ralph; Akers, Walter; Achilefu, Samuel; Culver, Joseph P.; Holten, Dewey

    2010-02-01

    Chlorin-bacteriochlorin dyads as a new class of near-infrared fluorophores were synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. Each dyad is comprised of a chlorin macrocycle (free base or zinc chelate) as an energy donor (and absorber) and a free base bacteriochlorin as an energy acceptor (and emitter). Excitation of the chlorin (λ= 650 nm, zinc chelate; 675 nm, free base) results in fast (5 ps) and nearly quantitative (>99%) energy transfer to the adjacent bacteriochlorin moiety, and consequently bacteriochlorin fluorescence (λ= 760 nm). Thus, each chlorinbacteriochlorin dyad behaves as a single chromophore, with a large effective Stokes shift (85 or 110 nm), a significant fluorescence quantum yield (Φf = 0.19), long excited-state lifetime (τ = 5.4 ns), narrow excitation and emission bands (<20 nm), and high chemical stability. Imaging experiments performed using phantoms show that the chlorin-bacteriochlorin dyads exhibit a range of superior properties compare with commercially available imaging dyes. While the latter are six-fold brighter (comparing ɛ•Φf values), the chlorin-bacteriochlorin dyads exhibit narrower excitation and emission bands and larger Stokes shift, therefore allowing more efficient and selective excitation and detection of fluorescence. The high selectivity is further demonstrated with in vivo imaging studies using mice. This selectivity together with the tunability of absorption and emission wavelengths using substituent effects under synthetic control make the chlorin-bacteriochlorin dyads ideal candidates for multicolor imaging applications. In addition, the long fluorescence lifetimes make those probes suitable for lifetime-imaging applications.

  4. Psychological adaptation to life-threatening injury in dyads: the role of dysfunctional disclosure of trauma

    PubMed Central

    Pielmaier, Laura; Maercker, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background Certain modes of trauma disclosure have been found to be associated with more severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in different trauma populations: the reluctance to disclose trauma-related thoughts and feelings, a strong urge to talk about it, and physical as well as emotional reactions during disclosure. Although social-contextual influences gain more and more interest in trauma research, no study has yet investigated these “dysfunctional disclosure tendencies” and their association with PTS from an interpersonal perspective. Objective (1) To replicate previous findings on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies in patients with life-threatening injury and their significant others and (2) to study interpersonal associations between dysfunctional disclosure style and PTS at a dyadic level. Method PTS symptom severity and self-reports on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies were assessed in N=70 dyads comprising one individual with severe traumatic brain injury and a significant other (“proxy”) 3 months after injury. Results Regression analyses predicting PTS symptom severity revealed dysfunctional disclosure tendencies to have incremental validity above and beyond sex, age, and trauma severity within the individual (both patient and proxy), with moderate effect sizes. The interaction between patient's and proxy's disclosure style explained additional portions of the variance in patients’ PTS symptom severity. Conclusions Findings suggest that dysfunctional disclosure tendencies are related to poorer psychological adaptation to severe traumatic brain injury. This intrapersonal association may be exacerbated by dysfunctional disclosure tendencies on the part of a significant other. Although the results require replication in other trauma samples without brain injury to further generalize the findings beyond the observed population, the study contributes to the expanding literature on the crucial role of interpersonal relationships in trauma

  5. Counselling Australian Baby Boomers: Examining the Loss and Grief Issues Facing Aging Distance-Separated Sibling Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra Frances; Clark, Nadia; Newton, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    It has long been recognised that mature-aged sibling dyads provide each other with emotional support. What has yet to be determined is whether this support function is maintained within the baby boomer generational cohort of sibling dyads who through economic relocation/migration have become separated by distance. As such, this paper highlights…

  6. Effects of Gender Role and Task Content on Performance in Same-Gender Dyads: Transactive Memory as a Potential Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas; Huguet, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was designed to examine the effects of gender role and task content on performance in learning dyads and to test the potential mediator effect of an intragroup process related to transactive memory. A total of 44 same-gender dyads participated in the study and were asked to collaborate on a stereotypically masculine or feminine…

  7. An Examination of Changes in Emotion Co-Regulation among Mother and Child Dyads during the Strange Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yuqing; Leu, Szu-Yun; Barnard, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Elaine A.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied state-space grid analysis to describe how preschooler-mother dyads co-regulate emotion in the Strange Situation. Second-to-second mother and child affect during pre-separation play (baseline) and the final reunion (post perturbation) episodes of the Strange Situation were coded for 80 dyads. Change in emotion…

  8. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  9. Attachment Style, Vagal Tone, and Empathy during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Butterworth, Molly R.

    2012-01-01

    We tested associations among empathic responsiveness, attachment style, and vagal tone (a physiologic index of emotion regulation) in 103 mother-adolescent dyads. Dyads discussed positive and negative topics and then separately reviewed a videotape of the interaction and rated their own and the other person's affect at one-minute intervals. We…

  10. Corrective Feedback via Instant Messenger Learning Activities in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotillo, Susana

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examines corrective feedback in native speaker-nonnative speaker (NS-NNS) and NNS-NNS dyads while participants were engaged in communicative and problem-solving activities via "Yahoo! Instant Messenger" (YIM). As "negotiation of meaning" studies of the 1990s have shown, linguistic items which learners negotiate in…

  11. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

  12. Let the Force Be with Us: Dyads Exploit Haptic Coupling for Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Knoblich, Guenther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    People often perform actions that involve a direct physical coupling with another person, such as when moving furniture together. Here, we examined how people successfully coordinate such actions with others. We tested the hypothesis that dyads amplify their forces to create haptic information to coordinate. Participants moved a pole (resembling a…

  13. Custodial Grandmother-Grandfather Dyads: Pathways among Marital Distress, Grandparent Dysphoria, Parenting Practice, and Grandchild Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on…

  14. Structural Features of Sibling Dyads and Attitudes toward Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggio, Heidi R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sibling-dyad structural variables (sex composition, age difference, current coresidence, position adjacency, family size, respondent and/or sibling ordinal position) and attitudes toward adult sibling relationships. A sample of 1,053 young adults (M age = 22.1 years) described one sibling using the Lifespan Sibling Relationship…

  15. Identity Styles and Conflict Resolution Styles: Associations in Mother-Adolescent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad.…

  16. PATTERNS OF EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN MOTHER-INFANT DYADS: ASSOCIATIONS WITH MULTIPLE LEVELS OF CONTEXT.

    PubMed

    Mingo, M Verónica; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study explored emotional availability (EA)- an individual's emotional responsiveness and attunement to another's needs and goals (R.N. Emde, 1980)- among a high social risk group of 226 adolescent mothers and their infants (average = 12 months old). The aim was to identify dyadic patterns of EA and to examine their association with multiple indicators of the ecological context. Maternal sensitivity, maternal nonhostility, and child responsiveness were assessed with the Emotional Availability Scales, Third Edition (Z. Biringen, J. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 1998) during free play and teaching observations at home. Four EA patterns were identified using k-means cluster analysis: (a) "low functioning," (b) "high functioning," (c) "low functioning dyads with nonhostile mothers," and (d) "inconsistently sensitive mother and responsive child." These patterns had distinct associations with (a) mothers' parenting attitudes regarding children's power and independence and parent-child role reversal, (b) mothers' strategies in conflict resolution with their partners and their children, and (c) the dyads' living arrangements. This study makes a contribution to the understanding of the mother-child relationship from a systemic and relational perspective and explores the association of EA patterns with the dyads' relational context. Implications for programs and treatment approaches aimed at supporting dyads at social risk are discussed. PMID:26331847

  17. Influence Techniques in Dyads Composed of Interdependent Middle and Lower Class Preschool Children. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Howard M.; Russell, Richard L.

    The procedures by which children from lower and middle class backgrounds attempt to obtain rewarding outcomes from each other were observed under semicontrolled conditions. Ten male and 9 female dyads, each composed of 1 middle class and 1 lower class preschool child, were required to complete 12 simple block puzzles in which each was given some…

  18. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  19. Couple Coping and Adjustment to Multiple Sclerosis in Care Receiver-Carer Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    1998-01-01

    The utility of "coping congruency" and "average level of couple coping" in explaining adjustment to multiple sclerosis was examined. Interview and questionnaire data was collected for 45 dyads with a 12-month follow-up. Predictors include Time 1 illness, caregiving, and coping variables. Findings support both concepts for explaining collective and…

  20. Intramolecular electron transfer in fullerene/ferrocene based donor-bridge-acceptor dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Guldi, D.M.; Maggini, M.; Scorrano, G.; Prato, M.

    1997-02-05

    A systematic steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved flash photolytic investigation of a series of covalently linked fullerene/ferrocene based donor-bridge-acceptor dyads is reported as a function of the nature of the spacer between the donor site (ferrocene) and acceptor site (fullerene) and the dielectric constant of the medium. The fluorescence of the investigated dyads 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 in methylcyclohexane at 77 K were substantially quenched, relative to N-methylfulleropyrrolidine 1, indicating intramolecular quenching of the fullerene excited singlet state. Excitation of N-methylfulleropyrrolidine revealed the immediate formation of the excited singlet state, with {lambda}{sub max} around 886 nm. A rapid intersystem crossing ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 1.2 ps ) to the excited triplet state was observed with characteristic absorption around 705 nm. Picosecond resolved photolysis of dyads 2-6 in toluene showed light-induced formation of the excited singlet state which undergoes rapid intramolecular quenching. Nanosecond-resolved photolysis of dyads 3 and 4 in degassed benzonitrile revealed long-lived charge separated states with characteristic fullerene radical-anion bands at {lambda}{sub max} = 1055 nm. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. African American and European American Therapists' Experiences of Addressing Race in Cross-Racial Psychotherapy Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Sarah; Burkard, Alan W.; Johnson, Adanna J.; Suzuki, Lisa A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2003-01-01

    Using Consensual Qualitative Research, 12 licensed psychologists' overall experiences addressing race in psychotherapy were investigated, as were their experiences addressing race in a specific cross-racial therapy dyad. Results indicated that only African American psychologists reported routinely addressing race with clients of color or when race…

  2. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

  3. The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

  4. Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

    1997-01-01

    Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…

  5. Factors Affecting Co-Operative vs. Competitive Behavior in Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Gerald; Phelan, Joseph G.

    Theoretical interpretations of cooperation and competition are discussed in relation to motivational and situational determinants. It is suggested that the degree of competition exhibited in an interaction is an inverse function of the quantity of resources available, and that the effect of situational characteristics on cooperative behavior is…

  6. "New beginnings" in South African shelters for the homeless: piloting of a group psychotherapy intervention for high-risk mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Bain, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The New Beginnings program was developed at the Anna Freud Centre and originally piloted in Her Majesty Prisons in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore the use of this manualized parent-infant psychotherapy group model in an African setting with high-risk mother-infant dyads, and describes the implementation and investigation of this 12-week group psychotherapy intervention in two Johannesburg shelters for homeless women. The measures used to investigate treatment efficacy were the Parent Development Interview (A. Slade, J.L. Aber, I. Bresgi, B. Berger, & M. Kaplan,), the Emotional Availability Scales (Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde,), the Kessler-10 (R.C. Kessler et al.,), and the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development (D. Luiz et al., . At pretesting, infants exhibited delays in a number of developmental areas, and mothers showed high levels of depression and generally low capacities for reflective function. While significant shifts in the mothers' capacities for reflective function were not found in the treatment condition, significant shifts were found in the infants' speech abilities and in the mothers' abilities to structure their interactions with their infants. This suggests that the program enabled mothers to become more sensitized to their infants' needs in interaction and that communication between mother and infant increased. The number of sessions attended by the dyads correlated with improvements made by the mothers and their infants. PMID:25798508

  7. Should I stay or should I go? Initiation of joint travel in mother-infant dyads of two chimpanzee communities in the wild.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Marlen; Wittig, Roman M; Pika, Simone

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that great apes communicate via intentionally produced, elaborate and flexible gestural means. Yet relatively little is known about the most fundamental steps into this communicative endeavour-communicative exchanges of mother-infant dyads and gestural acquisition; perhaps because the majority of studies concerned captive groups and single communities in the wild only. Here, we report the first systematic, quantitative comparison of communicative interactions of mother-infant dyads in two communities of wild chimpanzees by focusing on a single communicative function: initiation of carries for joint travel. Over 156 days of observation, we recorded 442 actions, 599 cases of intentional gesture production, 51 multi-modal combinations and 80 vocalisations in the Kanyawara community, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the Taï South community, Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Our results showed that (1) mothers and infants differed concerning the signal frequency and modality employed to initiate joint travel, (2) concordance rates of mothers' gestural production were relatively low within but also between communities, (3) infant communicative development is characterised by a shift from mainly vocal to gestural means, and (4) chimpanzee mothers adjusted their signals to the communicative level of their infants. Since neither genetic channelling nor ontogenetic ritualization explains our results satisfactorily, we propose a revised theory of gestural acquisition, social negotiation, in which gestures are the output of social shaping, shared understanding and mutual construction in real time by both interactants. PMID:26833496

  8. Multivariate models of parent-late adolescent gender dyads: the importance of parenting processes in predicting adjustment.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-06-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample for this study consisted of 151 male and 324 female late adolescents, who reported on their mothers' and fathers' parenting style, their family environment, their mothers' and fathers' expectations for them, the conflict that they experience with their mothers and fathers, and their own adjustment. Overall, the variables had significant relationships with one another. Further, the male-father, male-mother, and female-father structural equation models that were examined suggested that parenting style has an indirect relationship with late adolescents' adjustment through characteristics of the family environment and the conflict that is experienced in families; such findings were not evident for the female-mother model. Thus, the examination of parent-late adolescent interactions should occur in the context of the gender of parents and their late adolescents. PMID:17710537

  9. A deformation energy-based model for predicting nucleosome dyads and occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guoqing; Xing, Yongqiang; Zhao, Hongyu; Wang, Jianying; Shang, Yu; Cai, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosome plays an essential role in various cellular processes, such as DNA replication, recombination, and transcription. Hence, it is important to decode the mechanism of nucleosome positioning and identify nucleosome positions in the genome. In this paper, we present a model for predicting nucleosome positioning based on DNA deformation, in which both bending and shearing of the nucleosomal DNA are considered. The model successfully predicted the dyad positions of nucleosomes assembled in vitro and the in vitro map of nucleosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Applying the model to Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, we achieved satisfactory results. Our data also show that shearing energy of nucleosomal DNA outperforms bending energy in nucleosome occupancy prediction and the ability to predict nucleosome dyad positions is attributed to bending energy that is associated with rotational positioning of nucleosomes. PMID:27053067

  10. Highly efficient modulation of FRET in an orthogonally arranged BODIPY–DTE dyad

    PubMed Central

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Hammer, Christopher A.; Gustmann, Henrik; Zastrow, Marc; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The photoswitchable boron-dipyrromethene–dithienylethene molecular dyad is introduced as a prototype for the efficient fluorescence intensity modulation on the molecular level. The functionality of the system is based on the photochromism of the dithienylethene, which facilitates an efficient on- and off-switching of a Förster-type intramolecular energy transfer between the photoexcited BODIPY donor and the dithienylethene acceptor moiety. The switching behavior and dynamics of the molecular dyad are monitored by steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic methods. A quenching efficiency of up to 96% in the off-state is observed and explained by a drastically accelerated decay of the boron-dipyrromethene excited state due to the efficient energy transfer despite the orthogonal arrangement of donor and acceptor. An energy transfer time orders of magnitude shorter than the lifetime of the boron-dipyrromethene in the open state is determined. PMID:27345216

  11. Worker-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals: Perpetrator Characteristics and Common Dyads.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Lydia E; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-02-01

    Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator-target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899

  12. Post-Disaster Mental Health Among Parent–Child Dyads After a Major Earthquake in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Juth, Vanessa; Seyle, D. Conor; Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Tan, Edwin T.

    2015-01-01

    The interdependent adjustment of children and their parents following disasters has been well documented. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to provide an appropriate analytical framework for examining how family members may contribute to each other’s post-disaster mental health. Independent self-reports were collected from parent–child dyads (n=397) residing in a rural community in Indonesia that was devastated by a major earthquake. Elementary school children (M=10 years; 51 % female) and one of their parents (M=41 years; 73 % female) each reported on their disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and general distress. The APIM was used to examine mental health within dyads and moderation by gender across dyads. Children reported lower disaster exposure and fewer PTS symptoms, but similar general distress levels, as their parents. Children’s and parents’ disaster-specific PTS symptoms were the strongest predictor of their own general distress. Parents’ PTS symptoms were associated with children’s general distress (b=0.14, p<0.001), but children’s PTS symptoms were not associated with parents’ general distress (b=−0.02, p>0.05). Findings were not moderated by parents’ or children’s gender. Although children and parents may respond differently to natural disasters, they may be best understood as a dyad. APIM analyses provide new evidence suggesting a unidirectional path of influence from parents’ disaster-related symptomatology to children’s general mental health. Dyadic approaches to understanding mental health and treating symptoms of distress among disaster survivors and their families following trauma are encouraged. PMID:25851238

  13. Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. II. Recoupled pair bond dyads in carbon and sulfur difluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, Thom H. Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Xu, Lu T.

    2015-01-21

    Formation of a bond between a second ligand and a molecule with a recoupled pair bond results in a recoupled pair bond dyad. We examine the recoupled pair bond dyads in the a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2}, which are formed by the addition of a fluorine atom to the a{sup 4}Σ{sup −} states of CF and SF, both of which possess recoupled pair bonds. The two dyads are very different. In SF{sub 2}, the second FS–F bond is very strong (D{sub e} = 106.3 kcal/mol), the bond length is much shorter than that in the SF(a{sup 4}Σ{sup −}) state (1.666 Å versus 1.882 Å), and the three atoms are nearly collinear (θ{sub e} = 162.7°) with only a small barrier to linearity (0.4 kcal/mol). In CF{sub 2}, the second FC–F bond is also very strong (D{sub e} = 149.5 kcal/mol), but the bond is only slightly shorter than that in the CF(a{sup 4}Σ{sup −}) state (1.314 Å versus 1.327 Å), and the molecule is strongly bent (θ{sub e} = 119.0°) with an 80.5 kcal/mol barrier to linearity. The a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2} illustrate the fundamental differences between recoupled pair bond dyads formed from 2s and 3p lone pairs.

  14. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d) staying active, and (e) recognizing emotions and behaviors. Results of the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention protocols are also presented. Design and Methods: Caregiving dyads were randomly assigned to participate in the intervention. Participants in the treatment condition were asked to complete a series of evaluation questions after each intervention session and an overall evaluation of the program. Data were also collected from the intervention specialists who implemented the protocols. Results: Overall, the evaluation data indicated that the content and process of the intervention were viewed as highly acceptable and feasible by both participants and intervention specialists. Implications: This article highlights the merit of using a strength-based approach for working with caregiving dyads with dementia and how a single intervention protocol can be used to address the goals of both care partners. Furthermore, the intervention program was found to be highly acceptable and feasible, which is an important aspect of developing dyadic protocols. PMID:19808841

  15. Electron, Hole, Singlet, and Triplet Energy Transfer in Photoexcited Porphyrin-Naphthalenediimide Dyads.

    PubMed

    Yushchenko, Oleksandr; Hangarge, Rahul V; Mosquera-Vazquez, Sandra; Boshale, Sheshanath V; Vauthey, Eric

    2015-06-18

    The excited-state dynamics of two molecular dyads, consisting of zinc (1) and free-base (2) porphyrin connected via a peptide linker to a core-substituted naphthalenediimide (NDI) have been investigated using optical spectroscopy. These dyads exhibit rich photophysics because of the large number of electronic excited states below 3 eV. In the case of 1 in apolar solvents, excitation energy transfer from the vibrationally hot singlet excited porphyrin to the NDI takes place with a 500 fs time constant. Electronic energy ends up in the NDI-localized triplet state, which decays to the ground state on a microsecond timescale. In polar solvents, ground-state recovery is faster by 5 orders of magnitude because of the occurrence of charge separation followed by recombination. On the other hand, excitation energy transfer in 2 takes place in the opposite direction, namely from the NDI to the porphyrin, which then undergoes intersystem crossing to the triplet state, followed by triplet energy transfer back to the NDI. Therefore, four distinct local electronic excited states are consecutively populated after excitation of the NDI unit of 2, with the energy shuttling between the two ends of the dyad. PMID:25418961

  16. The role of the nurse-physician leadership dyad in implementing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    PubMed

    St Fleur, Rose; McKeever, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the nurse-physician leadership dyad incorporates the expertise of both nurses and physicians as leaders of change within health system environments. The leadership dyad model has been used traditionally in health care administrative settings to manage utilization of resources more effectively. Because the Baby-Friendly designation requires major cultural shifts in long-standing maternity care practices, an interdisciplinary approach to implementation is necessary. PMID:24939200

  17. Effects of psychosocial variables in the similarity and interdependence of physical activity levels among adolescent best friend dyads.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vítor P; Gabbard, Carl; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2016-01-01

    Given that physical activity (PA) tends to decrease with age during adolescence, addressing factors that affect change is important. This study examined the similarity and interdependence of PA as influenced by psychosocial factors among adolescent best friend dyads. A total of 660 adolescents, representing 330 best friend dyads, completed questionnaires with regard to PA, sitting time, perceived exercise benefits and barriers, physical self-perception and social support for PA. Dyads were also identified as reciprocal and non-reciprocal best friends; reciprocal means that both considered each other best friends and non-reciprocal were those in which only one considered the other a best friend. Data were analysed using a hierarchical linear model framework. Results indicated significant similarities between reciprocal best friend dyads for PA and sitting time, and for sitting time in non-reciprocal best friends (P values <.01). Psychosocial variables were associated with PA in reciprocal best friend dyads and with sitting time in reciprocal and non-reciprocal best friend dyads. Best friend gender, regular sports practice of the person, perceived exercise barriers of the best friend and best friend social support were the best predictors for PA. PMID:26238302

  18. Blue-shifted emission and enhanced quantum efficiency viaπ-bridge elongation in carbazole-carborane dyads.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojin; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tianyu; Moxey, Graeme J; Cifuentes, Marie P; Zhang, Chi; Humphrey, Mark G

    2016-06-21

    Carbazole-carborane linear dyads and di(carbazole)-carborane V-shaped dyads with phenyleneethynylene-based bridges have been synthesized. The V-shaped dyads display the expected red-shifts in the location of their UV-Vis absorption maxima on bridge-lengthening, but show unusual blue-shifts in charge-transfer (CT) emission on the same π-system lengthening. These blue-shifts can be attributed to the 2n + 3 electron count within the carborane cluster in the excited state. The linear dyads luminesce via a combination of local excited (LE) and CT emission, with a red-shift in LE emission and a blue-shift in CT emission accompanying π-bridge elongation. A quantum efficiency as high as 86% in the solution state is achieved from the hybrid LE/CT emission. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations at the excited state of these compounds have clarified the photoluminescence blue-shift and suggested a typical cluster C-C bond elongation in the V-shaped dyads. Calculations on the elongated linear dyads have suggested that the electron density is localized at the phenyleneethynylene-containing bridge. PMID:27225829

  19. Adoptive and Nonadoptive Mother–Child Behavioral Interaction: A Comparative Study at 4 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Padilla, Christina M.; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Horn, E. Parham; Bradley, Alexandra L.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparable samples of low-risk adopted and nonadopted children and mothers were observed during 3 tasks at age 4 years. Quality of mother-child interactions, child level of functioning in 4 domains, and maternal parenting satisfaction and social support were assessed. Adopted children were as competent as nonadopted children on measures of developmental functioning. Both groups of mothers expressed high satisfaction and support as parents. However, ratings of child, maternal, and dyadic behavior when interacting were all lower for adoptive dyads than for nonadoptive dyads, and adoptive dyads with boys accounted for the maternal and dyadic group differences. PMID:27134518

  20. Maternal recasts and activity variations: a comparison of mother-child dyads involving children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Stefano; de Weck, Geneviève; Salazar Orvig, Anne; da Silva Genest, Christine; Rahmati, Somayeh

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated maternal recast and the children's responses comparing dyads made up of a mother and a child with typical language development (TD) or a child with specific language impairment (SLI). More specifically, this article deals with the influence of the type of activity being carried out on the number and types of maternal recasts. A sample of 17 French-speaking children with SLI (age 5 to 7 years) matched with 17 TD same-age peers was observed in interaction with their mother during four different activities (joint reading, symbolic play, question guessing game and clue guessing game). The results showed that group and activity had an impact on the number and type of recasts. Mothers of children with SLI offered more recasts than mothers of TD children. The former preferred phonological recasts whereas the latter preferred lexical ones. Moreover, recasts were more frequently used in joint reading than in other activities. Regarding the children's responses, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Children with SLI took up the maternal proposition more frequently after a lexical recast than after a recast of another type. The findings provide evidence for considering the features of the activities in clinical settings. PMID:23819678

  1. Examining "fat talk" experimentally in a female dyad: how are women influenced by another woman's body presentation style?

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katheryn L; Martz, Denise M; Curtin, Lisa A; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-06-01

    Fat talk, the verbal dissatisfaction that women express about their bodies, was studied in a female dyad whereby participants interacted with a female confederate who either self-derogated, self-accepted, or self-aggrandized. A 2 (participant body esteem: high vs. low) x3 (confederate style of body image presentation) design was used. Results revealed that participants' public disclosure of their body image varied according to confederate's style. Consistent with a reciprocity effect, participants disclosed the lowest public body image ratings in the self-derogate condition, with moderate ratings in the self-accept condition, and highest ratings in the self-aggrandize condition. Moreover, participants with low compared to high body esteem stated lower public body image. Participants' judgments of the confederates' likeability did not vary as a function of the confederate's body presentational style. Findings support the recursive nature of the social psychology of body image such that personal body image dissatisfaction is partially influenced by fat talk social norms. PMID:18089261

  2. Maintenance factors in coercive mother-child interactions: the compliance and predictability hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Wahler, R G; Dumas, J E

    1986-01-01

    Two stimulus control processes by which some parent-child dyads occasionally escalate their aversive exchanges into progressively more coercive interactions are described. The compliance hypothesis suggests that aversive actions have instructional properties for the dyad and that parent compliance with such child instructions maintains behavior chains of increasing aversiveness. The predictability hypothesis suggests that social interactions are most likely to function as aversive stimuli in the dyad when delivered in unpredictable fashion by either party and that responses instrumental in reducing dyadic unpredictability maintain aversive behavior chains. Expectations derived from both hypotheses are evaluated in a series of correlational analyses of mother-child interactions obtained in extended baseline observations of three dyads seeking psychological help for severe interactional problems. Results provide tentative support for the predictability hypothesis and suggest important avenues of further research. PMID:3710944

  3. Echinocystic acid reduces reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Han, Jing; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Feng, Bin; Deng, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xin-Shang; Yang, Qi; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain has consistently been correlated with depression. Echinocystic acid (EA), a natural triterpone enriched in various herbs and used for medicinal purpose in many Asian countries, exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, little is known the effects of EA on the depression. In present study, we investigated the anti-depression activities in the mouse model of reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad. Reserpine (1 mg/kg subcutaneously daily for 3 days) caused significant depression-like behaviors and pain sensation. Subsequent treatment of EA (5 mg/kg intragastrically daily for 5 days) attenuated the reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad as shown by the increase of pain threshold and the behaviors in forced swimming test, tail suspension test, and open field test. Furthermore, treatment of EA reversed the decrease of biogenic amines (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) in the brain region of hippocampus, a structure involved in the formation of emotional disorders. Levels of serotonin receptor 5-HT1A were decreased and levels of 5-HT2A were increased in the reserpine-injected mice. Treatment of EA could restore the alterations of serotonin receptors. At the same time, the increase in GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, p-GluA1-Ser831, PSD-95 and CaMKII were integrated with the increase in caspase-3 and iNOS levels in the hippocampus of the reserpine-injected mice. EA significantly reversed the changes of above proteins. However, EA did not affect the levels of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors and the total levels of GluA1 and p-GluA1-Ser845. Our study provides strong evidence that EA attenuates reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad partially through regulating the biogenic amines levels and GluN2B receptors in the hippocampus. PMID:26729203

  4. [Multidisciplinary care during peripartum: mother-baby dyad in the center of the relational constellations].

    PubMed

    Girard, E; Ortiz, N; Alberque, C; Almeida Heymans, A; Epiney, M; Canuto, A; Weber, K

    2013-02-13

    Pregnancy and new motherhood may be crisis and vulnerability periods and therefore increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. Liaison psychiatry plays a major role in the first psychiatric evaluation of mothers in order to specify a diagnosis and to initiate a treatment when necessary. This article describes the care of mothers suffering from peripartum psychiatric disorders by the liaison psychiatry in the maternity ward, an outpatient practice, as well as an in-patient care unit where mother and baby can stay together. The multidisciplinary approach and its constellation around the mother-baby dyad are detailed and two clinical cases are reported. PMID:23477067

  5. Probing the Dipolar Coupling in a Heterospin Endohedral Fullerene-Phthalocyanine Dyad.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shen; Yamamoto, Masanori; Briggs, G Andrew D; Imahori, Hiroshi; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos

    2016-02-01

    Paramagnetic endohedral fullerenes and phthalocyanine (Pc) complexes are promising building blocks for molecular quantum information processing, for which tunable dipolar coupling is required. We have linked these two spin qubit candidates together and characterized the resulting electron paramagnetic resonance properties, including the spin dipolar coupling between the fullerene spin and the copper spin. Having interpreted the distance-dependent coupling strength quantitatively and further discussed the antiferromagnetic aggregation effect of the CuPc moieties, we demonstrate two ways of tuning the dipolar coupling in such dyad systems: changing the spacer group and adjusting the solution concentration. PMID:26745202

  6. Autoregulation of fos: the dyad symmetry element as the major target of repression.

    PubMed Central

    König, H; Ponta, H; Rahmsdorf, U; Büscher, M; Schönthal, A; Rahmsdorf, H J; Herrlich, P

    1989-01-01

    Fos and Jun co-operatively repress the fos promoter. Removal of all putative Fos/Jun binding sites from the fos promoter neither obliterates the repression by Fos/Jun in transient cotransfection experiments in NIH3T3 cells nor the turn-off kinetics of serum-induced fos expression in stably transfected NIH3T3 cells. The dyad symmetry element (DSE) suffices to subject a promoter to this type of repression. However, one of the putative Fos/Jun binding sites (-292 to -299 and thus located immediately adjacent to the DSE), determines the very low level of basal expression. Images PMID:2511006

  7. Detecting dyads of related individuals in large collections of DNA-profiles by controlling the false discovery rate.

    PubMed

    Skaug, H J; Bérubé, M; Palsbøll, P J

    2010-07-01

    The search for pairs (dyads) of related individuals in large databases of DNA-profiles has become an increasingly important inference tool in ecology. However, the many, partly dependent, pairwise comparisons introduce statistical issues. We show that the false discovery rate (FDR) procedure is well suited to control for the proportion of false positives, i.e. dyads consisting of unrelated individuals, which under normal circumstances would have been labelled as related individuals. We verify the behaviour of the standard FDR procedure by simulation, demonstrating that the FDR procedure works satisfactory in spite of the many dependent pairwise comparisons involved in an exhaustive database screening. A computer program that implements this method is available online. In addition, we propose to implement a second stage in the procedure, in which additional independent genetic markers are used to identify the false positives. We demonstrate the application of the approach in an analysis of a DNA database consisting of 3300 individual minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) each typed at ten microsatellite loci. Applying the standard procedure with an FDR of 50% led to the identification of 74 putative dyads of 1st- or 2nd-order relatives. However, introducing the second step, which involved additional genotypes at 15 microsatellite loci, revealed that only 21 of the putative dyads can be claimed with high certainty to be true dyads. PMID:21565074

  8. [Interpersonal relation pattern in families with a bulimic member- interaction analysis].

    PubMed

    Stasch, M; Reich, G

    2000-03-01

    Basic hypotheses concerning the interaction in families of bulimic patients are tested. Family therapy sessions of 20 female patients of an outpatient therapy unit for eating-disorders were coded with a micro-analytic instrument (Göttinger Familieninteraktions-Skalen) and analysed. The siblings relationships were systematically included in the study. The parental dyad turned out to be significantly more conflictual than the other dyads were. In the relationship between the patient and the parents a relatively stable pattern of interactional behaviour was found. The relationship between mother and bulimic daughter was more conflictual than that between father and daughter. The father-sibling-dyad was not significantly more conflictual than the father-patient-dyad. Especially the impact of sibling relationships on the family interaction of bulimic patients needs further elucidation. PMID:10771579

  9. An ionic charge-transfer dyad prepared cost-effectively from a tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate anion and a TMPyP cation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li-Jun; Huo, Peng; Li, Yan-Hong; Hou, Jin-Le; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie

    2016-01-28

    Great progress has been made in combining a TTF moiety with a porphyrin unit by covalent bonds, but only a few examples were reported in which TTF and porphyrin assembled by noncovalent interactions. In contrast to the energy- and time-consuming synthetic procedures for the covalent system, the assembly of a non-covalent ionic system would be a cost-effective way to construct donor-acceptor ensembles. Herein a new type of ionic TTF-porphyrin dyad is obtained. A methylated tetra(4-pyridyl) porphyrin (5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin, TMPyP) is selected as the cation, and TTF-bicarboxylate (L(1)) or TTF-tetracarboxylate (L(2)) is used as the anion. Crystal structures of two TTF-TMPyP ionic D-A compounds, TMPyP-(HL(1))4·3H2O (1) and TMPyP-(H2L(2))2·5H2O (2), were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The strong ionic interaction enhances the charge-transfer between the regular mixed-stacking donors and acceptors, which are investigated comprehensively by spectral, electrochemical and theoretical studies. The variation in properties between L(1) and L(2) is of great advantage to understand the influence factors for charge-transfer. The charge-transfer properties can be modulated not only by the nature of the donor or the acceptor, but also the cation-anion ratio in the salt, which shows great flexibility of the D-A ionic dyad in the design and preparation of new charge-transfer systems. PMID:26732050

  10. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    PubMed

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies. PMID:27272990

  11. A Framework for Incorporating Dyads in Models of HIV-Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hops, Hyman; Redding, Colleen A.; Reis, Harry T.; Rothman, Alexander J.; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2014-01-01

    Although HIV is contracted by individuals, it is typically transmitted in dyads. Most efforts to promote safer sex practices, however, focus exclusively on individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework that specifies how models of dyadic processes and relationships can inform models of HIV-prevention. At the center of the framework is the proposition that safer sex between two people requires a dyadic capacity for successful coordination. According to this framework, relational, individual, and structural variables that affect the enactment of safer sex do so through their direct and indirect effects on that dyadic capacity. This dyadic perspective does not require an ongoing relationship between two individuals; rather, it offers a way of distinguishing between dyads along a continuum from anonymous strangers (with minimal coordination of behavior) to long-term partners (with much greater coordination). Acknowledging the dyadic context of HIV-prevention offers new targets for interventions and suggests new approaches to tailoring interventions to specific populations. PMID:20838872

  12. Dyads of father and son suicide separated by time and circumstances.

    PubMed

    Carson, Henry J

    2010-03-01

    We encountered 2 dyadic suicides among fathers and sons. In the first dyad, the father was a 64-year-old man with complications of heart surgery. He committed suicide with a shotgun. The decedent's son was a 38-year-old man. Five years after his father's death, the son had an argument with his wife. That morning, he drove to the house where his father had lived and inflicted a handgun wound to his head. In the second dyad, the son was a 22-year-old man whose girlfriend left him. He inflicted a shotgun injury to the head. His blood alcohol level was 294 mg/dL. The father of this decedent was a 43-year-old man who 1 year later was despondent after a fight with his girlfriend. He was found dead at home with a single handgun wound to the chest. His blood alcohol level was 173 mg/dL. All 4 suicides appear to have been premeditated and all 4 men used guns. Suicide in a family tends to cause depression and complicate bereavement in survivors more than other types of death. Copycat suicide is well-documented in high-profile cases. The effect of father-son relationships is likely closer and more influential than celebrity suicides. PMID:19935393

  13. BODIPY functionalized o-carborane dyads for low-energy photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guo Fan; Cho, Yang-Jin; Wee, Kyung-Ryang; Hong, Seong Ahn; Suh, Il-Hwan; Son, Ho-Jin; Lee, Jong-Dae; Han, Won-Sik; Cho, Dae Won; Kang, Sang Ook

    2015-02-14

    A new type of organic dyad that can induce low-energy photosensitization has been developed; electron donor and electron acceptor units are boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) and ortho-carborane (o-Cb), respectively. The new dyads consist of a V-shaped BODIPY-(o-Cb)-BODIPY molecular array in which two BODIPY units are substituted onto two adjacent carbon atoms of the central o-Cb. In the presence of the o-Cb unit, as an electron acceptor, significant fluorescence quenching was observed which indicated that photoinduced electron transfer (PET) had occurred from the end-on BODIPY units to the central o-Cb with PET efficiencies of 63-71%. As a result, the corresponding cationic and anionic species that are responsible for the charge transfer state were detected by the serial spectroelectrochemical studies: cationic BODIPY radicals at 400 nm at the applied voltage of 1.44 V and broad absorption bands of anionic o-Cb radicals in the range of 250-490 nm at -1.84 V. Transient absorption studies further confirmed the BODIPY radical anion at 540 nm and the o-Cb radical anion at 350-475 nm with a structureless broad band. PMID:25482506

  14. Superior–subordinate dyads: Dependence of leader effectiveness on mutual reinforcement contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ram K.; Mawhinney, T. C.

