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Comparison of Mother-Infant Interactions between Japanese Dyads and American Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mother-infant interaction creates a context for socioemotional, behavioral, and cognitive development. This study used the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS) to examine mother-infant interaction in Japanese dyads. Subjects were residing in Hikkaido, Japan, and assessments were…

Hirose, Taiko; Shinoki, Eri; Hamada, Yuko


Compositions in Black and White: Determinants of interaction in interracial dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the initial, unstructured interactions of 40 interracial (Black–White) dyads in which 3 factors were systematically varied. These factors were the disposition of the White dyad members to either seek out or shun interaction with Blacks, the race (Black vs White) of the experimenter, and the gender composition (male–male vs female–female) of the dyads. Results show that within dyads, White

William Ickes



When Training with a Partner Is Inferior to Training Alone: The Importance of Dyad Type and Interaction Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyad training, where trainees learn in pairs but ultimately perform individually, has been shown to be an effective method for training some skills. The effectiveness of this approach, however, may be tied to the type of task to be trained and the quality of the interaction in the dyad. We report two studies on the effectiveness of dyad training…

Crook, Amy E.; Beier, Margaret E.



Modalities of infant-mother interaction in Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads.  


Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother object-oriented behaviors were related only among European Americans. Infant and mother behaviors within each modality were mutually contingent in all groups. Culture moderated lead-lag relations: Japanese infants were more likely than their mothers to respond in object-oriented interactions; European American mothers were more likely than their infants to respond in person-oriented interactions. Japanese American dyads behaved like European American dyads. Interactions, infant effects, and parent socialization findings are set in cultural and accultural models of infant-mother transactions. PMID:22860874

Bornstein, Marc H; Cote, Linda R; Haynes, O Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Bakeman, Roger



Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Application to Maltreating Parent-Child Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective:: Parent-Child Interaction Training (PCIT), which uses a social learning framework, is a dyadic intervention that is designed to alter specific patterns of interaction found in parent-child relationships. Previous research suggests that maladaptive and high-risk characteristics found in maltreating parent-child dyads may be responsive to…

Timmer, S.G.; Urquiza, A.J.; Zebell, N.M.; McGrath, J.M.



Homotopy Switching Model for Dyad Haptic Interaction in Physical Collaborative Tasks  

E-print Network

Homotopy Switching Model for Dyad Haptic Interaction in Physical Collaborative Tasks Paul Evrard of this paper is a new model based on homotopy switching between intrinsically distinct controllers, to encompass most behaviors encountered in dyadic haptic collaborative tasks through an intermediate object

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger



Superabsorbing Fullerenes: Spectral and Kinetic Characterization of Photoinduced Interactions in Perylenediimide-Fullerene-C60 Dyads  

E-print Network

Superabsorbing Fullerenes: Spectral and Kinetic Characterization of Photoinduced Interactions in Perylenediimide-Fullerene-C60 Dyads Je´ro^me Baffreau, Ste´phanie Leroy-Lhez, Pie´trick Hudhomme, Michiel M energy transfer to the fullerene unit, as shown with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

van Stokkum, Ivo


Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Application to maltreating parent-child dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Parent-Child Interaction Training (PCIT), which uses a social learning framework, is a dyadic intervention that is designed to alter specific patterns of interaction found in parent-child relationships. Previous research suggests that maladaptive and high-risk characteristics found in maltreating parent-child dyads may be responsive to PCIT. The primary focus of this study is to examine the effectiveness of PCIT with maltreating

Susan G. Timmer; Anthony J. Urquiza; Nancy M. Zebell; Jean M. McGrath



Mother-infant interaction improves with a developmental intervention for mother-preterm infant dyads.  


While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = 0.05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li



Shared Reading Interactions between Mothers and Pre-School Children: Case Studies of Three Dyads from a Disadvantaged Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that adult-child shared book reading can enhance language and literacy development in the early years, although little is known about how mothers and children from socio-economically disadvantaged communities interact around books. This study investigated the shared reading interactions of three mother-child dyads living in such…

Morgan, Anne



Patterns of Conflict Interaction in Mother-Toddler Dyads: Differences between Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the differences in conflict interaction between depressed mothers and their toddler and non-depressed dyads and whether these differences mediated the association of maternal depression with compromised child socioemotional development. Mother/child interaction was videotaped during a teaching task and during a free play task as part…

Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Huang, Keng-Yen; Lima, Julie



Two-Photon Study on the Electronic Interactions between the First Excited Singlet States in Carotenoid?Tetrapyrrole Dyads  

SciTech Connect

Electronic interactions between the first excited states (S{sub 1}) of carotenoids (Car) of different conjugation lengths (8?11 double bonds) and phthalocyanines (Pc) in different Car?Pc dyad molecules were investigated by two-photon spectroscopy and compared with Car S{sub 1}?chlorophyll (Chl) interactions in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes (LHCs). The observation of Chl/Pc fluorescence after selective two-photon excitation of the Car S{sub 1} state allowed sensitive monitoring of the flow of energy between Car S{sub 1} and Pc or Chl. It is found that two-photon excitation excites to about 80% to 100% exclusively the carotenoid state Car S{sub 1} and that only a small fraction of direct tetrapyrrole two-photon excitation occurs. Amide-linked Car?Pc dyads in tetrahydrofuran demonstrate a molecular gear shift mechanism in that effective Car S{sub 1} ? Pc energy transfer is observed in a dyad with 9 double bonds in the carotenoid, whereas in similar dyads with 11 double bonds in the carotenoid, the Pc fluorescence is strongly quenched by Pc ? Car S{sub 1} energy transfer. In phenylamino-linked Car?Pc dyads in toluene extremely large electronic interactions between the Car S{sub 1} state and Pc were observed, particularly in the case of a dyad in which the carotenoid contained 10 double bonds. This observation together with previous findings in the same system provides strong evidence for excitonic Car S{sub 1}?Pc Q{sub y} interactions. Very similar results were observed with photosynthetic LHC II complexes in the past, supporting an important role of such interactions in photosynthetic down-regulation.

Liao, Pen-Nan; Pillai, Smitha; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Walla, Peter J.



Challenges to bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) social groups: Mother-infant dyad and infant social interactions.  


The mother-infant dyad is crucial to early development in a variety of species. The complexity of social groupings in nonhuman primates makes this relationship resilient as well as susceptible to early challenges associated with environmental chaos. Quantitative behavior observations of bonnet monkey mother-infant interactions were collected from 28 mother-infant dyads between one and twelve months of age. Social groups were subjected to several prenatal and/or postnatal housing relocations within a single year resulting in two study groups. One group experienced relocations (ATYPICAL, n = 14) and the second group (TYPICAL, n = 14) was conceived and reared in the same location. Behaviors in the ethogram included mother-infant interactions and infant social interactions with other members of the group. Observations between ages of two to four months were analyzed by a mixed model analysis of variance including fixed effects of per and postnatal history (TYPICAL, ATYPICAL), age, and history by age interaction and random effects of mother and infant nested within mother. A significant effect of relocation history was noted on a number of infant behaviors. ATYPICAL infants were out of direct contact with their mother at an earlier age but remained in her proximity. Control of proximity shifted to offsrping in the ATYPICAL group compared to the TYPICAL group. Furthermore, greater social interactions between two and four months of age with other members of the social group as well as the ir mother were observed in the ATYPICAL group. It is suggested that continuous challenge associated with relocation may affect the infant at later developmental ages due to these early differences in ways that are yet unclear. PMID:20583143

Laudenslager, Mark L; Natvig, C; Mikulich-Gilbertson, S M; Blevins, M; Corcoran, C; Pierre, P J; Bennett, A J



Face-to-Face Interactions in Unacquainted Female-Male Dyads: How Do Girls and Boys Behave?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined adolescents' verbal and nonverbal behavior in 30 female-male dyads. All behaviors were coded. Analysis of videotaped interactions revealed more similarities between girls and boys than differences, although gender distinctions were evident in speaking time and in smiling. Results focus on developmental and contextual accounts of…

Kolaric, Giselle C.; Galambos, Nancy L.



Patterns of Conflict Interaction in Mother–Toddler Dyads: Differences Between Depressed and Non-depressed Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the differences in conflict interaction between depressed mothers and their toddler and non-depressed dyads and\\u000a whether these differences mediated the association of maternal depression with compromised child socioemotional development.\\u000a Mother\\/child interaction was videotaped during a teaching task and during a free play task as part of a home visit when the\\u000a target child was between 16 and 18 months

Margaret O’Brien Caughy; Keng-Yen Huang; Julie Lima



Shared reading interactions between mothers and pre-school children: Case studies of three dyads from a disadvantaged community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that adult-child shared book reading can enhance language and literacy development in the early years, although little is known about how mothers and children from socio-economically disadvantaged communities interact around books. This study investigated the shared reading interactions of three mother-child dyads living in such a community. Mothers were interviewed and videotaped reading at home with their

Anne Morgan



Ground vs. excited state interaction in ruthenium-thienyl dyads: implications for through bond interactions in multicomponent systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibrational and photophysical properties of mononuclear ruthenium(II) and ruthenium(III) polypyridyl complexes based on the ligands 2-(5'-(pyridin-2?-yl)-1'H-1',2',4'-triaz-3'-yl)-thiophene, 2-(5'-(pyrazin-2?-yl)-1'H-1',2',4'-triaz-3'-yl)-thiophene, are reported. The effect of the introduction of the non-innocent thiophene group on the properties of the triazole based ruthenium(II) complex is examined. The pH sensitive 1,2,4-triazole group, although influenced by the electron withdrawing nature of the thiophene group, does not facilitate excited state interaction of the thiophene and Ru(II) centre. Deuteriation and DFT calculations are employed to enable a deeper understanding of the interaction between the two redox-active centres and rationalise the difference between the extent of ground and excited state interaction in this simple dyad. The results obtained provide considerable evidence in support of earlier studies examining differences in ground and excited state interaction in multinuclear thiophene-bridged systems, in particular with respect to HOMO- and LUMO- mediated superexchange interaction processes.

Henry, William; Browne, Wesley R.; Ronayne, Kate L.; O'Boyle, Noel M.; Vos, Johannes G.; McGarvey, John J.



Does Culture Interact with Media Richness? The Effects of Audio vs. Video Conferencing on Chinese and American Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern and Western cultures differ along several dimensions affecting computer-supported collaborative work. We consider one such dimension, low context (requiring little situational information) or high context (requiring substantial situational information) communication style. Specifically, we report on a laboratory study comparing communication and performance of low-context American dyads, high- context Chinese dyads, and mixed American-Chinese dyads on a negotiation task under

Leslie D. Setlock; Pablo-alejandro Quinones; Susan R. Fussell



Analyte interactions with a new ditopic dansylamide-nitrobenzoxadiazole dyad: a combined photophysical, NMR, and theoretical (DFT) study.  


We report herein the synthesis and photophysical studies on a new multicomponent chemosensor dyad comprising two fluorescing units, dansylamide (DANS) and nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD). The system has been developed to investigate receptor-analyte binding interactions in the presence of both cations and anions in a single molecular system. A dimethyl amino (in the DANS unit) group is used as a receptor for cations, and acidic hydrogens of sulfonamide and the NBD group are used as receptors for anions. The system is characterized by conventional analytical techniques. The photophysical properties of this supramolecular system in the absence and presence of various metal ions and nonmetal ions as additives are investigated in an acetonitrile medium. Utility of this system in an aqueous medium has also been demonstrated. The absorption and fluorescence spectrum of the molecular system consists of a broad band typical of an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition. A low quantum yield and lifetime of the NBD moiety in the present dyad indicates photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between DANS and the NBD moiety. The fluorescence intensity of the system is found to decrease in the presence of fluoride and acetate anions; however, the quenching is found to be much higher for fluoride. This quenching behavior is attributed to the enhanced PET from the anion receptor to the fluorophore moiety. The mechanistic aspect of the fluoride ion signaling behavior has also been studied by infrared (IR) and (1)H NMR experiments. The hydrogen bonding interaction between the acidic NH protons of the DPN moiety and F(-) is found to be primarily responsible for the fluoride selective signaling behavior. While investigating the cation signaling behavior, contrary to anions, significant fluorescence enhancement has been observed only in the presence of transition-metal ions. This behavior is rationalized by considering the disruption of PET communication between DANS and the NBD moiety due to transition-metal ion binding. Theoretical (density functional theory) studies are also performed for the better understanding of the receptor-analyte interaction. Interestingly, negative cooperativity in binding is observed when the interaction of this system is studied in the presence of both Zn(2+) and F(-). Fluorescence microscopy studies also revealed that the newly developed fluorescent sensor system can be employed as an imaging probe in live cells. PMID:25116958

Bhoi, Abhas Kumar; Das, Sudhir Kumar; Majhi, Debashis; Sahu, Prabhat Kumar; Nijamudheen, A; N, Anoop; Rahaman, Abdur; Sarkar, Moloy



Ethnic differences during social interactions of preschoolers in same-ethnic and cross-ethnic dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyadic interactions of 30 Asian-Canadian and 30 French-Canadian preschool children were analyzed in term of social participation, initiation, responses strategies and social interchange. Results showed a preference for same-ethnic partners to play more interactively together, while with a cross-ethnic partner they played more solitarily in the presence of the peer. To initiate their interactions, Asian-Canadian children made more co-operative initiations

Nadine Girouard; Dale M. Stack; Monica ONeill-Gilbert



Beyond the dyad: do family interactions influence children's attachment representations in middle childhood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the influence of mother–child and family interactions on the development of child attachment representations in middle childhood for a sample of 49 families. Mother–child interactions were observed during a snacktime in a lab setting (Moss, Rousseau, Parent, St-Laurent, & Saintonge, 1998) when children were 5–6 years old. Three years later, children's attachment representations were assessed using a

Karine Dubois-Comtois; Ellen Moss



Does Culture Interact with Media Richness? The Effects of Audio vs. Video Conferencing on Chinese and American Dyads  

E-print Network

Does Culture Interact with Media Richness? The Effects of Audio vs. Video Conferencing on Chinese understanding about how features of communication media interact with culture to influence interpersonal an overview of a laboratory study we conducted to examine interactions between culture and media

Fussell, Susan R.


Scaffolding interaction in parent-child dyads: Multimodal analysis of parental scaffolding with task and non-task oriented children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this exploratory study we conceptualized and explored socio-cognitive, emotional and motivational regulatory processes\\u000a displayed in scaffolding interaction between parents and their non-task and taskoriented children. Based on the dynamic systems\\u000a view and findings from developmental research, we assumed that parents with non-task oriented and task-oriented children have\\u000a formed differential multimodal interaction patterns which have been stabilized during repeated parent-child

Pekka Salonen; Janne Lepola; Marja Vauras



Gender Role Self-Concept and Gender-Typed Communication Behavior in Mixed-Sex and Same-Sex Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was the relation between both gender role self-concept and gender role attitudes with gender-related behavior of interacting partners. We observed gender-typed communication behaviors of mixed-sex and same-sex dyads and measured gender role self-concept and gender role attitudes. Thirty mixed-sex dyads, 19 women dyads, and 15 men dyads participated in a behavior observation study. The results

Ursula Athenstaedt; Elisabeth Haas; Stephanie Schwab



Peer-Assisted Learning in the Physical Activity Domain: Dyad Type and Gender Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed peer interactions in high school students practicing a swimming skill, examining potential dyad type-by- gender differences in peer interaction modes (guidance-tutoring, imitation, cooperation, and parallel activity). Students trained in symmetrical (same competence) or asymmetrical (different competence) same-sex dyads. Tutoring and…

d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Gernigon, Christophe; Huet, Marie-Laure; Cadopi, Marielle; Winnykamen, Fayda



Synthesis, spectroscopic properties, and electropolymerization of azulene dyads.  


Four azulene dyads have been synthesized and studied by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. A triarylamine, a boron-dipyrromethene (BDP or BODIPY), a porphyrin, and an isoalloxazine moiety have been linked to an extended ? electron system at the 2-position of azulene, leading to the dyads 1-4, respectively. For the synthesis of 1-4, first 2-(4-ethynyl-phenyl)azulene (EPA) was prepared, which was further reacted with the halogenated chromophores by Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The dyads 1-4 exhibit strong absorption bands in the visible range, which are dominated by the absorption spectra of the individual subchromophores. Fluorometric studies of 2-4 revealed that after excitation of the subchromophoric unit attached to the parent azulene moiety, quenching mainly through energy transfer to azulene is effective, whereas possible charge-transfer interactions play only a minor role. Potentiodynamic oxidation of the dyads 1-4 leads to the formation of polymer films, which are deposited at the electrode. The polymer film derived from 1 was further characterized by spectroelectrochemistry. During positive doping of poly-1, a strong absorption band appears at 13,200 cm(-1), which is typical for triarylamine radical cations. This band is overlapping with a broad absorption band in the low-energy region that might be caused by charge-transfer interactions within the polymer. PMID:21506604

Nöll, Gilbert; Daub, Jörg; Lutz, Michaela; Rurack, Knut



Naturalistic social cognition: Empathic accuracy in mixed-sex dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research paradigm that Ickes and his colleagues developed for the study of naturalistic social cognition was used to explore the phenomenon of empathic accuracy in the initial, unstructured interactions of 38 mixed-sex (male-female) dyads. The results indicated that an important aspect of empathic accuracy—content accuracy—could be measured reliably (a = .94) with the procedure used. The results further indicated

William Ickes; Linda Stinson; Victor Bissonnette; Stella Garcia



A Biochemical/Biophysical Assay Dyad for HTS-Compatible Triaging of Inhibitors of the HIV-1 Nef/Hck SH3 Interaction  

PubMed Central

The current treatment regimens for HIV include over 20 anti-retrovirals. However, adverse drug effects and the emergence of drug resistance necessitates the continued improvement of the existing drug classes as well as the development of novel drugs that target as yet therapeutically unexploited viral and cellular pathways. Here we demonstrate a strategy for the discovery of protein-protein interaction inhibitors of the viral pathogenicity factor HIV-1 Nef and its interaction with the host factor SH3. A combination of a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy resonance energy transfer-based assay and a label-free resonant waveguide grating-based assay was optimized for high-throughput screening formats. PMID:24396731

Breuer, Sebastian; Espinola, Sheryll; Morelli, Xavier; Torbett, Bruce E; Arold, Stefan T; Engels, Ingo H



Compatibility in the Coach-Athlete Dyad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of inclusion, control, and affection behaviors in the interrelationships of coaches and athletes revealed that inclusion was the predominant factor contributing to incompatibility in the dyads. (MJB)

Carron, Albert V.; Bennett, Bonnie B.



Affect Listeners -From dyads to group interactions  

E-print Network

of individuals and groups as part of their decision mechanism. 1 Introduction The project CyberEmotions2 deals- sion. To date, Affect Listeners were applied in a range of experiments in dyadic settings which served: psychological studies and experiments on perception and generation of emotionally charged online content [11


Peer interactions of dysphoric adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to extend our knowledge of dysphoric adolescents' dyadic peer interactions. Thirty female dyads (ages 13–17) were videotaped interacting during both a structured and an unstructured task. Fourteen of the dyads were each comprised of a dysphoric girl and a nondysphoric girl; the remaining dyads were comprised of two nondysphoric girls. Girls were considered dysphoric if they

Marie Baker; Richard Milich; Mary Beth Manolis



Photoinduced Electron Transfer within a Zinc Porphyrin-Cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) Donor-Acceptor Dyad.  


Understanding the mechanism of efficient photoinduced electron-transfer processes is essential for developing molecular systems for artificial photosynthesis. Towards this goal, we describe the synthesis of a donor-acceptor dyad comprising a zinc porphyrin donor and a tetracationic cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+) ) acceptor. The X-ray crystal structure of the dyad reveals the formation of a dimeric motif through the intermolecular coordination between the triazole nitrogen and the central Zn metal of two adjacent units of the dyad. Photoinduced electron transfer within the dyad in MeCN was investigated by femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, as well as by transient EPR spectroscopy. Photoexcitation of the dyad produced a weakly coupled ZnP(+.) -CBPQT(3+.) spin-correlated radical-ion pair having a ?=146?ns lifetime and a spin-spin exchange interaction of only 0.23?mT. The long radical-ion-pair lifetime results from weak donor-acceptor electronic coupling as a consequence of having nine bonds between the donor and the acceptor, and the reduction in reorganization energy for electron transfer caused by charge dispersal over both paraquat units within CBPQT(3+.) . PMID:25258209

Fathalla, Maher; Barnes, Jonathan C; Young, Ryan M; Hartlieb, Karel J; Dyar, Scott M; Eaton, Samuel W; Sarjeant, Amy A; Co, Dick T; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser



Early Communication in Dyads with Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of dyads with restricted access to the visual channel of communication to establish a reliable pre-linguistic communicative signalling system has traditionally been viewed as problematic. Such a conclusion is due in part to the emphasis that has been placed on vision as central to communication by traditional theory. The data presented…

Rattray, Julie; Zeedyk, M. Suzanne



A Trouble Shared Is a Trouble Halved: Social Context and Status Affect Pain in Mouse Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mice behavioral response to pain is modulated by social status. Recently, social context also has been shown to affect pain sensitivity. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of interaction between status and social context in dyads of outbred CD-1 male mice in which the dominance\\/submission relationship was stable. Mice were assessed for pain response in a

Laura Gioiosa; Flavia Chiarotti; Enrico Alleva; Giovanni Laviola; Colin Allen



The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-Glucocorticoid Dyad: Regulation of Inflammation and Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) occupies a unique position in phys- iology by its ability to directly regulate the immu- nosuppressive actions of glucocorticoids. We re- view herein the interactions between MIF and glucocorticoids within the immune system and discuss the relevance of the MIF-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in physiology and immunopa- thology. Therapeutic antagonism of MIF may be

Harry Flaster; Jurgen Bernhagen; Thierry Calandra; Richard Bucala



Asymmetrical Dyads and Foreign PolicyCanada-U.S. Relations 1963-1972  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of Canada's foreign policy toward the United States from 1963 to 1972 is used in a test of a theory of foreign policies of subordinate states in asymmetrical dyads. In this theory the interaction of two conditions—the state of a nation's economy and the extent of concentration in its linkages with a superordinate power, along with a set

Michael B. Dolan; Harald Von Riekhoff; Brian W. Tomlin; Maureen Appel Molot



The diffusion of novel signs beyond the dyad  

PubMed Central

We present a study aimed at investigating how novel signs emerge and spread through a community of interacting individuals. Ten triads of participants played a game in which players created novel signs in order to communicate with each other while constantly rotating between the role of interlocutor and that of observer. The main result of the study was that, for a majority of the triads, communicative success was not shared by the three dyads of players in a triad. This imbalance appears to be due to individual differences in game performance as well as to uncooperative behaviors. We suggest that both of these are magnified by the social dynamics induced by the role rotations in the game. PMID:22711975

Galantucci, Bruno; Theisen, Carrie; Gutierrez, Elkin Dario; Kroos, Christian; Rhodes, Theo



Peer interactions of normal and attention-deficit-disordered boys during free-play, cooperative task, and simulated classroom situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of 30 ADD-H boys and 90 normal boys were divided into 30 mixed dyads composed of a normal and an ADD-H boy, and 30 normal dyads composed of 2 normal boys. Dyads were videotaped interacting in 15-minute freeplay, 15-minute cooperative task, and 15-minute simulated classroom settings. Mixed dyads engaged in more controlling interaction than normal dyads in both free-play

Charles E. Cunningham; Linda S. Siegel



Differences in intergender communication within task-oriented dyads  

E-print Network

on how the task is presented in the study. In this study, 29 mixed-sex dyads were asked to come up with pieces of information to put in a Freshman Handbook; 15 dyads were structured to be cooperative, and 14 were structured to be competitive. Fifty...

McAfee, Joanna Lynn



Gender Differences in Interpersonal Complementarity Within Roommate Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementarity theory proposes specific hypotheses regarding interpersonal styles that will result in success- ful relationships. The present study sought to extend previous research on gender differences in complemen- tarity through the examination of same-sex peer dyads and the use of informant reports of interpersonal style. One hundred twenty participants (30 male and 30 female roommate dyads) completed interpersonal cir- cumplex

Emily B. Ansell; J. E. Kurtz; Patrick M. Markey



A Comparison of Deception Behavior in Dyad and Triadic Group Decision Making in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deception can be detrimental to individual and organizational decision mak- ing. Existing research on behavioral cues to deception has focused mainly on monologue and dyadic interaction. No studies have empirically examined the impact of group size on behavioral cues to deception. This study is the first attempt to investigate whether deceivers behave differently in dyads and triadic groups in synchronous

Lina Zhou; Dongsong Zhang



Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents' Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12-16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison…

Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia



DYAD: A Computer Program for the Analysis of Interpersonal Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer program which generates descriptions of conversational patterns of dyads based on sound-silence data is described. Input consists of talk/no-talk designations; output consists of descriptive matrices, histograms, and individual talk parameters. (Author/JKS)

Fogel, Daniel S.



Evidence for Unintentional Emotional Contagion Beyond Dyads  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another’s emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B’s faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others’ emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics. PMID:23840683

Dezecache, Guillaume; Conty, Laurence; Chadwick, Michele; Philip, Leonor; Soussignan, Robert



The Opioid dependent mother and newborn dyad: non-pharmacologic care  

PubMed Central

Opioid dependent pregnant and post-partum women and their infants are a complex and vulnerable population requiring individualized, comprehensive and multidisciplinary treatment. Though methadone maintenance in the setting of comprehensive service provision during pregnancy significantly improves pregnancy outcomes for opioid dependent women, its use has implications for the infant, most notably the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). NAS is comprised of physiologic signs and behaviors that indicate a dysfunctional regulation of the central and autonomic nervous systems, and is variable in its expression in affected infants. The disorganized rather than adaptive behaviors displayed by each infant undergoing the effects of in-utero opioid exposure may impair basic functions such as feeding, sleeping, and the ability to be alert and communicate clear cues to caregivers. Understanding and responding to neurobehavioral dysfunction of the newborn may help to promote the infant’s self-organization and self-regulating abilities. However, the substance abusing mother’s physical and psychological wellbeing may be debilitated in the perinatal period, and her ability to recognize and respond to the newborn’s cues may be limited. A multi-tiered comprehensive assessment and intervention of the methadone-maintained mother, her child, and the mother/infant dyad can improve early maternal nurturing interactions, a crucial component of early infant development, particularly in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to review the contribution of maternal opioid dependency to the difficulties experienced by the mother-infant dyad and their treatment providers in the postnatal period, and the non-pharmacological treatment of the infants with suggestions for practical measures with emphasis on the treatment of the mother and baby as an interactional dyad. PMID:19727440

Velez, Martha; Jansson, Lauren M.



Morphological stability of organic solar cells based upon an oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)-C70 dyad.  


An oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)-C(70) dyad achieves the highest power conversion efficiency (1.92%) in dyad-based organic solar cells to date. Covalent attachment in the dyad prevents large phase separation, resulting in good morphological and device stability at high temperatures as compared with mixed bulk heterojunction devices. PMID:23108576

Izawa, Seiichiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Tajima, Keisuke



Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate\\u000a model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture\\u000a important predictors in late adolescents’ important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample for this study consisted\\u000a of 151 male and 324 female late adolescents,

Cliff McKinney; Kimberly Renk



Parent-Caregiver Relationship Dyad in Greek Day Care Centres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High quality early childhood education and care programmes encourage frequent, positive communication with and positive, effective relationships between parents and early childhood educators. The present study aimed to examine the adult relationship aspects of childcare and, more precisely, the parent/caregiver relationship dyad. The way in which…

Rentzou, Konstantina



Nonverbal Communication in Across-Race Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of proxemic studies of dyadic communication behavior made by the authors in natural, academic and laboratory settings with the use of the DIAD. Based on the theory of anthropologists Hall (1966) and Birdwhistell (1970) and developed empirically as initial observations of dyadic interaction were made, the Dennis…

Dennis, Virginia C.; Powell, Evan R.


Phase morphology of a disk-sphere dyad molecule.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A disk-sphere dyad molecule was synthesized by attaching a discotic triphenylene molecule to a spherical polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) molecule via esterification reaction. The self-assembly behavior of the dyad molecule was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscope. Two-dimensional (2D) XRD results showed the dyad molecules self-assembled into a lamellar structure, which composed of a crystalline POSS layer and a discotic-nematic triphenylene double-layer. The POSS layer consisted four layers of ABCA-stacked spherical molecules. The liquid crystalline triphenylene molecules were parallel and staggered in the double-layer. Computer simulation of the XRD intensity confirmed the proposed structural model. Compared with that of the POSS crystal in bulk (melting point at ca 220 ^oC), the melting temperature of POSS crystal was dramatically decreased to 67 ^oC, possibly due to effects of the asymmetry molecular shape and plasticization of the discotic triphenylene moieties between POSS layers.

Cui, Li; Collet, Jeffrey; Zhu, Lei



Self-assembled monolayers of C60-triphenylamine dyads as photo-switched interfacial layers for potential application in photovoltaic cells.  


C60-Triphenylamine dyads were synthesized for incorporation as photoswitched interfacial layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of these dyads on gold (through S-Au and C60-Au interactions) were prepared through one or two adsorption processes, and their packing densities were fully characterized. Analysis using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicated that all SAMs exhibit dense coverage on the gold surfaces. Electrochemical desorption in KOH confirmed that the cis-1 dyad is anchored to the gold surface through its thiol group. Impedance measurements in the absence and presence of UV irradiation were performed to observe the photoswitched properties of these surface confined dyads. Upon UV light exposure of the SAMs, the charge-transfer resistance decreased when Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) was used as the probe redox couple and increased with Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+), confirming the generation of positive charges on the surface upon UV irradiation. PMID:24524362

Hosseini, Mahsa; Rivera-Nazario, Danisha M; Echegoyen, Luis A



Beyond the 'dyad': a qualitative re-evaluation of the changing clinical consultation  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify characteristics of consultations that do not conform to the traditionally understood communication ‘dyad’, in order to highlight implications for medical education and develop a reflective ‘toolkit’ for use by medical practitioners and educators in the analysis of consultations. Design A series of interdisciplinary research workshops spanning 12?months explored the social impact of globalisation and computerisation on the clinical consultation, focusing specifically on contemporary challenges to the clinician–patient dyad. Researchers presented detailed case studies of consultations, taken from their recent research projects. Drawing on concepts from applied sociolinguistics, further analysis of selected case studies prompted the identification of key emergent themes. Setting University departments in the UK and Switzerland. Participants Six researchers with backgrounds in medicine, applied linguistics, sociolinguistics and medical education. One workshop was also attended by PhD students conducting research on healthcare interactions. Results The contemporary consultation is characterised by a multiplicity of voices. Incorporation of additional voices in the consultation creates new forms of order (and disorder) in the interaction. The roles ‘clinician’ and ‘patient’ are blurred as they become increasingly distributed between different participants. These new consultation arrangements make new demands on clinicians, which lie beyond the scope of most educational programmes for clinical communication. Conclusions The consultation is changing. Traditional consultation models that assume a ‘dyadic’ consultation do not adequately incorporate the realities of many contemporary consultations. A paradox emerges between the need to manage consultations in a ‘super-diverse’ multilingual society, while also attending to increasing requirements for standardised protocol-driven approaches to care prompted by computer use. The tension between standardisation and flexibility requires addressing in educational contexts. Drawing on concepts from applied sociolinguistics and the findings of these research observations, the authors offer a reflective ‘toolkit’ of questions to ask of the consultation in the context of enquiry-based learning. PMID:25270858

Swinglehurst, Deborah; Roberts, Celia; Li, Shuangyu; Weber, Orest; Singy, Pascal



Multiscale modeling of calcium signaling in the cardiac dyad.  


Calcium (Ca(2+))-induced Ca(2+)-release (CICR) takes place in spatially restricted microdomains known as dyads. The length scale over which CICR occurs is on the order of nanometers and relevant time scales range from micro- to milliseconds. Quantitative understanding of CICR therefore requires development of models that are applicable over a range of spatio-temporal scales. We will present several new approaches for multiscale modeling of CICR. First, we present a model of dyad Ca(2+) dynamics in which the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) is solved for the probability P(x, t) that a Ca(2+) ion is located at dyad position x at time t. Using this model, we demonstrate that (a) Ca(2+) signaling in the dyad is mediated by approximately tens of Ca(2+) ions; (b) these signaling events are noisy due to the small number of ions involved; and (c) the geometry of the RyR (ryanodine receptors) protein may function to restrict the diffusion of and to "funnel" Ca(2+) ions to activation-binding sites on the RyR, thus increasing RyR open probability and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling gain. Simplification of this model to one in which the dyadic space is represented using a single compartment yields the stochastic local-control model of CICR developed previously. We have shown that this model captures fundamental properties of CICR, such as graded release and voltage-dependent gain, may be integrated within a model of the myocyte and may be simulated in reasonable times using a combination of efficient numerical methods and parallel computing, but remains too complex for general use in cell simulations. To address this problem, we show how separation of time scales may be used to formulate a model in which nearby L-type Ca(2+) channels (LCCs) and RyRs gate as a coupled system that may be described using low-dimensional systems of ordinary differential equations, thus reducing computational complexity while capturing fundamentally important properties of CICR. The simplified model may be solved many orders of magnitude faster than can either of the more detailed models, thus enabling incorporation into tissue-level simulations. PMID:17132795

Winslow, Raimond L; Tanskanen, Antti; Chen, Mindao; Greenstein, Joseph L



Shared impression formation in the cognitively interdependent dyad.  


We examined the role of cognitive interdependence in determining how close friends form shared impressions of another person. Cognitive interdependence should provide a processing advantage, such that close friends are more efficient in forming shared impressions and are more successful at doing so. Under normal circumstances, the conversations of close friends should be marked by little necessity to make explicit requests for information, mutual recognition of who currently is controlling the flow of conversation, and willingness to express differences in opinion. Given these advantages, close friends also should be able to form complex shared impressions that go beyond mere one-sided stereotypic judgments and that instead resolve apparent discrepancies in the target's personality. However, if the cognitive interdependence system is disrupted by mutual distraction, these advantages should attenuate or even reverse. Dyads of varying degrees of closeness were mutually distracted or not while discussing their impressions of another female college student. Results supported predictions and are discussed with reference to how cognitive interdependence may help close dyads function within their mutual social networks. PMID:14567845

Ruscher, Janet B; Santuzzi, Alecia M; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost



Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

Background The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration. Methods We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were computed and compared between the two subgroups. Results There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1) between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusion The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration. PMID:24293995

Lanjewar, Swapnil S; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Joshi, Saurabh; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Kothagundla, Chandrasekhar; Kaul, Sudesh; Spodick, David H



Charge transfer energies of tetraphenyl-porphyrin-fullerene dyads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porphyrin-fullerene dyads are extensively studied for their photoinduced charge transfer properties. They form a donor-acceptor pair where the fullerene is the acceptor. Accurate theoretical estimate of the charge transfer energies in such systems has proven to be a challenge. In this study we examine the charge transfer energetics for such dyads using our recently developed density functional based excited state method which can yield reliable estimates of charge transfer energetics. In this study the effect of varying both the donor and acceptor components are studied by changing the tetra-phenyl-porphyrin (TPP) to Zn-TPP. Similarly the acceptor component is changed from C60 to C70. The structures were optimized using DFT-D3 theory at the all-electron level. Among the donor-acceptor pairs studied, we find that the ZnTPP-C60 has the lowest charge transfer energy (1.69 eV) and the TPP-C70 (2.13 eV) has the highest charge transfer energy.

Zope, Rajendra; Olguin, Marco; Baruah, Tunna



Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment in Father-Child Dyads: The Case of Single Parenthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have repeatedly found that intergenerational transmission of attachment is more robust in mother-child dyads than it is in father-child dyads. They have proposed several explanations for the inconsistent father-child findings, including the use of the strange situation procedure, the young age of the children, and the fact that fathers…

Bernier, Annie; Miljkovitch, Raphaele



Perceptions of Conflict Strategies and Communication Competence in Task-Oriented Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals in temporary task-oriented dyads or groups must manage conflict competently if they hope to be successful in reaching their goals. Thus far, however, research on the associations between conflict styles and communication competence has focused on acquainted dyads, such as relational partners and coworkers, rather than unacquainted…

Gross, Michael A.; Guerrero, Laura K.; Alberts, Jess K.



Similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescents' friendship dyads: selection or socialization?  


This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12-16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison group). To test our hypothesis, we applied a multigroup actor-partner interdependence model to 3 friendship types that started and ended at different time points during the 2 waves of data collection. Results showed that adolescents reported levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up that were similar to those of their best friends. Socialization processes explained the increase in similarity exclusively in female dyads, whereas no evidence for friendship selection emerged for either male or female dyads. Additional analyses revealed that similarity between friends was particularly evident in the actual best friend dyads (i.e., true best friends), in which evidence for socialization processes emerged for both female and male friend dyads. Findings highlight the importance of examining friendship relations as a potential context for the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:21639621

Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H J; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Larsen, Junilla K; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Ciairano, Silvia



The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

Ferguson, Gail M.



Synthesis and electrolytic polymerization of the ethylenedioxy-substituted terthiophene-fullerene dyad.  


