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Distinguishing Teaching Interactions of Physically Abusive from Nonabusive Parent-Child Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the ability of child protective service workers to distinguish videotaped interactions of physically abusive parent-child dyads from interactions of nonabuse dyads during a teaching task. Child protection workers achieved a 76 percent rate of accuracy in identify the abuse status of dyads after only three minutes of observed…

Deitrich-MacLean, Gay; Walden, Tedra



Antecedents of Coordination Effectiveness of Software Developer Dyads From Interacting Teams: An Empirical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the numerous reasons for software project failure, coordination problems are especially salient. Prior studies on coordination in software development are confined to team internal coordination and do not explicitly differentiate team internal and external coordination processes. This study presents a research model to explain the antecedents of coordination effectiveness of software developer dyads from interacting teams. Dyads in this

Minghui Yuan; Xi Zhang; Zhenjiao Chen; Douglas R. Vogel; Xuelin Chu



Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads  

PubMed Central

Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were examined and compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were positively related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother object-oriented behaviors were positively related only among European Americans. In all groups, infant and mother behaviors within each modality were mutually contingent. Culture moderated lead-lag relations: Japanese infants were more likely than their mothers to respond in object-oriented interactions, European American mothers were more likely than their infants to respond in person-oriented interactions. Japanese American dyads behaved more like European American dyads. Interaction, infant effects, and parent socialization findings are set in cultural and accultural models of transactions between young infants and their mothers.

Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger



Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Application to Maltreating Parent-Child Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective:: Parent-Child Interaction Training (PCIT), which uses a social learning framework, is a dyadic intervention that is designed to alter specific patterns of interaction found in parent-child relationships. Previous research suggests that maladaptive and high-risk characteristics found in maltreating parent-child dyads may be responsive to…

Timmer, S.G.; Urquiza, A.J.; Zebell, N.M.; McGrath, J.M.



Numerical computation of the electrostatic interaction energy between methanol and the dyad water-imidazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrostatic interaction energy between methanol and the dyad water-imidazole has been computed numerically at three levels of approximation from 3D grids of the charge density of one partner and the electrostatic potential of the other. The minimum positions and energy values thus obtained compare well with those calculated analytically. The numerical procedure is especially interesting for the prediction of

Dominique Dehareng; Georges Dive; Josette Lamotte-Brasseur; Jean-Marie Ghuysen



Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger



Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Application to maltreating parent-child dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Parent-Child Interaction Training (PCIT), which uses a social learning framework, is a dyadic intervention that is designed to alter specific patterns of interaction found in parent-child relationships. Previous research suggests that maladaptive and high-risk characteristics found in maltreating parent-child dyads may be responsive to PCIT. The primary focus of this study is to examine the effectiveness of PCIT with maltreating

Susan G. Timmer; Anthony J. Urquiza; Nancy M. Zebell; Jean M. McGrath



Toward a neuroscience of interactive parent-infant dyad empathy.  


In accord with social neuroscience's progression to include interactive experimental paradigms, parents' brains have been activated by emotionally charged infant stimuli - especially of their own infant - including baby cry and picture. More recent research includes the use of brief video clips and opportunities for maternal response. Among brain systems important to parenting are those involved in empathy. This research may inform recent studies of decreased societal empathy, offer mechanisms and solutions. PMID:23883768

Swain, James E; Konrath, Sara; Dayton, Carolyn J; Finegood, Eric D; Ho, S Shaun



Drug-protein interactions assessed by fluorescence measurements in the real complexes and in model dyads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, a systematic fluorescence study on supramolecular systems using two serum albumins (HSA or BSA) as hosts and the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs carprofen (CPF) or naproxen (NPX) as guests has been undertaken. In parallel, model dyads containing Tyr or Trp covalently linked to CPF or NPX have also been investigated. In HSA/(S)-CPF and BSA/(S)-CPF ( ?exc = 266 nm), at 1:1 M ratio, an important degree (more than 40%) of singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) was observed to take place. The distance ( r) calculated for energy transfer from the SAs to (S)-CPF through a FRET mechanism was found to be ca. 21 Å. In the case of HSA/(S)-NPX and BSA/(S)-NPX, energy transfer occurred to a lower extent (ca. 7%), and r was determined as ca. 24 Å. In order to investigate the possible excited state interactions between bound ligands and the relevant amino acids present in the protein binding sites, four pairs of model dyads were designed and synthesised, namely ( S, S)-TyrCPF, ( S, R)-TyrCPF, ( S, S)-TrpCPF, ( S, R)-TrpCPF, ( S, S)-TyrNPX, ( S, R)-TyrNPX, ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX. A complete SSET was observed from Tyr or Trp to CPF, since no contribution from the amino acids was present in the emission of the dyads. Likewise, a very efficient Tyr or Trp to NPX energy transfer was observed. Remarkably, in ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX a configuration-dependent reduction in the emission intensity was observed, revealing a strong and stereoselective intramolecular quenching. This effect can be attributed to exciplex formation and is dynamic in nature, as the fluorescence lifetimes were much shorter in ( S, R)- and ( S, S)-TrpNPX (1.5 and 3.1 ns, respectively) than in (S)-NPX (11 ns).

Vayá, Ignacio; Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Jiménez, M. Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A.



Predictors of parent-child interaction style in dyads with autism.  


Parent synchrony has been shown to be developmentally important for the growth of communication skills in young children with autism. Understanding individual-differences in parent synchrony and other associated features of dyadic interaction therefore presents as an important step toward the goal of appreciating how and why some parent-child dyads come to adopt more optimal interaction styles, while for others, parent interaction is more asynchronous and less developmentally facilitative. Within the large, well-characterized Preschool Autism Communication Trial (PACT) cohort, baseline parent-child interaction samples were coded for three key aspects of dyadic interaction style; - Parent Synchrony, Child Initiation, and Shared Attention. We explored associations among these measures, demographic characteristics and standardized child assessment scores. While various child factors were associated with each of the interaction measures, very few associations were observed with parent/familial factors. Child language age-equivalence was a significant positive predictor of variation in each interaction measure, while child repetitive symptoms predicted reduced Shared Attention. The three interaction measures were moderately positively inter-related. In the context of childhood autism, variation in dyadic interaction style appears to be driven more by child language and repetitive behaviors than age, social-communication symptoms and non-verbal ability. Parent/family factors contributed little to explaining variability in parent-child interaction, in the current study. PMID:23911646

Hudry, Kristelle; Aldred, Catherine; Wigham, Sarah; Green, Jonathan; Leadbitter, Kathy; Temple, Kathryn; Barlow, Katherine; McConachie, Helen



Does Culture Interact with Media Richness? The Effects of Audio vs. Video Conferencing on Chinese and American Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern and Western cultures differ along several dimensions affecting computer-supported collaborative work. We consider one such dimension, low context (requiring little situational information) or high context (requiring substantial situational information) communication style. Specifically, we report on a laboratory study comparing communication and performance of low-context American dyads, high- context Chinese dyads, and mixed American-Chinese dyads on a negotiation task under

Leslie D. Setlock; Pablo-alejandro Quinones; Susan R. Fussell



Information Interactions between Members of Science-Profession Dyads as Reflected by Journal Use: Ichthyology and Fisheries Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the science-profession dyad of ichthyology and fisheries biology through citation analysis of the journal literature. It found that the fields overlap in the journals cited, and, although differences in citation behavior were identified, some exchange of information within the dyad was indicated. (38 references) (Author/MES)

Martin, F. Douglas



Beyond the dyad: do family interactions influence children's attachment representations in middle childhood?  


This study examines the influence of mother-child and family interactions on the development of child attachment representations in middle childhood for a sample of 49 families. Mother-child interactions were observed during a snacktime in a lab setting (Moss, Rousseau, Parent, St-Laurent, & Saintonge, 1998) when children were 5-6 years old. Three years later, children's attachment representations were assessed using a doll play narrative procedure (Solomon, George, & DeJong, 1995) in the lab setting. Within 6 months of the second lab visit, family interactions were filmed during mealtime and coded using the Mealtime Interaction Coding System (MICS; Dickstein, Hayden, Schiller, Seifer, & San Antonio, 1994). Results showed clear differences between attachment groups on quality of mother-child and family interaction with the secure/confident group showing highest and the disorganized/frightened group showing lowest quality interactions. Family interactions predicted children's attachment representations, after controlling variance explained by prior mother-child interactions. PMID:19016050

Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Moss, Ellen



Microarchitecture of the dyad.  


This review highlights recent and ongoing discoveries that are transforming the previously held view of dyad structure and function. New data show that dyads vary greatly in both structure and in their associated molecules. Dyads can contain varying numbers of type 2 ryanodine receptor (RYR2) clusters that range in size from one to hundreds of tetramers and they can adopt numerous orientations other than the expected checkerboard. The association of Ca(v)1.2 with RYR2, which defines the couplon, is not absolute, leading to a number of scenarios such as dyads without couplons and those in which only a fraction of the clusters are in couplons. Different dyads also vary in the transporters and exchangers with which they are associated producing functional differences that amplify their structural diversity. The essential role of proteins, such as junctophilin-2, calsequestrin, triadin, and junctin that maintain both the functional and structural integrity of the dyad have recently been elucidated giving a new mechanistic understanding of heart diseases, such as arrhythmias, hypertension, failure, and sudden cardiac death. PMID:23400762

Scriven, David R L; Asghari, Parisa; Moore, Edwin D W



Intramolecular charge-transfer interaction in a new dyad based on C(60) and bis(4'-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)aniline (BBA) donor.  


A novel dyad 2 based on C(60) and bis(4'-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)aniline (BBA) donor has been synthesized and characterized. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-vis spectra of 2, 61-phenyl-1, 2-methanofullerene[60] 4, 1,2-methanofullerene[60] 5, and BBA were measured and analyzed. CV measurements showed that a reversible oxidation wave of 2 was positively shifted by 40 mV compared to that of BBA. More remarkably, comparing UV-vis spectra of 2 and 5 shows the big hyperchromic effect of 2 on a broad band at 500 nm despite lacking of more than 400 nm of absorbance for BBA. These results indicate obvious evidence of intramolecular charge-transfer interactions between C(60)-moiety and BBA. PMID:11348122

Ohno, T; Moriwaki, K; Miyata, T



Peer-Assisted Learning in the Physical Activity Domain: Dyad Type and Gender Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed peer interactions in high school students practicing a swimming skill, examining potential dyad type-by- gender differences in peer interaction modes (guidance-tutoring, imitation, cooperation, and parallel activity). Students trained in symmetrical (same competence) or asymmetrical (different competence) same-sex dyads. Tutoring and…

d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Gernigon, Christophe; Huet, Marie-Laure; Cadopi, Marielle; Winnykamen, Fayda



Naturalistic social cognition: Empathic accuracy in mixed-sex dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research paradigm that Ickes and his colleagues developed for the study of naturalistic social cognition was used to explore the phenomenon of empathic accuracy in the initial, unstructured interactions of 38 mixed-sex (male-female) dyads. The results indicated that an important aspect of empathic accuracy—content accuracy—could be measured reliably (a = .94) with the procedure used. The results further indicated

William Ickes; Linda Stinson; Victor Bissonnette; Stella Garcia



Analysis of Participant Reactivity in Dyads Performing a Videotaped Conflict-Management Task  

PubMed Central

Videotaping is used frequently in nursing research. A threat to the validity of videotaping is participant reactivity, that is, being recorded by a camera may influence the behavior of interest. This paper's purpose is to report how youth ages 10 to 14?years old and their parent viewed participation in a videotaped conflict-management task. Five dyads, who were part of a randomized clinical trial testing an intervention to promote parent-child communication, participated in a structured interview. All parents were mothers. Youth were eighth graders. Three were boys and two were girls. Findings indicated that (a) dyads felt that the videotaped interaction had a progression of feeling unnatural in the beginning to feeling natural toward the end, (b) dyads found it relatively easy to choose a topic of discussion, and (c) dyads felt that the discussions were meaningful. Based on these data, recommendations for researchers to reduce participant reactivity are provided.

Semeniuk, Yulia Y.; Riesch, Susan K.



A Biochemical/Biophysical Assay Dyad for HTS-Compatible Triaging of Inhibitors of the HIV-1 Nef/Hck SH3 Interaction  

PubMed Central

The current treatment regimens for HIV include over 20 anti-retrovirals. However, adverse drug effects and the emergence of drug resistance necessitates the continued improvement of the existing drug classes as well as the development of novel drugs that target as yet therapeutically unexploited viral and cellular pathways. Here we demonstrate a strategy for the discovery of protein-protein interaction inhibitors of the viral pathogenicity factor HIV-1 Nef and its interaction with the host factor SH3. A combination of a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy resonance energy transfer-based assay and a label-free resonant waveguide grating-based assay was optimized for high-throughput screening formats.

Breuer, Sebastian; Espinola, Sheryll; Morelli, Xavier; Torbett, Bruce E; Arold, Stefan T; Engels, Ingo H



Interactive Behaviors in Adolescent Conversation Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study collected normative behavioral data from extemporaneous 3-minute conversations of 50 typically developing adolescents. Analysis found the following high frequency behaviors: directing gaze at the partner, nodding and showing neutral and positive facial expressions, using back-channel responses, and giving contingent responses.…

Turkstra, Lyn; Ciccia, Angela; Seaton, Christine



Gaze and Vocalization in Mother-Infant Dyads: Conversation or Coincidence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports two studies which examined sequential dependence in the dyadic interaction between mother and infant. In the first study, brief videotaped behavioral samples were collected for 24 primiparous mother-infant (M - I) dyads to examine the degree of reciprocal contingency in M - I interactions. Two coders, using a computer interfaced…

Hayes, Alan; Elliott, Tony


Early Communication in Dyads with Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of dyads with restricted access to the visual channel of communication to establish a reliable pre-linguistic communicative signalling system has traditionally been viewed as problematic. Such a conclusion is due in part to the emphasis that has been placed on vision as central to communication by traditional theory. The data presented…

Rattray, Julie; Zeedyk, M. Suzanne



Design and synthesis of perpendicularly connected metal porphyrin-imide dyads for two-terminal wired single molecular diodes.  