    1991-01-01

    Task contingencies were modeled from bureaucratic organizations in which vague job descriptions provide incomplete contingency specifications. Response rates within dyads were examined using two nonsocial, two social, and two control contingencies. In the first social contingency, responses by the superior produced monetary reinforcement for a subordinate while the superior received no reinforcement from his subordinate. A second social contingency was identical to the first except that the subordinate's rate of responding determined the rate of reinforcement delivered to his superior. Within this contingency, mutual reinforcement occurred whenever rates of superior and subordinate responding were correlated. Two control contingencies were identical to the second social contingency except that either the superior or the subordinate received a rate of response-independent reinforcement virtually identical to the rate received during the second social contingency. Leadership, in this context, was the difference between rates of subordinate responding produced by a nonsocial contingency and rates produced by each of the two social contingencies. The two nonsocial contingencies supported almost no responding among subjects. The first social contingency produced minimal levels of leadership within every dyad. The second social contingency produced high levels of leadership. Response-independent reinforcement generally reduced or eliminated responding. PMID:16812640

  15. Broadband Two-Photon Absorption Characteristics of Highly Photostable Fluorenyl-Dicyanoethylenylated [60]Fullerene Dyads.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seaho; Wang, Min; Ji, Wei; Tan, Loon-Seng; Cooper, Thomas; Chiang, Long Y

    2016-01-01

    We synthesized four C60-(light-harvesting antenna) dyads C60 (>CPAF-Cn) (n = 4, 9, 12, or 18) 1-Cn for the investigation of their broadband nonlinear absorption effect. Since we have previously demonstrated their high function as two-photon absorption (2PA) materials at 1000 nm, a different 2PA wavelength of 780 nm was applied in the study. The combined data taken at two different wavelength ranges substantiated the broadband characteristics of 1-Cn. We proposed that the observed broadband absorptions may be attributed by a partial π-conjugation between the C60 > cage and CPAF-Cn moieties, via endinitrile tautomeric resonance, giving a resonance state with enhanced molecular conjugation. This transient state could increase its 2PA and excited-state absorption at 800 nm. In addition, a trend of concentration-dependent 2PA cross-section (σ₂ ) and excited-state absorption magnitude was detected showing a higher σ value at a lower concentration that was correlated to increasing molecular separation with less aggregation for dyads C60(>CPAF-C18) and C60(>CPAF-C₉), as better 2PA and excited-state absorbers. PMID:27187350

  16. Discrepant Perspectives on Conflict Situations Among Urban Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    PubMed

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R; Jones, Vanya C; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-03-01

    Parents influence urban youths' violence-related behaviors. To provide effective guidance, parents should understand how youth perceive conflict, yet little empirical research has been conducted regarding parent and youth perceptions of conflict. The aims of this article are to (a) report on the nature of discrepancies in attribution of fault, (b) present qualitative data about the varying rationales for fault attribution, and (c) use quantitative data to identify correlates of discrepancy including report of attitudes toward violence, parental communication, and parents' messages about retaliatory violence. Interviews were conducted with 101 parent/adolescent dyads. The study population consisted of African American female caretakers (n = 92; that is, mothers, grandmothers, aunts) and fathers (n = 9) and their early adolescents (mean age = 13.6). A total of 53 dyads were discrepant in identifying instigators in one or both videos. When discrepancy was present, the parent was more likely to identify the actor who reacted to the situation as at fault. In the logistic regression models, parental attitudes about retaliatory violence were a significant correlate of discrepancy, such that as parent attitudes supporting retaliatory violence increased, the odds of discrepancy decreased. The results suggest that parents and adolescents do not always view conflict situations similarly, which may inhibit effective parent-child communication, parental advice, and discipline. Individuals developing and implementing family-based violence prevention interventions need to be cognizant of the complexity of fault attribution and design strategies to promote conversations around attribution of fault and effective conflict management. PMID:25535252

  17. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and daughters such that mothers reported later expectations for the timing of behavioral autonomy than did daughters. Follow-up analyses indicated that findings appeared to be driven by maternal nativity, with dyads comprised of Mexico-born mothers reporting the latest age expectations for behavioral autonomy when compared with dyads comprised of U.S.-born mothers. Findings underscore the need to examine normative development among Latino adolescents and their families with a specific focus on how sociocultural characteristics can contribute to within-family differences. PMID:22093152

  18. Fluorescent photoswitching of a naphthopyran-benzimidazole dyad with high-degree fluorescent modulation within poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuangqing; Si, Yanling; Tong, Cuiyan; Wang, Guang; Qi, Bin; Yang, Guochun

    2013-06-01

    A naphthopyran-bridge-benzimidazole dyad which exhibits both fluorescence and photochromism was synthesized and its fluorescence photoswitching was investigated. Irradiation with UV light induces the isomerization of the naphthopyran component to the corresponding merocyanine. The fluorescence of the dyad was switched reversibly between on and off upon UV irradiation and thermal bleaching of the naphthopyran. Using ultraviolet illumination a pattern was created on a polymethylmethacrylate doped film with the dyad. Thus either a non-destructive photoswitch or an image recording system becomes available. The measurement of redox potentials by cyclic voltammetry combined with electronic spectra and a molecular energy diagram of the individual naphthopyran and benzimidazole demonstrated that the transformation of naphthopyran induced energy and electron transfer from the fluorescent benzimidazole to the photochromic naphthopyran, a feature which was also supported by our DFT calculations.

  19. High-resolution spectroscopy and analysis of the ν1/ν3 stretching dyad of osmium tetroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louviot, M.; Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Roy, P.; Balcon, D.

    2012-01-01

    OsO4 is a heavy tetrahedral molecule that may constitute a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations. Its favorable spin statistics (due to the zero nuclear spin of oxygen atoms) is such that only A1 and A2 rovibrational levels are allowed, leading to a dense, but quite easily resolved spectrum. Most lines are single ones, instead of complex line clusters as in the case of other heavy spherical-tops like SF6, for instance. It is thus possible to fully assign and fit the spectrum and to obtain precise experimental effective molecular parameters. The strong ν3 stretching fundamental has been studied a long time ago as an isolated band [McDowell RS, Radziemski LJ, Flicker H, Galbraith HW, Kennedy RC, Nereson NG, et al. Journal of Chemical Physics 1978;88:1513-21; Bobin B, Valentin A, Henry L. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 1987;122:229-41]. We reinvestigate here this region and perform new assignments and effective Hamiltonian parameter fits for the four main isotopologues (192OsO4, 190OsO4, 189OsO4, 188OsO4), by considering the ν1/ν3 stretching dyad. A new experimental spectrum has been recorded at room temperature, thanks to a Bruker IFS 125 HR interferometer and using a natural abundance OsO4 sample. Assignments and analyses were performed thanks to the SPVIEW and XTDS softwares, respectively [Wenger Ch, Boudon V, Rotger M, Sanzharov M, Champion J-P. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 2008;251:102-13]. We provide precise effective Hamiltonian parameters, including band centers and Coriolis interaction parameters. We discuss isotopic shifts and estimate the band centers for the three minor isotopologues (187OsO4, 186OsO4, 184OsO4). The Q branches of the first two of them are clearly identified in the experimental spectrum.

  20. Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Dyads: Short-Term Stability and Continuity from Variable-Centered and Person-Centered Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a prominent index of socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Can basic psychometric properties of EA be looked at from both variable (scale) and person (cluster) points of view in individuals and in dyads? Is EA stable and continuous over a short period of time? This methodological study shows significant…

  1. Molecular simulations for the conformational assessment of a porphyrin-fullerene dyad in different environments.

    PubMed

    Tappura, Kirsi; Cramariuc, Oana; Hukka, Terttu I; Rantala, Tapio T

    2005-09-01

    Conformational space of a porphyrin-fullerene dyad with the donor and acceptor connected by a relatively flexible linker is studied by molecular dynamics simulations in both non-polar and polar solvents, as well as in vacuum. The most probable conformations obtained from the vacuum MD simulations were optimized with semi-empirical (SE) and density functional theory (DFT) methods and the extent of the structural changes is assessed. The computational results indicate the co-existence of different conformers in both polar and nonpolar solvents showing agreement with experimental results. The most probable vacuum conformations at 300 K are similar to the ones at 0 K, while the structures most often observed in the solvents show less compact conformations. Optimization with SE and DFT calculations leads to structures, which represent relatively well the folded conformations in solvent, which validates the electronic structure calculations relevant to describing photoinduced electron-transfer in H2P-O34-C60. PMID:16240023

  2. Contaminated and uncontaminated feeding influence perceived intimacy in mixed-sex dyads.

    PubMed

    Alley, Thomas R

    2012-06-01

    It was expected that viewers watching adult mixed-sex pairs dining together will give higher ratings of the perceived intimacy and involvement of the pair if feeding is displayed while eating, especially if the feeding involves contaminated (i.e., with potential germ transfer) foods. Our hypotheses were tested using a design in which participants viewed five videotapes in varying order. Each video showed different mixed-sex pairs of actors sharing meal and included a distinct form of food sharing or none. These were shown to 50 small groups of young adults in quasi-random sequences to control for order effects. Immediately after each video, viewers were asked about the attractiveness, attraction and intimacy in the dyad they had just observed. As predicted, videos featuring contaminated feeding consistently produced higher ratings on involvement and attraction than those showing uncontaminated feeding which, in turn, mostly produced higher ratings on involvement and attraction than those showing no feeding behaviors. PMID:22387714

  3. Photocontrolled Reversible Luminescent Lanthanide Molecular Switch Based on a Diarylethene-Europium Dyad.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong-Bo; Hu, Guo-Fei; Zhang, Zhan-Hui; Gao, Liang; Gao, Xingfa; Wu, Hai-Chen

    2016-08-15

    A new europium complex coordinated between a Eu(III) ion and an unsymmetrical diarylperfluorocyclopentene yields a light-controlled diarylethene-europium dyad, DAE@TpyEu(tta)3, whose photophysical properties can be reversibly switched by optical stimuli. When DAE@TpyEu(tta)3 is exposed to 365 nm UV light, an efficient intramolecular photochromic fluorescence resonance energy transfer (pc-FRET) occurs between the emission of the Eu(3+) donor (D) and the absorption of the diarylethene acceptor (A) in closed-form DAE@TpyEu(tta)3 accompanied by luminescence quenching. However, the pc-FRET process could be effectively inhibited by visible light (λ > 600 nm) irradiation, and the lanthanide emission of DAE@TpyEu(tta)3 is rapidly recovered. Furthermore, this luminescent lanthanide molecular switch could serve as a highly reliable and sensitive "turn on" fluorescent marker in living cells irradiated by red light without any optical interference. PMID:27447742

  4. Proton-coupled self-assembly of a porphyrin-naphthalenediimide dyad.

    PubMed

    Tu, Siyu; Kim, Se Hye; Joseph, Jojo; Modarelli, David A; Parquette, Jon R

    2013-06-01

    The construction of an n-p heterojunction through the self-assembly of a dyad based on tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and 1,4,5,8-naphthalenedimide (NDI) (1) is described. Proton transfer from the lysine head group of 1 to the porphyrin ring occurs concomitantly with self-assembly into 1D nanorods in CHCl3. TEM and AFM studies showed that the nanorods are formed by the lateral and vertical fusion of multilameller vesicles into networks and hollow ribbons, respectively. These intermediate structures transitioned to nanorods over the course of 4-6 days. Time-resolved spectroscopy revealed that photoinduced charge separation occurs with rate constants that depend on the nature of the aggregation. PMID:23564748

  5. Preen secretions encode information on MHC similarity in certain sex-dyads in a monogamous seabird

    PubMed Central

    Leclaire, Sarah; van Dongen, Wouter F. D.; Voccia, Steeve; Merkling, Thomas; Ducamp, Christine; Hatch, Scott A.; Blanchard, Pierrick; Danchin, Étienne; Wagner, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are known to select mates to maximize the genetic diversity of their offspring in order to achieve immunity against a broader range of pathogens. Although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), it remains unknown whether they can use olfactory cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners. Here we combined gas chromatography data with genetic similarity indices based on MHC to test whether similarity in preen secretion chemicals correlated with MHC relatedness in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a species that preferentially mates with genetically dissimilar partners. We found that similarity in preen secretion chemicals was positively correlated with MHC relatedness in male-male and male-female dyads. This study provides the first evidence that preen secretion chemicals can encode information on MHC relatedness and suggests that odor-based mechanisms of MHC-related mate choice may occur in birds. PMID:25370306

  6. Social Decision Schemes of the Same Dyads and Tetrads on Two Different Disjunctive Tasks. Educational Reports Umea, No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerbladh, Thor

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to test several social decision schemes to obtain plausible explanations of different group processes in solving different disjunctive tasks; and (2) to study both dyads and tetrads solving a eureka and a non-eureka disjunctive task. Social decision schemes theory assumes that a group decision is a joint…

  7. The Role of Maternal Factors in Sibling Relationship Quality: A Multilevel Study of Multiple Dyads per Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and…

  8. Perceptions of Asthma Quality of Life in Children and Parent Dyads in Two Rural Counties in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Susan; McCrone, Susan; Shapiro, April L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines perceived quality of life (QOL) in a convenience sample of children (aged 7-11) with asthma and their parents from two schools in rural West Virginia. Forty-nine child-parent dyads representing 25 males and 24 females completed the study. The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module was utilized to separately measure child and parent…

  9. Short-Term Reliability and Continuity of Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Dyads across Contexts of Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Gini, Motti; Putnick, Diane L.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Painter, Kathleen M.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2006-01-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a prominent index of socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Is EA affected by context? In this methodological study, 34 mothers and their 2-year-olds were observed in 2 different settings (home vs. laboratory) 1 week apart. Significant cross-context reliability and continuity in EA as measured with the…

  10. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and…

  11. Energy transfer in aminonaphthalimide-boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyads upon one- and two-photon excitation: applications for cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Collado, Daniel; Remón, Patricia; Vida, Yolanda; Najera, Francisco; Sen, Pratik; Pischel, Uwe; Perez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel

    2014-03-01

    Aminonaphthalimide-BODIPY energy transfer cassettes were found to show very fast (kEET ≈ 10(10)-10(11) s(-1) and efficient BODIPY fluorescence sensitization. This was observed upon one- and two-photon excitation, which extends the application range of the investigated bichromophoric dyads in terms of accessible excitation wavelengths. In comparison with the direct excitation of the BODIPY chromophore, the two-photon absorption cross-section δ of the dyads is significantly incremented by the presence of the aminonaphthalimide donor [δ ≈ 10 GM for the BODIPY versus 19-26 GM in the dyad at λ(exc)=840 nm; 1 GM (Goeppert-Mayer unit)=10(-50) cm(4) smolecule(-1) photon-(1)]. The electronic decoupling of the donor and acceptor, which is a precondition for the energy transfercassette concept, was demonstrated by time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The applicability of the new probes in the one- and twophoton excitation mode was demonstrated in a proof-of-principle approach in the fluorescence imaging of HeLa cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the merging of multiphoton excitation with the energy transfer cassette concept for a BODIPY-containing dyad. PMID:24730057

  12. Resemblance of dietary intakes of snacks, sweets, fruit, and vegetables among mother-child dyads from low income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in low-income mother–child dyads. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from Head Start centers in Houston, Texas, and Birmingham, Alabama. Twenty-four-hour dietary ...

  13. CenteringParenting: an innovative dyad model for group mother-infant care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Joanna; Rising, Sharon Schindler

    2013-01-01

    CenteringParenting is a group model that brings a cohort of 6 to 7 mothers and infants together for care during the first year of life. During 9 group sessions the clinician provides well-baby care and also attends to the health, development, and safety issues of the mother. Ideally, CenteringParenting provides continuity of care for a cohort of women who have received care in CenteringPregnancy, group prenatal care that is 10 sessions throughout the entire pregnancy and that leads to community building, better health outcomes, and increased satisfaction with prenatal care. The postpartum year affects the entire family, but especially the mother, who is redefining herself and her own personal goals. Issues of weight/body image, breastfeeding, depression, contraception, and relationship issues all may surface. In traditional care, health resources for support and intervention are frequently lacking or unavailable. Women's health clinicians also note the loss of contact with women they have followed during the prenatal period, often not seeing a woman again until she returns for another pregnancy. CenteringParenting recognizes that the health of the mother is tied to the health of the infant and that assessment and interventions are more appropriate and efficient when done in a dyad context. Facilitative leadership, rather than didactic education, encourages women to fully engage in their care, to raise issues of importance to them, and to discuss concerns within an atmosphere that allows for the surfacing of culturally appropriate values and beliefs. Implementing the model calls for system changes that are often significant. It also requires the building of a substantial team relationship among care providers. This overview describes the CenteringParenting mother-infant dyad care model with special focus on the mother and reviews the perspectives and experiences of staff from several practice sites. PMID:24406037

  14. Cocaine Self-Administration in Social Dyads Using Custom-Built Operant Conditioning Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Ryan T.; Strickland, Justin C.; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditionally, the analysis of intravenous drug self-administration is limited to conditions in which subjects are tested in isolation. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because drug use in humans often occurs in the presence of others. Newmethod We used custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed social dyads visual, olfactory, auditory, and limited tactile contact while concurrently self-administering cocaine. Male rats were trained to respond according to a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement (with a limited hold) in order to determine if patterns of cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration became more similar over time in social pairs. Cocaine self-administration was tested across five days according to a 10-min fixed interval schedule (with a 5-min limited hold). Quarter-life values (time at which 25% of responses were emitted per interval) were analyzed using intraclass correlations. Results The total number of reinforcers obtained did not vary across the five days of testing; however, quarter-life values became progressively more similar between individuals within the social dyads. Comparison with existing methods Standard operant conditioning chambers are unable to assess responding in multiple animals due to their small size, the need to prevent subjects from responding on the lever of their partner, and the need to prevent infusion lines from entangling. By using custom-built social operant conditioning chambers, we assessed the effects of social contact on cocaine self-administration. Conclusion Social operant conditioning chambers can be used as a preclinical method to examine social influences on drug self-administration under conditions that approximate human substance use. PMID:25109902

  15. Synchrony in Mother-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Rex H.

    1979-01-01

    A measure of mother-infant synchrony was developed and used to compare the interactions of mothers with pre-term and mothers with full-term infants. Each mother-infant dyad was observed during a standard bottle feeding session on three separate occasions: once prior to discharge and at one and three months after discharge. (JMB)

  16. Ultrafast Photoinduced Electron Transfer and Charge Stabilization in Donor-Acceptor Dyads Capable of Harvesting Near-Infrared Light.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Venugopal; Gobeze, Habtom B; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-08-01

    To harvest energy from the near-infrared (near-IR) and infrared (IR) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, which constitutes nearly 70 % of the solar radiation, there is a great demand for near-IR and IR light-absorbing sensitizers that are capable of undergoing ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer when connected to a suitable electron acceptor. Towards achieving this goal, in the present study, we report multistep syntheses of dyads derived from structurally modified BF2-chelated azadipyrromethene (ADP; to extend absorption and emission into the near-IR region) and fullerene as electron-donor and electron-acceptor entities, respectively. The newly synthesized dyads were fully characterized based on optical absorbance, fluorescence, geometry optimization, and electrochemical studies. The established energy level diagram revealed the possibility of electron transfer either from the singlet excited near-IR sensitizer or singlet excited fullerene. Femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption studies were performed to gather evidence of excited state electron transfer and to evaluate the kinetics of charge separation and charge recombination processes. These studies revealed the occurrence of ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer leading to charge stabilization in the dyads, and populating the triplet states of ADP, benzanulated-ADP and benzanulated thiophene-ADP in the respective dyads, and triplet state of C60 in the case of BF2 -chelated dipyrromethene derived dyad during charge recombination. The present findings reveal that these sensitizers are suitable for harvesting light energy from the near-IR region of the solar spectrum and for building fast-responding optoelectronic devices operating under near-IR radiation input. PMID:26130432

  17. GADEM: a genetic algorithm guided formation of spaced dyads coupled with an EM algorithm for motif discovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Leping

    2009-02-01

    Genome-wide analyses of protein binding sites generate large amounts of data; a ChIP dataset might contain 10,000 sites. Unbiased motif discovery in such datasets is not generally feasible using current methods that employ probabilistic models. We propose an efficient method, GADEM, which combines spaced dyads and an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Candidate words (four to six nucleotides) for constructing spaced dyads are prioritized by their degree of overrepresentation in the input sequence data. Spaced dyads are converted into starting position weight matrices (PWMs). GADEM then employs a genetic algorithm (GA), with an embedded EM algorithm to improve starting PWMs, to guide the evolution of a population of spaced dyads toward one whose entropy scores are more statistically significant. Spaced dyads whose entropy scores reach a pre-specified significance threshold are declared motifs. GADEM performed comparably with MEME on 500 sets of simulated "ChIP" sequences with embedded known P53 binding sites. The major advantage of GADEM is its computational efficiency on large ChIP datasets compared to competitors. We applied GADEM to six genome-wide ChIP datasets. Approximately, 15 to 30 motifs of various lengths were identified in each dataset. Remarkably, without any prior motif information, the expected known motif (e.g., P53 in P53 data) was identified every time. GADEM discovered motifs of various lengths (6-40 bp) and characteristics in these datasets containing from 0.5 to >13 million nucleotides with run times of 5 to 96 h. GADEM can be viewed as an extension of the well-known MEME algorithm and is an efficient tool for de novo motif discovery in large-scale genome-wide data. The GADEM software is available at (www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/software/GADEM/). PMID:19193149

  18. Mother-Infant Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction as Predictor of Attachment: Nonlinear Dynamic Analyses.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, M Angeles; Pons-Salvador, Gemma; Trenado, Rosa M; Sierra, Purificacion

    2016-10-01

    This longitudinal study examined flexibility in early mother-infant interaction at the age of approximately 6 months (N=30) and whether flexibility indices predicted (in) secure child attachment at 15 months. Dyadic flexibility was measured using dynamic systems-based modelling of patterns during mother-child free play in terms of NDS variables derived from SSG: the propensity to change states (dynamic flexibility), number of states visited (diversity) and predictability (dispersion). Results showed significant discriminant functions on the attachment type groups, A, B & C, for the total grid, which included verbal and non-verbal, and for the reciprocal verbal region. Specifically, the prediction outcomes seem to work better in total grid for A-dyads and in the reciprocal verbal region for B and C-dyads. Diversity emerged as the most relevant index in dyadic flexibility: A-dyads showed the least diversity, distinguished them from B-dyads in the verbal regions, (both the reciprocal and non-reciprocal, 'child verbal-mother non-verbal' one), and, from C-dyads in the reciprocal non-verbal region. A-dyads showed remarkably low activity in the regions involving child verbal behavior, showing that children who became avoidant attached at 15 months of age, were mostly silent at approximately 6 months, when they interacted with their mothers. Findings in this study contribute to advancing conceptually informed measurement of dyadic interaction to provide a new perspective on maternal sensitivity and early markers of child insecure/secure attachment. PMID:27550705

  19. Time Resolved Spectroscopic Studies on a Novel Synthesized Photo-Switchable Organic Dyad and Its Nanocomposite Form in Order to Develop Light Energy Conversion Devices.

    PubMed

    Dutta Pal, Gopa; Paul, Abhijit; Yadav, Somnath; Bardhan, Munmun; De, Asish; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Jana, Aindrila; Ganguly, Tapan

    2015-08-01

    UV-vis absorption, steady state and time resolved spectroscopic investigations in pico and nanosecond time domain were made in the different environments on a novel synthesized dyad, 3-(2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (MNTMA) in its pristine form and when combined with gold (Au) nanoparticles i.e., in its nanocomposite structure. Both steady state and time resolved measurements coupled with the DFT calculations performed by using Gaussian 03 suit of software operated in the linux operating system show that though the dyad exhibits mainly the folded conformation in the ground state but on photoexcitation the nanocomposite form of dyad prefers to be in elongated structure in the excited state indicating its photoswitchable nature. Due to the predominancy of elongated isomeric form of the dyad in the excited state in presence of Au Nps, it appears that the dyad MNTMA may behave as a good light energy converter specially in its nanocomposite form. As larger charge separation rate (kcs ~ 4 x 10(8) s-1) is found relative to the rate associated with the energy wasting charge recombination processes (kcR ~ 3 x 10(5) s-1) in the nanocomposite form of the dyad, it demonstrates the suitability of constructing the efficient light energy conversion devices with Au-dyad hybrid nanomaterials. PMID:26369151

  20. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the…

  1. The Effects of Ecological Variables on Parent-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Michael E.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a series of studies on the effects of "ecological variables" on mother-father-sibling-infant interactions. Under consideration were: (1) the effects of stress on the parental preferences of young infants; (2) the effects of the presence of one parent on the interactions within the other parent-infant dyad; (3)…

  2. The Influence of Proxemic Variables on Dyadic Interaction Between Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael; Keys, Christopher

    This study addresses three issues: (1) the influence of proxemic variables (distance, furniture presence) on dyadic interaction; (2) the consistency between measures of self-disclosure; and (3) the applicability of reciprocity and distance-equilibrium views of dyadic interaction. Dyads of male college students were randomly assigned to one of four…

  3. The influence of π-conjugation on competitive pathways: charge transfer or electron transfer in new D-π-A and D-π-Si-π-A dyads.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yang-Jin; Lee, Ah-Rang; Kim, So-Yoen; Cho, Minji; Han, Won-Sik; Son, Ho-Jin; Cho, Dae Won; Kang, Sang Ook

    2016-08-17

    In order to elucidate the influence of π-conjugation on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and intramolecular charge transfer processes, donor-π-acceptor dyads (D-π-A (1) and D-π-Si-π-A (2)) were newly synthesized. In these dyads, carbazole and triazine moieties acted as the electron donor and acceptor, respectively. The fluorescence of dyad 1 red-shifted as the solvent polarity was increased. The electron charge distribution of the excited state of dyad 1 was delocalized in the acceptor moiety, forming the charge transfer D(δ+)-π-A(δ-) dyad in the excited state. In the excited state of dyad 1, the π-conjugation acted as the linker for charge transfer between the donor and acceptor moieties. A large dipole moment change (Δμ = 45.6 D) between the ground and excited states was determined using the Lippert-Mataga plot. Furthermore, the fluorescence of dyad 1 was observed upon two-photon excitation. In contrast, dyad 2, in which the π-conjugation is disconnected by a Si-atom in the linker, displayed weak dual-emission: a short-wavelength emission at around 350 nm arising from the monomeric species and a long-wavelength one assigned to the emission from an intramolecular exciplex between the donor and acceptor moieties. The weak emission of dyad 2 indicates that the D(+)˙-π-Si-π-A(-)˙ species was generated through a PET process in the excited state. The cationic radical species of the carbazole and the anionic radical species of the triazine, which show transient absorption (TA) bands at around 780 and 530 nm, respectively, were characterized using the femtosecond TA method. PMID:27485173

  4. Evidence for stroke family caregiver and dyad interventions: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Bakas, Tamilyn; Clark, Patricia C; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; King, Rosemarie B; Lutz, Barbara J; Miller, Elaine L

    2014-09-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of severe, long-term disability. Most stroke survivors are cared for in the home by a family caregiver. Caregiver stress is a leading cause of stroke survivor institutionalization, which results in significant costs to the healthcare system. Stroke family caregiver and dyad intervention studies have reported a variety of outcomes. A critical analysis of 17 caregiver intervention studies and 15 caregiver/stroke survivor dyad intervention studies was conducted to provide evidence-based recommendations for the implementation and future design of stroke family caregiver and dyad interventions. PMID:25034718

  5. A Parent-Child Dyad Approach to the Assessment of Health Status and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Wendy J.; Boydell, Katherine; Dell, Sharon; Feldman, Brian M.; Marshall, Deborah; Willan, Andrew; Wright, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of health state and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) are limited by a child’s age and cognitive ability. Parent-proxy reports are known to differ from children’s reports. Simultaneous assessment using a parent-child dyad is an alternative approach. Objective Our objective was to assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a parent-child dyad approach to utility and HR-QOL assessment of paediatric asthma health states. Methods The setting was specialist care in a hospital-based asthma clinic. Participants were 91 girls and boys with asthma aged 8 to 17 years and 91 parents. The intervention employed was parent-child dyad administration of the Health Utilities Index (HUI) 2 and 3, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Core and Asthma modules, and the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Questionnaires were administered by interview to children and parents separately and then together as a dyad to assess the child’s health state. The dyad interview was repeated at the next clinic visit. Dyad-child agreement was measured by intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient; Spearman correlations were used to assess convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 28 children who remained clinically stable between visits with a two-way ICC coefficient. Responsiveness to change from baseline was assessed with Spearman coefficients in 30 children who demonstrated clinical change between visits. Results There was no significant agreement between parent and child for the HUI2 or HUI3 whereas agreement between dyad and child was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36, 0.69) for the HUI2 and 0.74 (95% CI 0.61, 0.82) for the HUI3 overall. With respect to dyad performance characteristics, both HUI2 and HUI3 overall scores demonstrated moderate convergent validity with the generic PedsQL™ Core domains (range r = 0.30–0.52; p < 0.01). Dyad HUI2 attributes demonstrated moderate convergent

  6. Driving force dependence of charge separation and recombination processes in dyads of nucleotides and strongly electron-donating oligothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Hsun; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Ishikawa, Mayuka; Majima, Tetsuro

    2014-10-23

    Charge transfer in DNA has attracted great attention of scientists because of its importance in biological processes. However, our knowledge on excess-electron transfer in DNA still remains limited in comparison to numerous studies of hole transfer in DNA. To clarify the dynamics of excess-electron transfer in DNA by photochemical techniques, new electron-donating photosensitizers should be developed. Herein, a terthiophene and two 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene oligomers were used as photosensitizers in dyads including natural nucleobases as electron acceptors. The charge separation and recombination processes in the dyads were investigated by femtosecond laser flash photolysis, and the driving force dependence of these rate constants was discussed on the basis of the Marcus theory. From this study, the conformation effect on charge recombination process was found. We expect that 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene oligomers are useful in investigation of excess-electron-transfer dynamics in DNA. PMID:25265410

  7. Ruthenium phthalocyanine-bipyridyl dyads as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells: dye coverage versus molecular efficiency.

    PubMed

    Rawling, Tristan; Austin, Christine; Buchholz, Florian; Colbran, Stephen B; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2009-04-01

    The application of ruthenium phthalocyanine complexes as sensitizing dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is explored. Four monomeric complexes are reported which vary in peripheral substitution and axial ligand anchoring groups. Sensitizing dyes containing two ruthenium centers are also presented. These dyads, which contain ruthenium phthalocyanine and bipyridyl chromophores, were prepared using a protection/deprotection strategy that allows for convenient purification. DSCs fabricated using the phthalocyanine complexes and dyads were less efficient than those incorporating a standard DSC dye. However, on the basis of the number of molecules bound to the TiO(2) electrode surfaces, several of the new complexes were more efficient at photocurrent generation. The results highlight the importance of molecular size, and thus the dye coverage of the electrode surface in the design of new sensitizing dyes. PMID:19278209

  8. Development of Unsymmetrical Dyads As Potent Noncarbohydrate-Based Inhibitors against Human β-N-Acetyl-d-hexosaminidase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase has gained much attention due to its roles in several pathological processes and been considered as potential targets for disease therapy. A novel and efficient skeleton, which was an unsymmetrical dyad containing naphthalimide and methoxyphenyl moieties with an alkylamine spacer linkage as a noncarbohydrate-based inhibitor, was synthesized, and the activities were valuated against human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase. The most potent inhibitor exhibits high inhibitory activity with Ki values of 0.63 μM. The straightforward synthetic manners of these unsymmetrical dyads and understanding of the binding model could be advantageous for further structure optimization and development of new therapeutic agents for Hex-related diseases. PMID:24900704

  9. Development of Unsymmetrical Dyads As Potent Noncarbohydrate-Based Inhibitors against Human β-N-Acetyl-d-hexosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Chen, Qi; Liu, Tian; Xu, Lin; Yang, Qing; Qian, Xuhong

    2013-06-13

    Human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase has gained much attention due to its roles in several pathological processes and been considered as potential targets for disease therapy. A novel and efficient skeleton, which was an unsymmetrical dyad containing naphthalimide and methoxyphenyl moieties with an alkylamine spacer linkage as a noncarbohydrate-based inhibitor, was synthesized, and the activities were valuated against human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase. The most potent inhibitor exhibits high inhibitory activity with K i values of 0.63 μM. The straightforward synthetic manners of these unsymmetrical dyads and understanding of the binding model could be advantageous for further structure optimization and development of new therapeutic agents for Hex-related diseases. PMID:24900704

  10. C{sub 60}-dyad aggregates: Self-organized structures in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Guskova, O. A. E-mail: s.raovaranasi@uq.edu.au; Varanasi, S. R. E-mail: s.raovaranasi@uq.edu.au; Sommer, J.-U.

    2014-10-14

    Extensive full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-organization of C{sub 60}-fullerene dyad molecules in water, namely phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester and fulleropyrrolidines, which have two elements of ordering, the hydrophobic fullerene cage and the hydrophilic/ionic group. While pristine fullerene or phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester forms spherical droplets in order to minimize the surface tension, the amphiphilic nature of charged solute molecules leads to the formation of supramolecular assemblies having cylindrical shape driven by charge repulsion between the ionic groups located on the surface of the aggregates. We show that formation of non-spherical micelles is the geometrical consequence if the fullerene derivatives are considered as surfactants where the ionized groups are only hydrophilic unit. The agglomeration behavior of fullerenes is evaluated by determining sizes of the clusters, solvent accessible surface areas, and shape parameters. By changing the size of the counterions from chloride over iodide to perchlorate we find a thickening of the cylinder-like structures which can be explained by stronger condensation of larger ions and thus partial screening of the charge repulsion on the cluster surface. The reason for the size dependence of counterion condensation is the formation of a stronger hydration shell in case of small ions which in turn are repelled from the fullerene aggregates. Simulations are also in good agreement with the experimentally observed morphologies of decorated C{sub 60}-nanoparticles.

  11. Histone H3 phosphorylation near the nucleosome dyad alters chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    North, Justin A.; Šimon, Marek; Ferdinand, Michelle B.; Shoffner, Matthew A.; Picking, Jonathan W.; Howard, Cecil J.; Mooney, Alex M.; van Noort, John; Poirier, Michael G.; Ottesen, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosomes contain ∼146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone protein octamer that controls DNA accessibility to transcription and repair complexes. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of histone proteins regulates nucleosome function. To date, only modest changes in nucleosome structure have been directly attributed to histone PTMs. Histone residue H3(T118) is located near the nucleosome dyad and can be phosphorylated. This PTM destabilizes nucleosomes and is implicated in the regulation of transcription and repair. Here, we report gel electrophoretic mobility, sucrose gradient sedimentation, thermal disassembly, micrococcal nuclease digestion and atomic force microscopy measurements of two DNA–histone complexes that are structurally distinct from nucleosomes. We find that H3(T118ph) facilitates the formation of a nucleosome duplex with two DNA molecules wrapped around two histone octamers, and an altosome complex that contains one DNA molecule wrapped around two histone octamers. The nucleosome duplex complex forms within short ∼150 bp DNA molecules, whereas altosomes require at least ∼250 bp of DNA and form repeatedly along 3000 bp DNA molecules. These results are the first report of a histone PTM significantly altering the nucleosome structure. PMID:24561803

  12. Feeding demand conditions and plasma cortisol in socially-housed squirrel monkey mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Champoux, M; Hwang, L; Lang, O; Levine, S

    2001-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that experimentally altering the accessibility and availability of food can have profound impact on behavior and adrenocortical activity in nonhuman primate species. In this study, groups of mother-infant squirrel monkey dyads were housed in either high demand (HFD: 120% normal daily food intake provided), low demand (LFD: 600% normal daily food intake provided) or variable demand (VFD: alternating two-week blocks of low demand and high demand) conditions for 12 weeks. During the 12-week experimental foraging phase, animals in the HFD group exhibited prolonged and consistent cortisol elevations. The cortisol levels in the VFD group reflected the ambient demand condition, with higher levels exhibited during the high demand phases of the study, and lower values when the low demand condition was in effect. Overall, mothers were more affected by the experimental manipulation than were infants. The experimental condition did not affect the infants' response to a 24-h separation from their mothers. A suppression of cortisol levels, particularly in the HFD group, was observed upon resumption of ad-libitum feeding. PMID:11337131

  13. Novel aluminum-BODIPY dyads: intriguing dual-emission via photoinduced energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Changho; Jeong, Jisu; Lee, Ji Hye; Choi, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Hyonseok; Bae, Gyun-Tack; Lee, Kang Mun; Park, Myung Hwan

    2016-04-01

    Three novel BODIPY-based heterodinuclear complexes, [salen(3,5-(t)Bu)2Al-(OC6H4-BODIPY)] (6), [salen(3,5-(t)Bu)2Al-(OC6F2H2-BODIPY)] (7), and [(mq)2Al-(OC6H4-BODIPY)] (8) (salen = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine, BODIPY = 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene, and mq = methyl-8-quinolinolato) were prepared and characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The specific structures of 6-8 were also determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. In particular, the salen-based heterodinuclear complexes 6 and 7 exhibited higher thermal stability (Td5 = 309 and 306 °C, respectively) than that of the closely related mononuclear aluminum or BODIPY compounds, except for 8. The UV/vis absorption and PL spectra for 6 and 7 indicated a significant photoinduced energy transfer from the aluminum-salen moiety to the BODIPY group in an intramolecular manner. Theoretical calculations revealed independent transition states of the aluminum-salen moiety or the BODIPY group in the Al(III)-BODIPY dyads, further supporting these experimental results. PMID:26937761

  14. Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

  15. Identity styles and conflict resolution styles: associations in mother-adolescent dyads.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad. Questionnaires about conflict frequency and resolution were completed by 796 adolescents (66% female, mostly Caucasian) and their mothers. Adolescents also completed a measure on identity styles. Each identity style was hypothesized to relate to a specific conflict resolution behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the information-oriented identity style was positively associated with positive problem solving and negatively with conflict engagement and withdrawal, the normative style was positively associated with compliance, and, finally, the diffuse-avoidant style was positively associated with withdrawal and conflict engagement and negatively with positive problem solving. Our results demonstrated that the way in which adolescents tackle identity-relevant issues is related to the way in which they deal with conflicts with their mothers. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:21104306

  16. Ultrafast Electronic Energy Transfer Beyond the Weak Coupling Limit in a Proximal but Orthogonal Molecular Dyad.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Gordon J; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Benniston, Andrew C; Harriman, Anthony; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2015-12-24

    Electronic energy transfer (EET) from a donor to an acceptor is an important mechanism that controls the light harvesting efficiency in a wide variety of systems, including artificial and natural photosynthesis and contemporary photovoltaic technologies. The detailed mechanism of EET at short distances or large angles between the donor and acceptor is poorly understood. Here the influence of the orientation between the donor and acceptor on EET is explored using a molecule with two nearly perpendicular chromophores. Very fast EET with a time constant of 120 fs is observed, which is at least 40 times faster than the time predicted by Coulombic coupling calculations. Depolarization of the emission signal indicates that the transition dipole rotates through ca. 64°, indicating the near orthogonal nature of the EET event. The rate of EET is found to be similar to structural relaxation rates in the photoexcited oligothiophene donor alone, which suggests that this initial relaxation brings the dyad to a conical intersection where the excitation jumps to the acceptor. PMID:26617059

  17. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis LipB enzyme functions as a cysteine/lysine dyad acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingjun; Zhao, Xin; Eddine, Ali Nasser; Geerlof, Arie; Li, Xinping; Cronan, John E.; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Lipoic acid is essential for the activation of a number of protein complexes involved in key metabolic processes. Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on a pathway in which the lipoate attachment group is synthesized from an endogenously produced octanoic acid moiety. In patients with multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, expression of one gene from this pathway, lipB, encoding for octanoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-protein acyltransferase is considerably up-regulated, thus making it a potential target in the search for novel antiinfectives against tuberculosis. Here we present the crystal structure of the M. tuberculosis LipB protein at atomic resolution, showing an unexpected thioether-linked active-site complex with decanoic acid. We provide evidence that the transferase functions as a cysteine/lysine dyad acyltransferase, in which two invariant residues (Lys-142 and Cys-176) are likely to function as acid/base catalysts. Analysis by MS reveals that the LipB catalytic reaction proceeds by means of an internal thioesteracyl intermediate. Structural comparison of LipB with lipoate protein ligase A indicates that, despite conserved structural and sequence active-site features in the two enzymes, 4′-phosphopantetheine-bound octanoic acid recognition is a specific property of LipB. PMID:16735476

  18. C60-dyad aggregates: Self-organized structures in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskova, O. A.; Varanasi, S. R.; Sommer, J.-U.