[reaction: see text] Two derivatives of ethylenedioxy-substituted terthiophene-fullerene dyads were newly synthesized as the precursors for polythiophene having fullerene side chains. By electrolytic oxidation of dyad 1, the charm-bracelet type polythiophene, poly-1, was obtained as a purple film, which showed electrochemical activity, electrochromism, and photoelectronic response. PMID:15606086

Yamazaki, Tetsuya; Murata, Yasujiro; Komatsu, Koichi; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Morita, Masao; Maruyama, Norihiko; Yamao, Takeshi; Fujita, Shizuo



Developing psychotherapists' competence through clinical supervision: protocol for a qualitative study of supervisory dyads  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health professionals face unique demands and stressors in their work, resulting in high rates of burnout and distress. Clinical supervision is a widely adopted and valued mechanism of professional support, development, and accountability, despite the very limited evidence of specific impacts on therapist or client outcomes. The current study aims to address this by exploring how psychotherapists develop competence through clinical supervision and what impact this has on the supervisees’ practice and their clients’ outcomes. This paper provides a rationale for the study and describes the protocol for an in-depth qualitative study of supervisory dyads, highlighting how it addresses gaps in the literature. Methods/Design The study of 16–20 supervisor-supervisee dyads uses a qualitative mixed method design, with two phases. In phase one, supervisors who are nominated as expert by their peers are interviewed about their supervision practice. In phase two, supervisors record a supervision session with a consenting supervisee; interpersonal process recall interviews are conducted separately with supervisor and supervisee to reflect in depth on the teaching and learning processes occurring. All interviews will be transcribed, coded and analysed to identify the processes that build competence, using a modified form of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) strategies. Using a theory-building case study method, data from both phases of the study will be integrated to develop a model describing the processes that build competence and support wellbeing in practising psychotherapists, reflecting the accumulated wisdom of the expert supervisors. Discussion The study addresses past study limitations by examining expert supervisors and their supervisory interactions, by reflecting on actual supervision sessions, and by using dyadic analysis of the supervisory pairs. The study findings will inform the development of future supervision training and practice and identify fruitful avenues for future research. PMID:23298408



Proximity-to-goal as a constraint on patterns of behaviour in attacker-defender dyads in team games.  


The aim of this study was to determine whether spatiotemporal interactions between footballers and the ball in 1 vs. 1 sub-phases are influenced by their proximity to the goal area. Twelve participants (age 15.3 ± 0.5 years) performed as attackers and defenders in 1 vs. 1 dyads across three field positions: (a) attacking the goal, (b) in midfield, and (c) advancing away from the goal area. In each position, the dribbler was required to move beyond an immediate defender with the ball towards the opposition goal. Interactions of attacker-defender dyads were filmed with player and ball displacement trajectories digitized using manual tracking software. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences in mean defender-to-ball distance after this value had stabilized. Maximum attacker-to-ball distance was also compared as a function of proximity-to-goal. Significant differences were observed for defender-to-ball distance between locations (a) and (c) at the moment when the defender-to-ball distance had stabilized (a: 1.69 ± 0.64 m; c: 1.15 ± 0.59 m; P < 0.05). Findings indicate that proximity-to-goal influenced the performance of players, particularly when attacking or advancing away from goal areas, providing implications for training design in football. In this study, the task constraints of football revealed subtly different player interactions than observed in previous studies of dyadic systems in basketball and rugby union. PMID:22176036

Headrick, Jonathon; Davids, Keith; Renshaw, Ian; Araújo, Duarte; Passos, Pedro; Fernandes, Orlando



Ionization state of the catalytic dyad Asp25/25' in the HIV-1 protease: NMR studies of site-specifically 13C labelled HIV-1 protease prepared by total chemical synthesis.  


Total chemical synthesis was used to site-specifically (13)C-label active site Asp25 and Asp25' residues in HIV-1 protease and in several chemically synthesized analogues of the enzyme molecule. (13)C NMR measurements were consistent with a monoprotonated state for the catalytic dyad formed by the interacting Asp25, Asp25' side chain carboxyls. PMID:22659831

Torbeev, Vladimir Yu; Kent, Stephen B H



Theoretical study on a corrole-azafullerene dyad: Electronic structure, spectra and photoinduced electron transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density Functional Theory and Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory calculations have been carried out on a recently synthesized amino-corrole and a corrole-azafullerene dyad which exhibits photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Good agreement of the theoretical results with experiment is obtained regarding the absorption and emission spectra of the corrole, the absorption spectra of the corrole-azafullerene dyad and the transient anionic and cationic radicals of azafullerene and corrole respectively. Application of Mulliken's theory for charge-transfer states yields the excitation energy of the charge-separated state of the dyad very close to the S1 excitation of amino-corrole, consistent with a PET process.

Petsalakis, Ioannis D.; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula



Using Threshold Autoregressive Models to Study Dyadic Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considering a dyad as a dynamic system whose current state depends on its past state has allowed researchers to investigate whether and how partners influence each other. Some researchers have also focused on how differences between dyads in their interaction patterns are related to other differences between them. A promising approach in this area…

Hamaker, Ellen L.; Zhang, Zhiyong; van der Maas, Han L. J.



Photodynamics of a constrained parachute-shaped fullerene-porphyrin dyad  

SciTech Connect

The pronounced ability of fullerene C{sub 60} to act as an electron and energy acceptor has led to the synthesis of a large number of compounds in which C{sub 60} is covalently linked to photoactivatable groups which can serve as potential donors. Such compounds are of interest as model systems for photosynthetic reaction centers and also have potential applications in photodynamic therapy because of the highly efficient photosensitization of singlet molecular oxygen formation by C{sub 60} and C{sub 60} derivatives. By far the largest number of such systems studied to date utilize porphyrins as antennas for efficient light capture in the visible region of the spectrum, and a variety of linkers. Photophysical studies as well as molecular modeling indicate that in conformationally flexible dyads the porphyrin (P) and C{sub 60} moieties are in close proximity, due to {pi}-stacking interactions, thus facilitating through-space interactions, as demonstrated by quenching of {sup 1}P{asterisk} fluorescence and generation of fullerene-excited states (by energy transfer) or P{sup +{sm{underscore}bullet}}-C{sub 60}{sup {minus}{sm{underscore}bullet}} ion-pair states (by electron transfer).

Schuster, D.I.; Cheng, P.; Wilson, S.R. [and others] [and others



Low molecular weight Neutral Boron Dipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads for fluorescence-based neural imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutral low molecular weight julolidine-based borondipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads JULBD and MJULBD were used for fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neurons in the crab stomatogastric ganglion. The fluorescence modulation of the dyads mirrors alterations in the membrane potential of the imaged neurons. The toxicity of the dyes towards the neurons is related to their structure in that methyl groups at the 3,5 positions results in reduced toxic effects.

Bai, Dan; Benniston, Andrew C.; Clift, Sophie; Baisch, Ulrich; Steyn, Jannetta; Everitt, Nicola; Andras, Peter



[Adolescent parenting – developmental risks for the mother-child dyad].  


Adolescent mothers and their children are exposed to multiple psychosocial risk factors and represent a high-risk group for adverse developmental outcomes. It is not the mother's young age alone which contributes to the developmental risk of the mother-child dyad. Rather, both the combination of risks, such as poverty, domestic violence, dysfunctional family relationships, or a psychiatric disorder, all of which predispose to adolescent pregnancy, as well as the strains of parenthood during the mother's own developmental stage add to the psychosocial risks of children of teenage mothers. Early motherhood can lead to lower levels of education and a lower socioeconomic status. In addition, there is a higher risk for psychopathology in both the teenage mother and her child. This article provides an overview of the current research findings regarding adolescent parenting and its associated risks. Risk factors leading to early motherhood are reviewed and associated with differences in parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children. This article will conclude with a short overview on intervention programs for adolescent mothers and their children. Further research is needed to develop age-appropriate support programs for adolescent mothers and their children to cope with the complexity of risks and improve their developmental trajectories. PMID:24240497

Dahmen, Brigitte; Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate



Dyadic variability in mother-adolescent interactions: developmental trajectories and associations with psychosocial functioning.  


Dyadic variability is considered to be a key mechanism in the development of mother-adolescent relationships, and low levels of dyadic flexibility are thought to be associated with behavior and relationship problems. The present observational study examined heterogeneity in the development of dyadic variability in mother-adolescent interactions and associations with psychosocial functioning. Dyadic variability refers to the range of emotional states during interactions of mother-adolescent dyads. During five annual home visits, 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13; 65.2 % boys) were videotaped while discussing a conflict, and they completed several questionnaires on adolescents' aggressive behavior and adolescents' and mothers' perceived relationship quality. Two types of dyads were distinguished: low variability dyads (52 %) and high decreasing variability dyads (48 %). Over time, high decreasing variability dyads were characterized by a broader emotional repertoire than low variability dyads. Moreover, these two dyad types had distinct developmental patterns of psychosocial adjustment. Over time, high decreasing variability dyads showed lower levels of adolescents' aggressive behavior, and higher levels of perceived relationship quality than low variability dyads. These findings suggest that over time more dyadic variability is associated with less adjustment problems and a more constructive development of the mother-adolescent relationship. Adaptive interactions seem to be characterized by a wider range of emotional states and mothers should guide adolescents during interactions to express both positive and negative affect. Observing the dyadic variability during mother-adolescent interactions can help clinicians to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive mother-adolescent dyads. PMID:22801805

Van der Giessen, Dani?lle; Branje, Susan J T; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim H J



Recruitment of Older Adult Patient-Caregiver Dyads for an Online Caregiver Resource Program: Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

Hip fracture is a significant health problem for older adults and generally requires surgery followed by intensive rehabilitation. Informal caregivers (CGs) can provide vital assistance to older adults recovering from hip fracture. Caregiving is a dyadic process that affects both CGs and care recipients (CRs). In a feasibility study, we assessed the effects of using a theory-based online hip fracture resource program for CGs on both CGs and CRs. In this article, we discuss our recruitment process and the lessons learned. Participants were recruited from six acute hospitals, and CGs used the online resource program for 8 weeks. A total of 256 hip fracture patients were screened, and 164 CRs were ineligible. CG screening was initiated when CRs were determined to be eligible. Among 41 eligible dyads, 36 dyads were recruited. Several challenges to the recruitment of these dyads for online studies were identified, including a low number of eligible dyads in certain hospitals and difficulty recruiting both the CR and the CG during the short hospital stay. Field nurses often had to make multiple trips to the hospital to meet with both the CR and the CG. Thus, when a subject unit is a dyad recruited from acute settings, the resources required for the recruitment may be more than doubled. These challenges could be successfully alleviated with careful planning, competent field staff members, collaboration with hospital staff members, and efficient field operations. PMID:23549905

Orwig, Denise; Resnick, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Bellantoni, Michele; Sterling, Robert



Attachment Style, Vagal Tone, and Empathy during Mother-Adolescent Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested associations among empathic responsiveness, attachment style, and vagal tone (a physiologic index of emotion regulation) in 103 mother-adolescent dyads. Dyads discussed positive and negative topics and then separately reviewed a videotape of the interaction and rated their own and the other person's affect at one-minute intervals. We…

Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Butterworth, Molly R.



Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial Relationships, Communication, and Opportunities  

E-print Network

Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial This study investigated mother infant interactions in lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla conducive to infant social learning. Eleven gorilla mother infant dyads were focally observed in weekly 1-hr

Maestripieri, Dario


Counselling Australian baby boomers: examining the loss and grief issues facing aging distance-separated sibling dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been recognised that mature-aged sibling dyads provide each other with emotional support. What has yet to be determined is whether this support function is maintained within the baby boomer generational cohort of sibling dyads who through economic relocation\\/migration have become separated by distance. As such, this paper highlights the need for research to be conducted into the

Myra Frances Taylor; Nadia Clark; Elaine Newton



Effects of Gender Role and Task Content on Performance in Same-Gender Dyads: Transactive Memory as a Potential Mediator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment was designed to examine the effects of gender role and task content on performance in learning dyads and to test the potential mediator effect of an intragroup process related to transactive memory. A total of 44 same-gender dyads participated in the study and were asked to collaborate on a stereotypically masculine or feminine…

Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas; Huguet, Pascal



Efficient sensitization of dye-sensitized solar cells by novel triazine-bridged porphyrin-porphyrin dyads.  


Two novel porphyrin-porphyrin dyads, the symmetrical Zn[Porph]-Zn[Porph] (2) and unsymmetrical Zn[Porph]-H2[Porph] (4), where Zn[Porph] and H2[Porph] are the metalated and free-base forms of 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin, respectively, in which two porphyrin units are covalently bridged by 1,3,5-triazine, have been synthesized via the stepwise amination of cyanuric chloride. The dyads are also functionalized by a terminal carboxylic acid group of a glycine moiety attached to the triazine group. Photophysical measurements of 2 and 4 showed broaden and strengthened absorptions in their visible spectra, while electrochemistry experiments and density functional theory calculations revealed negligible interaction between the two porphyrin units in their ground states but appropriate frontier orbital energy levels for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The 2- and 4-based solar cells have been fabricated and found to exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.61% and 4.46%, respectively (under an illumination intensity of 100 mW/cm(2) with TiO2 films of 10 ?m thickness). The higher PCE value of the 4-based DSSC, as revealed by photovoltaic measurements (J-V curves) and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectra of the two cells, is attributed to its enhanced short-circuit current (J(sc)) under illumination, high open-circuit voltage (V(oc)), and fill factor (FF) values. Electrochemical impedance spectra demonstrated shorter electron-transport time (?d), longer electron lifetime (?e), and high charge recombination resistance for the 4-based cell, as well as larger dye loading onto TiO2. PMID:23944691

Zervaki, Galateia E; Roy, Mahesh S; Panda, Manas K; Angaridis, Panagiotis A; Chrissos, Emmanouel; Sharma, Ganesh D; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G



Arousal seeking and the maintenance of mutual gaze in same and mixed sex dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty male and thirty female undergraduates were randomly paired in either same or mixed sex dyads and were asked to maintain silent mutual gaze for as long as possible over two or three trials. The results indicated that high arousal seekers were better able to do this than low arousal seekers, and that this difference was especially strong in same

Francis T. McAndrew; Jane E. Warner



Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia



Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.



Participants' perceptions of self and partner in mixed?sex dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty?seven pairs of mixed?sex dyads discussed a specified problem for ten minutes. Each participant completed a questionnaire following the discussion in which he or she indicated whether self or partner contributed more to feelings of trust and friendship, contributed more to the decision, and talked more. Both men and women selected their partners slightly more frequently than themselves as the

Fred P. Hilpert; Cheris Kramer; Ruth Anne Clark



Males' and females' conversational behavior in cross-sex dyads: From gender differences to gender similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated gender differences in conversational behavior in an experimental setting. Twenty men and 20 women were randomly paired in 20 dyads and were asked to discuss a given topic. We examined the transcripts through a varied range of behavioral variables. First we analyzed the sequential ordering of utterances in order to establish the way male and female speakers take

Agnesa Pillon; Catherine Degauquier; François Duquesne



Overwhelming Preponderance as a Pacifying Condition Among Contiguous Asian Dyads, 1950–1969  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that preponderance of power is favorable to the prevention of war, whereas relative equality of power is conducive to war. Here, the “preponderance promotes peace” proposition is applied to dyads. The author modifies this proposition by claiming that only overwhelming or ten-to-one preponderance substantially reduces the risk of war. Moreover, the “overwhelming preponderance promotes peace” proposition

Erich Weede



Couple Coping and Adjustment to Multiple Sclerosis in Care Receiver-Carer Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The utility of "coping congruency" and "average level of couple coping" in explaining adjustment to multiple sclerosis was examined. Interview and questionnaire data was collected for 45 dyads with a 12-month follow-up. Predictors include Time 1 illness, caregiving, and coping variables. Findings support both concepts for explaining collective and…

Pakenham, Kenneth I.



Custodial Grandmother-Grandfather Dyads: Pathways among Marital Distress, Grandparent Dysphoria, Parenting Practice, and Grandchild Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on…

Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.



The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke



Identity Styles and Conflict Resolution Styles: Associations in Mother-Adolescent Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad.…

Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc



Ultrafast energy transfer in a Pd(ii)-bridged bisporphyrin dyad.  


A free base porphyrin/zinc(ii)porphyrin dyad bridged by a Pd(ii) unit exhibits an ultrafast S1 energy transfer (1.5 × 10(12) s(-1)) due to significant MO couplings between the acceptor and the donor and a non-nil atomic contribution of the Pd-atom in the frontier MOs, hence ensuring ?-conjugation. PMID:25312484

Abdelhameed, Mohammed; Langlois, Adam; Karsenti, Paul-Ludovic; Richeter, Sébastien; Ruppert, Romain; Harvey, Pierre D



Structural Features of Sibling Dyads and Attitudes toward Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined sibling-dyad structural variables (sex composition, age difference, current coresidence, position adjacency, family size, respondent and/or sibling ordinal position) and attitudes toward adult sibling relationships. A sample of 1,053 young adults (M age = 22.1 years) described one sibling using the Lifespan Sibling Relationship…

Riggio, Heidi R.



Synthetic Interviews: the Art of Creating a `Dyad' Between Humans and Machine-based Characters  

E-print Network

Synthetic Interviews: the Art of Creating a `Dyad' Between Humans and Machine-based Characters Mellon University Synthetic Interviews is a technology developed at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU's School of Computer Science and Software Engineering Institute. Synthetic Interviews provide a means

Stevens, Scott M.


Switching of the triplet excited state of rhodamine-C60 dyads.  


Acid-switching of the triplet excited state in rhodamine-C60 dyads was achieved. The rhodamine moiety acts as an acid-activated visible light-harvesting antenna and C60 as the singlet energy acceptor and the spin converter, and production of the triplet state was enhanced in the presence of acid. PMID:25360461

Wang, Fen; Cui, Xiaoneng; Lou, Zhangrong; Zhao, Jianzhang; Bao, Ming; Li, Xingwei



Protein Geometry and Placement in the Cardiac Dyad Influence Macroscopic Properties of Calcium-Induced Calcium Release  

PubMed Central

In cardiac ventricular myocytes, events crucial to excitation-contraction coupling take place in spatially restricted microdomains known as dyads. The movement and dynamics of calcium (Ca2+) ions in the dyad have often been described by assigning continuously valued Ca2+ concentrations to one or more dyadic compartments. However, even at its peak, the estimated number of free Ca2+ ions present in a single dyad is small (?10–100 ions). This in turn suggests that modeling dyadic calcium dynamics using laws of mass action may be inappropriate. In this study, we develop a model of stochastic molecular signaling between L-type Ca2+ channels (LCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) that describes: a), known features of dyad geometry, including the space-filling properties of key dyadic proteins; and b), movement of individual Ca2+ ions within the dyad, as driven by electrodiffusion. The model enables investigation of how local Ca2+ signaling is influenced by dyad structure, including the configuration of key proteins within the dyad, the location of Ca2+ binding sites, and membrane surface charges. Using this model, we demonstrate that LCC-RyR2 signaling is influenced by both the stochastic dynamics of Ca2+ ions in the dyad as well as the shape and relative positioning of dyad proteins. Results suggest the hypothesis that the relative placement and shape of the RyR2 proteins helps to “funnel” Ca2+ ions to RyR2 binding sites, thus increasing excitation-contraction coupling gain. PMID:17325016

Tanskanen, Antti J.; Greenstein, Joseph L.; Chen, Alex; Sun, Sean X.; Winslow, Raimond L.



The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.



Electron Exchange and the Photophysics of Metal-Quinone Complexes. 1. Synthesis and Spectroscopy of Chromium-Quinone Dyads  

E-print Network

of Chromium-Quinone Dyads Daniel E. Wheeler and James K. McCusker* Department of Chemistry, University and spectroscopic characterization of monosemiquinone and monocatechol complexes of chromium(III) are described

McCusker, James K.


The Early Stages of the Transition to Adulthood: Similarities and Differences between Mother-Daughter and Mother-Son Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The action-project method was used to explore similarities and differences in the goals and activities of mothers and sons, and mothers and daughters, working together to facilitate a successful future transition to adulthood. Participants were 10 mother?daughter dyads and 8 mother-son dyads, with a range of ethnicities and income levels. Data included video-recordings of conversations, transcripts of interviews, and self-report

José F. Domene; Krista D. Socholotiuk; Richard A. Young



Effects of gender role and task content on performance in same-gender dyads: Transactive memory as a potential mediator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was designed to examine the effects of gender role and task content on performance in learning dyads and to\\u000a test the potential mediator effect of an intragroup process related to transactive memory. A total of 44 same-gender dyads\\u000a participated in the study and were asked to collaborate on a stereotypically masculine or feminine task in a laboratory setting.

Estelle Michinov; Nicolas Michinov; Pascal Huguet



On the Photo-Induced Charge-Carrier Generation within Monolayers of Self-Assembled Organic Donor-Acceptor Dyads.  


By means of STM and nc-AFM the self-assembly of a new donor-acceptor (DA) dyad molecule on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is identified and compared to molecular simulations. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements clearly show the photovoltaic activity of this model system under illumination. The optoelectronic properties and the local morphology of the DA dyad assembly are simultaneously probed by KPFM down to the level of one molecular monolayers. PMID:25123291

Fuchs, Franz; Linares, Mathieu; de Vet, Christiaan; Leclère, Philippe; Demadrille, Renaud; Grévin, Benjamin



Multichromophoric dye-sensitized solar cells based on supramolecular zinc-porphyrin···perylene-imide dyads.  


Multichromophoric dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on self-assembled zinc-porphyrin···peryleneimide dyads on TiO(2) films display more efficient light-to-electrical energy conversion than DSCs based on individual dyes. Higher efficiency of multichromophoric dyes can be attributed to co-sensitization as well as vectorial electron transfer that lead to better electron-hole separation in the device. PMID:22832672

Panda, Dillip K; Goodson, Flynt S; Ray, Shuvasree; Lowell, Rachel; Saha, Sourav



An organic spin crossover material in water from a covalently linked radical dyad.  


A covalently linked viologen radical cation dyad acts as a reversible thermomagnetic switch in water. Cycling between diamagnetic and paramagnetic forms by heating and cooling is accompanied by changes in optical and magnetic properties with high radical fidelity. Thermomagnetic switches in water may eventually find use as novel biological thermometers and in temperature-responsive organic materials where the changes in properties originate from a change in electronic spin configuration rather than a change in structure. PMID:25068840

Geraskina, Margarita R; Buck, Alexander T; Winter, Arthur H



Space-time coordination dynamics in basketball: Part 1. Intra- and inter-couplings among player dyads.  


We examined space-time patterns of basketball players during competition by analysing movement data obtained from six game sequences. Strong in-phase relations in the longitudinal (basket-to-basket) direction were observed for all playing dyads, especially player-opponent dyads matched for playing position, indicating that these movements were very constrained by the game demands. Similar findings for in-phase relations were observed for the most part in the lateral direction, the main exception being dyads comprising the two wing players from the same team. These dyads instead demonstrated strong attractions to anti-phase, a consequence perhaps of seeking to increase and decrease team width in tandem. Single instances from select dyads and game sequences demonstrated further evidence of phase stabilities and phase transitions on some occasions. Together, these findings demonstrate that space-time movement patterns of playing dyads in basketball, while unique, nonetheless conform to a uniform description in keeping with universal principles of dynamical self-organizing systems as hypothesized. PMID:20131146

Bourbousson, Jérôme; Sève, Carole; McGarry, Tim



Dyads containing iridium(III) bis-terpyridine as photoactive center: synthesis and electron transfer study.  


A series of Ir(III)-D dyads based on an iridium(III) bis-terpyridine complex as a photoactive center and tertiary amines as donor groups, as well as their individual components, have been designed to generate photoinduced charge separation. Depending on the donor group, a modular approach or a "chemistry-on-the-complex" approach has been used to prepare three different Ir(III)-D dyads. A detailed photophysical study has been performed on one Ir(III)-D dyad in which a triarylamine is linked to the iridium bis-terpyridine complex with an amido-phenyl group used as a spacer. In acetonitrile at room temperature, steady-state and time-resolved methods gave evidence of a photoinduced charge-separated state Ir(-)-D(+) with a lifetime of 70 ps. This relatively short lifetime could be due to the close proximity between the negative charge, likely localized in the bridging terpyridine, and the oxidized donor group. PMID:15132611

Baranoff, Etienne; Dixon, Isabelle M; Collin, Jean-Paul; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre; Ventura, Barbara; Flamigni, Lucia



Effect of geometrical orientation on the charge transfer energetics of supramolecular (tetraphenyl)-porphyrin/fullerens dyads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our study of several low lying charge-transfer (CT) excitation energies for a widely used donor-acceptor system composed of a porphyrin-fullerene pair. The dyad systems consist of C60 and C70 acceptor systems coupled to tetraphenyl-porphyrin (TPP) and tetraphenyl-(zinc)porphyrin (ZnTPP) donor systems in a co-facial orientation. We find that replacing C60 by C70 in a given dyad may increase the lowest charge transfer excitation energy by about 0.27 eV, whereas varying the donor in these complexes had marginal effect on the lowest charge transfer excitation energy. Additionally, we examined the effect of geometrical orientation on the CT energy by calculating several CT excited state energies for an end-on orientation of the porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The CT excitation energies are larger for the end-on orientation in comparison to the co-facial orientation by 0.6 eV - 0.75 eV. The difference is attributed to a reduced exciton binding energy in going from the co-facial to the end-on orientation.

Olguin, Marco; Zope, Rajendra; Baruah, Tunna



Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads  

PubMed Central

Purpose:?The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d) staying active, and (e) recognizing emotions and behaviors. Results of the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention protocols are also presented.?Design and Methods:?Caregiving dyads were randomly assigned to participate in the intervention. Participants in the treatment condition were asked to complete a series of evaluation questions after each intervention session and an overall evaluation of the program. Data were also collected from the intervention specialists who implemented the protocols.?Results:?Overall, the evaluation data indicated that the content and process of the intervention were viewed as highly acceptable and feasible by both participants and intervention specialists.?Implications:?This article highlights the merit of using a strength-based approach for working with caregiving dyads with dementia and how a single intervention protocol can be used to address the goals of both care partners. Furthermore, the intervention program was found to be highly acceptable and feasible, which is an important aspect of developing dyadic protocols. PMID:19808841

Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia



Promoting cultural understanding through pediatric clinical dyads: An education research project.  


This project explored the experiences of six undergraduate nursing students, three American nursing students and three nursing students from the Sultan of Oman, who participated in a faculty initiated education research project as part of their pediatric clinical practicum. Students were placed in dyads, with one American-born student and one Omani student in each dyad. Omani students also were paired with American nurse preceptors. A transcript-based content analysis was used to analyze data generated from qualitative focus group student interviews and student journals. The analysis generated three themes that described how myths were dispelled, cultural barriers were broken down and knowledge gained from another cultural perspective. The nurse preceptors were surveyed at the conclusion of the program. The survey findings suggest that preceptors gained a different cultural perspective of nursing care and they were better informed of the Omani students' learning needs. There was, however, an additional investment of preceptor time in meeting the learning needs of international students. Additional faculty time was also required for preparation and time during clinical conferencing to address differences in nursing practice between U.S. and Oman while meeting course learning objectives. Overall, the educational program provided evidence of enhancing American and Omani student cultural competence and Omani student adaptation to the United States. Coupling a domestic student with an international student to form dyads from the beginning of international students' experience could be a significant enhancement to both groups of students' learning experience. PMID:24746943

McDermott-Levy, Ruth; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Reynolds, Kathryn



Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.  


Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. PMID:24463037

Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro



Infant-Parent Attachment and Parental and Child Behavior During Parent-Toddler Storybook Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal associations between infant-parent attachment and parental and toddler behavior during storybook interaction were examined for 131 lower-middle to middle-class families (70 girls; 61 boys). At ages 12 and 15 months, infant-mother and infant-father dyads were videotaped in the laboratory-based Strange Situation procedure to assess attachment. At 24 months, dyads visited the laboratory and were videotaped during storybook interaction. Infants

Cynthia A. Frosch; Martha J. Cox; Barbara Davis Goldman



Photoacid behavior versus proton-coupled electron transfer in phenol-Ru(bpy)3(2+) dyads.  


Two dyads composed of a Ru(bpy)3(2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) photosensitizer and a covalently attached phenol were synthesized and investigated. In the shorter dyad (Ru-PhOH) the ruthenium complex and the phenol are attached directly to each other whereas in the longer dyad there is a p-xylene (xy) spacer in between (Ru-xy-PhOH). Electrochemical investigations indicate that intramolecular electron transfer (ET) from phenol to the photoexcited metal complex is endergonic by more than 0.3 eV in both dyads, explaining the absence of any (3)MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) excited-state quenching by the phenols in pure CH3CN and CH2Cl2. When pyridine is added to a CH2Cl2 solution, significant excited-state quenching can be observed for both dyads, but the bimolecular quenching rate constants differ by 2 orders of magnitude between Ru-PhOH and Ru-xy-PhOH. Transient absorption spectroscopy shows that in the presence of pyridine both dyads react to photoproducts containing Ru(II) and phenolate. The activation energies associated with the photoreactions in the two dyads differ by 1 order of magnitude, and this might suggest that the formation of identical photoproducts proceeds through fundamentally different reaction pathways in Ru-PhOH and Ru-xy-PhOH. For Ru-PhOH direct proton release from the photoexcited dyad is a plausible reaction pathway. For Ru-xy-PhOH a sequence of a photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) followed by an intramolecular (thermal) electron transfer in the reverse direction is a plausible reaction pathway; this two-step process involves a reaction intermediate containing Ru(I) and phenoxyl radical that reacts very rapidly to Ru(II) and phenolate. Thermal back-reactions to restore the initial starting materials occur on a 30-50 ?s time scale in both dyads; i.e., due to proton release the photoproducts are very long-lived. These back-reactions exhibit inverse H/D kinetic isotope effects of 0.7 ± 0.1 (Ru-PhOH) and 0.6 ± 0.1 (Ru-xy-PhOH) at room temperature. PMID:23834357

Kuss-Petermann, Martin; Wenger, Oliver S



Social Interaction of Children with and without Learning Disabilities in Dyads and Small Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate differences in social behavior between learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (NLD) children in different size groups and to examine the association between children's social behavior and acceptance by their peers, a study was conducted of 44 LD and 50 NLD boys and 7 LD and 13 NLD girls from fourth, fifth, and sixth grade…

Wiener, Judith; Harris, P. J.


Fluorescent photoswitching of a naphthopyran-benzimidazole dyad with high-degree fluorescent modulation within poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A naphthopyran-bridge-benzimidazole dyad which exhibits both fluorescence and photochromism was synthesized and its fluorescence photoswitching was investigated. Irradiation with UV light induces the isomerization of the naphthopyran component to the corresponding merocyanine. The fluorescence of the dyad was switched reversibly between on and off upon UV irradiation and thermal bleaching of the naphthopyran. Using ultraviolet illumination a pattern was created on a polymethylmethacrylate doped film with the dyad. Thus either a non-destructive photoswitch or an image recording system becomes available. The measurement of redox potentials by cyclic voltammetry combined with electronic spectra and a molecular energy diagram of the individual naphthopyran and benzimidazole demonstrated that the transformation of naphthopyran induced energy and electron transfer from the fluorescent benzimidazole to the photochromic naphthopyran, a feature which was also supported by our DFT calculations.

Wang, Shuangqing; Si, Yanling; Tong, Cuiyan; Wang, Guang; Qi, Bin; Yang, Guochun



Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability  

PubMed Central

This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and daughters such that mothers reported later expectations for the timing of behavioral autonomy than did daughters. Follow-up analyses indicated that findings appeared to be driven by maternal nativity, with dyads comprised of Mexico-born mothers reporting the latest age expectations for behavioral autonomy when compared with dyads comprised of U.S.-born mothers. Findings underscore the need to examine normative development among Latino adolescents and their families with a specific focus on how sociocultural characteristics can contribute to within-family differences. PMID:22093152

Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.



A Framework for Incorporating Dyads in Models of HIV-Prevention  

PubMed Central

Although HIV is contracted by individuals, it is typically transmitted in dyads. Most efforts to promote safer sex practices, however, focus exclusively on individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework that specifies how models of dyadic processes and relationships can inform models of HIV-prevention. At the center of the framework is the proposition that safer sex between two people requires a dyadic capacity for successful coordination. According to this framework, relational, individual, and structural variables that affect the enactment of safer sex do so through their direct and indirect effects on that dyadic capacity. This dyadic perspective does not require an ongoing relationship between two individuals; rather, it offers a way of distinguishing between dyads along a continuum from anonymous strangers (with minimal coordination of behavior) to long-term partners (with much greater coordination). Acknowledging the dyadic context of HIV-prevention offers new targets for interventions and suggests new approaches to tailoring interventions to specific populations. PMID:20838872

Hops, Hyman; Redding, Colleen A.; Reis, Harry T.; Rothman, Alexander J.; Simpson, Jeffry A.



Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Dyads: Short-Term Stability and Continuity from Variable-Centered and Person-Centered Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional availability (EA) is a prominent index of socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Can basic psychometric properties of EA be looked at from both variable (scale) and person (cluster) points of view in individuals and in dyads? Is EA stable and continuous over a short period of time? This methodological study shows significant…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Haynes, O. Maurice



Joint Book-Reading Strategies in Working-Class African American and White Mother-Toddler Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten white and 10 African American working-class mother-toddler dyads were videotaped during joint book readings and compared. Many similarities between cultural groups were found. Differences included African American mothers who used fewer questioning behaviors; white children who produced more question-related communications; and African…

Anderson-Yockel, Julie; Haynes, William O.



The Role of Maternal Factors in Sibling Relationship Quality: A Multilevel Study of Multiple Dyads per Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and…

Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy



The ferrocene-pyrylium dyad as a selective colorimetric chemodosimeter for the toxic cyanide and hydrogen sulfide anions in water.  


The ferrocene-pyrylium dyad behaves as a selective redox and colorimetric chemodosimeter for CN(-) and HS(-) anions, exhibiting a clear perturbation in the redox potential of the ferrocene unit and in the absorption band, in the presence of these anions. PMID:24643719

Sola, Antonia; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro



Photoinduced electron transfer in thin films of porphyrin-fullerene dyad and perylenetetracarboxidiimide.  


Photoinduced intra- and intermolecular electron transfer (ET) in thin films of porphyrin-fullerene dyad (P-F) and perylenetetracarboxidiimide (PTCDI) was studied by means of photoelectrical and spectroscopic methods. Films consisting of smooth 100 mol% layers of P-F and PTCDI were prepared by the Langmuir-Schäfer (LS) technique and thermal evaporation, respectively. The time-resolved Maxwell displacement charge (TRMDC) and laser flash-photolysis methods were utilized to demonstrate photoinduced ET from P-F to PTCDI regardless of which chromophore is photoexcited. Finally, the information about the electron movement in the respective thin films was used to build a layered organic solar cell, whose internal quantum yield (?(I)) of collected charges was 13%. PMID:20721381

Vivo, Paola; Alekseev, Alexander S; Kaunisto, Kimmo; Pekkola, Oili; Tolkki, Antti; Chukharev, Vladimir; Efimov, Alexander; Ihalainen, Petri; Peltonen, Jouko; Lemmetyinen, Helge



Preen secretions encode information on MHC similarity in certain sex-dyads in a monogamous seabird.  


Animals are known to select mates to maximize the genetic diversity of their offspring in order to achieve immunity against a broader range of pathogens. Although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), it remains unknown whether they can use olfactory cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners. Here we combined gas chromatography data with genetic similarity indices based on MHC to test whether similarity in preen secretion chemicals correlated with MHC relatedness in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a species that preferentially mates with genetically dissimilar partners. We found that similarity in preen secretion chemicals was positively correlated with MHC relatedness in male-male and male-female dyads. This study provides the first evidence that preen secretion chemicals can encode information on MHC relatedness and suggests that odor-based mechanisms of MHC-related mate choice may occur in birds. PMID:25370306

Leclaire, Sarah; van Dongen, Wouter F D; Voccia, Steeve; Merkling, Thomas; Ducamp, Christine; Hatch, Scott A; Blanchard, Pierrick; Danchin, Etienne; Wagner, Richard H



Preen secretions encode information on MHC similarity in certain sex-dyads in a monogamous seabird  

PubMed Central

Animals are known to select mates to maximize the genetic diversity of their offspring in order to achieve immunity against a broader range of pathogens. Although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), it remains unknown whether they can use olfactory cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners. Here we combined gas chromatography data with genetic similarity indices based on MHC to test whether similarity in preen secretion chemicals correlated with MHC relatedness in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a species that preferentially mates with genetically dissimilar partners. We found that similarity in preen secretion chemicals was positively correlated with MHC relatedness in male-male and male-female dyads. This study provides the first evidence that preen secretion chemicals can encode information on MHC relatedness and suggests that odor-based mechanisms of MHC-related mate choice may occur in birds. PMID:25370306

Leclaire, Sarah; van Dongen, Wouter F. D.; Voccia, Steeve; Merkling, Thomas; Ducamp, Christine; Hatch, Scott A.; Blanchard, Pierrick; Danchin, Etienne; Wagner, Richard H.



Aggregation-induced chiral symmetry breaking of a naphthalimide-cyanostilbene dyad.  


Spontaneously emerged supramolecular chirality and chiral symmetry breaking from achiral/racemic constituents remain poorly understood. We here report that supramolecular chirality may emerge from the structural flexibility of achiral aryl nitrogen centres which provide instantaneous chirality. Employing a naphthalimide-cyanostilbene dyad as a model, we explored the underlying mechanism of aggregation-induced chiral symmetry breaking and found that the conformations of the N-naphthylpiperazine and the N,N-dimethylaniline units facilitate the formation of ordered supramolecular structures and offer opposite handedness. Furthermore, chiral symmetry breaking of the monomers was amplified by the formation of dimers. The microscopic and the macroscopic observations from the theoretical simulations and experimental measurements are thus rationalized by connecting the population of the dihedral angles of the aryl nitrogen centres, the morphology of the self-assemblies, and the observed circular dichroism spectra. PMID:25273156

Li, Xin; Zhu, Liangliang; Duan, Sai; Zhao, Yanli; Agren, Hans



Neutrality in the field: alpha-function and the dreaming dyad in psychoanalytic process.  