Four different porphyrin-imide dyads bearing different central metals (zinc or rhodium) and different substituents on the porphyrin macrocycles (tert-butyl or methoxy) were synthesized for single molecular diode measurements. The molecules were designed to separate the donor component (porphyrin) from the acceptor component (imide) by bonding in a perpendicular arrangement, thus enhancing the rectification properties. UV/Vis absorption spectra and density functional theory calculations showed that the design was successful and that the molecular orbitals of the dyads were the summation of the two components, with minimal interaction between them. The effect of the central metal was found to be significant, with the lowest energy absorption for the zinc dyads being attributed to the mixed state of charge transfer from porphyrin to imide and the Q band, whereas that of the rhodium dyads indicated insignificant charge-transfer character. PMID:24861901

Handayani, Murni; Gohda, Syun; Tanaka, Daisuke; Ogawa, Takuji



Antecedents of Toddler Aggression: Dysfunctional Parenting in Mother-Toddler Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggression is stable as early as 2 years of age and predicts many negative adult outcomes. Although longitudinal predictors of child aggression have been identified, information is lacking regarding the proximal precursors of toddlers' aggression. During a 30-min interaction, 54 mother-toddler dyads were observed. Toddlers were categorized as…

Del Vecchio, Tamara; O'Leary, Susan G.



Social skills of older people: Conversations in same? and mixed?age dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has indicated a relation between lack of social skills and loneliness in young adults. This framework was extended to study older adults’ social skills in two experiments examining conversational interactions among older, young, and mixed?age dyads. The conversations were coded for social skill using partner attention statements as the measure of social skill. Partner attention statements includes partner

Dixie D. Vandeputte; Susan Kemper; Mary Lee Hummert; Karen A. Kemtes; Jaye Shaner; Chris Segrin



The photoinduced electron transference of porphyrin-anthraquinone dyads bridged with different lengths of links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoinduced electron transference (PET) interaction in porphyrin containing donor-acceptor (D-A) molecules is of great importance in nature and a significant part of the PET research has been devoted to the study of its mechanism ("through-space" or "through-bond") in these decades. Herein we synthesized a series of covalently linked porphyrin-anthraquinone dyads (Por-C n-AQ) bridged with flexible alkoxy chains at different lengths ( n = 1, 4, 10) and investigated their intramolecular PET using a combination of electronic absorption, steady-state fluorescence and decayed luminescence spectra. The experimental results show that the PET efficiency depends on the length of the flexible linkage between the porphyrin and anthraquinone moieties. Meanwhile, theoretical calculation applying the density functional theory (DFT) was also carried out to give the frontier orbital distribution and the optimized structures of these dyads. It is found that the orientation of the dyad with high PET efficiency is disadvantageous to ?-? interaction. Thus, the PET of these dyads seemingly is best compatible with a "through-bond" (superexchange) mechanism.

Zhao, Ping; Huang, Jin-Wang; Xu, Lian-Cai; Ma, Li; Ji, Liang-Nian



Photoinduced electron transfer in a distyryl BODIPY-fullerene dyad.  


A novel distyryl BODIPY-fullerene dyad is prepared. Upon excitation at the distyryl BODIPY moiety, the dyad undergoes photoinduced electron transfer to give a charge-separated state with lifetimes of 476 ps and 730 ps in polar (benzonitrile) and nonpolar (toluene) solvents, respectively. Transient absorption measurements show the formation of the triplet excited state of distyryl BODIPY in the dyad, which is populated from charge-recombination processes in both solvents. PMID:20960495

Liu, Jian-Yong; El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ng, Dennis K P



Synthesis, spectroscopic properties and photodynamic activity of porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyads with application in the photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus.  


A covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyad 5 was synthesized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition using 5-(4-formylphenyl)-10,15,20-tris[3-(N-ethylcarbazoyl)]porphyrin, N-methylglycine and fullerene C60. Methylation of 5 was used to obtain a cationic dyad 6. Spectroscopic properties were compared in toluene, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and toluene/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/water reverse micelles. Absorption spectra of the dyads were essentially a superposition of the spectra of the porphyrin and fullerene reference compounds, indicating a very weak interaction between the chromophores in the ground state. The fluorescence emission of the porphyrin moiety in the dyads was strongly quenched by the attached fullerene C60 unit. The singlet molecular oxygen, O2((1)?g), productions (??) were strongly dependent on the solvent polarity. Similar ?? values were obtained for 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[3-(N-ethylcarbazoyl)]porphyrin (TCP) in both solvents. Also, dyad 5 showed a high O2((1)?g) generation in toluene. However, O2((1)?g) production mediated by 5 considerably diminished in the more polar solvent DMF. Also, a high photodynamic activity involving O2((1)?g) was found for both dyads in a simple biomimetic system formed by AOT reverse micelles. The photoinactivation ability of these dyads was investigated in Staphylococcus aureus cell suspensions. Photosensitized inactivation of S. aureus by dyad 6 exhibits a 4.5 log decrease of cell survival (99.997% cell inactivation), when the cultures are treated with 5 ?M photosensitizer and irradiated with visible light (350-800 nm) for 30 min. Under these conditions, a lower photocytotoxic effect was found for 5 (3.2 log decrease). Furthermore, photoinactivation induced by 6 was higher than those obtained with the separate moieties of the dyad. Therefore, molecular structures formed by porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyads represent interesting photosensitizers to inactivate S. aureus. PMID:25010938

Ballatore, M Belén; Spesia, Mariana B; Milanesio, M Elisa; Durantini, Edgardo N



The diffusion of novel signs beyond the dyad  

PubMed Central

We present a study aimed at investigating how novel signs emerge and spread through a community of interacting individuals. Ten triads of participants played a game in which players created novel signs in order to communicate with each other while constantly rotating between the role of interlocutor and that of observer. The main result of the study was that, for a majority of the triads, communicative success was not shared by the three dyads of players in a triad. This imbalance appears to be due to individual differences in game performance as well as to uncooperative behaviors. We suggest that both of these are magnified by the social dynamics induced by the role rotations in the game.

Galantucci, Bruno; Theisen, Carrie; Gutierrez, Elkin Dario; Kroos, Christian; Rhodes, Theo



Peer interactions of normal and attention-deficit-disordered boys during free-play, cooperative task, and simulated classroom situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of 30 ADD-H boys and 90 normal boys were divided into 30 mixed dyads composed of a normal and an ADD-H boy, and 30 normal dyads composed of 2 normal boys. Dyads were videotaped interacting in 15-minute freeplay, 15-minute cooperative task, and 15-minute simulated classroom settings. Mixed dyads engaged in more controlling interaction than normal dyads in both free-play

Charles E. Cunningham; Linda S. Siegel



The Circle of Security project: Attachment-based intervention with caregiver-pre-school child dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Circle of Security intervention protocol is a 20-week, group-based, parent education and psychotherapy intervention designed to shift patterns of attachment-caregiving interactions in high-risk caregiver-child dyads to a more appropriate developmental pathway. All phases of the protocol, including the pre- and post-intervention assessments, and the intervention itself, are based on attachment theory and procedures, current research on early relationships, and

Robert Marvin; Glen Cooper; Kent Hoffman; Bert Powell



Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents' Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12-16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison…

Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia



DYAD: A Computer Program for the Analysis of Interpersonal Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer program which generates descriptions of conversational patterns of dyads based on sound-silence data is described. Input consists of talk/no-talk designations; output consists of descriptive matrices, histograms, and individual talk parameters. (Author/JKS)

Fogel, Daniel S.



Langmuir-blodgett films of self-assembled (alkylether-derivatized zn phthalocyanine)-(c60 imidazole adduct) dyad with controlled intermolecular distance for photoelectrochemical studies.  


A multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of the self-assembled electron donor-acceptor dyad of Zn phthalocyanine, appended with four long-chain aliphatic ether peripheral substituents, and an imidazole adduct of C60 was prepared and applied as a photoactive material in a photoelectrochemical cell. Changes in the simultaneously recorded surface pressure and surface potential vs area per molecule compression isotherms for Langmuir films of the dyad and, separately, of its components helped to identify phase transitions and mutual interactions of molecules in films. The Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) imaging of the Langmuir films showed circular condensed phase domains of the dyad molecules. The determined area per molecule was lower than that estimated for the dyad and its components, separately. The multilayer LB films of the dyad were transferred onto hydrophobized fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated (FTO) glass slides under different conditions. The presence of both components in the dyad LB films was confirmed with the UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. For the LB films transferred at different surface pressures, the PM-IRRAS measurements revealed that the phthalocyanine macrocycle planes and ether moieties in films were tilted with respect to the FTO surface. The AFM imaging of the LB films indicated formation of relatively uniform dyad LB films. Then, the femtosecond transient absorption spectral studies evidenced photoinduced electron transfer in the LB film. The obtained transient signals corresponding to both Zn(TPPE)(•+) and C60im(•-) confirmed the occurrence of intramolecular electron transfer. The determined rate constants of charge separation, kcs = 2.6 × 10(11) s(-1), and charge recombination, kcr = 9.7 × 10(9) s(-1), indicated quite efficient electron transfer within the film. In the photoelectrochemical studies, either photoanodic or photocathodic current was generated depending on the applied bias potential when the dyad LB film-coated FTO was used as the working electrode and ascorbic acid or methylviologen, respectively, as the charge mediator in an aqueous solution. PMID:24785360

Obraztsov, Ievgen; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Hart, Aaron; Gobeze, Habtom B; Kc, Chandra B; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; D'Souza, Francis



Interactional Correlates of Treatment Outcome in Behavioral Parent Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined mother-child dyads (N=52) in a training program to modify aggressive child behavior. Obtained several measures of mother-child interaction and compared them between dyads that succeeded and dyads that did not. Results indicated unsuccessful mothers were more aversive and indiscriminate in their use of aversive behavior toward their…

Dumas, Jean E.



Gender and Career Development Projects in Early Adolescence: Similarities and Differences between Mother-Daughter and Mother-Son Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way that mother-son and mother-daughter dyads engage in career projects was explored using the action-project differentiation procedure, a variant of the action-project method. The goal-directed actions, joint projects, and interactions of ten early adolescent boys and their mothers were examined in relation to the actions, projects, and interactions of ten early adolescent girls and their mothers. Many more similarities

José F. Domene; Rübab G. Arim; Richard A. Young



Hole-transfer dyads and triads based on perylene monoimide, quaterthiophene, and extended tetrathiafulvalene.  


Two families of dyad and triad systems based on perylene monoimide (PMI), quaterthiophene (QT), and 9,10-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-9,10-dihydroanthracene (extended tetrathiafulvalene, exTTF) molecular components have been designed and synthesized. The dyads (D1 and D2) are of the PMI-QT type and the triads (T1 and T2) of the PMI-QT-exTTF type. The two families differ in the saturated or unsaturated nature of the linker groups (ethynylene in D1 and T1, ethylene in D2 and T2) that bridge the molecular components. The dyads and triads have been characterized by electrochemical, photophysical, and computational methods. Both the experimental and the computational (DFT) results indicate that in the unsaturated systems strong intercomponent interactions lead to substantial perturbation of the properties of the subunits. In particular, in T1, delocalization is particularly effective between the QT and exTTF units, which would be better viewed combined as a single electronic subsystem. For the dyad systems, the photophysics observed following excitation of the PMI unit is solvent-dependent. In moderately polar solvents (dichloromethane, diethyl ether) fast charge separation is followed by recombination to the ground state. In toluene, slow conversion to the charge-separated state is followed by intersystem crossing and recombination to yield the triplet state of the PMI unit. The behavior of the triads, on the other hand, is remarkably similar to that of the corresponding dyads, which indicates that, after primary charge separation, hole shift from the oxidized QT component to exTTF is quite inefficient. This unexpected result has been rationalized on the basis of the anomalous (simultaneous two-electron oxidation) electrochemistry of exTTF and with the help of DFT calculations. In fact, although exTTF is electrochemically easier to oxidize than QT by around 0.6 V, the one-electron redox orbitals (HOMOs) of the two units in triad T2 are almost degenerate. PMID:20593446

Boixel, Julien; Blart, Errol; Pellegrin, Yann; Odobel, Fabrice; Perin, Nicola; Chiorboli, Claudio; Fracasso, Sandro; Ravaglia, Marcella; Scandola, Franco



Photoinduced charge transfer in short-distance ferrocenylsubphthalocyanine dyads.  


Two new ferrocenylsubphthalocyanine dyads with ferrocenylmethoxide (2) and ferrocenecarboxylate (3) substituents directly attached to the subphthalocyanine ligand via the axial position have been prepared and characterized using NMR, UV-vis, and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopies as well as X-ray crystallography. The redox properties of the ferrocenyl-containing dyads 2 and 3 were investigated using the cyclic voltammetry (CV) approach and compared to those of the parent subphthalocyanine 1. CV data reveal that the first reversible oxidation is ferrocene-centered, while the second oxidation and the first reduction are localized on the subphthalocyanine ligand. The electronic structures and nature of the optical bands observed in the UV-vis and MCD spectra of all target compounds were investigated by a density functional theory polarized continuum model (DFT-PCM) and time-dependent (TD)DFT-PCM approaches. It has been found that in both dyads the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to HOMO-2 are ferrocene-centered molecular orbitals, while HOMO-3 as well as lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and LUMO+1 are localized on the subphthalocyanine ligand. TDDFT-PCM data on complexes 1-3 are consistent with the experimental observations, which indicate the dominance of ?-?* transitions in the UV-vis spectra of 1-3. The excited-state dynamics of the dyads 2 and 3 were investigated using time-correlated single photon counting, which indicates that fluorescence quenching is more efficient in dyad 3 compared to dyad 2. These fluorescence lifetime measurements were interpreted on the basis of DFT-PCM calculations. PMID:22651219

Solntsev, Pavlo V; Spurgin, Katelynn L; Sabin, Jared R; Heikal, Ahmed A; Nemykin, Victor N



Erotized Transference in the Male Patient-Female Therapist Dyad  

PubMed Central

Little has been published regarding male patients' erotic transferences to female therapists. It has been suggested that male patients do not develop full erotic transferences and rarely experience erotized transferences. The author presents a case report documenting erotization in a male patient–female therapist dyad and reviews current theories on the etiology, therapeutic significance, and treatment strategies indicated for such a transference.