    2014-10-01

    Extensive full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-organization of C60-fullerene dyad molecules in water, namely phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and fulleropyrrolidines, which have two elements of ordering, the hydrophobic fullerene cage and the hydrophilic/ionic group. While pristine fullerene or phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester forms spherical droplets in order to minimize the surface tension, the amphiphilic nature of charged solute molecules leads to the formation of supramolecular assemblies having cylindrical shape driven by charge repulsion between the ionic groups located on the surface of the aggregates. We show that formation of non-spherical micelles is the geometrical consequence if the fullerene derivatives are considered as surfactants where the ionized groups are only hydrophilic unit. The agglomeration behavior of fullerenes is evaluated by determining sizes of the clusters, solvent accessible surface areas, and shape parameters. By changing the size of the counterions from chloride over iodide to perchlorate we find a thickening of the cylinder-like structures which can be explained by stronger condensation of larger ions and thus partial screening of the charge repulsion on the cluster surface. The reason for the size dependence of counterion condensation is the formation of a stronger hydration shell in case of small ions which in turn are repelled from the fullerene aggregates. Simulations are also in good agreement with the experimentally observed morphologies of decorated C60-nanoparticles.

  19. Structural and Kinetic Analysis of Bacillus subtilis N-Acetylglucosaminidase Reveals a Unique Asp-His Dyad Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Litzinger, Silke; Fischer, Stefanie; Polzer, Patrick; Diederichs, Kay; Welte, Wolfram; Mayer, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional structures of NagZ of Bacillus subtilis, the first structures of a two-domain β-N-acetylglucosaminidase of family 3 of glycosidases, were determined with and without the transition state mimicking inhibitor PUGNAc bound to the active site, at 1.84- and 1.40-Å resolution, respectively. The structures together with kinetic analyses of mutants revealed an Asp-His dyad involved in catalysis: His234 of BsNagZ acts as general acid/base catalyst and is hydrogen bonded by Asp232 for proper function. Replacement of both His234 and Asp232 with glycine reduced the rate of hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate 4′-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminide 1900- and 4500-fold, respectively, and rendered activity pH-independent in the alkaline range consistent with a role of these residues in acid/base catalysis. N-Acetylglucosaminyl enzyme intermediate accumulated in the H234G mutant and β-azide product was formed in the presence of sodium azide in both mutants. The Asp-His dyad is conserved within β-N-acetylglucosaminidases but otherwise absent in β-glycosidases of family 3, which instead carry a “classical” glutamate acid/base catalyst. The acid/base glutamate of Hordeum vulgare exoglucanase (Exo1) superimposes with His234 of the dyad of BsNagZ and, in contrast to the latter, protrudes from a second domain of the enzyme into the active site. This is the first report of an Asp-His catalytic dyad involved in hydrolysis of glycosides resembling in function the Asp-His-Ser triad of serine proteases. Our findings will facilitate the development of mechanism-based inhibitors that selectively target family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidases, which are involved in bacterial cell wall turnover, spore germination, and induction of β-lactamase. PMID:20826810

  20. Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. PMID:23682698

  1. Electronic structure and charge transfer excitation energies of three endohedral fullerene- ZnTPP/ZnPc dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerikheirabadi, Fatemeh; Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra; Baruah, Tunna

    2015-03-01

    Organic donor-acceptor (D-A) moieties make up the main component of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). It has been proved that the open circuit voltage of these devices which is a parameter in efficiency determination, is directly related to the charge transfer excited states of the D-A pairs. Fullerenes having lots of interesting acceptor properties and porphyrins as well as phthalocyanines possessing intriguing donor characteristics, are shown to be promising nominees. In this work, we computationally analyze three donor-acceptor dyads of Zn-tetraphenyl porphyrin and Zn-phthalocyanine with novel endohedral fullerenes: Sc3N@C80_ZnTPP, Y3N@C80_ZnTPPandSc3N@C80_ZnPc.TheSc3N@C80_and Y3N@C80 belong to a particular class of fullerenes called trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes where the trimellatic nitrides form the endohedral units. Density functional theory, as implemented in NRLMOL code, is used to study the electronic structure and the related properties of these D-A complexes. The charge transfer excitation energies are calculated using the perturbative delta self-consistent field method recently developed in our group. We find that the CT excitation energies are larger for endohedral fullerene based dyads compared to similar C60 based dyads.

  2. Perceptions of Asthma Quality of Life in Children and Parent Dyads in Two Rural Counties in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Susan; McCrone, Susan; Shapiro, April L

    2016-08-01

    This study examines perceived quality of life (QOL) in a convenience sample of children (aged 7-11) with asthma and their parents from two schools in rural West Virginia. Forty-nine child-parent dyads representing 25 males and 24 females completed the study. The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module was utilized to separately measure child and parent perceptions of various dimensions of pediatric, asthma-specific, health-related QOL. Dimensions of the tool were scored separately and included symptoms, treatment, worry, and communication. The mean module dimension scores for children ranged from 63.27 to 80.47 and for parents, the range was from 61.26 to 79.79, with higher scores indicating higher QOL. Parents of male children perceived their son's QOL to be higher than that of female children in the symptoms and treatment dimensions. Strong relationships occurred between the child's worry and the other three dimensions as well as between the symptoms and the treatment dimensions. For the dyads, the only significant relationship was between the child and the adult treatment dimensions. With the well-documented burden of asthma in school-aged populations, information regarding the QOL of child and parent dyads will enhance school nurses' ability to improve health and educational outcomes in schools. PMID:26471054

  3. Light-driven generation of hydrogen: New chromophore dyads for increased activity based on Bodipy dye and Pt(diimine)(dithiolate) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bo; Sabatini, Randy P.; Fu, Wen-Fu; Eum, Min-Sik; Brennessel, William W.; Wang, Lidong; McCamant, David W.; Eisenberg, Richard

    2015-01-01

    New dyads consisting of a strongly absorbing Bodipy (dipyrromethene-BF2) dye and a platinum diimine dithiolate (PtN2S2) charge transfer (CT) chromophore have been synthesized and studied in the context of the light-driven generation of H2 from aqueous protons. In these dyads, the Bodipy dye is bonded directly to the benzenedithiolate ligand of the PtN2S2 CT chromophore. Each of the new dyads contains either a bipyridine (bpy) or phenanthroline (phen) diimine with an attached functional group that is used for binding directly to TiO2 nanoparticles, allowing rapid electron photoinjection into the semiconductor. The absorption spectra and cyclic voltammograms of the dyads show that the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the dyads are the sum of the individual chromophores (Bodipy and the PtN2S2 moieties), indicating little electronic coupling between them. Connection to TiO2 nanoparticles is carried out by sonication leading to in situ attachment to TiO2 without prior hydrolysis of the ester linking groups to acids. For H2 generation studies, the TiO2 particles are platinized (Pt-TiO2) so that the light absorber (the dyad), the electron conduit (TiO2), and the catalyst (attached colloidal Pt) are fully integrated. It is found that upon 530 nm irradiation in a H2O solution (pH 4) with ascorbic acid as an electron donor, the dyad linked to Pt-TiO2 via a phosphonate or carboxylate attachment shows excellent light-driven H2 production with substantial longevity, in which one particular dyad [4(bpyP)] exhibits the highest activity, generating ∼40,000 turnover numbers of H2 over 12 d (with respect to dye). PMID:26116625

  4. High-potential perfluorinated phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads for generation of high-energy charge-separated states: formation and photoinduced electron-transfer studies.

    PubMed

    Das, Sushanta K; Mahler, Andrew; Wilson, Angela K; D'Souza, Francis

    2014-08-25

    High oxidation potential perfluorinated zinc phthalocyanines (ZnF(n)Pcs) are synthesised and their spectroscopic, redox, and light-induced electron-transfer properties investigated systematically by forming donor-acceptor dyads through metal-ligand axial coordination of fullerene (C60) derivatives. Absorption and fluorescence spectral studies reveal efficient binding of the pyridine- (Py) and phenylimidazole-functionalised fullerene (C60Im) derivatives to the zinc centre of the F(n)Pcs. The determined binding constants, K, in o-dichlorobenzene for the 1:1 complexes are in the order of 10(4) to 10(5) M(-1); nearly an order of magnitude higher than that observed for the dyad formed from zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) lacking fluorine substituents. The geometry and electronic structure of the dyads are determined by using the B3LYP/6-31G* method. The HOMO and LUMO levels are located on the Pc and C60 entities, respectively; this suggests the formation of ZnF(n)Pc(.+)-C60Im(.-) and ZnF(n)Pc(.+)-C60Py(.-) (n=0, 8 or 16) intra-supramolecular charge-separated states during electron transfer. Electrochemical studies on the ZnPc-C60 dyads enable accurate determination of their oxidation and reduction potentials and the energy of the charge-separated states. The energy of the charge-separated state for dyads composed of ZnF(n)Pc is higher than that of normal ZnPc-C60 dyads and reveals their significance in harvesting higher amounts of light energy. Evidence for charge separation in the dyads is secured from femtosecond transient absorption studies in nonpolar toluene. Kinetic evaluation of the cation and anion radical ion peaks reveals ultrafast charge separation and charge recombination in dyads composed of perfluorinated phthalocyanine and fullerene; this implies their significance in solar-energy harvesting and optoelectronic device building applications. PMID:24850373

  5. Contrasting intermolecular and intramolecular exciplex formation of a 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Mitsutaka; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Hisaji; Tamaki, Akihiro; Takeda, Motonori; Mizuno, Kazuhiko

    2010-05-01

    An intramolecular exciplex is formed upon excitation of the cyclohexane solution of the 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad, but little if any intramolecular CT complex exists in the ground state of this substance in solution. In contrast, in the crystalline state, the dyad forms an intermolecular mixed-stack CT complex in the ground state and an intermolecular exciplex when it is photoexcited. PMID:20353197

  6. Turkish Mothers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Styles of Interactions with Their Children with Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.

    2009-01-01

    Turkish mothers' self-efficacy beliefs and their interactional behaviors with their children with language delays are described and explored. Participants included 19 mother-child dyads. Mothers' interaction with their children with language delays was videotaped for 30 minutes in a free-play context. Regarding mothers' interactional behaviors,…

  7. Visual Behavior in a Nonfocused Dyadic Interaction as a Function of Sex and Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Larry M.; Schneider, Frank W.

    The visual interaction of two strangers in a nonfocused situation (waiting room) was investigated. Amount of visual interaction decreased across time and with the increasing proximity of the interactants. Neither the sex composition of the dyad nor the sex of the looker was a significant source of variance. However, females received more glances…

  8. A cross-cultural comparison of tonal synchrony and pitch imitation in the vocal dialogs of Belgian Flemish-speaking and Mexican Spanish-speaking mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Loots, Gerrit; Gillisjans, Lobcke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Quintana, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural comparison of the vocal pitch patterns of 15 Mexican Spanish-speaking and 15 Belgian Flemish-speaking dyads, recorded during 5min of free-play in a laboratory setting. Both cultures have a tradition of dyadic face-to-face interaction but differ in language origins (i.e., Romanic versus Germanic). In total, 374 Mexican and 558 Flemish vocal exchanges were identified, analyzed and compared for their incidence of tonal synchrony (harmonic/pentatonic series), non-tonal synchrony (with/without imitations) and pitch and/or interval imitations. The main findings revealed that dyads in both cultures rely on tonal synchrony using similar pitch ratios and timing patterns. However, there were significant differences in the infants' vocal pitch imitation behavior. Additional video-analyzes on the contingency patterns involved in pitch imitation showed a cross-cultural difference in the maternal selective reinforcement of pitch imitation. The results are interpreted with regard to linguistic, developmental and cultural aspects and the 'musilanguage' model. PMID:26021806

  9. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M.; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and ‘fun task’ conditions. We focused on the link between interactants’ affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants’ personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants’ body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation. PMID:25505435

  10. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed. PMID:23794074

  11. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Stephen S. H.; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J.; Kelvin, Alyson A.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus

  12. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Stéphane G; Banner, David; Huang, Stephen S H; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J; Kelvin, Alyson A

    2015-10-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus

  13. Parent-Child Interaction and Children's Number Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xin; Huang, Jin; Wang, Zhengke; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Zhenguo; Yang, Lei; Yang, Zhengzheng

    2006-01-01

    Two groups of Chinese four-year-olds and their parents' interaction in joint activities were analyzed and compared. The children in Group 1 were high scorers in written number skills and the children in Group 2 were low scorers. Eighty-five dyads participated in four separate 15-minute joint activities such as book reading, mathematical work…

  14. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  15. "Songese": Maternal Structuring of Musical Interaction with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal structure of mother-infant interactions with songs, with particular attention to two aspects: 1) the singing of the mothers to their infants, and 2) the non-verbal behaviours mothers and infants produce in synchrony with the musical beat. Four mother-infant dyads were video-recorded when the…

  16. Modeling Heterogeneity in Social Interaction Processes Using Multilevel Survival Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Snyder, James

    2006-01-01

    More than 15 years ago, survival or hazard regression analyses were introduced to psychology (W. Gardner & W. A. Griffin, 1989; W. A. Griffin & W. Gardner, 1989) as powerful methodological tools for studying real time social interaction processes among dyads. Almost no additional published applications have appeared, although such data are…

  17. Eye Contact in Children's Social Interactions: What Is Normal Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Angela; Semple, Randye J.; Beale, Ivan; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.

    2000-01-01

    A study of 31 typical children aged 5-10 engaged in child-to-child social interactions, found joint attention was positively related to age and activity, eye gaze was low relative to joint attention and object engagement, and eye gaze was significantly less than what has been reported for adult-child and adult-adult dyads. (Contains references.)…

  18. Adolescents' Interactions with a Best Friend: Associations with Attachment Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Barbara L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.; Oldenburg, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested whether adolescents' attachment style is related to friendship interactions and perceptions of friendship quality. Attachment pairings were contrasted to examine whether dyad members' security of attachment or their models of others was more related to friendship. A total of 44 pairs of same-sex adolescent friends were videotaped…

  19. Coping with a newly diagnosed high-grade glioma: patient-caregiver dyad effects on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Baumstarck, K; Leroy, T; Hamidou, Z; Tabouret, E; Farina, P; Barrié, M; Campello, C; Petrirena, G; Chinot, O; Auquier, P

    2016-08-01

    Patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG) and their caregivers have to confront a very aggressive disease that produces major lifestyle disruptions. There is an interest in studying the ability of patients and their caregivers to cope with the difficulties that affect quality of life (QoL). We examine, in a sample of patient-caregiver dyads in the specific context of newly diagnosed cases of HGG, whether the QoL of patients and caregivers is influenced by the coping processes they and their relatives use from a specific actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). This cross-sectional study involved 42 dyads with patients having recent diagnoses of HGG and assessed in the time-frame between diagnosis and treatment initiation. The self-reported data included QoL (Patient-Generated Index, EORTC QLQ-C30, and CareGiver Oncology QoL), emotional status, and coping strategies (BriefCope). The APIM was used to test the dyadic effects of coping strategies on QoL. Coping strategies, such as social support, avoidance, and problem solving, exhibited evidence of either an actor effect (degree to which the individual's coping strategies are associated with their own QoL) or partner effect (degree to which the individual's coping strategies are associated with the QoL of the other member of the dyad) for patients or caregivers. For positive-thinking coping strategies, actor and partner effect were not observed. This study emphasizes that the QoL for patients and their caregivers was directly related to the coping strategies they used. This finding suggests that targeted interventions should be offered to help patients and their relatives to implement more effective coping strategies. PMID:27300523

  20. Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

  1. The Association between Parental Interaction Style and Children's Joint Engagement in Families with Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Elder, Lauren; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between parental interaction style (responsive vs directive) and child-initiated joint engagement within caregiver-child interactions with toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Method: Videotaped interactions of 85 toddler-caregiver dyads were coded for child engagement and both parental…

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Innovative Postpartum Care Model for Mother-Baby Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, Corinne; Dunn, Sandra; Pound, Catherine; Sourial, Nadia; Yasseen, Abdool S.; Millar, David; Rennicks White, Ruth; Walker, Mark; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    mother-baby dyads. This model of care may be more beneficial in a population that is not already predisposed to breastfeed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02043119 PMID:26871448

  3. Covalent dyads of porphyrin-fullerene and perylene-fullerene for organic photovoltaics: Spectroscopic and photocurrent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, Danuta; Lewandowska, Kornelia

    2011-07-01

    Supermolecular complexes of zinc porphyrin or perylenediimide as covalent dyads with fullerene (C 60) in chloroform and as Langmuir-Blodgett layers on an Au substrate were studied. In our studies we have used following spectroscopic methods: electronic absorption, fluorescence and electron spin resonance in solution. Also infrared absorption spectra in a KBr pellet and reflectance-absorption in Langmuir-Blodgett layers were monitored. Photocurrent generation in a photoelectrochemical cell was also studied. The redistribution of charge both upon porphyrin linkage to C 60 and when the systems are deposited on the Au substrate was shown. Photocurrent examinations show a great influence of the fullerene presence on photoresponse of the systems.

  4. Slow and fast singlet energy transfers in BODIPY-gallium(III)corrole dyads linked by flexible chains.

    PubMed

    Brizet, Bertrand; Desbois, Nicolas; Bonnot, Antoine; Langlois, Adam; Dubois, Adrien; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Gros, Claude P; Goze, Christine; Denat, Franck; Harvey, Pierre D

    2014-04-01

    Red (no styryl), green (monostyryl), and blue (distyryl) BODIPY-gallium(III) (BODIPY = boron-dipyrromethene) corrole dyads have been prepared in high yields using click chemistry, and their photophysical properties are reported. An original and efficient control of the direction of the singlet energy transfers is reported, going either from BODIPY to the gallium-corrole units or from gallium-corroles to BODIPY, depending upon the nature of the substitution on BODIPY. In one case (green), both directions are possible. The mechanism for the energy transfers is interpreted by means of through-space Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). PMID:24661249

  5. Assessing Whether Measurement Invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across Child-Parent Dyad Depends on the Child Gender: A Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children’s and parents’ perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant items across girl-parent dyad were mostly detected in the psychological well-being and the social support and peers domains. Moreover, the boys and their parents differed mainly in the autonomy and parent relation domain. Detecting different non-invariant items across the girl-parent dyad compared to the boy-parent dyad underlines the importance of taking the child’s gender into account when assessing measurement invariance between children and their parents and consequently deciding about children’s physical, psychological or social well-being from the parents’ viewpoint. PMID:25169000

  6. Assessing whether measurement invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across child-parent dyad depends on the child gender: a multiple group confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children's and parents' perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant items across girl-parent dyad were mostly detected in the psychological well-being and the social support and peers domains. Moreover, the boys and their parents differed mainly in the autonomy and parent relation domain. Detecting different non-invariant items across the girl-parent dyad compared to the boy-parent dyad underlines the importance of taking the child's gender into account when assessing measurement invariance between children and their parents and consequently deciding about children's physical, psychological or social well-being from the parents' viewpoint. PMID:25169000

  7. Properties of noncovalent tetraphenylporphine···C60 dyads as studied by different long-range and dispersion-corrected DFT functionals.

    PubMed

    Amelines-Sarria, Oscar; Basiuk, Vladimir A; Duarte-Alaniz, Víctor; Rivera, Margarita

    2015-11-01

    The noncovalent dyad of tetraphenylporphine and C60 fullerene (H2TPP···C60) and the tetraphenylporphine dimer (H2TPP···H2TPP) were studied by density functional theory (DFT), using functionals that incorporate empirical dispersion correction (DFT-D), functionals that use a long-range correction (LC) scheme, a hybrid functional (B3LYP) and a highly parametrized empirical exchange-correlation functional (M05-2X). The results were compared to X-ray structures and interaction energies reported in previous experimental and theoretical studies. It was found that B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals fail to reproduce the X-ray structures and binding energies of the TPP···C60 system. DFT-D functionals overestimated the π···π energy interactions for both systems, however, the optimized structures agree well with those observed experimentally. The LC-BLYP functional predicts geometries similar to X-ray structures; nevertheless, due to the lack of correction in the dispersion energy, the predicted energies for both model systems are low. On the other hand, the M05-2X functional exhibited the best performance. Both the structures and binding energies calculated with M05-2X are consistent with experimental and theoretical evidence reported by other authors, as well as with our experimental results obtained by means of atomic force microscopy on H2TPP thin films grown on the HOPG/C60 substrate by physical vapor deposition. PMID:26422808

  8. The Effects of Televised Advertising on Mother-Child Interactions at the Grocery Store.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron; Atkin, Charles K.

    One hundred mother/child dyads were involved in a study to provide empirical evidence on parent/child interaction in grocery stores and on the contributions of Saturday morning television commercials to those interactions and to the purchase of candy and cereals. Data were collected in 15 supermarkets in two midwestern cities. First, the…

  9. Unresolved States of Mind, Disorganized Attachment Relationships, and Disrupted Interactions of Adolescent Mothers and their Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Sheri; Moran, Greg; Pederson, David R.

    2006-01-01

    The links between unresolved maternal attachment status, disrupted maternal interaction in play situations, and disorganized attachment relationships were examined in a study of 82 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal interactive behavior was measured using the Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification coding…

  10. Non-Native Speaker Interaction Management Strategies in a Network-Based Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the dyad-based communication of two groups of non-native speakers (NNSs) of English involved in real time interaction in a type of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool known as a MOO. The object of this semester long study was to examine the ways in which the subjects managed their L2 interaction during…

  11. Mutuality in Mother-Child Interactions in an Antillean Intervention Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boomstra, Nienke W.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study on mutuality in mother-child interaction during reading and playing sessions. Within mother-child interaction, mutuality is seen as important in language acquisition. The study was executed within a group of Netherlands Antillean mother-child dyads who participated in an intervention programme. Mutuality was…

  12. Photophysical properties of new bis-perylene dyads for potential upconversion use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Marcos R.; Steer, Ronald P.; Rüther, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Two new bis-perylenes, BPC with a meta-disubstituted benzene linker, and BPD with a p,p‧-disubstituted biphenyl linker, have been synthesized and their photophysical parameters measured. Their singlet and triplet energies decrease incrementally in the order perylene, BPC, BPD, making them ideally matched with C60 for triplet-triplet energy transfer in sensitized photon upconversion schemes. Following photosensitization by triplet C60, BPC exhibits strong fluorescence upconversion by triplet-triplet annihilation, indicating that these bis-perylene dyads (and the multimers that can be constructed from them) will be interesting candidates for use in organic devices such as bulk-heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells employing non-coherent photon upconversion. Excitation of C60 at 532 nm will produce its long-lived lowest triplet state with near unit quantum efficiency under the conditions of this experiment [33]. The thermal energy loss usually associated with triplet-triplet energy transfer, Eq. (2), is minimal in this system as the triplet energies of the donor and acceptor are nearly identical at ca. 1.5 eV. In the absence of self-quenching of the fluorescing singlet state, increasing the relative concentrations of acceptor to donor can raise the overall efficiency of the sensitization process to nearly 100%, even if their triplet energies are the same, due to entropic assistance [34]. This was confirmed by measuring the upconversion intensity as a function of dyad concentration at constant absorbed power (Supplementary Information), and by transient absorption measurements of C60 (T1) at 740 nm (Supplementary Information). The latter show that C60(T1) decays with a lifetime on the order of 400 ns for equimolar C60 + BPC concentrations, i.e. at a rate at least 100 times faster (due to quenching by energy transfer) than it would decay in the absence of the BPC triplet energy acceptor. Note also that the dimers with their slightly lower triplet energies are

  13. Reciprocal Peer Learning with Task Cards: Analysis of Behaviour and Verbal Interactions in Structured and Unstructured Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iserbyt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is a part of a larger research project where the effect of instructional guidance in terms of role definition and role switching was investigated on students' learning of Basic Life Support (BLS) during a 20-minute reciprocal learning episode with task cards. BLS is a lifesaving skill consisting of nine sub skills to be…

  14. High-resolution noncontact AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy investigations of self-assembled photovoltaic donor–acceptor dyads

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Pierre-Olivier; Biniek, Laure; Brinkmann, Martin; Leclerc, Nicolas; Zaborova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Summary Self-assembled donor–acceptor dyads are used as model nanostructured heterojunctions for local investigations by noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). With the aim to probe the photo-induced charge carrier generation, thin films deposited on transparent indium tin oxide substrates are investigated in dark conditions and upon illumination. The topographic and contact potential difference (CPD) images taken under dark conditions are analysed in view of the results of complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. After in situ annealing, it is shown that the dyads with longer donor blocks essentially lead to standing acceptor–donor lamellae, where the acceptor and donor groups are π-stacked in an edge-on configuration. The existence of strong CPD and surface photo-voltage (SPV) contrasts shows that structural variations occur within the bulk of the edge-on stacks. SPV images with a very high lateral resolution are achieved, which allows for the resolution of local photo-charging contrasts at the scale of single edge-on lamella. This work paves the way for local investigations of the optoelectronic properties of donor–acceptor supramolecular architectures down to the elementary building block level. PMID:27335768

  15. Effects of big-five personality traits on the quality of relationship and satisfaction in Chinese coach-athlete dyads.

    PubMed

    Yang, S X; Jowett, S; Chan, D K C

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach-athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach-athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach-athlete dyad. PMID:25367655

  16. Design and Synthesis of Aviram-Ratner-Type Dyads and Rectification Studies in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) Films.

    PubMed

    Jayamurugan, Govindasamy; Gowri, Vijayendran; Hernández, David; Martin, Santiago; González-Orive, Alejandro; Dengiz, Cagatay; Dumele, Oliver; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Gisselbrecht, Jean-Paul; Boudon, Corinne; Schweizer, W Bernd; Breiten, Benjamin; Finke, Aaron D; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bernet, Bruno; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Cea, Pilar; Diederich, François

    2016-07-18

    The design and synthesis of Aviram-Ratner-type molecular rectifiers, featuring an anilino-substituted extended tetracyanoquinodimethane (exTCNQ) acceptor, covalently linked by the σ-spacer bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO) to a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donor moiety, are described. The rigid BCO spacer keeps the TTF donor and exTCNQ acceptor moieties apart, as demonstrated by X-ray analysis. The photophysical properties of the TTF-BCO-exTCNQ dyads were investigated by UV/Vis and EPR spectroscopy, electrochemical studies, and theoretical calculations. Langmuir-Blodgett films were prepared and used in the fabrication and electrical studies of junction devices. One dyad showed the asymmetric current-voltage (I-V) curve characteristic for rectification, unlike control compounds containing the TTF unit but not the exTCNQ moiety or comprising the exTCNQ acceptor moiety but lacking the donor TTF part, which both gave symmetric I-V curves. The direction of the observed rectification indicated that the preferred electron current flows from the exTCNQ acceptor to the TTF donor. PMID:27363287

  17. Quantitative analysis of intramolecular exciplex and electron transfer in a double-linked zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyad.

    PubMed

    Al-Subi, Ali Hanoon; Niemi, Marja; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2012-10-01

    Photoinduced charge transfer in a double-linked zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyad is studied. When the dyad is excited at the absorption band of the charge-transfer complex (780 nm), an intramolecular exciplex is formed, followed by the complete charge separated (CCS) state. By analyzing the results obtained from time-resolved transient absorption and emission decay measurements in a range of solvents with different polarities, we derived a dependence between the observable lifetimes and internal parameters controlling the reaction rate constants based on the semiquantum Marcus electron-transfer theory. The critical value of the solvent polarity was found to be ε(r) ≈ 6.5: in solvents with higher dielectric constants, the energy of the CCS state is lower than that of the exciplex and the relaxation takes place via the CCS state predominantly, whereas in solvents with lower polarities the energy of the CCS state is higher and the exciplex relaxes directly to the ground state. In solvents with moderate polarities the exciplex and the CCS state are in equilibrium and cannot be separated spectroscopically. The degree of the charge shift in the exciplex relative to that in the CCS state was estimated to be 0.55 ± 0.02. The electronic coupling matrix elements for the charge recombination process and for the direct relaxation of the exciplex to the ground state were found to be 0.012 ± 0.001 and 0.245 ± 0.022 eV, respectively. PMID:22958061

  18. HIV seroadaptation among individuals, within sexual dyads, and by sexual episodes, men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2008

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Willi; Chen, Yea-Hung; Raymond, H Fisher; Nyugen, Binh; Colfax, Grant; Mehrtens, Jason; Robertson, Tyler; Stall, Ron; Levine, Deb; Truong, Hong-Ha M

    2011-01-01

    “Seroadaptation” comprises sexual behaviors to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission based on knowing one’s own and one’s sexual partners’ serostatus. We measured the prevalence of seroadaptive behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited through time-location sampling (TLS) across three perspectives: by individuals (N=1,207 MSM), among sexual dyads (N=3,746 partnerships), and for sexual episodes (N=63,789 episodes) in the preceding six months. Seroadaptation was more common than 100% condom use when considering the consistent behavioral pattern of individuals (adopted by 39.1% vs. 25.0% of men, respectively). Among sexual dyads 100% condom use was more common than seroadaptation (33.1% vs. 26.4%, respectively). Considering episodes of sex, not having anal intercourse (65.0%) and condom use (16.0%) were the most common risk reduction behaviors. Sex of highest acquisition and transmission risks (unprotected anal intercourse with a HIV serodiscordant or unknown status partner in the riskier position) occurred in only 1.6% of sexual episodes. In aggregate, MSM achieve a high level of sexual harm reduction through multiple strategies. Detailed measures of seroadaptive behaviors are needed to effectively target HIV risk and gauge the potential of serosorting and related sexual harm reduction strategies on the HIV epidemic. PMID:21347888

  19. Hair cortisol concentrations in higher- and lower-stress mother-daughter dyads: A pilot study of associations and moderators.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Sarah J; Russell, Evan; Kryski, Katie R; Sheikh, Haroon I; Singh, Shiva M; Koren, Gideon; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are receiving increased attention as a novel biomarker of psychophysiological responses to chronic stress, with potential relevance for psychopathology risk research. We examined the validity of HCC as a marker of psychosocial stress in mother (M(age)  = 37.87 years)-daughter (M(age)  = 7.62 years) dyads characterized by higher (n = 30) or lower (n = 30) maternal chronic stress. Additionally, we examined whether early care moderated similarity of HCC levels within dyads. Higher-stress mothers had significantly lower HCC compared to lower-stress mothers, consistent with other research showing that chronic stress leads to blunted HPA axis activity over time. Further, HCC in daughters were significantly and positively associated with previously assessed salivary cortisol stress reactivity. Finally, mother-daughter HCC associations were significantly moderated by negative parenting styles, such that associations became stronger as quality of parenting decreased. Findings overall indicate that HCC may be a useful marker of cortisol responses to chronic stress. PMID:25820649

  20. High-resolution noncontact AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy investigations of self-assembled photovoltaic donor-acceptor dyads.

    PubMed

    Grévin, Benjamin; Schwartz, Pierre-Olivier; Biniek, Laure; Brinkmann, Martin; Leclerc, Nicolas; Zaborova, Elena; Méry, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled donor-acceptor dyads are used as model nanostructured heterojunctions for local investigations by noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). With the aim to probe the photo-induced charge carrier generation, thin films deposited on transparent indium tin oxide substrates are investigated in dark conditions and upon illumination. The topographic and contact potential difference (CPD) images taken under dark conditions are analysed in view of the results of complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. After in situ annealing, it is shown that the dyads with longer donor blocks essentially lead to standing acceptor-donor lamellae, where the acceptor and donor groups are π-stacked in an edge-on configuration. The existence of strong CPD and surface photo-voltage (SPV) contrasts shows that structural variations occur within the bulk of the edge-on stacks. SPV images with a very high lateral resolution are achieved, which allows for the resolution of local photo-charging contrasts at the scale of single edge-on lamella. This work paves the way for local investigations of the optoelectronic properties of donor-acceptor supramolecular architectures down to the elementary building block level. PMID:27335768

  1. Dyads Affected by Chronic Heart Failure: A Randomized Study Evaluating Effects of Education and Psychosocial Support to Patients With Heart Failure and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    ÅGREN, SUSANNA; EVANGELISTA, LORRAINE S.; HJELM, CARINA; STRÖMBERG, ANNA

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) causes great suffering for both patients and their partners. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an integrated dyad care program with education and psychosocial support to patients with CHF and their partners during a postdischarge period after acute deterioration of CHF. Methods One hundred fifty-five patient-caregiver dyads were randomized to usual care (n = 71) or a psychoeducation intervention (n = 84) delivered in 3 modules through nurse-led face-to-face counseling, computer-based education, and other written teaching materials to assist dyads to develop problem-solving skills. Follow-up assessments were completed after 3 and 12 months to assess perceived control, perceived health, depressive symptoms, self-care, and caregiver burden. Results Baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of dyads in the experimental and control groups were similar at baseline. Significant differences were observed in patients’ perceived control over the cardiac condition after 3 (P < .05) but not after 12 months, and no effect was seen for the caregivers. No group differences were observed over time in dyads’ health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms, patients’ self-care behaviors, and partners’ experiences of caregiver burden. Conclusions Integrated dyad care focusing on skill-building and problem-solving education and psychosocial support was effective in initially enhancing patients’ levels of perceived control. More frequent professional contact and ongoing skills training may be necessary to have a higher impact on dyad outcomes and warrants further research. PMID:22555264

  2. Autism spectrum disorder: does neuroimaging support the DSM-5 proposal for a symptom dyad? A systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-07-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with 'autism spectrum disorder' (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported abnormal function and structure of fronto-temporal and limbic networks with social and pragmatic language deficits, of temporo-parieto-occipital networks with syntactic-semantic language deficits, and of fronto-striato-cerebellar networks with repetitive behaviors and restricted interests in ASD patients. Therefore, this review partially supports the DSM-5 proposal for the ASD dyad. PMID:21932156

  3. Presence and Quality of Touch Influence Coregulation in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Amanda J.; Posada, German E.; Goldyn, Danielle T.

    2006-01-01

    The first major goal of this study was to determine whether touch would enhance mother-infant coregulation in ordinary, nonstressful face-to-face interactions. In an experimental manipulation of presence versus absence of touch in face-to-face interactions between 79 mothers and their 3.5-month-old infants, results indicated that when touch is…

  4. Dyads at Risk: Methadone-Maintained Women and Their Four-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeremy, Rita Jeruchimowicz; Bernstein, Victor J.

    1984-01-01

    Compares 17 methadone-exposed and 23 control four-month-old infants in interactions with their mothers. Results indicate that methadone is only one of several risk factors affecting interaction. Mothers rated poor in communication have poor psychosocial and psychological resources, and infants rated poor in communication showed problematic motor…

  5. The social interactive behaviour of young children with autism spectrum disorder and their mothers: is there an effect of familiarity of the interaction partner?

    PubMed

    Meirsschaut, Mieke; Roeyers, Herbert; Warreyn, Petra

    2011-01-01

    In this study the social behaviour of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their mothers is compared within two different dyads: a dyad consisting of a mother and her own child and a dyad consisting of a mother and an unfamiliar child. Mothers did not change the frequency of their social initiatives and responsiveness with an unfamiliar child, but they became less directive than with their own child. Children with ASD did not show significantly better social behaviour with their own mother than with an unfamiliar mother. The results suggest that the social behaviour of a child with autism is not significantly enhanced by the familiarity of the social partner, but rather by the partner's autism-adapted interaction style. Clinical implications of these findings have been discussed. PMID:20923889

  6. Six-Week Postpartum Maternal Self-Criticism and Dependency and 4-Month Mother-Infant Self- and Interactive Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were…

  7. Aggressive Behaviors in Social Interaction and Developmental Adaptation: A Narrative Analysis of Interpersonal Conflicts during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hongling; Swift, Dylan J.; Cairns, Beverley D.; Cairns, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated interactional properties and developmental functions of the following four types of aggressive behaviors in adolescents: social aggression, direct relational aggression, physical aggression, and verbal aggression. Found that the majority of conflict interactions involved more than a dyad, and that social aggression was an initiating…

  8. Attachment security and HPA axis reactivity to positive and challenging emotional situations in child-mother dyads in naturalistic settings.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela; Oliveira, Tania F; Oliveira, Rui F

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated adrenocortical activity in response to different challenging and positive affect emotional contexts in child-mother dyads, as function of attachment security (children's secure base behaviors and mothers' attachment representations). Fifty-one children ranging in age from 18 to 26 months and their mothers participated in this study. Secure children showed significant increases in their cortisol levels after fear episodes and significant decreases, after positive affect ones. No significant changes were found for frustration/anger episodes. Insecure children did not show significant differences in cortisol levels in any of the episodes, which suggests that insecure attachment may be related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in response to challenging and positive contexts. Mothers of insecure children showed significantly higher cortisol concentrations in pre- and post-session samples, than mothers of secure children. Mothers' personal attachment representations influenced their own cortisol responses, as well as their children's (in a marginal significant way). PMID:22487942

  9. Latina Mother–Daughter Dyads: Relations Between Attachment and Sexual Behavior Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Frank R.; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and nonsubstance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mother’s substance abuse all influenced the daughter’s sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed. PMID:19399605

  10. Coumarin-Spiropyran Dyad with a Hydrogenated Pyran Moiety for Rapid, Selective, and Sensitive Fluorometric Detection of Cyanide Anion.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Hayashi, Naoto; Hirai, Takayuki

    2016-07-01

    We synthesized a coumarin-spiropyran dyad with a hydrogenated pyran moiety (2), behaving as an off-on type fluorescent receptor for rapid, selective, and sensitive detection of cyanide anion (CN(-)) in aqueous media. The receptor itself shows almost no fluorescence with a quantum yield < 0.01, due to the delocalization of π-electrons over the molecule. Selective nucleophilic addition of CN(-) to the spirocarbon of the molecule rapidly promotes spirocycle opening within only 3 min. This leads to localization of π-electrons on the coumarin moiety and exhibits strong light-blue fluorescence at 459 nm with very high quantum yield (0.52). As a result of this, the receptor facilitates rapid, selective, and sensitive fluorometric detection of CN(-) as low as 1.0 μM. PMID:27268123

  11. The influence of triplet energy levels of bridging ligands on energy transfer processes in Ir(III)/Eu(III) dyads.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weili; Lou, Bin; Wang, Jianqiang; Lv, Hongbin; Bian, Zuqiang; Huang, Chunhui

    2011-11-21

    A series of N^N,O^O-bridging ligands based on substituted 1-(pyridin-2-yl)-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone and their corresponding heteroleptic iridium(III) complexes as well as Ir-Eu bimetallic complexes were synthesized and fully characterized. The influence of the triplet energy levels of the bridging ligands on the energy transfer (ET) process from the Ir(III) complexes to Eu(III) ions in solution was investigated at 77 K in Ir(III)/Eu(III) dyads. Photophysical experiment results show the bridging ligands play an important role in the ET process. Only when the triplet energy level of the bridging ligand was lower than the triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) energy level of the Ir moiety, was pure emission from the Eu(III) ion observed, implying complete ET took place from the Ir moiety to the Eu(III) ion. PMID:21931913

  12. Influence of Protonation State on the Excited State Dynamics of a Photobiologically Active Ru(II) Dyad.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Christian; Sainuddin, Tariq; Wächtler, Maria; Monro, Susan; Kupfer, Stephan; Guthmuller, Julien; Gräfe, Stefanie; McFarland, Sherri; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2016-08-18

    The influence of ligand protonation on the photophysics of a ruthenium (Ru) dyad bearing the 2-(1-pyrenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]-phenanthroline (ippy) ligand was investigated by time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. It was found that changes in the protonation state of the imidazole group led to changes in the electronic configuration of the lowest lying excited state. Formation of the fully deprotonated imidazole anion resulted in excited state signatures that were consistent with a low-lying intraligand (IL) triplet state. This assignment was supported by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. IL triplet states have been suggested to be potent mediators of photodynamic effects. Thus, these results are of interest in the design of Ru metal complexes as photosensitizers (PSs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT). PMID:27459188

  13. Another Look Inside the Gap: Ecological Contributions to the Transmission of Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabulsy, George M.; Bernier, Annie; Provost, Marc A.; Maranda, Johanne; Larose, Simon; Moss, Ellen; Larose, Marie; Tessier, Rejean

    2005-01-01

    Ecological contributions to attachment transmission were studied in a sample of 64 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal sensitivity was assessed when infants were 6 and 10 months old, and infant security was assessed at 15 and 18 months. Maternal attachment state of mind was measured with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) after the 1st…

  14. Long Term Follow-Up after a Randomized Integrated Educational and Psychosocial Intervention in Patient-Partner Dyads Affected by Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, contemporary heart failure care remains patient-focused, but awareness of the partners’ and families’ situation is increasing. Randomized studies have mainly evaluated the short-term effects of dyadic interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the 24-month effects of an intervention with psych-educational support in dyads of heart failure patients and their partners. Methods This study used a randomized study design and 155 patient-partner dyads were enrolled. The intervention included a nurse-led program of three sessions addressing psychoeducational support. Results The intervention did not have any effect on health, depressive symptoms or perceived control among the patient-partner dyads after 24 months. Furthermore, time to first event did not differ significantly between the intervention group and the control patients. Conclusion This study may be regarded as a first step in trying to understand dyads’ need for supportive care. Individualized and more targeted interventions seem necessary to achieve a higher impact on dyad outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02398799 PMID:26406475

  15. Similarities amid the Difference: Caregiving Burden and Adaptation Outcomes in Dyads of Parents and Their Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carona, C.; Crespo, C.; Canavarro, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study had two main objectives: first, to examine the direct and indirect effects, via social support, of caregiving burden on the adaptation outcomes of children/adolescents with cerebral palsy and their parents; and second, to assess the invariance of such models in clinical vs. healthy subsamples. Participants were 210 dyads of…

  16. Examining the Reactions of White, Black, and Latino/a Counseling Psychologists to a Study of Racial Issues in Counseling and Supervision Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Hammar, Lawrence; Gernat, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 30 years ago, Vontress (1971) advocated for counselor training programs to address the role of race in the counseling process and the ways in which racial factors impede the development of counselor-client rapport. He posited that the anxiety experienced by White clinicians in cross-racial counseling dyads is manifest in reactions of…

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

  18. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  19. Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine.