Analysts have interpreted the concept of neutrality in a variety of ways, beginning with Strachey's use of that word to translate Freud's (1915) term, Indifferenz. In this paper, neutrality is linked to Freud's notions of free association and evenly suspended attention. A history of psychoanalytic attempts to clarify the concept are presented, with special attention to issues of ambiguity and the patient's role in the determination of neutrality. Neutrality is further elaborated in relation to the bipersonal field as described by the Barangers and contemporary field theorists. Understood in terms of the field, neutrality becomes a transpersonal concept, here conceived in terms of alpha-function and a dreaming dyad. Two clinical examples cast in the light of a Bionian perspective are discussed to suggest an alternative understanding of analytic impasses and their relation to alpha-function and neutrality. PMID:23824648

Schwartz, Henry P



A Co(II)-Ru(II) dyad relevant to light-driven water oxidation catalysis.  


Artificial photosynthesis aims at efficient water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen, by exploiting solar light. As a priority requirement, this process entails the integration of suitable multi-electron catalysts with light absorbing units, where charge separation is generated in order to drive the catalytic routines. The final goal could be the transposition of such an asset into a photoelectrocatalytic cell, where the two half-reactions, proton reduction to hydrogen and water oxidation to oxygen, take place at two appropriately engineered photoelectrodes. We herein report a covalent approach to anchor a Co(II) water oxidation catalyst to a Ru(II) polypyridine photosensitizer unit; photophysical characterisation and the catalytic activity of such a dyad in a light activated cycle are reported, and implications for the development of regenerative systems are discussed. PMID:24664104

López, Alejandro Montellano; Natali, Mirco; Pizzolato, Erica; Chiorboli, Claudio; Bonchio, Marcella; Sartorel, Andrea; Scandola, Franco



Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production from an MCM-41-immobilized photosensitizer-[Fe-Fe] hydrogenase mimic dyad.  


A covalently linked photosensitizer-catalytic center dyad Ps-Hy, consisting of two bis(2-phenylpyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine)iridium(iii) chromophores (Ps) and a diiron hydrogenase mimic (Hy) was constructed by using click reaction. Ps-Hy was incorporated into K(+)-exchanged molecular sieve MCM-41 to form a composite (Ps-Hy@MCM-41), which has been successfully applied to the photochemical production of hydrogen. The catalytic activity of Ps-Hy@MCM-41 is ?3-fold higher as compared with that of Ps-Hy in the absence of MCM-41. The incorporation of Ps-Hy into MCM-41 stabilizes the catalyst, and consequently, advances the photocatalysis. The present study provides a potential strategy for improving catalytic efficiency of artificial photosynthesis systems using mesoporous molecular sieves. PMID:25238441

Wang, Wen; Yu, Tianjun; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Jinping; Yang, Guoqiang; Li, Yi



Revisiting the generation gap: exploring the relationships of parent/adult-child dyads.  


There is some evidence that older parents and their adult children may evaluate their relationships with each other in different ways. To date, we know little about what may account for these discrepancies. This investigation compares the perceptions of intergenerational solidarity among 2,590 adult-child/older-parent dyads from the National Survey of Families and Households. Further, this study examines a social structural model to test the relative contribution of individuals' sociodemographic and social structural positions to the correspondence between generational perceptions of solidarity. The findings indicate that there is a high degree of disagreement between how adult children and their parents view their relationship. Parents are more likely to report greater relationship quality, while children report greater contact and exchanges of assistance. While a number of variables influence the correspondence between generations, the strongest and most consistent predictors are sex, age, child's marital status, and residential proximity. PMID:15259880

Shapiro, Adam



Young children's collaborative interactions in a multimedia computer environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study that investigated the collaborative interaction patterns exhibited by 5-year-old preprimary children in an educational computer environment. A case study method was used in one preprimary centre in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia, to examine the patterns of collaborative interaction among young children whilst engaged, in dyads, with the computer within a naturalistic classroom environment. A

Mohamad Ibrani Shahrimin; Dawn M Butterworth



A Motivational System for Regulating Human-Robot Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a motivational system for an autonomous robot which is designed to regulate human-robot interaction. The mode of social in- teraction is that of a caretaker-infant dyad where a human acts as the caretaker for the robot. An infant's emotions and drives play a very impor- tant role in generating meaningful interactions with the caretaker, and regulating these

Cynthia Breazeal



Turkish Mothers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Styles of Interactions with Their Children with Language Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turkish mothers' self-efficacy beliefs and their interactional behaviors with their children with language delays are described and explored. Participants included 19 mother-child dyads. Mothers' interaction with their children with language delays was videotaped for 30 minutes in a free-play context. Regarding mothers' interactional behaviors,…

Diken, Ibrahim H.



Child-Directed Interaction: Prediction of Change in Impaired Mother-Child Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first phase of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), called child-directed interaction, teaches parents to use positive and differential social attention to improve the parent-child relationship. This study examined predictors of change in mother and child functioning during the child-directed interaction for 100 mother-child dyads. The…

Harwood, Michelle D.; Eyberg, Sheila M.



Two-step mechanism for the photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer in oligo(p-phenylene vinylene)-fullerene dyads  

SciTech Connect

The intramolecular photoinduced charge separation within two oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) fulleropyrrolidine dyads with three and four phenyl rings (OPV3-C{sub 60} and OPV4-C{sub 60}) is investigated with femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy in solvents of different polarity. Photoexcitation of the OPV moiety of these dyads results in an ultrafast singlet-energy transfer reaction to create the fullerene singlet excited state with a time constant of 190 fs, irrespective of the polarity of the medium. In a polar solvent, intramolecular electron transfer occurs from the OPV moiety to the C{sub 60} moiety with a time constant of 10--13 ps as a secondary reaction, subsequent to the ultrafast singlet-energy transfer. The charge-separated state has a lifetime of 50--90 ps and recombines to the ground state.

van Hal, P. A.; Janssen, R. A. J.; Lanzani, G.; Cerullo, G.; Zavelani-Rossi, M.; De Silvestri, S.



Ordered architectures of a soluble hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene-pyrene dyad: thermotropic bulk properties and nanoscale phase segregation at surfaces.  


An alkylated hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene with a covalently tethered pyrene unit serves as a model to study self-assembling discotic pi-system dyads both in the bulk and at a surface. Wide-angle X-ray scattering, polarized light microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry revealed bulk self-assembly into columnar structures. Relative to a control without a tethered pyrene, the new dyad exhibits a more ordered columnar phase at room temperature but with dramatically lowered isotropization temperature, facilitating homeotropic alignment. These two features are important for processing such materials into molecular electronic devices, e.g., photovoltaic diodes. Scanning tunneling microscopy at a solution-solid interface revealed uniform nanoscale segregation of the large from the small pi-systems, leading to a well-defined two-dimensional crystalline monolayer, the likes of which may be employed in the future to study intramolecular electron transfer processes at surfaces, on the molecular scale. PMID:12904039

Tchebotareva, Natalia; Yin, Xiaomin; Watson, Mark D; Samorì, Paolo; Rabe, Jürgen P; Müllen, Klaus



Contrasting intermolecular and intramolecular exciplex formation of a 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad.  


An intramolecular exciplex is formed upon excitation of the cyclohexane solution of the 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad, but little if any intramolecular CT complex exists in the ground state of this substance in solution. In contrast, in the crystalline state, the dyad forms an intermolecular mixed-stack CT complex in the ground state and an intermolecular exciplex when it is photoexcited. PMID:20353197

Imoto, Mitsutaka; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Hisaji; Tamaki, Akihiro; Takeda, Motonori; Mizuno, Kazuhiko



Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).  


Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed. PMID:23794074

Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben



Couple-Based Behavioral HIV Interventions: Placing HIV Risk-Reduction Responsibility and Agency on the Female and Male Dyad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of the dyad in HIV risk reduction in both domestic and international settings, there is a gap in behavioral HIV prevention science regarding the availability of effective couple-based intervention strategies. This article presents the advantages of behavioral, couple-based HIV interventions; highlights the state of the science; addresses the challenges and clinical implications of delivering a couple-based prevention

Nabila El-Bassel; Wendee M. Wechsberg



Structural and kinetic analysis of Bacillus subtilis N-acetylglucosaminidase reveals a unique Asp-His dyad mechanism.  


Three-dimensional structures of NagZ of Bacillus subtilis, the first structures of a two-domain ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase of family 3 of glycosidases, were determined with and without the transition state mimicking inhibitor PUGNAc bound to the active site, at 1.84- and 1.40-? resolution, respectively. The structures together with kinetic analyses of mutants revealed an Asp-His dyad involved in catalysis: His(234) of BsNagZ acts as general acid/base catalyst and is hydrogen bonded by Asp(232) for proper function. Replacement of both His(234) and Asp(232) with glycine reduced the rate of hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate 4'-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminide 1900- and 4500-fold, respectively, and rendered activity pH-independent in the alkaline range consistent with a role of these residues in acid/base catalysis. N-Acetylglucosaminyl enzyme intermediate accumulated in the H234G mutant and ?-azide product was formed in the presence of sodium azide in both mutants. The Asp-His dyad is conserved within ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases but otherwise absent in ?-glycosidases of family 3, which instead carry a "classical" glutamate acid/base catalyst. The acid/base glutamate of Hordeum vulgare exoglucanase (Exo1) superimposes with His(234) of the dyad of BsNagZ and, in contrast to the latter, protrudes from a second domain of the enzyme into the active site. This is the first report of an Asp-His catalytic dyad involved in hydrolysis of glycosides resembling in function the Asp-His-Ser triad of serine proteases. Our findings will facilitate the development of mechanism-based inhibitors that selectively target family 3 ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases, which are involved in bacterial cell wall turnover, spore germination, and induction of ?-lactamase. PMID:20826810

Litzinger, Silke; Fischer, Stefanie; Polzer, Patrick; Diederichs, Kay; Welte, Wolfram; Mayer, Christoph



Mealtime Television Viewing and Dietary Quality in Low-Income African American and Caucasian Mother–Toddler Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and\\u000a to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers’ and toddlers’ food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey\\u000a design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother–toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early\\u000a Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler–Parent

Mildred A. Horodynski; Manfred Stommel; Holly E. Brophy-Herb; Lorraine Weatherspoon



Photophysical and electrochemical properties of platinum(II) complexes bearing a chromophore-acceptor dyad and their photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.  


A series of platinum(II) complexes bearing a chromophore-acceptor dyad obtained by reacting 4-(p-bromomethylphenyl)-6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine or 4'-(p-bromomethylphenyl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine with pyridine, 4-phenylpyridine, 4,4'-bipyridine, 1-methyl-4-(pyridin-4'-yl)pyridinium hexafluorophosphate respectively, were synthesized. Their photophysical properties, emission quenching studies by Pt nanoparticles and methyl viologen, electrochemical properties and photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a photocatalytic hydrogen-generating system containing triethanolamine and colloidal Pt without an extra electron relay, were investigated. A comparison of the rates of hydrogen production for the two photocatalytic systems, one containing a metal-organic dyad and the other comprising a 1:1 mixture of the parental platinum(II) complexes and the corresponding electron relay, showed that intramolecular electron transfer improves the photocatalytic efficiency. Compared with cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes, the related platinum(II) terpyridyl complexes exhibited poor performance for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. An investigation into the amount of hydrogen generated by three platinum(II) complexes containing cyclometalated ligands with methyl groups located on different phenyl rings revealed that the efficiency of hydrogen evolution was affected by a subtle change of functional group on ligand, and the hydrogen-generating efficiency in the presence or absence of methyl viologen is comparable, indicating electron transfer from the excited [Pt(C^N^N)] chromophore to colloidal Pt. (1)H NMR spectroscopy of the metal-organic dyads in an aqueous solution in the presence of excess triethanolamine revealed that the dyad with a viologen unit was unstable, and a chemical reaction in the compound occurred prior to irradiation by visible light under basic conditions. PMID:22643575

Zhang, Gui-Ju; Gan, Xin; Xu, Quan-Qing; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Xi-Juan; Qin, Biao; Lv, Xiao-Jun; Lai, Siu-Wai; Fu, Wen-Fu; Che, Chi-Ming



Long-range proton-coupled electron transfer in phenol-Ru(2,2'-bipyrazine)3(2+) dyads.  


Two dyads in which either 4-cyanophenol or un-substituted phenol is connected via a p-xylene spacer to a Ru(bpz)3(2+) (bpz = 2,2'-bipyrazine) complex were synthesized and investigated. Selective photo-excitation of Ru(bpz)3(2+) at 532 nm in a CH3CN-H2O mixture leads to the formation of 4-cyanophenolate or phenolate along with Ru(bpz)3(2+) in its electronic ground state. This apparent photoacid behavior can be understood on the basis of a reaction sequence comprised of an initial photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) during which 4-cyanophenol or phenol is oxidized and deprotonated, followed by a thermal electron transfer event in the course of which 4-cyanophenoxyl or phenoxyl is reduced by Ru(bpz)3(+) to 4-cyanophenolate or phenolate. Conceptually, this reaction sequence is identical to a sequence of photoinduced charge-separation and thermal charge-recombination events as observed previously for many electron transfer dyads, with the important difference that the initial photoinduced electron transfer process is proton-coupled. The dyad containing 4-cyanophenol reacts via concerted-proton electron transfer (CPET) whereas the dyad containing un-substituted phenol appears to react predominantly via a stepwise PCET mechanism. Long-range PCET is a key reaction in photosystem II. Understanding the factors that govern the kinetics of long-range PCET is desirable in the broader context of light-to-energy conversion by means of proton-electron separation across natural or artificial membranes. PMID:24413281

Bronner, Catherine; Wenger, Oliver S



Teenage motherhood among low-income, urban Hispanics: Familial and cultural considerations of mother-daughter dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present hypothesis generating, qualitative study employed a family-systems perspective to investigate teenage motherhood among low-income, Hispanic families living in high-crime areas. The study focused primarily on the mother-daughter relationship. A semi-structured interview was administered separately to mothers and daughters in 11 mother-daughter dyads. A system of open and axial coding was used to categorize, analyze, and name the core

Daniel Thomas Sciarra



C60-dyad aggregates: Self-organized structures in aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-organization of C60-fullerene dyad molecules in water, namely phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and fulleropyrrolidines, which have two elements of ordering, the hydrophobic fullerene cage and the hydrophilic/ionic group. While pristine fullerene or phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester forms spherical droplets in order to minimize the surface tension, the amphiphilic nature of charged solute molecules leads to the formation of supramolecular assemblies having cylindrical shape driven by charge repulsion between the ionic groups located on the surface of the aggregates. We show that formation of non-spherical micelles is the geometrical consequence if the fullerene derivatives are considered as surfactants where the ionized groups are only hydrophilic unit. The agglomeration behavior of fullerenes is evaluated by determining sizes of the clusters, solvent accessible surface areas, and shape parameters. By changing the size of the counterions from chloride over iodide to perchlorate we find a thickening of the cylinder-like structures which can be explained by stronger condensation of larger ions and thus partial screening of the charge repulsion on the cluster surface. The reason for the size dependence of counterion condensation is the formation of a stronger hydration shell in case of small ions which in turn are repelled from the fullerene aggregates. Simulations are also in good agreement with the experimentally observed morphologies of decorated C60-nanoparticles.

Guskova, O. A.; Varanasi, S. R.; Sommer, J.-U.



Structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad monolayer on the water surface and solid substrate  

SciTech Connect

Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad TBD6a were formed on the surface of a water subphase and then transported on a solid substrate by the Langmuir-Schaefer method. A simulation was performed for the structure of a single molecule and for a molecular monolayer, according to the area per molecule in the monolayer formed, which was calculated based on an analysis of the {pi}-A isotherm. A unit cell was chosen for the proposed molecular packing (a = 1.54 nm, b = 1.50 nm, c = 1.75 nm, {alpha} = 80.0 Degree-Sign , {beta} = 90.0 Degree-Sign , and {gamma} = 90.0 Degree-Sign ), and the atomic coordinates were calculated. A comparison of the interplanar spacings and diffraction peak intensities in the experimental and calculated (for the unit cell proposed) diffraction patterns indicates that a platelike texture is formed in the monolayer and that the crystal structure of the domains corresponds to the model chosen.

D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail:; Tereshchenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere Technological University (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)



C60-dyad aggregates: Self-organized structures in aqueous solutions.  


Extensive full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-organization of C60-fullerene dyad molecules in water, namely phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and fulleropyrrolidines, which have two elements of ordering, the hydrophobic fullerene cage and the hydrophilic/ionic group. While pristine fullerene or phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester forms spherical droplets in order to minimize the surface tension, the amphiphilic nature of charged solute molecules leads to the formation of supramolecular assemblies having cylindrical shape driven by charge repulsion between the ionic groups located on the surface of the aggregates. We show that formation of non-spherical micelles is the geometrical consequence if the fullerene derivatives are considered as surfactants where the ionized groups are only hydrophilic unit. The agglomeration behavior of fullerenes is evaluated by determining sizes of the clusters, solvent accessible surface areas, and shape parameters. By changing the size of the counterions from chloride over iodide to perchlorate we find a thickening of the cylinder-like structures which can be explained by stronger condensation of larger ions and thus partial screening of the charge repulsion on the cluster surface. The reason for the size dependence of counterion condensation is the formation of a stronger hydration shell in case of small ions which in turn are repelled from the fullerene aggregates. Simulations are also in good agreement with the experimentally observed morphologies of decorated C60-nanoparticles. PMID:25318718

Guskova, O A; Varanasi, S R; Sommer, J-U



Role of the coordination center in photocurrent behavior of a tetrathiafulvalene and metal complex dyad.  


Small organic molecule-based compounds are considered to be promising materials in photoelectronics and high-performance optoelectronic devices. However, photoelectron conversion research based on functional organic molecule and metal complex dyads is very scarce. We design and prepare a series of compounds containing a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) moiety substituted with pyridylmethylamide groups of formulas [Ni(acac)2L]·2CH3OH (1), [Cu2I2L2]·THF·2CH3CN (2), and [MnCl2L2]n·2nCH3CH2OH (3) (L = 4,5-bis(3-pyridylmethylamide)-4',5'-bimethylthio-tetrathiafulvalene, acac = acetylacetone) to study the role of the coordination center in photocurrent behavior. Complex 1 is a mononuclear species, and complex 2 is a dimeric species. Complex 3 is a two-dimensional (2-D) coordination polymer. Spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of these complexes indicate that they are electrochemically active materials. The tetrathiafulvalene ligand L is a photoelectron donor in the presence of electron acceptor methylviologen. The effect of metal coordination centers on photocurrent response behavior is examined. The redox-active metal coordination centers should play an important role in improvement of the photocurrent response property. The different morphologies of the electrode films reflect the dimensions in molecular structures of the coordination compounds. PMID:24592888

Sun, Yong-Gang; Ji, Shu-Fang; Huo, Peng; Yin, Jing-Xue; Huang, Yu-De; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie



Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.



Modeling Heterogeneity in Social Interaction Processes Using Multilevel Survival Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 15 years ago, survival or hazard regression analyses were introduced to psychology (W. Gardner & W. A. Griffin, 1989; W. A. Griffin & W. Gardner, 1989) as powerful methodological tools for studying real time social interaction processes among dyads. Almost no additional published applications have appeared, although such data are…

Stoolmiller, Mike; Snyder, James



Instructional Interactions of Students with Cognitive Disabilities: Sequential Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied instructional interactions through semi-structured observation of 13 student- teacher dyads involving elementary students with cognitive disabilities. Special educators' use of directions and responses of differing modes and types was analyzed. Student task-engagement behaviors (i.e., active engage, disruptive, passive on-task,…

Kim, Ockjean; Hupp, Susan C.



The Effects of Maternal Mood on Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of depressed mood on mother-infant interaction were studied in 30 mother-infant dyads using a mood induction procedure consisting of neutral or self-referent statements. Among results were that mothers in the depression induction condition were less successful in eliciting positive responses from their infants than were controls.…

Zekoski, Ellen M.; And Others



Social Interactions of Mothers and Young Children: Implications for Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to identify maternal variables within social class which were predictive of child status over time. Data on patterns of mother/child interactions were collected for the experimental and control groups of poverty mother/child dyads at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center and a group of general population high…

Farran, Dale C.; And Others


Adolescents' Interactions with a Best Friend: Associations with Attachment Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether adolescents' attachment style is related to friendship interactions and perceptions of friendship quality. Attachment pairings were contrasted to examine whether dyad members' security of attachment or their models of others was more related to friendship. A total of 44 pairs of same-sex adolescent friends were videotaped…

Weimer, Barbara L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.; Oldenburg, Christopher M.



A Motivational System for Regulating Human-Robot Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a motivational system for anautonomous robot which is designed to regulatehuman-robot interaction. The mode of social interactionis that of a caretaker-infant dyad wherea human acts as the caretaker for the robot. Aninfant's emotions and drives play a very importantrole in generating meaningful interactionswith the caretaker, and regulating these interactionsto maintain an environment suitable forthe learning process (Bullowa

Cynthia Breazeal Ferrell



Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

Ewy, Richard


The development of discourse markers in peer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discourse markers are linguistic elements that signal relations between units of talk, relations at the exchange, action, ideational, and participation framework levels of the discourse (Schiffrin, 1987). To what extent do young children use markers in these ways, indexing their ability to differentiate these levels of talk? Four- and seven-year children were paired in best-friend dyads and observed interacting in

Amy Kyratzis; Susan Ervin-Tripp



Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.



Maternal-child dyads of functioning: the intergenerational impact of violence against women on children.  


Violence against women is a global epidemic with potential consequences of injury, illness, and death. Children exposed to the violence may also be impacted with functional impairments. Little is known of the inter-generational impact of violence experienced by the mother from an intimate partner on functioning of her children. No dyad analysis was found in the literature. To examine the inter-generational impact of violence against women on the behavioral functioning of children, 300 mothers reporting intimate partner abuse and one randomly chosen child, age 18 months to 16 years of age; were evaluated for borderline and clinical diagnostic levels of problem behaviors. Linear, Logistic, and Ordinal regression models were applied. Mothers' problem behavior scores were significantly related to children's problem behavior scores (internalizing r = 0.611, externalizing r = 0.494, total problems r = 0.662, all ps < 0.001). Mothers who reported clinical and borderline clinical internalized problems (i.e., depression, anxiety) were 7 times more likely to have children with the same problems and mothers with borderline clinical and clinical external problems (i.e., aggression, hostility) were 4.5 times more likely to have children with the same external problems. These dyadic analyses provide evidence of a direct relationship of maternal functioning on child behavioral functioning. Intervention strategies to decrease internalizing maternal behavioral problems, such as depression, anxiety, and post traumatic stress disorder, and/or externalizing problems, such as hostility and aggression, can be expected to have a pass through, secondary impact on the behavioral functioning of children. Awareness of the relationship between intimate partner violence against mothers and child behavioral function can support interventions that decrease the distress experienced by mothers and their children, interrupt intergenerational transmission of abusive behaviors, and promote better maternal child functioning. PMID:24740718

McFarlane, Judith; Symes, Lene; Binder, Brenda K; Maddoux, John; Paulson, Rene



Mother-Infant Interaction and Infant Development Among the Wolof of Senegal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten mother-infant dyads were observed in their homes for four hours each during one month in order to measure interactive aspects of their behavior. Demographic data are included for the participating families, who are members of the Wolof in Senegal, Africa. For this study, interaction was defined as a sequence of behaviors involving both…

Lusk, Diane; Lewis, Michael


Non-Native Speaker Interaction Management Strategies in a Network-Based Virtual Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the dyad-based communication of two groups of non-native speakers (NNSs) of English involved in real time interaction in a type of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool known as a MOO. The object of this semester long study was to examine the ways in which the subjects managed their L2 interaction during…

Peterson, Mark




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set values for the initial position, velocity, and mass of the two particles, and click on the button "Initialize Animation" to play the animation using your specified values. Note, if m or v are too large, the particles may actually pass through one another which will seem a little strange. Note: the interaction between the particles is a "non-contact" interaction, much like the electrostatic force on two charges. Mathematically, it is actually a Hooke's law interaction.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario



Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads  

PubMed Central

Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk factor for childhood obesity. Further research is needed to help understand the larger socio-cultural context and its influence on feeding dynamics among immigrant families and families of lower incomes. How parents establish a certain feeding style in their home country compared to when they move to the US “obesogenic” environment, should also be explored. PMID:22642962



Molecular dyads of ruthenium(II)- or osmium(II)-bis(terpyridine) chromophores and expanded pyridinium acceptors: equilibration between MLCT and charge-separated excited states.  


The synthesis, characterization, redox behavior, and photophysical properties (both at room temperature in fluid solution and at 77 K in rigid matrix) of a series of four new molecular dyads (2-5) containing Ru(II)- or Os(II)-bis(terpyridine) subunits as chromophores and various expanded pyridinium subunits as electron acceptors are reported, along with the reference properties of a formerly reported dyad, 1. The molecular dyads 2-4 have been designed to have their (potentially emissive) triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) and charge-separated (CS) states close in energy, so that excited-state equilibration between these levels can take place. Such a situation is not shared by limit cases 1 and 5. For dyad 1, forward photoinduced electron transfer (time constant, 7 ps) and subsequent charge recombination (time constant, 45 ps) are evidenced, while for dyad 5, photoinduced electron transfer is thermodynamically forbidden so that MLCT decays are the only active deactivation processes. As regards 2-4, CS states are formed from MLCT states with time constants of a few dozens of picoseconds. However, for these latter species, such experimental time constants are not due to photoinduced charge separation but are related to the excited-state equilibration times. Comparative analysis of time constants for charge recombination from the CS states based on proper thermodynamic and kinetic models highlighted that, in spite of their apparently affiliated structures, dyads 1-4 do not constitute a homologous series of compounds as far as intercomponent electron transfer processes are concerned. PMID:24090453

Fortage, Jérôme; Dupeyre, Grégory; Tuyèras, Fabien; Marvaud, Valérie; Ochsenbein, Philippe; Ciofini, Ilaria; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Pospísil, Lubomír; Arrigo, Antonino; Trovato, Emanuela; Puntoriero, Fausto; Lainé, Philippe P; Campagna, Sebastiano



Photophysical properties of new bis-perylene dyads for potential upconversion use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new bis-perylenes, BPC with a meta-disubstituted benzene linker, and BPD with a p,p?-disubstituted biphenyl linker, have been synthesized and their photophysical parameters measured. Their singlet and triplet energies decrease incrementally in the order perylene, BPC, BPD, making them ideally matched with C60 for triplet-triplet energy transfer in sensitized photon upconversion schemes. Following photosensitization by triplet C60, BPC exhibits strong fluorescence upconversion by triplet-triplet annihilation, indicating that these bis-perylene dyads (and the multimers that can be constructed from them) will be interesting candidates for use in organic devices such as bulk-heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells employing non-coherent photon upconversion. Excitation of C60 at 532 nm will produce its long-lived lowest triplet state with near unit quantum efficiency under the conditions of this experiment [33]. The thermal energy loss usually associated with triplet-triplet energy transfer, Eq. (2), is minimal in this system as the triplet energies of the donor and acceptor are nearly identical at ca. 1.5 eV. In the absence of self-quenching of the fluorescing singlet state, increasing the relative concentrations of acceptor to donor can raise the overall efficiency of the sensitization process to nearly 100%, even if their triplet energies are the same, due to entropic assistance [34]. This was confirmed by measuring the upconversion intensity as a function of dyad concentration at constant absorbed power (Supplementary Information), and by transient absorption measurements of C60 (T1) at 740 nm (Supplementary Information). The latter show that C60(T1) decays with a lifetime on the order of 400 ns for equimolar C60 + BPC concentrations, i.e. at a rate at least 100 times faster (due to quenching by energy transfer) than it would decay in the absence of the BPC triplet energy acceptor. Note also that the dimers with their slightly lower triplet energies are expected to exhibit greater net C60 donor to acceptor triplet energy transfer efficiencies than perylene itself [23], albeit with a slight incremental thermal energy loss of ca. 0.05-0.10 eV. The lifetime of the BPC triplet could not be measured by transient absorption because of its weak absorption cross-section in the probe wavelength region. Nevertheless, the unquenched lifetime of the BPC triplet is expected to be long. The lifetime of the triplet of perylene itself is ca. 5 ms in fluid degassed solution at room temperature [22], and mono- or di-substitution of the perylene ring system with light-atom substituents does not produce an order-of-magnitude decrease in this value [35]. The measured first order rate constant in this case would, however, be the sum of all first order and pseudo-first order processes, with the latter dominating the overall triplet decay rate under the experimental conditions employed. Using anthanthrene or bis-tetracene as a reasonable model [18,23], the lifetime of BPC(T1) is likely to be about two orders of magnitude shorter than its unquenched lifetime under the conditions of these experiments, i.e. of the order of a few tens of ?s, consistent with the generally first order decay found at the low to moderate laser excitation power density range shown in Figure 3. Again using well-known upconverters as models [15,22,23], the rate constant for TTA of BPC is likely to approach within a factor of 2 or 3 of the diffusion-controlled limit (1.1 × 1010 M-1 s-1), spin statistical limitations notwithstanding, as described by Schmidt et al. [36]. The rate constants for the relaxation of the product S1 state of TTA in the bis-perylenes are provided in Table 1. In an upconverting solar photovoltaic cell, the thermal energy losses in excess of those associated with the Shockley-Queisser limit will be small in this system. Using the zero point energies of the electronic excited states involved in the absorption, sensitization and upconversion steps as reference data, the S1-T1 thermal energy loss in the C60 absorber is 0.20 eV per absorbed p

Ribas, Marcos R.; Steer, Ronald P.; Rüther, Ricardo



Computational Insights into Substrate and Site Specificities, Catalytic Mechanism, and Protonation States of the Catalytic Asp Dyad of ?-Secretase  

PubMed Central

In this review, information regarding substrate and site specificities, catalytic mechanism, and protonation states of the catalytic Asp dyad of ?-secretase (BACE1) derived from computational studies has been discussed. BACE1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the generation of Alzheimer amyloid beta peptide through the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Due to its biological functioning, this enzyme has been considered as one of the most important targets for finding the cure for Alzheimer's disease. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggested that structural differences in the key regions (inserts A, D, and F and the 10s loop) of the enzyme are responsible for the observed difference in its activities towards the WT- and SW-substrates. The modifications in the flap, third strand, and insert F regions were found to be involved in the alteration in the site specificity of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol bound form of BACE1. Our QM and QM/MM calculations suggested that BACE1 hydrolyzed the SW-substrate more efficiently than the WT-substrate and that cleavage of the peptide bond occurred in the rate-determining step. The results from molecular docking studies showed that the information concerning a single protonation state of the Asp dyad is not enough to run an in silico screening campaign. PMID:25309776

Barman, Arghya; Prabhakar, Rajeev



Computational Insights into Substrate and Site Specificities, Catalytic Mechanism, and Protonation States of the Catalytic Asp Dyad of ? -Secretase.  


In this review, information regarding substrate and site specificities, catalytic mechanism, and protonation states of the catalytic Asp dyad of ?-secretase (BACE1) derived from computational studies has been discussed. BACE1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the generation of Alzheimer amyloid beta peptide through the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Due to its biological functioning, this enzyme has been considered as one of the most important targets for finding the cure for Alzheimer's disease. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggested that structural differences in the key regions (inserts A, D, and F and the 10s loop) of the enzyme are responsible for the observed difference in its activities towards the WT- and SW-substrates. The modifications in the flap, third strand, and insert F regions were found to be involved in the alteration in the site specificity of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol bound form of BACE1. Our QM and QM/MM calculations suggested that BACE1 hydrolyzed the SW-substrate more efficiently than the WT-substrate and that cleavage of the peptide bond occurred in the rate-determining step. The results from molecular docking studies showed that the information concerning a single protonation state of the Asp dyad is not enough to run an in silico screening campaign. PMID:25309776

Barman, Arghya; Prabhakar, Rajeev



Premature dyad separation in meiosis II is the major segregation error with maternal age in mouse oocytes.  


As women get older their oocytes become susceptible to chromosome mis-segregation. This generates aneuploid embryos, leading to increased infertility and birth defects. Here we examined the provenance of aneuploidy by tracking chromosomes and their kinetochores in oocytes from young and aged mice. Changes consistent with chromosome cohesion deterioration were found with age, including increased interkinetochore distance and loss of the centromeric protector of cohesion SGO2 in metaphase II arrested (metII) eggs, as well as a rise in the number of weakly attached bivalents in meiosis I (MI) and lagging chromosomes at anaphase I. However, there were no MI errors in congression or biorientation. Instead, premature separation of dyads in meiosis II was the major segregation defect in aged eggs and these were associated with very low levels of SGO2. These data show that although considerable cohesion loss occurs during MI, its consequences are observed during meiosis II, when centromeric cohesion is needed to maintain dyad integrity. PMID:24346700

Yun, Yan; Lane, Simon I R; Jones, Keith T



Quantitative analysis of intramolecular exciplex and electron transfer in a double-linked zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyad.  


Photoinduced charge transfer in a double-linked zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyad is studied. When the dyad is excited at the absorption band of the charge-transfer complex (780 nm), an intramolecular exciplex is formed, followed by the complete charge separated (CCS) state. By analyzing the results obtained from time-resolved transient absorption and emission decay measurements in a range of solvents with different polarities, we derived a dependence between the observable lifetimes and internal parameters controlling the reaction rate constants based on the semiquantum Marcus electron-transfer theory. The critical value of the solvent polarity was found to be ?(r) ? 6.5: in solvents with higher dielectric constants, the energy of the CCS state is lower than that of the exciplex and the relaxation takes place via the CCS state predominantly, whereas in solvents with lower polarities the energy of the CCS state is higher and the exciplex relaxes directly to the ground state. In solvents with moderate polarities the exciplex and the CCS state are in equilibrium and cannot be separated spectroscopically. The degree of the charge shift in the exciplex relative to that in the CCS state was estimated to be 0.55 ± 0.02. The electronic coupling matrix elements for the charge recombination process and for the direct relaxation of the exciplex to the ground state were found to be 0.012 ± 0.001 and 0.245 ± 0.022 eV, respectively. PMID:22958061

Al-Subi, Ali Hanoon; Niemi, Marja; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Lemmetyinen, Helge



An H3-H4 histone gene pair in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus, contains an intergenic dyad symmetry element.  


Histone genes are one of the most widely studied multigene families in eucaryotes. Over 200 histone genes have been sequenced, primarily in vertebrates, echinoderms, fungi and plants. We present here the structure and genomic orientation of an H3-H4 histone gene pair from the marine copepod, Tigriopus californicus. These histone gene sequences are the first to be determined for the class Crustacea and among the first to be determined for protostomes. The H4 and H3 genes in Tigriopus are shown to be adjacent, to have opposite polarity, and to contain a 26 bp region of dyad symmetry centrally located within the spacer region between the two genes. A similarly located dyad element has been found in yeast which contributes to the coordinated cell cycle control of the adjacent histone genes. The Tigriopus H3-H4 histone gene pair is clustered with one H2A and two H2B histone genes on a 15 kb genomic Bam H1 fragment. The H4 gene sequence predicts an H4 protein with an unusual serine to threonine substitution at the amino terminal residue. The H3 gene sequence predicts an H3 protein which is identical to the vertebrate H3.2 histone. PMID:1840514

Porter, D; Brown, D; Wells, D



HIV seroadaptation among individuals, within sexual dyads, and by sexual episodes, men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2008  

PubMed Central

“Seroadaptation” comprises sexual behaviors to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission based on knowing one’s own and one’s sexual partners’ serostatus. We measured the prevalence of seroadaptive behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited through time-location sampling (TLS) across three perspectives: by individuals (N=1,207 MSM), among sexual dyads (N=3,746 partnerships), and for sexual episodes (N=63,789 episodes) in the preceding six months. Seroadaptation was more common than 100% condom use when considering the consistent behavioral pattern of individuals (adopted by 39.1% vs. 25.0% of men, respectively). Among sexual dyads 100% condom use was more common than seroadaptation (33.1% vs. 26.4%, respectively). Considering episodes of sex, not having anal intercourse (65.0%) and condom use (16.0%) were the most common risk reduction behaviors. Sex of highest acquisition and transmission risks (unprotected anal intercourse with a HIV serodiscordant or unknown status partner in the riskier position) occurred in only 1.6% of sexual episodes. In aggregate, MSM achieve a high level of sexual harm reduction through multiple strategies. Detailed measures of seroadaptive behaviors are needed to effectively target HIV risk and gauge the potential of serosorting and related sexual harm reduction strategies on the HIV epidemic. PMID:21347888

McFarland, Willi; Chen, Yea-Hung; Raymond, H Fisher; Nyugen, Binh; Colfax, Grant; Mehrtens, Jason; Robertson, Tyler; Stall, Ron; Levine, Deb; Truong, Hong-Ha M



Parent-Child Interactions in Anxious Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable amount of research has examined factors associated with the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children. The familial nature of anxiety has been well-established, with genetic studies showing that approximately 30% of the variance is accounted for by genetic factors. Research into the family environment documents behavioral differences in interactions between non-anxious parent-child and anxious parent-child dyads,

Matthew Schrock; Janet Woodruff-Borden



Interaction Domains and Suicide: A Population-Based Panel Study of Suicides in Stockholm, 1991-1999  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how suicides influence suicide risks of others within two interaction domains: the family and the workplace. A distinction is made between dyad-based social-interaction effects and degree-based exposure effects. A unique database including all individuals who ever lived in Stockholm during the 1990s is analyzed. For about 5.6…

Hedstrom, Peter; Liu, Ka-Yuet; Nordvik, Monica K.