Koo, Martha B.



Parent-Caregiver Relationship Dyad in Greek Day Care Centres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High quality early childhood education and care programmes encourage frequent, positive communication with and positive, effective relationships between parents and early childhood educators. The present study aimed to examine the adult relationship aspects of childcare and, more precisely, the parent/caregiver relationship dyad. The way in which…

Rentzou, Konstantina



Peer Network Overlap in Twin, Sibling, and Friend Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that sibling–peer connections are important for understanding adolescent problem behaviors. Using a novel behavioral genetic design, the current study investigated peer network overlap in 300 child–child pairs (aged 7-13 years) in 5 dyad types: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic twins, full siblings (FSs), friend pairs, and virtual…

McGuire, Shirley; Segal, Nancy L.



Nanocrystal-based Dyads for Solar to Electric Energy Conversion.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new project which aims to develop a systematic and modular approach to creating a new generation of Gratzel-inspired solar energy conversion devices with the following novel advantages: the ability to capture the entire available range of solar irradiance by employing sets of linked nanoparticles, fabrication by self-assembly, enhanced robustness, and lowered cost through use of nanostructured, rather than molecular, charge transfer elements. The project team is designing, creating, and characterizing linked-nanoparticle dyads, which will act as the charge separation ``engine'' in new generation solar cells. By employing a mixture of dyads it should be possible to efficiently capture the entire solar spectrum. The proposed device architecture has two important advantages over existing solar conversion devices: It can be produced by a self-assembly process. Because of its modularity, each of its components (nanoparticles or organic linker) can be optimized separately.

Wang, Lei; Wu, Mingyan; Waldeck, David



Meiotic Behavior of Asymmetric Dyads in the Male Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Crossing over in the interstitial region of the heterozygous V4 translocation in Drosophila melanogaster generates asymmetric dyads each consisting of a shorter and a longer chromatid. It was shown previously that in the female the shorter is recovered preferentially (Zimmering 1955); the present work suggests that the same occurs in the male as well. The mechanism in the female is envisioned as involving the non-random inclusion of the shorter chromatid into the functional egg (Novitski 1951); in the male, the two formal possibilities appear to be (1) that some proportion of sperm carrying the longer chromatid derived from an asymmetric dyad undergoes dysfunction, or (2) the longer chromatid is preferentially included into regularly-produced nonfunctional sperm, the nonfunctionality set up at the second division and distinguishing second division daughter cells.

Zimmering, S.; Bendbow, E. B.



Selective photoswitching of a dyad with diarylethene and spiropyran units  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dyad bearing diarylethene and spiropyran units were synthesized. Ultraviolet light, visible light, H+, and Fe3+ inputs induce the multiple interconversion among the colorless diarylethene with spiropyran form (3), the colored closed form of diarylethene with spiropyran form (4), ME (5), MEH (6, 7) and MEH·Fe3+ (8). The efficient energy transfer from the anthracene emission to MEH·Fe3+ or ME·Fe3+ form

Hyunbong Choi; Byung-Soo Ku; Sam-Rok Keum; Sang Ook Kang; Jaejung Ko



Energy and photoinduced electron transfer in porphyrin-fullerene dyads  

SciTech Connect

Time-resolved fluorescence and absorption techniques have been used to investigate energy and photoinduced electron transfer in a covalently linked free-base porphyrin-fullerene dyad and its zinc analogue. In toluene, the porphyrin first excited singlet states decay in about 20 ps by singlet-singlet energy transfer to the fullerene. The fullerene first excited singlet state is not quenched and undergoes intersystem crossing to the triplet, which exists in equilibrium with the porphyrin triplet state. In benzonitrile, photoinduced electron transfer from the porphyrin first excited singlet state to the fullerene competes with energy transfer. The fullerene excited singlet state is also quenched by electron transfer from the porphyrin. Overall, the charge-separated state is produced with a quantum yield approaching unity. This state lives for 290 ps in the free-base dyad and 50 ps in the zinc analog. These long lifetimes suggest that such dyads may be useful as components of more complex light-harvesting systems. 32 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Kuciauskas, D.; Lin, S.; Seely, G.R.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Drovetskaya, T.; Reed, C.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Boyd, P.D.W. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)] [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)



Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad  

PubMed Central

Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants interfere with the success of breast-feeding. Health care providers can promote breast-feeding duration by advising unlimited feeds, promoting ‘rooming-in’ at hospitals, and providing support and information.

Ellis, Donelda



Carborane Dyads for Photoinduced Electron Transfer: Photophysical Studies on Carbazole and Phenyl-o-carborane Molecular Assemblies.  


o-Carborane-based donor-acceptor dyads comprising an o-carboranyl phenyl unit combined with N-carbazole (1) or 4-phenyl-N-carbazole (2) were prepared, and their dyad characters were confirmed by steady-state photochemistry and photodynamic experiments as well as electrochemical studies. The absorption and electrochemical properties of the dyads were essentially the sum of those of the carbazole and o-carboranyl phenyl units; this indicates negligible interaction between the carbazole and o-carborane units in the ground state. However, the emission spectra of 1 and 2 indicated that carbazole fluorescence was effectively quenched and a new charge-transfer (CT) emission was observed in solvents, varying from hexane to acetonitrile, which exhibited large Stoke shifts. The CT emission properties of o-carborane-based dyads were further analyzed by using Lippert-Mataga plots to show that unit charge separation occurred to form a charge-separated species in the excited state, namely, 1?2. This excited-state species was confirmed by nanosecond transient absorption spectra and spectroelectrochemical measurements; the photoexcitation of carbazole generated the CT state in which a radical cation and anion were formed at the carbazole and o-carborane units, respectively, within a few nanoseconds. DFT calculations corroborated the presence of this CT species and showed localized populations of the highest singly occupied molecular orbital on 2 in the reduced anionic state. As a result, molecular assemblies formed by linking the carbazole group with the o-carborane cage through a phenylene or multi-phenylene spacer revealed that the photoinduced electron-transfer process occurred intramolecularly. PMID:24805274

Kwon, Soonnam; Wee, Kyung-Ryang; Cho, Yang-Jin; Kang, Sang Ook



Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads.  


The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe patterns of motor coordination between horse and rider across the equine gaits of walk, rising trot, sitting trot and canter. Eighteen female (N=18; mean age±SD: 37.57±13.04) Dutch horse-rider combinations were recruited to participate in the study. Horse-rider coordination was recorded using two tri-axial wireless accelerometers during a standard ridden protocol. Multiple measures of horse-rider coordination were calculated to investigate the relationship between the horse and rider, while the unpredictability of the acceleration-time series of the horse and rider during task performance were determined separately by means of approximate entropy analysis. The kinematic variables of horse-rider correlation, mean relative phase, mean standard deviation of the relative phase, approximate entropy rider, approximate entropy horse and spectral edge frequency at 95% of the power in the 0-10 Hz frequency band were examined using multiple correlational analyses and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Findings showed significantly different coordination dynamics between equine gaits, with the gait of canter allowing for the highest levels of horse-rider synchronicity. It may be concluded that accelerometers are a valuable tool to map distinct coordination patterns of horse-rider combinations. PMID:23290116

Wolframm, Inga A; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J



Probing the rate of hole transfer in oxidized porphyrin dyads using thallium hyperfine clocks.  


Understanding hole/electron-transfer processes among interacting constituents of multicomponent molecular architectures is central to the fields of artificial photosynthesis and molecular electronics. One strategy for examining ground-state hole/electron transfer in oxidized tetrapyrrolic arrays entails analysis of the hyperfine interactions observed in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the pi-cation radical. Herein, it is demonstrated that (203)Tl/(205)Tl hyperfine "clocks" are greatly superior to those provided by (1)H, (14)N, or (13)C owing to the fact that the (203)Tl/(205)Tl hyperfine couplings are much larger (15-25 G) than those of the (1)H, (14)N, or (13)C nuclei (1-6 G). The large (203)Tl/(205)Tl hyperfine interactions permit accurate simulations of the EPR spectra and the extraction of specific rates of hole/electron transfer. The (203)Tl/(205)Tl hyperfine clock strategy is applied to a series of seven porphyrin dyads. All of the dyads are joined at a meso position of the porphyrin macrocycle via linkers of a range of lengths and composition (diphenylethyne, diphenylbutadiyne, and (p-phenylene)(n), where n = 1-4); substituents such as mesityl at the nonlinking meso positions are employed to provide organic solubility. The hole/electron-transfer time constants are in the hundreds of picoseconds to sub-10 ns regime, depending on the specific porphyrin and/or linker. Density functional theory calculations on the constituents of the dyads are consistent with the view that the relative energies of the porphyrin versus linker highest occupied molecular orbitals strongly influence the hole/electron-transfer rates. Variable-temperature EPR studies further demonstrate that the hole/electron-transfer process is at best weakly activated (12-15 kJ mol(-1)) at room temperature and somewhat below. At lower temperatures, the process is essentially activationless. The weak activation is attributed to restricted torsional motions of the phenyl rings of the linker. Collectively, the studies provide the physical basis for the rational design of multicomponent architectures for efficient hole/electron transfer. PMID:20690677

Diers, James R; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Holten, Dewey; Lindsey, Jonathan S; Bocian, David F



Spin effects in intramolecular electron transfer in naproxen- N -methylpyrrolidine dyad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intramolecular electron transfer in the naproxen- N-methylpyrrolidine dyad has been investigated by spin chemistry methods. The existence of CIDNP in a high magnetic field points to electron transfer as a possible mechanism of the quenching of the excited state of a dyad. However, the failure to detect magnetic field effects on triplet yield makes us conclude that this quenching mechanism is not the only one. The observation of CIDNP effects in the dyad in the media of low polarity and the short risetime of triplet state formation indicate a potential role of exciplex in the quenching of the excited state of the dyad.

Magin, I. M.; Polyakov, N. E.; Khramtsova, E. A.; Kruppa, A. I.; Tsentalovich, Yu. P.; Leshina, T. V.; Miranda, M. A.; Nuin, E.; Marin, M. L.



Multiscale modeling of calcium signaling in the cardiac dyad.  


Calcium (Ca(2+))-induced Ca(2+)-release (CICR) takes place in spatially restricted microdomains known as dyads. The length scale over which CICR occurs is on the order of nanometers and relevant time scales range from micro- to milliseconds. Quantitative understanding of CICR therefore requires development of models that are applicable over a range of spatio-temporal scales. We will present several new approaches for multiscale modeling of CICR. First, we present a model of dyad Ca(2+) dynamics in which the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) is solved for the probability P(x, t) that a Ca(2+) ion is located at dyad position x at time t. Using this model, we demonstrate that (a) Ca(2+) signaling in the dyad is mediated by approximately tens of Ca(2+) ions; (b) these signaling events are noisy due to the small number of ions involved; and (c) the geometry of the RyR (ryanodine receptors) protein may function to restrict the diffusion of and to "funnel" Ca(2+) ions to activation-binding sites on the RyR, thus increasing RyR open probability and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling gain. Simplification of this model to one in which the dyadic space is represented using a single compartment yields the stochastic local-control model of CICR developed previously. We have shown that this model captures fundamental properties of CICR, such as graded release and voltage-dependent gain, may be integrated within a model of the myocyte and may be simulated in reasonable times using a combination of efficient numerical methods and parallel computing, but remains too complex for general use in cell simulations. To address this problem, we show how separation of time scales may be used to formulate a model in which nearby L-type Ca(2+) channels (LCCs) and RyRs gate as a coupled system that may be described using low-dimensional systems of ordinary differential equations, thus reducing computational complexity while capturing fundamentally important properties of CICR. The simplified model may be solved many orders of magnitude faster than can either of the more detailed models, thus enabling incorporation into tissue-level simulations. PMID:17132795

Winslow, Raimond L; Tanskanen, Antti; Chen, Mindao; Greenstein, Joseph L



Charge transfer energies of tetraphenyl-porphyrin-fullerene dyads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porphyrin-fullerene dyads are extensively studied for their photoinduced charge transfer properties. They form a donor-acceptor pair where the fullerene is the acceptor. Accurate theoretical estimate of the charge transfer energies in such systems has proven to be a challenge. In this study we examine the charge transfer energetics for such dyads using our recently developed density functional based excited state method which can yield reliable estimates of charge transfer energetics. In this study the effect of varying both the donor and acceptor components are studied by changing the tetra-phenyl-porphyrin (TPP) to Zn-TPP. Similarly the acceptor component is changed from C60 to C70. The structures were optimized using DFT-D3 theory at the all-electron level. Among the donor-acceptor pairs studied, we find that the ZnTPP-C60 has the lowest charge transfer energy (1.69 eV) and the TPP-C70 (2.13 eV) has the highest charge transfer energy.