    PubMed

    Saisawang, Chonticha; Saitornuang, Sawanan; Sillapee, Pornpan; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R; Ketterman, Albert J

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional and is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease and show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine and serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases and would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target. PMID:26597768

  20. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperin, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective, and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and US American metropolitan and rural residence…

  1. Growth Curve Models for Indistinguishable Dyads Using Multilevel Modeling and Structural Equation Modeling: The Case of Adolescent Twins' Conflict with Their Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashy, Deborah A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Burt, S. Alexandra; McGue, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Growth modeling is a useful tool for studying change over time, and it is becoming increasingly popular with developmental researchers. There is a considerable methodological literature surrounding growth modeling for individuals; however, far less attention has been focused on growth models for pairs of related individuals (i.e., dyads). In this…

  2. A semiempirical study for the ground and excited states of free-base and zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parusel, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    The ground and excited states of a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad in both its free-base and zinc forms (D. Kuciauskas et al., J. Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 15926) have been investigated by semiempirical methods. The excited-state properties are discussed by investigation of the character of the molecular orbitals. All frontier MOs are mainly localized on either the donor or the acceptor subunit. Thus, the absorption spectra of both systems are best described as the sum of the spectra of the single components. The experimentally observed spectra are well reproduced by the theoretical computations. Both molecules undergo efficient electron transfer in polar but not in apolar solvents. This experimental finding is explained theoretically by explicitly considering solvent effects. The tenth excited state in the gas phase is of charge-separated character where an electron is transferred from the porphyrin donor to the fullerene acceptor subunit. This state is stabilized in energy in polar solvents due to its large formal dipole moment. The stabilization energy for an apolar environment such as benzene is not sufficient to lower this state to become the first excited singlet state. Thus, no electron transfer is observed, in agreement with experiment. In a polar environment such as acetonitrile, the charge-separated state becomes the S, state and electron transfer takes place, as observed experimentally. The flexible single bond connecting both the donor and acceptor subunits allows free rotation by ca. +/- 30 degrees about the optimized ground-state conformation. For the charge-separated state this optimized geometry has a maximum dipole moment. The geometry of the charge-separated state thus does not change relatively to the ground-state conformation. The electron-donating properties of porphyrin are enhanced in the zinc derivative due to a reduced porphyrin HOMO-LUMO energy gap. This yields a lower energy for the charge-separated state compared to the free

  3. Dyad content is reduced in cardiac myocytes of mice with impaired calmodulin regulation of RyR2.

    PubMed

    Lavorato, Manuela; Huang, Tai-Qin; Iyer, Venkat Ramesh; Perni, Stefano; Meissner, Gerhard; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara

    2015-04-01

    In cardiac muscle, calmodulin (CaM) regulates the activity of several membrane proteins involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis (CaV1.2; RyR2, SERCA2, PMCA). Three engineered amino acid substitutions in the CaM binding site of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) in mice (Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) ) strongly affect cardiac function, with impaired CaM inhibition of RyR2, reduced SR Ca(2+) sequestration, and early cardiac hypertrophy and death (Yamaguchi et al., J Clin Invest 117:1344-1353, 2007). We have examined the ultrastructure and RyR2 immunolocalization in WT and Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) hearts at ~10 days after birth. The myocytes show only minor evidence of structural damage: some increase in intermyofibrillar space, with occasional areas of irregular SR disposition and an increase in frequency of smaller myofibrils, despite an increase of about 15 % in average myocyte cross sectional area. Z line streaming, a sign of myofibrillar stress, is limited and fairly rare. Immunolabeling with an anti-RyR2 antibody shows that RyR-positive foci located at the level of the Z lines are less frequent in mutant hearts. A dramatic decrease in the frequency and size of dyads, accompanied by a decrease in occupancy of the gap by RyR2, but without obvious alterations in location and general structure is a notable ultrastructural feature. The data suggest that the uneven distribution of dyads or calcium release sites within the cells resulting from an overall reduction in RyR2 content may contribute to the poor cardiac performance and early death of Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) mice. An unusual fragmentation of mitochondria, perhaps related to imbalances in free cytoplasmic calcium levels, accompanies these changes. PMID:25694159

  4. Marine Rhodobacteraceae L-haloacid dehalogenase contains a novel His/Glu dyad that could activate the catalytic water.

    PubMed

    Novak, Halina R; Sayer, Christopher; Isupov, Michail N; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Gotz, Dorothee; Spragg, Andrew Mearns; Littlechild, Jennifer A

    2013-04-01

    The putative L-haloacid dehalogenase gene (DehRhb) from a marine Rhodobacteraceae family was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The DehRhb protein was shown to be an L-haloacid dehalogenase with highest activity towards brominated substrates with short carbon chains (≤ C3). The optimal temperature for enzyme activity was 55 °C, and the Vmax and Km were 1.75 μm·min(-1) ·mg(-1) of protein and 6.72 mm, respectively, when using monobromoacetic acid as a substrate. DehRhb showed moderate thermal stability, with a melting temperature of 67 °C. The enzyme demonstrated high tolerance to solvents, as shown by thermal shift experiments and solvent incubation assays. The DehRhb protein was crystallized and structures of the native, reaction intermediate and substrate-bound forms were determined. The active site of DehRhb had significant differences from previously studied L-haloacid dehalogenases. The asparagine and arginine residues shown to be essential for catalytic activity in other L-haloacid dehalogenases are not present in DehRhb. The histidine residue which replaces the asparagine residue in DehRhb was coordinated by a conformationally strained glutamate residue that replaces a conserved glycine. The His/Glu dyad is positioned for deprotonation of the catalytic water which attacks the ester bond in the reaction intermediate. The catalytic water in DehRhb is shifted by ~ 1.5 Å from its position in other L-haloacid dehalogenases. A similar His/Glu or Asp dyad is known to activate the catalytic water in haloalkane dehalogenases. The DehRhb enzyme represents a novel member within the L-haloacid dehalogenase family and it has potential to be used as a commercial biocatalyst. PMID:23384397

  5. Predictors of calcium intake at dinner meals of ethnically diverse mother-child dyads from families with limited incomes.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Nicklas, Theresa A; Franklin, Frank; Liu, Yan

    2009-10-01

    Diets adequate in calcium and other key nutrients early in life are critical for optimal growth. This study's objective was to determine associations between beverage and dairy food intakes of mothers and their young children and food/beverage contributions to calcium at dinner meals from ethnically diverse families with limited incomes. This was a secondary analysis of dietary data on mother-child dyads from a cross-sectional study. The sample was 465 children (4.4+/-0.6 years) and their mothers, 41% African American, 34% Hispanic, and 21% white. Dietary and anthropometric data were collected in 52 Head Start centers in Alabama and Texas during 1 year starting fall 2004. Associations between mother-child intakes were examined by race/ethnicity using correlations. Calcium intake from dinners was predicted (stepwise regression) from four beverage categories-milk, sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juices, and non-energy-containing beverages plus water-and from cheese and dairy desserts. Overall, the mother's dinnertime intake of milk did not predict that of her child. Mother-child intakes of cheese, dairy desserts, and sweetened beverages correlated more strongly than did milk. All the beverages and dairy groups demonstrated moderate correlations for dyads with those for cheese (r=0.56), dairy desserts (r=0.39), fruit juice (r=0.36), and sweetened beverages (r=0.31) higher than that for milk overall (r=0.29, P<0.01). Milk and cheese predicted the most variance in calcium intake for both mothers and children overall (R(2)=0.82), and for all race-ethnic groups, except African-American children, where the contribution from cheese predominated. Food and nutrition professionals should encourage replacing sweet beverages at dinner with low-fat milk or calcium-fortified beverages to improve the nutrient density of meals. PMID:19782174

  6. Photoconductive and supramolecularly engineered organic field-effect transistors based on fibres from donor-acceptor dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treier, Matthias; Liscio, Andrea; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.; Kastler, Marcel; Müllen, Klaus; Palermo, Vincenzo; Samorì, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    We report on the formation of photoconductive self-assembled fibres by solvent induced precipitation of a HBC-PMI donor-acceptor dyad. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy revealed that upon illumination with white light the surface potential of the fibres shifted to negative values due to a build-up of negative charge. When integrated in a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration, the devices can be turned `on' much more efficiently using light than conventional bias triggered field-effect, suggesting that these structures could be used for the fabrication of light sensing devices. Such a double gating represents an important step towards bi-functional organic FETs, in which the current through the junction can be modulated both optically (by photoexcitation) and electrically (by gate control).We report on the formation of photoconductive self-assembled fibres by solvent induced precipitation of a HBC-PMI donor-acceptor dyad. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy revealed that upon illumination with white light the surface potential of the fibres shifted to negative values due to a build-up of negative charge. When integrated in a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration, the devices can be turned `on' much more efficiently using light than conventional bias triggered field-effect, suggesting that these structures could be used for the fabrication of light sensing devices. Such a double gating represents an important step towards bi-functional organic FETs, in which the current through the junction can be modulated both optically (by photoexcitation) and electrically (by gate control). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and photoresponse on spin-coated film (3 pages). See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11635a

  7. Global analysis of the high temperature infrared emission spectrum of (12)CH4 in the dyad (ν2/ν4) region.

    PubMed

    Amyay, Badr; Louviot, Maud; Pirali, Olivier; Georges, Robert; Vander Auwera, Jean; Boudon, Vincent

    2016-01-14

    We report new assignments of vibration-rotation line positions of methane ((12)CH4) in the so-called dyad (ν2/ν4) region (1100-1500 cm(-1)), and the resulting update of the vibration-rotation effective model of methane, previously reported by Nikitin et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10071 (2013)], up to and including the tetradecad. High resolution (0.01 cm(-1)) emission spectra of methane have been recorded up to about 1400 K using the high-enthalpy source developed at Institut de Physique de Rennes associated with the Fourier transform spectrometer of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility (AILES beamline). Analysis of these spectra allowed extending rotational assignments in the well-known cold band (dyad-ground state (GS)) and related hot bands in the pentad-dyad system (3000 cm(-1)) up to Jmax = 30 and 29, respectively. In addition, 8512 new transitions belonging to the octad-pentad (up to J = 28) and tetradecad-octad (up to J = 21) hot band systems were successfully identified. As a result, the MeCaSDa database of methane was significantly improved. The line positions assigned in this work, together with the information available in the literature, were fitted using 1096 effective parameters with a dimensionless standard deviation σ = 2.09. The root mean square deviations dRMS are 3.60 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for dyad-GS cold band, 4.47 ×10(-3) cm(-1) for the pentad-dyad, 5.43 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for the octad-pentad, and 4.70 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for the tetradecad-octad hot bands. The resulting new line list will contribute to improve opacity and radiative transfer models for hot atmospheres, such as those of hot-Jupiter type exoplanets. PMID:26772576

  8. The impact of a pilot cooking intervention for parent-child dyads on the consumption of foods prepared away from home.

    PubMed

    Robson, Shannon M; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Stark, Lori J

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of a parent-child dyad cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home. Eating away from home often results in consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that can contribute to excess energy consumption in children. A pre-post design to evaluate a 10-week cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home, energy intake, and improving diet quality was implemented. The intervention was delivered at an instructional kitchen on a university campus and assessments were completed at a children's academic medical center. Subjects included six parent-child dyads whom reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times/week and in which the parent was overweight based on their body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 kg/m(2). Parents were a mean age of 34.7 (SD = 3.9) years, and children were a mean age of 8.7 (SD = 2.0) years. Two-thirds of parents self-identified themselves and their children as White. Results showed the proportion of dinners consumed by parent-child dyads away from home significantly decreased (F (1,161) = 16.1, p < 0.05) from 56% at baseline to 25% at post-treatment. Dyad cholesterol intake at dinner also significantly decreased over time; however, changes in energy intake, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium at dinner were not significant. A large effect size was found for changes in parent ratings of enjoyment of cooking between baseline and post-treatment. A cooking intervention that involves parent-child dyads and incorporates behavior management strategies and nutrition education may be an innovative obesity prevention intervention. PMID:26779887

  9. Global analysis of the high temperature infrared emission spectrum of 12CH4 in the dyad (ν2/ν4) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amyay, Badr; Louviot, Maud; Pirali, Olivier; Georges, Robert; Vander Auwera, Jean; Boudon, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    We report new assignments of vibration-rotation line positions of methane (12CH4) in the so-called dyad (ν2/ν4) region (1100-1500 cm-1), and the resulting update of the vibration-rotation effective model of methane, previously reported by Nikitin et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10071 (2013)], up to and including the tetradecad. High resolution (0.01 cm-1) emission spectra of methane have been recorded up to about 1400 K using the high-enthalpy source developed at Institut de Physique de Rennes associated with the Fourier transform spectrometer of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility (AILES beamline). Analysis of these spectra allowed extending rotational assignments in the well-known cold band (dyad-ground state (GS)) and related hot bands in the pentad-dyad system (3000 cm-1) up to Jmax = 30 and 29, respectively. In addition, 8512 new transitions belonging to the octad-pentad (up to J = 28) and tetradecad-octad (up to J = 21) hot band systems were successfully identified. As a result, the MeCaSDa database of methane was significantly improved. The line positions assigned in this work, together with the information available in the literature, were fitted using 1096 effective parameters with a dimensionless standard deviation σ = 2.09. The root mean square deviations dRMS are 3.60 × 10-3 cm-1 for dyad-GS cold band, 4.47 ×10-3 cm-1 for the pentad-dyad, 5.43 × 10-3 cm-1 for the octad-pentad, and 4.70 × 10-3 cm-1 for the tetradecad-octad hot bands. The resulting new line list will contribute to improve opacity and radiative transfer models for hot atmospheres, such as those of hot-Jupiter type exoplanets.

  10. Social signal processing for studying parent–infant interaction

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent–infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies. PMID:25540633

  11. Relationships that Heal: Beyond the Patient-Healer Dyad in Mayan Therapy.

    PubMed

    Berger-González, Mónica; Vides-Porras, Ana; Strauss, Sarah; Heinrich, Michael; Taquirá, Simeón; Krütli, Pius

    2016-01-01

    Biomedicine fosters particular styles of interaction and behaviors, with the therapeutic relationship seen as occurring between a doctor and patient. In contrast, where alternative modalities of healing are practiced, relationships go beyond a dyadic interaction and include wider social networks. In this article, we propose the existence of a 'therapeutic unit' in Maya healing practices in Guatemala that binds healer, wellness seeker, family, and community members, along with the spiritual and natural realms, into a coherent system requiring all of these elements to achieve success. Drawing on interviews with 67 Maya healers, we describe healers' understanding of raxnaq'il nuk'aslemal (well-being), and show how these interactions activate wider networks that play crucial roles during treatments. We highlight how holism is expressed in relationships typical of indigenous healing systems, and how an appreciation of this is important for developing culturally appropriate health care provision systems. PMID:26794851

  12. Gravitating toward Science: Parent-Child Interactions at a Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szechter, Lisa E.; Carey, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the nature of parent-child conversations at an informal science education center housed in an active gravitational-wave observatory. Each of 20 parent-child dyads explored an interactive exhibit hall privately, without the distraction of other visitors. Parents employed a variety of strategies to support their children's…

  13. A Cross-Cultural Assessment of Maternal-Child Interaction: Links to Health and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberg, Charles N.; And Others

    Twenty-four mother-toddler dyads, 12 each from the Hmong and Caucasian communities of the Twin Cities, took part in a cross-cultural study of maternal-child interaction and its links to health and development. Findings showed that the Hmong mothers were rated as more attentive, expressive, sensitive, responsive, and patient in childrearing than…

  14. Examining the Effects of Gender and Genre on Interactions in Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jim; Anderson, Ann; Lynch, Jacqueline; Shapiro, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fathers and mothers read differently to their four-year-old sons and daughters and to examine the effect of genre on the interactions that occurred in parent-child, shared book reading. Twenty-five dyads shared two narrative texts and two non-narrative texts. Results indicated that overall,…

  15. The Influence of Interactive Context on Prelinguistic Vocalizations and Maternal Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gros-Louis, Julie; West, Meredith J.; King, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have documented influences of maternal responsiveness on cognitive and language development. Given the bidirectionality of interactions in caregiver-infant dyads, it is important to understand how infant behavior elicits variable responses. Prior studies have shown that mothers respond differentially to features of prelinguistic…

  16. Parent-Child Relationships during Middle Childhood: Gender Differences in Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Beth A.; Zboyan, Holly A.

    This study examined gender differences in interactional style between parents and children, focusing on gender socialization and emotional expression. The subjects were 38 mother-child and father-child dyads from intact families, of which about 75 percent were Caucasian; 15 percent, Hispanic; and 10 percent, African American or Asian. Parents…

  17. Sex and Sibling Structure: Interaction Effects upon the Accuracy of Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas Ewin

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 291 mother-child and 221 father-child dyads to examine adolescent perceptions of parental educational goals. Results showed family size and student's age had no effect, but birth order and sibling sex composition interact with sex of the parent and the adolescent in effects on accuracy of perception. (JAC)

  18. Playing with Technology: Mother-Toddler Interaction Scores Lower during Play with Electronic Toys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Michaela B.; Shapka, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To investigate play with electronic toys (battery-operated or digital), 25 mother-toddler (16-24 months old) dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with sets of age-appropriate electronic and non-electronic toys for approximately 10 min each. Parent-child interactions were coded from recorded segments of both of the play conditions using the…

  19. Stability of Maternal Discipline Practices and the Quality of Mother-Child Interaction during Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother-child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother-toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e.,…

  20. Locus of Control and Task Effects in Mother-Son Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead-Fox, Merrill F.; Kralj, Mary M.

    This study examines the interaction of mother-son dyads as a function of mothers' and sons' locus of control and the demand characteristics of specific tasks. The subjects were 32 third grade boys from parochial schools in the District of Columbia area and their mothers. They were assigned to internal or external locus of control groups based on a…

  1. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  2. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha J.; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman’s zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals’ latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: “attitude towards the animals” and “knowledge and experience of the animals”. In this novel study, data demonstrated

  3. Meeting your match: how attractiveness similarity affects approach behavior in mixed-sex dyads.

    PubMed

    van Straaten, Ischa; Engels, Rutger C M E; Finkenauer, Catrin; Holland, Rob W

    2009-06-01

    This experimental study investigated approach behavior toward opposite-sex others of similar versus dissimilar physical attractiveness. Furthermore, it tested the moderating effects of sex. Single participants interacted with confederates of high and low attractiveness. Observers rated their behavior in terms of relational investment (i.e., behavioral efforts related to the improvement of interaction fluency, communication of positive interpersonal affect, and positive self-presentation). As expected, men displayed more relational investment behavior if their own physical attractiveness was similar to that of the confederate. For women, no effects of attractiveness similarity on relational investment behavior were found. Results are discussed in the light of positive assortative mating, preferences for physically attractive mates, and sex differences in attraction-related interpersonal behaviors. PMID:19336540

  4. Interaction and behaviour imaging: a novel method to measure mother-infant interaction using video 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Leclère, C; Avril, M; Viaux-Savelon, S; Bodeau, N; Achard, C; Missonnier, S; Keren, M; Feldman, R; Chetouani, M; Cohen, D

    2016-01-01

    Studying early interaction is essential for understanding development and psychopathology. Automatic computational methods offer the possibility to analyse social signals and behaviours of several partners simultaneously and dynamically. Here, 20 dyads of mothers and their 13-36-month-old infants were videotaped during mother-infant interaction including 10 extremely high-risk and 10 low-risk dyads using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) sensors. From 2D+3D data and 3D space reconstruction, we extracted individual parameters (quantity of movement and motion activity ratio for each partner) and dyadic parameters related to the dynamics of partners heads distance (contribution to heads distance), to the focus of mutual engagement (percentage of time spent face to face or oriented to the task) and to the dynamics of motion activity (synchrony ratio, overlap ratio, pause ratio). Features are compared with blind global rating of the interaction using the coding interactive behavior (CIB). We found that individual and dyadic parameters of 2D+3D motion features perfectly correlates with rated CIB maternal and dyadic composite scores. Support Vector Machine classification using all 2D-3D motion features classified 100% of the dyads in their group meaning that motion behaviours are sufficient to distinguish high-risk from low-risk dyads. The proposed method may present a promising, low-cost methodology that can uniquely use artificial technology to detect meaningful features of human interactions and may have several implications for studying dyadic behaviours in psychiatry. Combining both global rating scales and computerized methods may enable a continuum of time scale from a summary of entire interactions to second-by-second dynamics. PMID:27219342

  5. Mapping cardiac physiology and parenting processes in maltreating mother-child dyads.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Elizabeth A; Loken, Eric; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth A; Woehrle, Petra L; Van Epps, John J; Gowda, Anjali; Ammerman, Robert T

    2011-10-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) lies on an extreme end of the continuum of parenting-at-risk, and while CM has been linked with a variety of behavioral indicators of dysregulation in children, less is known about how physiological markers of regulatory capacity contribute to this association. The present study examined patterns of mother and child physiological regulation and their relations with observed differences in parenting processes during a structured interaction. Abusing, neglecting, and non-CM mothers and their 3- to 5-year-old children completed a resting baseline and moderately challenging joint task. The structural analysis of social behavior was used to code mother-child interactions while simultaneous measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia were obtained. Results indicated that physically abusive mothers were more likely to react to children's positive bids for autonomy with strict and hostile control, than either neglecting or non-CM mothers. CM exposure and quality of maternal responding to children's autonomous bids were uniquely associated with lower parasympathetic tone in children. Results provide evidence of neurodevelopmental associations between early CM exposure, the immediate interactive context of parenting, and children's autonomic physiology. PMID:21842991

  6. Mapping Cardiac Physiology and Parenting Processes in Maltreating Mother–Child Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Loke, Eric; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth A.; Woehrle, Petra L.; Van Epps, John J.; Gowda, Anjali; Ammerman, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) lies on an extreme end of the continuum of parenting-at-risk, and while CM has been linked with a variety of behavioral indicators of dysregulation in children, less is known about how physiological markers of regulatory capacity contribute to this association. The present study examined patterns of mother and child physiological regulation and their relations with observed differences in parenting processes during a structured interaction. Abusing, neglecting, and non-CM mothers and their 3- to 5-year-old children completed a resting baseline and moderately challenging joint task. The structural analysis of social behavior was used to code mother–child interactions while simultaneous measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia were obtained. Results indicated that physically abusive mothers were more likely to react to children’s positive bids for autonomy with strict and hostile control, than either neglecting or non-CM mothers. CM exposure and quality of maternal responding to children’s autonomous bids were uniquely associated with lower parasympathetic tone in children. Results provide evidence of neurodevelopmental associations between early CM exposure, the immediate interactive context of parenting, and children’s autonomic physiology. PMID:21842991

  7. Predictors of parenting stress trajectories in premature infant-mother dyads.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Maria; Poehlmann, Julie; Bolt, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined predictors of parenting stress trajectories over time in a sample of 125 mothers and their preterm infants. Infant (multiple birth, gestational age, days hospitalized, and neonatal health risks) and maternal (socioeconomic, education, depressive symptoms, social support, and quality of interaction during infant feeding) characteristics were collected just prior to infant hospital discharge. Parenting stress and maternal interaction quality during play were measured at 4, 24, and 36 months corrected age. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze infant and maternal characteristics as predictors of parenting stress scores and change over time. Results indicated significant variability across individuals in parenting stress at 4 months and in change trajectories. Mothers of multiples and infants with more medical risks and shorter hospitalization, and mothers with lower education and more depressive symptoms, reported more parenting stress at 4 months of age. Parenting stress decreased over time for mothers of multiples and for mothers with lower education more than for mothers of singletons or for mothers with higher educational levels. Changes in parenting stress scores over time were negatively associated with maternal behaviors during mother-infant interactions. Results are interpreted for their implications for preventive interventions. PMID:24188086

  8. A Comparison of Dyadic Interactions and Coping with Still-Face in Healthy Pre-Term and Full-Term Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montirosso, Rosario; Borgatti, Renato; Trojan, Sabina; Zanini, Rinaldo; Tronick, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Pre-term birth has a significant impact on infants' social and emotional competence, however, little is known about regulatory processes in pre-term mother-infant dyads during normal or stressful interactions. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the differences in infant and caregiver interactive behaviour and dyadic coordination…

  9. Talking to Strangers--A Sociolinguistic Experiment: Variation in Initial Dyadic Interactions between Spanish-Speakers in Early 21st Century Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziugis, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    What are the chances of a dyad of Spanish-speaking strangers using informal address in casual, initial interactions in Buenos Aires, Argentina, today? To discover the pattern(s) of contemporary address, the Principal Investigator (PI) conducted a sociolinguistic experiment focusing on strangers' initial interactions to minimize the influence of…

  10. The Structure of the RLIP76 RhoGAP-Ral Binding Domain Dyad: Fixed Position of the Domains Leads to Dual Engagement of Small G Proteins at the Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekar, Karthik V.; Campbell, Louise J.; Nietlispach, Daniel; Owen, Darerca; Mott, Helen R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary RLIP76 is an effector for Ral small GTPases, which in turn lie downstream of the master regulator Ras. Evidence is growing that Ral and RLIP76 play a role in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis. RLIP76 contains both a RhoGAP domain and a Ral binding domain (GBD) and is, therefore, a node between Ras and Rho family signaling. The structure of the RhoGAP-GBD dyad reveals that the RLIP76 RhoGAP domain adopts a canonical RhoGAP domain structure and that the linker between the two RLIP76 domains is structured, fixing the orientation of the two domains and allowing RLIP76 to interact with Rho-family GTPases and Ral simultaneously. However, the juxtaposed domains do not influence each other functionally, suggesting that the RLIP76-Ral interaction controls cellular localization and that the fixed orientation of the two domains orientates the RhoGAP domain with respect to the membrane, allowing it to be perfectly poised to engage its target G proteins. PMID:24207123

  11. High resolution study of MGeH4 (M=76, 74) in the dyad region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Sennikov, P. G.; Koshelev, M. A.; Velmuzhova, I. A.; Velmuzhov, A. P.; Bulanov, A. D.

    2014-09-01

    The infrared spectrum of GeH4 (88.1% of 76GeH4, 11.5% of 74GeH4, and minor amounts of three other stable isotopic species in the sample) was measured in the 700-1080 cm-1 region with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform interferometer (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and analyzed. 1922 transitions with J=26 were assigned to the ν4 and ν2 bands of 76GeH4 (ν2 is a symmetry forbidden absorption band, and its transitions appear in the spectrum only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ν4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with an accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The result of analogous analysis of the 74GeH4 isotopologue (the number of assigned transitions is 788) is also presented.

  12. [Social networks, risk dyads, and their role in the epidemiology and prevention of drug related infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Gyarmathy, V Anna; Rácz, József

    2010-08-01

    In the case of risk behaviors where infection transmission occurs through social relationships (e.g. via sharing drugs and injecting equipment, or through sexual relations), prevention should follow (among others) the path of the social network. Previous studies have shown that sharing of injecting equipment is more likely to occur in larger and denser networks and that more popular individuals are more likely to engage in risk behaviors, become infected or transmit infection. Primary targets of social network interventions are central individuals, and information diffuses from them to the more peripheral members of the network. The most effective preventions are those where social network interventions targeting high-risk, central individuals are complemented by concurrent individual counseling and/or dyad interventions. Injecting drug users in Hungary would also benefit from such a multifaceted prevention approach aiming to reduce risky injecting behavior. This population needs prevention, in whatever form available, to prevent the deterioration of the current HCV and HIV epidemiological situation in Hungary and the development of an HIV epidemic that will eventually spread over to the general population. PMID:20656668

  13. Informational constraints on interceptive actions of elite football goalkeepers in 1v1 dyads during competitive performance.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Davids, Keith; Correia, Vanda; Wheat, Jonathan; Hizan, Hazuan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether perceptual variables can provide informational constraints for the goalkeepers to intercept the ball successfully in 1v1 dyads. Video images of 42 actions (1v1 in direct shots) were selected randomly from different matches and divided into conceded goals (n = 20) and saved actions (n = 22) to investigate interceptive actions of 20 goalkeepers in the English Premier League in season 2013-2014. Time to Contact (TTC) of the closing distance gap between shooter and goalkeeper was obtained by digitising actions in the 18-yard penalty box. Statistical analyses revealed that, in sequences of play resulting in an intercepted shot at goal, goalkeepers closed down outfield players in the X axis, whereas when a goal was conceded, there was a significantly delayed movement by goalkeepers toward the shooters in this plane. The results of canonical correlations showed that a decreasing distance between a shooter and goalkeeper, and accompanied reduction in relative interpersonal velocity followed a temporal pattern. Findings of this study showed how perception of key informational constraints on dyadic system relations, such as TTC, interpersonal distance and relative velocity, constrain elite goalkeepers' interceptive actions, playing an important role in successful performance. PMID:26652039

  14. External and internal reality: the impact of the current socio-economic crisis on the analytic dyad.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Anna

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the impact of the current economic crisis on the psychic functioning of the patient and the analyst, their relationship and collaboration. This intrusion of 'external reality' is multidimensional, and thus with multiple meanings. The critical role of the economic factor brings various dimensions of money into play, such as self-preservation, power as well as aspects of psychosexual development. In addition, the crisis involves symbolic loss of basic ideals such as honesty and social responsibility. Patient and analyst are affected in similar and different ways in their respective roles as well as according to the specific intrapsychic functioning of each. Moreover, unique characteristics of the crisis often create a crisis in the analysis. In order to avoid deformation of the analytic relationship, the analytic dyad must examine and work through the multiple meanings of the crisis as well as the meaning of the impact of the crisis on the analytic relationship for both patient and analyst. This complex transference- countertransference interplay poses specific challenges to the analyst. After discussion of these issues, clinical material is presented that demonstrates how they appear in analytic practice today. PMID:25376265

  15. Testing the perfectionism model of binge eating in mother-daughter dyads: a mixed longitudinal and daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Mushquash, Aislin R; Sherry, Simon B

    2013-04-01

    The perfectionism model of binge eating is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is tied to binge eating. This study extended and tested this emerging model by proposing daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., perceiving one's mother is harshly demanding perfection of oneself) and mothers' psychological control (i.e., a negative parenting style involving control and demandingness) contribute indirectly to daughters' binge eating by generating situations or experiences that trigger binge eating. These binge triggers include discrepancies (i.e., viewing oneself as falling short of one's mother's expectations), depressive affect (i.e., feeling miserable and sad), and dietary restraint (i.e., behaviors aimed at reduced caloric intake). This model was tested in 218 mother-daughter dyads studied using a mixed longitudinal and daily diary design. Daughters were undergraduate students. Results largely supported hypotheses, with bootstrapped tests of mediation suggesting daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism and mothers' psychological control contribute to binge eating through binge triggers. For undergraduate women who believe their mothers rigidly require them to be perfect and whose mothers are demanding and controlling, binge eating may provide a means of coping with or escaping from an unhealthy, unsatisfying mother-daughter relationship. PMID:23557815

  16. [Log-linear model used in the hybrid design of case-parents triad/control-mother dyad].

    PubMed

    Peng, W J; Zhang, H; Li, Y X; Li, C Y; Yan, W R

    2016-06-01

    This study introduced the application of a log-linear model in the hybrid design of case-parents triad/control-mother dyad. Data related to the association between cleft lip with palate (CLP) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene A1298C diversity was analyzed. Log-linear model based on likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) was used to analyze the relationships between mother, offspring genotypes and CLP. Data from our study noticed that children of mothers carrying the CC genotype presented a lower risk of CLP, comparing with the children of mothers carrying the AA genotype, with S2=0.45 (95%CI: 0.26-0.79). Offspring that carrying the AC genotype presented a lower risk of CLP, comparing with the offspring that carrying the AA genotype, with R1=0.69 (95% CI: 0.48-0.97). However, no other types of relationships were found. The power of hybrid design was greater than the case-parents study (0.86>0.78). MTHFR A1298C polymorphism seemed to have played an important role in the etiology on both cleft lip and palate. Data from the hybrid design and the log-linear model could help researchers to explore the effects of genotypes from both mothers and the offspring. This study design would present stronger power than the regular case-parents studies thus suitable for studies on the etiology of diseases in early lives, as birth defects. PMID:27346122

  17. Concordance of Demographic Characteristics, Sexual Behaviors, and Relationship Attributes Among Sex Dyads of Black and White Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Romieu, Alfonso C; Sullivan, Patrick S; Rothenberg, Richard; Grey, Jeremy; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; Siegler, Aaron J; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2016-08-01

    Differences in individual behaviors have failed to explain racial disparities between Black and White men who have sex with men (MSM). However, reporting of behaviors and partner characteristics are assumed to be non-differentially reported by race. From 314 participants, this study used the two-sided data-where sexual partners provide information on each other and their relationship-of 127 dyads of Black and White MSM from Atlanta, GA, to assess the reliability of partner-reported demographic characteristics and the concordance of sexual behaviors and partnership attributes by race. We compared proportions of concordance by race using a modified kappa (K m) to assess chance-corrected agreement. The median difference in age between self- and partner-reports was 0 (0-1) years. Compared to self-reports, 97 % of the partners of Black participants and 96 % of the partners of White participants correctly classified their race. We observed poor agreement on pre-sexual discussion (K m = 0.18) and being in an ongoing relationship (K m = 0.13), with no differences by race (p = 0.11). Although not statistically significant, Black MSM dyads had lower levels of concordance for unprotected anal intercourse in the previous 12 months (68 %) compared to White dyads (90 %), with fair agreement among Black dyads (K m = 0.26). Measures of partner-reported age and race are likely accurate; however, certain self-reported sexual behaviors and partnership attributes may be unreliable and differentially reported by race. Our findings highlight the need to assess the validity of measures used to estimate HIV transmission and inform racial disparities research. PMID:26758456

  18. Emotional Relationships in Mothers and Infants: Culture-Common and Community-Specific Characteristics of Dyads from Rural and Metropolitan Settings in Argentina, Italy, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; de Galperín, Celia Zingman; Gini, Motti; Tichovolsky, Marianne Heslington

    2010-01-01

    This study uses country and regional contrasts to examine culture-common and community-specific variation in mother-infant emotional relationships. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American mothers and their daughters and sons, living in rural and metropolitan settings, were observed at home at infant age 5 months. Both variable- and person-centered perspectives of dyadic emotional relationships were analyzed. Supporting the notion that adequate emotional relationships are a critical and culture-common characteristic of human infant development, across all samples most dyads scored in the adaptive range in terms of emotional relationships. Giving evidence of community-specific characteristics, Italian mothers were more sensitive, and Italian infants more responsive, than Argentine and U.S. mothers and infants; in addition, rural mothers were more intrusive than metropolitan mothers, and rural dyads more likely than expected to be classified as mid-range in emotional relationships and less likely to be classified as high in emotional relationships. Adaptive emotional relationships appear to be a culture-common characteristic of mother-infant dyads near the beginning of life, but this relational construct is moderated by community-specific (country and regional) context. PMID:22247569

  19. Electronic energy and electron transfer processes in photoexcited donor-acceptor dyad and triad molecular systems based on triphenylene and perylene diimide units.