Interrelationship of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization within and between pneumococcal-vaccine na?ve mother-child dyads  

PubMed Central

Background A high prevalence of bacterial nasopharyngeal co-infections has been reported in children, however, such data is limited in adults. We examined the interaction of Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae pharyngeal colonization in mother-child dyads. Methods Pneumococcal-vaccine naïve children and their mothers had pharyngeal swabs undertaken at 1.6, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 7.4, 9.5, 12.5, 16.2 and 24.2 months of child’s age. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and S. aureus using standard microbiologic methods. Multivariate generalized estimating equation-models were used to explore the associations of the three bacteria within and between children and their mothers. Results In children, the observed probability of co-colonization was higher than expected. Well-defined associations in colonization between the bacteria were observed in children but not among mothers. In children, a synergistic association was observed between S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.75, 95% CI: 1.32-2.32) and a negative association between S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (AOR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.39-0.67) or H. influenzae and S. aureus (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.16-0.34) colonization. Additionally, all three bacteria had a higher likelihood of concurrent colonization. There was a strong association in colonization by the bacteria in children and their mothers, including increased likelihood of maternal colonization if the child was colonized by S. pneumoniae (AOR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.28-2.63) and H. influenzae (AOR: 6.34, 95% CI: 2.24-18.0). Conclusions The effects of immunization of children with pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine in settings such as ours needs monitoring with regard to potential changes of pharyngeal bacterial ecology which could occur in vaccinated and –unvaccinated age-groups. PMID:24134472



Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara



Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective, and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and US American metropolitan and rural residence…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperin, Celia Zingman



Similarities amid the Difference: Caregiving Burden and Adaptation Outcomes in Dyads of Parents and Their Children with and without Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study had two main objectives: first, to examine the direct and indirect effects, via social support, of caregiving burden on the adaptation outcomes of children/adolescents with cerebral palsy and their parents; and second, to assess the invariance of such models in clinical vs. healthy subsamples. Participants were 210 dyads of…

Carona, C.; Crespo, C.; Canavarro, M. C.



Gender Clues and Cues: Online Interactions as Windows into Lay Theories about Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet allows the process of “doing gender” (West & Zimmerman, 1987) to be examined in ways previously unavailable. In the studies presented here, dyads conversed online while (a) knowing or, (b) not knowing each other's gender, or (c) with one participant feigning the opposite gender. Not knowing gender had a surprisingly small effect on the interaction. The results further

Melissa J. Williams; Gerald A. Mendelsohn



Gravitating toward Science: Parent-Child Interactions at a Gravitational-Wave Observatory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the nature of parent-child conversations at an informal science education center housed in an active gravitational-wave observatory. Each of 20 parent-child dyads explored an interactive exhibit hall privately, without the distraction of other visitors. Parents employed a variety of strategies to support their children's…

Szechter, Lisa E.; Carey, Elizabeth J.



Stability of Maternal Discipline Practices and the Quality of Mother-Child Interaction during Toddlerhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother-child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother-toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e.,…

Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice



Social Interaction Between Deaf Preschoolers and Their Mothers: The Effects of Communication Method and Communication Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the effects of communication mode (oral vs. oral plus manual) and level of communicative competence (high vs. low) on profoundly deaf preschool children's play interactions with their hearing mothers. The sample consisted of 28 dyads equally divided into groups of oral and simultaneous (oral plus manual) communicators…

Greenberg, Mark T.


Examining the Effects of Gender and Genre on Interactions in Shared Book Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fathers and mothers read differently to their four-year-old sons and daughters and to examine the effect of genre on the interactions that occurred in parent-child, shared book reading. Twenty-five dyads shared two narrative texts and two non-narrative texts. Results indicated that overall,…

Anderson, Jim; Anderson, Ann; Lynch, Jacqueline; Shapiro, Jon



Sex and Sibling Structure: Interaction Effects upon the Accuracy of Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Orientations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed 291 mother-child and 221 father-child dyads to examine adolescent perceptions of parental educational goals. Results showed family size and student's age had no effect, but birth order and sibling sex composition interact with sex of the parent and the adolescent in effects on accuracy of perception. (JAC)

Smith, Thomas Ewin



Interactions Between Mothers and Children: Impacts of Maternal and Child Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, an expansion of an earlier study of parenting behaviors of anxious mothers, examined the relationship of both mother and child anxiety disorders to mother behavior in parent-child interactions. Participants were 68 mother-child dyads with children ranging in age from 7 to 15 years. Mothers and children completed diagnostic evaluations and engaged in conversational tasks; behaviors were rated by

Phoebe S. Moore; Shannon E. Whaley; Marian Sigman



Gender Roles, Computer Attitudes, and Dyadic Computer Interaction Performance in College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines effects of several mediating factors (experimenter and partner sex, sex typing, and past experience) on a computer-interaction task completed by 154 male and 223 female college students in dyads. Computer experience is related to computer experience for all students. Findings support the expected pattern of male advantage but highlight…

Williams, Sue Winkle; And Others



Playing with Technology: Mother-Toddler Interaction Scores Lower during Play with Electronic Toys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate play with electronic toys (battery-operated or digital), 25 mother-toddler (16-24 months old) dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with sets of age-appropriate electronic and non-electronic toys for approximately 10 min each. Parent-child interactions were coded from recorded segments of both of the play conditions using the…

Wooldridge, Michaela B.; Shapka, Jennifer



Gender roles, computer attitudes, and dyadic computer interaction performance in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females tend to score lower than males on measures of computer aptitude and attitudes. This study examined the potential effects of several mediating factors, sex of experimenter, sex of experimental partner, sex typing (Bem Sex Role Inventory score), and level of past experience, on a computer interaction task involving a dyad. College students, drawn from a primarily white college population,

Sue Winkle Williams; Shirley M. Ogletree; William Woodburn; Paul Raffeld



Intervention Effects on Dementia Caregiving InteractionA Stress-Adaptation Modeling Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our purpose was to evaluate the adequacy of a stress adaptation framework for guiding intervention research on caregivers and patients coping with Alzheimer’s disease, and to test the effect of a cognitive stimulation intervention as an interactive outcome. Methods: Using a repeated measures design, 87 caregiverpatient dyads were randomized to one of three conditions: active cognitive stimulation, passive stimulation,

Robert R. Corbeil; Mary P. Quayhagen; Margaret Quayhagen



Conserved dyad symmetry structures at the 3' end of H5 histone genes. Analysis of the duck H5 gene.  


The duck H5 histone gene and its flanking DNA have been isolated and sequenced. S1 nuclease mapping reveals that transcription starts 149 nucleotides upstream of the initiation codon and that the site of polyadenylation is located 200 nucleotides downstream of the termination codon. A comparison with the chicken H5 gene demonstrates that the 3' non-translated segment of the polyadenylated H5 mRNA carries two conserved dyad symmetry sequences. The first potential hairpin is located directly after the termination codon of the H5 gene and is highly conserved, whereas the second stem and loop structure maps shortly upstream of the polyadenylation site and shows a homology block at the central part of this inverted DNA repeat. PMID:6492153

Doenecke, D; Tönjes, R



A semiempirical study for the ground and excited states of free-base and zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ground and excited states of a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad in both its free-base and zinc forms (D. Kuciauskas et al., J. Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 15926) have been investigated by semiempirical methods. The excited-state properties are discussed by investigation of the character of the molecular orbitals. All frontier MOs are mainly localized on either the donor or the acceptor subunit. Thus, the absorption spectra of both systems are best described as the sum of the spectra of the single components. The experimentally observed spectra are well reproduced by the theoretical computations. Both molecules undergo efficient electron transfer in polar but not in apolar solvents. This experimental finding is explained theoretically by explicitly considering solvent effects. The tenth excited state in the gas phase is of charge-separated character where an electron is transferred from the porphyrin donor to the fullerene acceptor subunit. This state is stabilized in energy in polar solvents due to its large formal dipole moment. The stabilization energy for an apolar environment such as benzene is not sufficient to lower this state to become the first excited singlet state. Thus, no electron transfer is observed, in agreement with experiment. In a polar environment such as acetonitrile, the charge-separated state becomes the S, state and electron transfer takes place, as observed experimentally. The flexible single bond connecting both the donor and acceptor subunits allows free rotation by ca. +/- 30 degrees about the optimized ground-state conformation. For the charge-separated state this optimized geometry has a maximum dipole moment. The geometry of the charge-separated state thus does not change relatively to the ground-state conformation. The electron-donating properties of porphyrin are enhanced in the zinc derivative due to a reduced porphyrin HOMO-LUMO energy gap. This yields a lower energy for the charge-separated state compared to the free-base dyad.

Parusel, A. B.



A Comparison of Dyadic Interactions and Coping with Still-Face in Healthy Pre-Term and Full-Term Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre-term birth has a significant impact on infants' social and emotional competence, however, little is known about regulatory processes in pre-term mother-infant dyads during normal or stressful interactions. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the differences in infant and caregiver interactive behaviour and dyadic coordination…

Montirosso, Rosario; Borgatti, Renato; Trojan, Sabina; Zanini, Rinaldo; Tronick, Ed



Mother's early perception of her infant's difficult temperament, parenting stress and early mother–infant interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated factors contributing to mother's early perception of her infant's difficult temperament. One hundred and twenty-four motherinfant dyads participated in the study. Mother's perception of the infant's temperament was assessed with the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (ICQ). The influence of motherinfant interaction, mother's mental health and parenting stress were investigated. Motherinfant interaction was videotaped during a face-to-face interaction

Mirjami Mäntymaa; Kaija Puura; Ilona Luoma; Raili K. Salmelin; Tuula Tamminen



Child-Directed Interaction: Prediction of Change in Impaired Mother–Child Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first phase of parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT), called child-directed interaction, teaches parents to use positive and differential social attention to improve the parent–child relationship. This study examined predictors of change in mother and child functioning during the child-directed interaction for 100 mother–child dyads. The children were 3–6-years-old and diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder. After establishing that significant improvements occurred

Michelle D. Harwood; Sheila M. Eyberg



A Model for Early Intervention in Maladaptive Mother-Child Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference presentation describes a six-week intervention training program for parents with children who exhibit negative behavior (noncompliance, temper tantrums, whining). The focus of the program is to increase positive parent-child interaction, as well as to teach parents how to make and follow through on commands to their children.…

Milar, Christopher R.; Schroeder, Carolyn S.


Sensitivity in Interactions between Hearing Mothers and their Toddlers with Hearing Loss: The Effect of Cochlear Implantation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential effects of cochlear implantation and age at implantation on maternal interactional sensitivity. Three groups of dyads were studied at two points over 1 year. The hearing aid (HA) group wore hearing aids throughout the study, the early cochlear implanted (ECI) group were implanted prior to 22 months of age, and…

Bakar, Zaharah Abu; Brown, P. Margaret; Remine, Maria D.



Sibling Conflict in Middle Childhood: Influence of Maternal Context and Mother-Sibling Interaction over Four Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two issues relevant to relationships models of development were investigated: (1) the influence of maternal context (present, absent) on frequency and types of conflicts of 24 sibling dyads in middle childhood and (2) the stability of maternal and sibling interaction over four years. Maternal presence depressed conflict frequency and aggression; in maternal absence, siblings disagreed about abstract (i.e., procedures\\/play plans)

Nina Howe; Lisa M. Fiorentino; Nadine Gariépy



Examining the Role of Communication on Sibling Relationship Quality and Interaction for Sibling Pairs with and without a Developmental Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent…

Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.



Mexican American Mothers of Low and Middle Socioeconomic Status: Communication Behaviors and Interactive Strategies during Shared Book Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare the communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies used by Mexican American mothers of low- and middle-socioeconomic status (SES) background during shared book reading. Method: Twenty Mexican American mother-child dyads from the Southwestern United States were observed…

Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Hines, Rachel; Montiel, Miguel



Economic hardship, family relationships, and adolescent distress: an evaluation of a stress-distress mediation model in mother-daughter and mother-son dyads.  


This study evaluated a stress-distress mediation model of the relationships among economic hardship, maternal financial strain, maternal marital happiness, the parent-child relationships, and adolescent distress in a group of 188 sixth and 210 eighth graders and their mothers. The model predicted that economic hardship would increase maternal financial strain which was predicted to lead to more distress in the adolescent children by decreasing the mothers' marital happiness and the quality of the mother-child relationship. Separate latent variable path analyses with partial least squares (LVPLS) were conducted for the mother-daughter and the mother-son dyads. The results supported the hypothesized paths between economic hardship, mothers' financial strain, the mother-child relationship, and adolescent distress in both the mother-daughter and mother-son dyads. PMID:9179329

Lempers, J D; Clark-Lempers, D S



Highly efficient singlet-singlet energy transfer in light-harvesting [60,70]fullerene-4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide dyads.  


New C60 and C70 fullerene dyads formed with 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide chromophores have been prepared by the Bingel cyclopropanation reaction. The resulting monoadducts were investigated with respect to their fluorescence properties (quantum yields and lifetimes) to unravel the role of the charge-transfer naphthalimide chromophore as a light-absorbing antenna and excited-singlet-state sensitizer of fullerenes. The underlying intramolecular singlet-singlet energy transfer (EnT) process was fully characterized and found to proceed quantitatively (?(EnT)?1) for all dyads. Thus, these conjugates are of considerable interest for applications in which fullerene excited states have to be created and photonic energy loss should be minimized. In polar solvents (tetrahydrofuran and benzonitrile), fluorescence quenching of the fullerene by electron transfer from the ground-state aminonaphthalimide was postulated as an additional path. PMID:23868354

Remón, Patricia; Parente Carvalho, Cátia; Baleizão, Carlos; Berberan-Santos, Mario Nuno; Pischel, Uwe



Judgments of men's and women's feelings during hypothetical social interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied college students' perceptions of how good\\/bad and how powerful\\/powerless men and women feel during hypothetical social interactions. Stimuli were constructed by combining each of 16 behaviors that fell into four categories (negative, low power, sexual, and help) with each of four dyads (male-male, male-female, female-male, female-female). Subjects made judgments about the likelihood of each behavior occurring, and about

Vicki S. Helgeson; Harry F. Gollob



Meeting your match: how attractiveness similarity affects approach behavior in mixed-sex dyads.  


This experimental study investigated approach behavior toward opposite-sex others of similar versus dissimilar physical attractiveness. Furthermore, it tested the moderating effects of sex. Single participants interacted with confederates of high and low attractiveness. Observers rated their behavior in terms of relational investment (i.e., behavioral efforts related to the improvement of interaction fluency, communication of positive interpersonal affect, and positive self-presentation). As expected, men displayed more relational investment behavior if their own physical attractiveness was similar to that of the confederate. For women, no effects of attractiveness similarity on relational investment behavior were found. Results are discussed in the light of positive assortative mating, preferences for physically attractive mates, and sex differences in attraction-related interpersonal behaviors. PMID:19336540

van Straaten, Ischa; Engels, Rutger C M E; Finkenauer, Catrin; Holland, Rob W



Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571: Crystal Structure and Insights into a New Class of Ser-Lys Dyad Proteins  

PubMed Central

Cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH) catalyzes the hydrolytic ring-opening of cyanuric acid (2,4,6-trihydroxy-1,3,5-triazine), an intermediate in s-triazine bacterial degradation and a by-product from disinfection with trichloroisocyanuric acid. In the present study, an X-ray crystal structure of the CAH-barbituric acid inhibitor complex from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571 has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution. The CAH protein fold consists of three structurally homologous domains forming a ?-barrel-like structure with external ?-helices that result in a three-fold symmetry, a dominant feature of the structure and active site that mirrors the three-fold symmetrical shape of the substrate cyanuric acid. The active site structure of CAH is similar to that of the recently determined AtzD with three pairs of active site Ser-Lys dyads. In order to determine the role of each Ser-Lys dyad in catalysis, a mutational study using a highly sensitive, enzyme-coupled assay was conducted. The 109-fold loss of activity by the S226A mutant was at least ten times lower than that of the S79A and S333A mutants. In addition, bioinformatics analysis revealed the Ser226/Lys156 dyad as the only absolutely conserved dyad in the CAH/barbiturase family. These data suggest that Lys156 activates the Ser226 nucleophile which can then attack the substrate carbonyl. Our combination of structural, mutational, and bioinformatics analyses differentiates this study and provides experimental data for mechanistic insights into this unique protein family. PMID:24915109

Cho, Seunghee; Shi, Ke; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Dodge, Anthony G.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aihara, Hideki



The Contribution of the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS) Warm-Up Segments in Assessing Parent-Child Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the inclusion of uncoded segments in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System, an analogue observation of parent-child interactions. The relationships between warm-up and coded segments were assessed, as well as the segments’ associations with parent ratings of parent and child behaviors. Sixty-nine non-referred parent-child dyads engaged in the observation. Parents completed measures about their parenting and children's

Jenelle R. Shanley; Larissa N. Niec



Mapping Cardiac Physiology and Parenting Processes in Maltreating Mother–Child Dyads  

PubMed Central

Child maltreatment (CM) lies on an extreme end of the continuum of parenting-at-risk, and while CM has been linked with a variety of behavioral indicators of dysregulation in children, less is known about how physiological markers of regulatory capacity contribute to this association. The present study examined patterns of mother and child physiological regulation and their relations with observed differences in parenting processes during a structured interaction. Abusing, neglecting, and non-CM mothers and their 3- to 5-year-old children completed a resting baseline and moderately challenging joint task. The structural analysis of social behavior was used to code mother–child interactions while simultaneous measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia were obtained. Results indicated that physically abusive mothers were more likely to react to children’s positive bids for autonomy with strict and hostile control, than either neglecting or non-CM mothers. CM exposure and quality of maternal responding to children’s autonomous bids were uniquely associated with lower parasympathetic tone in children. Results provide evidence of neurodevelopmental associations between early CM exposure, the immediate interactive context of parenting, and children’s autonomic physiology. PMID:21842991

Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Loke, Eric; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth A.; Woehrle, Petra L.; Van Epps, John J.; Gowda, Anjali; Ammerman, Robert T.



The Dutch HEXACO Personality Inventory: psychometric properties, self-other agreement, and relations with psychopathy among low and high acquaintanceship dyads.  


The HEXACO model (Lee & Ashton, 2004, 2006) of personality structure is based on 6 dimensions that have been recovered in lexical studies of personality in various languages. In this study, we examined a Dutch version of the HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI; Lee & Ashton, 2004) and found it to have satisfactory psychometric properties. Additionally, we examined the level of self-other agreement for the HEXACO-PI variables and the relation of HEXACO-PI Honesty-Humility with the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (Williams, Paulhus, & Hare, 2007) at varying levels of self-other acquaintanceship. Self-other agreement was found to be high, especially among dyads with high levels of acquaintanceship. Self-reported and other-reported Honesty-Humility and Emotionality were the strongest predictors of psychopathy. The relation between other-reported Honesty-Humility and self-reported psychopathy was near zero for dyads with low levels of acquaintanceship but was moderately strong for dyads with high levels of acquaintanceship. PMID:18444108

de Vries, Reinout E; Lee, Kibeom; Ashton, Michael C



The Ugi four-component reaction as a concise modular synthetic tool for photo-induced electron transfer donor-anthraquinone dyads  

PubMed Central

Summary Phenothiazinyl and carbazolyl-donor moieties can be covalently coupled to an anthraquinone acceptor unit through an Ugi four-component reaction in a rapid, highly convergent fashion and with moderate to good yields. These novel donor–acceptor dyads are electronically decoupled in the electronic ground state according to UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. However, in the excited state the inherent donor luminescence is efficiently quenched. Previously performed femtosecond spectroscopic measurements account for a rapid exergonic depopulation of the excited singlet states into a charge-separated state. Calculations of the Gibbs energy of photo-induced electron transfer from readily available UV–vis spectroscopic and cyclovoltammetric data applying the Weller approximation enables a quick evaluation of these novel donor–acceptor dyads. In addition, the X-ray structure of a phenothiazinyl–anthraquinone dyad supports short donor–acceptor distances by an intramolecular ?-stacking conformation, an important assumption also implied in the calculations of the Gibbs energies according to the Weller approximation. PMID:24991251

Bay, Sarah; Makhloufi, Gamall; Janiak, Christoph



Emotional Relationships in Mothers and Infants: Culture-Common and Community-Specific Characteristics of Dyads from Rural and Metropolitan Settings in Argentina, Italy, and the United States  

PubMed Central

This study uses country and regional contrasts to examine culture-common and community-specific variation in mother-infant emotional relationships. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American mothers and their daughters and sons, living in rural and metropolitan settings, were observed at home at infant age 5 months. Both variable- and person-centered perspectives of dyadic emotional relationships were analyzed. Supporting the notion that adequate emotional relationships are a critical and culture-common characteristic of human infant development, across all samples most dyads scored in the adaptive range in terms of emotional relationships. Giving evidence of community-specific characteristics, Italian mothers were more sensitive, and Italian infants more responsive, than Argentine and U.S. mothers and infants; in addition, rural mothers were more intrusive than metropolitan mothers, and rural dyads more likely than expected to be classified as mid-range in emotional relationships and less likely to be classified as high in emotional relationships. Adaptive emotional relationships appear to be a culture-common characteristic of mother-infant dyads near the beginning of life, but this relational construct is moderated by community-specific (country and regional) context. PMID:22247569

Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; de Galperin, Celia Zingman; Gini, Motti; Tichovolsky, Marianne Heslington



Typing of Nonencapsulated Haemophilus Strains by Repetitive-Element Sequence-Based PCR Using Intergenic Dyad Sequences  

PubMed Central

Intergenic dyad sequences (IDS) are short repeated elements that have been described for several Haemophilus genomes and for only two other bacterial genera. We developed a repetitive-element sequence-based PCR using an IDS-specific primer as a typing method (IDS-PCR) for nonencapsulated Haemophilus strains and compared this technique with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of DNA restricted with SmaI. IDS-PCR was rapid, easy to perform, and reproducible, with a high discriminatory capacity for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) strains. The 69 NTHI strains tested generated 65 different banding patterns. Epidemiologically related strains gave similar or identical fingerprints, and all of the unrelated strains except two showed different patterns. These results were in agreement with those obtained by PFGE. For 20 genital strains usually identified as being biotype IV NTHI and belonging to a cryptic genospecies of Haemophilus with remarkable genetic homogeneity, four bands were significantly present and six bands were significantly absent from the fingerprints. The 20 strains were gathered in 11 closely related profiles, whereas PFGE provided no band when DNA was treated with SmaI. IDS-PCR improved the differentiation previously obtained within this species by ribotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Our findings suggest that IDS-PCR is a rapid, reliable, and discriminatory method for typing NTHI strains and is currently the most efficient method for distinguishing strains within the cryptic genospecies of Haemophilus. PMID:12904341

Bruant, Guillaume; Watt, Stephane; Quentin, Roland; Rosenau, Agnes



Testing the perfectionism model of binge eating in mother-daughter dyads: a mixed longitudinal and daily diary study.  


The perfectionism model of binge eating is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is tied to binge eating. This study extended and tested this emerging model by proposing daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., perceiving one's mother is harshly demanding perfection of oneself) and mothers' psychological control (i.e., a negative parenting style involving control and demandingness) contribute indirectly to daughters' binge eating by generating situations or experiences that trigger binge eating. These binge triggers include discrepancies (i.e., viewing oneself as falling short of one's mother's expectations), depressive affect (i.e., feeling miserable and sad), and dietary restraint (i.e., behaviors aimed at reduced caloric intake). This model was tested in 218 mother-daughter dyads studied using a mixed longitudinal and daily diary design. Daughters were undergraduate students. Results largely supported hypotheses, with bootstrapped tests of mediation suggesting daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism and mothers' psychological control contribute to binge eating through binge triggers. For undergraduate women who believe their mothers rigidly require them to be perfect and whose mothers are demanding and controlling, binge eating may provide a means of coping with or escaping from an unhealthy, unsatisfying mother-daughter relationship. PMID:23557815

Mushquash, Aislin R; Sherry, Simon B



Effect of geometrical orientation on the charge-transfer energetics of supramolecular (tetraphenyl)-porphyrin?C60 dyads.  


The charge transfer (CT) excited state energies of donor-acceptor (D?A) pairs determine the achievable open-circuit voltage of D?A-based organic solar cell devices. Changes in the relative orientation of donor-acceptor pairs at the interface influence the frontier orbital energy levels, which impacts the dissociation of bound excitons at the D?A-interface. We examine the effect of relative orientation on CT excited state energies of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The donors studied are base- and Zn-tetraphenyl porphyrin coupled to C60 as the acceptor molecule in an end-on configuration. We compare the energetics of a few low-lying CT states for the end-on geometry to our previously calculated CT energetics of a co-facial orientation. The calculated CT excitation energies are larger for the end-on orientation in comparison to the co-facial structure by about 0.7 eV, which primarily occurs due to a decrease in exciton binding energy in going from the co-facial to the end-on orientation. Furthermore, changes in relative donor-acceptor orientation have a larger impact on the CT energies than changes in donor-acceptor distance. PMID:23445008

Olguin, Marco; Zope, Rajendra R; Baruah, Tunna



The interplay of communication device output mode and interaction style between nonspeaking persons and their speaking partners.  


This study sought to determine how augmentative communication device output modes differentially affected various aspects of interactions between nonspeaking persons (NSPs) and their speaking partners (SPs). It was hypothesized that when an electronic output display (EOD) was added to a communication board, the semipermanent display of information would lessen the dyad's need to adopt specialized turn and message formulation conventions, permitting the NSP to construct more complex messages with fewer communication breakdowns. A series of 10 interactional teaching tasks were recorded for two adult male nonhandicapped dyads performing under the two output conditions (+/- EOD). Interaction transcripts were analyzed with regard to quantitative differences within and between dyads with respect to turn taking, message formulation, propositional content, and several types of insertion sequences (guessing, confirmation queries, message reformulations). With the exception of message reformulation, changes due to output mode were nonexistent or inconsistent for the variables measured within and across dyads. The addition of the EOD significantly lowered the rate of message reformulation and the total number of reformulation-related turns. Results are discussed with regard to research and clinical implications for augmentative communication. PMID:2526903

Higginbotham, D J



Parent—child interaction in Nigerian families: conversation analysis, context and culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a conversation analysis (CA) approach to explore parent—child interaction (PCI) within Nigerian families. We illustrate how speech and language therapists (SLTs), by using CA, can tailor recommendations according to the interactional style of each individual family that are consonant with the family's cultural beliefs. Three parent—child dyads were video-taped playing and talking together in their home environments.

Annabel Burns; Julie Radford



Physical and relational aggression in young children: the role of mother–child interactional synchrony  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between the quality of parent–child interactions, specifically interactional synchrony (IS), and physical and relational aggression in young children. Seventy-three children (3–6 years; 44 males, 29 females) and their mothers participated in this study. The children's level of aggression was assessed through questionnaires completed by their mothers and teachers\\/caregivers. Mother–child dyads engaged in a free play

Holly N. Ambrose; Rosanne Menna



Psychopathology in Adolescent Mothers and Its Effects on Mother-Infant Interactions: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study assessed adolescent maternal psychopathology and its relation to the quality of mother-infant interactions. Method: Twenty-one mother-infant pairs recruited from an adolescent medicine clinic were assessed for socio-demo- graphic background, psychosocial adversity, conduct disorder, alcohol or substance dependence, and depression. Dyads were videotaped during free play and their interactions rated using the Crittenden Child-Adult Relational Experimental (CARE) Index.

Beverley Cassidy; Mark Zoccolillo; Susan Hughes


Examining the effects of gender and genre on interactions in shared book reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fathers and mothers read differently to their four?year?old sons and daughters and to examine the effect of genre on the interactions that occurred in parent?child, shared book reading. Twenty?five dyads shared two narrative texts and two non?narrative texts. Results indicated that overall, fathers were more interactive than mothers. Fathers and mothers

Jim Anderson; Ann Anderson; Jacqueline Lynch; Jon Shapiro



The Effect of Behavioral Realism and Form Realism of Real-Time Avatar Faces on Verbal Disclosure, Nonverbal Disclosure, Emotion Recognition, and Copresence in Dyadic Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realism of avatars in terms of behavior and form is critical to the development of collaborative virtual environments. In the study we utilized state of the art, real- time face tracking technology to track and render facial expressions unobtrusively in a desktop CVE. Participants in dyads interacted with each other via either a video- conference (high behavioral realism and

Jeremy N. Bailenson; Nick Yee; Dan Merget; Ralph Schroeder



It's Not Just Your Goal, but Also Who You Know: How the Cognitive Associations among Goals and Relationships Influence Goal Detection in Social Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment tested a theoretical framework for goal detection in dyadic interactions of close friends and unacquainted strangers wherein one conversationalist pursued a goal unbeknownst to a detector. The extent to which pursuers' conversation goal was cognitively associated with the dyad's relational type was manipulated. As hypothesized,…

Palomares, Nicholas A.



Dynamical systems modeling of physiological coregulation in dyadic interactions.  


In this paper, we used a dynamical systems approach to examine the interrelations of the physiological signals in dyadic interactions. We introduced a system of differential equations developed for dyadic research (Felmlee and Greenberg, 1999) and applied it to time series of heart rate and respiration from individuals in 32 couples. The model included parameters representing self-regulation and coregulation for each individual in the dyad. We applied the model directly to each dyad's data and then examined the distributions of the parameters, and compared such parameters across the three laboratory tasks. In the final step, we explored the associations between the parameter estimates extracted from the physiological data with those parameters from a similar model fitted to daily self-reports of affect. PMID:23107993

Ferrer, Emilio; Helm, Jonathan L



Analysis of DNA methylation acquisition at the imprinted Dlk1 locus reveals asymmetry at CpG dyads  

PubMed Central

Background Differential distribution of DNA methylation on the parental alleles of imprinted genes distinguishes the alleles from each other and dictates their parent of origin-specific expression patterns. While differential DNA methylation at primary imprinting control regions is inherited via the gametes, additional allele-specific DNA methylation is acquired at secondary sites during embryonic development and plays a role in the maintenance of genomic imprinting. The precise mechanisms by which this somatic DNA methylation is established at secondary sites are not well defined and may vary as methylation acquisition at these sites occurs at different times for genes in different imprinting clusters. Results In this study, we show that there is also variability in the timing of somatic DNA methylation acquisition at multiple sites within a single imprinting cluster. Paternal allele-specific DNA methylation is initially acquired at similar stages of post-implantation development at the linked Dlk1 and Gtl2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). In contrast, unlike the Gtl2-DMR, the maternal Dlk1-DMR acquires DNA methylation in adult tissues. Conclusions These data suggest that the acquisition of DNA methylation across the Dlk1/Gtl2 imprinting cluster is variable. We further found that the Dlk1 differentially methylated region displays low DNA methylation fidelity, as evidenced by the presence of hemimethylation at approximately one-third of the methylated CpG dyads. We hypothesize that the maintenance of DNA methylation may be less efficient at secondary differentially methylated sites than at primary imprinting control regions. PMID:24904690



The active site of a lon protease from Methanococcus jannaschii distinctly differs from the canonical catalytic Dyad of Lon proteases.  


ATP-dependent Lon proteases catalyze the degradation of various regulatory proteins and abnormal proteins within cells. Methanococcus jannaschii Lon (Mj-Lon) is a homologue of Escherichia coli Lon (Ec-Lon) but has two transmembrane helices within its N-terminal ATPase domain. We solved the crystal structure of the proteolytic domain of Mj-Lon using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion, refining it to 1.9-angstroms resolution. The structure displays an overall fold conserved in the proteolytic domain of Ec-Lon; however, the active site shows uniquely configured catalytic Ser-Lys-Asp residues that are not seen in Ec-Lon, which contains a catalytic dyad. In Mj-Lon, the C-terminal half of the beta4-alpha2 segment is an alpha-helix, whereas it is a beta-strand in Ec-Lon. Consequently, the configurations of the active sites differ due to the formation of a salt bridge between Asp-547 and Lys-593 in Mj-Lon. Moreover, unlike Ec-Lon, Mj-Lon has a buried cavity in the region of the active site containing three water molecules, one of which is hydrogen-bonded to catalytic Ser-550. The geometry and environment of the active site residues in Mj-Lon suggest that the charged Lys-593 assists in lowering the pK(a) of the Ser-550 hydroxyl group via its electrostatic potential, and the water in the cavity acts as a proton acceptor during catalysis. Extensive sequence alignment and comparison of the structures of the proteolytic domains clearly indicate that Lon proteases can be classified into two groups depending on active site configuration and the presence of DGPSA or (D/E)GDSA consensus sequences, as represented by Ec-Lon and Mj-Lon. PMID:15456757

Im, Young Jun; Na, Young; Kang, Gil Bu; Rho, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Mun-Kyoung; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Chung, Chin Ha; Eom, Soo Hyun



Mealtime television viewing and dietary quality in low-income African American and Caucasian mother-toddler dyads.  


To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy. PMID:19629662

Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine



Attenuation of reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad by gentiopicroside through downregulation of GluN2B receptors in the amygdala of mice.  


Epidemiological studies demonstrate that pain frequently occurs comorbid with depression. Gentiopicroside (Gent) is a secoiridoid compound isolated from Gentiana lutea that exhibits analgesic properties and inhibits the expression of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice. However, the effects of Gent on the reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Reserpine administration (1 mg/kg subcutaneous daily for 3 days) caused a significant decrease in the nociceptive threshold as evidenced by the reduced paw withdrawal latency in response to a radiant heat source and mechanical allodynia. Behavioral detection indicated a significant increase in immobility time during a forced swim test, as well as decreased time in the central area and total travel distance in an open field test. Furthermore, reserpinized animals exhibited increased oxidative stress. Systemic Gent administration dose-dependently ameliorated the behavioral deficits associated with reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad. At the same time, the decrease in biogenic amine levels (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) was integrated with the increase in caspase-3 levels and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the amygdala of the reserpine-injected mice. Gent significantly reversed the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, caspase-3, and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in amygdala. However, Gent did not affect the expression of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors. The inhibitory effects of Gent on oxidative stress were occluded by simultaneous treatment of GluN2B receptors antagonist Ro25-6981. Our study provides strong evidence that Gent inhibits reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad by downregulating GluN2B receptors in the amygdala. PMID:24584520

Liu, Shui-bing; Zhao, Rong; Li, Xu-sheng; Guo, Hong-ju; Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Nan; Gao, Guo-dong; Zhao, Ming-gao



Communication: Charge-transfer rate constants in zinc-porphyrin-porphyrin-derived dyads: A Fermi golden rule first-principles-based study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate photoinduced charge transfer (CT) processes within dyads consisting of porphyrin derivatives in which one ring ligates a Zn metal center and where the rings vary by their degree of conjugation. Using a first-principles approach, we show that molecular-scale means can tune CT rates through stabilization affected by the polar environment. Such means of CT tuning are important for achieving high efficiency optoelectronic applications using organic semiconducting materials. Our fully quantum mechanical scheme is necessary for reliably modeling the CT process across different regimes, in contrast to the pervading semi-classical Marcus picture that grossly underestimates transfer in the far-inverted regime.

Manna, Arun K.; Dunietz, Barry D.



Effect of situation on mother-infant interaction.  


Research has shown that the early parent-infant relationship is of critical importance for children's developmental outcomes. While the effect of different settings on mother-infant interactive behavior is well studied, only few researchers systematically examined the effect of situational variables on mother-infant interaction. In the present study the effect of situational variables within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interaction at 6 months was examined as well as the consistency in the quality of behaviors of mother and infant across these situations. During a home visit 292 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in three different situations (i.e., free play, face-to-face play, and diaper change). Interactive behaviors of mother and infant were assessed with the NICHD global ratings scales. Results showed substantial effects of situation on the interactive behavior of the mother-infant dyad. Despite the observed situational effects maternal sensitivity to non-distress, intrusiveness, stimulation of development, and positive regard and all five infant behavioral scales remained stable across the different situations. Insight into situational effects within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interactive behavior may assist researchers to make well-informed decisions about measuring the parent-infant interaction in one or more specific situations. PMID:23261788

Maas, A Janneke B M; Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A



Electron transfer and hydrogen generation from a molecular dyad: platinum(II) alkynyl complex anchored to [FeFe] hydrogenase subsite mimic.  


A PS-Fe(2)S(2) molecular dyad 1a directly anchoring a platinum(II) alkynyl complex to a Fe(2)S(2) active site of a [FeFe] H(2)ase mimic, and an intermolecular system of its reference complexes 1b and 2, have been successfully constructed. Time-dependence of H(2) evolution shows that PS-Fe(2)S(2)1a as well as complex 2 with 1b can produce H(2) in the presence of a proton source and sacrificial donor under visible light irradiation. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies on the electron transfer event reveal that the reduced Fe(I)Fe(0) species generated by the first electron transfer from the excited platinum(II) complex to the Fe(2)S(2) active site in PS-Fe(2)S(2)1a and complex 2 with 1b is essential for photochemical H(2) evolution, while the second electron transfer from the excited platinum(II) complex to the protonated Fe(I)Fe(0) species is thermodynamically unfeasible, which might be an obstacle for the relatively small amount of H(2) obtained by PS-Fe(2)S(2) molecular dyads reported so far. PMID:22218815

Wang, Wen-Guang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Hong-Yan; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu



Taking stress response out of the box: stability, discontinuity, and temperament effects on HPA and SNS across social stressors in mother-infant dyads.  