Zope, Rajendra; Olguin, Marco; Baruah, Tunna



Rectification in Porphyrin/Fullerene Dyads on Au(111)*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy study of ex-situ self assembled supramolecular dyads, consisting of fulleropyrrolidines (PyC2C60) axially ligated to zinc(II) tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP), self organized by axial ligation to a 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP), self assembled monolayer on gold (111). By highly diluting the PyC2C60 solution, and subsequently annealing in vacuum, isolated dyads are obtained; these show both bias polarity-dependent apparent height in STM images, and highly rectifying behaviour in tunneling spectroscopy. First principles density functional theory calculations clarify the conformational and the electronic properties of the 4-ATP/ZnTPP/PyC2C60 system. The rectifying behavior is explained using a model based on the Aviram-Ratner mechanism. * Work supported by the CNR-INFM, by a NSF US-Italy Cooperative Research Program #OISE-0242579, by the SpiDME European project and by MIUR FIRB 2003 `SYNERGY' grant. Lab for Physical Sciences and in part by a NSF-MRSEC, DMR# 0520471.

Britti, Dominic; Phaneuf, Ray; Matino, Francesca; Arima, Valentina; Piacenza, Manuel; Della Sala, Fabio; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Del Sole, Roberta; Mele, Giuseppe; Vasapollo, Giuseppe; Cingolani, Roberto; Rinaldi, Ross



The Effect of Time Separation on Coordination Costs in Global Software Teams: A Dyad Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research to date has not addressed the difficulties of coordinating across time zones in global software development. We present a preliminary collaboration model to help us understand the consequences of time separation on coordination costs. The model is for a team composed of dyads and each dyad consists of a task requestor and a task producer who have a sequential

J. Alberto Espinosa; Erran Carmel



Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment in Father-Child Dyads: The Case of Single Parenthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have repeatedly found that intergenerational transmission of attachment is more robust in mother-child dyads than it is in father-child dyads. They have proposed several explanations for the inconsistent father-child findings, including the use of the strange situation procedure, the young age of the children, and the fact that fathers…

Bernier, Annie; Miljkovitch, Raphaele



Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents' Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?  

PubMed Central

This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12–16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison group). To test our hypothesis, we applied a multigroup actor–partner interdependence model to 3 friendship types that started and ended at different time points during the 2 waves of data collection. Results showed that adolescents reported levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up that were similar to those of their best friends. Socialization processes explained the increase in similarity exclusively in female dyads, whereas no evidence for friendship selection emerged for either male or female dyads. Additional analyses revealed that similarity between friends was particularly evident in the actual best friend dyads (i.e., true best friends), in which evidence for socialization processes emerged for both female and male friend dyads. Findings highlight the importance of examining friendship relations as a potential context for the development of depressive symptoms.

Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia



Similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescents' friendship dyads: selection or socialization?  


This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12-16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison group). To test our hypothesis, we applied a multigroup actor-partner interdependence model to 3 friendship types that started and ended at different time points during the 2 waves of data collection. Results showed that adolescents reported levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up that were similar to those of their best friends. Socialization processes explained the increase in similarity exclusively in female dyads, whereas no evidence for friendship selection emerged for either male or female dyads. Additional analyses revealed that similarity between friends was particularly evident in the actual best friend dyads (i.e., true best friends), in which evidence for socialization processes emerged for both female and male friend dyads. Findings highlight the importance of examining friendship relations as a potential context for the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:21639621

Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H J; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Larsen, Junilla K; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Ciairano, Silvia



It takes one to tango: The effects of Dyads' epistemic motivation composition in negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of epistemic motivation composition in negotiation. Results from Experiment 1 revealed that dyads in which at least one member had high epistemic motivation (measured by personal need for structure) reached higher joint outcomes than dyads in which both members had low epistemic motivation. In Experiment 2, epistemic motivation was manipulated and negotiators were provided with

Velden ten F. S; B. Beersma; Dreu de C. K. W



The Fractured Conjugal Family: A Comparison of Married and Divorced Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared 20 married dyads and 20 divorced dyads on the dimensions of affect, marital adjustment, personality homogamy, value homogamy, and selected demographic variables. Instruments included the Caring Relationship Inventory, the Modified Form of Locke's Marital Questionnaire, the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, and the…

McKenry, Patrick C.; And Others



How Exemplary Dyads Describe Their Practice of Collaborative Consultation: An Interview Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand and report how exemplary dyads describe their practice of collaborative consultation in inclusive classrooms. A dyad was made up of one resource teacher and one classroom teacher. This study discovered, through semi-structured interviews, how these educators collaborated and consulted as a team to meet…

Levac, Michelle L.



The Effect of Television on Dyadic Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effects of television on dyadic interaction. Subjects, 41 dyads (mostly same sex dyads) consisting of a student in an introductory communication course (students were given extra credit for participation in the research) and a friend, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions and were videotaped by a hidden…

Krcmar, Marina B.; Brentar, James E.


Prevalence and Predictors of Early Breastfeeding Among Late Preterm Mother-Infant Dyads  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Although late preterm infants (LPIs), at 340/7–366/7 weeks of gestation, are reported to have suboptimal rates of breastfeeding, there is a lack of quantitative evidence describing this trend. This study examined the prevalence of breastfeeding initiation and factors associated with breastfeeding non-initiation within a Pennsylvania population-based cohort of late preterm mother–infant dyads. Subjects and Methods Descriptive statistics and odds ratios were used to assess and compare breastfeeding initiation rates in 2003–2009 among LPI mothers (n=62,451) and their infants (n=68,886) with moderately preterm (n=17,325) and term (n=870,034) infants. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the association of system/provider, sociodemographic, and medical factors with breastfeeding non-initiation in late preterm mother–infant dyads for the year 2009 (n=7,012). Results Although LPI breastfeeding initiation in Pennsylvania increased significantly from 2003 (54%) to 2009 (61.8%) (p<0.001), the 2009 prevalence remained well below rates in term infant populations and national standards. The regression model indicated that interactions involving sociodemographic variables, including marital status, age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, Women, Infants and Children Program participation, and smoking status were among the most significant factors associated with LPI breastfeeding non-initiation (p<0.05). The univariate results were similar to those reported in preterm and term populations. Conclusions Our data suggest that certain, unexpected demographic groups in the late preterm population be prioritized for further analysis and possibly greater breastfeeding support. More research is indicated to understand the effect of modifiable psychosocial factors on LPI breastfeeding initiation.

Sereika, Susan M.; Bogen, Debra



Developing psychotherapists' competence through clinical supervision: protocol for a qualitative study of supervisory dyads  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health professionals face unique demands and stressors in their work, resulting in high rates of burnout and distress. Clinical supervision is a widely adopted and valued mechanism of professional support, development, and accountability, despite the very limited evidence of specific impacts on therapist or client outcomes. The current study aims to address this by exploring how psychotherapists develop competence through clinical supervision and what impact this has on the supervisees’ practice and their clients’ outcomes. This paper provides a rationale for the study and describes the protocol for an in-depth qualitative study of supervisory dyads, highlighting how it addresses gaps in the literature. Methods/Design The study of 16–20 supervisor-supervisee dyads uses a qualitative mixed method design, with two phases. In phase one, supervisors who are nominated as expert by their peers are interviewed about their supervision practice. In phase two, supervisors record a supervision session with a consenting supervisee; interpersonal process recall interviews are conducted separately with supervisor and supervisee to reflect in depth on the teaching and learning processes occurring. All interviews will be transcribed, coded and analysed to identify the processes that build competence, using a modified form of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) strategies. Using a theory-building case study method, data from both phases of the study will be integrated to develop a model describing the processes that build competence and support wellbeing in practising psychotherapists, reflecting the accumulated wisdom of the expert supervisors. Discussion The study addresses past study limitations by examining expert supervisors and their supervisory interactions, by reflecting on actual supervision sessions, and by using dyadic analysis of the supervisory pairs. The study findings will inform the development of future supervision training and practice and identify fruitful avenues for future research.



Photoinduced charge separation and stabilization in clusters of a fullerene-aniline dyad  

SciTech Connect

Fullerene-bridge-aniline dyad and the model fulleropyrrolidine compound form stable, optically transparent clusters in mixtures (3:1) of acetonitrile and toluene. Ground- and excited-state properties of the clusters of the dyad and the model compound are compared with their corresponding monomeric forms. Clustering of the dyad as well as the model compound exhibits a red-shifted emission maximum ({lambda}{sub max} {approximately}738 nm) compared to their monomeric forms ({lambda}{sub max} {approximately}714 nm). The electron transfer from the appended electron donor moiety to the parent fullerene core in the dyad cluster is evident from the decreased ({approximately}80%) fluorescence yield. The formation of fullerene radical anion (absorption maximum at 1010nm) with a lifetime of several hundreds of microseconds was further confirmed using nanosecond laser (337 nm) flash photolysis experiments. In contrast, the dyad molecules in their monomeric form did not yield any detectable yield of C{sub 60} radical anion following laser pulse excitation. The failure to observe any charge-transfer intermediates following laser pulse excitation. The failure to observe any charge-transfer intermediates following laser pulse excitation, even in polar solvents such as benzonitrile or nitromethane, suggested that fast back-electron-transfer process must be operative in the monomeric dyad system. On the other hand, clustering of the fullerene-based dyads in a mixed-solvent system can provide a unique way to decrease the rate of back electron transfer, thus stabilizing the electron-transfer products.

Thomas, K.G.; Biju, V.; Guldi, D.M.; Kamat, P.V.; George, M.V.



Corrective Feedback via Instant Messenger Learning Activities in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examines corrective feedback in native speaker-nonna- tive speaker (NS-NNS) and NNS-NNS dyads while participants were engaged in communicative and problem-solving activities via Yahoo! Instant Messenger (YIM). As \\



Photo-induced charge transfer in fullerene-oligothiophene dyads - A quantum-chemical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excited states of fullerene-oligothiophene dyads were studied by quantum-chemical methods in respect of their theoretical suitability as solar-cell materials. Compared to the constituents a significant extension of the absorption spectra to the red has been found caused by optically excitable charge transfer states. These states seem to be responsible for the low energy conversion efficiency of fullerene-oligothiophene dyads in photovoltaic devices.

Beenken, Wichard J. D.



Low molecular weight Neutral Boron Dipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads for fluorescence-based neural imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutral low molecular weight julolidine-based borondipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads JULBD and MJULBD were used for fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neurons in the crab stomatogastric ganglion. The fluorescence modulation of the dyads mirrors alterations in the membrane potential of the imaged neurons. The toxicity of the dyes towards the neurons is related to their structure in that methyl groups at the 3,5 positions results in reduced toxic effects.

Bai, Dan; Benniston, Andrew C.; Clift, Sophie; Baisch, Ulrich; Steyn, Jannetta; Everitt, Nicola; Andras, Peter



Conflict Resolution in Parent-Adolescent DyadsThe Influence of Social Skills Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pretest and posttest experimental and control group study was completed, assessing the effectiveness of a commercially available social skills training program (Adolescent Social Skills Effectiveness Training; ASSET) for improving social skills and reducing family conflict in parent-adolescent dyads. The final sample included 18 experimental and 7 control parent-adolescent dyads with perceived conflict. All subjects were assessed on self-perceived and

D. Kim Openshaw; Thomas A. Mills; Gerald R. Adams; Deborah D. Durso



[Adolescent parenting – developmental risks for the mother-child dyad].  


Adolescent mothers and their children are exposed to multiple psychosocial risk factors and represent a high-risk group for adverse developmental outcomes. It is not the mother's young age alone which contributes to the developmental risk of the mother-child dyad. Rather, both the combination of risks, such as poverty, domestic violence, dysfunctional family relationships, or a psychiatric disorder, all of which predispose to adolescent pregnancy, as well as the strains of parenthood during the mother's own developmental stage add to the psychosocial risks of children of teenage mothers. Early motherhood can lead to lower levels of education and a lower socioeconomic status. In addition, there is a higher risk for psychopathology in both the teenage mother and her child. This article provides an overview of the current research findings regarding adolescent parenting and its associated risks. Risk factors leading to early motherhood are reviewed and associated with differences in parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children. This article will conclude with a short overview on intervention programs for adolescent mothers and their children. Further research is needed to develop age-appropriate support programs for adolescent mothers and their children to cope with the complexity of risks and improve their developmental trajectories. PMID:24240497

Dahmen, Brigitte; Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate



Sensitivity to the elements of pure-tone auditory dyads.  


Judgments of 15 college students for the presence of one or two tones in a dyad were obtained while both the distance between frequencies (from 129--258 to 488--976 c/s) and the musical interval (from Octaves to Major Thirds) were independently changed. When the critical bands of the constituent tones mainly overlapped, the percentage of correct responses was high and depended primarily upon the distance between frequencies as opposed to the musical interval. Percentage of correct responses decreased with the size of the interval when there was no encroachment of critical bands. It was concluded that critical-band theory could readily explain the data: when critical bands overlap, Ss used the presence of "roughness" to judge that the stimulus contained two tones; when there was no critical band overlap, there was no roughness and Ss had to analyze the tones separately. This was more difficult than simply listening for roughness, and the percentage of errors increased in consequence. PMID:549904

House, W J; Harm, O J



Cerebral-palsied children's interactions with siblings--II. Interactional structure.  


The interactions between 64 cerebral-palsied children and their siblings were compared to those of matched control dyads. Disabled children displayed pronounced deficits in initiating and directing social interactions. Their siblings, regardless of their age or birth order, took on the leadership role and maintained the positive but controlling stance which was also displayed by mothers of the disabled. Though hierarchical organization allowed the disabled dyads to function effectively, the siblings failed to experience the frequent challenges and the close, reciprocal style of interaction developed by control dyads. PMID:8340437

Dallas, E; Stevenson, J; McGurk, H



Intramolecular exciplex and intermolecular excimer formation of 1,8-naphthalimide-linker-phenothiazine dyads.  