    PubMed

    Lee, K J; Woo, J H; Kim, E; Xiao, Y; Su, X; Mazur, L M; Attias, A-J; Fages, F; Cregut, O; Barsella, A; Mathevet, F; Mager, L; Wu, J W; D'Aléo, A; Ribierre, J-C

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the photophysical properties of organic donor-acceptor dyad and triad molecular systems based on triphenylene and perylene diimide units linked by a non-conjugated flexible bridge in solution using complementary optical spectroscopy techniques. When these molecules are diluted in dichloromethane solution, energy transfer from the triphenylene to the perylene diimide excited moieties is evidenced by time-resolved fluorescence measurements resulting in a quenching of the emission from the triphenylene moieties. Simultaneously, another quenching process that affects the emission from both donor and acceptor units is observed. Solution ultrafast transient absorption measurements provide evidence of photo-induced charge transfer from either the donor or the acceptor depending upon the excitation. Overall, the analysis of the detailed time-resolved spectroscopic measurements carried out in the dyad and triad systems as well as in the triphenylene and perylene diimide units alone provides useful information both to better understand the relations between energy and charge transfer processes with molecular structures, and for the design of future functional dyad and triad architectures based on donor and acceptor moieties for organic optoelectronic applications. PMID:26911420

  20. Histone Acetylation near the Nucleosome Dyad Axis Enhances Nucleosome Disassembly by RSC and SWI/SNF

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; North, Justin A.; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Manohar, Mridula; Prasad, Rashmi; Luger, Karolin; Ottesen, Jennifer J.; Poirier, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as “readers,” which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers. PMID:26416878

  1. Histone Acetylation near the Nucleosome Dyad Axis Enhances Nucleosome Disassembly by RSC and SWI/SNF.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; North, Justin A; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Manohar, Mridula; Prasad, Rashmi; Luger, Karolin; Ottesen, Jennifer J; Poirier, Michael G; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2015-12-01

    Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as "readers," which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers. PMID:26416878

  2. Effects of the STAR Intervention Program on Interactions between Campers with and without Disabilities during Inclusive Summer Day Camp Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Christina M.; Fraiman, Jeffrey L.; Hawkins, Kelly A.; Labin, Jennifer M.; Sutter, Mary Beth; Wahl, Meghan R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a peer intervention program designed to increase interactions between children with and without disabilities in an inclusive summer camp. A multiple probe single subject design was used to determine the effects of the STAR intervention on six dyads of campers aged five through ten over two…

  3. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Delivered to At-Risk Families in the Home Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Rachel; Self-Brown, Shannon; Valente, Jessica R.; Dorsey, Shannon; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Bertuglia-Haley, Michelle; Prieto, Metta

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted for 83 parent-child dyads who participated in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) delivered in-home by community agency therapists. Data included self-report measures and therapist observations at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated significant positive changes in child/parent behavior and parent attitudes…

  4. Examining the Role of Communication on Sibling Relationship Quality and Interaction for Sibling Pairs with and without a Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent…

  5. Examining Peer Acceptance in Verbal and Non-Verbal Interaction during Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Implications for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of peer acceptance in a study investigating the interactions of pairs of disabled and non-disabled pupils working together on computer-based tasks in mainstream primary schools in Cyprus. Twenty dyads of pupils were observed and videotaped while working together at the computer. Data analyses were based on the…

  6. Comparing the Quality of Third, Fourth, and Fifth Graders' Social Interactions and Cognitive Strategy Use during Structured Online Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coiro, Julie; Sekeres, Diane Carver; Castek, Jill; Guzniczak, Lizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the social and cognitive interaction patterns of third, fourth, and fifth graders as they collaboratively read on the Internet and responded to an inquiry prompt. Data analysis revealed patterns of cognitive strategy use that intersected with social forms and functions of dialogue. Dyads that exhibited higher levels of…

  7. Sensitivity in Interactions between Hearing Mothers and their Toddlers with Hearing Loss: The Effect of Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakar, Zaharah Abu; Brown, P. Margaret; Remine, Maria D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of cochlear implantation and age at implantation on maternal interactional sensitivity. Three groups of dyads were studied at two points over 1 year. The hearing aid (HA) group wore hearing aids throughout the study, the early cochlear implanted (ECI) group were implanted prior to 22 months of age, and…

  8. Some Indicators of Fathering Behaviors in the United States: A Crosscultural Examination of Adult Male-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Wade C.; Day, Randal D.

    1979-01-01

    Adult male-child dyads of the United States, Ireland, Spain, Japan, and Mexico were examined at the proxemic level. Findings challenge the idea that American children are relatively more deprived of nurturing behavior from the father figure. American men do not interact with children much differently than men from other countries. (Author/BEF)

  9. Coupled sensitizer-catalyst dyads: electron-transfer reactions in a perylene-polyoxometalate conjugate.

    PubMed

    Odobel, Fabrice; Séverac, Marjorie; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Fosse, Céline; Cannizzo, Caroline; Mayer, Cédric R; Elliott, Kristopher J; Harriman, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafast discharge of a single-electron capacitor: A variety of intramolecular electron-transfer reactions are apparent for polyoxometalates functionalized with covalently attached perylene monoimide chromophores, but these are restricted to single-electron events. (et=electron transfer, cr=charge recombination, csr=charge-shift reaction, PER=perylene, POM=polyoxometalate).A new strategy is introduced that permits covalent attachment of an organic chromophore to a polyoxometalate (POM) cluster. Two examples are reported that differ according to the nature of the anchoring group and the flexibility of the linker. Both POMs are functionalized with perylene monoimide units, which function as photon collectors and form a relatively long-lived charge-transfer state under illumination. They are reduced to a stable pi-radical anion by electrolysis or to a protonated dianion under photolysis in the presence of aqueous triethanolamine. The presence of the POM opens up an intramolecular electron-transfer route by which the charge-transfer state reduces the POM. The rate of this process depends on the molecular conformation and appears to involve through-space interactions. Prior reduction of the POM leads to efficient fluorescence quenching, again due to intramolecular electron transfer. In most cases, it is difficult to resolve the electron-transfer products because of relatively fast reverse charge shift that occurs within a closed conformer. Although the POM can store multiple electrons, it has not proved possible to use these systems as molecular-scale capacitors because of efficient electron transfer from the one-electron-reduced POM to the excited singlet state of the perylene monoimide. PMID:19197929

  10. Synchrony, Complexity and Directiveness in Mothers’ Interactions with Infants Pre- and Post-Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Mary K.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Morris, Kourtney J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of profound hearing loss on mother-infant interactions before and after cochlear implantation with a focus on maternal synchrony, complexity, and directiveness. Participants included two groups of mother-infant dyads: 9 dyads of mothers and infants with normal hearing; and 9 dyads of hearing mothers and infants with profound hearing loss. Dyads were observed at two time points: Time 1, scheduled to occur before cochlear implantation for infants with profound hearing loss (mean age = 13.6 months); and Time 2 (mean age = 23.3 months), scheduled to occur approximately six months after cochlear implantation. Hearing infants were age-matched to infants with hearing loss at both time points. Dependent variables included the proportion of maternal utterances that overlapped infant vocalizations, maternal mean length of utterance, infant word use, and combined maternal directives and prohibitions. Results showed mothers’ utterances overlapped the vocalizations of infants with hearing loss more often before cochlear implantation than after, mothers used less complex utterances with infants with cochlear implants compared to hearing peers (Time 2), and mothers of infants with profound hearing loss used frequent directives and prohibitions both before and after cochlear implantation. Together, mothers and infants adapted relatively quickly to infants’ access to cochlear implants, showing improved interactional synchrony, increased infant word use, and levels of maternal language complexity compatible with infants’ word use, all within seven months of cochlear implant activation. PMID:24793733

  11. Patterns of interaction-dominant dynamics in individual versus collaborative memory foraging.

    PubMed

    Szary, Janelle; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T; Rhodes, Theo

    2015-11-01

    The extent to which a cognitive system's behavioral dynamics fit a power law distribution is considered indicative of the extent to which that system's behavior is driven by multiplicative, interdependent interactions between its components. Here, we investigate the dynamics of memory processes in individual and collaborating participants. Collaborative dyads showed the characteristic collaborative inhibition effect when compared to nominal groups in terms of the number of items retrieved in a categorical recall task, but they also generate qualitatively different patterns of search behavior. To categorize search behavior, we used multi-model inference to compare the degree to which five candidate models (normal, exponential, gamma, lognormal, and Pareto) described the temporal distribution of each individual and dyad's recall processes. All individual and dyad recall processes were best fit by interaction-dominant distributions (lognormal and Pareto), but a clear difference emerged in that individual behavior is more power law, and collaborative behavior was more lognormal. We discuss these results in terms of the cocktail model (Holden et al. in Psychol Rev 116(2):318-342, 2009), which suggests that as a task becomes more constrained (such as through the necessity of collaborating), behavior can shift from power law to lognormal. This shift may reflect a decrease in the dyad's ability to flexibly shift between perseverative and explorative search patterns. Finally, our results suggest that a fruitful avenue for future research would be to investigate the constraints modulating the shift from power law to lognormal behavior in collaborative memory search. PMID:26314586

  12. Patient-Centered Medical Home Features and Health Care Expenditures of Medicare Beneficiaries with Chronic Disease Dyads.

    PubMed

    Philpot, Lindsey M; Stockbridge, Erica L; Padrón, Norma A; Pagán, José A

    2016-06-01

    Three out of 4 Medicare beneficiaries have multiple chronic conditions, and managing the care of this growing population can be complex and costly because of care coordination challenges. This study assesses how different elements of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model may impact the health care expenditures of Medicare beneficiaries with the most prevalent chronic disease dyads (ie, co-occurring high cholesterol and high blood pressure, high cholesterol and heart disease, high cholesterol and diabetes, high cholesterol and arthritis, heart disease and high blood pressure). Data from the 2007-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey suggest that increased access to PCMH features may differentially impact the distribution of health care expenditures across health care service categories depending on the combination of chronic conditions experienced by each beneficiary. For example, having no difficulty contacting a provider after regular hours was associated with significantly lower outpatient expenditures for beneficiaries with high cholesterol and diabetes (n = 635; P = 0.038), but it was associated with significantly higher inpatient expenditures for beneficiaries with high blood pressure and high cholesterol (n = 1599; P = 0.015), and no significant differences in expenditures in any category for beneficiaries with high blood pressure and heart disease (n = 1018; P > 0.05 for all categories). However, average total health care expenditures are largely unaffected by implementing the PCMH features considered. Understanding how the needs of Medicare beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions can be met through the adoption of the PCMH model is important not only to be able to provide high-quality care but also to control costs. (Population Health Management 2016;19:206-211). PMID:26440215

  13. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun; Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways.

  14. Hunter-gatherer inter-band interaction rates: implications for cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kim R; Wood, Brian M; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%-29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture. PMID:25047714

  15. Hunter-Gatherer Inter-Band Interaction Rates: Implications for Cumulative Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kim R.; Wood, Brian M.; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A. Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%–29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture. PMID:25047714

  16. Attenuation of reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad by gentiopicroside through downregulation of GluN2B receptors in the amygdala of mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shui-bing; Zhao, Rong; Li, Xu-sheng; Guo, Hong-ju; Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Nan; Gao, Guo-dong; Zhao, Ming-gao

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate that pain frequently occurs comorbid with depression. Gentiopicroside (Gent) is a secoiridoid compound isolated from Gentiana lutea that exhibits analgesic properties and inhibits the expression of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice. However, the effects of Gent on the reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Reserpine administration (1 mg/kg subcutaneous daily for 3 days) caused a significant decrease in the nociceptive threshold as evidenced by the reduced paw withdrawal latency in response to a radiant heat source and mechanical allodynia. Behavioral detection indicated a significant increase in immobility time during a forced swim test, as well as decreased time in the central area and total travel distance in an open field test. Furthermore, reserpinized animals exhibited increased oxidative stress. Systemic Gent administration dose-dependently ameliorated the behavioral deficits associated with reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad. At the same time, the decrease in biogenic amine levels (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) was integrated with the increase in caspase-3 levels and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the amygdala of the reserpine-injected mice. Gent significantly reversed the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, caspase-3, and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in amygdala. However, Gent did not affect the expression of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors. The inhibitory effects of Gent on oxidative stress were occluded by simultaneous treatment of GluN2B receptors antagonist Ro25-6981. Our study provides strong evidence that Gent inhibits reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad by downregulating GluN2B receptors in the amygdala. PMID:24584520

  17. The experience of story reading: deaf children and hearing mothers' interactions at story time.

    PubMed

    Plessow-Wolfson, Sabine; Epstein, Flavio

    2005-01-01

    THE STUDY EXAMINED scaffolding interactions between deaf children and hearing mothers in which story reading was used as a tool to aid in the development of narrative comprehension and linguistic reasoning. The dyadic interactions were examined from the perspective of the theoretical works of Vygotsky (1934/1962, 1978, 1929/1981, 1960/1981). The sample group consisted of 7 dyads of hearing mothers and their deaf children ages 4.2 to 9.5 years. The mothers signed a story to their children. The dyadic interactions reflected the different levels of scaffolding and functioning within the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1934/1962, 1978). The researchers found that story reading provides an excellent framework for both cognitive and emotional growth within the parent/child dyad. Mothers who engaged their children in mutual dialogue also used elaboration. This was reflected in their children's linguistic reasoning. PMID:16466192

  18. Feeding interactions in a cross section of HIV-exposed infants.

    PubMed

    Byrne, M W

    1998-08-01

    In a purposive sample of HIV-exposed infants, Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training (NCAST) Feeding Scale measurements of caregiver-infant interaction during one feeding occasion in a clinic demonstrated both strengths and weaknesses in the interaction. Twelve dyads included 6 birth mothers, 2 biological fathers, 3 foster mothers, and 1 kinship guardian, who were primary caregivers for 4 Hispanic, 1 Vietnamese, and 7 African American infants, ranging in age from 2 weeks to 12 months. Caregivers were sensitive to infants' cues and responsive to their distress, and infants were clear in conveying cues and responsive to their caregivers. The use of the feeding interaction to foster social-emotional growth was less than expected. Contingency of behavior between caregivers and infants was also deficient. Four dyads had caregiver scores at or below the risk cutoff point. PMID:9686521

  19. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions: longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations of emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions in early adolescence with adolescent disclosure and maternal control in early and late adolescence. Data were used from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13.05; 65.20% boys) that were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions. Mothers also completed questionnaires at the start of the study (T1) and five years later (T6) on adolescent disclosure and maternal control. Path analysis showed that more emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence was associated with higher levels of adolescent disclosure in early adolescence and with relative decreases in maternal control from early to late adolescence. More emotional variability of mother-adolescent dyads serves an important function in adaptively dealing with relational challenges that arise during adolescence. PMID:24331301

  20. The 'functional' dyad of scorpion toxin Pi1 is not itself a prerequisite for toxin binding to the voltage-gated Kv1.2 potassium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Mouhat, Stéphanie; Mosbah, Amor; Visan, Violeta; Wulff, Heike; Delepierre, Muriel; Darbon, Hervé; Grissmer, Stephan; De Waard, Michel; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2004-01-01

    Pi1 is a 35-residue scorpion toxin cross-linked by four disulphide bridges that acts potently on both small-conductance Ca2+-activated (SK) and voltage-gated (Kv) K+ channel subtypes. Two approaches were used to investigate the relative contribution of the Pi1 functional dyad (Tyr-33 and Lys-24) to the toxin action: (i) the chemical synthesis of a [A24,A33]-Pi1 analogue, lacking the functional dyad, and (ii) the production of a Pi1 analogue that is phosphorylated on Tyr-33 (P-Pi1). According to molecular modelling, this phosphorylation is expected to selectively impact the two amino acid residues belonging to the functional dyad without altering the nature and three-dimensional positioning of other residues. P-Pi1 was directly produced by peptide synthesis to rule out any possibility of trace contamination by the unphosphorylated product. Both Pi1 analogues were compared with synthetic Pi1 for bioactivity. In vivo, [A24,A33]-Pi1 and P-Pi1 are lethal by intracerebroventricular injection in mice (LD50 values of 100 and 40 microg/mouse, respectively). In vitro, [A24,A33]-Pi1 and P-Pi1 compete with 125I-apamin for binding to SK channels of rat brain synaptosomes (IC50 values of 30 and 10 nM, respectively) and block rat voltage-gated Kv1.2 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes (IC50 values of 22 microM and 75 nM, respectively), whereas they are inactive on Kv1.1 or Kv1.3 channels at micromolar concentrations. Therefore, although both analogues are less active than Pi1 both in vivo and in vitro, the integrity of the Pi1 functional dyad does not appear to be a prerequisite for the recognition and binding of the toxin to the Kv1.2 channels, thereby highlighting the crucial role of other toxin residues with regard to Pi1 action on these channels. The computed simulations detailing the docking of Pi1 peptides on to the Kv1.2 channels support an unexpected key role of specific basic amino acid residues, which form a basic ring (Arg-5, Arg-12, Arg-28 and Lys-31 residues

  1. Communication: Charge-transfer rate constants in zinc-porphyrin-porphyrin-derived dyads: A Fermi golden rule first-principles-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, Arun K.; Dunietz, Barry D.

    2014-09-28

    We investigate photoinduced charge transfer (CT) processes within dyads consisting of porphyrin derivatives in which one ring ligates a Zn metal center and where the rings vary by their degree of conjugation. Using a first-principles approach, we show that molecular-scale means can tune CT rates through stabilization affected by the polar environment. Such means of CT tuning are important for achieving high efficiency optoelectronic applications using organic semiconducting materials. Our fully quantum mechanical scheme is necessary for reliably modeling the CT process across different regimes, in contrast to the pervading semi-classical Marcus picture that grossly underestimates transfer in the far-inverted regime.

  2. Mother-Toddler Interaction and Maternal Perception of Child Temperament in Two Ethnic Groups: Chinese-American and European-American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheila; Freedman, Daniel G.

    A study was conducted to compare experiential features of mother/toddler interaction and maternal perception of toddler temperament in two ethnic groups: Chinese-Americans and European-Americans. Subjects were 16 mother/toddler dyads with five girls and three boys in each group matched for sex, age, and birth order. Caucasian mothers were…

  3. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  4. Photoinduced Charge and Energy Transfer within meta- and para-Linked Chlorophyll a-Perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) Donor-Acceptor Dyads.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhih; Harris, Michelle A; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Margulies, Eric A; Dyar, Scott M; Lindquist, Rebecca J; Wu, Yilei; Roznyatovskiy, Vladimir V; Wu, Yi-Lin; Young, Ryan M; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Connecting electron donors and acceptors to a benzene ring in a meta or para relationship results in quantum interference effects that can strongly influence charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) processes in these systems. We report on the energy and electron transfer behavior of chlorophyll-based para- and meta-linked donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) dyads, where the semisynthetic chlorophyll a derivative, zinc methyl 3-ethyl-pyrochlorophyllide a (D), is covalently attached at its 20-position to the para position of one phenyl of diphenylacetylene (B). The meta or para position of the phenyl in B distal to the donor is in turn attached to perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) (A). Photoexcitation of the D-B-A dyads produces long-lived radical ion pairs D(•+)-B-A(•-), which recombine to the ground state and to both (3*)D-B-A and D-B-(3*)A. Time-resolved optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies were used to monitor the charge transfer and triplet energy transfer (TEnT) processes. At longer times, TEnT occurs from (3*)D-B-A to D-B-(3*)A. Surprisingly, the D-B-A molecules linked via the meta linkage exhibit faster CS, CR, and TEnT rates than do those with the para linkage in contrast to most other meta/para-linked D-B-A molecules previously examined. PMID:26731377

  5. Taking stress response out of the box: stability, discontinuity, and temperament effects on HPA and SNS across social stressors in mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as were associations with infant temperament. Primiparous mothers and their 18-month-old infants (n = 86 dyads) completed an attachment stressor--Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978)--at Session 1 and challenge stressors--cleanup task and emotion task battery--at Session 2. Mother and infant saliva samples collected to index pre-stress, stress, and post-stress response during each session were assayed for cortisol (HPA marker) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA; SNS marker). Multilevel modeling of cortisol/sAA trajectories across sessions revealed rank-order stability in mother/infant stress measures but discontinuity in absolute levels; cortisol trajectories were higher during attachment stress, and sAA trajectories were higher during challenge stress. Varying degrees of mother-infant attunement were found across sessions/systems. Infant surgency predicted higher stress measures, and negative affect and effortful control predicted lower stress measures, though associations depended on session/system. Findings are discussed in terms of advancing a multisystemic, contextual definition of developing stress responsiveness. PMID:21928882

  6. Generation of Phosphorescent Triplet States via Photoinduced Electron Transfer: Energy and Electron Transfer Dynamics in Pt Porphyrin-Rhodamine B Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.

    2012-01-01

    Control over generation and dynamics of excited electronic states is fundamental to their utilization in all areas of technology. We present the first example of multichromophoric systems in which emissive triplet states are generated via a pathway involving photoinduced electron transfer (ET), as opposed to local intrachromophoric processes. In model dyads, PtP-Phn-pRhB+ (1-3, n=1-3), comprising platinum(II) meso-tetraarylporphyrin (PtP) and rhodamine B piperazine derivative (pRhB+), linked by oligo-p-phenylene bridges (Phn), upon selective excitation of pRhB+ at a frequency below that of the lowest allowed transition of PtP, room-temperature T1→S0 phosphorescence of PtP was observed. The pathway leading to the emissive PtP triplet state includes excitation of pRhB+, ET with formation of the singlet radical pair, intersystem crossing within that pair and subsequent radical recombination. Due to the close proximity of the triplet energy levels of PtP and pRhB+, reversible triplet-triplet (TT) energy transfer between these states was observed in dyads 1 and 2. As a result, the phosphorescence of PtP was extended in time by the long decay of the pRhB+ triplet. Observation of ET and TT in the same series of molecules enabled direct comparison of the distance attenuation factors β between these two closely related processes. PMID:22400988

  7. [Observation of family interaction with video].

    PubMed

    Steininger, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview on how to structure, carry out and evaluate observed family interaction with video. The emphasis lays on tasks used to stimulate family interaction. The examples cited illustrate different approaches to evaluation. Results of our latest research are presented which refer to (1) the clinical differentiation possibilities of macroanalytic observational scales, (2) the situational specificity of interactive behaviour in a comparison between a structured game situation and a minimally-structured planning discussion, and (3) the relation between various levels of family organisation (individuals, dyads of parent, parent-child-relationship, and family system). Families of 31 children with internalizing disorders and 30 children with externalizing disorders (age: 4-15 years) were included in the study and compared to a healthy control group (21 Children). Family interactions showing the family either as a group playing or planning something together were videotaped and rated independently in each case by two trained and "blind" observers using the Munich Interactional Scales and the Beavers Interactional Scales approaches. Characteristics of the interaction could be identified which were consistent/stable for all children in both situations, or which changed depending on the situation. Individual patterns of behaviour of children with emotional or behavioural problems depend on the level of structure and demands in the situation. Different levels of family organisation (individuals, dyads of parent, parent-child-relationship and family system) are related. The advantages of using videotapes of family interactions in family assessment could be demonstrated. These findings should be taken into account in child treatment, family counselling and therapy. PMID:20408273

  8. Positive Engagement Behaviors in Observed Family Interactions: A Social Relations Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Robert A.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the nature of positive engagement (an interpersonal style characterized by attentiveness, warmth, cooperation, and clear communication) in family interactions involving at least one adolescent. Approximately 400 families (mothers, fathers, and two siblings) were videotaped during brief conflict resolution discussions that occurred on a yearly basis for three years. Coders rated the degree to which each family member was positively engaged with every other family member during the interactions. The Social Relations Model was used to partition variation in positive engagement behavior into family-level, individual-level, and dyad-level effects. Results demonstrated the importance of family norms and individual factors in determining the expression of positive engagement behaviors in dyadic family relationships. Moreover, longitudinal analyses indicated that these effects are stable over a three year period. Finally, results highlighted the relative distinctiveness of the marital and sibling relationships, as well as the existence of reciprocity within these dyads. PMID:21875194

  9. BODIPY–BODIPY dyad: assessing the potential as a viscometer for molecular and ionic liquids† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details on the synthesis and purification of BODIPY dyes and ILs, sample preparations and physical properties of ILs as well as spectral data. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ra09757b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Joseph D.; Raut, Sangram; Jameson, Laramie P.; Smith, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    A symmetrical BODIPY–BODIPY dyad with a diyne linker was prepared in two steps; the lifetime decay of this rotor appeared to correlate with the viscosity of the media, thus making this dyad a suitable small molecule viscometer for molecular solvents. The potential of using the rotor to probe the viscosity of ionic liquids was also investigated. PMID:25844163

  10. Effects of Maternal Stimulant Medication on Observed Parenting in Mother-Child Dyads with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rooney, Mary; Seymour, Karen E.; Lavin, Heather Jones; Pian, Jessica; Robb, Adelaide; Efron, Lisa; Conlon, Charles; Stein, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study of 23 mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their offspring with ADHD examined the effects of maternal stimulant medication on observed interactions. Parent-child interactions were observed using a structured protocol before and after mothers underwent a 5-week, double-blind stimulant titration. Despite…

  11. Synthesis and first X-ray structure of a hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene-fullerene-dyad: a model for an inter-carbon-allotrope hybrid.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, Andreas; Englert, Jan M; Lungerich, Dominik; Heinemann, Frank W; Jux, Norbert; Hirsch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a new hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC)-fullerene dyad was accomplished involving a covalent linkage between both the planar and the spherical conjugated π-system of the two chromophores. We also present the first X-ray single crystal structure of a HBC-fullerene conjugate. A very short HBC-fullerene distance of 3.2 Å is observed. For the synthesis of this molecule, a new versatile applicable template, namely, a mono-functionalized hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene was attached to a fullerene. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as quantum yield measurements of , indicated close electronic communication between the two subunits, which is promising for possible applications in molecular electronics. PMID:25466397

  12. Improving the photoinduced charge separation parameters in corrole-perylene carboximide dyads by tuning the redox and spectroscopic properties of the components.

    PubMed

    Flamigni, Lucia; Ciuciu, Adina I; Langhals, Heinz; Böck, Bernd; Gryko, Daniel T

    2012-03-01

    A couple of corrole-perylene carboximide dyads (C2-PIa and C2-PIx) have been synthesized and their photoreactivity has been evaluated. We aimed at obtaining better performances for photoinduced charge separation, both in terms of efficiency and in terms of lifetime, with respect to formerly studied systems. The energy level of the charge-separated state was tuned by selecting perylene and corrole components with diverse redox and spectroscopic properties. High spectroscopic energy levels of the perylene carboximide derivatives (PIs) allow a fast charge separation to be maintained in competition with an energy-transfer process from the PI to the corrole unit. Yields and lifetimes of charge separation in toluene are, respectively, 75% and 2.5 μs for C2-PIa and 65% and 24 ns for C2-PIx. The results and the effect of solvent polarity are discussed in the framework of current energy- and electron-transfer theories. PMID:22234895

  13. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperín, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed. PMID:20824179

  14. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context. PMID:25175679

  15. Child-child similarity on attachment and temperament as predictors of positive interaction during acquaintanceship at age 3.

    PubMed

    McElwain, Nancy L; Ogolsky, Brian G; Engle, Jennifer M; Holland, Ashley S; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann

    2016-09-01

    Child-child similarity on attachment and temperament were examined, in turn, as predictors of interaction quality between previously unacquainted children. At 33 months, child-mother attachment security was assessed, and parents reported on child temperament. At 39 months, 114 children were randomly paired into 57 same-sex dyads and observed during 3 laboratory visits over a 1-month period. Positive interaction (composed of ratings of dyadic coordination, social play complexity, and shared positive affect) was assessed from recordings of play sessions at each visit. Multilevel models revealed that child-child similarity on (a) attachment security predicted more rapid increases in positive interaction across the 3 visits for dyads averaging high security, (b) temperamental pleasure predicted more positive interaction, on average, for dyads averaging moderate to high pleasure, and (c) temperamental anger and fearfulness yielded equivocal results. Developmental and methodological implications of investigating child-child similarity on attachment and temperament as a window into the acquaintanceship process among young children are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570981

  16. Mother–Infant Person- and Object-Directed Interactions in Latino Immigrant Families: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother–infant person-and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother–infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother–infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers and infants engaged in person-directed behaviors longer than Latino immigrant or European American mothers and infants. Mother and infant person-directed behaviors were positively related; mother and infant object-related behaviors were related for some cultural groups but not others. Nearly all mother and infant behaviors were mutually contingent. Mothers were more responsive to infants’ behaviors than infants were to mothers. Some cultural differences in responsiveness emerged. Immigrant status has a differentiated role in mother–infant interactions. PMID:23275761

  17. Parent-child interaction during feeding or joint eating in parents of different weights.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Verena; Bergmann, Sarah; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigates parent-child interaction during feeding or during joint eating, and aimed to explore differences in feeding interactions between mothers and fathers, as well as between overweight, obese and not overweight parents. 148 mothers and 148 fathers with children aged between 7 and 47months were observed during feeding of or joint eating with their child in the laboratory. The videotaped mother-child and father-child dyads were coded using the Chatoor Feeding Scale. This scale consists of 5 subscales: Dyadic Reciprocity, Dyadic Conflict, Talk and Distraction during Feeding, Struggle for Control, and Non-Contingency. Compared to mothers, fathers showed higher readings on the Talk and Distraction scale; in all other subscales no differences were found. The comparison between overweight, obese and not overweight mother-child dyads revealed no significant differences. Differences in father-child dyads between overweight, obese and not overweight fathers were identified in the subscale Struggle for Control: overweight fathers were marked by a higher amount of Struggle for Control than obese and not overweight fathers. Taken together, differences found in the present observational study are small to moderate, and thus the current results support extant literature demonstrating that there are no differences in feeding behaviour between mothers and fathers or between obese and non-obese parents. PMID:26051882

  18. The Effect of Personality on Collaborative Task Performance and Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givney, Sinéad Mc; Smeaton, Alan F.; Lee, Hyowon

    Collocated, multi-user technologies, which support group-work are becoming increasingly popular. Examples include MERL’s Diamondtouch and Microsoft’s Surface, both of which have evolved from research prototypes to commercial products. Many applications have been developed for such technologies which support the work and entertainment needs of small groups of people. None of these applications however, have been studied in terms of the interactions and performances of their users with regards to their personality. In this paper, we address this research gap by conducting a series of user studies involving dyads working on a number of multi-user applications on the DiamondTouch tabletop device.

  19. Acceleration of an Aromatic Claisen Rearrangement via a Designed Spiroligozyme Catalyst that Mimics the Ketosteroid Isomerase Catalytic Dyad

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of hydrogen-bonding catalysts have been designed for the aromatic Claisen rearrangement of a 1,1-dimethylallyl coumarin. These catalysts were designed as mimics of the two-point hydrogen-bonding interaction present in ketosteroid isomerase that has been proposed to stabilize a developing negative charge on the ether oxygen in the migration of the double bond.1 Two hydrogen bond donating groups, a phenol alcohol and a carboxylic acid, were grafted onto a conformationally restrained spirocyclic scaffold, and together they enhance the rate of the Claisen rearrangement by a factor of 58 over the background reaction. Theoretical calculations correctly predict the most active catalyst and suggest that both preorganization and favorable interactions with the transition state of the reaction are responsible for the observed rate enhancement. PMID:24456160

  20. Inter-Brain Synchronization during Social Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Guillaume; Nadel, Jacqueline; Soussignan, Robert; Martinerie, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    During social interaction, both participants are continuously active, each modifying their own actions in response to the continuously changing actions of the partner. This continuous mutual adaptation results in interactional synchrony to which both members contribute. Freely exchanging the role of imitator and model is a well-framed example of interactional synchrony resulting from a mutual behavioral negotiation. How the participants' brain activity underlies this process is currently a question that hyperscanning recordings allow us to explore. In particular, it remains largely unknown to what extent oscillatory synchronization could emerge between two brains during social interaction. To explore this issue, 18 participants paired as 9 dyads were recorded with dual-video and dual-EEG setups while they were engaged in spontaneous imitation of hand movements. We measured interactional synchrony and the turn-taking between model and imitator. We discovered by the use of nonlinear techniques that states of interactional synchrony correlate with the emergence of an interbrain synchronizing network in the alpha-mu band between the right centroparietal regions. These regions have been suggested to play a pivotal role in social interaction. Here, they acted symmetrically as key functional hubs in the interindividual brainweb. Additionally, neural synchronization became asymmetrical in the higher frequency bands possibly reflecting a top-down modulation of the roles of model and imitator in the ongoing interaction. PMID:20808907

  1. Inter-brain synchronization during social interaction.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Guillaume; Nadel, Jacqueline; Soussignan, Robert; Martinerie, Jacques; Garnero, Line

    2010-01-01

    During social interaction, both participants are continuously active, each modifying their own actions in response to the continuously changing actions of the partner. This continuous mutual adaptation results in interactional synchrony to which both members contribute. Freely exchanging the role of imitator and model is a well-framed example of interactional synchrony resulting from a mutual behavioral negotiation. How the participants' brain activity underlies this process is currently a question that hyperscanning recordings allow us to explore. In particular, it remains largely unknown to what extent oscillatory synchronization could emerge between two brains during social interaction. To explore this issue, 18 participants paired as 9 dyads were recorded with dual-video and dual-EEG setups while they were engaged in spontaneous imitation of hand movements. We measured interactional synchrony and the turn-taking between model and imitator. We discovered by the use of nonlinear techniques that states of interactional synchrony correlate with the emergence of an interbrain synchronizing network in the alpha-mu band between the right centroparietal regions. These regions have been suggested to play a pivotal role in social interaction. Here, they acted symmetrically as key functional hubs in the interindividual brainweb. Additionally, neural synchronization became asymmetrical in the higher frequency bands possibly reflecting a top-down modulation of the roles of model and imitator in the ongoing interaction. PMID:20808907

  2. Determination of preferential molecular orientation in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Seregin, A. Yu. D'yakova, Yu. A.; Yakunin, S. N.; Makhotkin, I. A.; Alekseev, A. S.; Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Tereschenko, E. Yu.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H.; Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-11-15

    Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad molecules with zinc atoms incorporated into the porphyrin ring (ZnDHD6ee) on the surface of aqueous subphase and on Si substrates have been investigated by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry. The experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions and on synchrotron radiation sources (KMC-2 station of BESSY II (Berlin) and Langmuir station at the National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute'). Depth distributions of Zn atoms and electron density in the monolayer film are calculated. On the basis of the analysis of these distributions, it is concluded that ZnDHD6ee dyad molecules in monolayers have preferential orientation. The data obtained indicate that the molecules in monolayer film retain their orientation when the monolayer is transferred from a liquid subphase surface onto a solid substrate.

  3. Geometries, Electronic Couplings, and Hole Dissociation Dynamics of Photoinduced Electron-Hole Pairs in Polyhexylthiophene-Fullerene Dyads Rigidly Linked by Oligophenylenes.

    PubMed

    Miura, Taku; Tao, Ran; Shibata, Sho; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Tachikawa, Takashi; Imahori, Hiroshi; Kobori, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-11

    To shed a light on fundamental molecular functions of photoinduced charge conductions by organic photovoltaic materials, it is important to directly observe molecular geometries of the intermediate charges just after the photoinduced electron-transfer reactions. However, highly inhomogeneous molecular environments at the bulk heteojunction interfaces in the photoactive layers have prevented us from understanding the mechanism of the charge conductions. We have herein investigated orbital geometries, electronic couplings, and hole-dissociation dynamics of photoinduced charge-separated (CS) states in a series of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-fullerene linked dyads bridged by rigid oligo-p-phenylene spacers by using time-resolved EPR spectroscopy. It has been revealed that one-dimensional intramolecular hole-dissociations exothermically take place from localized holes in initial CS states, following bridge-mediated, photoinduced charge-separations via triplet exciton diffusions in the conjugated polymer-backbones. This molecular wire property of the photoinduced charges in solution at room temperature demonstrates the potential utility of the covalently bridged polymer molecules applied for the molecular devices. PMID:27082279

  4. School-based nutrition programs are associated with reduced child food insecurity over time among Mexican-origin mother-child dyads in Texas Border Colonias.

    PubMed

    Nalty, Courtney C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R

    2013-05-01

    In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers' and children's (aged 6-11 y) perspectives and experiences of child food insecurity and its seasonal volatility, including the effects of school-based and summertime nutrition programs. Forty-eight Mexican-origin mother-child dyads completed standardized, Spanish-language food-security instruments during 2 in-home visits between July 2010 and March 2011. Multilevel longitudinal logistic regression measured change in food security while accounting for correlation in repeated measurements by using a nested structure. Cohen's κ statistic assessed dyadic discordance in child food insecurity. School-based nutrition programs reduced the odds of child food insecurity by 74% [OR = 0.26 (P < 0.01)], showcasing the programs' impact on the condition. Single head of household was associated with increased odds of child food insecurity [OR = 4.63 (P = 0.03)]. Fair dyadic agreement of child food insecurity was observed [κ = 0.21 (P = 0.02)]. Obtaining accurate prevalence rates and understanding differences of intrahousehold food insecurity necessitate measurement at multiple occasions throughout the year while considering children's perceptions and experiences of food insecurity in addition to parental reports. PMID:23486977

  5. Study of structural order in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, Andrei S.; Orekhov, Anton S.; Alekseev, A. S.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Klechkovskaya, V. V. Tereschenko, E. Yu.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H.; Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-11-15

    The structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers formed on the surface of aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough and transferred onto solid substrates has been studied. The data obtained are interpreted using simulation of the structure of isolated molecules and their packing in monolayer and modeling of diffraction patterns from molecular aggregates having different sizes and degrees of order. Experiments on the formation of condensed ZnDHD6ee monolayers are described. The structure of these monolayers on a water surface is analyzed using {pi}-A isotherms. The structure of the monolayers transferred onto solid substrates is investigated by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The unit-cell parameters of two-dimensional domains, which are characteristic of molecular packing in monolayers and deposited films, are determined. Domains are found to be organized into a texture (the molecular axes are oriented by the [001] direction perpendicular to the substrate). The monolayers contain a limited number of small 3D domains.

  6. Bidirectional Influences in Mother-Toddler Dyads: An Examination of the Relative Influence of Mothers’ and Children’s Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; Rhoades, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional relations between mothers’ lax and overreactive discipline and children’s misbehavior and negative affect. We examined the moment-to-moment stability of mothers’ and children’s behaviors (actor effects) and mothers’ and children’s influence on their partners’ subsequent behaviors (partner effects). Participants were 71 mothers and their 24–48-month-old children observed during a thirty-minute interaction. Both children and mothers exhibited stability in their own behaviors and influenced the subsequent behaviors of their partners. Additionally, a comparison of partner effects indicated that overreactive discipline more strongly predicted child negative affect than child negative affect predicted overreactive discipline. In contrast, although a child’s negative affect predicted lax discipline, lax discipline did not predict subsequent child negative affect. PMID:20953329

  7. Interactive regulation of affect in postpartum depressed mothers and their infants: an overview.

    PubMed

    Reck, Corinna; Hunt, Aoife; Fuchs, Thomas; Weiss, Robert; Noon, Andrea; Moehler, Eva; Downing, George; Tronick, Edward Z; Mundt, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    Specific patterns of interaction emerging in the first months of life are related to processes regulating mutual affects in the mother-child dyad. Particularly important for the dyad are the matching and interactive repair processes. The interaction between postpartum depressed mothers and their children is characterized by a lack of responsiveness, by passivity or intrusiveness, withdrawal and avoidance, as well as a low level of positive expression of affect. Thus, an impaired capability to regulate the child's affect has been demonstrated in depressed mothers. Maternal aggression, neglect toward infants, infanticidal thoughts, as well as infanticidal behavior are mainly linked to severe postpartum depression, especially with psychotic symptoms. The findings on mother-child interaction reported in this paper are based on mothers with mild to moderate depressive disorders without psychotic symptoms. Considering the stability of interaction patterns in the course of depressive illness as well as the long-term consequences of these interactions, it seems surprising that there are still few systematic studies of depressed mothers interacting with their infants. In connection with an overview on these issues, treatment models for parent-infant psychotherapy are discussed. PMID:15539778

  8. Training Partnership Dyads for Community-Based Participatory Research: Strategies and Lessons Learned From the Community Engaged Scholars Program

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus–community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution’s Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

  9. Analysis of the stimulated Raman spectrum of the {ν 16}/{ν 2} + ν 18 Fermi dyad of benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plíva, J.; Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-10-01

    Ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopy was used to obtain high-resolution recordings of the two perpendicular bands of the benzene molecule centered at 1591.327 and 1609.518 cm -1. The effective resolution was further enhanced by deconvolving the spectrum to a linewidth 0.003 to 0.004 cm -1. Fine-tuning of the ionizing radiation made it possible to record the transitions belonging to each band separately, thus greatly simplifying the spectrum in the region of overlap. The strong sS and oO branches were, for the most part, completely resolved as were many lines in the weaker oP and sR branches and even in the central oQ and sQ branches. The observed bands belong to the E2 g fundamental ν16 in nearly exact Fermi resonance with the combination ν2 + ν18. A detailed rovibrational analysis of the spectrum is reported. A perturbation detected in the sSk branches of the lower-frequency band for K = 19 to 23 was identified as a quintic anharmonic resonance with the third overtone, 4 ν20, of the lowest lying fundamental ν20, which is infrared- and Raman-inactive (species E2 u). Deperturbed spectroscopic constants for the interacting states are reported which reproduce the observed line positions with a standard deviation of 0.0013 cm -1. The unperturbed origins of the ν16 and ν2 + ν18 states are only 1.106 cm -1 apart. The fundamental ν16 was identified with the higher-frequency state with origin at 1600.976 cm -1.