This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as were associations with infant temperament. Primiparous mothers and their 18-month-old infants (n = 86 dyads) completed an attachment stressor--Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978)--at Session 1 and challenge stressors--cleanup task and emotion task battery--at Session 2. Mother and infant saliva samples collected to index pre-stress, stress, and post-stress response during each session were assayed for cortisol (HPA marker) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA; SNS marker). Multilevel modeling of cortisol/sAA trajectories across sessions revealed rank-order stability in mother/infant stress measures but discontinuity in absolute levels; cortisol trajectories were higher during attachment stress, and sAA trajectories were higher during challenge stress. Varying degrees of mother-infant attunement were found across sessions/systems. Infant surgency predicted higher stress measures, and negative affect and effortful control predicted lower stress measures, though associations depended on session/system. Findings are discussed in terms of advancing a multisystemic, contextual definition of developing stress responsiveness. PMID:21928882

Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C; Measelle, Jeffrey



Parent-Child Interaction Therapy With a Spanish-Speaking Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is relatively little information on the treatment effectiveness of child behavior-management programs with Spanish-speaking populations. Though there are several empirically supported treatments available in English, research on the applicability of these programs in Spanish is virtually nonexistent. This single-case study discusses the application of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a Spanish-speaking mother-child dyad to address the child’'s externalizing behavior

Joaquin Borrego; Karla Anhalt; Sherri Y. Terao; Eric C. Vargas; Anthony J. Urquiza



Challenging foster caregiver–maltreated child relationships: The effectiveness of parent–child interaction therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the effectiveness of parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based treatment for abused children, for 75 non-relative foster parents and their foster children compared with 98 non-abusive biological parent–child dyads referred for treatment because of the children's behavior problems. Results showed decreases in child behavior problems and caregiver distress from pre- to post-treatment for both foster and biological

Susan G. Timmer; Anthony J. Urquiza; Nancy Zebell



Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with a Family at High Risk for Physical Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of empirically validated treatments with physically abusive and at-risk families continues to be an issue requiring further clinical and research attention. This single-case study discusses the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a mother-child dyad considered to be at high risk for physical abuse. Although PCIT is effective with different populations and in different settings, no study

Joaquin Borrego; Anthony J. Urquiza; Rebecca A. Rasmussen; Nancy Zebell



The origins of 12-month attachment: A microanalysis of 4-month mother–infant interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch,

Beatrice Beebe; Joseph Jaffe; Sara Markese; Karen Buck; Henian Chen; Patricia Cohen; Lorraine Bahrick; Howard Andrews; Stanley Feldstein



Initial dyadic peer interaction of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and normal boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed the frequency and patterns of play duration and verbal behavior of medicated attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys in an initial social encounter with a normal, same-age peer. Eight pairs each of previously unacquainted ADHD\\/normal boys and normal\\/normal boys were videotaped as they interacted in a free-play setting (N=32). The ADHD\\/normal dyads engaged in more solitary play

Julie A. Hubbard; Andrew F. Newcomb



A characteristic destabilization profile in parent-child interactions associated with treatment efficacy for aggressive children.  


This study examined profiles of change in repeated mother-child interactions over the course of a 12 week treatment period for childhood aggression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it was possible to detect the characteristic profile of change, typical for phase transitions, over the course of treatment, and whether this profile was associated with positive treatment outcomes. Entropy values were computed for six repeated real-time observations of each mother-child dyad, using a novel application of recurrence quantification analysis for categorical time series. Subsequent latent class growth curve analysis on the sequences of entropy values revealed two distinct classes of dyads, with one class showing a clear peak in entropy over the six measurement points. The latent class membership variables showed a significant systematic relationship with observed dyad improvement (as rated by clinicians). The class with the peak in entropy over the sessions consisted largely of treatment improvers. Further analysis revealed that improvers and non-improvers could not be distinguished based on content-specific changes (e.g. more positivity or less negativity during the interaction). The present study revealed a treatment-related destabilization pattern in real-time behaviors that was related to better treatment outcomes, and underlines the value of dynamic nonlinear time-series analysis (especially RQA) in the study of dyadic interactions in clinical contexts. PMID:22695153

Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Hasselman, Fred; Cox, Ralf; Pepler, Debra; Granic, Isabela



Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries  

PubMed Central

This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed. PMID:20824179

Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperín, Celia Zingman



Effects of Maternal Stimulant Medication on Observed Parenting in Mother-Child Dyads with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study of 23 mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their offspring with ADHD examined the effects of maternal stimulant medication on observed interactions. Parent-child interactions were observed using a structured protocol before and after mothers underwent a 5-week, double-blind stimulant titration. Despite…

Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rooney, Mary; Seymour, Karen E.; Lavin, Heather Jones; Pian, Jessica; Robb, Adelaide; Efron, Lisa; Conlon, Charles; Stein, Mark A.



The horse-human dyad: can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram?  


This article examines the recently completed equid ethogram and shows how analogues of social interactions between horses may occur in various human-horse interactions. It discusses how some specific horse-horse interactions have a corresponding horse-human interaction - some of which may be directly beneficial for the horse while others may be unusual or even abnormal. It also shows how correspondent behaviours sometimes become inappropriate because of their duration, consistency or context. One analogue is unlikely to hold true for all horse-human contexts, so when applying any model from horse-horse interactions to human-horse interactions, the limitations of the model may eclipse the intended outcome of the intervention. These limitations are especially likely when the horse is being ridden. Such analyses may help to determine the validity of extrapolating intra-specific interactions to the inter-specific setting, as is advocated by some popular horse-training methods, and highlight the subsequent limitations where humans play the role of the 'alpha mare' or leader in horse handling and training. This examination provides a constructive framework for further informed debate and empirical investigation of the critical features of successful intra-specific interactions. PMID:19375965

McGreevy, P D; Oddie, C; Burton, F L; McLean, A N



A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Children's Drawings of Same-and Mixed-Sex Peer Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's art was studied as a function of (1) gender of child, (2) picture condition (drawings of same-sex versus mixed-sex dyads), and (3) child-rearing setting (U.S. town [N = 89] versus Israeli town [N = 132] versus Israeli kibbutz [N = 88]). Pictures were scored for theme or focus of activity (mastery versus social interaction) and for the nature of

Judith Rubenstein; S. Shirley Feldman; Carol Rubin; Ira Noveck



Effects of Prenatal Cocaine\\/Polydrug Use on Maternal-Infant Feeding Interactions During the First Year of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of prenatal cocaine use on quality of maternal-infant interactions were evaluated using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS). A total of 341 (155 cocaine using; 186 non- cocaine using) low socioeconomic, primarily African-American dyads were evaluated longitudinally at birth, 6.5, and 12 months. Group differences over time were examined, controlling for covariates, using a mixed- model linear




Effects of Maternal Stimulant Medication on Observed Parenting in Mother–Child Dyads With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study of 23 mothers with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their offspring with ADHD examined the effects of maternal stimulant medication on observed interactions. Parent–child interactions were observed using a structured protocol before and after mothers underwent a 5-week, double-blind stimulant titration. Despite dramatic effects of medication on adult ADHD symptoms, this small pilot and open label laboratory-based study

Andrea Chronis-Tuscano; Mary Rooney; Karen E. Seymour; Heather Jones Lavin; Jessica Pian; Adelaide Robb; Lisa Efron; Charles Conlon; Mark A. Stein



The Effect of Personality on Collaborative Task Performance and Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collocated, multi-user technologies, which support group-work are becoming increasingly popular. Examples include MERL’s Diamondtouch and Microsoft’s Surface, both of which have evolved from research prototypes to commercial products. Many applications have been developed for such technologies which support the work and entertainment needs of small groups of people. None of these applications however, have been studied in terms of the interactions and performances of their users with regards to their personality. In this paper, we address this research gap by conducting a series of user studies involving dyads working on a number of multi-user applications on the DiamondTouch tabletop device.

Givney, Sinéad Mc; Smeaton, Alan F.; Lee, Hyowon


Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.  


Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context. PMID:25175679

Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M



Determination of preferential molecular orientation in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad molecules with zinc atoms incorporated into the porphyrin ring (ZnDHD6ee) on the surface of aqueous subphase and on Si substrates have been investigated by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry. The experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions and on synchrotron radiation sources (KMC-2 station of BESSY II (Berlin) and Langmuir station at the National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute"). Depth distributions of Zn atoms and electron density in the monolayer film are calculated. On the basis of the analysis of these distributions, it is concluded that ZnDHD6ee dyad molecules in monolayers have preferential orientation. The data obtained indicate that the molecules in monolayer film retain their orientation when the monolayer is transferred from a liquid subphase surface onto a solid substrate.

Seregin, A. Yu.; D'yakova, Yu. A.; Yakunin, S. N.; Makhotkin, I. A.; Alekseev, A. S.; Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Tereschenko, E. Yu.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H.; Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.



Inter-Brain Synchronization during Social Interaction  

PubMed Central

During social interaction, both participants are continuously active, each modifying their own actions in response to the continuously changing actions of the partner. This continuous mutual adaptation results in interactional synchrony to which both members contribute. Freely exchanging the role of imitator and model is a well-framed example of interactional synchrony resulting from a mutual behavioral negotiation. How the participants' brain activity underlies this process is currently a question that hyperscanning recordings allow us to explore. In particular, it remains largely unknown to what extent oscillatory synchronization could emerge between two brains during social interaction. To explore this issue, 18 participants paired as 9 dyads were recorded with dual-video and dual-EEG setups while they were engaged in spontaneous imitation of hand movements. We measured interactional synchrony and the turn-taking between model and imitator. We discovered by the use of nonlinear techniques that states of interactional synchrony correlate with the emergence of an interbrain synchronizing network in the alpha-mu band between the right centroparietal regions. These regions have been suggested to play a pivotal role in social interaction. Here, they acted symmetrically as key functional hubs in the interindividual brainweb. Additionally, neural synchronization became asymmetrical in the higher frequency bands possibly reflecting a top-down modulation of the roles of model and imitator in the ongoing interaction. PMID:20808907

Dumas, Guillaume; Nadel, Jacqueline; Soussignan, Robert; Martinerie, Jacques



A Qualitative Study in a Rural Community: Investigating the Attitudes, Beliefs, and Interactions of Young Children and Their Parents Regarding Storybook Read Alouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study describes the physical and verbal interactions of rural children and their parents regarding reading\\u000a books aloud. The participants’ attitudes and beliefs about sharing storybooks are also explored. The theoretical framework\\u000a is based upon Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model. One interview was conducted with each participant and video recorded. An\\u000a observation of one book sharing session for each dyad was

Natalie Conrad Barnyak



Do Parental Expectations Play a Role in Children's Sleep and Mothers' Distress? An Exploration of the Goodness of Fit Concept in 54 Mother-Child Dyads  

PubMed Central

This study describes parental expectations for sleep-wake patterns in healthy kindergarten children and explores their relation to children's sleep quality and parental distress. Data analysis of 54 mother-child dyads (age range of the children: 4–7 years) indicated that parental expectations for children's sleep-wake patterns differ between scheduled and free days and depend on children's chronotype. Mothers of children with late chronotype showed less adequate expectations for children's sleep onset time than mothers of children with early chronotype (e.g., morning types). Furthermore, children of mothers with less adequate expectations for children's sleep onset time on scheduled days had longer settling periods during which sleep rituals may take place (r = 0.31, P ? 0.05), spent more time in bed than they actually sleep (r = 0.35, P ? 0.01), and had more frequently difficulties falling asleep (r = 0.33, P ? 0.01). However, less adequate expectations for children's sleep onset time were not associated with parental distress (P > 0.05). We conclude that parental expectations about their children's sleep play a key role in understanding normal and abnormal sleep during childhood. PMID:23471011

Werner, Helene; Jenni, Oskar G.



Content validity and acceptability of the daily enhancement of meaningful activity program: intervention for mild cognitive impairment patient-spouse dyads.  


Persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI) are at greater risk for developing Alzheimer disease and experience various difficulties that decrease their quality of life. Very few interventions focus on helping PwMCI improve or maintain functional performance and enhance quality of life through meaningful activity engagement. The purpose of the study was to explore PwMCI and their spouses' perspectives on the content validity, usefulness, and acceptability of the Daily Enhancement of Meaningful Activity (DEMA) program, which included 6 biweekly face-to-face sessions between session assignments and a self-management tool kit of written educational handouts. Nine PwMCI-care partner dyads participated in 3 focus groups (PwMCI alone, spouses alone, and couples) to capture their perspectives on DEMA. The transcribed focus group data were analyzed through content analysis. The three groups provided support for content validity and acceptability of the program, and they suggested additional content areas important to couples experiencing MCI. They also attested to the usefulness of the tool kit and gave suggestions for its further improvement. The findings provide evidence of the content validity and acceptability of the DEMA program. A pilot study to assess feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the DEMA on health-related outcomes is the recommended next research step for this program. PMID:22089409

Lu, Yvonne Yueh-Feng; Haase, Joan E



Time-resolved EPR characterization of a folded conformation of photoinduced charge-separated state in porphyrin-fullerene dyad bridged by diphenyldisilane.  


For development of the molecular solar-energy conversion systems, it is crucial to investigate how both the molecular geometry and electronic structure of electron donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) molecules contribute to the electronic coupling for the charge-separation (CS) and charge-recombination (CR) processes. In a D-B-A system of a porphyrin-fullerene dyad (ZnP-C(60)) bridged by a diphenyldisilane spacer, we have characterized one specific folded molecular conformation in the CS state among several existing conformations using the time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) method at low temperature. To determine the molecular conformation and spin-spin exchange coupling of the CS state, we have considered (1) the electron spin polarization transfer from the excited triplet state of the C(60) moiety to the CS state and (2) the sublevel-selective spin relaxations and CR in the CS state. In the CS state of this conformation, although the ZnP cation and C(60) anion radicals are in close proximity, direct overlap between their singly occupied molecular orbitals is small, resulting in detection of the long-lived CS state which has a totally different conformation from the optically detected, charge-transfer (CT) complex. It has been demonstrated that, among several folded and extended molecular conformations created by the flexibility of the -Si-Si- bridge, the EPR conformation can play a role on the prevention of the energy-wasting CR. PMID:19159228

Kobori, Yasuhiro; Shibano, Yuki; Endo, Tsubasa; Tsuji, Hayato; Murai, Hisao; Tamao, Kohei



Study of structural order in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers formed on the surface of aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough and transferred onto solid substrates has been studied. The data obtained are interpreted using simulation of the structure of isolated molecules and their packing in monolayer and modeling of diffraction patterns from molecular aggregates having different sizes and degrees of order. Experiments on the formation of condensed ZnDHD6ee monolayers are described. The structure of these monolayers on a water surface is analyzed using ?-A isotherms. The structure of the monolayers transferred onto solid substrates is investigated by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The unit-cell parameters of two-dimensional domains, which are characteristic of molecular packing in monolayers and deposited films, are determined. Domains are found to be organized into a texture (the molecular axes are oriented by the [001] direction perpendicular to the substrate). The monolayers contain a limited number of small 3D domains.

D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, Andrei S.; Orekhov, Anton S.; Alekseev, A. S.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Tereschenko, E. Yu.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H.; Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.



School-Based Nutrition Programs Are Associated with Reduced Child Food Insecurity over Time among Mexican-Origin Mother-Child Dyads In Texas Border Colonias12  

PubMed Central

In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers’ and children’s (aged 6–11 y) perspectives and experiences of child food insecurity and its seasonal volatility, including the effects of school-based and summertime nutrition programs. Forty-eight Mexican-origin mother-child dyads completed standardized, Spanish-language food-security instruments during 2 in-home visits between July 2010 and March 2011. Multilevel longitudinal logistic regression measured change in food security while accounting for correlation in repeated measurements by using a nested structure. Cohen’s ? statistic assessed dyadic discordance in child food insecurity. School-based nutrition programs reduced the odds of child food insecurity by 74% [OR = 0.26 (P < 0.01)], showcasing the programs’ impact on the condition. Single head of household was associated with increased odds of child food insecurity [OR = 4.63 (P = 0.03)]. Fair dyadic agreement of child food insecurity was observed [? = 0.21 (P = 0.02)]. Obtaining accurate prevalence rates and understanding differences of intrahousehold food insecurity necessitate measurement at multiple occasions throughout the year while considering children’s perceptions and experiences of food insecurity in addition to parental reports. PMID:23486977

Nalty, Courtney C.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.



The behaviour of young children with social communication disorders during dyadic interaction with peers.  


Children with social communication disorders are known to experience more problematic peer relations than typically-developing children. However, detailed observation of their behaviour and communication during interaction with peers has not previously been undertaken. Micro-analytic observational methods were used to analyse the audio-taped interaction of children (N?=?112) selected from mainstream schools (ages 5-6 years-old) on a computerised dyadic collaborative task. Comparisons were made between children with average-to-high- and low-pragmatic language skill as measured by the Test of Pragmatic Skills. Dyads were composed of an average-to-high-skilled child plus a low-skilled child (32 dyads), or of two average-to-high-skilled children (24 dyads). Consistently with their pragmatic language scores, low-skilled children were more likely to ignore other children's questions and requests than were average-to-high-skilled children. When average-to-high-skilled children worked with low-skilled children, as opposed to with other average-to-high-skilled children, they showed some sensitivity and adaptation to these children's difficulties; they used significantly more directives, clarification and provided more information. However, there was a cost in terms of the emotional tone of these interactions; when working with low-skilled children, the average-to-high-skilled children expressed considerably more negative feelings towards their partners than with another average-to-high-skilled child. In conclusion, observation of the interaction of average-to-high- and low-skilled children suggests promise for peer-assisted interventions and specifies which communicative behaviours could be targeted. However, care should be taken to manage the affective climate of these interactions for the benefit of all children involved. PMID:23794095

Murphy, Suzanne M; Faulkner, Dorothy M; Farley, Laura R



Social coordination in toddler's word learning: interacting systems of perception and action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.

Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen



Social coordination in toddler’s word learning: interacting systems of perception and action  

PubMed Central

We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants’ body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M = 18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner’s hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child’s learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed. PMID:20953274

Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen



Mother-child relationships as sources of support or stress: a comparison of competent, average, aggressive, and anxious dyads.  


We tested the proposition that mother-child relationships can be sources of support or stress, by comparing patterns of mother-child interactions in a problem-solving task that children completed with their own and with an unfamiliar mother. 4 groups of preschoolers (n = 30 in each group)--identified on the basis of teacher ratings as socially competent, average, aggressive, or anxious--participated. Mothers of competent and average children were highly positive and reciprocal toward their own and unfamiliar children. Mothers of aggressive and anxious children were only positive and reciprocal toward unfamiliar children but generally indiscriminate (aggressive group) or aversive and negatively reciprocal (anxious group) toward their own. Children in all 4 groups tended to be reciprocal toward their own mothers, but only competent and average children were reciprocal toward unfamiliar mothers also. Aggressive and anxious children generally responded to unfamiliar mothers by ignoring or actively rejecting their overtures. Results (1) indicate that the relationship with the primary caregiver may serve as a major source of support or stress in the preschool years; (2) focus attention on the dynamic organization of interactions rather than on the presence or frequency of particular behaviors, indicating that a dynamic of reciprocity enables children and mothers to adapt positively to the ever changing demands of new social situations; (3) point to the need to develop new means of assessing relationships to better understand how they influence development; and (4) highlight the importance of incorporating transactional models in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood dysfunctions rather than accounting for them solely in terms of limited skills in parents or children. PMID:8112116

Dumas, J E; LaFreniere, P J



Training partnership dyads for community-based participatory research: strategies and lessons learned from the Community Engaged Scholars Program.  


This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus-community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution's Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

Andrews, Jeannette O; Cox, Melissa J; Newman, Susan D; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E; Slaughter, Sabra



Training Partnership Dyads for Community-Based Participatory Research: Strategies and Lessons Learned From the Community Engaged Scholars Program  

PubMed Central

This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus–community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution’s Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra



Electrochemistry of the self-assembled monolayers of dyads consisting of tripod-shaped trithiol and bithiophene on gold.  


Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of tripod-shaped trithiols, consisting of an adamantane core with three CH2SH legs and a bithiophene group, were prepared on a Au(111) surface. Adsorption in a tripod-like fashion was supported by polarization modulation-infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) of the SAMs, which indicated the absence of free SH groups. Cyclic voltammetry showed an irreversible cathodic wave due to reductive desorption. The SAM also showed an anodic wave due to the single-electron oxidation of the bithiophene moiety without concomitant desorption of the molecules. Although oxidation was irreversible in the absence of a protecting group, it became reversible with the introduction of a terminal phenyl group. The charge of the oxidation was one-third that of the reductive desorption, confirming a three-point adsorption. The surface coverage was ca. 50% of that expected for the anti bithiophene conformation, which suggested that an increase in the surface area per molecule had been caused by the presence of an energetically high-lying syn conformer. In accordance with this, the line shape of the oxidation wave suggested an electrostatic repulsive interaction between neighboring molecules. PMID:25255246

Kitagawa, Toshikazu; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Takao; Komatsu, Koichi



Parent–Child Interactions, Peripheral Serotonin, and Self-Inflicted Injury in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Self-inflicted injury in adolescence indicates significant emotional and psychological suffering. Although data on the etiology of self-injury are limited, current theories suggest that the emotional lability observed among self-injuring adolescents results from complex interactions between individual biological vulnerabilities and environmental risk. For example, deficiencies in serotonergic functioning, in conjunction with certain family interaction patterns, may contribute to the development of emotional lability and risk for self-injury. The authors explored the relation between peripheral serotonin levels and mother–child interaction patterns among typical (n = 21) and self-injuring (n = 20) adolescents. Findings revealed higher levels of negative affect and lower levels of both positive affect and cohesiveness among families of self-injuring participants. Peripheral serotonin was also correlated with the expression of positive affect within dyads. Furthermore, adolescents’ serotonin levels interacted with negativity and conflict within dyads to explain 64% of the variance in self-injury. These findings underscore the importance of considering both biological and environmental risk factors in understanding and treating self-injuring adolescents. PMID:18229978

Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Smith, Cindy J.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Stevens, Adrianne L.



Effects of familiar and unfamiliar objects on mother-infant interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the dynamics and structure of mother-child interactions around toys vary\\u000a with the familiarity of toys. Twelve mother-child dyads with a 5- or 9-month-old infant were filmed two consecutive 5-minute\\u000a sessions in the presence of familiar or novel objects. By relating the mother’s behaviour to her infant’s, we were able to\\u000a define

Agnés Danis



Modeling heterogeneity in social interaction processes using multilevel survival analysis.  


More than 15 years ago, survival or hazard regression analyses were introduced to psychology (W. Gardner & W. A. Griffin, 1989; W. A. Griffin & W. Gardner, 1989) as powerful methodological tools for studying real time social interaction processes among dyads. Almost no additional published applications have appeared, although such data are commonly collected and the applicable questions are central to many important theoretical perspectives. To revisit the basic methods, the authors use an example from emotion regulation theory in which the level of child antisocial behavior is hypothesized to be positively associated with the hazard rate of angry emotions and negatively associated with sad, fearful emotions in the face of parental negative behavior (scolding). The authors discuss the limitations of traditional approaches to the analysis of social interaction and demonstrate improvements in the ability to model individual differences now available in existing software. PMID:16784336

Stoolmiller, Mike; Snyder, James



Relational Demography in Coaching Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decline in the proportion of female head coaches in the intercollegiate ranks is one of the most significant issues in the realm of women's sports today. To extend the body of research that has studied this topic, we investigated the impact relational demographic effects on the work attitudes of coaches, which differs from previous research…

Sagas, Michael; Paetzold, Ramona; Ashley, Frank



Compulsory citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of organizational identification and perceived interactional justice.  


This article examines the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of interactional justice in influencing the mediation. Using a time-lagged research design, the authors collected two waves of data from 388 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 67 teams to test the moderated mediation model. Results revealed that CCB negatively influenced OCB via impairing organizational identification. Moreover, interactional justice moderated the strength of the indirect effect of CCB on OCB (through organizational identification), such that the mediated relationship was stronger under low interactional justice than under high interactional justice. PMID:24684078

Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Chen, Hsiu-Kuei



The Origins of 12-Month Attachment: A Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction  

PubMed Central

A detailed microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of essential communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1s time base; mother and infant facial-visual “engagement” variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual’s behavior that were correlated with the partner’s previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother, yielded comparable numbers of findings. Rather than the more usual hypothesis that more contingency is “better,” we partially supported our hypothesis that 12-month insecurity is associated with both higher and lower 4-month self- and interactive contingency values than secure, as a function of mother vs. infant and communication modality. Thus, in the origins of attachment security, more contingency is not necessarily better. A remarkable degree of differentiation was identified in the 4-month patterns of “future” C and D infants, classified as resistant and disorganized, respectively, at 12 months. Only future D infants were emotionally distressed, with simultaneous positive and negative discrepant affect; only their mothers showed difficulty in sharing infant affect, particularly distress, and lowered their contingent coordination with infant facial-visual engagement. This lowered contingent coordination makes it more difficult for infants to come to expect that their emotional/attentional states can influence mothers to coordinate with them and thus compromises the infant’s sense of interactive efficacy. Only future C dyads showed the spatial approach/avoid pattern of “chase and dodge;” only mothers of future D infants showed the spatial intrusion pattern of “looming” into the infant’s face. Both future C and D dyads showed patterns of touch dysregulation. Future C infants inhibited their emotional coordination with mothers’ less affectionate touch, as if tuning it out. Future D dyads showed a dyadic touch dysregulation, in which mothers lowered their coordination with infant touch, while infants had a lowered ability to use their own touch. Both mothers of future C and D infants disturbed the stability of the spatial “frame” of the encounter by transitioning among upward, forward and loom orientations in less predictable ways than mothers of future B infants. Only mothers of future D infants disturbed the attentional “frame” as

Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley



Actor and partner effects of adolescents' romantic working models and styles on interactions with romantic partners.  


The present study examined how adolescents' and their romantic partners' romantic working models and relational styles were related to their interactions with each other. Sixty-five couples (M age = 18.1 years) were observed interacting. Romantic working models were assessed in interviews about their romantic experiences; romantic styles were assessed by self-report. Data were analyzed using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model. Working models of romantic relationships, especially girls' models, were predictive of their behavior, the partners' behavior, and the dyads' behavior. Fewer links were found between relational styles and observed behavior. The present study extends past work by showing that representations of romantic relationships influence or are influenced by romantic interactions, even as these representations and relationships are just developing. PMID:16686790

Furman, Wyndol; Simon, Valerie A



Emotional signals in nonverbal interaction: dyadic facilitation and convergence in expressions, appraisals, and feelings.  


We examined social facilitation and emotional convergence in amusement, sadness, and fear in dynamic interactions. Dyads of friends or strangers jointly watched emotion-eliciting films while they either could or could not communicate nonverbally. We assessed three components of each emotion (expressions, appraisals, and feelings), as well as attention to and social motives toward the co-participant. In Study 1, participants interacted through a mute videoconference. In Study 2, they sat next to each other and either were or were not separated by a partition. Results revealed that facilitation and convergence are not uniform across different emotions and emotion components. Particularly strong supporting patterns emerged for the facilitation of and convergence in smiling. When direct interaction was possible (Study 2), friends showed a general tendency for strong convergence, with the exception of fear-related appraisals. This suggests that underlying processes of emotional contagion and social appraisal are differentially relevant for different emotions. PMID:22471853

Bruder, Martin; Dosmukhambetova, Dina; Nerb, Josef; Manstead, Antony S R



Non-Dialogue Speech during Preschool Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation focuses on the portion of preschool verbal action that could be considered successful dialogue. Ten dyads of four-year olds were videotaped during freeplay, where segments of talk were identified as dialogue or nondialogue. (35 References) (JL)

Schober-Peterson, Debra; Johnson, Cynthia J.



ADHD Medication Vacations and Parent-Child Interactions by Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine medication vacations among children with ADHD according to parent-child dyads (e.g., mother-son, father-daughter, mother-daughter, and father-son). Method: In a survey study of 259 parents of children with ADHD, the use of medication vacations according to parent-child sex dyads was…

Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sulak, Tracey



Using Dyad-Specific Social Stories to Increase Communicative and Social Skills of Preschoolers with Hearing Loss in Self-Contained and Inclusive Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with profound hearing loss often do not have the same prelinguistic opportunities for social and communication interaction as peers with typical hearing and benefit from structured opportunities to learn these skills. This study examined the effect of two interventions to improve the communicative and social skills of four preschoolers…

Raver, Sharon A.; Bobzien, Jonna; Richels, Corrin; Hester, Peggy; Anthony, Nicole



Parent-Adolescent Relationship Qualities, Internal Working Models, and Styles as Predictors of Adolescents' Observed Interactions with Friends  

PubMed Central

This study examined how current parent-adolescent relationship qualities and adolescents’ representations of relationships with parents were related to friendship interactions in 200 adolescent-close friend dyads. Adolescents and friends were observed discussing problems during a series of structured tasks. Negative interactions with mothers were significantly related to adolescents’ greater conflict with friends, poorer focus on tasks, and poorer communication skills. Security of working models (as assessed by interview) was significantly associated with qualities of friendship interactions, whereas security of attachment styles (as assessed by questionnaire) was not. More dismissing (vs. secure) working models were associated with poorer focus on problem discussions and weaker communication skills with friends, even after accounting for gender differences and current parent-adolescent relationship qualities. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed links between dimensions of parent-adolescent relationships and friendships. We also consider methodological and conceptual differences between working model and style measures of attachment representations. PMID:20174459

Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol



Synthesis and Characterization of Ru(II) Tris(1,1O-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads Incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium Cation or N-Benzyl-N'-methyl-viologen. Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Optical Oxygen Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The title compounds (1 and 2, above) were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions of appropriate Ru(1I) complexes with the electron a cceptors. Characterization was conducted in solution and in frozen ma trices. Finally, the title compounds were evaluated as dopants of sol-gel materials. It was found that the intramolecular quenching efficie ncy of 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridinium cation in solution depends on the solvent: photoluminescence is quenched completely in CH,CN, but not i n methanol or ethanol. On the other hand, intramolecular emission que nching by 4-benzyl-N-methyl viologen is complete in all solvents. The difference between the two quenchers is traced electrochemically to t he solvation of the 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridiniums by alcohol. In froze n matrices or adsorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both Ru(I1) complex/electron acceptor dyads of this study are photoluminescent, and the absence of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigi dity. When doped aerogels are cooled at 77 K, the emission intensity increases by approximately 4x, and the spectra shift to the blue, analogous to what is observed with Ru(I1) complexes in solutions undergoi ng fluid-to-rigid transition. However, in contrast to frozen solution s, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at low tempe ratures are still accessible to gas-phase quenchers diffusing through the mesopores, leading to more sensitive platforms for sensors than o ther room-temperature configurations. Thus the photoluminescence of o ur Ru(I1) complex dyads adsorbed on aerogel is quenchable by O2 both at room temperature and at 77 K. Furthermore, it was also found that O 2 modulates the photoluminescence of aerogels doped with 4-benzoyl -N -methylpyridinium-based dyads over a wider dynamic range compared wi th aerogels doped with either our vislogen-based dyads or with Ru(I1) tris(1,lO-phenanthroline) itself.

Leventis, Nicholas; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monen M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia



Parent-infant interaction during perinatal addiction treatment.  


Studies of parent-child interactions during perinatal addiction treatment are needed to offer insights into the nature of child development outcomes for this population. A purposeful sample of 17 women in a drug and alcohol addiction treatment program and their infants was studied over the course of their first year in the program. The purpose of this naturalistic field study was to examine parent-child interactions during addiction treatment. The following research question guided the inquiry: What is the nature of parent-infant interaction during the first year in a perinatal addiction treatment program? This study combined grounded theory methodology with the quantitative methods of descriptive and differential statistics. Open-coding of interviews, field notes, and the treatment records followed grounded theory methodology. A time-sampling procedure was used to examine stability of interactions at the beginning of program participation, again when each infant was 6 months old, and when each infant was 12 months. Results are used to describe parent-child interactions across samples and over time. Chi-square procedures were performed on number of children in each family, length of time in the program, sobriety, and mutual enjoyment of interaction. A significant difference in interaction by length of time in the program (chi 2 = 7.0801, df = 1, p < .00) as well as in interaction by percent sobriety (chi 2 = 4.1538, df = 1, p < .04) was evident. Behaviors of the infants reflected the emotional tone and parenting responses of their mothers. Dyads whose interactions showed a pattern of mutuality were more likely to continue in the treatment program and to maintain sobriety. The ability of a mother to enjoy her infant seemed to be the one factor that made the most difference in child behaviors. Results can be used by clinicians to guide the choice of treatment approaches that support the parent-child relationship during addiction treatment. PMID:7759321

Nardi, D A



Combined Two-Photon Excitation and d?f Energy Transfer in a Water-Soluble IrIII/EuIII Dyad: Two Luminescence Components from One Molecule for Cellular Imaging  

PubMed Central

The first example of cell imaging using two independent emission components from a dinuclear d/f complex is reported. A water-stable, cell-permeable IrIII/EuIII dyad undergoes partial Ir?Eu energy transfer following two-photon excitation of the Ir unit at 780 nm. Excitation in the near-IR region generated simultaneously green Ir-based emission and red Eu-based emission from the same probe. The orders-of-magnitude difference in their timescales (Ir ca. ?s; Eu ca. 0.5 ms) allowed them to be identified by time-gated detection. Phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (PLIM) allowed the lifetime of the Ir-based emission to be measured in different parts of the cell. At the same time, the cells are simultaneously imaged by using the Eu-based emission component at longer timescales. This new approach to cellular imaging by using dual d/f emitters should therefore enable autofluorescence-free sensing of two different analytes, independently, simultaneously and in the same regions of a cell. PMID:24930403

Baggaley, Elizabeth; Cao, Deng-Ke; Sykes, Daniel; Botchway, Stanley W; Weinstein, Julia A; Ward, Michael D



Physiological and cognitive consequences of suppressing and expressing emotion in dyadic interactions.  


Engaging in emotional suppression typically has negative consequences. However, relatively little is known about response-focused emotion regulation processes in dyadic interactions. We hypothesized that interacting with suppressive partners would be more threatening than interacting with expressive partners. To test predictions, two participants independently watched a negatively-valenced video and then discussed their emotional responses. One participant (the regulator) was assigned to express/suppress affective signals during the interaction. Their partner was given no special instructions prior to the interaction. Engaging in suppression versus expression elicited physiological responses consistent with threat-sympathetic arousal and increased vasoconstriction-in anticipation of and during dyadic interactions. Partners of emotional suppressors also exhibited more threat responses during the interaction, but not before, compared to partners of emotional expressors. Partner and interaction appraisals mirrored physiological findings. Emotional suppressors found the task more uncomfortable and intense while their partners reported them as being poor communicators. This work broadens our understanding of connections between emotion regulation, physiological responses, and cognitive processes in dyads. PMID:25109434

Peters, Brett J; Overall, Nickola C; Jamieson, Jeremy P



Competitive electron transfer and enhanced intersystem crossing in photoexcited covalent TEMPO-perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) dyads: unusual spin polarization resulting from the radical-triplet interaction.  


A stable 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxyl (TEMPO) radical was covalently attached at its 4-position to the imide nitrogen atom of a perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) to produce TEMPO-PDI, 1, having a well-defined distance and orientation between TEMPO and PDI. Transient optical absorption experiments in toluene following selective photoexcitation of the PDI chromophore in TEMPO-PDI show that enhanced intersystem crossing occurs with tau = 45 +/- 1 ps, resulting in formation of TEMPO-(3*)PDI, while the same experiment in THF shows that the electron-transfer reaction TEMPO-(1*)PDI --> TEMPO(+*)-PDI(-*) occurs with tau = 1.2 +/- 0.2 ps and thus competes effectively with enhanced intersystem crossing. Time-resolved EPR (TREPR) spectroscopy on the photogenerated three-spin system TEMPO-(3*)PDI in toluene at 295 K initially shows a broad signal assigned to spin-polarized (3*)PDI, which thermalizes at longer times and is accompanied by formation of an emissively polarized TEMPO radical. No signals are observed in THF at 295 K. The TREPR spectrum of TEMPO-(3*)PDI at 85 K in toluene shows an emissive/absorptive signal due to TEMPO and a broad triplet signal due to (3*)PDI having a spin polarization pattern characteristic of overpopulation of its T(0) sublevel. This unusual spin polarization pattern does not result from radical pair intersystem crossing because electron transfer does not occur at 85 K. The observed spin polarization of (3*)PDI cannot be readily explained by mechanisms discussed previously, leading us to propose a new spin polarization mechanism, which requires that the radical and attached triplet are in the weak exchange regime. PMID:20055506

Colvin, Michael T; Giacobbe, Emilie M; Cohen, Boiko; Miura, Tomoaki; Scott, Amy M; Wasielewski, Michael R



Examining the role of communication on sibling relationship quality and interaction for sibling pairs with and without a developmental disability.  