Steady-state fluorescence spectra were measured for 1,8-naphthahlimide-linker-phenothiazine dyads (NI-L-PTZ, where L = octamethylenyl ((CH2)8) and 3,6,9-trioxaundecyl ((CH2CH2O)3C2H4)), NI-C8-PTZ and NI-O-PTZ, as well as the NI derivatives substituted on the nitrogen atom with various linker groups without PTZ as the reference NI molecule in n-hexane. Normal fluorescence peaks were observed at 367-369 nm in all NI molecules together with a broader emission around 470 nm, which is assigned to the excimer emission between the NI in the singlet excited state (1NI*) and the NI moiety of another NI molecule (1[NI/NI]*). In addition, a broad peak around 600 nm was observed only for NI-L-PTZ, which is assigned to an intramolecular exciplex emission between donor (PTZ) and acceptor (NI) moieties in the excited singlet state, 1[NI-L-NI]*. The formation of an intramolecular exciplex corresponds to the existence of a conformer with a weak face-to-face interaction between the NI and PTZ moieties in the excited state because of the long and flexible linkers. The excited-state dynamics of the NI molecules in n-hexane were established by means of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:16526687

Cho, Dae Won; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Park, Man Jae; Yoon, Ung Chan; Majima, Tetsuro



Intergenerational Relations for Drinking Motives: Invariant for Same- and Opposite-Sex Parent-Child Dyads?  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the similarity or dissimilarity of same-sex (e.g., mother–daughter) and opposite-sex (e.g., mother–son) associations for drinking motives across four pairings of parent–young adult child dyads. Method: Three waves of data spanning approximately 10 years in early to late young adulthood were used in conjunction with mother and father data to examine same-and cross-sex associations for drinking motives. Multiple group structural equation modeling was used to statistically model and evaluate these parent–young adult associations. Results: Findings indicated strong same-sex intergenerational transmission patterns for mother–daughter dyads relative to father–daughter dyads. The strength of relationships for father–son dyads was also stronger and significantly different than those for father–daughter dyads. There were no statistically significant differences between sex-specific intergenerational patterns for mother–son and father–son dyads or for mother–daughter and mother–son dyads. Although there was some generality and some specificity in the sex-specific intergenerational transmission patterns of drinking motives, when statistically significant, the transmission pattern generalized across all three drinking motives (coping, social, and enhancement). Conclusions: Intergenerational factors contributing to alcohol phenotypes may not be limited to the modeling of alcohol use or the occurrence of alcohol disorders but may also include cognitive–motivational systems of affective regulation related to the use of alcohol. Future research would benefit by focusing on how biogenetic and socialization factors contribute to same- and opposite-sex intergenerational patterns and how to use this information to strengthen intervention programs.

Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C.



Nanostructured thin films of C60-aniline dyad clusters: electrodeposition, charge separation, and photoelectrochemistry.  


Clusters of C60-aniline dyads are deposited as thin films on nanostructured SnO2 electrodes under the influence of an electric field. At low applied DC voltage (<5 V) the clusters in toluene/acetonitrile (1:3) mixed solvent grow in size (from 160 nm to approximately 200 nm in diameter) while at higher voltages (>50 V) they are deposited on the electrode surface as thin films. The C60- aniline dyad cluster films when cast on nanostructured SnO2 films are photoelectrochemically active and generate photocurrent under visible light excitation. These nanostructured fullerene films are capable of delivering relatively large photocurrents (up to approximately 0.2 mA cm(-2), photoconversion efficiency of 3-4%) when employed as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical cells. Both luminescence and transient absorption studies confirm the formation of charge transfer product (C60 anion) following UV/Vis excitation of these films. Photo-induced charge separation in these dyad clusters is followed by the electron injection from C60-anion moiety into the SnO2 nanocrystallites. The oxidized counterpart is reduced by the redox couple present in the electrolyte, thus regenerating the dyad clusters. The feasibility of casting high surface area thin fullerene films on electrode surfaces has opened up new avenues to utilize dyad molecules of sensitizer bridge donor type in light energy conversion devices, such as solar cells. PMID:11126952

Kamat, P V; Barazzouk, S; Hotchandani, S; Thomas, K G



Synthesis, conformational interconversion, and photophysics of tethered porphyrin-fullerene dyads with parachute topology.  


The synthesis of a porphyrin-fullerene dyad with "parachute" topology is reported. To determine whether the dyad is "flexing" at room temperature, low-temperature NMR experiments were used. Computational modeling has shown the low-energy conformation of the dyad to be nonsymmetric. Although, (1)H NMR spectroscopy at room temperature is consistent with a molecule with C(2v) symmetry, the spectrum changes on lowering the temperature consistent with "windshield wiper"-like motion, in which the porphyrin moiety rotates from one side of the C(60) sphere to the other. Nanosecond and picosecond fluorescence lifetime experiments show two components contribute to the fluorescence decay, also consistent with the presence of more than one conformer. PMID:19569134

Fazio, Michael A; Durandin, Alexander; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Niemi, Marja; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Schuster, David I



Fabrication and characteristics of fullerene-perylene dyad based organic photovoltaic cell.  


Fullerene is an acceptor material which is used most usually in organic photovoltaic cell. By the way, the reduction of electron mobility and the phase separation of conducting polymer and fullerene in the actual bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell limit further improvement of device performance. In order to overcome the problems, fabrication of hybrid planar mixed heterojunction cells and synthesis of donor-acceptor dyad have been studied. In the present work, we have synthesized fullerene-perylene dyad to improve the fullerene based photovoltaic cell. In order to explore the properties of the synthesized material, the measurements of absorption spectrum and energy level were carried out. We have investigated the energy conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cell consisting of ITO/PEDOT-PSS/MEH-PPV:fullerene-perylene dyad/Al. PMID:21780514

So, Byoung Min; Chung, Chan Moon; Oh, Se Young



Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States  

PubMed Central

A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. We propose and test a tridimensional model among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared with Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S. immigrant dyads (473 dyads, M adolescent age = 14 years). Jamaican immigrants evidence tridimensional acculturation, orienting toward Jamaican, African American, and European American cultures. Integration is favored (70%), particularly tricultural integration; moreover, Jamaican and other Black U.S. immigrants are more oriented toward African American than European American culture. Jamaican immigrant youth adapt at least as well as non-immigrant Jamaican and U.S. peers, although assimilated adolescents, particularly first generation, have worse sociocultural adaptation than integrated and separated adolescents.

Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.



Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others


Television's Effect on Eye Gaze, Topic Shift, Amount of Talk and Topical Agenda during Dyadic Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted of the ways people accommodate television in social interaction in contrast to the way they accommodate other individuals. Videotapes were made of five dyads--composed of members of a college speech course--who were told to wait in a small room before they were needed for a study. Each dyad was subjected to four…

Melton, Rex


High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Analysis of the ?_3/2?_4 Dyad of CF_4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CF_4 is a strong greenhouse gas of both anthropogenic and natural origin. However, high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of this molecule has received only a limited interest up to now. The public databases only contain cross-sections for this species, but no detailed line list. We reinvestigate here the strongly absorbing ?_3 region around 7.3 ?m. Two new Fourier transform infrared spectra at a 0.003 cm^{-1} resolution have been recorded: i) a room-temperature spectrum in a static cell with a 5 mb pressure and ii) a supersonic expansion jet spectrum at a 15 K estimated temperature. Following the work of Gabard et al., we perform a simultaneous analysis of both the ?_3 and 2?_4 bands since a strong Coriolis interaction occurs between them, perturbing the ?_3 R-branch rotational clusters around J=20. As in Ref. ref{gab}, we also include ?_3-?_3 microwave data in the fit. The analysis is performed thanks to the XTDS and SPVIEW programs. Compared to Ref. ref{gab}, the present work extends the analysis up to higher J values (56 instead of 32). Absorption intensities are estimated thanks to the dipole moment derivative value of D. Papoušek et al. and compare well with the experiment. The rotational energy surfaces for the ?_3/2?_4 dyad are also examined in order to understand the distribution of rovibrational levels. D. R. Worton, W. T. Sturges, L. K. Gohar et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 2184-2189 (2007). T. Gabard, G. Pierre and M. Takami, Mol. Phys. 85, 735-744 (1995) Ch. Wenger, V. Boudon, M. Rotger, M. Sanzharov and J.-P. Champion, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 251 102-113 (2008). D. Papoušek, Z. Papou\\vsková and D. P. Chong, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 15387-15395 (1995).

Boudon, V.; Domanskaya, A.; Maul, C.; Georges, R.; Mitchell, J.



High-resolution spectroscopy and analysis of the ?1/?3 stretching dyad of osmium tetroxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OsO4 is a heavy tetrahedral molecule that may constitute a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations. Its favorable spin statistics (due to the zero nuclear spin of oxygen atoms) is such that only A1 and A2 rovibrational levels are allowed, leading to a dense, but quite easily resolved spectrum. Most lines are single ones, instead of complex line clusters as in the case of other heavy spherical-tops like SF6, for instance. It is thus possible to fully assign and fit the spectrum and to obtain precise experimental effective molecular parameters. The strong ?3 stretching fundamental has been studied a long time ago as an isolated band [McDowell RS, Radziemski LJ, Flicker H, Galbraith HW, Kennedy RC, Nereson NG, et al. Journal of Chemical Physics 1978;88:1513-21; Bobin B, Valentin A, Henry L. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 1987;122:229-41]. We reinvestigate here this region and perform new assignments and effective Hamiltonian parameter fits for the four main isotopologues (192OsO4, 190OsO4, 189OsO4, 188OsO4), by considering the ?1/?3 stretching dyad. A new experimental spectrum has been recorded at room temperature, thanks to a Bruker IFS 125 HR interferometer and using a natural abundance OsO4 sample. Assignments and analyses were performed thanks to the SPVIEW and XTDS softwares, respectively [Wenger Ch, Boudon V, Rotger M, Sanzharov M, Champion J-P. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 2008;251:102-13]. We provide precise effective Hamiltonian parameters, including band centers and Coriolis interaction parameters. We discuss isotopic shifts and estimate the band centers for the three minor isotopologues (187OsO4, 186OsO4, 184OsO4). The Q branches of the first two of them are clearly identified in the experimental spectrum.

Louviot, M.; Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Roy, P.; Balcon, D.



Counseling Supervisors' Assessment of Race, Racial Identity, and Working Alliance in Supervisory Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the role of race, racial identity attitudes and working alliance in counseling supervision using data obtained from supervisors in supervisory dyads. Results revealed the strongest working alliance for supervisor-supervisee pairs with high racial identity development and the weakest working alliance for pairs with low…

Bhat, Christine Suniti; Davis, Thomas E.



A novel BF2-chelated azadipyrromethene-fullerene dyad: synthesis, electrochemistry and photodynamics.  


The synthesis, structure, electrochemistry and photodynamics of a BF(2)-chelated azadipyrromethene-fullerene dyad are reported in comparison with BF(2)-chelated azadipyrromethene without fullerene. The attachment of fullerene resulted in efficient generation of the triplet excited state of the azadipyrromethene via photoinduced electron transfer. PMID:22083226

Amin, Anu N; El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Subbaiyan, Navaneetha K; Zandler, Melvin E; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; D'Souza, Francis



Developments of novel nanomaterials by combining short-chain dyad with semiconductor nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role of semiconductor nanoparticles in the different photophysical processes of short-chain organic dyads having photoswitchable character has been discussed. Further improvements in efficiency of these light energy conversion devices by using metal-semiconductor core-shell (hybrid structure) nanocomposites have been hinted at.

Amrita Chakraborty; Tapan Ganguly



Computational design of catalytic dyads and oxyanion holes for ester hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Nucleophilic catalysis is a general strategy for accelerating ester and amide hydrolysis. In natural active sites, nucleophilic elements such as catalytic dyads and triads are usually paired with oxyanion-holes for substrate activation, but it is difficult to parse out the independent contributions of these elements or to understand how they emerged in the course of evolution. Here we explore the minimal requirements for esterase activity by computationally designing artificial catalysts using catalytic dyads and oxyanion holes. We found much higher success rates using designed oxyanion holes formed by backbone NH groups rather than by sidechains or bridging water molecules and obtained four active designs in different scaffolds by combining this motif with a Cys-His dyad. Following active site optimization, the most active of the variants exhibited a catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) of 400 M?1s?1 for the cleavage of a p-nitrophenyl ester. Kinetic experiments indicate that the active site cysteines are rapidly acylated as programmed by design, but the subsequent slow hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate limits overall catalytic efficiency. Moreover, the Cys-His dyads are not properly formed in crystal structures of the designed enzymes. These results highlight the challenges that computational design must overcome to achieve high levels of activity.