  10. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  11. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Karen A; Katz, Albert N; Leith, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 196-216, 1982) can be found in interactive language. Of the eight tokens examined only three were found to differ in the hypothesized direction, and these only in male-male dyads. In the second study, we trained a male and a female confederate to use either male or female gendered tokens found to be reliable in Study One in their chats with participants. Our design permits disentangling of effects due to knowledge of the gender of the interlocutors and use of specific language tokens. We find that use of language tokens by the confederate promoted use of the same token by their interlocutor, regardless of knowledge of the confederate's gender. Moreover use of tokens consistent or inconsistent with visible gender influenced how the interlocutor perceived the confederate. Taken together these data are inconsistent with either the notion that gendered language is context independent (as suggested in the gender-as-culture hypothesis) or the notion that gendered language only emerges when gender is made salient, as would, in these studies, occur in mixed-gendered groups. PMID:24664126

  12. Social coordination in toddler's word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen

    2008-06-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.

  13. Social coordination in toddler’s word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen

    2010-01-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants’ body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M = 18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner’s hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child’s learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed. PMID:20953274

  14. Photochemistry and photophysics of a Pd(II) metalloporphyrin: Re(I) tricarbonyl bipyridine molecular dyad and its activity toward the photoreduction of CO2 to CO.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jacob; Vuong, Khuong Q; Calladine, James A; Sun, Xue-Zhong; Whitwood, Adrian C; George, Michael W; Perutz, Robin N

    2011-12-01

    The photochemistry and photophysics of the cationic molecular dyad, 5-{4-[rhenium(I)tricarbonylpicoline-4-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine-4'-carboxyamidyl]phenyl}-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrinatopalladium(II) ([Re(CO)(3)(Pic)Bpy-PdTPP][PF(6)]) have been investigated. The single crystal X-ray structure for the thiocyanate analogue, [Re(CO)(3)(NCS)Bpy-PdTPP], exhibits torsion angles of 69.1(9)°, 178.1(7)°, and 156.8(9)° between porphyrin plane, porphyrin-linked C(6)H(4) group, amide moiety, and Bpy, respectively. Steady-state photoexcitation (λ(ex) = 520 nm) of [Re(CO)(3)(Pic)Bpy-PdTPP][PF(6)] in dimethylformamide (DMF) results in substitution of Pic by bromide at the Re(I)Bpy core. When [Re(CO)(3)(Pic)Bpy-PdTPP][PF(6)] is employed as a photocatalyst for the reduction of CO(2) to CO in DMF/NEt(3) solution with λ(ex) > 420 nm, 2 turnovers (TNs) CO are formed after 4 h. If instead, a two-component mixture of PdTPP sensitizer and mononuclear [Re(CO)(3)(Pic)Bpy][PF(6)] catalyst is used, 3 TNs CO are formed. In each experiment however, CO only forms after a slight induction period and during the concurrent photoreduction of the sensitizer to a Pd(II) chlorin species. Palladium(II) meso-tetraphenylchlorin, the hydrogenated porphyrin analogue of PdTPP, has been synthesized independently and can be substituted for PdTPP in the two-component system with [Re(CO)(3)(Pic)Bpy][PF(6)], forming 9 TNs CO. An intramolecular electron transfer process for the dyad is supported by cyclic voltammetry and steady-state emission studies, from which the free energy change was calculated to be ΔG(ox)* = -0.08 eV. Electron transfer from Pd(II) porphyrin to Re(I) tricarbonyl bipyridine in [Re(CO)(3)(Pic)Bpy-PdTPP][PF(6)] was monitored using time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy in the ν(CO) region on several time scales with excitation at 532 nm. Spectra were recorded in CH(2)Cl(2) with and without NEt(3). Picosecond TRIR spectroscopy shows rapid growth of bands assigned to the π-π* excited

  15. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother–child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. Setting The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 70 mother–child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. Design The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and

  16. RFC-1 80G>A Polymorphism in Case-Mother/Control-Mother Dyads Is Associated with Risk of Nephroblastoma and Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Montalvão-de-Azevedo, Rafaela; Vasconcelos, Gisele M.; Vargas, Fernando R.; Thuler, Luiz Claudio; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Embryonic tumors are associated with an interruption during normal organ development; they may be related to disturbances in the folate pathway involved in DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Prenatal supplementation with folic acid is associated with a decreased risk of neuroblastoma, brain tumors, retinoblastoma, and nephroblastoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR rs1801133 (C677T) and RFC-1 rs1051266 (G80A) genotypes with the risk of developing nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma. Materials and Methods: Case-mother/control-mother dyad study. Samples from Brazilian children with nephroblastoma (n=80), neuroblastoma (n=66), healthy controls (n=453), and their mothers (case n=93; control n=75) were analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells and/or buccal cells and genotyped to identify MTHFR C677T and RFC-1 G80A polymorphisms. Differences in genotype distribution between patients and controls were tested by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Risk for nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma was two- to fourfold increased among children with RFC-1 polymorphisms. An increased four- to eightfold risk for neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma was seen when the child and maternal genotypes were combined. Conclusion: Our results suggest that mother and child RFC-1 G80A genotypes play a role on the risk of neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma since this polymorphism may impair the intracellular levels of folate, through carrying fewer folate molecules to the cell interior, and thus, the intracellular concentration is not enough to maintain regular DNA synthesis and methylation pathways. PMID:25536437

  17. Brain-Mind Dyad, Human Experience, the Consciousness Tetrad and Lattice of Mental Operations: And Further, The Need to Integrate Knowledge from Diverse Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other’s basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other’s work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of

  18. Relational Demography in Coaching Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagas, Michael; Paetzold, Ramona; Ashley, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The decline in the proportion of female head coaches in the intercollegiate ranks is one of the most significant issues in the realm of women's sports today. To extend the body of research that has studied this topic, we investigated the impact relational demographic effects on the work attitudes of coaches, which differs from previous research…

  19. Comparative Network Analysis of Preterm vs. Full-Term Infant-Mother Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kalmár, Magda; Tóth, Ildikó; Krishna, Sandeep; Jensen, Mogens H.; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported that interactions of mothers with preterm infants show differential characteristics compared to that of mothers with full-term infants. Interaction of preterm dyads is often reported as less harmonious. However, observations and explanations concerning the underlying mechanisms are inconsistent. In this work 30 preterm and 42 full-term mother-infant dyads were observed at one year of age. Free play interactions were videotaped and coded using a micro-analytic coding system. The video records were coded at one second resolution and studied by a novel approach using network analysis tools. The advantage of our approach is that it reveals the patterns of behavioral transitions in the interactions. We found that the most frequent behavioral transitions are the same in the two groups. However, we have identified several high and lower frequency transitions which occur significantly more often in the preterm or full-term group. Our analysis also suggests that the variability of behavioral transitions is significantly higher in the preterm group. This higher variability is mostly resulted from the diversity of transitions involving non-harmonious behaviors. We have identified a maladaptive pattern in the maternal behavior in the preterm group, involving intrusiveness and disengagement. Application of the approach reported in this paper to longitudinal data could elucidate whether these maladaptive maternal behavioral changes place the infant at risk for later emotional, cognitive and behavioral disturbance. PMID:23805298

  20. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-04-21

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender's and receiver's temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions. PMID:25848050

  1. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents. PMID:25070359

  2. The Social Interactive Behaviour of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Mothers: Is There an Effect of Familiarity of the Interaction Partner?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meirsschaut, Mieke; Roeyers, Herbert; Warreyn, Petra

    2011-01-01

    In this study the social behaviour of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their mothers is compared within two different dyads: a dyad consisting of a mother and her own child and a dyad consisting of a mother and an unfamiliar child. Mothers did not change the frequency of their social initiatives and responsiveness with an…

  3. Playfulness and Interaction: An Exploratory Study of Past and Current Exposure to Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Bundy, Anita; Katz, Noomi

    2015-04-01

    Violence against women affects mother-child interactions, which may in turn affect their children's playfulness. We examined the effect of a history of violence against mothers on mother-child interactions and children's playfulness. This cross-sectional pilot study consisted of 36 mother-child dyads residing in family crisis shelters due to serious violence from an intimate partner. One subgroup had experienced violence during childhood, another had posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Instruments included Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, Test of Playfulness, and Coding Interactive Behavior System. Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated. Results indicated that children of mothers without PTSD were more playful than children of mothers with PTSD. Mothers who had not reported of childhood exposure to violence and who did not have PTSD had better interactions with more playful children. PMID:26460471

  4. Compulsory citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of organizational identification and perceived interactional justice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Chen, Hsiu-Kuei

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of interactional justice in influencing the mediation. Using a time-lagged research design, the authors collected two waves of data from 388 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 67 teams to test the moderated mediation model. Results revealed that CCB negatively influenced OCB via impairing organizational identification. Moreover, interactional justice moderated the strength of the indirect effect of CCB on OCB (through organizational identification), such that the mediated relationship was stronger under low interactional justice than under high interactional justice. PMID:24684078

  5. The Origins of 12-Month Attachment: A Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    A detailed microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of essential communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1s time base; mother and infant facial-visual “engagement” variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual’s behavior that were correlated with the partner’s previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother

  6. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother–child interactions during feeding practice

    PubMed Central

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S.; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother–child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger–satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasizes parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother–child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive conflicts and negative affective states, all of which can hinder the development of adequate interactive patterns during feeding. The results suggest that IWMs can constitute an indicator for the evaluation of the relational quality of the dyad and that evaluations of dyadic interactions should be considered when programming interventions. PMID:26379576

  7. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother-child interactions during feeding practice.

    PubMed

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children's autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasizes parents' emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children's age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive conflicts and negative affective states, all of which can hinder the development of adequate interactive patterns during feeding. The results suggest that IWMs can constitute an indicator for the evaluation of the relational quality of the dyad and that evaluations of dyadic interactions should be considered when programming interventions. PMID:26379576

  8. Establishment of Joint Attention in Dyads Involving Hearing Mothers of Deaf and Hearing Children, and Its Relation to Adaptive Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence points to joint attention as a mediating variable in children's adaptive behavior. Joint attention in interactions between hearing mothers and congenitally deaf (n = 27) and hearing (n = 29) children, ages 18-36 months, was examined. All deaf children had severe to profound hearing loss. Mother-child interactions were coded for…

  9. Capturing the Temporal Sequence of Interaction in Young Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Fiona; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We explored whether young children exhibit subtypes of behavioral sequences during sibling interaction. Ten-minute, free-play observations of over 300 sibling dyads were coded for positivity, negativity and disengagement. The data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling (GMM). Younger (18-month-old) children’s temporal behavioral sequences showed a harmonious (53%) and a casual (47%) class. Older (approximately four-year-old) children’s behavior was more differentiated revealing a harmonious (25%), a deteriorating (31%), a recovery (22%) and a casual (22%) class. A more positive maternal affective climate was associated with more positive patterns. Siblings’ sequential behavioral patterns tended to be complementary rather than reciprocal in nature. The study illustrates a novel use of GMM and makes a theoretical contribution by showing that young children exhibit distinct types of temporal behavioral sequences that are related to parenting processes. PMID:25996957

  10. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications.

    PubMed

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153

  11. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153

  12. Understanding treatment effectiveness for aggressive youth: the importance of regulation in mother-child interactions.

    PubMed

    De Rubeis, Sera; Granic, Isabela

    2012-02-01

    Reviews summarizing hundreds of studies cite parent management training (PMT) and cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) as some of the most effective interventions for aggressive youth. However, studies continue to report variability in outcomes, and researchers have yet to understand why certain interventions only produce behavior change in some children. Using a clinical sample of 57 children (53 boys, 4 girls; mean age = 9.33, standard deviation = 1.16) and their mothers enrolled in a combined PMT/CBT program, the current study examined the relation between changes in real-time mother-child interactions, and children's externalizing outcomes from pre- to posttreatment. Results showed that dyads who were regulated in their interactions over time reported greater reductions in externalizing symptoms from pre- to posttreatment as compared with dysregulated dyads. Changes in mean levels of affective content (e.g., negativity) were not associated with externalizing outcomes. Findings suggest that dyadic regulation may be an important process associated with treatment success for aggressive youth. PMID:22309818

  13. The interactions of mothers with eating disorders with their toddlers: identifying broader risk factors.

    PubMed

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Arnow, Katherine D; Lock, James D

    2016-08-01

    The connection between maternal eating disorders and feeding and eating problems among their children has been substantially demonstrated. This pilot study focused on the interactions between mothers with eating disorders and their toddlers in non-feeding situations. Twenty-eight dyads of mothers with prenatal eating disorders and their toddlers were compared to a case-matched control group with no eating disorder. Maternal current eating and co-occurring psychopathology, children's symptoms and mother-child interactions were measured. Mothers with eating disorders were less sensitive to their children, tried to control their children's behaviors more, and were less happy during mother-child interactions. The children in the maternal eating disorder group were rated as less responsive to their mothers and their mothers also reported more behavioral problems than those in the control group. Findings imply that maternal eating disorders may be linked with a wide range of adverse maternal and child behaviors beyond those associated with eating. PMID:27264338

  14. Attachment representations among substance-abusing women in transition to motherhood: implications for prenatal emotions and mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Isosävi, Sanna; Flykt, Marjo; Belt, Ritva; Posa, Tiina; Kuittinen, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2016-08-01

    We studied how attachment representations contribute to central components of transition to motherhood, prenatal emotion processing (EP) and emotional availability (EA) of mother-infant interaction, and whether there are group specific differences. Participants were 51 treatment-enrolled substance-abusing (SA) mothers and their infants and 50 non-using comparison dyads with obstetric risk. Mother's attachment representations (AAI) and EP were assessed prenatally and EA when infants were four months. Results showed that autonomous attachment only had a buffering effect on prenatal EP among comparisons. All SA mothers showed more dysfunctional EP than comparisons and, contrary to comparisons, autonomous SA mothers reported more negative cognitive appraisals and less meta-evaluation of emotions than dismissing SA mothers. Preoccupied SA mothers showed high negative cognitive appraisals, suggesting under-regulation of emotions. Attachment representations were not associated with EA in either group; rather, SA status contributed to global risk in the relationship. Surprisingly, autonomous SA mothers showed a tendency towards intrusiveness. We propose that obstetric risk among comparisons and adverse relational experiences among almost all SA mothers might override the protective role of mother's autonomous representations for dyadic interaction. We conclude that prenatal emotional turbulence and high interaction risk of all SA mothers calls for holistic treatment for the dyad. PMID:26978721

  15. Mechanisms of Contextual Risk for Adolescent Self-Injury: Invalidation and Conflict Escalation in Mother-Child Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Baucom, Brian R.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Potapova, Natalia V.; Fitelson, Martha; Barth, Heather; Smith, Cindy J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE According to developmental theories of self-injury, both child characteristics and environmental contexts shape and maintain problematic behaviors. Although progress has been made toward identifying biological vulnerabilities to self-injury, mechanisms underlying psychosocial risk have received less attention. METHOD In the present study, we compared self-injuring adolescents (n=17) with typical controls (n=20) during a mother-child conflict discussion. Dyadic interactions were coded using both global and microanalytic systems, allowing for a highly detailed characterization of mother-child interactions. We also assessed resting state psychophysiological regulation, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RESULTS Global coding revealed that maternal invalidation was associated with adolescent anger. Furthermore, maternal invalidation and coerciveness were both related to adolescent opposition/defiance. Results from the microanalytic system indicated that self-injuring dyads were more likely to escalate conflict, suggesting a potential mechanism through which emotion dysregulation is shaped and maintained over time. Finally, mother and teen aversiveness interacted to predict adolescent resting RSA. Low-aversive teens with highly aversive mothers had the highest RSA, whereas teens in high-high dyads showed the lowest RSA. CONCLUSIONS These findings are consistent with theories that emotion invalidation and conflict escalation are possible contextual risk factors for self-injury. PMID:23581508

  16. The association between parental interaction style and children’s joint engagement in families with toddlers with autism

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Stephanie Y; Elder, Lauren; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the relationship between parental interaction style (responsive vs directive) and child-initiated joint engagement within caregiver–child interactions with toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Method Videotaped interactions of 85 toddler–caregiver dyads were coded for child engagement and both parental responsiveness and directiveness. Results Altogether, children spent less than one-third of the interaction jointly engaged. After controlling for child characteristics, parental style was associated with the initiator (child or parent) of joint engagement. Specifically, responsiveness predicted total time in child-initiated joint engagement, while directiveness predicted total time in parent-initiated joint engagement. Children’s social behaviours were associated with child-initiated joint engagement. Discussion Social initiations are a key target for children with autism spectrum disorders. Results demonstrate that child initiations and global social behaviour ratings are associated with parental responsivity. Responsivity may be a critical factor to facilitate children’s initiations. PMID:24104518

  17. Using Dyad-Specific Social Stories to Increase Communicative and Social Skills of Preschoolers with Hearing Loss in Self-Contained and Inclusive Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, Sharon A.; Bobzien, Jonna; Richels, Corrin; Hester, Peggy; Anthony, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Children with profound hearing loss often do not have the same prelinguistic opportunities for social and communication interaction as peers with typical hearing and benefit from structured opportunities to learn these skills. This study examined the effect of two interventions to improve the communicative and social skills of four preschoolers…

  18. A Comparison of Equine-Assisted Intervention and Conventional Play-Based Early Intervention for Mother-Child Dyads with Insecure Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beetz, Andrea; Winkler, Nora; Julius, Henri; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Early interventions aim at promoting a good mother-child relationship as basis for a good socio-emotional development, especially in high-risk populations, and at correcting already unfavorable patterns of interaction and are common today. Insecure attachment, both of the child and of the mother, has been identified as a risk factor for early…

  19. Interactions between and among Heritage Language Learners and Second Language Learners during Collaborative Writing Activities: How Learners Attend to Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined…

  20. Powerful Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura; Jablon, Judy R.; Stetson, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Interactions are the daily exchanges in words and gestures one has with others. As a teacher, the interactions he/she has with young children can make a positive difference in their lives. A teacher's powerful interactions with children play an important role in their emotional well-being and learning. Powerful interactions are not the same as…

  1. ADHD Medication Vacations and Parent-Child Interactions by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sulak, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine medication vacations among children with ADHD according to parent-child dyads (e.g., mother-son, father-daughter, mother-daughter, and father-son). Method: In a survey study of 259 parents of children with ADHD, the use of medication vacations according to parent-child sex dyads was…

  2. Touching behaviors of infants of depressed mothers during normal and perturbed interactions.

    PubMed

    Moszkowski, Robin J; Stack, Dale M; Girouard, Nadine; Field, Tiffany M; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the touching behaviors of 4-month-old infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers during the still-face (SF; maternal emotional unavailability) and separation (SP; maternal physical unavailability) procedures. Forty-one dyads participated in the present study; dyads were from low SES backgrounds and they exhibited poor relationship qualities (e.g. poor maternal sensitivity, low infant responsiveness); thus, they were considered at-risk. Results indicated that infants exhibited more patting and pulling when mothers were unavailable during the SF and SP procedures. Moreover, depression affected infants' tactile behaviors: infants of depressed mothers used more reactive types of touch (i.e. active touching behaviors, such as grab, pat, pull) than infants of non-depressed mothers during emotional and physical unavailability, suggesting greater activity levels in infants of depressed mothers. Negative relationship indicators, such as maternal intrusiveness and hostility, predicted soothing/regulatory (i.e. nurturing) and reactive/regulatory types of touch, even after controlling for maternal depression. Taken together, these results underscore the importance of touch for infant communication and regulation during early social interactions. PMID:19232741

  3. The interactive effects of belongingness and charisma on helping and compliance.

    PubMed

    Den Hartog, Deanne N; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Keegan, Anne E

    2007-07-01

    This study tests the main and interactive effects of belongingness and perceived charismatic leadership on 2 forms of organizational citizenship behavior (helping and compliance). In line with expectations, a study of 115 manager-subordinate dyads demonstrates that employees show more helping (manager rated) when they have a stronger sense of belongingness at work and more helping as well as compliance when they perceive their leader to be more charismatic (subordinate rated). Belongingness partially mediates the relationship between charisma and helping. Also, as hypothesized, belongingness and charisma have interactive effects on employees' helping and compliance. The impact of perceived charisma on these behaviors is stronger for employees with a low sense of belongingness at work than for individuals with a higher sense of belongingness. PMID:17638470

  4. The interactive roles of parenting, emotion regulation and executive functioning in moral reasoning during middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Nelson, Jackie A; O'Brien, Marion; Keane, Susan P; Calkins, Susan D

    2013-01-01

    We examined mother-child co-operative behaviour, children's emotion regulation and executive function, as well as combinations of these factors, as predictors of moral reasoning in 89 10-year-old children. Dyadic co-operation was coded from videotaped observations of laboratory puzzle and speech tasks. Emotion regulation was derived from maternal report, and executive functioning was assessed with the Tower of London task. Moral reasoning was coded during mother-child conversations about morally ambiguous, peer-conflict situations. Two significant interactions indicated that children from more co-operative dyads who also had higher executive function skills had higher moral reasoning scores than other children, and children lower in both emotion regulation and executive function had lower moral reasoning scores than other children. The results contribute to the literature on the multiple and interactive levels of influence on moral reasoning in childhood. PMID:23650955

  5. Longitudinal Associations Between the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions and Brain Development Across Infancy.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Annie; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if normative variations in parenting relate to brain development among typically developing children. A sample of 352 mother-infant dyads came to the laboratory when infants were 5, 10, and 24 months of age (final N = 215). At each visit, child resting electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped at the 5-month visit. The results indicated that higher quality maternal behavior during mother-infant interactions predicted higher frontal resting EEG power at 10 and 24 months, as well as increases in power between 5 and 10 months, and between 10 and 24 months. These findings provide rare support for the hypothesis that normative variation in parenting quality may contribute to brain development among typically developing infants. PMID:27040719

  6. Parent-child interaction of mothers with depression and their children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-chin; Lin, Keh-chung; Robson, Deborah; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Niew, Wern-ing

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that may have a chronic and pervasive impact on the child's function and cause long-term stress to parents. A higher rate of depression is associated with mothers of children with ADHD. This observational study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal depression and the child's ADHD on the quality of the parent-child interaction in children with ADHD and their mothers with depression. The study participants comprised 39 mother-son dyads including children with ADHD and mothers with depression, children with ADHD and mothers without depression, and children without ADHD and mothers without depression. The Specific Affect Coding System, 20-code version was used to code interactional affect, including positive engagement, negative engagement, negative disengagement, and neural affect. There were no statistically significant group-by-context interaction effects or group effects on all affective variables between the group of children with ADHD and mothers without depression and the group of children without ADHD and mothers without depression. Stimulant medication may account for these nonsignificant findings. No significant difference of positive affect between neutral and conflict-solving contexts was observed in depressed mothers whose children were diagnosed as ADHD. Children with ADHD whose mothers were depressed were less positive in their parent-child interaction compared with children in the other groups. Maternal depression may play an important role in the affective presentation of dyads of children with ADHD and mothers with depression. Implications for clinical practice and future research are provided. PMID:23123879

  7. Adult romantic relationships as contexts of human development: a multimethod comparison of same-sex couples with opposite-sex dating, engaged, and married dyads.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn I; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships was examined at multiple levels of analysis via self-reports and partner reports, laboratory observations, and measures of physiological reactivity during dyadic interactions. Additionally, individuals in same-sex, engaged, and marital relationships were compared with one another on adult attachment security as assessed through the coherence of participants' narratives about their childhood experiences. Results indicated that individuals in committed same-sex relationships were generally not distinguishable from their committed heterosexual counterparts, with one exception--lesbians were especially effective at working together harmoniously in laboratory observations. PMID:18194008

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Ru(II) Tris(1,1O-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads Incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium Cation or N-Benzyl-N'-methyl-viologen. Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Optical Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monen M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2004-01-01

    The title compounds (1 and 2, above) were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions of appropriate Ru(1I) complexes with the electron a cceptors. Characterization was conducted in solution and in frozen ma trices. Finally, the title compounds were evaluated as dopants of sol-gel materials. It was found that the intramolecular quenching efficie ncy of 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridinium cation in solution depends on the solvent: photoluminescence is quenched completely in CH,CN, but not i n methanol or ethanol. On the other hand, intramolecular emission que nching by 4-benzyl-N-methyl viologen is complete in all solvents. The difference between the two quenchers is traced electrochemically to t he solvation of the 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridiniums by alcohol. In froze n matrices or adsorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both Ru(I1) complex/electron acceptor dyads of this study are photoluminescent, and the absence of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigi dity. When doped aerogels are cooled at 77 K, the emission intensity increases by approximately 4x, and the spectra shift to the blue, analogous to what is observed with Ru(I1) complexes in solutions undergoi ng fluid-to-rigid transition. However, in contrast to frozen solution s, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at low tempe ratures are still accessible to gas-phase quenchers diffusing through the mesopores, leading to more sensitive platforms for sensors than o ther room-temperature configurations. Thus the photoluminescence of o ur Ru(I1) complex dyads adsorbed on aerogel is quenchable by O2 both at room temperature and at 77 K. Furthermore, it was also found that O 2 modulates the photoluminescence of aerogels doped with 4-benzoyl -N -methylpyridinium-based dyads over a wider dynamic range compared wi th aerogels doped with either our vislogen-based dyads or with Ru(I1) tris(1,lO-phenanthroline) itself.

  9. Reciprocal and Complementary Sibling Interactions: Relations with Socialization Outcomes in the Kindergarten Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Achacoso, Joseph A.; John, Aesha; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings To examine associations between sibling interaction patterns and later social outcomes in single- and two-parent families, 113 kindergarteners took part in naturalistic observations at home with siblings, classmates participated in sociometric interviews, and teachers completed behavior ratings. Sibling interactions were coded using a newly-developed 39-item checklist, and proportions of complementary and reciprocal sibling interactions computed. Complementarity occurred more among dyads where kindergartners were with toddler or infant siblings than among kindergartners with older or near-age younger siblings. Higher levels of complementarity predicted lower levels of internalizing but were not related to externalizing problems. Kindergartners’ sociometric status in the classroom differed as a function of sibling interaction patterns, with neglected and controversial children experiencing less complementarity/more reciprocity than popular, average, and rejected children. Finally, there was some evidence for differential associations of sibling interaction patterns with social outcomes for children in single- versus two-parent families: regressions testing interaction effects show sibling reciprocity positively associated with kindergartners’ social skills only in single-parent families, and complementary sibling interactions positively related to internalizing problems only in two-parent families. Implications for Practice Those working with divorcing or other single-parent families might consider sibling interactions as a potential target for social skill building. PMID:26005311

  10. Physiological and cognitive consequences of suppressing and expressing emotion in dyadic interactions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brett J; Overall, Nickola C; Jamieson, Jeremy P

    2014-10-01

    Engaging in emotional suppression typically has negative consequences. However, relatively little is known about response-focused emotion regulation processes in dyadic interactions. We hypothesized that interacting with suppressive partners would be more threatening than interacting with expressive partners. To test predictions, two participants independently watched a negatively-valenced video and then discussed their emotional responses. One participant (the regulator) was assigned to express/suppress affective signals during the interaction. Their partner was given no special instructions prior to the interaction. Engaging in suppression versus expression elicited physiological responses consistent with threat-sympathetic arousal and increased vasoconstriction-in anticipation of and during dyadic interactions. Partners of emotional suppressors also exhibited more threat responses during the interaction, but not before, compared to partners of emotional expressors. Partner and interaction appraisals mirrored physiological findings. Emotional suppressors found the task more uncomfortable and intense while their partners reported them as being poor communicators. This work broadens our understanding of connections between emotion regulation, physiological responses, and cognitive processes in dyads. PMID:25109434

  11. Analysis of infrared and Raman spectra of 116SnH 4 in the 1900 cm -1 region: Study of the 1000, 0010 interacting states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabyaoui, A.; Lavorel, B.; Pierre, G.; Bürger, H.

    1991-07-01

    Monoisotopic stannane 116SnH 4 has been investigated at room temperature in the 1775-2025 cm -1 region with the FTIR spectrometer at Giessen, Germany, with an effective resolution of nearly 3.8 × 10 -3 cm -1, and in the 1906.0-1908.2 cm -1 region with the high-resolution stimulated Raman spectrometer at Dijon, France, with an effective resolution of 3.2 × 10 -3 cm -1. Most observed transitions correspond to {ν 1}/{ν 3} lines. For this dyad we have used a Hamiltonian developed to the fifth order to analyze the two spectra, for J values up to 14. The simultaneous analysis of infrared and Raman transitions enabled us to determine 4 parameters of ν1, 17 parameters of ν3, and 6 interaction parameters. The standard deviation was about 0.2 × 10 -3 cm -1. For J values > 14 a perturbation appears because the third harmonic of the bending modes ( ν2, ν4) is close to the stretching dyad {ν 1}/{ν 3}. The interaction between the two polyads is too strong to be absorbed by the contact transformation. In order to be able to analyze the spectra for higher J values, the (1000, 0010, 0300, 0201, 0102, 0003) polyad interaction scheme must be considered.

  12. Development of the Brief Romantic Relationship Interaction Coding Scheme (BRRICS)

    PubMed Central

    Humbad, Mikhila N.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Although observational studies of romantic relationships are common, many existing coding schemes require considerable amounts of time and resources to implement. The current study presents a new coding scheme, the Brief Romantic Relationship Interaction Coding Scheme (BRRICS), designed to assess various aspects of romantic relationship both quickly and efficiently. The BRRICS consists of four individual coding dimensions assessing positive and negative affect in each member of the dyad, as well as four codes assessing specific components of the dyadic interaction (i.e., positive reciprocity, demand-withdraw pattern, negative reciprocity, and overall satisfaction). Concurrent associations with measures of marital adjustment and conflict were evaluated in a sample of 118 married couples participating in the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Couples were asked to discuss common conflicts in their marriage while being videotaped. Undergraduate coders used the BRRICS to rate these interactions. The BRRICS scales were correlated in expected directions with self-reports of marital adjustment, as well as children’s perception of the severity and frequency of marital conflict. Based on these results, the BRRICS may be an efficient tool for researchers with large samples of observational data who are interested in coding global aspects of the relationship but do not have the resources to use labor intensive schemes. PMID:21875192

  13. Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tong Logan, Angela; Silverman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    One of the most clinically significant complications related to the use of pharmacotherapy is the potential for drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. The gastrointestinal system plays a large role in the pharmacokinetic profile of most medications, and many medications utilized in gastroenterology have clinically significant drug interactions. This review will discuss the impact of alterations of intestinal pH, interactions mediated by phase I hepatic metabolism enzymes and P-glycoprotein, the impact of liver disease on drug metabolism, and interactions seen with commonly utilized gastrointestinal medications. PMID:22933873

  14. Imagined Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeycutt, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Social scientists have been studying imagined interactions since the mid-1980s and have measured numerous physiological correlates (Honeycutt, 2010). In this commentary I assess the research reported in Crisp and Turner (May-June 2009) and highlight the underlying mechanisms of imagined interactions that have empirically been laid out across…

  15. The origins of 12-month attachment: a microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1 s time base; mother and infant facial-visual "engagement" variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual's own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual's behavior that were correlated with the partner's previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother, yielded comparable numbers

  16. Automated Measurement of Facial Expression in Infant-Mother Interaction: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Daniel S.; Mahoor, Mohammad H.; Chow, Sy-Miin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Automated facial measurement using computer vision has the potential to objectively document continuous changes in behavior. To examine emotional expression and communication, we used automated measurements to quantify smile strength, eye constriction, and mouth opening in two six-month-old/mother dyads who each engaged in a face-to-face interaction. Automated measurements showed high associations with anatomically based manual coding (concurrent validity); measurements of smiling showed high associations with mean ratings of positive emotion made by naive observers (construct validity). For both infants and mothers, smile strength and eye constriction (the Duchenne marker) were correlated over time, creating a continuous index of smile intensity. Infant and mother smile activity exhibited changing (nonstationary) local patterns of association, suggesting the dyadic repair and dissolution of states of affective synchrony. The study provides insights into the potential and limitations of automated measurement of facial action. PMID:19885384

  17. Drug/protein interactions studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Vayá, Ignacio; Bonancía, Paula; Jiménez, M. C.; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2014-09-01

    We report here on a recent time-resolved fluorescence study [1] of the interaction between flurbiprofen (FBP), a chiral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and human serum albumin (HSA), the main transport protein in the human body. We compare the results obtained for the drug-protein complex with those of various covalently linked flurbiprofentryptophan dyads having well-defined geometries. In all cases stereoselective dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed, varying greatly from one system to another. In addition, the fluorescence anisotropy decays also display a clear stereoselectivity. For the drug-protein complexes, this can be interpreted in terms of the protein microenvironment playing a significant role in the conformational relaxation of FBP, which is more restricted in the case of the (R)- enantiomer.

  18. Increasing Responsive Parent-Child Interactions and Joint Engagement: Comparing the Influence of Parent-Mediated Intervention and Parent Psychoeducation.

    PubMed

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2016-05-01

    Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children's signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents' responsive behaviour in association with children's social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention. Eighty-five dyads were randomized to one of two 10-week caregiver-training interventions. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parental responsivity and children's joint engagement. Significant gains in responsivity and time jointly engaged were found post JASPER parent-mediated intervention over a psychoeducation intervention. Further, combining higher levels of responsive behaviour with greater adoption of intervention strategies was associated with greater time jointly engaged. Findings encourage a focus on enhancing responsive behaviour in parent-mediated intervention models. PMID:26797940

  19. Examining the role of communication on sibling relationship quality and interaction for sibling pairs with and without a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashlyn L; Romski, Maryann; Sevcik, Rose A

    2013-09-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent communicators and their siblings did not differ in terms of syntactic complexity but typically developing siblings dominated the interaction and exhibited greater lexical diversity regardless of communication status. Communication status did not impact the warmth/closeness, rivalry, or conflict in the sibling relationship, but siblings of independent communicators engaged in the greatest amount of helping and managing behaviors. These results represent a first step in understanding the role of communication skills in the sibling relationship for families of children with disabilities. PMID:24245732

  20. A critical examination of indices of dynamic interaction for wildlife telemetry studies.

    PubMed

    Long, Jed A; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Webb, Stephen L; Gee, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01

    Wildlife scientists continue to be interested in studying ways to quantify how the movements of animals are interdependent - dynamic interaction. While a number of applied studies of dynamic interaction exist, little is known about the comparative effectiveness and applicability of available methods used for quantifying interactions between animals. We highlight the formulation, implementation and interpretation of a suite of eight currently available indices of dynamic interaction. Point- and path-based approaches are contrasted to demonstrate differences between methods and underlying assumptions on telemetry data. Correlated and biased correlated random walks were simulated at a range of sampling resolutions to generate scenarios with dynamic interaction present and absent. We evaluate the effectiveness of each index at identifying different types of interactive behaviour at each sampling resolution. Each index is then applied to an empirical telemetry data set of three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) dyads. Results from the simulated data show that three indices of dynamic interaction reliant on statistical testing procedures are susceptible to Type I error, which increases at fine sampling resolutions. In the white-tailed deer examples, a recently developed index for quantifying local-level cohesive movement behaviour (the di index) provides revealing information on the presence of infrequent and varying interactions in space and time. Point-based approaches implemented with finely sampled telemetry data overestimate the presence of interactions (Type I errors). Indices producing only a single global statistic (7 of the 8 indices) are unable to quantify infrequent and varying interactions through time. The quantification of infrequent and variable interactive behaviour has important implications for the spread of disease and the prevalence of social behaviour in wildlife. Guidelines are presented to inform researchers wishing to study dynamic

  1. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  2. Drug Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... not be taken at the same time as antacids. WHAT CAUSES THE MOST INTERACTIONS WITH HIV MEDICATIONS? ... azole” Some antibiotics (names end in “mycin”) The antacid cimetidine (Tagamet) Some drugs that prevent convulsions, including ...

  3. Strong Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.

    2009-09-29

    We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

  4. Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1957-06-01

    Experimental results on the non-conservation of parity and charge conservation in weak interactions are reviewed. The two-component theory of the neutrino is discussed. Lepton reactions are examined under the assumption of the law of conservation of leptons and that the neutrino is described by a two- component theory. From the results of this examination, the universal Fermi interactions are analyzed. Although reactions involving the neutrino can be described, the same is not true of reactions which do not involve the lepton, as the discussion of the decay of K mesons and hyperons shows. The question of the invariance of time reversal is next examined. (J.S.R.)

  5. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning. PMID:21874515

  6. Topical Concerns in the Poetry Coaching Dyad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Carolyn

    Eight coaches of oral interpretation from colleges across the United States were asked to tape record the coaching sessions that brought eight novices to tournament readiness. All of the students used the same three-poem program on the general theme of animals and children, but each student was required to write the introduction and transitions.…

  7. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  8. Visual Behavior in Teacher-Pupil Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry

    1976-01-01

    The visual behavior of teacher-pupil pairs during a cooperative learning task is studied by describing teacher-pupil visual behavior; checking whether cultural variations in gaze or differences attributable to sex could be observed; checking whether variations in gaze were a function of linguistic competence, rather than cultural mores; and…

  9. Identifying Dyads and their conservation in Drosphila.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Debasis

    2007-03-01

    Core promoter regions in Drosophila are enriched with binding sites like TATA, Inr, DPE, MTE, etc. They have very strict spacing between each other in promoters where they occur together. For example, in Drosophila melanogaster TATA-Inr has a spacing of 25-30 bp. Our aim in this work is to identify all such pair of motifs having strict positional constraint in the core promoters of all Drosophila species. We discover how these motifs and the spacing between them evolve within Drosophila species. For this we analyze 700 bp upstream and 300 bp downstream of TSS in D. melanogaster and the corresponding orthologous region in other Drosophila species. For each species, this 1000 bp region is searched for statistically over-represented compound words of the form W1NLW2, where L is the spacing between words W1 and W2. These compound words are systematically clustered for further analysis.