This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent communicators and their siblings did not differ in terms of syntactic complexity but typically developing siblings dominated the interaction and exhibited greater lexical diversity regardless of communication status. Communication status did not impact the warmth/closeness, rivalry, or conflict in the sibling relationship, but siblings of independent communicators engaged in the greatest amount of helping and managing behaviors. These results represent a first step in understanding the role of communication skills in the sibling relationship for families of children with disabilities. PMID:24245732

Smith, Ashlyn L; Romski, Maryann; Sevcik, Rose A



Drug/protein interactions studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here on a recent time-resolved fluorescence study [1] of the interaction between flurbiprofen (FBP), a chiral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and human serum albumin (HSA), the main transport protein in the human body. We compare the results obtained for the drug-protein complex with those of various covalently linked flurbiprofentryptophan dyads having well-defined geometries. In all cases stereoselective dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed, varying greatly from one system to another. In addition, the fluorescence anisotropy decays also display a clear stereoselectivity. For the drug-protein complexes, this can be interpreted in terms of the protein microenvironment playing a significant role in the conformational relaxation of FBP, which is more restricted in the case of the (R)- enantiomer.

Gustavsson, Thomas; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Vayá, Ignacio; Bonancía, Paula; Jiménez, M. C.; Miranda, Miguel A.



Galaxy Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interacting galaxies are a natural arena for studies of non-equilibrium stellar dynamics, gas dynamics, and thermodynamics. Only galaxy formation itself is as deeply concerned with as many different aspects of dynamics, and the connection between interactions and the formation of galaxies is probably no coincidence. This review discusses tidal interactions, halos and orbit decay, dissipative effects in galaxy interactions, properties of merger remnants, and origins of starbursts.

Barnes, Joshua E.



Manipulation of Non-verbal Interaction Style and Demographic Embodiment to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility  

SciTech Connect

For years, people have sought more natural means of communicating with their computers. Many have suggested that interaction with a computer should be as easy as interacting with other people, taking advantage of the multimodal nature of human communication. While users should, in theory, gravitate to such anthropomorphic embodiments, quite the contrary has been experienced; users generally have been dissatisfied and abandoned their use. This suggests a disconnect between the factors that make human-human communication engaging and those used by designers to support human-agent interaction. This paper discusses a set of empirical studies that attempted to replicate human-human nonverbal behavior. The focus revolved around the behaviors that portrayed a credible façade, helping the embodied conversational agent (ECA) to form a successful cooperative dyad with the user. Based on a review of the nonverbal literature, a framework was created that identified trustworthy and credible nonverbal behaviors across five areas and formed design guidelines for character interaction. The design suggestions for those areas emanating from the facial region (facial expression, eye contact and paralanguage) were experimentally supported but there was no concordant increase in perceived trust when bodily regions (posture and gesture) were added. In addition, in examining the importance of demographic elements in the embodiment, it was found that users prefer to interact with characters that match their ethnicity and are young looking. There was no significant preference for gender. The implications of these results, as well as other interesting consequences are discussed.

Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.



The triad of paragangliomas, gastric stromal tumours and pulmonary chondromas (Carney triad), and the dyad of paragangliomas and gastric stromal sarcomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome): molecular genetics and clinical implications  

PubMed Central

Carney triad (CT) describes the association of paragangliomas (PGLs) with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and pulmonary chondromas (PCH). A number of other lesions have been described in the condition including pheochromocytomas, oesophageal leiomyomas and adrenocortical adenomas; CT is a novel form of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a genetic condition with a female predilection. Inactivating mutations of the mitochondrial complex II succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme subunits SDHB, SDHC and SDHD have been found in familial and sporadic PGLs, and gain-of-function mutations of the oncogenes c-kit (KIT) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) cause sporadic and familial GISTs. We recently reported an international series of patients with CT, 34 females and three males (median age of presentation 21 years) who did not carry SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed a number of DNA copy number changes. The most frequent and greatest contiguous change was a deletion within the 1pcen13-q21 region, which harbours the SDHC gene. Another frequent change was loss of 1p. Although GISTs showed more frequent losses of 1p than PGLs, the pattern of chromosomal changes was similar in the two tumours despite their different tissue origin and histology; the findings were consistent with a common genetic aetiology of these two tumours in CT. In a separate condition, in which the association (or dyad) of GISTs with PGLs is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner (Carney–Stratakis syndrome, CSS), germline mutations of the SDHB, SDHC and SDHD genes (but not KIT or PDFGRA) were found; GISTs in this condition were caused by SDH deficiency. We conclude that CT is a novel MEN syndrome whose genetic defect remains elusive. CSS is caused by SDH defects, suggesting that sarcomas (GISTs) can be caused by defective mitochondrial oxidation, consistent with recent data implicating this enzyme in a variety of endocrine and other tumours. The above have clinical implications (i) for patients with GISTs that are cKIT- and PDGFRA-mutation negative: these tumours are usually resistant to treatment with currently available tyrosine kinase inhibitors and may be part of a syndrome such as CT or CSS; and (ii) for patients with an inherited PGL syndrome, family history should be explored to identify any other tumours in the family, and in particular other endocrine lesions and GISTs. PMID:19522824

Stratakis, C. A.; Carney, J. A.



Identifying Dyads and their conservation in Drosphila.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Core promoter regions in Drosophila are enriched with binding sites like TATA, Inr, DPE, MTE, etc. They have very strict spacing between each other in promoters where they occur together. For example, in Drosophila melanogaster TATA-Inr has a spacing of 25-30 bp. Our aim in this work is to identify all such pair of motifs having strict positional constraint in the core promoters of all Drosophila species. We discover how these motifs and the spacing between them evolve within Drosophila species. For this we analyze 700 bp upstream and 300 bp downstream of TSS in D. melanogaster and the corresponding orthologous region in other Drosophila species. For each species, this 1000 bp region is searched for statistically over-represented compound words of the form W1NLW2, where L is the spacing between words W1 and W2. These compound words are systematically clustered for further analysis.

Dan, Debasis



Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa



Topical Concerns in the Poetry Coaching Dyad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight coaches of oral interpretation from colleges across the United States were asked to tape record the coaching sessions that brought eight novices to tournament readiness. All of the students used the same three-poem program on the general theme of animals and children, but each student was required to write the introduction and transitions.…

Keefe, Carolyn


Declarative Interaction through Interactive Planners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in planning has enabled this technique to be applied to some sig- nificant real-world problems, including the construction of intelligent user inter- faces. Previous research in interactive planners has emphasised their dynamism and maintenance advantages. This paper adopts a user-interaction perspective, and ex- plores the theme that a paradigm shift in human-computer interaction is now a prospect: away

Conn V. Copas; Ernest A. Edmonds



Imagined Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social scientists have been studying imagined interactions since the mid-1980s and have measured numerous physiological correlates (Honeycutt, 2010). In this commentary I assess the research reported in Crisp and Turner (May-June 2009) and highlight the underlying mechanisms of imagined interactions that have empirically been laid out across…

Honeycutt, James M.



Interactive Whiteboards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Wiki page provides a link to the recording of a webinar by Todd Williamson. Todd discusses Interactive Whiteboard in the classroom. As more and more schools purchase SmartBoards, Promethean Boards, Mimio systems, and a host of other Interactive Whiteboard solutions, the expectation often seems to be that they will just teach the kids themselves. Join us for this session to learn some of the challenges, strategies, and wonders of using an Interactive Whiteboard in your subject area. Other links to the resources discussed in this webinar are also provided.



Interactive Investigator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Investigator, available through Virtual Museum Canada, is a website "for anyone with an interest in the different scientific methods used to solve crimes." Users will find a database of forensic science, containing short but informative essays on forensic entomology, toxicology, alcohol analysis, and various other forensic science topics. A simple timeline reviews key dates in the development of forensics, starting with the creation of the Paris Institute for Forensic Science in 1868. But the main feature (and the most fun) is an interactive game, in which players collect and analyze crime scene clues to solve a murder case. Interactive Investigator is also available in French.


Interactions Everywhere!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of an environment and the interactions within it through written and hands-on webbing activities. They also learn about environmental engineering careers and the roles of these engineers in our society.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


Neutrino Interactions  

E-print Network

This manuscript summarizes a series of three lectures on interactions of neutrinos . The lectures begin with a pedagogical foundation and then explore topics of interest to current and future neutrino oscillation and cross-section experiments.

Kevin McFarland



Drug Interactions  


... not be taken at the same time as antacids. WHAT CAUSES THE MOST INTERACTIONS WITH HIV MEDICATIONS? ... azole” Some antibiotics (names end in “mycin”) The antacid cimetidine (Tagamet) Some drugs that prevent convulsions, including ...


Drug Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory review scientists have been interested in the impact of drug interactions on the safety and efficacy of drugs for\\u000a many years; however, a number of regulatory actions highlight the importance of the issue. The withdrawals of terfenadine,\\u000a astemizole, and cisapride were related, in part, to safety concerns when drug interactions with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A inhibitors\\u000a led to higher

Kellie Schoolar Reynolds


Maternal-infant interaction and autonomic function in healthy infants and infants with transposition of the great arteries.  


The quality of maternal-infant interaction is a critical factor in the development of infants' autonomic function and social engagement skills. In this secondary data analysis, relationships among infant and maternal affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction, as measured by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment, and infant autonomic function, as measured by heart rate variability, were examined during feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age in 16 healthy infants and in 15 infants with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Contrary to previous research, at 2 weeks infant age, mothers of infants with TGA had significantly higher scores in affect and behavior than did mothers of healthy infants. The affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction of infants with TGA also did not differ from that of healthy infants. Although infants' social engagement skills did not differ by health condition (TGA or healthy), these skills did differ by parasympathetic nervous system function: infants better able to suppress vagal activity with challenge had more positive and less dysregulated affect and behavior, regardless of health status. These findings suggest that maternal-infant interactions for some cardiac disease subgroups may not differ from healthy dyads. Additional research is required to identify both healthy and ill infants with delayed autonomic maturation and to develop and test interventions to enhance critical interactive functions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25352237

Harrison, Tondi M; Ferree, Allison



Visual behaviour and dyadic interaction between people with intellectual disability and people who are non-disabled.  


Patterns of visual dominance in human interaction have been studied by a number of authors. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the implications of these studies for interaction between people who are disabled and people who are non-disabled. It was predicted that disability would differentiate the two groups, with non-disabled partners dominating the visual interaction. Two studies are reported. The first looked at visual interaction through the two looking modes of looking while listening and looking while speaking between 16 dyads where one partner was intellectually disabled and the other non-disabled. In the second study, eight subjects who were intellectually disabled and who had participated in the first study interacted with another person who had an intellectual disability. Their looking modes were then compared between conversing with a non-disabled partner in study 1 and with those of their partner with intellectual disability in study 2. The outcome of the studies showed that subjects who were intellectually disabled did not discriminate in looking mode between partners of different intellectual levels. Conversely, subjects who were non-disabled spoke and looked significantly more when conversing with their partner who was intellectually disabled. It has been argued that overlooking and overspeaking could arise from the need for the non-disabled person to gain some sign of affiliation from their partner, or alternatively, that it might reflect a dominant non-disabled person attempting to facilitate a cooperative style. PMID:9534110

O'Brien, P; Tuck, B; Cummins, R; Elkins, J



The impact of prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and maternal mood on mother-infant interactions at 3 months of age.  


Exposure to maternal depression increases risks for altered mother-infant interactions. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants are increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal maternal illness. The impact of SRIs on early mother-infant interactions was unknown. Three-month-old infants of 32 depressed mothers treated with SRI medications during pregnancy and 43 non-medicated mothers were studied. Using an established face-to-face mother-infant interaction paradigm, dyad interactions were studied with and without a toy. Videotaped sessions yielded 4 measures: maternal sensitivity, dyadic organization, infant readiness to interact, and maternal interruptive behaviors. Even with prenatal SRI treatment, depressed mothers interrupted their infants more during toy play. In the absence of prenatal SRI treatment, maternal postnatal depression adversely influenced infant behavior. Higher levels of maternal depression symptoms at 3 months predicted poorer infant readiness to interact during the toy session. Conversely, in the SRI-exposed group, higher prenatal depression scores predicted greater infant readiness to interact at 3 months. Increased infant readiness with SRI exposure suggests a "fetal programming effect" whereby prenatal maternal mood disturbances shaped a future response to a postnatal depressed maternal environment. PMID:23728194

Weikum, Whitney M; Mayes, Linda C; Grunau, Ruth E; Brain, Ursula; Oberlander, Tim F



Strong Interaction  

SciTech Connect

We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.



Interactive semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research pursues machine intelligence through better representation of semantics. What is semantics? People in different areas view semantics from different facets although it accompanies interaction through civilization. Some researchers believe that humans have some innate structure in mind for processing semantics. Then, what the structure is like? Some argue that humans evolve a structure for processing semantics through constant

Hai Zhuge




NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is an interactive on-line book based upon the book “Your Amazing Immune System” which brings students to an exploration on how our immune system protects our body from infectious diseases. In addition, it gives students background on autoimmune diseases, immune reactions, and how immunology can be used in fighting cancer.

European Federation Of Immunological Societies, Efis



Environmental Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create a "web" to identify and demonstrate the interactions among the living and non-living parts of an environment. This information allows students to better understand what an environment is and to also consider how engineers use teamwork to solve problems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


Interactive Video.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A workshop on interactive video was designed for fourth and fifth grade students, with the goals of familiarizing students with laser disc technology, developing a cadre of trained students to train other students and staff, and challenging able learners to utilize higher level thinking skills while conducting a research project. (JDD)

Boyce, Carol



Pressure Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page allows you to change the state variables in the two ensembles and observe the interactions between the state variables. The piston mass is 50x the particles mass. This large piston mass produces a slow mechanical oscillation about the equal-pressure equilibrium point whenever a disequilibrium is created.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario



Mohr Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mohr's Circle is a graphical method that allows engineers to visualize and analyze internal stress (force per unit area) within engineering materials. The Mohrs applet is designed to interactively explore the relationship between a given stress state, the frame of reference and the graphical Mohr's Circle representation.

Love, Garrett R.; Feiner, Joel


Math Interactives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math Interactives is part of a larger site, called, which is "designed and developed to assist kindergarten to Grade 12 teachers in Alberta locate and utilize digital learning and teaching resources. The design of the site is reflective of how teachers think and work in an online environment." Visitors interested in multiple ways to learn math will love the print and video math activities available on the site. There are four categories from which visitors can choose, on the left hand side of the homepage: Number, Pattern and Relations, Shape and Space and Statistics and Probability. Each section contains a video and an interactive that encourages students to explore the concept in question. For example, students may learn about linear equations through a video about the costs of feeding animals at the Calgary Zoo, and later come up with their own linear equations to predict the costs, accounting for price of food, amount needed, and delivery fees.



Interactive Clock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive clock allows users to create time on an analog clock to the closest minute. Teachers can also make the time to the closest five minutes, quarter hour, half hour, or hour. Two answers can be revealed to show the time on a digital clock or to read the time as " --- minutes until ---" or "--- minutes past ---". The clock face can be changed to show more or less information and there is an option to show elapsed time.

Myers, Nathan



Maternal cocaine use and mother-infant interactions: Direct and moderated associations.  


This study examined the associations between prenatal cocaine exposure and quality of mother-infant play interactions at 13 months of infant ages. We investigated whether maternal psychological distress and infant reactivity mediated or moderated this association. Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed and 101 non-cocaine exposed) mother-infant dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher negative affect and lower sensitivity toward their infant during play interactions at 13 months, and that their infants were less responsive toward them. Contrary to hypothesis, this association was not mediated by maternal psychological distress or by infant reactivity. However, results for both the cocaine and non-cocaine exposed infants were supportive of a transactional model where lower maternal sensitivity at 1 month was predictive of higher infant reactivity at 7 months, which in turn was predictive of lower maternal warmth/sensitivity at 13 months, controlling for potential stability in maternal behavior. Results also indicated that as hypothesized, infant reactivity moderated the association between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and maternal warmth/sensitivity at 13 months of age. Cocaine-using mothers who experienced their infants as being more reactive in early infancy were less warm/sensitive toward them in later infancy. Results have implications for parenting interventions that may be targeted toward improving maternal sensitivity among cocaine-using mothers with more reactive infants. PMID:21256426

Eiden, Rina D; Schuetze, Pamela; Coles, Claire D



Predicting children's friendship status from their dyadic interaction in structured situations of potential conflict.  


Dyads of 8-year-old friends identified by sociometric friendship nominations were followed through the end of the school year to determine if they remained friends. These dyads as well as a control group of nonfriends were observed while participating in two structured tasks designed to stimulate real life social situations of potential conflict. When negotiating the sharing of an object, friends made more proposals than nonfriends, spent more time negotiating, and compromised more in making their counterproposals. Compared with dyads in which the friendship did not continue through the end of the school year, dyads of continuing friends exhibited greater sensitivity in their negotiations. During a fast-paced, competitive game, friends engaged in more competitive behavior and followed the rules more closely than did nonfriends. However, behavior in this game was unrelated to the continuation of friendship. PMID:9249962

Fonzi, A; Schneider, B H; Tani, F; Tomada, G



Interactive atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Where is ozone located in the atmosphere? This informational activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, explores the changes in ozone concentration with altitude. Students are introduced to layers of the atmosphere and the amount of ozone found at each layer of the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. The activity also discusses why the addition of ozone to the atmosphere at different levels determines the temperatures of those levels. Students can move up and down to different layers of the atmosphere. A temperature scale is shown that runs from the surface of the Earth to the outer most reaches of the atmosphere. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)



Mother-infant interaction in mother and baby unit patients: before and after treatment.  


Maternal severe mental illness (SMI) disrupts mother-infant interaction in the immediate postpartum and is associated with less than optimal offspring development. In-patient mother and baby units (MBUs) provide the opportunity of supporting mothers with SMI in developing their relationships with their infants in order to minimise this disruption. One way is through an individualised video feedback intervention, delivered as part of a multidisciplinary inpatient treatment package. The present study prospectively measured changes in mother-infant interaction following video feedback intervention, during admission to an MBU (N = 49). Comparisons were made with mother-infant interactions of (1) a community-based ill group of mothers (N = 67) with a mental health diagnosis of similar severity, living at home and without the intervention and (2) a group of healthy mothers (N = 22). Maternal sensitivity and unresponsiveness, and infant cooperativeness and passiveness, were measured from a 3-min videotaped play session, using the CARE-Index. Following admission and the video feedback intervention, the MBU mothers (irrespective of diagnosis) and their infants showed improvements in their interactions. Moreover, on discharge the MBU dyads were significantly more sensitive, cooperative and responsive than the community ill group, and as attuned as the healthy group. While the design of the study does not allow us to conclude unequivocally that the video feedback intervention has effects on the outcome for the mothers and babies independent from the whole inpatient therapeutic package, the results do show that the dyadic interaction of mothers with SMI and their infants improves following the focussed treatment package in a specialised MBU. PMID:23786913

Kenny, Maeve; Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M; Seneviratne, Gertrude; Pawlby, Susan



Prenatal Ultrasound Screening: False Positive Soft Markers May Alter Maternal Representations and Mother-Infant Interaction  

PubMed Central

Background In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a “soft marker” (SM) that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. Methodology and Principal Findings Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. Conclusion False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences. PMID:22292077

Viaux-Savelon, Sylvie; Dommergues, Marc; Rosenblum, Ouriel; Bodeau, Nicolas; Aidane, Elizabeth; Philippon, Odile; Mazet, Philippe; Vibert-Guigue, Claude; Vauthier-Brouzes, Daniele; Feldman, Ruth; Cohen, David



Cosmic Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An image based on data taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope reveals a triplet of galaxies intertwined in a cosmic dance. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The three galaxies, catalogued as NGC 7173 (top), 7174 (bottom right) and 7176 (bottom left), are located 106 million light-years away towards the constellation of Piscis Austrinus (the 'Southern Fish'). NGC 7173 and 7176 are elliptical galaxies, while NGC 7174 is a spiral galaxy with quite disturbed dust lanes and a long, twisted tail. This seems to indicate that the two bottom galaxies - whose combined shape bears some resemblance to that of a sleeping baby - are currently interacting, with NGC 7176 providing fresh material to NGC 7174. Matter present in great quantity around the triplet's members also points to the fact that NGC 7176 and NGC 7173 have interacted in the past. Astronomers have suggested that the three galaxies will finally merge into a giant 'island universe', tens to hundreds of times as massive as our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02b/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The triplet is part of a so-called 'Compact Group', as compiled by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the early 1980s. The group, which is the 90th entry in the catalogue and is therefore known as HCG 90, actually contains four major members. One of them - NGC 7192 - lies above the trio, outside of this image, and is another peculiar spiral galaxy. Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of typically four to ten galaxies in close proximity to one another. Another striking example is Robert's Quartet. Compact groups are excellent laboratories for the study of galaxy interactions and their effects, in particular the formation of stars. As the striking image reveals, there are many other galaxies in the field. Some are distant ones, while others seem to be part of the family. Studies made with other telescopes have indeed revealed that the HCG 90 group contains 16 members, most of them much smaller in size than the four members with an entry in the NGC catalogue.



Electroweak interactions  

SciTech Connect

A point of view of the electroweak interaction is presented. It begins phenomenologically and moves in stages toward the conventional gauge theory formalism containing elementary scalar Higgs-fields and then beyond. The purpose in so doing is that the success of the standard SU(2) x U(1) theory in accounting for low energy phenomena need not automatically imply success at high energies. It is deemed unlikely by most theorists that the predicted W/sup + -/ or Z/sup 0/ does not exist or does not have the mass and/or couplings anticipated in the standard model. However, the odds that the standard predictions will work are not 100%. Therefore there is some reason to look at the subject as one would were he forced by a wrong experimental outcome - to go back to fundamentals and ascertain what is the minimal amount of theory necessary to account for the data.

Bjorken, J.D.



Interactive Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science & Education Research Center (SERC) at Carleton College provides access to high-quality teaching materials for those in the earth sciences. This particular resource offers materials designed to help teachers involve students in large and small lecture-based classes. The materials here were originally created for the Starting Point: Introductory Geology site for geology teachers and the contributing partners came from the College of William and Mary, the University of Kentucky, and several others. The site delves into its teaching philosophy in the section titled How to Give Interactive Lectures. The Examples area provides over 30 specific examples of activities (such as geologic puzzles) that can be used to create a highly engaging classroom experience.



Asymmetric Partner Pronoun Use and Demand-Withdraw Interaction in Couples Coping with Health Problems  

PubMed Central

Recent research links first-person plural pronoun use (we-talk) by individual romantic partners to adaptive relationship functioning and individual health outcomes. To examine a possible boundary condition of adaptive we-talk in couples coping with health problems, we correlated asymmetric couple-level we/I-ratios (more we-talk relative to I-talk by the spouse than the patient) with a concurrent pattern of directional demand-withdraw (D-W) interaction in which the spouse demands change while the patient withdraws. Couples in which a partner who abused alcohol (n = 65), smoked cigarettes despite having heart or lung disease (n = 24), or had congestive heart failure (n = 58) discussed a health-related disagreement during a video-recorded interaction task. Transcripts of these conversations provided measures of pronoun use for each partner, and trained observers coded D-W patterns from the recordings. As expected, partner asymmetry in we/I-ratio scores predicted directional demand-withdraw, such that spouses who used more we-talk (relative to I-talk) than patients tended to assume the demand role in concurrent D-W interaction. Asymmetric I-talk rather than we-talk accounted for this association, and asymmetric you-talk contributed independently as well. In contrast to previous studies of we-talk by individual partners, the present results identify dyad-level pronoun patterns that clearly do not mark beneficent processes: asymmetric partner we/I-ratios and you-talk reflect problematic demand-withdraw interaction. PMID:24098961

Rentscher, Kelly E.; Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda; Mehl, Matthias R.



An empirical validation of a dynamic systems model of interaction: do children of different sociometric statuses differ in their dyadic play?  


Studying short-term dynamic processes and change mechanisms in interaction yields important knowledge that contributes to understanding long-term social development of children. In order to get a grip on this short-term dynamics of interaction processes, the authors made a dynamic systems model of dyadic interaction of children during one play session. The control parameters of the model relate to children's goal-directedness, concerns, emotional appraisals, social power, and social competence. Three groups of dyads of different sociometric statuses are represented by specific control parameter values. The model's order parameters consist of children's emotional expressions and other- versus self-directed actions. This article describes the empirical validation of the model and the methods needed for such validation. It focuses on the model's predictions of averages and distributions of the major variables, of the occurrence of attractors and power law distributions, and on the model's sensitivity. Overall, the model fits the empirical data well. In the discussion, we reflect on the developmental and methodological implications for explaining social interaction on the short-term as well as on the long-term time scale. In addition, implications for intervention and assessment are presented, in particular relating to the problem of rejection. PMID:18333981

Steenbeek, Henderien; van Geert, Paul



Feeding Interactions in Infants with Very Low Birth Weight and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for feeding disorders that can affect growth and development. One hundred and forty one mother-infant pairs were compared [55 with infants with high medical risk due to infant VLBW and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), 34 VLBW without BPD, and 52 term infants] on operationally defined measures of feeding behaviors and maternal self-report of depression and anxiety. Mothers of VLBW infants with and without BPD spent more time prompting their infants to feed when their infants engaged in nonfeeding behavior. Despite increased maternal efforts, infants with BPD took in less formula, spent less time sucking, and spent a greater proportion of time nonfeeding. VLBW infants without BPD were equivalent to term infants in percentage of time sucking and in volume of formula ingested and were more likely to take in higher calories than infants with BPD. Mothers of VLBW infants with and without BPD were also more likely to report clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety than mothers of term infants. Because mothers of VLBW infants who were more depressed or anxious were less likely to verbally prompt their infants to eat, maternal psychological symptoms should be considered in assessing interactions of VLBW mother-infant dyads. PMID:8727839




"Badminton Player-Coach" Interactions between Failing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Physical education teachers often use the player-coach dyad in individual opposition sports so that students can obtain information on their actions and then better regulate them. This type of work also develops methodological and social skills. However, the task of observing a partner often poses problems for failing students, who…

Mascret, Nicolas



Parent–Child Interactions in Families With Alcoholic Fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent offspring (N = 121) of alcoholic, depressed, and nondistressed fathers were observed during problem-solving discussions with their fathers, mothers, and with both parents together. Assessments were conducted when parents were and were not drinking alcohol. Nondistressed father–child dyads differed from both clinical samples in showing higher rates of congeniality and problem solving, whereas the impact of alcohol consumption on

Theodore Jacob; Gloria L. Krahn; Kenneth Leonard



"You Didn't Teach Me, You Showed Me": Variations in Sibling Teaching Strategies in Early and Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined siblings' teaching strategies in 72 dyads (firstborn and second born, M ages = 81.64 and 56.31 months) as a function of dyad age, age gap between siblings, and teacher birth order. One child per dyad was randomly assigned to teach her or his sibling to construct a tractor toy. Interactions were coded for the topic of teachers'…

Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina; Alexander, Stephanie



Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna



Interactive portraiture : designing intimate interactive experiences  

E-print Network

In this thesis I present a set of interactive portrait experiences that strive to create an intimate connection between the viewer and the portrayed subject; an emotional experience, one of personal reflection. My interactive ...

Zuckerman, Orit



Interacting with virtual characters in interactive storytelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several paradigms have emerged for interactive storytelling. In character-based storytelling, plot generation is based on the behaviour of autonomous characters. In this paper, we describe user interaction in a fully-implemented prototype of an interactive storytelling system. We describe the planning techniques used to control autonomous characters, which derive from HTN planning. The hierarchical task network representing a

Marc Cavazza; Fred Charles; Steven J. Mead



Health Data Interactive  


... message, please visit this page: About . Data Access Data Access Interactive Tables and Databases NCHS ... Statistics Online Research Data Center NCHS Home Health Data Interactive Welcome! Health Data Interactive presents tables with ...


Open bis(triazolium) structural motifs as a benchmark to study combined hydrogen- and halogen-bonding interactions in oxoanion recognition processes.  


We have designed a series of triazolium-pyrene-based dyads to probe their potential as fluorescent chemosensors for anion recognition through combinations of hydrogen and halogen bonding. Cooperation between the two distinct noncovalent interactions leads to an unusual effect on receptor affinity, as a result of fundamental differences in the interactions of halogen and hydrogen bond donor groups with anions. Absorption, emission spectrophotometries and proton and phosphorus NMR spectroscopies indicate that the two interactions act in concert to achieve the selective binding of the hydrogen pyrophosphate anion, a conclusion supported by computational studies. Hence, as clearly demonstrated with respective halogen- and hydrogen-bonding triazolium receptors, the integration of a halogen atom into the anion receptor at the expense of one hydrogen-bonding receptor greatly influences the anion recognition affinity of the receptor. The association constant values of the halogen-bonding complexes are larger than the hydrogen-bonding counterpart. Thus, halogen bonding has been exploited for the selective fluorescent sensing of hydrogen pyrophosphate anion. Halogen bonding has been demonstrated to increase the strength of hydrogen pyrophosphate binding, as compared to the hydrogen-bonded analogue. Grimme's PBE-D functional, which adequately reproduces the pyrene stacking energies, has been successfully applied to model the affinity for anions, especially hydrogen pyrophosphate, of the new receptors. PMID:25020191

Zapata, Fabiola; Caballero, Antonio; Molina, Pedro; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José



Early Participation in a Prenatal Food Supplementation Program Ameliorates the Negative Association of Food Insecurity with Quality of Maternal-Infant Interaction123  

PubMed Central

Food insecurity is detrimental to child development, yet little is known about the combined influence of food insecurity and nutritional interventions on child development in low-income countries. We proposed that women assigned to an early invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program could reduce the negative influence of food insecurity on maternal-infant interaction. A cohort of 180 mother-infant dyads were studied (born between May and October 2003) from among 3267 in the randomized controlled trial Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, which was conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 wk gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation time to start receiving food supplements (2.5 MJ/d; 6 d/wk) either early (~9 wk gestation; early-invitation group) or at the usual start time (~20 wk gestation; usual-invitation group) for the government program. Maternal-infant interaction was observed in homes with the use of the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale, and food-insecurity status was obtained from questionnaires completed when infants were 3.4–4.0 mo old. By using a general linear model for maternal-infant interaction, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.012) between invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program and food insecurity. Those in the usual-invitation group with higher food insecurity scores (i.e., more food insecure) had a lower quality of maternal-infant interaction, but this relationship was ameliorated among those in the early-invitation group. Food insecurity limits the ability of mothers and infants to interact well, but an early invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program can support mother-infant interaction among those who are food insecure. PMID:22496401

Frith, Amy L.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Persson, Lars Ake; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Frongillo, Edward A.



Interactions Between Computational Verbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of interactions between computa- tional verbs are studied in a general context. The interactions can be categorized by their strengthes and directions as well as the configurations of interactions. Two interaction types; namely, coupling and parameter modulation are studied. The identical synchronization and generalized synchronization between com- putational verbs and their linguistic implications are investigated. The merge and

Tao Yang



Substantial contribution of the two imidazole rings of the His13-His14 dyad to Cu(II) binding in amyloid-?(1-16) at physiological pH and its significance.  


The interaction of amyloid-? (A?) peptide with Cu(II) appears to play an important role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. At physiological pH, the Cu(II) coordination in A? is heterogeneous, and there exist at least two binding modes in which Cu(II) is coordinated by histidine residues. Electron spin resonance studies have revealed a picture of the Cu(II) binding at a higher or lower pH, where only one of the two binding modes is almost exclusively present. We describe a procedure to directly examine the coordination of Cu(II) to each histidine residue in the dominant binding mode at physiological pH. We use nonlabeled and residue-specifically (15)N-labeled A?(1-16). For quantitative analysis, the intensities of three-pulse electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectra are analyzed. Spectral simulations show that ESEEM intensities provide information about the contribution of each histidine residue. Indeed, the ESEEM experiments at pH 6.0 confirm the dominant contribution of His6 to the Cu(II) coordination as expected from the work of other researchers. Interestingly, however, the ESEEM data obtained at pH 7.4 reveal that the contributions of the three residues to the Cu(II) coordination are in the order of His14 ? His6 > His13 in the dominant binding mode. The order indicates a significant contribution from the simultaneous coordination by His13 and His14 at physiological pH, which has been underappreciated. These findings are supported by hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy experiments. The simultaneous coordination by the two adjacent residues is likely to be present in a non-?-sheet structure. The coexistence of different secondary structures is possibly the molecular origin for the formation of amorphous aggregates rather than fibrils at relatively high concentrations of Cu(II). Through our approach, precise and useful information about Cu(II) binding in A?(1-16) at physiological pH is obtained without any side-chain modification, amino acid residue replacement, or pH change, each of which might lead to an alteration in the peptide structure or the coordination environment. PMID:21491887

Shin, Byong-kyu; Saxena, Sunil



Compton effect: interacting particles or interacting waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional textbook explanations of the Compton effect treat the photon electron interaction as a particle collision. This explanation is a pedagogical disaster, implying that sometimes interactions are particle-like whereas quantum mechanics always demands that they be wave-like; a photon wavefunction evolves according to a wave equation until its collapse at measurement. If this is so why then does the classical

Oscar F. Hernandez



Interactive Worksheets and More  


... configured not to display inline frames. Home > Interactive worksheets & more See where you stand Check your drinking ... quitting Social support Professional help Resources Tools Interactive worksheets Calculators Info & help links Q & As About Us | ...


Cardiovascular Interactions CVI Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cardiovascular Interactions Project is an electronic active learning tool that demonstrates the complex and intricate interactions between the functions of the heart and peripheral circulation to provide an adequate cardiac output during various stresses.

PhD Carl F. Rothe (Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology)



Sepup Seasons Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An interactive that illustrates the relationships between the axial tilt of the Earth, latitude, and temperature. Several data sets (including temperature, Sun-Earth distance, daylight hours) can be collected using this interactive.

California, Regents O.; Sepup


The Cation-? Interaction  

PubMed Central

CONSPECTUS The chemistry community now recognizes the cation-? interaction as a major force for molecular recognition, joining the hydrophobic effect, the hydrogen bond, and the ion pair in determining macromolecular structure and drug-receptor interactions. This Account provides the author’s perspective on the intellectual origins and fundamental nature of the cation-? interaction. Early studies on cyclophanes established that water-soluble, cationic molecules would forgo aqueous solvation to enter a hydrophobic cavity if that cavity was lined with ? systems. Important gas phase studies established the fundamental nature of the cation-? interaction. The strength of the cation-? interaction – Li+ binds to benzene with 38 kcal/mol of binding energy; NH4+ with 19 kcal/mol– distinguishes it from the weaker polar-? interactions observed in the benzene dimer or water-benzene complexes. In addition to the substantial intrinsic strength of the cation-? interaction in gas phase studies, the cation-? interaction remains energetically significant in aqueous media and under biological conditions. Many studies have shown that cation-? interactions can enhance binding energies by 2 – 5 kcal/mol, making them competitive with hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in drug-receptor and protein-protein interactions. As with other noncovalent interactions involving aromatic systems, the cation-? interaction includes a substantial electrostatic component. The six (four) C??–H?+ bond dipoles of a molecule like benzene (ethylene) combine to produce a region of negative electrostatic potential on the face of the ? system. Simple electrostatics facilitate a natural attraction of cations to the surface. The trend for (gas phase) binding energies is Li+>Na+>K+>Rb+: as the ion gets larger the charge is dispersed over a larger sphere and binding interactions weaken, a classical electrostatic effect. On other hand, polarizability does not define these interactions. Cyclohexane is more polarizable than benzene, but a decidedly poorer cation binder. Many studies have documented cation-? interactions in protein structures, where Lys or Arg side chains interact with Phe, Tyr, or Trp. In addition, countless studies have established the importance of cation-? interaction in a range of biological processes. Our work has focused on molecular neurobiology, and we have shown that neurotransmitters generally use a cation-? interaction to bind to their receptors. We have also shown that many drug-receptor interactions involve cation-? interactions. A cation-? interaction plays a critical role in the binding of nicotine to ACh receptors in the brain, an especially significant case. Other researchers have established important cation-? interactions in the recognition of the “histone code,” in terpene biosynthesis, in chemical catalysis, and in many other systems. PMID:23214924




"Secret" neutrino interactions  

E-print Network

We review the information about a potentially strong non-standard four-neutrino interaction that can be obtained from available experimental data. By using LEP results and nucleosynthesis data we find that a contact four-fermion neutrino interaction that involve only left-handed neutrinos or both left-handed and right-handed neutrinos cannot be stronger than the standard weak interactions. A much stronger interaction involving only right-handed neutrinos is still allowed.

Mikhail Bilenky; Arcadi Santamaria



Holographic interacting tachyon model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an interacting holographic tachyon model of dark energy. A correspondence between the tachyon energy density and the interacting holographic dark energy is established. As a result, we reconstruct the potential of the interacting holographic tachyon field and the dynamics of the tachyon field, in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background. We show that the evolution of the universe for -1 < w < 0 can be completely described by the resulting interacting tachyon model.

Rozas-Fernández, Alberto; Brizuela, David; Cruz, Norman



A monomer-dimer equilibrium modulates the interaction of the sunflower homeodomain leucine-zipper protein Hahb-4 with DNA.  

PubMed Central

We have analysed the interaction of the sunflower homeodomain leucine-zipper (Hd-Zip) protein Hahb-4 with DNA. The complete Hd-Zip domain from Hahb-4 was able to select specific sequences from a random oligonucleotide mixture that contained a 9-bp core with four fixed and five degenerate positions. Analysis of the binding of some of the selected sequences suggests that Hahb-4 preferentially binds the dyad-symmetrical sequence CAAT(A/T)ATTG. Single-nucleotide replacements at positions 1, 5 or 9 of this sequence produced a decrease in binding of 2-4-fold. DNA binding as a function of protein concentration was non-hyperbolic. This behaviour could be explained by an equation in which dimer formation is a pre-requisite for DNA binding. A global dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.31x10(-14) M2 could be calculated. The removal of the leucine zipper promoted a change in specificity and a decrease in binding affinity (Kd=5. 03x10(-5) M). Mutation of Phe-20 of the homeodomain into Leu completely abolished DNA binding. The mutant protein, however, was able to inhibit DNA binding by the non-mutant form, presumably through the formation of heterodimers. The analysis of this inhibitory effect at different mutant concentrations allowed the estimation of the Kd for the dimer-monomer equilibrium [about (2-4)x10(-6) M]; from this, a Kd of 3-6x10(-9) M for the dimer-DNA complex could be estimated. The results obtained indicate that the formation of dimers is the main factor influencing the interaction of Hahb-4 with DNA. It is proposed that shifts in a dimer-monomer equilibrium could be used within the cell to modulate the interaction of this protein with target genes. PMID:10377247

Palena, C M; Gonzalez, D H; Chan, R L



Interactive journey through physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly interactive CD-ROM is designed to augment the traditional learning experiences of lecture, lab, and text. It includes several dynamic components--simulation, animation, video, and interactive problem solving--that enable students to interact and visualize concepts in ways not possible in traditional learning programs.

Schwarz, Cindy; Beichner, Robert J.



Compton effect: interacting particles or interacting waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional textbook explanations of the Compton effect treat the photon\\u000aelectron interaction as a particle collision. This explanation is a pedagogical\\u000adisaster, implying that sometimes interactions are particle-like whereas\\u000aquantum mechanics always demands that they be wave-like; a photon wavefunction\\u000aevolves according to a wave equation until its collapse at measurement. If this\\u000ais so why then does the classical

Oscar F. Hernandez



Compton effect: interacting particles or interacting waves  

E-print Network

Traditional textbook explanations of the Compton effect treat the photon electron interaction as a particle collision. This explanation is a pedagogical disaster, implying that sometimes interactions are particle-like whereas quantum mechanics always demands that they be wave-like; a photon wavefunction evolves according to a wave equation until its collapse at measurement. If this is so why then does the classical radiation wave equation fail to predict the Compton effect? We address these issues and propose a clearer explanation.

Oscar F. Hernandez



Interacting Answer Sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider agent societies represented by logic programs. Four different types of social interactions among agents, cooperation, competition, norms, and subjection, are formulated as interactions between answer sets of different programs. Answer sets satisfying conditions of interactions represent solutions coordinated in a multiagent society. A unique feature of our framework is that answer set interactions are specified outside of individual programs. This enables us to freely change the social specifications among agents without the need of modifying individual programs and to separate beliefs of agents from social requirements over them. Social interactions among agents are encoded in a single logic program using constraints. Coordinated solutions are then computed using answer set programming.

Sakama, Chiaki; Son, Tran Cao


Diffractive Interaction of Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of high-energy neutrinos expose hadronic properties, in particular, contain a strong diffractive channel. The Adler relation (AR) between soft interactions of neutrinos and pions, might look as a manifestation of pion dominance. However, neutrinos cannot fluctuate to pions because of conservation of the lepton current, and interact via much heavier hadronic components. This fact leads to nontrivial relations between interactions of different hadronic species, in particular, it links diagonal and off-diagonal diffractive interactions of pions. Absorptive corrections break these relations making the AR impossible to hold universally, for any target and at any energy.

Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Iván; Siddikov, M.



Differences in forebrain androgen receptor expression in winners and losers of male anole aggressive interactions.  


Size matched male green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) were paired in a neutral setting and allowed to engage in aggressive displays. Winners and losers were apparent in each pair within 90min, resulting in stable dominant/subordinate dyads. Androgen receptor (AR) expression was assessed at three time points after the initial pairing, 2h, 3 days, and 10 days in dominants, subordinates, and two groups of control males housed alone or with a female for an equal period of time. Expression was quantified in three forebrain areas that have been implicated in aggression and reproductive social behavior in this species, the preoptic area (POA), the anterior hypothalamus (AH), septal area (SEP), and ventromedial nucleus of the posterior division of the dorsal ventricular ridge (PDVRVM ). There were significant overall group differences in AR mRNA expression in the POA and AH that appeared to result from higher POA AR expression in dominant males compared to other groups, and generally lower AR expression in subordinate males. Pairwise comparison revealed that dominants' AR mRNA expression in the POA was significantly higher in the 2h and 3 day groups compared to that of subordinates, with a similar, but nonsignificant, difference in the 10 day group. Dominants had significantly higher AR mRNA expression in the AH compared to that of subordinates in the 2h group, but differences were not significant at later times. The results suggest that POA and AH sensitivity to androgens is increased in dominants compared to subordinates, and that the difference can be seen soon after the agonistic interaction establishing winners and losers. PMID:25069090

Hattori, Tomoko; Wilczynski, Walter



The interactive brain hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Enactive approaches foreground the role of interpersonal interaction in explanations of social understanding. This motivates, in combination with a recent interest in neuroscientific studies involving actual interactions, the question of how interactive processes relate to neural mechanisms involved in social understanding. We introduce the Interactive Brain Hypothesis (IBH) in order to help map the spectrum of possible relations between social interaction and neural processes. The hypothesis states that interactive experience and skills play enabling roles in both the development and current function of social brain mechanisms, even in cases where social understanding happens in the absence of immediate interaction. We examine the plausibility of this hypothesis against developmental and neurobiological evidence and contrast it with the widespread assumption that mindreading is crucial to all social cognition. We describe the elements of social interaction that bear most directly on this hypothesis and discuss the empirical possibilities open to social neuroscience. We propose that the link between coordination dynamics and social understanding can be best grasped by studying transitions between states of coordination. These transitions form part of the self-organization of interaction processes that characterize the dynamics of social engagement. The patterns and synergies of this self-organization help explain how individuals understand each other. Various possibilities for role-taking emerge during interaction, determining a spectrum of participation. This view contrasts sharply with the observational stance that has guided research in social neuroscience until recently. We also introduce the concept of readiness to interact to describe the practices and dispositions that are summoned in situations of social significance (even if not interactive). This latter idea links interactive factors to more classical observational scenarios. PMID:22701412

Di Paolo, Ezequiel; De Jaegher, Hanne



A new class of light absorber–electron acceptor dyad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ligand 2,3,5,6-tetrakis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (tpp) can be used to bind to one or two metal centers. When this ligand is bound in a tridentate fashion to a single metal, three remote nitrogens remain, which are uncoordinated. Methylation of one of the pyridine nitrogens is possible in high yield to form a covalently coupled viologen. This viologen functions as an electron acceptor

Lisa M Vrana; Karen J Brewer



Trade and conflict: the dyad of Greece and Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conflict-trade paradigm has been dominated by the liberal and realist schools of thought, which try to explain how and why trade affects conflict and cooperation. While the liberal point of view predicts a positive effect of levels of trade on cooperation, realists counter by arguing a negative or negligible effect at best. The article presents the basic theoretical arguments

Archontis L. Pantsios



Developmental trends in television coviewing of parent-child dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, long-term trends in joint parent-child television viewing are taken as prototype for developmental changes of the parent-child relationship during adolescence. To describe and compare trends of television coviewing in different configurations of family members, trajectories of daily television viewing, tmeasured with Nielsen-type people meters over a time period of three years, were analyzed using time series methods.

Fritz Sang; Bernhard Schmitz; Karl Tasche



Beyond the dyad: Including the father in separation-individuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of changes in family role distribution generated by the Women's Movement, many fathers are participating more directly in the care of their infants and young children. To be responsive to this change in the ecology of parenting, clinicians must reconsider and update traditional formulations about fatherhood toward, an expanded theoretical perspective for learning about and helping families.

Jeffrey Scott Applegate



The Negotiation of Intelligibility in an Aphasic Dyad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employing conversation analysis as a research technique, this study investigates the ways that unintelligibility is accounted for and overcome within a therapeutic encounter between an individual with aphasia and dysarthria and his clinician. The results emphasize the collaborative nature of intelligibility negotiation and demonstrate how both the…

Damico, Jack S.; Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Wilson, Brent



Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.



Work outcomes of relational demography in Chinese vertical dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relational demography refers to the demographic differences (such as gender, age, race, and tenure) between supervisor and subordinate. This study examines its impact on employees' work outcomes in the setting of a foreign-invested enterprise in China. We hypothesize that dissimilarities on demographic attributes between supervisor and subordinate affect subordinate's leader–member exchange, trust in organization, in-role performance, and organizational citizenship behavior.

Raymond Loi; Hang-yue Ngo



Affect and Dyads: Conflict Across Different Technological Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication is as, or more, important under conditions of conflict or disagreement as when agreement prevails. An experiment\\u000a looked at couples engaged in discussing a topic that they disagreed about, either face-to-face, over the phone, or via instant\\u000a messaging. At least one member of a couple was more likely to suffer an above-median decline in mood in the mediated condition

Jamika D. Burge; Deborah Tatar



Perceptions of Conflict Management Styles in Chinese Intergenerational Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined intergenerational communication and conflict management styles in China. Older and younger Chinese adults were randomly assigned to evaluate one of four conversation transcripts in which an older worker criticizes a young co-worker. The young worker's communication was varied across the transcripts to reflect four conflict management styles: competing, avoiding, accommodating, and problem-solving. As expected, older participants favored the

Yan Bing Zhang; Jake Harwood; Mary Lee Hummert



Perceptions of Conflict Management Styles in Chinese Intergenerational Dyads  

E-print Network

We examined intergenerational communication and conflict management styles in China. Older and younger Chinese adults were randomly assigned to evaluate one of four conversation transcripts in which an older worker criticizes a young co...

Zhang, Yan Bing; Harwood, Jake; Hummert, Mary Lee



[Drug-drug interactions: interactions between xenobiotics].  


Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a major topic in programs for continuous medical education (CME). Many physicians are afraid of being trapped into charges of malpractice; however, DDI cannot be avoided in many cases. They belong to routine medical practice and it is often impossible to avoid them. Moreover, they do not just occur between drugs but between any kind of foreign substance (xenobiotica), such as food (e.g. grapefruit juice, broccoli, barbecue) as well as legal (e.g. tobacco smoke, caffeine and alcohol) and illegal drugs. Therefore, the medical challenge is not just to avoid any interaction. Instead the physician faces the question of how to proceed with drug treatment in the presence of such interactions. Based on the medical education a physician has to judge first of all whether there is a risk for interactions in the prescription being planned for an individual patient. The classification of interactions proposed in this article (PD1-PD4, PK1-PK3) might help as a sort of check list. For more detailed information the physician can then consult one of the many databases available on the internet, such as PSIAConline ( and MediQ ( Pharmacokinetic interactions can be easily assessed, monitored and controlled by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Besides these tools it is important to keep in mind that nobody knows everything; even physicians do not know everything. So take pride in asking someone who might help and for this purpose AGATE offers a drug information service AID ( Just good for nothing, without being based on any kind of medical approach are computer programs that judge prescriptions without taking into account a patient's individual peculiarities. In case these types of programs produce red exclamation marks or traffic lights to underline their judgment, they might even work in a contrapuntal way by just eliciting insecurity and fear. PMID:24619146

Haen, E



Telecommunicating and Spontaneous Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter investigates how spontaneous interaction is affected by telecommuting. By using work diaries to collect data\\u000a on time spent on spontaneous interaction, two groups are studied, one working form a remote location for part of the time,\\u000a and one working at one location. The assumption is that spontaneous interaction is either constant during time of co-presence,\\u000a or it is

Jon Rognes


Beam-Bem interactions  

SciTech Connect

In high energy storage-ring colliders, the nonlinear effect arising from beam-beam interactions is a major source that leads to the emittance growth, the reduction of beam life time, and limits the collider luminosity. In this paper, two models of beam-beam interactions are introduced, which are weak-strong and strong-strong beam-beam interactions. In addition, space-charge model is introduced.

Kim, Hyung Jin; /Fermilab



Reconceptualizing sex, brain and psychopathology: interaction, interaction, interaction.  


In recent years there has been a growing recognition of the influence of sex on brain structure and function, and in relation, on the susceptibility, prevalence and response to treatment of psychiatric disorders. Most theories and descriptions of the effects of sex on the brain are dominated by an analogy to the current interpretation of the effects of sex on the reproductive system, according to which sex is a divergence system that exerts a unitary, overriding and serial effect on the form of other systems. We shortly summarize different lines of evidence that contradict aspects of this analogy. The new view that emerges from these data is of sex as a complex system whose different components interact with one another and with other systems to affect body and brain. The paradigm shift that this understanding calls for is from thinking of sex in terms of sexual dimorphism and sex differences, to thinking of sex in terms of its interactions with other factors and processes. Our review of data obtained from animal models of psychopathology clearly reveals the need for such a paradigmatic shift, because in the field of animal behaviour whether a sex difference exists and its direction depend on the interaction of many factors including, species, strain, age, specific test employed and a multitude of environmental factors. We conclude by explaining how the new conceptualization can account for sex differences in psychopathology. PMID:24758640

Joel, D; Yankelevitch-Yahav, R



Interactive brains, social minds  

PubMed Central

To reveal the neural and behavioral dynamics of social interaction, single-person studies are increasingly complemented by research designs that simultaneously assess two or more interacting individuals. In this article, we review studies on neural mechanisms and markers of social interactions that use multi-person functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological recordings. We propose a terminology for investigating social interaction dynamics, show how forward models of action regulation may serve as a framework for investigating interpersonal action coordination and discuss different methodological approaches to studying functional brain connectivity. PMID:22448303

Lindenberger, Ulman



Interactive dynamic aircraft scheduling  

E-print Network

Introducing recent advances in computer technology to improve aircraft scheduling is investigated. Incorporating interactive graphics, modern database manipulation techniques, and decision support algorithms, the computer ...

Deckwitz, Thomas Anthony



How Interactive Is the Interactive Whiteboard?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive whiteboard (IWB) is simply a surface onto which a computer screen can be displayed, via a projector. It is touch-sensitive and lets one use a pen like a mouse, controlling the computer from the board itself. Everything that can be displayed on a computer can be displayed onto the whiteboard and, if the computer is linked to speakers…

Quashie, Valerie



Intelligently interactive combat simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture\\/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect

Lawrence J. Fogel; Vincent W. Porto; Steven M. Alexander



Flow Interaction with Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module explores the fundamental concepts used to determine how air flow interacts with topography. Using the simple analogy of a marble rolling over a hill, this module examines the relationship between wind speed and static stability of the atmosphere. These results are further extended to include three-dimensional terrain barriers as well as the evolution through time of the interaction.

Spangler, Tim



Climate: A Complex Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article continues an examination of each of the seven essential principles of climate literacy on which the online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle is structured. Principle 2 covers the complex interactions among the components of the Earth system. The author discusses the scientific concepts underlying the interactions and expands the discussion with diagrams, photos, and online resources.

Lightle, Kimberly



Interaction: Additivity plus Nonlinearity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether or not there is an interaction between two factors in their effects on a dependent variable is often a central question. This paper proposes a general mechanism by which an interaction may arise: (a) the two factors are the same thing--or, at least, have a dimension in common--in the sense that it is meaningful to add (or subtract) them;…

Hutchinson, T. P.



What Is Interactivity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author attempts to develop a definition of "interactivity" that meets two sometimes incompatible goals: the definition should be in accord with the best intuitions on how the term should be used, and it should usefully differentiate interactivity from related but incompatible concepts with which it is often confused. The…

Smuts, Aaron



Newseum: Open for Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a teenage journalist's visit to the Newseum in Washington, DC, the world's only interactive museum dedicated to news. Describes visiting the Interactive Newsroom, the huge News Globe, the News History Gallery, and the Broadcast Studio. Describes also a brief visit to Freedom Park and the Newseum Education Center. Notes the enthusiasm of…

Luck, Brad



Multimode interaction among technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological innovation is manifested in the development of new products, processes and techniques such that emerging technologies often substitute for more mature technologies. The interaction between technologies is typically referred to as competition, implying a confrontational interaction. The setting of technology strategy is thus often concerned with issues relating to the competition between emerging technologies and the response of mature

C. W. I. Pistorius; J. M. Utterback



Interactive Street Modeling  

E-print Network

field T street graph G 9 #12;Tensor Field DesignTensor Field Design - = ab ba yx1 #12;Interactive Procedural Street Modeling Interactive Procedural Street Modeling Guoning Chen1 University 3 Procedural Inc. / ETH Zürich #12;Street ModelingStreet Modeling Images by Eric Hanson and Ben

Chen, Guoning


Multimedia Semantics: Interactions Between  

E-print Network

the context in which social interactions occur? Second, does social interaction provide value to the media study how media-rich social networks provide insight into multimedia research problems. By Hari Sundaram of information to organize and to manage multimedia data. In this article, we study how media-rich social

Xie, Lexing


The Interaction Equivalency Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the key issues regarding The Interaction Equivalency Theorem posited by Anderson (2003a), which consists of the three interaction elements found in formal education courses among teacher, student, and content. It first examines the core concepts of the theorem and argues that two theses of different dimensions can be…

Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry



University-industry interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is posited that university industry interaction is highly desirable from the viewpoint of the long term economic development of the country as well as being desirable for the Space Grant Programs. The present and future possible interactions are reviewed for the three university levels namely, undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research.

Hastings, Daniel E.



Options for Interactive Video.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three instructional settings for interactive laserdisc are (1) individual, allowing self-pacing and flexible scheduling; (2) group, allowing interaction, simpler scheduling, and cost effectiveness; and (3) cooperative learning, which builds rapport, halves costs of individual training, and enables learning through discussion. (SK)

Lookatch, Richard P.



Grapefruit-drug interactions.  


Grapefruit juice and grapefruit product consumption have potential health benefits; however, their intake is also associated with interactions with certain drugs, including calcium channel blockers, immunosuppressants and antihistamines. The primary mechanism through which interactions are mediated is mechanism-based intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by furanocoumarins resulting in increased bioavailability of administered medications that are substrates. Grapefruit products have also been associated with interactions with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and uptake transporters (e.g. organic anion-transporting polypeptides [OATPs]). Polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids have been proposed as the causative agents of the P-gp and OATP interactions. The mechanisms and magnitudes of the interactions can be influenced by the concentrations of furanocoumarins and flavonoids in the grapefruit product, the volume of juice consumed, and the inherent variability of specific enzymes and transporter components in humans. It is therefore challenging to predict the extent of grapefruit product-drug interactions and to compare available in vitro and in vivo data. The clinical significance of such interactions also depends on the disposition and toxicity profile of the drug being administered. The aim of this review is to outline the mechanisms of grapefruit-drug interactions and present a comprehensive summary of those agents affected and whether they are likely to be of clinical relevance. PMID:21142260

Seden, Kay; Dickinson, Laura; Khoo, Saye; Back, David



Media Embedded Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of literature and two surveys, one of college students and one of a random sample of adults, were used to examine four aspects of media embedded interactions (social behavior in front of a TV or radio): their functions, their environment, their effects, and the reactions of the interactants to them. Television is seen as performing a…

Johnson, J. David


Human Computer Intelligent Interaction  

E-print Network

Human Computer Intelligent Interaction Computer technologies are progressing at a breakneck speed human-computer interfaces.In this talk,I shall describe some of the research my students and I have been doing during the last decade on Human Computer Interaction. Specifically,information flow from human

Chen, Sheng-Wei


Visualizing Dispersion Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An animation and accompanying activity has been developed to help students visualize how dispersion interactions arise. The animation uses the gecko's ability to walk on vertical surfaces to illustrate how dispersion interactions play a role in macroscale outcomes. Assessment of student learning reveals that students were able to develop…

Gottschalk, Elinor; Venkataraman, Bhawani



Interactive Visualization of Dependencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James



Exertion in Interactive Entertainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporating exertion and physical activity into interactive entertainment has received increased attention over recent years. These exertion games, or exergames, require separate input devices and are often specific to a particular game, however, consumers and experts attribute unique benefits to them: they are believed to positively contribute to general health, fitness and weight management, encourage social interaction between players and

Florian' Floyd' Mueller


Elementary particle interactions  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to {mu}{sup +} and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics. (LSP)

Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.



Primary Care Strategies for Promoting Parent-Child Interactions and School Readiness in At-Risk Families  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effects of pediatric primary care interventions on parent-child interactions in families with low socioeconomic status. Design In this randomized controlled trial, participants were randomized to 1 of 2 interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP] or Building Blocks [BB]) or the control group. Setting Urban public hospital pediatric primary care clinic. Participants Mother-newborn dyads enrolled post partum from November 1, 2005, through October 31, 2008. Interventions In the VIP group, mothers and newborns participated in 1-on-1 sessions with a child development specialist who facilitated interactions in play and shared reading by reviewing videos made of the parent and child on primary care visit days; learning materials and parenting pamphlets were also provided. In the BB group, parenting materials, including age-specific newsletters suggesting interactive activities, learning materials, and parent-completed developmental questionnaires, were mailed to the mothers. Main Outcome Measures Parent-child interactions were assessed at 6 months with the StimQ-Infant and a 24-hour shared reading recall diary. Results A total of 410 families were assessed. The VIP group had a higher increased StimQ score (mean difference, 3.6 points; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 5.6 points; Cohen d, 0.51; 0.22 to 0.81) and more reading activities compared to the control group. The BB group also had an increased overall StimQ score compared with the control group (Cohen d, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.60). The greatest effects for the VIP group were found for mothers with a ninth-grade or higher reading level (Cohen d, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.33 to 1.03). Conclusions The VIP and BB groups each led to increased parent-child interactions. Pediatric primary care represents a significant opportunity for enhancing developmental trajectories in at-risk children. Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00212576 PMID:21199978

Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Huberman, Harris S.; Berkule, Samantha B.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Morrow, Lesley M.; Dreyer, Benard P.



Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Summary We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions. PMID:21977409

Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Frandsen, Cathrine



Atom-Wall interaction  

E-print Network

This chapter deals with atom-wall interaction occurring in the "long-range" regime (typical distances: 1-1000 nm), when the electromagnetic fluctuations of an isolated atom are modified by the vicinity with a surface. Various regimes of interaction are discussed in an Introductory part, from Cavity Quantum ElectroDynamics modifications of the spontaneous emission, to Casimir effect, with emphasis on the atom-surface van der Waals interaction, characterized as a near-field interaction governed by a z-3 dependence. The major part of the Chapter focuses on the experimental measurements of this van der Waals interaction, reviewing various recent techniques, and insists upon optical techniques, and notably selective reflection spectroscopy which is particularly well-suited when excited atoms are considered. A review of various experiments illustrates the specific effects associated with a resonant coupling between the atomic excitation and surface modes, from van der Waals repulsion to surface-induced resonant tra...

Bloch, D; Bloch, Daniel; Ducloy, Martial



Automated Measurement of Facial Expression in Infant-Mother Interaction: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automated facial measurement using computer vision has the potential to objectively document continuous changes in behavior. To examine emotional expression and communication, we used automated measurements to quantify smile strength, eye constriction, and mouth opening in two 6-month-old infant-mother dyads who each engaged in a face-to-face…

Messinger, Daniel S.; Mahoor, Mohammad H.; Chow, Sy-Miin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.



Peer Competence and Mother-Child and Child-Child Interactions in One-Year-Olds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a longitudinal study of the predictors of preschool-aged children's peer relationships, data were collected on the social behavior of 1-year-olds. Participating in the study were 48 mother-child dyads. Individual and comparison data were gathered through observation and videotape recordings in laboratory dyadic play sessions involving…

van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; And Others


Contingent Interactions between Parents and Young Children with Severe Expressive Communication Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and their children with severe expressive impairments may have limited successful communicative exchanges due to each partner's difficulty in recognizing and responding to communicative behaviors of the other. This study examined the communicative functions and modes of communication that received contingent responses in 20 dyads of…

Cress, Cynthia J.; Grabast, Jodi; Burgers Jerke, Kimberly



A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Children's Drawings of Same- and Mixed-Sex Peer Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of children's art as a function of gender of child, picture condition (drawings of same-sex versus mixed-sex dyads), and child-rearing setting (United States town, Israeli town, and Israeli kibbutz) confirms that boys, particularly Americans, are more aggressive, competitive, and hierarchical in their depicted relationships than are girls.…

Rubenstein, Judith; And Others



Interactive WSN-Bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the concept of ambient intelligence, we utilized wireless sensor network (WSN) and vision-based tracking technologies to create an interactive WSN-Bar. WSN-Bar is an interactive and innovative creation which has two modules: Garden of Light and Vivacious Bushes. It refers the variety of natural environmental factors and focuses on the relationship between human and nature. WSN-Bar can also detect the changes of brightness, temperature, CO2 density outdoors and the movement of people inside the building. Besides, WSN-Bar is an interactive installation art which creates the opportunity to reduce the estranged gape among the participants.

Lin, Jiun-Shian; Hsu, Su-Chu; Chen, Ying-Chung


Generalized interaction in multigravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a general approach to describing the interaction in multigravity models in a D-dimensional space-time. We present various possibilities for generalizing the invariant volume. We derive the most general form of the interaction potential, which becomes a Pauli-Fierz-type model in the bigravity case. Analyzing this model in detail in the (3+1)-expansion formalism and also requiring the absence of ghosts leads to this bigravity model being completely equivalent to the Pauli-Fierz model. We thus in a concrete example show that introducing an interaction between metrics is equivalent to introducing the graviton mass.

Duplij, S. A.; Kotvytskiy, A. T.



Interactive Weather Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interactive Weather Information Network (IWIN) is a collection of interactive weather maps and satellite images that is updated every five seconds. Visitors can see cloud cover animation loops, NEXRAD Radar images of precipitation, a map of all current weather fronts, and an interactive national map to see information about any particular state. Other information on the site includes a listing of any active weather warnings, a link for world weather data, and more, making this a must-see site for all those users interested in the most current weather happenings anywhere.



Compact Disc Interactive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of a digital optical storage medium with a multimedia capability includes a global description of specifications, current status, and elements required to make a CD-I (compact disk interactive) launch possible. (Author/CLB)

Valk, Anton



Dawn's Framing Camera Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive illustrates how images from space get to earth and how we interpret the images. Users are encouraged to experiment with images to get a firm grasp of how scientists use color filters to interpret data.


Interactive Office user's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

Montgomery, Edward E.; Lowers, Benjamin; Nabors, Terri L.



Chesapeake Interactive Modeling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CHIMP is an interactive numerical model of Chesapeake Bay circulation. Users can vary freshwater flux and wind speed/direction and observe the response in real time, with several visualization options.


Interactive Gumball Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners review the history of gumball machines and explore potential and kinetic energy, while working in teams to build a gumball slide. Teams then design and build their own interactive gumball machine.




Rifampin drug interactions.  


Rifampin, an antituberculosis agent, is usually administered for nine to 12 months with other antituberculosis drugs or drugs from other classes. A potential for drug interactions often exists because this drug is a potent inducer of drug metabolism. Rifampin causes a proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and an increase in the cytochrome P-450 content in the liver. Rifampin's enzyme-induction effect is selective; therefore, it is not always clear which agents will be affected. Studies and case reports have demonstrated that rifampin accelerates the metabolism of several drugs, including oral anticoagulants, oral contraceptives, glucocorticoids, digitoxin, quinidine, methadone, hypoglycemics, and barbiturates. Rifampin interacts with other agents, but further study is needed to demonstrate the clinical importance of these interactions. In addition to inducing drug-metabolizing enzymes, rifampin may cause alterations in absorption and hepatic uptake. Future investigations will probably identify new rifampin drug interactions. PMID:6380442

Baciewicz, A M; Self, T H



Human Body Systems Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, studens are presented with a body system and a variety of organs. Students drag and drop all the organs that belong in that particular body system to a body who is missing his parts.



Interactive Holographic Cinema  

E-print Network

computer program performs stereoscopic reconstruction in real-time during presentation. Artists and computer users could then use a hardware device, such as the Microsoft Kinect, to explore the holographic cinematic form interactively....

Portales, Christopher



Interactive Lecture Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Dorothy Merritts, Robert Walter (Franklin & Marshall College), Bob MacKay (Clark College). Enhanced by Mark Maier with assistance from Rochelle Ruffer, Sue Stockly and Ronald Thornton Interactive ...

Maier, Mark; Stockly, Sue


[Etravirine drug interactions].  


Etravirine (ETR) belongs to the family of non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), with antiviral activity in patients with resistance to first-generation NNRTIs. The drug interactions caused by ETR are due to its dual effect on the CYP450 system. ETR acts as an inducer of CYP3A4 and inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. This drug shows few clinically significant drug interactions, the most important of which involve the unboosted protease inhibitors, the NNRTIs efavirenz and nevirapine, full-dose ritonavir and tipranavir/ritonavir. Interaction with fosamprenavir/ritonavir is not clinically significant, although their plasma levels vary slightly when used in combination with ETR. ETR shows no interactions with darunavir/ritonavir. PMID:20116625

Pérez, Vicente Estrada; Sánchez-Parra, Clara; Serrano Villar, Sergio



Plant/Insect Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of 12 investigative questions is designed to help students observe how insects interact with plants in their habitat. The one-page printable PDF list includes questions about the insect behavior and the plant characteristics.


Flank solar wind interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report we will summarize the results of the work performed under the 'Flank Solar Wind Interaction' investigation in support of NASA's Space Physics Guest Investigator Program. While this investigation was focused on the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind as observed by instruments on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3 spacecraft, it also represents the culmination of decades of research performed by scientists at TRW on the rich phenomenology of collisionless shocks in space.

Moses, Stewart L.; Greenstadt, Eugene W.; Coroniti, Ferdinand V.



Gallium interactions with Zircaloy  

E-print Network

: Nuclear Engineering GALLIUM INTERACTIONS WITH ZIRCALOY A Thesis by MICHAEL KEITH WEST Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Ron R.... Hart (Chair of Co ittee) Karl T. H g, (Me e Marvin L. Adams (Member) Alan E. Waltar (Head of Department) December 1998 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering ABSTRACT Gallium Interactions with Zircaloy. (December 1998) Michael Keith West, B. S...

West, Michael Keith



PIA: ISOPHOT Interactive Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISOPHOT is one of the instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). ISOPHOT Interactive Analysis (PIA) is a scientific and calibration interactive data analysis tool for ISOPHOT data reduction. Written in IDL under Xwindows, PIA offers a full context sensitive graphical interface for retrieving, accessing and analyzing ISOPHOT data. It is available in two nearly identical versions; a general observers version omits the calibration sequences.

Gabriel, Carlos; Acosta, Jose; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Skaley, Detlef; Tai, Wai Ming; Morris, Huw; Merluzzi, Paola



Strongly interacting Higgs bosons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)L×SU(2)R symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found

Thomas Appelquist; Claude Bernard



Interactive Frog Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Virginia Curry School of Education's Instructional Technology Program has announced Interactive Frog Dissection. The tutorial combines text with 60 in-line color images and 17 QuickTime movies illustrating dissection procedures and internal organs. Numerous clickable image maps provide interactive practice. Research with pre-Web versions of the program suggests it is a valuable preparation tool or even a useful substitute for laboratory dissection.


Economics Interactive Lectures List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Samuel Baker, Associate Professor in the Department of Health Administration at the University of South Carolina, has developed a series of interactive economics lectures. The lectures are at the level of introductory microeconomics. Lecture topics cover: demand, supply, elasticity, market equilibrium, costs, discounting, and internal rate of return. Each lecture features Java based interactive questions and examples. Users receive immediate feedback and hints on their responses to questions.

Baker, Samuel L.



Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction is a joint effort by professors from Michigan State University, the University of Wuerzburg, and Ludwig-Maximilians University at Munich. A multitude of examples are used to present atom scattering, crystal structure, convolution theorem, Fourier transformations of crystal phase, and other topics. The interactive examples are simulations, using software developed by the authors, where students can input the number of atoms or atom type, etc. and view results as .gif images.



Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction is a joint effort by professors from Michigan State University, the University of Wuerzburg, and Ludwig-Maximilians University at Munich. A multitude of examples are used to present atom scattering, crystal structure, convolution theorem, Fourier transformations of crystal phase, and other topics. The interactive examples are simulations, using software developed by the authors, where students can input the number of atoms or atom type, etc. and view results as .gif images.


Human-machine interactions  

SciTech Connect

Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)



Interactive Care Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a video-mediated interactive care wall as a way of sup- porting a face-to-face like care between elders and their remote caregivers. This interactive care wall attempts to interconnect two physically-disjoint spaces by linking one wall on the elder's living space and one wall on the caregivers' liv- ing space. To make this interconnection appears seamless, the care wall

Chu-feng Lien; Hao-ji Wu; Hao-hua Chu


Interaction with Machine Improvisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo


A model to conceptualize interactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model to conceptualize interactivity to help people involved in interaction design. Previous studies\\u000a on interactivity prototyping focus on tools to implement interactivity concepts. Little is found on models for conceptualizing\\u000a interactivity. Our objective is to suggest an analytic model to explore the whole user experience by examining the degree\\u000a of interactivity of a product. This is

Tek-Jin Nam; Sunyoung Park; Jouke Verlinden




E-print Network

THE `INTERACTIVE' OF INTERACTIVE STORYTELLING: CUSTOMIZING THE GAMING EXPERIENCE Barbaros Bostan 1 , Tim Marsh2 1 Interactive and Digital Media Institute (IDMI), National University of Singapore, Level 2 Abstract. In this article, we define interactive storytelling as a gaming experience where the form

Boyer, Edmond


A novel approach to interactive playgrounds: the interactive slide project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incipient research on interactive playgrounds is a promising field that can enhance in many ways growth, health and education of children and youngsters. In this paper, we present a novel approach to interactive playgrounds by describing the physical and interaction design of a new platform: the Interactive Slide. We concentrate on the main design issues and relate the acceptance

Joan Soler-Adillon; Jaume Ferrer; Narcís Parés



Children's Interactions and Learning Outcomes with Interactive Talking Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article on childrens' interactive talking books examines: (1) how pairs of children interact when using the Broderbund multimedia CD-ROM storybook "Living Books"; (2) whether their patterns of interaction reflect the gender composition of the pair; and (3) if different types of pairs interact differently and remember the activity differently.…

Underwood, Geoffrey; Underwood, Jean D. M.



Statistically interacting vacancy particles.  


The equilibrium statistical mechanics of one-dimensional lattice gases with interactions of arbitrary range and shape between first-neighbor atoms is solved exactly on the basis of statistically interacting vacancy particles. Two sets of vacancy particles are considered. In one set all vacancies are of one-cell size. In the other set the sizes of vacancy particles match the separation between atoms. Explicit expressions are obtained for the Gibbs free energy and the distribution of spaces between atoms at thermal equilibrium. Applications to various types of interaction potentials are discussed, including long-range potentials that give rise to phase transitions. Extensions to hard rod systems are straightforward and are shown to agree with existing results for lattice models and their continuum limits. PMID:24580202

Bakhti, Benaoumeur; Karbach, Michael; Maass, Philipp; Mokim, Mohammad; Müller, Gerhard



Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry is a nicely designed companion website to Dr. Rodney Boyer's _Concepts in Biochemistry, second edition_. Developed collaboratively by Science Technologies and others, this multimedia site is archived on the Wiley Publishers website. Site visitors will enjoy exploring the engaging and instructive collection of Interactive Animations. The collection includes Animations about DNA Replication, Signal Transduction, Photosynthesis, Cell Structure, Protein Synthesis, and more. The site also features a number of tutorials regarding Kinesin, Myoglobin & Hemoglobin, tRNA, and Protein-DNA Interactions, to name a few. In addition, the website offers reviews of such concepts as Logarithms, Thermodynamics, and Elementary Kinetics; quizzes that correspond to chapters in Boyer's book; and a collection of articles that consider the role of biochemistry in addressing issues like Lactose Intolerance, Alcohol Abuse, and using Methanol as Fuel.

Boyer, Rodney F.


Propeller tip vortex interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propeller wakes interacting with aircraft aerodynamic surfaces are a source of noise and vibration. For this reason, flow visualization work on the motion of the helical tip vortex over a wing and through the second stage of a counterrotation propeller (CRP) has been pursued. Initially, work was done on the motion of a propeller helix as it passes over the center of a 9.0 aspect ratio wing. The propeller tip vortex experiences significant spanwise displacements when passing across a lifting wing. A stationary propeller blade or stator was installed behind the rotating propeller to model the blade vortex interaction in a CRP. The resulting vortex interaction was found to depend on the relative vortex strengths and vortex sign.

Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.



Achromatic Interaction Point Design  

SciTech Connect

Designers of high-luminosity energy-frontier muon colliders must provide strong beam focusing in the interaction regions. However, the construction of a strong, aberration-free beam focus is difficult and space consuming, and long straight sections generate an off-site radiation problem due to muon decay neutrinos that interact as they leave the surface of the earth. Without some way to mitigate the neutrino radiation problem, the maximum c.m. energy of a muon collider will be limited to about 3.5 TeV. A new concept for achromatic low beta design is being developed, in which the interaction region telescope and optical correction elements, are installed in the bending arcs. The concept, formulated analytically, combines space economy, a preventative approach to compensation for aberrations, and a reduction of neutrino flux concentration. An analytical theory for the aberration-free, low beta, spatially compact insertion is being developed.

Guimei Wang,, Yaroslav Derbenev, S.Alex Bogacz, P. Chevtsov, Andre Afanaciev, Charles Ankenbrandt, Valentin Ivanov, Rolland P. Johnson



Dike/Drift Interactions  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).