  10. Construction of Trust Judgments within Cooperative Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evin, Agathe; Sève, Carole; Saury, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the aims of physical education (PE) is to develop social skills such as cooperation, teamwork, and mutual helping among students. Cooperation is a broad research topic, implicating several disciplines in the human sciences (e.g. psychology, sociology, linguistics, philosophy). It is also an important topic in various domains…

  11. The triad of paragangliomas, gastric stromal tumours and pulmonary chondromas (Carney triad), and the dyad of paragangliomas and gastric stromal sarcomas (Carney–Stratakis syndrome): molecular genetics and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Stratakis, C. A.; Carney, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Carney triad (CT) describes the association of paragangliomas (PGLs) with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and pulmonary chondromas (PCH). A number of other lesions have been described in the condition including pheochromocytomas, oesophageal leiomyomas and adrenocortical adenomas; CT is a novel form of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a genetic condition with a female predilection. Inactivating mutations of the mitochondrial complex II succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme subunits SDHB, SDHC and SDHD have been found in familial and sporadic PGLs, and gain-of-function mutations of the oncogenes c-kit (KIT) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) cause sporadic and familial GISTs. We recently reported an international series of patients with CT, 34 females and three males (median age of presentation 21 years) who did not carry SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed a number of DNA copy number changes. The most frequent and greatest contiguous change was a deletion within the 1pcen13-q21 region, which harbours the SDHC gene. Another frequent change was loss of 1p. Although GISTs showed more frequent losses of 1p than PGLs, the pattern of chromosomal changes was similar in the two tumours despite their different tissue origin and histology; the findings were consistent with a common genetic aetiology of these two tumours in CT. In a separate condition, in which the association (or dyad) of GISTs with PGLs is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner (Carney–Stratakis syndrome, CSS), germline mutations of the SDHB, SDHC and SDHD genes (but not KIT or PDFGRA) were found; GISTs in this condition were caused by SDH deficiency. We conclude that CT is a novel MEN syndrome whose genetic defect remains elusive. CSS is caused by SDH defects, suggesting that sarcomas (GISTs) can be caused by defective mitochondrial oxidation, consistent with recent data implicating this enzyme in a variety of

  12. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise

    PubMed Central

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D.; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender’s and receiver’s temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions. PMID:25848050

  13. Interactive Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Carol

    1992-01-01

    A workshop on interactive video was designed for fourth and fifth grade students, with the goals of familiarizing students with laser disc technology, developing a cadre of trained students to train other students and staff, and challenging able learners to utilize higher level thinking skills while conducting a research project. (JDD)

  14. Interactive Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jean K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents guiding principles for developing interactive lessons for the World Wide Web. Describes "Amazing Space: Education Online from the Hubble Space Telescope", a program where students study spectacular Hubble Space Telescope images of stars and star-forming regions to learn about the life cycle of stars and the creation of atoms. (JRH)

  15. Interacting Compasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, Hector G.; Betancourt, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The use of multiple compasses to map and visualize magnetic fields is well-known. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the compasses aligning them along the lines of force. Some science museums show the field of a magnet using a table with many compasses in a closely packed arrangement. However, the very interesting interactions that occur…

  16. An Observational Study of Mother/Child and Father/Child Interactions in Story Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Judith I.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of how mothers and fathers differ in reading aloud with children between 13 and 46 months of age. Twenty-seven mother/child dyads and 36 father/child dyads were observed on three consecutive weeks by trained observers who used a modified version of descriptors of read-aloud behaviors developed by…

  17. Mother-Infant Person- and Object-Directed Interactions in Latino Immigrant Families: A Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Bakeman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother-infant person- and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother-infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother-infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers…

  18. Putting Interaction into Interactive Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Thomas E.

    Current technology provides many new ideas and alternatives to traditional education and training practices. From the experience of the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Academic Instructor School (AIS) and current research in the field, teaching via interactive television (teleseminar/video teletraining) requires new teaching skills and new ways of thinking…

  19. Argentophilic interactions.

    PubMed

    Schmidbaur, Hubert; Schier, Annette

    2015-01-12

    The decade 1990-2000 saw a growing interest in aurophilic interactions in gold chemistry. These interactions were found to influence significantly a variety of structural and other physical characteristics of gold(I) compounds. The attention paid to this unusual and counterintuitive type of intra- and intermolecular bonding between seemingly closed-shell metal centers has rapidly been extended to also include silver chemistry. Hundreds of experimental and computational studies have since been dedicated to the argentophilicity phenomenon. The results of this development are reviewed herein focusing on molecular systems where two or more silver(I) centers are in close contact leading to specific structural characteristics and a variety of novel physical properties. These include strongly modified ligand-to-metal charge-transfer processes observed in absorption and emission spectroscopy, but also colossal positive and negative thermal expansion on the one hand and unprecedented negative linear compressibility of crystal parameters on the other. PMID:25393553

  20. Electroweak interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Renton, P.

    1990-01-01

    The central part of the book consists of a comprehensive discussion of many scattering and decay processes involving electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions. A list of topics includes electron-proton scattering, Compton scattering, muon decay, electron-positron annihilation, photon and hadron structure functions, neutrino-nucleus scattering, Cabibbo theory, tau-lepton decays, W and Z boson decays, mixing phenomena and many others. For most processes, the author presents the appropriate Feynman diagrams, first-order matrix elements and the resulting cross sections or decay rates. The last section of Electroweak Interactions discusses some of the open or unanswered questions in the standard model, including the undiscovered top quark, the Higgs mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and detailed tests involving radiative effects. The book concludes with a brief account of ideas that extend beyond the standard model, such as left-right symmetric models, grand unified theories, compositeness, supersymmetry and string theory.

  1. A LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF MOTHER-INFANT PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT: OUTCOMES ON MOTHERS AND INTERACTIONS.

    PubMed

    Salomonsson, Majlis Winberg; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Salomonsson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    An earlier randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared 80 mother-infant dyads in a Stockholm sample. One had received mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment [mother-infant psychoanalytic therapies (MIP) group], and the other received Child Health Center care (CHCC group). Effects were found on mother-reported depression and expert-rated mother-infant relationship qualities and maternal sensitivity. When the children were 412 years, the dyads were followed up with assessments of the children's attachment representations, social and emotional development, and global functioning, and the mothers' psychological well-being and representations of the child as well as the mother-child interactions. We gathered data from 66 cases approximately 312 years' posttreatment. All scores involving the mothers had now approached community levels. We found effects on maternal depression in favor of MIP, but no other between-group differences. The MIP treatments seemed to have helped the mothers to recover more quickly on personal well-being, to become more sensitive to their babies' suffering, and to better support and appreciate their children throughout infancy and toddlerhood. If so, this would explain why the MIP children had a better global functioning and were more often "OK" and less often "Troubled" at 412 years. PMID:26551600

  2. Do you put your best foot forward? Interactive effects of task performance and impression management tactics on career outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jen-Wei; Chiu, Wei-La; Chang, Yi-Ying; Johnstone, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the interactive effects of task performance and impression management tactics on career outcomes from the socioanalytic perspective. Based on a survey of 195 employee-supervisor dyads from various industries in Taiwan, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that (1) the relationship between task performance and a one-year salary adjustment was greater among employees who frequently employ ingratiation than among those who do not, (2) the relationship between task performance and a one-year salary adjustment was greater among employees who frequently employ exemplification than among those who do not, and (3) the relationship between task performance and career satisfaction was greater among employees who frequently employ self-promotion than among those who do not. This study concludes by suggesting implications for research and practice, and offers some directions for future research. PMID:25175887

  3. High-resolution infrared and theoretical study of gaseous oxazole in the 600-1400 cm -1 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelund, F.; Larsen, R. Wugt; Palmer, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    The Fourier transform gas-phase IR spectrum of oxazole, C 3H 3NO, has been recorded with a resolution of ca. 0.0030 cm -1 in the wavenumber region 600-1400 cm -1. The rotational structures of 10 fundamental bands (four of a-type, three of b-type and three of c-type) have been analysed using the Watson model. Ground state rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants as well as upper state spectroscopic constants have been obtained from the fits. A number of perturbations have been identified in the bands. From a local crossing observed in ν15 we located the very weak ν14 band at 858.19(1) cm -1. Also ν13 is definitively located at 899.3 cm -1. The three global c-Coriolis interacting dyads ν9/ ν10, ν10/ ν11, and ν12/ ν13 have each been analysed by a model including first and second order Coriolis resonance using ab initio predicted first order Coriolis coupling constants; second order Coriolis interaction parameters are determined. The rotational constants, harmonic and anharmonic frequencies, intensities, and vibration-rotation constants (alphas, ανA,B,C) have been predicted by quantum chemical calculations using a cc-pVTZ basis at the MP2 and B3LYP methodology levels, and compared with the present experimental data. Both the rotational constants and frequencies are marginally closer to experiment from the B3LYP calculations. In order to make more significant comparisons between theory and experiment for the alphas, we take differences between ground and vibronic state values; under these circumstances, the B3LYP definitely have a closer fit to experiment.

  4. Partial mediation role of self-efficacy between positive social interaction and mental health in family caregivers for dementia patients in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuying; Edwards, Helen; Yates, Patsy; Guo, Qihao; Li, Chunbo

    2013-01-01

    We explored the mediation effect of caregiver self-efficacy on the influences of behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) of dementia care recipients (CRs) or family caregivers' (CGs) social supports (informational, tangible and affectionate support and positive social interaction) on CGs' mental health. We interviewed 196 CGs, using a battery of measures including demographic data of the dyads, CRs' dementia-related impairments, and CGs' social support, self-efficacy and the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Short-Form (SF-36) Health Survey. Multiple regression analyses showed that gathering information on self-efficacy and managing CG distress self-efficacy were the partial mediators of the relationship between positive social interaction and CG mental health. Managing caregiving distress self-efficacy also partial mediated the impact of BPSD on CG mental health. We discuss implications of the results for improving mental health of the target population in mainland China. PMID:24386178

  5. Why Synchrony Matters during Mother-Child Interactions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Avril, Marie; Achard, Catherine; Chetouani, Mohamed; Missonnier, Sylvain; Cohen, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of mother-child interactions is a core issue of early child development and psychopathology. This paper focuses on the concept of “synchrony” and examines (1) how synchrony in mother-child interaction is defined and operationalized; (2) the contribution that the concept of synchrony has brought to understanding the nature of mother-child interactions. Method Between 1977 and 2013, we searched several databases using the following key-words: « synchrony » « interaction » and « mother-child ». We focused on studies examining parent-child interactions among children aged 2 months to 5 years. From the 63 relevant studies, we extracted study description variables (authors, year, design, number of subjects, age); assessment conditions and modalities; and main findings. Results The most common terms referring to synchrony were mutuality, reciprocity, rhythmicity, harmonious interaction, turn-taking and shared affect; all terms were used to characterize the mother-child dyad. As a consequence, we propose defining synchrony as a dynamic and reciprocal adaptation of the temporal structure of behaviors and shared affect between interactive partners. Three main types of assessment methods for studying synchrony emerged: (1) global interaction scales with dyadic items; (2) specific synchrony scales; and (3) micro-coded time-series analyses. It appears that synchrony should be regarded as a social signal per se as it has been shown to be valid in both normal and pathological populations. Better mother-child synchrony is associated with familiarity (vs. unknown partner), a healthy mother (vs. pathological mother), typical development (vs. psychopathological development), and a more positive child outcomes. Discussion Synchrony is a key feature of mother-infant interactions. Adopting an objective approach in studying synchrony is not a simple task given available assessment tools and due to its temporality and multimodal expression. We propose an

  6. Cosmic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    An image based on data taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope reveals a triplet of galaxies intertwined in a cosmic dance. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The three galaxies, catalogued as NGC 7173 (top), 7174 (bottom right) and 7176 (bottom left), are located 106 million light-years away towards the constellation of Piscis Austrinus (the 'Southern Fish'). NGC 7173 and 7176 are elliptical galaxies, while NGC 7174 is a spiral galaxy with quite disturbed dust lanes and a long, twisted tail. This seems to indicate that the two bottom galaxies - whose combined shape bears some resemblance to that of a sleeping baby - are currently interacting, with NGC 7176 providing fresh material to NGC 7174. Matter present in great quantity around the triplet's members also points to the fact that NGC 7176 and NGC 7173 have interacted in the past. Astronomers have suggested that the three galaxies will finally merge into a giant 'island universe', tens to hundreds of times as massive as our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02b/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The triplet is part of a so-called 'Compact Group', as compiled by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the early 1980s. The group, which is the 90th entry in the catalogue and is therefore known as HCG 90, actually contains four major members. One of them - NGC 7192 - lies above the trio, outside of this image, and is another peculiar spiral galaxy. Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of typically four to ten galaxies in close proximity to one another. Another striking example is Robert's Quartet. Compact groups are excellent laboratories for the study of galaxy interactions and their effects, in particular the formation of stars. As the striking image reveals, there are many other galaxies in the field. Some are distant ones, while others seem to be part of the family. Studies made with other telescopes have indeed revealed that the HCG 90 group contains 16 members

  7. Designing "Interaction": How Do Interaction Design Students Address Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlgren, Klas; Ramberg, Robert; Artman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive…

  8. Cloud Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 1 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 258.8 East (101.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration

  9. Effects of Parental Interaction on Infant Vocalization Rate, Variability and Vocal Type

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Beau; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Messinger, Daniel; Bene, Edina; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Lee, Chia-Chang; Lambert, Brittany; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Examination of infant vocalization patterns across interactive and noninteractive contexts may facilitate better understanding of early communication development. In the current study, with 24 infant-parent dyads, infant volubility increased significantly when parent interaction ceased (presenting a “still face,” or SF) after a period of normal interaction (“face-to-face,” or FF). Infant volubility continued at the higher rate than in FF when the parent re-engaged (“reunion,” or RE). Additionally, during SF, the variability in volubility across infants decreased, suggesting the infants adopted relatively similar rates of vocalization to re-engage the parent. The pattern of increasing volubility in SF was seen across all of the most common speech-like vocal types of the first half-year of life (e.g., full vowels, quasivowels, squeals, growls). Parent and infant volubility levels were not significantly correlated. The findings suggest that by six months of age infants have learned that their vocalizations have social value and that changes in volubility can affect parental engagement. PMID:25383061

  10. Infant twins' social interactions with caregivers and same-age siblings.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Naomi J; Brooks, Patricia J; Yuksel-Sokmen, P Ozlem; Ragir, Sonia; Flory, Michael J; Lennon, Elizabeth M; Karmel, Bernard Z; Gardner, Judith M

    2015-11-01

    The study of twin behavior offers the opportunity to study differential patterns of social and communicative interactions in a context where the adult partner and same-age peer are equally familiar. We investigated the development of social engagement, communicative gestures, and imitation in 7- to 25-month-old twins. Twin dyads (N=20 pairs) participated in 10-min, semi-structured play sessions, with the mother seated in a chair completing paperwork for half the session, and on the floor with her children for the other half. Overall, twins engaged more with their mothers than with their siblings: they showed objects and imitated speech and object use more frequently when interacting with their mothers than with their siblings. When the mother was otherwise engaged, the twins played with toys separately, observed each other's toy play, or were unengaged. These results demonstrate that adult scaffolding of social interactions supports increased communicative bids even in a context where both familiar peers and adults are available as communicative partners. PMID:26476957

  11. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P. Read; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent’s preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner’s appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner’s model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference. PMID:26053429

  12. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange.

    PubMed

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P Read; Dayan, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent's preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner's appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner's model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference. PMID:26053429

  13. Attachment style dimensions are associated with brain activity in response to gaze interaction.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Marco; Iannoni, Maria Elena; Pandolfo, Anna Lucia; Aceto, Paola; Lai, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the time course of brain processes involved in the visual perception of different gaze interactions in woman-child dyads and the association between attachment dimensions and brain activation during the presentation of gaze interactions. The hypothesis was that the woman avoidance will produce a greater activation of primary somatosensory and limbic areas. The attachment styles dimensions avoidant-related will be associated with fronto-limbic brain intensity during the convergence of gaze. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded using a 256-channel HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net in 44 female subjects (age: 24 ± 2 years). Event-related potential (ERP) components and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) were analyzed. Participants were administered the attachment style questionnaire before EEG task. A lower P350 latency was found in the fronto-central montage in response to woman avoidance. sLORETA analysis showed a greater intensity of limbic and primary somatosensory areas in response to woman avoidance compared to the others gaze interactions. In response to convergence gaze, the confidence attachment dimension was negatively correlated with the intensities of the right temporal and limbic areas, and the relationships as secondary attachment dimension were positively correlated with the intensities of the bilateral frontal areas and of the left parietal area. PMID:25568957

  14. Examining dog-human play: the characteristics, affect, and vocalizations of a unique interspecific interaction.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Alexandra; Hecht, Julie

    2016-07-01

    Despite the growing interest in research on the interaction between humans and dogs, only a very few research projects focus on the routines between dogs and their owners. In this study, we investigated one such routine: dog-human play. Dyadic interspecific play is known to be a common interaction between owner and charge, but the details of what counts as play have not been thoroughly researched. Similarly, though people represent that "play" is pleasurable, no study has yet undertaken to determine whether different forms of play are associated with different affective states. Thus, we aimed to generate an inventory of the forms of dyadic play, the vocalizations within play, and to investigate the relationship of affect to elements of play. Via a global citizen science project, we solicited videotapes of dog-human play sessions from dog owners. We coded 187 play bouts via frame-by-frame video playback. We then assessed the relationship between various intra-bout variables and owner affect (positive or neutral) during play (dog affect was overwhelmingly positive). Amount of physical contact ("touch"), level of activity of owner ("movement"), and physical closeness of dog-owner dyad ("proximity") were highly correlated with positive affect. Owner vocalizations were found to contain different elements in positive- and neutral-affect play. One novel category of play, "tease", was found. We conclude that not all play is created equal: the experience of play to the owner participant is strongly related to a few identifiable characteristics of the interaction. PMID:27003698

  15. High-resolution infrared and theoretical study of four fundamental bands of gaseous 1,3,4-oxadiazole between 800 and 1600 cm -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelund, F.; Larsen, R. Wugt; Aitken, R. A.; Aitken, K. M.; Palmer, M. H.

    2007-12-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of gaseous 1,3,4-oxadiazole, C 2H 2N 2O, has been recorded in the 800-1600 cm -1 wavenumber region with a resolution around 0.0030 cm -1. The four fundamental bands ν9(B 1; 852.5 cm -1), ν14(B 2; 1078.5 cm -1), ν4(A 1; 1092.6 cm -1), and ν2(A 1; 1534.9 cm -1) are analyzed by the standard Watson model. Ground state rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants are obtained from a simultaneous fit of ground state combination differences from three of these bands and previous microwave transitions. Upper state spectroscopic constants are obtained for all four bands from single band fits using the Watson model. The ν4 and ν14 bands form a c-Coriolis interacting dyad, and the two bands are analyzed simultaneously by a model including first and second order Coriolis resonance using the ab initio predicted Coriolis coupling constant ς14,4c. An extended local resonance in ν2 is explained as higher order b-Coriolis type resonance with ν6 + ν10, which is further perturbed globally by the ν15 + ν10 level. A fit of selected low- J transitions to a triad model including ν2(A 1), ν6 + ν10(B 1), and ν15 + ν10(A 2) using an ab initio calculated Coriolis coupling constant ς15,6c is performed. The rotational constants, ground state quartic centrifugal distortion constants, anharmonic frequencies, and vibration-rotational constants ( α-constants) predicted by quantum chemical calculations using a cc-pVTZ and TZ2P basis with B3LYP methodology, are compared with the present experimental data, where there is generally good agreement. A complete set of anharmonic frequencies and α-constants for all fundamental levels of the molecule is given.

  16. Maternal depression and the heart of parenting: respiratory sinus arrhythmia and affective dynamics during parent-adolescent interactions.

    PubMed

    Connell, Arin M; Hughes-Scalise, Abigail; Klostermann, Susan; Azem, Talla

    2011-10-01

    Maternal depression is associated with problematic parenting and the development of emotional and behavior problems in children and adolescents. While emotional regulatory abilities are likely to influence emotional exchanges between parents and teens, surprisingly little is known about the role of emotion regulation during parent-child interactions, particularly in high-risk families. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been widely linked to emotion regulatory abilities in recent research, and the current study investigated RSA and maternal depression in relation to dyadic flexibility, as well as mutuality of negative and positive affect displayed during three discussion tasks between 59 mother-adolescent pairs (age 11-17 years). Dyadic flexibility was predicted by the interaction of maternal depression, maternal RSA, and teen RSA, with higher maternal RSA predicting greater dyadic flexibility, particularly in highest risk dyads (i.e., elevated maternal depression and lower teen RSA). Teen RSA interacted with maternal depression to predict mutual negative affect, serving as a protective factor. Finally, maternal and teen RSA interacted to predict mutual positive affect, with maternal RSA buffering against low teen RSA to predict higher mutual positive affect. Results support the role of RSA in affectively laden interactions between parents and adolescents, particularly in the face of maternal depression. PMID:21875198

  17. Maternal mobile device use during a structured parent-child interaction task

    PubMed Central

    Radesky, Jenny; Miller, Alison L.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Appugliese, Danielle; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine associations of maternal mobile device use with the frequency of mother-child interactions during a structured laboratory task. Methods Participants included 225 low-income mother-child pairs. When children were ~6 years old, dyads were videotaped during a standardized protocol in order to characterize how mothers and children interacted when asked to try familiar and unfamiliar foods. From videotapes, we dichotomized mothers based on whether or not they spontaneously used a mobile device, and counted maternal verbal and nonverbal prompts toward the child. We used multivariate Poisson regression to study associations of device use with eating prompt frequency for different foods. Results Mothers were an average of 31.3 (SD 7.1) years old and 28.0% were of Hispanic/non-white race/ethnicity. During the protocol, 23.1% of mothers spontaneously used a mobile device. Device use was not associated with any maternal characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, education, depressive symptoms, or parenting style. Mothers with device use initiated fewer verbal (RR 0.80 [95% CI: 0.63, 1.03]) and nonverbal (0.61 [0.39, 0.96]) interactions with their children than mothers who did not use a device, when averaged across all foods. This association was strongest during introduction of halva, the most unfamiliar food (0.67 [0.48, 0.93] for verbal and 0.42 [0.20, 0.89] for nonverbal interactions). Conclusions Mobile device use was common and associated with fewer interactions with children during a structured interaction task, particularly nonverbal interactions and during introduction of an unfamiliar food. More research is needed to understand how device use affects parent-child engagement in naturalistic contexts. PMID:25454369

  18. A theoretical study on the hydrogen-bonding interactions between flavonoids and ethanol/water.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Zhou, Yu; Liang, Qin; Chen, Da-Fu; Guo, Rui

    2016-04-01

    Ethanol and water are the solvents most commonly used to extract flavonoids from propolis. Do hydrogen-bonding interactions exist between flavonoids and ethanol/water? In this work, this question was addressed by using density functional theory (DFT) to provide information on the hydrogen-bonding interactions between flavonoids and ethanol/water. Chrysin and Galangin were chosen as the representative flavonoids. The investigated complexes included chrysin-H2O, chrysin-CH3CH2OH, galangin-H2O and galangin-CH3CH2OH dyads. Molecular geometries, hydrogen-bond binding energies, charges of monomers and dyads, and topological analysis were studied at the B3LYP/M062X level of theory with the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The main conclusions were: (1) nine and ten optimized hydrogen-bond geometries were obtained for chrysin-H2O/CH3CH2OH and galangin-H2O/CH3CH2OH complexes, respectively. (2) The hydrogen atoms except aromatic H1 and H5 and all of the oxygen atoms can form hydrogen-bonds with H2O and CH3CH2OH. Ethanol and water form strong hydrogen-bonds with the hydroxyl, carbonyl and ether groups in chrysin/galangin and form weak hydrogen-bonds with aromatic hydrogen atoms. Except in structures labeled A and B, chrysin and galangin interact more strongly with H2O than CH3CH2OH. (3) When chrysin and galangin form hydrogen-bonds with H2O and CH3CH2OH, charge transfers from the hydrogen-bond acceptor (H2O and CH3CH2OH in structures A, B, G, H, I, J) to the hydrogen-bond donor (chrysin and galangin in structure A, B, G, H, I, J). The stronger hydrogen-bond makes the hydrogen-bond donor lose more charge (A> B> G> H> I> J). (4) Most of the hydrogen-bonds in chrysin/galangin-H2O/CH3CH2OH complexes may be considered as electrostatic dominant, while C-O2···H in structures labeled E and C-O5···H in structures labeled J are hydrogen-bonds combined of electrostatic and covalent characters. H9, H7, and O4 are the preferred hydrogen-bonding sites. PMID:27029620

  19. The Role of Interactional Quality in Learning from Touch Screens during Infancy: Context Matters

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Interactional quality has been shown to enhance learning during book reading and play, but has not been examined during touch screen use. Learning to apply knowledge from a touch screen is complex for infants because it involves transfer of learning between a two-dimensional (2D) screen and three-dimensional (3D) object in the physical world. This study uses a touch screen procedure to examine interactional quality measured via maternal structuring, diversity of maternal language, and dyadic emotional responsiveness and infant outcomes during a transfer of learning task. Fifty 15-month-old infants and their mothers participated in this semi-naturalistic teaching task. Mothers were given a 3D object, and a static image of the object presented on a touch screen. Mothers had 5 min to teach their infant that a button on the real toy works in the same way as a virtual button on the touch screen (or vice versa). Overall, 64% of infants learned how to make the button work, transferring learning from the touch screen to the 3D object or vice versa. Infants were just as successful in the 3D to 2D transfer direction as they were in the 2D to 3D transfer direction. A cluster analysis based on emotional responsiveness, the proportion of diverse maternal verbal input, and amount of maternal structuring resulted in two levels of interactional quality: high quality and moderate quality. A logistic regression revealed the level of interactional quality predicted infant transfer. Infants were 19 times more likely to succeed and transfer learning between the touch screen and real object if they were in a high interactional quality dyad, even after controlling for infant activity levels. The present findings suggest that interactional quality between mother and infant plays an important role in making touch screens effective teaching tools for infants’ learning. PMID:27625613

  20. The Role of Interactional Quality in Learning from Touch Screens during Infancy: Context Matters.

    PubMed

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Interactional quality has been shown to enhance learning during book reading and play, but has not been examined during touch screen use. Learning to apply knowledge from a touch screen is complex for infants because it involves transfer of learning between a two-dimensional (2D) screen and three-dimensional (3D) object in the physical world. This study uses a touch screen procedure to examine interactional quality measured via maternal structuring, diversity of maternal language, and dyadic emotional responsiveness and infant outcomes during a transfer of learning task. Fifty 15-month-old infants and their mothers participated in this semi-naturalistic teaching task. Mothers were given a 3D object, and a static image of the object presented on a touch screen. Mothers had 5 min to teach their infant that a button on the real toy works in the same way as a virtual button on the touch screen (or vice versa). Overall, 64% of infants learned how to make the button work, transferring learning from the touch screen to the 3D object or vice versa. Infants were just as successful in the 3D to 2D transfer direction as they were in the 2D to 3D transfer direction. A cluster analysis based on emotional responsiveness, the proportion of diverse maternal verbal input, and amount of maternal structuring resulted in two levels of interactional quality: high quality and moderate quality. A logistic regression revealed the level of interactional quality predicted infant transfer. Infants were 19 times more likely to succeed and transfer learning between the touch screen and real object if they were in a high interactional quality dyad, even after controlling for infant activity levels. The present findings suggest that interactional quality between mother and infant plays an important role in making touch screens effective teaching tools for infants' learning. PMID:27625613

  1. Behavior problems in middle childhood: the predictive role of maternal distress, child attachment, and mother-child interactions.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Moss, Ellen; Cyr, Chantal; Pascuzzo, Katherine

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal relation between early school-age measures of maternal psychosocial distress, quality of mother-child interactions, and child attachment behavior, and behavior problem profiles in middle childhood using a multi-informant design. Participants were 243 French-speaking mother-child dyads (122 girls) who were part of an ongoing longitudinal project. Maternal psychosocial distress was assessed when children were between 4 and 6 years of age. Mother-child interactive quality and attachment patterns were observed at age 6 during a laboratory visit. At age 8.5, externalizing and internalizing problems were assessed using mother and child reports. Results show that maternal psychosocial distress predicted later social adaptation reported by the child through the mediation of mother-child interactions. Analyses also revealed that higher maternal psychosocial distress and controlling attachment patterns, either of the punitive or caregiving type, significantly predicted membership in both child internalizing and externalizing clinical problem groups. Lower mother-child interactive quality, male gender, and child ambivalent attachment were also predictors of externalizing clinical problems. PMID:23748336

  2. Infant Television and Video Exposure Associated With Limited Parent-Child Verbal Interactions in Low Socioeconomic Status Households

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Berkule, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Huberman, Harris S.; Alvir, Jose; Dreyer, Benard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess verbal interactions related to television and other electronic media exposure among mothers and 6 month-old-infants. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 154 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development. Setting Urban public hospital. Participants Low socioeconomic status mothers of 6-month-old infants. Main Exposure Media exposure and content. Main Outcome Measures Mother-infant verbal interaction associated with media exposure and maternal coviewing. Results Of 154 low socioeconomic status mothers, 149 (96.8%) reported daily media exposure in their infants, with median exposure of 120 (interquartile range, 60-210) minutes in a 24-hour period. Among 426 program exposures, mother-infant interactions were reported during 101 (23.7%). Interactions were reported most frequently with educational young child–oriented media (42.8% of programs), compared with 21.3% of noneducational young child–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.98) and 14.7% of school-age/teenage/adult–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.3). Among coviewed programs with educational content, mothers reported interactions during 62.7% of exposures. Coviewing was not reported more frequently for educational young child–oriented programs. Conclusions We found limited verbal interactions during television exposure in infancy, with interactions reported for less than one-quarter of exposures. Although interactions were most commonly reported among programs with educational content that had been coviewed, programs with educational content were not more likely to be coviewed than were other programs. Our findings do not support development of infant-directed educational programming in the absence of strategies to increase coviewing and interactions. PMID:18458186

  3. Bystanders, parcelling, and an absence of trust in the grooming interactions of wild male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation remains a central issue in socio-biology with the fundamental problem of how individuals minimize the risks of being short-changed (‘cheated’) should their behavioural investment in another not be returned. Economic decisions that individuals make during interactions may depend upon the presence of potential partners nearby, which offers co operators a temptation to defect from the current partner. The parcelling model posits that donors subdivide services into parcels to force cooperation, and that this is contingent on opportunities for defection; that is, the presence of bystanders. Here we test this model and the effect of bystander presence using grooming interactions of wild chimpanzees. We found that with more bystanders, initiators gave less grooming at the beginning of the bout and were more likely to abandon a grooming bout, while bouts were less likely to be reciprocated. We also found that the groomer’s initial investment was not higher among frequent groomers or stronger reciprocators, suggesting that contrary to current assumptions, grooming decisions are not based on trust, or bonds, within dyads. Our work highlights the importance of considering immediate social context and the influence of bystanders for understanding the evolution of the behavioural strategies that produce cooperation. PMID:26856371

  4. Source and destination memory in face-to-face interaction: A multinomial modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nele M; Schult, Janette C; Steffens, Melanie C

    2015-06-01

    Arguing that people are often in doubt concerning to whom they have presented what information, Gopie and MacLeod (2009) introduced a new memory component, destination memory: remembering the destination of output information (i.e., "Who did you tell this to?"). They investigated source (i.e., "Who told you that?") versus destination memory in computer-based imagined interactions. The present study investigated destination memory in real interaction situations. In 2 experiments with mixed-gender (N = 53) versus same-gender (N = 89) groups, source and destination memory were manipulated by creating a setup similar to speed dating. In dyads, participants completed phrase fragments with personal information, taking turns. At recognition, participants decided whether fragments were new or old and, if old, whether they were listened to or spoken and which depicted person was the source or the destination of the information. A multinomial model was used for analyses. Source memory significantly exceeded destination memory, whereas information itself was better remembered in the destination than in the source condition. These findings corroborate the trade-off hypothesis: Context is better remembered in input than in output events, but information itself is better remembered in output than in input events. We discuss the implications of these findings for real-world conversation situations. PMID:25893444

  5. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, William A.; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects—some good and some bad—on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM). Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes. PMID:27187319

  6. Too many motives? The interactive effects of multiple motives on organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Riki; Bolino, Mark C; Lin, Cheng-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Prior research indicates that employees engage in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) because of prosocial values, organizational concern, and impression management motives. Building upon and extending prior research, we investigate all 3 OCB motives by developing a categorization scheme to differentiate their distinctiveness and by building a contextualized argument regarding their interactive effects on OCB in a more collectivistic culture. In a sample of 379 Chinese employee-supervisor dyads from Taiwan, we found that the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was strengthened by organizational concern motives; likewise, the relationship between organizational concern and OCBs directed at the organization was strengthened by prosocial values motives. However, in contrast to prior research (Grant & Mayer, 2009), the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was weakened by impression management motives. A 3-way interaction between all 3 motives further suggests that, in Asian cultures, impression management motives may undermine the positive effects of prosocial values and organizational concern motives on OCBs directed at individuals but not OCBs directed at the organization. PMID:25198096

  7. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction.

    PubMed

    Griffin, William A; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects-some good and some bad-on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM). Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes. PMID:27187319

  8. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix’s (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent’s empathic tendencies and his/her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry versus laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child’s distress versus non-distress). PMID:24955589

  9. Early development of turn-taking in vocal interaction between mothers and infants

    PubMed Central

    Gratier, Maya; Devouche, Emmanuel; Guellai, Bahia; Infanti, Rubia; Yilmaz, Ebru; Parlato-Oliveira, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Infants are known to engage in conversation-like exchanges from the end of the second month after birth. These ‘protoconversations’ involve both turn-taking and overlapping vocalization. Previous research has shown that the temporal organization of adult–infant turn-taking sequences is similar to that of adult verbal conversation. It has also been shown that young infants adjust the quality of their vocalization in response to the quality and timing of adult vocalization. We present new evidence of turn-taking interaction in infants aged between 8 and 21 weeks based on the analysis of 176 samples of naturalistic face-to-face interactions from 51 dyads. We found high levels of latched turns as well as frequent initiation of turn-taking by infants at these ages. Our data do not support the hypothesis that turn-taking ability increases with age between 2 and 5 months but do suggest that infants are active participants in turn-taking from the earliest age and that mothers adjust turn-taking formats to infants. PMID:26388790

  10. Observing social signals in scaffolding interactions: how to detect when a helping intention risks falling short.

    PubMed

    Leone, Giovanna

    2012-10-01

    In face-to-face interactions, some social signals are aimed at regulating scaffolding processes, by which more knowledgeable people try to help less knowledgeable ones, to enable them to learn new concepts or skills (Vygotsky 1978). Observing face-to-face scaffolding interactions might not only allow us to grasp a large variety of these highly interesting social signals but may also be useful for the sake of scaffolding processes themselves. It often happens, in fact, that the empowering intentions implicit in these processes end up falling short, if the social signals regulating this specific kind of face-to-face interaction are misunderstood. Interestingly, many of these misunderstood aspects are related to the recipient's role. Indeed, attention is usually focused on the behavior of those imparting the knowledge, while skills already mastered by the learners, as well as their feedback, tend not to be taken as much into account. For the purpose of exploring the often very subtly nuanced social signals regulating on-going scaffolding processes in real-life interactions, an example of a methodological tool is presented: one already used to observe the interactions of dyads of Italian primary school teachers and their pupils, and mothers and their children. The article leads to two main conclusions: that the results of instances of scaffolding may be predicted as to their success or otherwise simply by telescoping crucial social signals during the scaffolding's initial phases, and that when helpers disregard these signals the effects of their actions may be detrimental or even humiliating for the receivers, notwithstanding the helper's intentions. PMID:22009169

  11. Prenatal Ultrasound Screening: False Positive Soft Markers May Alter Maternal Representations and Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Viaux-Savelon, Sylvie; Dommergues, Marc; Rosenblum, Ouriel; Bodeau, Nicolas; Aidane, Elizabeth; Philippon, Odile; Mazet, Philippe; Vibert-Guigue, Claude; Vauthier-Brouzes, Danièle; Feldman, Ruth; Cohen, David

    2012-01-01

    Background In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a “soft marker” (SM) that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. Methodology and Principal Findings Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. Conclusion False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences. PMID:22292077

  12. Mother-infant interaction in mother and baby unit patients: before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maeve; Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M; Seneviratne, Gertrude; Pawlby, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Maternal severe mental illness (SMI) disrupts mother-infant interaction in the immediate postpartum and is associated with less than optimal offspring development. In-patient mother and baby units (MBUs) provide the opportunity of supporting mothers with SMI in developing their relationships with their infants in order to minimise this disruption. One way is through an individualised video feedback intervention, delivered as part of a multidisciplinary inpatient treatment package. The present study prospectively measured changes in mother-infant interaction following video feedback intervention, during admission to an MBU (N = 49). Comparisons were made with mother-infant interactions of (1) a community-based ill group of mothers (N = 67) with a mental health diagnosis of similar severity, living at home and without the intervention and (2) a group of healthy mothers (N = 22). Maternal sensitivity and unresponsiveness, and infant cooperativeness and passiveness, were measured from a 3-min videotaped play session, using the CARE-Index. Following admission and the video feedback intervention, the MBU mothers (irrespective of diagnosis) and their infants showed improvements in their interactions. Moreover, on discharge the MBU dyads were significantly more sensitive, cooperative and responsive than the community ill group, and as attuned as the healthy group. While the design of the study does not allow us to conclude unequivocally that the video feedback intervention has effects on the outcome for the mothers and babies independent from the whole inpatient therapeutic package, the results do show that the dyadic interaction of mothers with SMI and their infants improves following the focussed treatment package in a specialised MBU. PMID:23786913

  13. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  14. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  15. Early maternal relational traumatic experiences and psychopathological symptoms: a longitudinal study on mother-infant and father-infant interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tambelli, Renata; Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Early maternal relational traumas and psychopathological risk can have an impact on mother-infant interactions. Research has suggested the study of fathers and of their psychological profiles as protection or risk factors. The aim of the paper is to assess the quality of parental interactions during feeding in families with mothers with early traumatic experiences. One hundred thirty-six (N = 136) families were recruited in gynecological clinics: Group A included families with mothers who experienced early sexual/physical abuse; Group B was composed of families with mothers who experienced early emotional abuse or neglect; and Group C comprised healthy controls. The subjects participated in a 10-month longitudinal protocol [at the fourth month of pregnancy (T0), 3 months after child birth (T1), and 6 months after child birth (T2)] that included an observation of mother-infant and father-infant interactions during feeding (Scala di Valutazione dell’Interazione Alimentare [SVIA]) and a self-reporting 90-item Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R). Maternal higher rates of depression and early traumatic experiences of neglect and emotional abuse predicted more maladaptive scores on the affective state of the dyad SVIA subscale. Paternal anxiety predicted more severe levels of food refusal in the child during feeding. PMID:26354733

  16. Early maternal relational traumatic experiences and psychopathological symptoms: a longitudinal study on mother-infant and father-infant interactions.