E. Gaffiney



Adolescent dyadic talk around a young adult novel: Developing understandings and relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 6-week qualitative case study described how six adolescents interacted in dyads during in-school discussions of the book Monster. Transcripts of dyadic interactions, field notes, observations, and individual interviews were analyzed using functions of language and reader response theory to examine each participant's language. ^ Findings indicated that the social context of dyads within an academic environment influences students to

Rosanne Linda Rabinowitz



Virtual Teams and Creative Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and tested a model of the effects of demographic differences (i.e., differences in race, sex, age, and nationality) on creativity in dyads having short-term virtual work interactions. Specifically we examined how demographic differences interacted with dyad processes (establishment of rapport, participation equality, and process conflict) and a key input factor (difference in technical experience), to affect the creativity

Luis L. Martins; Christina E. Shalley; Lucy L. Gilson



Interacting Agegraphic Dark Energy  

E-print Network

A new dark energy model, named "agegraphic dark energy", has been proposed recently, based on the so-called K\\'{a}rolyh\\'{a}zy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegraphic dark energy model and holographic dark energy model. The similarity and difference between agegraphic dark energy and holographic dark energy are also discussed.

Hao Wei; Rong-Gen Cai



Synchro-beam interaction  

SciTech Connect

A symplectic mapping is presented, describing the effect of the beam-beam interaction in presence of synchrotron motion. In addition to the usual transverse kick, this mapping includes the longitudinal displacement of the collision point and the energy variation caused by the electric field of the opposite bunch. These two effects are shown to play a concurrent role in preserving symplecticity. The case of weak-strong interaction in {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} colliding rings is investigated by simulation, assuming only one betatron degree of freedom.

Hirata, K. (KEK, Tsukuba, (Japan)); Moshammer, H.; Ruggiero, F. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Bassetti, M. (Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell'INFN, 00044 Frascati (Italy))



Platinum carbon nanotube interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between evaporated Pt and pristine or oxygen-plasma-treated multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. Pt is found to nucleate at defect sites, whether initially present or introduced by oxygen plasma treatment. The plasma treatment induces a uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles at the CNT surface. The absence of additional features in the C 1 s core level spectrum indicates that no mixed Pt-C phase is formed. The formation of C-O-Pt bonds at the cluster-CNT interface is suggested to reduce the electronic interaction between Pt nanoparticles and the CNT surface.

Bittencourt, C.; Hecq, M.; Felten, A.; Pireaux, J. J.; Ghijsen, J.; Felicissimo, M. P.; Rudolf, P.; Drube, W.; Ke, X.; Van Tendeloo, G.



Propeller/wing interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present experimental investigation of the steady-state and unsteady-state effects due to the interaction between a tractor propeller's wake and a wing employs, in the steady case, wind tunnel measurements at low subsonic speed; results are obtained which demonstrate wing performance response to variations in configuration geometry. Other steady-state results involve the propeller-hub lift and side-force due to the wing's influence on the propeller. The unsteady effects of interaction were studied through flow visualization of propeller-tip vortex distortion over a wing, again using a tractor-propeller configuration.

Witkowski, David P.; Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.



Interactive atmosphere lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ozone layer makes up an important part of our atmosphere. This informational activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, explores changes in ozone concentration with altitude. Students view a diagram that shows the layers of the atmosphere with a temperature scale running from the surface of the Earth to the outermost reaches of the atmosphere. After reading introductory material, students are presented with nine questions about the layers of the atmosphere and interactions with ozone. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)



Interactive Physics II Player Workbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive workbook/disk package is designed to help students "see" and work with specific physics problems through simulations created with Interactive Physics. Students and schools do not have to purchase Interactive Physics, simulations are packaged with a run-time version of Interactive Physics. Both Macintosh and Windows versions are available.

Schwarz, Cindy



Interactive Cell Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online resource that uses interactive models for students to click on to learn about the cell. The visual representation will have students distinguish between animal and plant cells and also learn about the permeability of the cell membrane.



Interactive Video Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two interactive video disc programs that have been designed to teach social work practice skills. One program is designed to teach students how to apply crisis concepts in a simulated interview with a client, and the other program is designed to teach students how to assess institutional racism and sexism in an agency context The purpose in

Brett A. Seabury



SEM Ground Spider Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive look at a ground spider's anatomy has close-up images taken using the high-resolution technology of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). By mousing over the labeled images, students can view fifteen features of a generalized ground spider's anatomy.


Interactively Training Pixel Classifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For typical classification tasks, all training data are preparedin advance and are supplied to the classifier all at once. This is unnecessarilyexpensive and incurs overfitting problems, since the individual contributionsof the training instances to the classifier are not known. We address thisby proposing an interactive incremental framework for image classifier construction,where small numbers of training examples are supplied at eachuser

Justus H. Piater; Edward M. Riseman; Paul E. Utgoff



Interactive Genetics Tutorial Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Interactive Genetics Tutorial (IGT) project and the Intelligent Tutoring System for the IGT project named MENDEL supplement genetics instruction in biology courses by providing students with experience in designing, conducting, and evaluating genetics experiments. The MENDEL software is designed to: (1) simulate genetics experiments that…

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction.


Electromagnetic interaction of metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of extraordinary transmission through subwavelength apertures has propelled a great interest in understanding its nature. It defies classical theories of electromagnetic interaction by demanding a closer examination of the surface properties. Traditionally, as surface features become much smaller in size than a single wavelength of interest, the structure is essentially continuous. Any periodic subwavelength corrugation or aperture array should not interact strongly with an incident field and therefore not contribute to any significant transmission through the film. We find that this is not always the case and that we may tune the surface geometry at these scales to affect the overall medium behavior. It is possible that a material may transcend its own natural properties and, in essence, become a metamaterial. The following analysis examines the concepts of metamaterials from a fundamental viewpoint. It does not seek to disrupt classical theories but instead demonstrates their validity to describe a new phenomenon. Several theories have been proposed that offer unique surface interactions as evidence of enhanced transmission. It is proposed that a fundamental Maxwell representation is sufficient in predicting the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with a metamaterial. In particular, a formalism has been developed to analyze enhanced transmission through a metallic grating structure. To experimentally validate this model, a fabrication procedure has been developed that allows for the production of quality thick film structures with subwavelength features. Finally, the analysis of metamaterials looks towards the RF spectrum to demonstrate a novel design to achieve conformal waveguides and antennas.

Canales, Peter R.


QUANTUM OPTICS Strongly interacting  

E-print Network

's-disease-causing mutation, the A673V APP gene variant7 . This mutation increases A generation but causes dementia only, and importantly for this discussion, the biophysical properties of the A that is generated. It seems that the mutated protein interacts with wild-type A to prevent the generation of toxic A assemblies. Given

Vuletic, Vladan


The Sun Dagger Interactive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sun Dagger Interactive is a real-time computer simulation of the ancient site on Fajada Butte in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, and is now part of a permanent exhibit on cultural astronomy at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago. The exhibit opened on March 20, 2002.The Sun Dagger construct is dated over a thousand years old and is believed to mark

Alan Price



DIY Wiimote Interactive Whiteboards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive whiteboard (IWB) has become a popular tool for dynamic teaching and learning as well as group collaboration. This workshop shows how to build your own fully-functioning, innovative, and low-cost IWB using a Wii remote controller, accessories, and available software applications. The session will also discuss library use, promotion and training, and related issues.

May Chang; Kenner Miner



Being Interactive Gonna Call?  

E-print Network

efficient- ly, effectively, or in good faith because the various parties are autonomous and their domains for choosing and locating a party to interact with has so far been to search one or more repositories answers or false posi- tives) and low recall (too few relevant responses or false negatives that miss good


Interaction, 1996-1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection includes four quarterly issues of "Interaction," a publication of the Canadian Child Care Federation. Each issue addresses several topics and is arranged in four sections: opinions, practice/pratique, focus/a propos, and news/nouvelles. The opinions section includes letters and editorial/review columns, the practice section…

Hajdu-Vaughn, Susan, Ed.; Coyle, Barbara, Ed.



Standardizing Interaction Design Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to which extend the didactic format of studio-based group-work is applicable for creating a common-ground for Interaction Design Education in European Perspective. The current debate on design education shows us a landscape of different initiatives. So far difficulties have arisen in the area of accreditation and…

Thomassen, Aukje; Ozcan, Oguzhan



Electron interaction in matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data on the scattering of 1-MeV electrons in aluminum for the case of non-normal incidence, electron-bremsstrahlung cross-sections in thin targets, and the production of bremstrahlung by electron interaction in thick targets, are presented both in tabular and graphic form. These results may interest physicists and radiologists.

Dance, W. E.; Rainwater, W. J.; Rester, D. H.



Gallery of Interactive Geometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of interactive geometry tools and applications. It includes tools such as WebPisces, Build a Rainbow, Escher-like tilings, projective conics, Cyberview-X (an application for 3D object viewing), and numerical integration. Some of the applications also feature simulations.



Climate-vegetation interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climate exerts the dominant control on the spatial distribution of the major vegetation types on a global scale. In turn, vegetation cover affects climate via alteration of the physical characteristics of the land surface like albedo, roughness, water conductivity (biogeophysical mechanisms) and atmospheric gas composition, for example, CO2 and CH4 (biogeochemical effects). The chapter covers biogeophysical interactions between the

V. Brovkin



Climate-vegetation interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate exerts the dominant control on the spatial distribution of the major vegetation types on a global scale. In turn, vegetation cover affects climate via alteration of the physical characteristics of the land surface like albedo, roughness, water conductivity (biogeophysical mechanisms) and atmospheric gas composition, for example, CO2 and CH4 (biogeochemical effects). The chapter covers biogeophysical interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. Recent progess in vegetation and land surface modelling is briefly discussed. Research on climate-vegetation interaction is mostly concentrated on “hot spots” where the interaction is the most significant: boreal forests, North Afiica, and Amazon forest. Boreal forests, even deciduous ones, significantly reduce the albedo of snow-covered surfaces. Simulations with different climate models reveal that positive feedback between forest and surface air temperature in the boreal region is not strong enough to establish multiple steady states. Nonetheless, the simulations show a significant cooling trend due to historical land cover changes, mainly as a result of temperate and boreal deforestation. In general, the climate models agree that tropical deforestation exerts a net regional warming while an effect on extratropical regions is more uncertain. In the Sahel/Sahara region, several models are able to simulate ,,green Sahara” phenomenon during the mid-Holocene. Some models reveal multiple steady states in the region due to a strong interaction between vegetation and monsoon precipitation. Sensitivity simulations show that some expansion of vegetation cover into the Sahara is possible under CO2-induced climate changes.

Brovkin, V.



Types for dyadic interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate a typed formalism for concurrency where types denote freely composable structure of dyadic interaction in the symmetric scheme. The resulting calculus is a typed reconstruction of name passing process calculi. Systems with both the explicit and implicit typing disciplines, where types form a simple hierarchy of types, are presented, which are proved to be in accordance with each

Kohei Honda


Empowered interaction through creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects upon a case study where exploration, play and empowerment in interactive therapy sessions with audio and visual stimuli resulted in achievement, self-esteem and a shared pride between a young adult with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD), his mother and the special teacher that conducted the sessions. Following the gift to the mother of a video recording

Stefan Hasselblad; Eva Petersson; Tony Brooks



Interactive Digital Signal Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interactive Digital Signal Processor, IDSP, consists of set of time series analysis "operators" based on various algorithms commonly used for digital signal analysis. Processing of digital signal time series to extract information usually achieved by applications of number of fairly standard operations. IDSP excellent teaching tool for demonstrating application for time series operators to artificially generated signals.

Mish, W. H.



Principles of interactional psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the principles of interactional psychotherapy which have evolved from 30 yrs of practice in treating the emotionally ill. Disturbed people should be thought of as having problems that involve experiences of futility and lack of meaning in life, rather than as having a mental disease. This approach acknowledges the importance of parental influences in emotional problems but emphasizes that

Benjamin B. Wolman



Creating an Interactive PDF  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive

Branzburg, Jeffrey



It's About Interactive Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper draws on results of a research project InterActive Education: Teaching and Learning in the Information Age. The overall aim of the project is to examine the ways in which new technologies can be used in educational settings to enhance learning. To this end the project centres around the design and evaluation of teaching and learning initiatives for

Rosamund Sutherland; Nick Breeze; Marina Gall; Sasha Matthewman; Pat Triggs


Interactive Tabletops in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactive tabletops are gaining increased attention from CSCL researchers. This paper analyses the relation between this technology and teaching and learning processes. At a global level, one could argue that tabletops convey a socio-constructivist flavor: they support small teams that solve problems by exploring multiple solutions. The…

Dillenbourg, Pierre; Evans, Michael



Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

Dominich, Sandor



Interactions of cosmic superstrings  

SciTech Connect

We develop methods by which cosmic superstring interactions can be studied in detail. These include the reconnection probability and emission of radiation such as gravitons or small string loops. Loop corrections to these are discussed, as well as relationships to (p; q)-strings. These tools should allow a phenomenological study of string models in anticipation of upcoming experiments sensitive to cosmic string radiation.

Jackson, Mark G.; /Fermilab



The Digital Interactive Video  

E-print Network

The Digital Interactive Video Exploration and Reflection (Diver) system lets users create virtual pathways through existing video content using a virtual camera and an annotation window for commentary repurposing, and discussion. W ith the inexorable growth of low-cost consumer video elec- tronics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Interacting Frameworks in Catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In current OO Design, most of the existing (semi-formal) methods use classes or objects as the basic unit of design. However, it is increasingly recognised that classes are not the best focus for design. Typical design artefacts are about groups of objects and the way they interact. In theCatal- ysis project, we use the term frameworks for descriptions of groups

Kung-kiu Lau; Shaoying Liu; Mario Ornaghi; Alan Wills



Protein interaction platforms: visualization  

E-print Network

to the bacterial secretion apparatus. Shigella flexneri encodes four chaperones and at least 30 effectors. Three-negative bacterial pathogens, including Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp., directly inject virulence proteins, called between S. flexneri chaperones and effectors. We first tested whether PIP could detect known interactions

Cai, Long


Defining genetic interaction  

PubMed Central

Sometimes mutations in two genes produce a phenotype that is surprising in light of each mutation's individual effects. This phenomenon, which defines genetic interaction, can reveal functional relationships between genes and pathways. For example, double mutants with surprisingly slow growth define synergistic interactions that can identify compensatory pathways or protein complexes. Recent studies have used four mathematically distinct definitions of genetic interaction (here termed Product, Additive, Log, and Min). Whether this choice holds practical consequences has not been clear, because the definitions yield identical results under some conditions. Here, we show that the choice among alternative definitions can have profound consequences. Although 52% of known synergistic genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were inferred according to the Min definition, we find that both Product and Log definitions (shown here to be practically equivalent) are better than Min for identifying functional relationships. Additionally, we show that the Additive and Log definitions, each commonly used in population genetics, lead to differing conclusions related to the selective advantages of sexual reproduction. PMID:18305163

Mani, Ramamurthy; St.Onge, Robert P.; Hartman, John L.; Giaever, Guri; Roth, Frederick P.



Electronically Enhanced Classroom Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A design rationale for introducing electronic equipment (a group response system) for student interaction in lecture theaters is presented, linking the instructional design to theory. The effectiveness of the equipment for learning depends mostly on what pedagogic method is employed. Various alternative types are introduced, including: assessment;…

Draper, Stephen; Cargill, Julie; Cutts, Quintin


Pulsed Laser Tissue Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed lasers, by virtue of their ability to deliver energy in a spatially and temporally confined fashion, are able to micromachine biological tissues. The clinical success of pulsed laser treatment, however, is often limited by the extent of damage that is caused to the tissue in the vicinity of the ablation crater. In general, pulsed ablation is a trade off between thermal damage to surrounding tissue, caused by relatively long pulses (>100 ms), and mechanical damage to surrounding tissue, caused by relatively short pulses (<1 ms). To identify the origin of pulsed laser induced damage, the possible laser tissue interactions and ablation are discussed here and in Chapter 14. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with a condensed overview of the parameters that must be considered in the process of pulsed laser ablation of soft tissue. In this chapter, pulsed infrared ablation of biological soft tissue is used as a paradigm to illustrate the concepts and design considerations. Generally speaking, the absorption of laser light may lead to photothermal, photomechanical or photochemical interaction with the irradiated tissue [1-5]. The vast majority of therapeutic laser-tissue interactions is based on photothermal interactions where laser energy is converted into heat. Subsequent to thermalization of the absorbed optical energy, heat transfer mechanisms, in particular conduction allow thermal diffusion from high temperature areas to surrounding regions. When laser penetration depth is less than the laser spot radius, the thermal diffusion time, ? th, can be defined as:

Walsh, Joseph T.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Jansen, E. Duco; Motamedi, Massoud; Welch, Ashley J.


Reading to Children and Listening to Children Read: Mother-Child Interactions as a Function of Principal Reader  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Although storybook reading has received considerable research attention, listening to children read has been the source of much less inquiry. In this study, 40 mother-child dyads were videotaped during adult-to-child and child-to-adult reading. Relations between book-related themes (e.g., types of talk), maternal evaluative…

Martin-Chang, Sandra; Gould, Odette N.



Gene-Environment Contributions to the Development of Infant Vagal Reactivity: The Interaction of Dopamine and Maternal Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated dopamine receptor genes ("DRD2" and "DRD4") and maternal sensitivity as predictors of infant respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity, purported indices of vagal tone and vagal regulation, in a challenge task at 3, 6, and 12 months in 173 infant-mother dyads. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) revealed that at…

Propper, Cathi; Moore, Ginger A.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.; Calkins, Susan D.; Carbone, Mary Anna; Cox, Martha



Interactive chemical reactivity exploration.  


Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the samson programming environment. PMID:25205397

Haag, Moritz P; Vaucher, Alain C; Bosson, Maël; Redon, Stéphane; Reiher, Markus



Interactives: 3D Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much liquid can that glass hold? What are the dimensions of that package that's heading off to a friend overseas? Answers to both of those questions (and many more) can be found in this lovely interactive feature on 3D shapes created by experts at the Annenberg Media group. Visitors to this site will learn about three-dimensional geometric shapes by examining a number of objects through a number of interactive exercises and games. The materials are divided into four sections, which include "3D Shapes", "Surface Area & Volume", and "Platonic Solids". The "Platonic Solids" area is quite a bit of fun, as visitors will get the opportunity to print out foldable shapes such as a tetrahedron. A short fifteen question quiz that tests the materials covered by these various activities rounds out the site.


Drug interaction and pharmacist.  


The topic of drug-drug interactions has received a great deal of recent attention from the regulatory, scientific, and health care communities worldwide. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and, in particular, rifampin are common precipitant drugs prescribed in primary care practice. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range or low therapeutic index are more likely to be the objects for serious drug interactions. Object drugs in common use include warfarin, fluoroquinolones, antiepileptic drugs, oral contraceptives, cisapride, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. The pharmacist, along with the prescriber has a duty to ensure that patients are aware of the risk of side effects and a suitable course of action should they occur. With their detailed knowledge of medicine, pharmacists have the ability to relate unexpected symptoms experienced by patients to possible adverse effects of their drug therapy. PMID:21042495

Ansari, Ja



NAACP Interactive Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive timeline from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) highlights interconnected events from the past 100 years of African American history. Visitors should start by selecting a year from the Milestones map. The important event from that year will shown in a visual web, connecting it with other events around the United States in the Impact map. Clicking on More Info after opening a year on the timeline will direct users to a wealth of related information, including history, impact, important people, rich multimedia, and related resources. The well-tooled design of this site means that the seemingly few individual top-level years lead to a deep understanding of struggle for fair and equitable treatment of minority Americans, and of how individual laws, protests, and other events interacted with one another to lead to today's United States.


USC: The Interaction Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interaction Lab at the University of Southern California is part of the Center for Robotics and Embedded Systems (CRES) and the USC Robotics Labs. Its work involves "using a behavior-based approach to control, favoring solutions that are distributed, scalable, and robust" and when possible, validating algorithms in embodied domains. Areas of study include: Multi-Robot Coordination and Learning, Humanoid Robot Control and Learning, Learning by Imitation, Assistive Human-Robot Interaction, and Activity Modeling. The website provides short descriptions and research goals for each of these areas and related projects. Several publications and videos resulting from these projects are also posted online. The "fun" section offers a glimpse of the good times shared by the lab researchers.


Interactive design center.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia's advanced computing resources provide researchers, engineers and analysts with the ability to develop and render highly detailed large-scale models and simulations. To take full advantage of these multi-million data point visualizations, display systems with comparable pixel counts are needed. The Interactive Design Center (IDC) is a second generation visualization theater designed to meet this need. The main display integrates twenty-seven projectors in a 9-wide by 3-high array with a total display resolution of more than 35 million pixels. Six individual SmartBoard displays offer interactive capabilities that include on-screen annotation and touch panel control of the facility's display systems. This report details the design, implementation and operation of this innovative facility.

Pomplun, Alan R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)



Interactive digital signal processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interactive Digital Signal Processor (IDSP) is examined. It consists of a set of time series analysis Operators each of which operates on an input file to produce an output file. The operators can be executed in any order that makes sense and recursively, if desired. The operators are the various algorithms used in digital time series analysis work. User written operators can be easily interfaced to the sysatem. The system can be operated both interactively and in batch mode. In IDSP a file can consist of up to n (currently n=8) simultaneous time series. IDSP currently includes over thirty standard operators that range from Fourier transform operations, design and application of digital filters, eigenvalue analysis, to operators that provide graphical output, allow batch operation, editing and display information.

Mish, W. H.; Wenger, R. M.; Behannon, K. W.; Byrnes, J. B.



Dynamics of interacting diseases  

E-print Network

Current modeling of infectious diseases allows for the study of complex and realistic scenarios that go from the population to the individual level of description. Most epidemic models however assume that the spreading process takes place on a single level (be it a single population, a meta-population system or a network of contacts). The latter is in part a consequence of our still limited knowledge about the interdependency of the many mechanisms and factors involved in disease spreading. In particular, interdependent contagion phenomena can only be addressed if we go beyond the scheme one pathogen-one network. In this paper, we study a model that allows describing the spreading dynamics of two concurrent diseases and apply it to a paradigmatic case of disease-disease interaction: the interaction between AIDS and Tuberculosis. Specifically, we characterize analytically the epidemic thresholds of the two diseases for different scenarios and also compute the temporal evolution characterizing the unfolding dyn...

Sanz, Joaquín; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir



Interactive optical panel  


An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

Veligdan, J.T.



Diabetes Interactive Atlas  

PubMed Central

The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas’ maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity. PMID:24503340

Burrows, Nilka R.; Geiss, Linda S.



Diabetes Interactive Atlas.  


The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas' maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity. PMID:24503340

Kirtland, Karen A; Burrows, Nilka R; Geiss, Linda S




SciTech Connect

The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NO?A”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.




Interaction in musical time  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 6.8 Group entrainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 6.8.1 Phase conversion: Hilbert transform . . . . . . . . . . 154 6.8.2 Kuramoto model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 6.9 Summary - analysing interaction... (1966)1.1 Setting the stage After learning to sit straight and locating the middle C, a young, aspiring pianist will need to learn two timing skills that are crucial for any music performance. One is the ability to internalise a regular beat, a pulse...

Himberg, Tommi



Laser–Plasma Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of the present chapter is to give an introduction into the physics of laser plasma interactions that govern the\\u000a coupling of laser energy into the matter. Processes induced by laser pulses of nano- and femtosecond durations are discussed\\u000a in the framework of different applications. In particular, the roles of non-linear absorption and avalanche ionization in\\u000a plasma heating are

Ion N. Mihailescu; Jörg Hermann



Interactive collision detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collision detection and response can make a virtual-reality application seem more believable. Unfortunately, existing collision-detection algorithms are too slow for interactive use. The authors present a new algorithm that is not only fast but also interruptible, allowing an application to trade quality for more speed. The algorithm uses simple four-dimensional geometry to approximate motion, and sets of spheres to approximate

Philip M. Hubbard



Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are interactive multimodal learning environments and how should they be designed to promote students’ learning? In this\\u000a paper, we offer a cognitive–affective theory of learning with media from which instructional design principles are derived.\\u000a Then, we review a set of experimental studies in which we found empirical support for five design principles: guided activity,\\u000a reflection, feedback, control, and pretraining.

Roxana Moreno; Richard Mayer



Freesurface\\/vorticity interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsteady flow phenomena resulting from the interaction of wakes and vortices with the free surface are of particular importance in naval hydrodynamics. Ship and submarine wakes produce a three-dimensional complex signature, comprised of a narrow dark band bordered by two bright lines in synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) images. The dark band signifies the suppression of waves at the Bragg frequency as

John B. Carroll



Interactive examination management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To handle several online examination settings, a web-based application test management software, namely interactive examination management system (iEMS), is proposed in this paper. The outstanding points of the proposed system are its good architecture designs, ease of uses, rich features, flexibilities and extensibilities. Seven standard types of questions are supported including multiple-choice, true\\/false, matching, ordering, fill-in the blank, short answer

S. Vasupongayya; T. Kamolphiwong; S. Kamolphiwong; S. Sae-Wong



Interactive Spatiotemporal Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Spatiotemporal reasoning involves pattern recognition in space and time. It is a complex process that has been dominated by\\u000a manual analytics. In this chapter, we explore the new method that combines computer vision, multi-physics simulation and human-computer\\u000a interaction. The objective is to bridge the gap among the three with visual transformation algorithms for mapping the data\\u000a from an abstract space

Yang Cai; Richard Stumpf; Michelle Tomlinson; Timothy Wynne; Sai Ho Chung; Xavier Boutonnier


Ozone depletion interactive lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the process by which CFCs destroy ozone? This informational piece, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, explores the destruction of the ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons. Here students view a four-step animation that shows how ultraviolet light breaks chlorine free from a CFC molecule. The chlorine then destroys an ozone molecule. Additional steps show how the process can be continuous. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)



BioInteractive Neuroscience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of lectures (the annual Holiday Lecture on Science series by leading neuroscientists) , animations, virtual labs, and images presented by nationally recognized neuroscientists. BioInteractive is a great resource for complex biological systems information. Particularly noteworthy is the Animations section, which presents high-quality movies of development of the human embryonic brain, molecular basis of early LTP, molecular mechanism of synaptic function, and many other dynamic phenomena. Provided by Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

HHMI (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)



Pharmacological interactions of vasoconstrictors.  


This article is the first of a series on pharmacological interactions involving medicaments commonly prescribed and/or used in odontology: vasoconstrictors in local anaesthetics and anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial analgesics. The necessity for the odontologist to be aware of adverse reactions as a result of the pharmacological interactions is due to the increase in medicament consumption by the general population. There is a demographic change with greater life expectancy and patients have increased chronic health problems and therefore have increased medicament intake. The presence of adrenaline (epinephrine) and other vasoconstrictors in local odontological anaesthetics is beneficial in relation to the duration and depth of anaesthesia and reduces bleeding and systemic toxicity of the local anaesthetic. However, it might produce pharmacological interactions between the injected vasoconstrictors and the local anaesthetic and adrenergic medicament administered exogenically which the odontologist should be aware of, especially because of the risk of consequent adverse reactions. Therefore the importance of conducting a detailed clinical history of the general state of health and include all medicaments, legal as well as illegal, taken by the patient. PMID:19114951

Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis



Transactional interactive multimedia banner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advertising in TV broadcasting has shown that multimedia is a very effective means to present merchandise and attract shoppers. This has been applied to the Web by including animated multimedia banner ads on web pages. However, the issues of coupling interactive browsing, shopping, and secure transactions e.g. from inside a multimedia banner, have only recently started to being explored. Currently there is an explosively growing amount of back-end services available (e.g., business to business commerce (B2B), business to consumer (B2C) commerce, and infomercial services) in the Internet. These services are mostly accessible through static HTML web pages at a few specific web portals. In this paper, we will investigate the feasibility of using interactive multimedia banners as pervasive access point for the B2C, B2B, and infomercial services. We present a system architecture that involves a layer of middleware agents functioning as the bridge between the interactive multimedia banners and back-end services.

Shae, Zon-Yin; Wang, Xiping; von Kaenel, Juerg



Designing playful interactions for social interaction and physical play  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three design values that we apply for designing playful interactions. Interactive play objects can stimulate\\u000a social interaction and physical play by providing motivating feedback to players’ behavior; they can allow players to create\\u000a their own game goals and rules in an open-ended play context and support social player interaction patterns. This design approach\\u000a is illustrated by six

Tilde Bekker; Janienke Sturm; Berry Eggen



Interaction gestalt and the design of aesthetic interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a drastic increase in the research of aesthetics of interaction, we still lack well-defined practical knowledge of how to design aesthetic interactions. In order to develop such knowledge, we adapt three important ways of thinking in designing interactions influenced by traditional design disciplines, namely, 1) understanding what it is that is designed---i.e. interaction, 2) knowing what

Youn-kyung Lim; Erik Stolterman; Heekyoung Jung; Justin Donaldson



Character-Based Interactive Storytelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive storytelling is a privileged application of intelligent visual actor technology. The authors introduce their character-based interactive storytelling prototype that uses hierarchical task network planning techniques, which support story generation and any-time user intervention.

Marc Cavazza; Fred Charles; Steven J. Mead



Kinetic Equation with Electromagnetic Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A kinetic equation for a plasma with electromagnetic interactions is derived in the shielding approximation. The equation is the analog of the Landau equation and has the same structure as the Landau equation but with a velocity dependent interaction repl...

J. T. Hogan, M. B. Lewis



corotating interaction cosmic noise absorption  

E-print Network

Keywords corotating interaction regions cosmic noise absorption electron precipitation high speed absorption (CNA) as a proxy for the precipitation. The arrival of the co-rotating interaction region (CIR

Ulich, Thomas


On the dark sector interactions  

SciTech Connect

It is possible that there exist some interactions between dark energy (DE) and dark matter (DM), and a suitable interaction can alleviate the coincidence problem. Several phenomenological interacting forms are proposed and are fitted with observations in the literature. In this paper we investigate the possible interaction in a way independent of specific interacting forms by the use of observational data (supernovae, BAO, CMB, and Hubble parameter). We divide the whole range of redshift into a few bins and set the interacting term {delta}(z) to be a constant in each redshift bin. We consider four parametrizations of the equation of state w{sub de} for DE and find that {delta}(z) is likely to cross the noninteracting ({delta}=0) and have an oscillation form. It suggests that to study the interaction between DE and DM, more general phenomenological forms of the interacting term should be considered.

Cai Ronggen; Su Qiping [Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China)



Verbal and nonverbal interactions of four- and five-year-old friends in potential conflict situations.  


Dyads of 4- and 5-year-old friends and nonfriends attending preschools in central Italy were identified by friendship nominations. The 217 dyads of friends and non-friends participated in 2 closed-field tasks designed to simulate real-life situations of potential conflict. In the 4-year-old cohort, there were no significant differences in the behavior of the partners in either of the situations. However, at age 5 years, friends respected the rules of a fast-paced competitive game significantly more than did nonfriends. In discussing how to share a single object (a chocolate egg with a toy inside), 5-year-old friends were more likely to reach agreement than were nonfriends. The results suggest important developmental changes in the processes of negotiation and sharing within the preschool years. PMID:12230153

Tomada, Giovanna; Schneider, Barry H; Fonzi, Ada



Designing Poetic Interaction in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An amount of research has risen growing concern of designing aesthetics of interaction in addition to function, usability,\\u000a and pleasure of it. Beyond aesthetic interaction, we propose poetic interaction as a promising design genre. Based on Bachelard’s\\u000a phenomenological approach, we suggest that poetic interaction design begin with imagination and expression-making of both\\u000a material and computational things. The challenges include how

Yi-Chu Lin; Huang-Ming Chang; Rung-Huei Liang


Intelligently interactive combat simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.

Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.



Antiproton-nucleus interactions  

SciTech Connect

The antiproton beams from LEAR are a means for uncovering a hopefully fertile source of physics in the interactions of antiparticles with nuclei. Bound or resonant states have been searched for in the anti N N system and perhaps one candidate found. Resonances in the anti N-A system may have an independent origin, unrelated to isolated states in the two-body system but nevertheless very revealing of the essential nature of the two-body forces. The use of antiproton projectiles to study conventional, and occasionally exotic nuclear structure warrants some attention because of the extreme peripherality of many anti p-induced reactions and the expected strong iso-spin selectivity for inelastic excitation of say giant resonances. The annihilation channels which generate strong absorption in the nuclear interior, localize direct reactions in the nuclear surface. In this fashion anti p's ressemble heavy-ion projectiles but possess the virtue of being a rather more elementary probe and it should be possible to calculate the average anti p-A interaction (optical potential) from something closer to first principles. Perhaps the most fundamental reason for using antinucleons is as carriers, into the target, of antiquarks. It is not at all clear that the sea quarks in a hadron, i.e. in the form of quark-antiquark pairs, exist on an equal footing with valence quarks. The production of cc states (and even of s anti s) appears highly suppressed in nucleon-nucleon collisions. This suppression must be taken into account in establishing the relative merits of pp or p anti p colliders in producing say the W-meson. By introducing antiquarks directly via anti N N and anti N-A one should surely obtain more definite information about q anti q interactions with LEAR, at the low momenta presumably crucial for hadron structure. (WHK)

Kahana, S.



Ten myths of multimodal interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article, 10 myths about multimodal interaction are identified as currently fashionable among computationalists and are discussed from the perspective of contrary empirical evidence. Current information about multimodal interaction is summarized from research on multimodal human-computer interaction, and from the linguistics literature on natural multimodal communication. In the process of uncovering misconceptions associated with each myth, information is highlighted on

Sharon L. Oviatt



Bacteriasurface interactions Hannah H. Tusona  

E-print Network

, and the infection of plants and animals. Many of the interactions of bacteria with surfaces produce changes will guide the development of new classes of materials that inhibit and promote cell growth, and complementBacteria­surface interactions Hannah H. Tusona and Douglas B. Weibel*ab The interaction of bacteria

Weibel, Douglas B.


Online Learners' Preferences for Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that investigated types of interaction that graduate students perceived to be important for elearning (electronic learning). Discusses content interaction, conversation and collaboration, interpersonal and metacognitive skills, and need for support; explains the Online Learning Interaction Inventory; and reports that flexibility…

Northrup, Pamela T.



Signalling in a mutualistic interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs and benefits for partners in interspecific, mutualistic relationships can vary from one interaction to the next, or change with time during an interaction, which might influence the mutualistic contributions. Such flexible behavioural responses could be important in regulating the interaction. Partners could also have special adaptations for the purpose of influencing each other. An individual might, for instance,




Interactional Context for Mobile Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobility and ubiquity bring about an increasing engagement in the concept of context. Environmental context such as location or light have been studied for a while, however little research has been done on interactional context - context that evolves in the course of interaction. This paper presents results of an empirical study conducted in order to assess the interactional context.

Kristijan Mihalic; Manfred Tscheligi


Interactive management of time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

At tbe IBM Pisa Scientific Center an interactive package has been developed under CP-67\\/CMS, which is particularly helpful when the data to be processed are time series. The interactive facilities of the operating system CP-67\\/CMS are strenghtened in such a way as to allow an easy interactive correction procedure during the execution of any command. The central file of time

Carlo Bianchi; Giorgio Calzolari; Paolo Corsi



How Interactive Is Your Whiteboard?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors question the assumption that interactive whiteboards (IWBs) automatically lead to interactive teaching. The authors contend that although IWBs have features that offer great potential for the development of highly interactive teaching approaches, it may be the case that teachers must have made the transition from…

Tanner, Howard; Jones, Sonia



Computing though Interaction Samarth Swarup  

E-print Network

is that interaction allows participatory sense-making, i.e., meaning emerges through the interaction process. However complexity regularization implicitly through interaction during learning. This learning method is called to learning problems. Such solutions are expected to generalize better. This is known as Occam's Razor (Blumer

Swarup, Samarth


Superweakly interacting massive particles.  


We investigate a new class of dark matter: superweakly interacting massive particles (super-WIMPs). As with conventional WIMPs, super-WIMPs appear in well motivated particle theories with naturally the correct relic density. In contrast to WIMPs, however, super-WIMPs are impossible to detect in all conventional dark matter searches. We consider the concrete examples of gravitino and graviton cold dark matter in models with supersymmetry and universal extra dimensions, respectively, and show that super-WIMP dark matter satisfies stringent constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. PMID:12906530

Feng, Jonathan L; Rajaraman, Arvind; Takayama, Fumihiro



Mutual Funds Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mutual Funds Interactive is provided by Brill Editorial Services, Inc. The aim of the site is to provide independent financial advice to investors. The highlight of the site is the expert's corner, where leading mutual fund experts provide market analysis, opinions and recommendations. There are also profiles of mutual funds managers and columns on mutual funds. For new investors, there is Funds 101, which helps explain what a mutual fund is. The site also features discussion groups, a glossary of mutual fund terms and a list of mutual funds.



Strong interaction and QFD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ?I = {1}/{2} rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) × U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the ?-meson transformation as a triplet under SU(2) W, and this is the origin of the ?-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons.

Ebata, Takeshi



Radiopharmaceutical drug interactions.  


There has been considerable under-reporting of drug and radiopharmaceutical interactions, security and adverse reactions. The increasing use of radiopharmaceuticals has come to the attention of nuclear medicine staff and regulatory bodies. The aim is to provide reference for adverse reactions which could help all nuclear medicine staff in their daily routine. Reporting adverse events, including situations where an adverse event may have occurred but was actually avoided, is essential when assessing the magnitude of problems, alerting health professionals to these problems and ultimately for improving diagnostic accuracy. PMID:19043639

Santos-Oliveira, Ralph



News@SEI Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University publishes an online quarterly journal called news@sei interactive. The columns and features of the latest installment can be viewed online or downloaded as an Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file. Of particular intere