    PubMed

    Tambelli, Renata; Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Early maternal relational traumas and psychopathological risk can have an impact on mother-infant interactions. Research has suggested the study of fathers and of their psychological profiles as protection or risk factors. The aim of the paper is to assess the quality of parental interactions during feeding in families with mothers with early traumatic experiences. One hundred thirty-six (N = 136) families were recruited in gynecological clinics: Group A included families with mothers who experienced early sexual/physical abuse; Group B was composed of families with mothers who experienced early emotional abuse or neglect; and Group C comprised healthy controls. The subjects participated in a 10-month longitudinal protocol [at the fourth month of pregnancy (T0), 3 months after child birth (T1), and 6 months after child birth (T2)] that included an observation of mother-infant and father-infant interactions during feeding (Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare [SVIA]) and a self-reporting 90-item Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R). Maternal higher rates of depression and early traumatic experiences of neglect and emotional abuse predicted more maladaptive scores on the affective state of the dyad SVIA subscale. Paternal anxiety predicted more severe levels of food refusal in the child during feeding. PMID:26354733

  17. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator.

    PubMed

    Tina, K G; Bhadra, R; Srinivasan, N

    2007-07-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bonds, interactions between hydrophobic residues, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, aromatic-aromatic interactions, aromatic-sulphur interactions and cation-pi interactions within a protein or between proteins in a complex. Interactions are calculated on the basis of standard, published criteria. The identified interactions between residues can be visualized using a RasMol and Jmol interface. The advantage with PIC server is the easy availability of inter-residue interaction calculations in a single site. It also determines the accessible surface area and residue-depth, which is the distance of a residue from the surface of the protein. User can also recognize specific kind of interactions, such as apolar-apolar residue interactions or ionic interactions, that are formed between buried or exposed residues or near the surface or deep inside. PMID:17584791

  18. "Badminton Player-Coach" Interactions between Failing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascret, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical education teachers often use the player-coach dyad in individual opposition sports so that students can obtain information on their actions and then better regulate them. This type of work also develops methodological and social skills. However, the task of observing a partner often poses problems for failing students, who…

  19. Parent-Child Interactions in Families with Alcoholic Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Theodore; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Observed adolescent offspring (n=121) of alcoholic, depressed, and nondistressed fathers during problem-solving discussions with fathers, mothers, and both parents together. Found that nondistressed father-child dyads differed from clinical samples in showing higher rates of congeniality and problem solving, whereas impact of alcohol consumption…

  20. Sensorimotor Decoupling Contributes to Triadic Attention: A Longitudinal Investigation of Mother-Infant-Object Interactions.

    PubMed

    de Barbaro, Kaya; Johnson, Christine M; Forster, Deborah; Deák, Gedeon O

    2016-03-01

    Previous developmental accounts of joint object activity identify a qualitative "shift" around 9-12 months. In a longitudinal study of 26 dyads, videos of joint object interactions at 4, 6, 9, and 12 months were coded for all targets of gaze and manual activity (at 10 Hz). At 12 months, infants distribute their sensorimotor modalities between objects handled by the parent and others controlled by the infant. Analyses reveal novel trajectories in distributed joint object activity across the 1st year. At 4 months, infants predominantly look at and manipulate a single object, typically held by their mothers. Between 6 and 9 months, infants increasingly decouple their visual and haptic modalities and distribute their attention between objects held by their mothers and by themselves. These previously unreported developments in the distribution of multimodal object activity might "bridge the gap" to coordinated joint activity between 6 and 12 months. PMID:26613383

  1. An examination of the interactions between mothers and children with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Gar, Natalie S; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the association between parenting styles and mother and child anxiety. Maternal overinvolvement and negativity/criticism were evaluated during a speech preparation task (N=135 dyads) and a Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) from mothers (N=155). During the speech task interaction, mothers of anxious children (aged 4-16 years), regardless of their own anxiety, were observed to be more overinvolved than mothers of nonanxious children. Similarly, the FMSS showed that mothers of anxious children (aged 4-17 years) were more overprotective, self-sacrificing, or nonobjective than mothers of nonanxious children, irrespective of maternal anxiety status. No differences in maternal negativity were found on the speech task between any of the groups. However, the FMSS showed that mothers of anxious children were more critical than mothers of nonanxious children, regardless of maternal anxiety status. These results support the relationship between overinvolved, critical parenting and child anxiety, but suggest that maternal anxiety is not associated with increased overinvolvement or criticism. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:18851844

  2. Development and validation of the Peer Interaction Macro-coding System scales (PIMS): A new tool for observational measurement of social competence in youth with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holbein, Christina E.; Zebracki, Kathy; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with chronic health conditions encounter enduring difficulties in their peer interactions and friendships. This study aimed to create and validate scales derived from an observational coding system (i.e., Peer Interaction Macro-coding System; PIMS) in a sample of children with spina bifida and their peers. 106 target child-peer dyads completed a battery of questionnaires and interviews and were videotaped performing four interaction tasks, which were then coded across multiple domains of social functioning. Five scales (i.e., Control, Prosocial Skills, Positive Affect, Conflict, and Dyadic Cohesion) were rationally derived based on a review of the literature and a panel of experts. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability at the scale level were good-to-excellent for all five scales. Interscale correlations were in the low-to-moderate range for four of the scales, although the Dyadic Cohesion scale was highly correlated with two other scales and was subsequently dropped. Convergent and discriminant validity were established by examining the four remaining scales in association with comparable questionnaire and interview data. The four PIMS scales appear to be reliable and valid measures of social competence and may enhance future multimethod research efforts aimed at learning more about peer interactions and overall social competence. PMID:24932641

  3. An empirical validation of a dynamic systems model of interaction: do children of different sociometric statuses differ in their dyadic play?

    PubMed

    Steenbeek, Henderien; van Geert, Paul

    2008-03-01

    Studying short-term dynamic processes and change mechanisms in interaction yields important knowledge that contributes to understanding long-term social development of children. In order to get a grip on this short-term dynamics of interaction processes, the authors made a dynamic systems model of dyadic interaction of children during one play session. The control parameters of the model relate to children's goal-directedness, concerns, emotional appraisals, social power, and social competence. Three groups of dyads of different sociometric statuses are represented by specific control parameter values. The model's order parameters consist of children's emotional expressions and other- versus self-directed actions. This article describes the empirical validation of the model and the methods needed for such validation. It focuses on the model's predictions of averages and distributions of the major variables, of the occurrence of attractors and power law distributions, and on the model's sensitivity. Overall, the model fits the empirical data well. In the discussion, we reflect on the developmental and methodological implications for explaining social interaction on the short-term as well as on the long-term time scale. In addition, implications for intervention and assessment are presented, in particular relating to the problem of rejection. PMID:18333981

  4. Theoretical studies on the geometrical and electronic structures of supramolecule bis(2,2‧-bipyridine)-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline ruthenium(II)/functionalized SWCNT dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadnezhad, M.; Darvish Ganji, M.; Rezvani, M.

    2015-11-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotube (CNT) with multiple redox and photo active entities is one of the extensive processes due to its importance in building molecular or supramolecular electronic devices, solar energy storage and conversion systems. Thus, to have better understanding about structural aspects and correct electronic structure of these large systems, the quantum studies have gained increased popularity. In present study, we have investigated the structural and electronic properties of functionalized CNTs (fCNTs) with [Ru(bpy)2(5-NH2-1,10-phen)]+2, (Ru-bpy-phen)+2, supramolecule based on DFT calculations. Main attention has been applied to obtain stable configuration, binding energies and effect of functionalization on electronic behavior of the selected supramolcule. We also evaluate the effect of nanotube's diameter and chirality on electronic properties of considered supramolecule. Calculated binding energies show that interaction between the (Ru-bpy-phen)+2 and the host CNTs depends on the tube diameter while the chirality doesn't affect significantly on the binding nature of respected complex. We have also investigated the influence of non-local dispersion interactions (vdW) and temperature on the stability and electronic structure of the considered system. Results obtained from the ab initio MD simulations showed that increasing the temperature can affect the distance between C and N atoms in the linkage position. The charge analysis indicates the existence of remarkable charge transfer between (Ru-bpy-phen)+2 as donor and fCNTs as acceptor moieties in the isolated molecule. In the presence of vdW forces and at higher temperature, the charge transfer was decreased but the direction of transferred charge remains unchanged.

  5. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  6. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN EARLY MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, OTHER PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY.

    PubMed

    Gul, Hesna; Erol, Nese; Pamir Akin, Duygu; Ustun Gullu, Belgin; Akcakin, Melda; Alpas, Başak; Öner, Özgür

    2016-03-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a method to assess early parent-child dyadic interactions for emotional awareness, perception, experience, and expression between child and parent that describe global relational quality (Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, ). The current study aimed to examine the effects of an infant's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and developmental delay (DD) on the maternal EA Scale (EAS; Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, ; Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, ) scores and the relative contributions of infant's age, gender, diagnosis, developmental level, and maternal education on EAS scores in a clinical Turkish sample. Three hundred forty-five infant-mother dyads participated in this study. Results of the research indicated that EAS adult scores were associated with maternal education and infant's diagnosis whereas child scores were associated with infant's age, diagnosis, and developmental level. Infants' involvement and responsiveness to the mother were lower in the group with ASD. Children with OPD, particularly when their mothers have lower education, might be at increased risk of having problems in parent-child interactions. Young ASD subjects with developmental delay are in greatest need of support to increase reactions toward their mother. These findings underscore the importance of using all of the EA dimensions rather than only one measure on children in high-risk populations. PMID:26891759

  7. Modeling dyadic processes using Hidden Markov Models: A time series approach to mother-infant interactions during infant immunization

    PubMed Central

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Rovine, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at two and six months of age, used hidden Markov modeling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a 4-state model for the dyadic responses to a two-month inoculation whereas a 6-state model best described the dyadic process at six months. Two of the states at two months and three of the states at six months suggested a progression from high intensity crying to no crying with parents using vestibular and auditory soothing methods. The use of feeding and/or pacifying to soothe the infant characterized one two-month state and two six-month states. These data indicate that with maturation and experience, the mother-infant dyad is becoming more organized around the soothing interaction. Using hidden Markov modeling to describe individual differences, as well as normative processes, is also presented and discussed.

  8. Predictors of treatment attrition and treatment length in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Taiwanese families✩,✩✩

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.

    2015-01-01

    Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has been used successfully in the United States and in other countries around the world, but its use in Asian countries has been more limited. The present study is the first of its kind to examine the predictors of treatment attrition and length in a sample of Taiwanese caregivers and their children. It is also the first to examine PCIT outcomes in Taiwanese families. Maladaptive personality characteristics of the caregiver were the best predictor of attrition, followed by single-parent, removal of the child from the home, and lower levels of caregiver education. Treatment length was predicted by child minority status and parent–child interactions (i.e., parent commands and negative parent talk). In terms of outcomes, statistically significant treatment changes were noted for all treatment outcome variables at post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that PCIT is a promising intervention for this population. The predictors of treatment attrition and length can be used when Taiwanese caregiver–child dyads present for services so that additional assistance can be provided prior to or during treatment to increase adherence to the recommended number of treatment sessions for maximal impact. Future studies may replicate the present study with a larger clinical sample to examine the long-term effects of PCIT and to include a no-treatment control condition to afford a more robust empirical evaluation. PMID:26705373

  9. Do gray wolves (Canis lupus) support pack mates during aggressive inter-pack interactions?

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Richard T

    2016-09-01

    For group-living mammals, social coordination increases success in everything from hunting and foraging (Crofoot and Wrangham in Mind the Gap, Springer, Berlin, 2010; Bailey et al. in Behav Ecol Sociobiol 67:1-17, 2013) to agonism (Mosser and Packer in Anim Behav 78:359-370, 2009; Wilson et al. in Anim Behav 83:277-291, 2012; Cassidy et al. in Behav Ecol 26:1352-1360, 2015). Cooperation is found in many species and, due to its low costs, likely is a determining factor in the evolution of living in social groups (Smith in Anim Behav 92:291-304, 2014). Beyond cooperation, many mammals perform costly behaviors for the benefit of group mates (e.g., parental care, food sharing, grooming). Altruism is considered the most extreme case of cooperation where the altruist increases the fitness of the recipient while decreasing its own fitness (Bell in Selection: the mechanism of evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008). Gray wolf life history requires intra-pack familiarity, communication, and cooperation in order to succeed in hunting (MacNulty et al. in Behav Ecol doi: 10.1093/beheco/arr159 2011) and protecting group resources (Stahler et al. in J Anim Ecol 82: 222-234, 2013; Cassidy et al. in Behav Ecol 26:1352-1360, 2015). Here, we report 121 territorial aggressive inter-pack interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300 days of observation) and examine each interaction where one wolf interferes when its pack mate is being attacked by a rival group. This behavior was recorded six times (17.6 % of interactions involving an attack) and often occurred between dyads of closely related individuals. We discuss this behavior as it relates to the evolution of cooperation, sociality, and altruism. PMID:27193460

  10. Functional Mapping of Protein-Protein Interactions in an Enzyme Complex by Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Roderer, Kathrin; Neuenschwander, Martin; Codoni, Giosiana; Sasso, Severin; Gamper, Marianne; Kast, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The shikimate pathway enzyme chorismate mutase converts chorismate into prephenate, a precursor of Tyr and Phe. The intracellular chorismate mutase (MtCM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly active on its own, but becomes >100-fold more efficient upon formation of a complex with the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (MtDS). The crystal structure of the enzyme complex revealed involvement of C-terminal MtCM residues with the MtDS interface. Here we employed evolutionary strategies to probe the tolerance to substitution of the C-terminal MtCM residues from positions 84–90. Variants with randomized positions were subjected to stringent selection in vivo requiring productive interactions with MtDS for survival. Sequence patterns identified in active library members coincide with residue conservation in natural chorismate mutases of the AroQδ subclass to which MtCM belongs. An Arg-Gly dyad at positions 85 and 86, invariant in AroQδ sequences, was intolerant to mutation, whereas Leu88 and Gly89 exhibited a preference for small and hydrophobic residues in functional MtCM-MtDS complexes. In the absence of MtDS, selection under relaxed conditions identifies positions 84–86 as MtCM integrity determinants, suggesting that the more C-terminal residues function in the activation by MtDS. Several MtCM variants, purified using a novel plasmid-based T7 RNA polymerase gene expression system, showed that a diminished ability to physically interact with MtDS correlates with reduced activatability and feedback regulatory control by Tyr and Phe. Mapping critical protein-protein interaction sites by evolutionary strategies may pinpoint promising targets for drugs that interfere with the activity of protein complexes. PMID:25551646

  11. Mutually Responsive Orientation: A novel observational assessment of mother-child mealtime interactions.

    PubMed

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Aksan, Nazan; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Baur, Louise; Milgrom, Jeannette; Campbell, Karen; Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Mother-child mealtime interactions during preschool years is an important but overlooked factor when evaluating the influence of parent-child relationships on child eating and weight. This paper describes the validation of the Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) coding system adapted for assessing parent-child interactions during food preparation and consumption situations. Home-based mealtimes of 94 mothers and their children (3.03 ± 0.75 years) were filmed at two time points, 12-months apart. Filmed dimensions of mutual mother-child responsiveness, shared positive affect, maternal control relating to food and child compliance were assessed. Objective BMI and maternal reports of parenting, feeding, child eating, diet and child temperament were also collected. Correlations, repeated measures ANOVAs and regressions were performed to examine the validity of MRO variables and their stability across both time points. Validation analysis showed the MRO coding system performed as expected: dyads with higher MRO scores expressed lower control/power assertion, lower child non-compliance, and greater committed compliance. The measure demonstrated sensitivity to specific contexts: maternal responsiveness, mother and child positive affect were higher during food consumption compared to food preparation. Coded dimensions were stable across time points, with the exception of decreases in maternal responsiveness in food consumption and child non-compliance in food preparation. MRO and maternal dimensions were correlated with maternally reported parenting and feeding measures. Maternal responsiveness (inversely) and child responsiveness (positively) were concurrently associated with child fussy eating, and child refusal was prospectively and inversely associated with child fussy eating. Findings suggest the adapted MRO coding system is a useful measure for examining observed parent-child mealtime interactions potentially implicated in preschoolers' eating and weight

  12. Interactivity: A Forgotten Art?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Rod

    1997-01-01

    This paper promotes further discussion and analysis of interactivity in learning environments and contains a classification of interaction types appropriate for consideration in multimedia settings. Through an examination of related factors associated with navigation and control, a matrix of interactive dimensions is proposed. (Author)

  13. Global Interaction in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Audrey Grace

    2010-01-01

    Based on a virtual conference, Glide'08 (Global Interaction in Design Education), that brought international design scholars together online, this special issue expands on the topics of cross-cultural communication and design and the technological affordances that support such interaction. The author discusses the need for global interaction in…

  14. Task-Oriented and Bottle Feeding Adversely Affect the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions Following Abnormal Newborn Screens

    PubMed Central

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine effects of newborn screening (NBS) and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Methods Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among four groups of infants classified by severity of NBS and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal NBS. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3–19 weeks (M=9.19, SD=3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Results Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Conclusions Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding following a neonatal CF diagnosis. PMID:20495477

  15. Early developmental changes in the timing of turn-taking: a longitudinal study of mother–infant interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hilbrink, Elma E.; Gattis, Merideth; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    To accomplish a smooth transition in conversation from one speaker to the next, a tight coordination of interaction between speakers is required. Recent studies of adult conversation suggest that this close timing of interaction may well be a universal feature of conversation. In the present paper, we set out to assess the development of this close timing of turns in infancy in vocal exchanges between mothers and infants. Previous research has demonstrated an early sensitivity to timing in interactions (e.g., Murray and Trevarthen, 1985). In contrast, less is known about infants’ abilities to produce turns in a timely manner and existing findings are rather patchy. We conducted a longitudinal study of 12 mother–infant dyads in free-play interactions at the ages of 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, and 18 months. Based on existing work and the predictions made by the Interaction Engine Hypothesis (Levinson, 2006), we expected that infants would begin to develop the temporal properties of turn-taking early in infancy but that their timing of turns would slow down at 12 months, which is around the time when infants start to produce their first words. Findings were consistent with our predictions: infants were relatively fast at timing their turn early in infancy but slowed down toward the end of the first year. Furthermore, the changes observed in infants’ turn-timing skills were not caused by changes in maternal timing, which remained stable across the 3–18 months period. However, the slowing down of turn-timing started somewhat earlier than predicted: at 9 months. PMID:26483741

  16. Early developmental changes in the timing of turn-taking: a longitudinal study of mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Hilbrink, Elma E; Gattis, Merideth; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    To accomplish a smooth transition in conversation from one speaker to the next, a tight coordination of interaction between speakers is required. Recent studies of adult conversation suggest that this close timing of interaction may well be a universal feature of conversation. In the present paper, we set out to assess the development of this close timing of turns in infancy in vocal exchanges between mothers and infants. Previous research has demonstrated an early sensitivity to timing in interactions (e.g., Murray and Trevarthen, 1985). In contrast, less is known about infants' abilities to produce turns in a timely manner and existing findings are rather patchy. We conducted a longitudinal study of 12 mother-infant dyads in free-play interactions at the ages of 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, and 18 months. Based on existing work and the predictions made by the Interaction Engine Hypothesis (Levinson, 2006), we expected that infants would begin to develop the temporal properties of turn-taking early in infancy but that their timing of turns would slow down at 12 months, which is around the time when infants start to produce their first words. Findings were consistent with our predictions: infants were relatively fast at timing their turn early in infancy but slowed down toward the end of the first year. Furthermore, the changes observed in infants' turn-timing skills were not caused by changes in maternal timing, which remained stable across the 3-18 months period. However, the slowing down of turn-timing started somewhat earlier than predicted: at 9 months. PMID:26483741

  17. Mother’s Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Anne-Cécile; Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Bednarek, Nathalie; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Vulliez, Lauriane; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions. Methods 100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10) were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE). Results We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth. Conclusions This study suggests that mothers’ psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants’ follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected. PMID:27022953

  18. Evolving synergetic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Arranz, Jordi; Du, Jinming; Zhou, Da; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Cooperators forgo their own interests to benefit others. This reduces their fitness and thus cooperators are not likely to spread based on natural selection. Nonetheless, cooperation is widespread on every level of biological organization ranging from bacterial communities to human society. Mathematical models can help to explain under which circumstances cooperation evolves. Evolutionary game theory is a powerful mathematical tool to depict the interactions between cooperators and defectors. Classical models typically involve either pairwise interactions between individuals or a linear superposition of these interactions. For interactions within groups, however, synergetic effects may arise: their outcome is not just the sum of its parts. This is because the payoffs via a single group interaction can be different from the sum of any collection of two-player interactions. Assuming that all interactions start from pairs, how can such synergetic multiplayer games emerge from simpler pairwise interactions? Here, we present a mathematical model that captures the transition from pairwise interactions to synergetic multiplayer ones. We assume that different social groups have different breaking rates. We show that non-uniform breaking rates do foster the emergence of synergy, even though individuals always interact in pairs. Our work sheds new light on the mechanisms underlying such synergetic interactions. PMID:27466437

  19. Evolving synergetic interactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Arranz, Jordi; Du, Jinming; Zhou, Da; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Cooperators forgo their own interests to benefit others. This reduces their fitness and thus cooperators are not likely to spread based on natural selection. Nonetheless, cooperation is widespread on every level of biological organization ranging from bacterial communities to human society. Mathematical models can help to explain under which circumstances cooperation evolves. Evolutionary game theory is a powerful mathematical tool to depict the interactions between cooperators and defectors. Classical models typically involve either pairwise interactions between individuals or a linear superposition of these interactions. For interactions within groups, however, synergetic effects may arise: their outcome is not just the sum of its parts. This is because the payoffs via a single group interaction can be different from the sum of any collection of two-player interactions. Assuming that all interactions start from pairs, how can such synergetic multiplayer games emerge from simpler pairwise interactions? Here, we present a mathematical model that captures the transition from pairwise interactions to synergetic multiplayer ones. We assume that different social groups have different breaking rates. We show that non-uniform breaking rates do foster the emergence of synergy, even though individuals always interact in pairs. Our work sheds new light on the mechanisms underlying such synergetic interactions. PMID:27466437

  20. Convergence in Multispecies Interactions.

    PubMed

    Bittleston, Leonora S; Pierce, Naomi E; Ellison, Aaron M; Pringle, Anne

    2016-04-01

    The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent interactions in a comparative context is likely to facilitate prediction of the ecological roles of organisms (including microbes) in multispecies interactions and selective pressures acting in poorly understood or newly discovered multispecies systems. We illustrate the concept of convergent interactions with examples: vertebrates and their gut bacteria; ectomycorrhizae; insect-fungal-bacterial interactions; pitcher-plant food webs; and ants and ant-plants. PMID:26858111

  1. The Interactive Learning Toolkit: supporting interactive classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, S.; McCauley, V.; Mazur, E.

    2004-05-01

    Research-based interactive learning techniques have dramatically improved student understanding. We have created the 'Interactive Learning Toolkit' (ILT), a web-based learning management system, to help implement two such pedagogies: Just in Time Teaching and Peer Instruction. Our main goal in developing this toolkit is to save the instructor time and effort and to use technology to facilitate the interaction between the students and the instructor (and between students themselves). After a brief review of both pedagogies, we will demonstrate the many exciting new features of the ILT. We will show how technology can not only implement, but also supplement and improve these pedagogies. We would like acknowdge grants from NSF and DEAS, Harvard University

  2. Impact of a maternal history of childhood abuse on the development of mother-infant interaction during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Anna; Möhler, Eva; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a maternal history of abuse on mother-infant interaction (emotional availability; EA) in infancy and early toddlerhood. Over an 18-month period, women giving birth to a child in the local obstetric units were screened using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Women who reported moderate or severe sexual and/or physical abuse were included in the maltreatment group (n=58; MG) and compared with a non-maltreated comparison group (n=61; CG). EA was investigated under experimental conditions when the children were 5 and 12 months of age using the Emotional Availability Scales. While mother-child dyads in the MG showed only very discrete interactional alterations at an infant age of 5 months, their EA differed significantly from the CG at 12 months due to the lack of an increase in EA observed in the MG. Exploratory analyses showed an additional effect of emotional abuse on EA at 12 months. These data indicate that the period when child locomotion develops might represent a critical time window for mothers with a history of abuse. Our results constitute an advance in research on child abuse as they identify a possible time window of non-normative alteration in mother-child interaction. This period could be targeted by strategies to prevent intergenerational transmission of abusive experiences. PMID:26140735

  3. The relationship development assessment - research version: preliminary validation of a clinical tool and coding schemes to measure parent-child interaction in autism.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Fionnuala; Guerin, Suzanne; Hobson, Jessica A; Gutstein, Steven E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this project was to replicate and extend findings from two recent studies on parent-child relatedness in autism (Beurkens, Hobson, & Hobson, 2013; Hobson, Tarver, Beurkens, & Hobson, 2013, under review) by adapting an observational assessment and coding schemes of parent-child relatedness for the clinical context and examining their validity and reliability. The coding schemes focussed on three aspects of relatedness: joint attentional focus (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), the capacity to co-regulate an interaction and the capacity to share emotional experiences. The participants were 40 children (20 with autism, 20 without autism) aged 6-14, and their parents. Parent-child dyads took part in the observational assessment and were coded on these schemes. Comparisons were made with standardised measures of autism severity (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2001; Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS: Constantino & Gruber, 2005), relationship quality (Parent Child Relationship Inventory, PCRI: Gerard, 1994) and quality of parent-child interaction (Dyadic Coding Scales, DCS: Humber & Moss, 2005). Inter-rater reliability was very good and, as predicted, codes both diverged from the measure of parent-child relationship and converged with a separate measure of parent-child interaction quality. A detailed profile review revealed nuanced areas of group and individual differences which may be specific to verbally-able school-age children. The results support the utility of the Relationship Development Assessment - Research Version for clinical practice. PMID:24366957

  4. Antiplatelet drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, I S; Coughtrie, M W H; MacDonald, T M; Wei, L

    2010-12-01

    Both laboratory studies in healthy volunteers and clinical studies have suggested adverse interactions between antiplatelet drugs and other commonly used medications. Interactions described include those between aspirin and ibuprofen, aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and the thienopyridine, clopidogrel, and drugs inhibiting CYP2C19, notably the proton pump inhibitors (PPI) omeprazole and esomeprazole. Other interactions between thienopyridines and CYP3A4/5 have also been reported for statins and calcium channel blockers. The ibuprofen/aspirin interaction is thought to be caused by ibuprofen blocking the access of aspirin to platelet cyclo-oxygenase. The thienopyridine interactions are caused by inhibition of microsomal enzymes that metabolize these pro-drugs to their active metabolites. We review the evidence for these interactions, assess their clinical importance and suggest strategies of how to deal with them in clinical practice. We conclude that ibuprofen is likely to interact with aspirin and reduce its anti-platelet action particularly in those patients who take ibuprofen chronically. This interaction is of greater relevance to those patients at high cardiovascular risk. A sensible strategy is to advise users of aspirin to avoid chronic ibuprofen or to ingest aspirin at least 2 h prior to ibuprofen. Clearly the use of NSAIDs that do not interact in this way is preferred. For the clopidogrel CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5 interactions, there is good evidence that these interactions occur. However, there is less good evidence to support the clinical importance of these interactions. Again, a reasonable strategy is to avoid the chronic use of drugs that inhibit CYP2C19, notably PPIs, in subjects taking clopidogrel and use high dose H2 antagonists instead. Finally, anti-platelet agents probably interact with other drugs that affect platelet function such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and clinicians should probably judge

  5. The interactive brain hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Di Paolo, Ezequiel; De Jaegher, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Enactive approaches foreground the role of interpersonal interaction in explanations of social understanding. This motivates, in combination with a recent interest in neuroscientific studies involving actual interactions, the question of how interactive processes relate to neural mechanisms involved in social understanding. We introduce the Interactive Brain Hypothesis (IBH) in order to help map the spectrum of possible relations between social interaction and neural processes. The hypothesis states that interactive experience and skills play enabling roles in both the development and current function of social brain mechanisms, even in cases where social understanding happens in the absence of immediate interaction. We examine the plausibility of this hypothesis against developmental and neurobiological evidence and contrast it with the widespread assumption that mindreading is crucial to all social cognition. We describe the elements of social interaction that bear most directly on this hypothesis and discuss the empirical possibilities open to social neuroscience. We propose that the link between coordination dynamics and social understanding can be best grasped by studying transitions between states of coordination. These transitions form part of the self-organization of interaction processes that characterize the dynamics of social engagement. The patterns and synergies of this self-organization help explain how individuals understand each other. Various possibilities for role-taking emerge during interaction, determining a spectrum of participation. This view contrasts sharply with the observational stance that has guided research in social neuroscience until recently. We also introduce the concept of readiness to interact to describe the practices and dispositions that are summoned in situations of social significance (even if not interactive). This latter idea links interactive factors to more classical observational scenarios. PMID:22701412

  6. Beam-Bem interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Jin; /Fermilab

    2011-12-01

    In high energy storage-ring colliders, the nonlinear effect arising from beam-beam interactions is a major source that leads to the emittance growth, the reduction of beam life time, and limits the collider luminosity. In this paper, two models of beam-beam interactions are introduced, which are weak-strong and strong-strong beam-beam interactions. In addition, space-charge model is introduced.

  7. Food-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bushra, Rabia; Aslam, Nousheen; Khan, Arshad Yar

    2011-01-01

    The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least food-drug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient. PMID:22043389

  8. Differential Habitat Use or Intraguild Interactions: What Structures a Carnivore Community?

    PubMed

    Gompper, Matthew E; Lesmeister, Damon B; Ray, Justina C; Malcolm, Jay R; Kays, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Differential habitat use and intraguild competition are both thought to be important drivers of animal population sizes and distributions. Habitat associations for individual species are well-established, and interactions between particular pairs of species have been highlighted in many focal studies. However, community-wide assessments of the relative strengths of these two factors have not been conducted. We built multi-scale habitat occupancy models for five carnivore taxa of New York's Adirondack landscape and assessed the relative performance of these models against ones in which co-occurrences of potentially competing carnivore species were also incorporated. Distribution models based on habitat performed well for all species. Black bear (Ursus americanus) and fisher (Martes pennanti) distribution was similar in that occupancy of both species was negatively associated with paved roads. However, black bears were also associated with larger forest fragments and fishers with smaller forest fragments. No models with habitat features were more supported than the null habitat model for raccoons (Procyon lotor). Martens (Martes americana) were most associated with increased terrain ruggedness and elevation. Weasel (Mustela spp.) occupancy increased with the cover of deciduous forest. For most species dyads habitat-only models were more supported than those models with potential competitors incorporated. The exception to this finding was for the smallest carnivore taxa (marten and weasel) where habitat plus coyote abundance models typically performed better than habitat-only models. Assessing this carnivore community as whole, we conclude that differential habitat use is more important than species interactions in maintaining the distribution and structure of this carnivore guild. PMID:26731404

  9. Differential Habitat Use or Intraguild Interactions: What Structures a Carnivore Community?

    PubMed Central

    Gompper, Matthew E.; Lesmeister, Damon B.; Ray, Justina C.; Malcolm, Jay R.; Kays, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Differential habitat use and intraguild competition are both thought to be important drivers of animal population sizes and distributions. Habitat associations for individual species are well-established, and interactions between particular pairs of species have been highlighted in many focal studies. However, community-wide assessments of the relative strengths of these two factors have not been conducted. We built multi-scale habitat occupancy models for five carnivore taxa of New York’s Adirondack landscape and assessed the relative performance of these models against ones in which co-occurrences of potentially competing carnivore species were also incorporated. Distribution models based on habitat performed well for all species. Black bear (Ursus americanus) and fisher (Martes pennanti) distribution was similar in that occupancy of both species was negatively associated with paved roads. However, black bears were also associated with larger forest fragments and fishers with smaller forest fragments. No models with habitat features were more supported than the null habitat model for raccoons (Procyon lotor). Martens (Martes americana) were most associated with increased terrain ruggedness and elevation. Weasel (Mustela spp.) occupancy increased with the cover of deciduous forest. For most species dyads habitat-only models were more supported than those models with potential competitors incorporated. The exception to this finding was for the smallest carnivore taxa (marten and weasel) where habitat plus coyote abundance models typically performed better than habitat-only models. Assessing this carnivore community as whole, we conclude that differential habitat use is more important than species interactions in maintaining the distribution and structure of this carnivore guild. PMID:26731404

  10. The Science of Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, William A.; Stasko, John T.; Chang, Remco; O'Connell, Theresa

    2009-09-23

    There is a growing recognition with the visual analytics community that interaction and inquiry are inextricable. It is through the interactive manipulation of a visual interface – the analytic discourse – that knowledge is constructed, tested, refined, and shared. This paper reflects on the interaction challenges raised in the original visual analytics research and development agenda and further explores the relationship between interaction and cognition. It identifies recent exemplars of visual analytics research that have made substantive progress toward the goals of a true science of interaction, which must include theories and testable premises about the most appropriate mechanisms for human-information interaction. Six areas for further work are highlighted as those among the highest priorities for the next five years of visual analytics research: ubiquitous, embodied interaction; capturing user intentionality; knowledge-based interfaces; principles of design and perception; collaboration; and interoperability. Ultimately, the goal of a science of interaction is to support the visual analytics community through the recognition and implementation of best practices in the representation of and interaction with visual displays.

  11. Nerve-pulse interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some recent experimental and theoretical results on mechanisms through which individual nerve pulses can interact are reviewed. Three modes of interactions are considered: (1) interaction of pulses as they travel along a single fiber which leads to velocity dispersion; (2) propagation of pairs of pulses through a branching region leading to quantum pulse code transformations; and (3) interaction of pulses on parallel fibers through which they may form a pulse assembly. This notion is analogous to Hebb's concept of a cell assembly, but on a lower level of the neural hierarchy.

  12. Interactive brains, social minds.

    PubMed

    Sänger, Johanna; Lindenberger, Ulman; Müller, Viktor

    2011-11-01

    To reveal the neural and behavioral dynamics of social interaction, single-person studies are increasingly complemented by research designs that simultaneously assess two or more interacting individuals. In this article, we review studies on neural mechanisms and markers of social interactions that use multi-person functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological recordings. We propose a terminology for investigating social interaction dynamics, show how forward models of action regulation may serve as a framework for investigating interpersonal action coordination and discuss different methodological approaches to studying functional brain connectivity. PMID:22448303

  13. Two interacting Hofstadter butterflies

    SciTech Connect

    Barelli, A.; Bellissard, J.; Jacquod, P.; Shepelyansky, D.L.

    1997-04-01

    The problem of two interacting particles in a quasiperiodic potential is addressed. Using analytical and numerical methods, we explore the spectral properties and eigenstates structure from the weak to the strong interaction case. More precisely, a semiclassical approach based on noncommutative geometry techniques is used to understand the intricate structure of such a spectrum. An interaction induced localization effect is furthermore emphasized. We discuss the application of our results on a two-dimensional model of two particles in a uniform magnetic field with on-site interaction. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Interactive brains, social minds

    PubMed Central

    Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the neural and behavioral dynamics of social interaction, single-person studies are increasingly complemented by research designs that simultaneously assess two or more interacting individuals. In this article, we review studies on neural mechanisms and markers of social interactions that use multi-person functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological recordings. We propose a terminology for investigating social interaction dynamics, show how forward models of action regulation may serve as a framework for investigating interpersonal action coordination and discuss different methodological approaches to studying functional brain connectivity. PMID:22448303

  15. The Relation between Severity of Autism and Caregiver-Child Interaction: a Study in the Context of Relationship Development Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Jessica A; Tarver, Laura; Beurkens, Nicole; Hobson, R Peter

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relations between severity of children's autism and qualities of parent-child interaction. We studied these variables at two points of time in children receiving a treatment that has a focus on social engagement, Relationship Development Intervention (RDI; Gutstein 2009). Participants were 18 parent-child dyads where the child (16 boys, 2 girls) had a diagnosis of autism and was between the ages of 2 and 12 years. The severity of the children's autism was assessed at baseline and later in treatment using the autism severity metric of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Gotham et al. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 693-705 2009). Although the ADOS was designed as a diagnostic measure, ADOS calibrated severity scores (CSS) are increasingly used as one index of change (e.g., Locke et al. Autism, 18, 370-375 2014). Videotapes of parent-child interaction at baseline and later in treatment were rated by independent coders, for a) overall qualities of interpersonal relatedness using the Dyadic Coding Scales (DCS; Humber and Moss The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75, 128-141 2005), and b) second-by-second parent-child Co-Regulation and Intersubjective Engagement (processes targeted by the treatment approach of RDI). Severity of autism was correlated with lower quality of parent-child interaction. Ratings on each of these variables changed over the course of treatment, and there was evidence that improvement was specifically related to the quality of parent-child interaction at baseline. PMID:26298470

  16. Reconceptualizing sex, brain and psychopathology: interaction, interaction, interaction

    PubMed Central

    Joel, D; Yankelevitch-Yahav, R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing recognition of the influence of sex on brain structure and function, and in relation, on the susceptibility, prevalence and response to treatment of psychiatric disorders. Most theories and descriptions of the effects of sex on the brain are dominated by an analogy to the current interpretation of the effects of sex on the reproductive system, according to which sex is a divergence system that exerts a unitary, overriding and serial effect on the form of other systems. We shortly summarize different lines of evidence that contradict aspects of this analogy. The new view that emerges from these data is of sex as a complex system whose different components interact with one another and with other systems to affect body and brain. The paradigm shift that this understanding calls for is from thinking of sex in terms of sexual dimorphism and sex differences, to thinking of sex in terms of its interactions with other factors and processes. Our review of data obtained from animal models of psychopathology clearly reveals the need for such a paradigmatic shift, because in the field of animal behaviour whether a sex difference exists and its direction depend on the interaction of many factors including, species, strain, age, specific test employed and a multitude of environmental factors. We conclude by explaining how the new conceptualization can account for sex differences in psychopathology. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24758640

  17. Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

  18. Visualizing Dispersion Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Elinor; Venkataraman, Bhawani

    2014-01-01

    An animation and accompanying activity has been developed to help students visualize how dispersion interactions arise. The animation uses the gecko's ability to walk on vertical surfaces to illustrate how dispersion interactions play a role in macroscale outcomes. Assessment of student learning reveals that students were able to develop…

  19. The Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the key issues regarding The Interaction Equivalency Theorem posited by Anderson (2003a), which consists of the three interaction elements found in formal education courses among teacher, student, and content. It first examines the core concepts of the theorem and argues that two theses of different dimensions can be…

  20. Interactive TV: The Sequel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Examines the future of interactive TV where consumers navigate the Internet on their TVs with WebTV set-top boxes. Focuses on competition between cable companies and computer and consumer electronics companies. Highlights nine companies and partnerships developing interactive hardware and services. (PEN)