Richter, Florian; Blomberg, Rebecca; Khare, Sagar D.; Kiss, Gert; Kuzin, Alexandre P.; Smith, Adam J. T.; Gallaher, Jasmine; Pianowski, Zbigniew; Helgeson, Roger C.; Grjasnow, Alexej; Xiao, Rong; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Su, Min; Vorobiev, Sergey; Lew, Scott; Forouhar, Farhad; Kornhaber, Gregory J.; Hunt, John F.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Tong, Liang; Houk, K.N.; Hilvert, Donald; Baker, David



Nonverbal Communication Among Black Female Dyads: An Assessment of Intimacy, Gender, and Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied three types of nonverbal intimacy cues (smiling behavior, eye contact, and synchronous leaning forward) in Black female, Black male, and White male dyads. Results indicated that combined effects of race and gender make it incorrect to generalize previous research on "Blacks" or on "women" to Black women. (GC)

Smith, Althea



Intramolecular electron transfer in fullerene/ferrocene based donor-bridge-acceptor dyads  

SciTech Connect

A systematic steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved flash photolytic investigation of a series of covalently linked fullerene/ferrocene based donor-bridge-acceptor dyads is reported as a function of the nature of the spacer between the donor site (ferrocene) and acceptor site (fullerene) and the dielectric constant of the medium. The fluorescence of the investigated dyads 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 in methylcyclohexane at 77 K were substantially quenched, relative to N-methylfulleropyrrolidine 1, indicating intramolecular quenching of the fullerene excited singlet state. Excitation of N-methylfulleropyrrolidine revealed the immediate formation of the excited singlet state, with {lambda}{sub max} around 886 nm. A rapid intersystem crossing ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 1.2 ps ) to the excited triplet state was observed with characteristic absorption around 705 nm. Picosecond resolved photolysis of dyads 2-6 in toluene showed light-induced formation of the excited singlet state which undergoes rapid intramolecular quenching. Nanosecond-resolved photolysis of dyads 3 and 4 in degassed benzonitrile revealed long-lived charge separated states with characteristic fullerene radical-anion bands at {lambda}{sub max} = 1055 nm. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Guldi, D.M. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)] [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Maggini, M.; Scorrano, G. [Universita di Padova (Italy)] [Universita di Padova (Italy); Prato, M. [Universita di Trieste (Italy)] [Universita di Trieste (Italy)



The Impact Message Inventory: A New Measure of Relationship in Counseling/Psychotherapy and Other Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Impact Message Inventory assesses momentary emotional and other engagements of one person by another during transactions in counseling/psychotherapy and other dyads. This study supports circumplex ordering of the inventory's 15 interpersonal subscales. Impact messages do not consistently occupy a two-factor space around axes of status and…

Perkins, Michael J.; And Others



Effects of a Cooperative Learning Program on the Elaborations of Students Working in Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effects of a school improvement program on cooperative learning (CL) with respect to the elaborations of 6th grade students working in mixed ability and mixed sex dyads on 2 cooperative tasks were examined. A post test only design with a control group was used to investigate the provision and receipt of elaborations within the…

Krol, Karen; Janssen, Jeroen; Veenman, Simon; van der Linden, Jos



[Influence of ferulic acid on the pain-depression dyad induced by reserpine].  


This study is to offer a clinical pain-depression dyad therapy of ferulic acid, the pain-depression dyad induced by reserpine was established and the dose-effect relationship of ferulic acid on ameliorating pain-depression dyad was explored. Mice were randomly divided into control group, reserpine + vechile and reserpine + ferulic acid (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg x kg(-1)) groups. The reserpine treated mice were tested with thermal hyperalgesia, mechanicial allodynia and forced swimming tests, and the SOD and NO levels of hippocampus and frontal cortex were measured. Moreover, the HPLC-ECD was used to detect the changes of central monoamines concentrations. Compared with control group, reserpine can induce a significant decrease in the nociceptive threshold and increase in the immobility time of the forced swimming test. The results suggested that reserpine significantly increased the level of nitrite in hippocampus and frontal cortex and reduced the levels of SOD, 5-HT and NE in these two brain regions. However, these indexes can be a dose-dependently reversed by ferulic acid (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg x kg(-1)). Ferulic acid can reverse pain-depression dyad, especially at the dose of 80 mg x kg(-1). In addition, it can influence oxidative stress and monoamine level. PMID:23600138

Zhang, Lu; Wang, Qian-Dong; Shi, Hua-Meng; Pan, Jian-Chun



Revisiting the Generation Gap: Exploring the Relationships of Parent/Adult-Child Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is some evidence that older parents and their adult children may evaluate their relationships with each other in different ways. To date, we know little about what may account for these discrepancies. This investigation compares the perceptions of intergenerational solidarity among 2,590 adult-child/older-parent dyads from the National…

Shapiro, Adam



Corrective Feedback via Instant Messenger Learning Activities in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examines corrective feedback in native speaker-nonnative speaker (NS-NNS) and NNS-NNS dyads while participants were engaged in communicative and problem-solving activities via "Yahoo! Instant Messenger" (YIM). As "negotiation of meaning" studies of the 1990s have shown, linguistic items which learners negotiate in…

Sotillo, Susana



Custodial Grandmother-Grandfather Dyads: Pathways among Marital Distress, Grandparent Dysphoria, Parenting Practice, and Grandchild Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on…

Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.



Multichannel-Emissive V-Shaped Boryl-BODIPY Dyads: Synthesis, Structure, and Remarkably Diverse Response toward Fluoride.  


Three new V-shaped boryl-BODIPY dyads (1-3) were synthesized and structurally characterized. Compounds 1-3 are structurally close molecular siblings differing only in the number of methyl substituents on the BODIPY moiety that were found to play a major role in determining their photophysical behavior. The dyads show rare forms of multiple-channel emission characteristics arising from different extents of electronic energy transfer (EET) processes between the two covalently linked fluorescent chromophores (borane and BODIPY units). Insights into the origin and nature of their emission behavior were gained from comparison with closely related model molecular systems and related photophysical investigations. Because of the presence of the Lewis acidic triarylborane moiety, the dyads function as highly selective and sensitive fluoride sensors with vastly different response behaviors. When fluoride binds to the tricoordinate borane center, dyad 1 shows gradual quenching of its BODIPY-dominated emission due to the ceasing of the (borane to BODIPY) EET process. Dyad 2 shows a ratiometric fluorescence response for fluoride ions. Dyad 3 forms fluoride-induced nanoaggregates that result in fast and effective quenching of its fluorescence intensity just for ?0.3 ppm of analyte (i.e., 0.1 equiv ? 0.26 ppm of fluoride). The small structural alterations in these three structurally close dyads (1-3) result in exceptionally versatile and unique photophysical behaviors and remarkably diverse responses toward a single analyte, i.e., fluoride ion. PMID:24801770

Swamy P, Chinna Ayya; Mukherjee, Sanjoy; Thilagar, Pakkirisamy



Protein Geometry and Placement in the Cardiac Dyad Influence Macroscopic Properties of Calcium-Induced Calcium Release  

PubMed Central

In cardiac ventricular myocytes, events crucial to excitation-contraction coupling take place in spatially restricted microdomains known as dyads. The movement and dynamics of calcium (Ca2+) ions in the dyad have often been described by assigning continuously valued Ca2+ concentrations to one or more dyadic compartments. However, even at its peak, the estimated number of free Ca2+ ions present in a single dyad is small (?10–100 ions). This in turn suggests that modeling dyadic calcium dynamics using laws of mass action may be inappropriate. In this study, we develop a model of stochastic molecular signaling between L-type Ca2+ channels (LCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) that describes: a), known features of dyad geometry, including the space-filling properties of key dyadic proteins; and b), movement of individual Ca2+ ions within the dyad, as driven by electrodiffusion. The model enables investigation of how local Ca2+ signaling is influenced by dyad structure, including the configuration of key proteins within the dyad, the location of Ca2+ binding sites, and membrane surface charges. Using this model, we demonstrate that LCC-RyR2 signaling is influenced by both the stochastic dynamics of Ca2+ ions in the dyad as well as the shape and relative positioning of dyad proteins. Results suggest the hypothesis that the relative placement and shape of the RyR2 proteins helps to “funnel” Ca2+ ions to RyR2 binding sites, thus increasing excitation-contraction coupling gain.

Tanskanen, Antti J.; Greenstein, Joseph L.; Chen, Alex; Sun, Sean X.; Winslow, Raimond L.



The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.



Factors Affecting Co-Operative vs. Competitive Behavior in Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretical interpretations of cooperation and competition are discussed in relation to motivational and situational determinants. It is suggested that the degree of competition exhibited in an interaction is an inverse function of the quantity of resources available, and that the effect of situational characteristics on cooperative behavior is…

O'Day, Gerald; Phelan, Joseph G.


Rough-and-Tumble Play and the Regulation of Aggression: An Observational Study of Father-Child Play Dyads  

PubMed Central

Rough-and-tumble play (RTP) is a common form of play between fathers and children. It has been suggested that RTP can contribute to the development of selfregulation. This study addressed the hypothesis that the frequency of father–child RTP is related to the frequency of physically aggressive behavior in early childhood. This relationship was expected to be moderated by the dominance relationship between father and son during play. Eighty-five children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were videotaped during a free-play session with their fathers in their homes and questionnaire data was collected about father–child RTP frequency during the past year. The play dyads were rated for the degree to which the father dominated play interactions. A significant statistical interaction revealed that RTP frequency was associated with higher levels of physical aggression in children whose fathers were less dominant. These results indicate that RTP is indeed related to physical aggression, though this relationship is moderated by the degree to which the father is a dominant playmate.

Flanders, Joseph L.; Leo, Vanessa; Paquette, Daniel; Pihl, Robert O.; Seguin, Jean R.



Energy transfer at the single-molecule level: synthesis of a donor-acceptor dyad from perylene and terrylene diimides.  


In 2004, we reported single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer (spFRET), based on a perylene diimide (PDI) and terrylene diimide (TDI) dyad (1) that was bridged by a rigid substituted para-terphenyl spacer. Since then, several further single-molecule-level investigations on this specific compound have been performed. Herein, we focus on the synthesis of this dyad and the different approaches that can be employed. An optimized reaction pathway was chosen, considering the solubilities, reactivities, and accessibilities of the building blocks for each individual reaction whilst still using established synthetic techniques, including imidization, Suzuki coupling, and cyclization reactions. The key differentiating consideration in this approach to the synthesis of dyad 1 is the introduction of functional groups in a nonsymmetrical manner onto either the perylene diimide or the terrylene diimide by using imidization reactions. Combined with well-defined purification conditions, this modified approach allows dyad 1 to be obtained in reasonable quantities in good yield. PMID:23780819

Kim, Ha Na; Puhl, Larissa; Nolde, Fabian; Li, Chen; Chen, Long; Basché, Thomas; Müllen, Klaus



Effect of Side Chains on Charge Transfer in Quaterthiophene-Naphthalene Diimide Based Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Dyads  

SciTech Connect

We have probed the effect of side chains on the charge transfer dynamics in dyads containing quaterthiophene (QT) donor and naphthalene diimide (NDI) acceptor. The donor and the acceptor are covalently linked using a flexible linker. Four dyads (1–4) were synthesized with the quaterthiophene bearing hexyl side chain and the naphthalene diimide bearing hydrocarbon, fluorocarbon, branched or polar side chains. The UV-Vis spectra for these dyads showed the existence of a donor-acceptor complex. The time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) decay studies show a rapid quenching of fluorescence in all the dyads upon excitation of the donor. We found that the side chains on the NDI did not alter the quenching rates in solution.

Bheemaraju, A.; Pourmand, M.; Yang, B.; Surampudi, S.; Benanti, T.; Achermann, M.; Barnes, M. D.; Venkataraman, D.



Protein Geometry and Placement in the Cardiac Dyad Influence Macroscopic Properties of Calcium-Induced Calcium Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cardiac ventricular myocytes, events crucial to excitation-contraction coupling take place in spatially restricted microdomains known as dyads. The movement and dynamics of calcium (Ca2+) ions in the dyad have often been described by assigning continuously valued Ca2+ concentrations to one or more dyadic compartments. However, even at its peak, the estimated number of free Ca2+ ions present in a

Antti J. Tanskanen; Joseph L. Greenstein; Alex Chen; Sean X. Sun; Raimond L. Winslow



The role of the nurse-physician leadership dyad in implementing the baby-friendly hospital initiative.  


The concept of the nurse-physician leadership dyad incorporates the expertise of both nurses and physicians as leaders of change within health system environments. The leadership dyad model has been used traditionally in health care administrative settings to manage utilization of resources more effectively. Because the Baby-Friendly designation requires major cultural shifts in long-standing maternity care practices, an interdisciplinary approach to implementation is necessary. PMID:24939200

St Fleur, Rose; McKeever, Joyce



Enhanced accuracy of single-molecule diffusion measurements with a photocleavable energy-transfer dyad.  


A photocleavable energy-transfer dyad was synthesized, characterized, and applied to single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. After photocleavage, a combination of independent two-color single-molecule tracking and analysis of single-molecule energy-transfer efficiencies allows the determination of the temporal evolution of the relative distances between both fragments from the nm to the ?m scale. This gives access to a broad range of diffusion coefficients. PMID:24222580

Dill, Maren; Baier, Moritz C; Mecking, Stefan; Wöll, Dominik



Spectral, electrochemical, and photophysical studies of a magnesium porphyrin-fullerene dyad.  


A covalently linked magnesium porphyrin-fullerene (MgPo-C60) dyad was synthesized and its spectral, electrochemical, molecular orbital, and photophysical properties were investigated and the results were compared to the earlier reported zinc porphyrin-fullerene (ZnPo-C60) dyad. The ab initio B3LYP/3-21G(*) computed geometry and electronic structure of the dyad predicted that the HOMO and LUMO are mainly localized on the MgP and C60 units, respectively. In o-dichlorobenzene containing 0.1 M (n-Bu)4NClO4, the synthesized dyad exhibited six one-electron reversible redox reactions within the potential window of the solvent. The oxidation and reduction potentials of the MgP and C60 units indicate stabilization of the charge-separated state. The emission, monitored by both steady-state and time-resolved techniques, revealed efficient quenching of the singlet excited state of the MgP and C60 units. The quenching pathway of the singlet excited MgP moiety involved energy transfer to the appended C60 moiety, generating the singlet excited C60 moiety, from which subsequent charge-separation occurred. The charge recombination rates, k(CR), evaluated from nanosecond transient absorption studies, were found to be 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than the charge separation rate, k(CS). In o-dichlorobenzene, the lifetime of the radical ion-pair, MgPo*+-C60*-, was found to be 520 ns which is longer than that of ZnPo*+-C60*- indicating better charge stabilization in MgPo-C60. Additional prolongation of the lifetime of MgPo*+-C60*- was achieved by coordinating nitrogenous axial ligands. The solvent effect in controlling the rates of forward and reverse electron transfer is also investigated. PMID:16240027

El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Araki, Yasuyuki; Ito, Osamu; Gadde, Suresh; McCarty, Amy L; Karr, Paul A; Zandler, Melvin E; D'Souza, Francis



Custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads: Pathways among marital distress, grandparent dysphoria, parenting practice, and grandchild adjustment  

PubMed Central

An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on grandchildren's adjustment difficulties were mediated by dysfunctional parenting. The effects of family-related contextual forces on grandchildren's adjustment were also indirect through direct effects on grandparents’ psychological and marital distress.

Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.



Effect of geometrical orientation on the charge transfer energetics of supramolecular (tetraphenyl)-porphyrin/fullerens dyads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our study of several low lying charge-transfer (CT) excitation energies for a widely used donor-acceptor system composed of a porphyrin-fullerene pair. The dyad systems consist of C60 and C70 acceptor systems coupled to tetraphenyl-porphyrin (TPP) and tetraphenyl-(zinc)porphyrin (ZnTPP) donor systems in a co-facial orientation. We find that replacing C60 by C70 in a given dyad may increase the lowest charge transfer excitation energy by about 0.27 eV, whereas varying the donor in these complexes had marginal effect on the lowest charge transfer excitation energy. Additionally, we examined the effect of geometrical orientation on the CT energy by calculating several CT excited state energies for an end-on orientation of the porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The CT excitation energies are larger for the end-on orientation in comparison to the co-facial orientation by 0.6 eV - 0.75 eV. The difference is attributed to a reduced exciton binding energy in going from the co-facial to the end-on orientation.

Olguin, Marco; Zope, Rajendra; Baruah, Tunna



Component analysis of dyads designed for light-driven water oxidation.  


A series of seven dyad molecules have been prepared utilizing a [Ru(tpy)(NN)I](+) type oxidation catalyst (NN = 2,5-di(pyrid-2'-yl) pyrazine (1), 2,5-di-(1',8'-dinaphthyrid-2'-yl) pyrazine (2), or 4,6-di-(1',8'-dinaphthyrid-2'-yl) pyrimidine (3). The other bidentate site of the bridging ligand was coordinated with 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), or a substituted derivative. These dinuclear complexes were characterized by their (1)H NMR spectra paying special attention to protons held in the vicinity of the electronegative iodide. In one case, 10a, the complex was also analyzed by single crystal X-ray analysis. The electronic absorption spectra of all the complexes were measured and reported as well as emission properties for the sensitizers. Oxidation and reduction potentials were measured and excited state redox properties were calculated from this data. Turnover numbers, initial rates, and induction periods for oxygen production in the presence of a blue LED light and sodium persulfate as a sacrificial oxidant were measured. Similar experiments were run without irradiation. Dyad performance correlated well with the difference between the excited state reduction potential of the photosensitizer and the ground state oxidation potential of the water oxidation dyad. The most active system was one having 5,6-dibromophen as the auxiliary ligand, and the least active system was the one having 4,4'-dimethylbpy as the auxiliary ligand. PMID:24364791

Kohler, Lars; Kaveevivitchai, Nattawut; Zong, Ruifa; Thummel, Randolph P



Quantum dot-phenanthroline dyads: detection of double-stranded DNA using a photoinduced hole transfer mechanism.  


We have developed a new fluorescent probe based on direct conjugation between 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and water-soluble thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) for the detection of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Phen could directly adsorb onto the QDs surface by metal-affinity driven coordination, quenching the photoluminescence (PL) of QDs via the photoinduced hole transfer process; addition of dsDNA would bring the restoration of QDs PL, as Phen could intercalate into dsDNA followed by its dissociation from the QDs surface. The dependence of QDs PL on the dsDNA amount as well as temperature was utilized to investigate the Phen-dsDNA interaction. The obtained binding constant of the QD-Phen dyad was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that of Phen-based metal complexes. Both the binding constant and the binding site of dsDNA with Phen increased with the elevated temperature, owing to an endothermic process. At 37 °C, sensitive detection of dsDNA with a detection limit of ~3 nmol L(-1) was achieved. Therefore, the QD-molecule direct conjugation based fluorescent probe could provide an effective alternative to those based on QD-bioconjugation and QD-ionic conjugation. PMID:23223338

Zhang, Lu; Zhu, Kao; Ding, Tao; Hu, Xianyun; Sun, Qingjiang; Xu, Chunxiang



Fluorescence photoswitching and photoreversible two-way energy transfer in a photochrome-fluorophore dyad.  


A thorough photophysical study of a photochrome-fluorophore dyad (3), combining a fluorescent laser dye (DCM-type, , ?(1) = 0.27) and a photochromic diarylethene (2), obtained by click chemistry, is presented. In addition to photochromism, the open form (OF) of 2 exhibits fluorescence (?(-OF) = 0.016), whereas the closed form (CF) does not. Fluorescence is switched upon alternate UV/visible irradiation of 2. The emission band of 2-OF matches the absorption band of 1 (400-550 nm), whereas the emission band of 1 overlaps the absorption band of 2-CF (550-700 nm). Therefore, a photoreversible two-way excitation energy transfer (EET), controlled by the state of the photochromic moiety, is obtained in the dyad 3. Their efficiencies are quantified as ?(EET)(OF?F) = 85% and as ?(EET)(F?CF) ~ 100% from the comparison of emission and excitation spectra between 1, 2, and 3. These results are fully compatible with the shortening of fluorescence lifetimes (from ?(-OF) = 70 ps and 170 ps essentially to ?(-OF) < 10 ps) and to the values of Förster radii determined for 3 (R(0)(OF ? F) = 29 Å and R(0)(F ? CF) = 71 Å), evidencing a Förster-type resonance energy transfer mechanism (FRET). An important outcome of this two-way FRET is the possibility to quench 49% of the fluorescence in 3 at PSS upon UV irradiation, corresponding to the conversion extent of the photochromic reaction, which is different from 2 (?(CF) = 91%). This is a clear example of a situation where the presence of FRET between the photochromic unit and the fluorophore affects noticeably the photochromic properties of the dyad molecule 3. PMID:22868638

Ouhenia-Ouadahi, Karima; Métivier, Rémi; Maisonneuve, Stéphane; Jacquart, Aurélie; Xie, Juan; Léaustic, Anne; Yu, Pei; Nakatani, Keitaro



Sibling Interaction in the Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of the interaction between first- and second-born preschool-aged siblings in a naturalistic setting investigates imitative, prosocial and agonistic (aggressive) behavior in terms of age, sex and spacing variables. Thirty-four dyads of same sex siblings were observed for two 1-hour periods in their homes. The younger siblings averaged 20…

Abramovitch, Rona; And Others


Autoregulation of fos: the dyad symmetry element as the major target of repression.  

PubMed Central

Fos and Jun co-operatively repress the fos promoter. Removal of all putative Fos/Jun binding sites from the fos promoter neither obliterates the repression by Fos/Jun in transient cotransfection experiments in NIH3T3 cells nor the turn-off kinetics of serum-induced fos expression in stably transfected NIH3T3 cells. The dyad symmetry element (DSE) suffices to subject a promoter to this type of repression. However, one of the putative Fos/Jun binding sites (-292 to -299 and thus located immediately adjacent to the DSE), determines the very low level of basal expression. Images

Konig, H; Ponta, H; Rahmsdorf, U; Buscher, M; Schonthal, A; Rahmsdorf, H J; Herrlich, P



[Multidisciplinary care during peripartum: mother-baby dyad in the center of the relational constellations].  


Pregnancy and new motherhood may be crisis and vulnerability periods and therefore increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. Liaison psychiatry plays a major role in the first psychiatric evaluation of mothers in order to specify a diagnosis and to initiate a treatment when necessary. This article describes the care of mothers suffering from peripartum psychiatric disorders by the liaison psychiatry in the maternity ward, an outpatient practice, as well as an in-patient care unit where mother and baby can stay together. The multidisciplinary approach and its constellation around the mother-baby dyad are detailed and two clinical cases are reported. PMID:23477067

Girard, E; Ortiz, N; Alberque, C; Almeida Heymans, A; Epiney, M; Canuto, A; Weber, K



An electrochemical and photophysical study of a covalently linked inorganic-organic dyad.  


A molecular donor-acceptor dyad comprising a hexarhenium cluster core, [Re(6)(mu(3)-Se)(8)](2+), and a fullerene moiety which are covalently linked through a pyridine ligand was synthesized and fully characterized. The electrochemical and photophysical properties are reported. The detailed study includes cyclic voltammetry, steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, radiation chemistry and transient absorption spectroscopy. A light-induced electron transfer between the inorganic cluster moiety and the fullerene can be excluded. However, a light-induced energy transfer from the rhenium cluster to the fullerene is proposed. PMID:20052701

Kahnt, Axel; Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; Liu, Shi-Xia; Tu, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Zhiping; Hauser, Andreas; Decurtins, Silvio; Guldi, Dirk M



Social Interaction of Children with and without Learning Disabilities in Dyads and Small Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate differences in social behavior between learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (NLD) children in different size groups and to examine the association between children's social behavior and acceptance by their peers, a study was conducted of 44 LD and 50 NLD boys and 7 LD and 13 NLD girls from fourth, fifth, and sixth grade…

Wiener, Judith; Harris, P. J.


Input, Interaction, and Second Language Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship among input, interaction, and second-language production among 16 native-nonnative dyads. The results indicated that both modified input and interaction initiated by the native speaker lead to greater comprehension by the nonnative speaker, as measured by task performance. (Contains 48 references.) (MDM)

Gass, Susan M.; Varonis, Evangeline Marlos



Photoinduced electron transfer in a ferrocene-distyryl BODIPY dyad and a ferrocene-distyryl BODIPY-C60 triad.  


A ferrocene-distyryl BODIPY dyad and a ferrocene-distyryl BODIPY-C(60) triad are synthesized and characterized. Upon photoexcitation at the distyryl BODIPY unit, these arrays undergo photoinduced electron transfer to form the corresponding charge-separated species. Based on their redox potentials, determined by cyclic voltammetry, the direction of the charge separation and the energies of these states are revealed. Femtosecond transient spectroscopic studies reveal that a fast charge separation (k(CS) =1.0×10(10) s(-1)) occurs for both the ferrocene-distyryl BODIPY dyad and the ferrocene-distyryl BODIPY-C(60) triad, but that a relatively slow charge recombination is observed only for the triad. The lifetime of the charge-separated state is 500 ps. Charge recombination of the dyad and triad leads to population of the triplet excited sate of ferrocene and the ground state, respectively. PMID:22505287

Liu, Jian-Yong; El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ng, Dennis K P



Fluorescent photoswitching of a naphthopyran-benzimidazole dyad with high-degree fluorescent modulation within poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A naphthopyran-bridge-benzimidazole dyad which exhibits both fluorescence and photochromism was synthesized and its fluorescence photoswitching was investigated. Irradiation with UV light induces the isomerization of the naphthopyran component to the corresponding merocyanine. The fluorescence of the dyad was switched reversibly between on and off upon UV irradiation and thermal bleaching of the naphthopyran. Using ultraviolet illumination a pattern was created on a polymethylmethacrylate doped film with the dyad. Thus either a non-destructive photoswitch or an image recording system becomes available. The measurement of redox potentials by cyclic voltammetry combined with electronic spectra and a molecular energy diagram of the individual naphthopyran and benzimidazole demonstrated that the transformation of naphthopyran induced energy and electron transfer from the fluorescent benzimidazole to the photochromic naphthopyran, a feature which was also supported by our DFT calculations.

Wang, Shuangqing; Si, Yanling; Tong, Cuiyan; Wang, Guang; Qi, Bin; Yang, Guochun



Zeolite-entrapped organized molecular assemblies. New evidence for highly efficient adjacent cage dyad formation and constrained rotational mobility of tris-ligated polypyridine complexes.  


The primary objectives of the present work are to investigate the extent to which an entrapped, tris-ligated polypyridine complex of divalent ruthenium is restricted from rotating within the supercage of Y-zeolite and to provide additional evidence for the high efficiency of synthetic procedures developed for the preparation of adjacent cage dyads entrapped within the Y-zeolite framework. Specifically, the Y-zeolite entrapped complex, Z-[Ru(bpy)(2)(pypz)(2+) ] (where the prefix, Z, indicated a zeolite entrapped complex, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine and pypz = 2-2-pyridylpyrazine), which contains only one reactive peripheral nitrogen atom, is shown to react with the reagent, (H(2)O)Ru(NH(3))(5)(2+), to yield the entrapped Z-[Ru(bpy)(2)(pypz)-Ru(NH(3))(5)](4+) complex. Treatment with a large excess of bpy, according to previously documented procedures, leads to the formation of the entrapped adjacent cage dyad, Z-[Ru(bpy)(2)(pypz)(2+)/Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)], wherein the two-component complexes are entrapped in adjacent supercages. Spectroscopic measurements confirm the integrity of the component complexes and document a strong interaction between them. Most importantly, it is shown that a second treatment of this material with a large excess of the[(H(2)O)Ru(NH(3))(5)](2+) reagent does not lead to formation of significant amounts of Z-[Ru(bpy)(2)(pypz)-Ru(NH(3))(5)](4+); i.e., the presence of the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) in the cage adjacent to the primary complex shields the latter from further reaction with the ruthenium pentammine reagent. This result demonstrates that, during the formation of the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) secondary complex, the detached Ru(NH(3))(5)(2+) fragment does not drift into remote supercages, thereby providing unequivocal evidence for the high efficiency of the synthetic procedure for adjacent cage dyad formation. Furthermore, this result also makes it clear that rotation of the tris-ligated primary complex is restricted by the confinement of the Y-zeolite supercage to the extent that the single reactive peripheral nitrogen cannot be repositioned to a different window of the surrounding supercage. PMID:11421690

Szulbinski, W S; Ma'nuel, D J; Kincaid, J R



Photoinduced electron transfer processes in 1,8-naphthalimide-linker-phenothiazine dyads.  


Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes of 1,8-naphthalimide-linker-phenothiazine (NI-L-PTZ) dyads have been investigated using the nanosecond- and picosecond-transient absorption measurements. Two kinds of linker were introduced, i.e., polymethylene-linked dyad (NI-C8-PTZ and NI-C11-PTZ) and a poly(ethyl ether)-linked one (NI-O-PTZ). The 355 nm pulsed laser excitation of NI-C8-PTZ, NI-C11-PTZ, and NI-O-PTZ in acetonitrile produced NI radical anion (NI*-) and PTZ radical cation (PTZ*+) with the absorption bands around 420 and 520 nm, respectively, through charge transfer from PTZ to NI in the singlet excited state (NI(S1)) as well as in the triplet excited states (NI(T1)) in acetonitrile. On the other hand, the charge transfer process occurred only from NI(S1) in nonpolar solvents. The rates of charge transfer and charge recombination processes largely depended on the solvent polarity and they are affected by the length of linkers and electronic coupling through polyether linker. The PET mechanism is discussed in terms of the free energy change for the charge transfer. PMID:16771366

Cho, Dae Won; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Sugimoto, Akira; Yoon, Ung Chan; Mariano, Patrick S; Majima, Tetsuro



Longitudinal Effects of Health-Harming and Health-Protective Behaviors within Adolescent Romantic Dyads  

PubMed Central

Most models exploring adolescent health behavior have focused on individual influences to understand behavior change. The goal of the current study was to assess the role of adolescent romantic partners on the expression of health behavior. Our sample utilized two waves of data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994, 1996), which included 80 romantic dyads (160 individuals). A longitudinal multilevel analysis was conducted. We assessed individual and romantic partner health-harming behaviors (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, smoking, and marijuana use), health-protective behaviors (i.e., physical activity, physical inactivity, sleep patterns, seatbelt use, and contraception motivations), as well as the role of gender and age. Participants average age was 16 years at baseline. We found evidence for partner similarity and partner influence with the majority of health-harming behaviors. Specifically, partner influence was evident for smoking and alcohol use with partner influence approaching significance for marijuana use. We found limited evidence for partner similarity and partner influence for health-protective behaviors. The importance of assessing romantic dyads was evident in these data. Interventions focusing on health-harming behavior for adolescent populations are important public health goals. It is recommended that future intervention efforts with adolescent health-harming behaviors should target not only peers, but also consider the role of romantic partners.

Aalsma, Matthew C.; Carpentier, Melissa; Azzouz, Faouzi; Fortenberry, Dennis



Curcumin ameliorates reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad: behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and molecular evidences.  


An apparent clinical relationship between pain and depression has long been recognized. Depression and pain are often diagnosed in the same patients. The emerging concept for pain-depression pathogenesis is the dysfunction of biogenic amine-mediated pain-depression control and the possible involvement of nitrodative stress-induced neurogenic inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad in rats. Administration of reserpine (1mg/kg subcutaneous daily for three consecutive days) led to a significant decrease in nociceptive threshold as evident from reduced paw withdrawal threshold in Randall Sellitto and von-Frey hair test as well as significant increase in immobility time in forced swim test. This behavioural deficit was integrated with decrease in the biogenic amine (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) levels along with increased substance P concentration, nitrodative stress, inflammatory cytokines, NF-?? and caspase-3 levels in different brain regions (cortex and hippocampus) of the reserpinised rats. Curcumin (100, 200, 300mg/kg; ip) dose dependently ameliorated the behavioural deficits associated with pain and depression by restoring behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and molecular alterations against reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad in rats. PMID:21612876

Arora, V; Kuhad, A; Tiwari, V; Chopra, K



Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of a pyrene-flavin dyad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrene-flavin (isoalloxazine) dyad, PFD {C 44H 31N 5O 5; CA Index name: 1-pyrenepropanoic acid, ?-[[4,10-dihydro-2,4-dioxo-10-phenylbenzo[g]pteridin-3(2H)-yl)acetyl]amino]-, phenylmethyl ester, (?R)-(9Cl); CA Registry number: 618907-57-6}, dissolved in either dichloromethane or acetonitrile is characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Absorption cross-section spectra, stimulated emission cross-section spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, quantum yields, and degrees of fluorescence polarisation are determined. The fluorescence decay after femtosecond pulse excitation is determined by fluorescence up-conversion. The ground-state absorption recovery is determined by picosecond pump and probe transmission measurements. The dye photo-stability is investigated by observation of absorption spectral changes due to prolonged blue-light excitation. The absorption spectrum of PFD dyad resembles the superposition of the absorption of isoalloxazine (flavin) and 1-methylpyrene. Long-wavelength photo-excitation of the flavin moiety causes fluorescence quenching by ground-state electron transfer from pyrene to isoalloxazine. Short-wavelength photo-excitation of the pyrene moiety causes (i) excited-state electron transfer from pyrene to isoalloxazine, and (ii) Förster-type energy transfer from pyrene to flavin followed by ground-state electron transfer from pyrene to flavin.

Shirdel, J.; Penzkofer, A.; Procházka, R.; Shen, Z.; Strauss, J.; Daub, J.



An Exploration of the Experience of Huntington's Disease in Family Dyads: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.  


Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary, late onset, neurodegenerative disorder. Children of affected parents have a 50 % chance of inheriting HD. Research into the psychological consequences of HD for the family has focussed on individual family members, but little is known about the ways in which its impact is jointly experienced by members of these families. This is particularly important due to the hereditary nature of HD. To address this, the current study examined the experiences of dyads within affected families. Seven parent/adult child dyads were interviewed jointly about their experiences and relationships with their family and each other and interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the resultant data. Identified themes were: "A spectre hanging over us": HD as a presence within the family, "Us against the world": Protection, knowledge and control, and "That could be me in 50 years": Cyclical changes in identity and role. These findings are examined in relation to previous research and indicate the need for an increased understanding of the needs of HD families. Clinical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:24214466

Maxted, Caroline; Simpson, Jane; Weatherhead, Stephen



Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Dyads: Short-Term Stability and Continuity from Variable-Centered and Person-Centered Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional availability (EA) is a prominent index of socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Can basic psychometric properties of EA be looked at from both variable (scale) and person (cluster) points of view in individuals and in dyads? Is EA stable and continuous over a short period of time? This methodological study shows significant…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Haynes, O. Maurice



His ... Asp catalytic dyad of ribonuclease A: histidine pKa values in the wild-type, D121N, and D121A enzymes.  

PubMed Central

Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) has a conserved His ... Asp catalytic dyad in its active site. Structural analyses had indicated that Asp121 forms a hydrogen bond with His119, which serves as an acid during catalysis of RNA cleavage. The enzyme contains three other histidine residues including His12, which is also in the active site. Here, 1H-NMR spectra of wild-type RNase A and the D121N and D121A variants were analyzed thoroughly as a function of pH. The effect of replacing Asp121 on the microscopic pKa values of the histidine residues is modest: none change by more than 0.2 units. There is no evidence for the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond between His119 and either an aspartate or an asparagine residue at position 121. In the presence of the reaction product, uridine 3'-phosphate (3'-UMP), protonation of one active-site histidine residue favors protonation of the other. This finding is consistent with the phosphoryl group of 3'-UMP interacting more strongly with the two active-site histidine residues when both are protonated. Comparison of the titration curves of the unliganded enzyme with that obtained in the presence of different concentrations of 3'-UMP shows that a second molecule of 3'-UMP can bind to the enzyme. Together, the data indicate that the aspartate residue in the His ... Asp catalytic dyad of RNase A has a measurable but modest effect on the ionization of the adjacent histidine residue.

Quirk, D J; Raines, R T



Protege and Mentor Self-Disclosure: Levels and Outcomes within Formal Mentoring Dyads in a Corporate Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of self-disclosure within protege/mentor dyads in formal mentoring partnerships within a corporate context as a means of learning more about specific relationship processes that may enhance the positive outcomes of mentoring. While both proteges and mentors self-disclosed in their relationships, proteges disclosed at a…

Wanberg, Connie R.; Welsh, Elizabeth T.; Kammeyer-Mueller, John



American Indian Grand Families: Eight Adolescent and Grandparent Dyads Share Perceptions on Various Aspects of the Kinship Care Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study of eight grand family dyads was conducted to gain the perspective of the grandparents and grandchildren regarding the kinship care relationship. A phenomenological approach of the "lived experience" developed by P.A. Gibson (2002) was incorporated in the design of the study. Several major themes emerged from data analysis using…

Cross, Suzanne L.; Day, Angelique G.



Short-Term Reliability and Continuity of Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Dyads across Contexts of Observation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional availability (EA) is a prominent index of socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Is EA affected by context? In this methodological study, 34 mothers and their 2-year-olds were observed in 2 different settings (home vs. laboratory) 1 week apart. Significant cross-context reliability and continuity in EA as measured with the…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Gini, Motti; Putnick, Diane L.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Painter, Kathleen M.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.



Photo-Induced Energy and Electron Transfer in Porphyrin Triad and Related Dyads. TMR Large-Scale Facilities Access Programme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the experiment entitled 'Photo-Induced Energy and Electron Transferin Porphyrin Triad and Related Dyads; carried out at the Central Laser Facility (CLF) from the 2nd Nov to the 15th Nov 1997. The experiment, funded by the Framework I...

P. Seta J. M. Janot P. Matousek M. Towrie T. Parker



Stereoselectivity of the hydrogen-atom transfer in benzophenone-tyrosine dyads: an intramolecular kinetic solvent effect.  


To be or not to be solvated is the decisive parameter that controls the photoinduced hydrogen-atom transfer in diastereomeric ketone/phenol dyads. A kinetic solvent effect that refers to hydrogen bonding between the phenol and the solvent is suggested to be the main source of the stereoselective discrimination in the hydrogen transfer (see figure). PMID:19222075

Hörner, Gerald; Hug, Gordon L; Lewandowska, Anna; Kazmierczak, Franciszek; Marciniak, Bronislaw



Resemblance of dietary intakes of snacks, sweets, fruit, and vegetables among mother-child dyads from low income families.  


The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in low-income mother-child dyads. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from Head Start centers in Houston, Texas and Birmingham, Alabama. Twenty four hour dietary recalls for one weekend day were collected from mother (mean 31.8 yrs [range: 20.1-72.4 yrs])-child (mean 4.4 yrs [range 2.8-5.8 yrs]) dyads (N=650). Means±SD were calculated for intake of food categories and energy. Pearson's partial correlation coefficients were used to detect associations between the intakes of the dyads. Main outcome measures were the correlations between the intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in the mother-child dyads. Partial correlations showed that children's intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy were all correlated with the mother's intake of these foods/energy (all p<0.001). Children's intake of fruit was correlated with the mother's intake of vegetables (p<0.001); children's energy intake was correlated with mother's intake of sweets, fruit, and vegetables (all p<0.001). It is important that food and nutrition professionals provide the guidance needed that encourages intake of nutrient-dense snacks and fruit and vegetables in mothers so they can model healthier food consumption behaviors for their children. PMID:22634195

Wroten, Kathryn C; O'Neil, Carol E; Stuff, Janice E; Liu, Yan; Nicklas, Theresa A



Effects of daily stress at work on mothers' interactions with preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty mother-preschooler dyads were studied for 5 consecutive weekdays. In addition to daily maternal reports of job stressors and parent-child interaction, a subsaraple of 13 dyads was videotaped during the parent-child reunion at the end of each workday. Mothers were much more likely to respond to an increase in job stressors by with- drawing than by becoming more irritable. Both

Rena L. Repetti; Jenifer Wood



Neutrality in the field: alpha-function and the dreaming dyad in psychoanalytic process.  


Analysts have interpreted the concept of neutrality in a variety of ways, beginning with Strachey's use of that word to translate Freud's (1915) term, Indifferenz. In this paper, neutrality is linked to Freud's notions of free association and evenly suspended attention. A history of psychoanalytic attempts to clarify the concept are presented, with special attention to issues of ambiguity and the patient's role in the determination of neutrality. Neutrality is further elaborated in relation to the bipersonal field as described by the Barangers and contemporary field theorists. Understood in terms of the field, neutrality becomes a transpersonal concept, here conceived in terms of alpha-function and a dreaming dyad. Two clinical examples cast in the light of a Bionian perspective are discussed to suggest an alternative understanding of analytic impasses and their relation to alpha-function and neutrality. PMID:23824648

Schwartz, Henry P



A Co(ii)-Ru(ii) dyad relevant to light-driven water oxidation catalysis.  


Artificial photosynthesis aims at efficient water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen, by exploiting solar light. As a priority requirement, this process entails the integration of suitable multi-electron catalysts with light absorbing units, where charge separation is generated in order to drive the catalytic routines. The final goal could be the transposition of such an asset into a photoelectrocatalytic cell, where the two half-reactions, proton reduction to hydrogen and water oxidation to oxygen, take place at two appropriately engineered photoelectrodes. We herein report a covalent approach to anchor a Co(ii) water oxidation catalyst to a Ru(ii) polypyridine photosensitizer unit; photophysical characterisation and the catalytic activity of such a dyad in a light activated cycle are reported, and implications for the development of regenerative systems are discussed. PMID:24664104

López, Alejandro Montellano; Natali, Mirco; Pizzolato, Erica; Chiorboli, Claudio; Bonchio, Marcella; Sartorel, Andrea; Scandola, Franco



The broader autism phenotype and friendships in non-clinical dyads.  


The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and friendship similarity was evaluated, and the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to test how both friends' BAP characteristics jointly and uniquely contribute to the experiences of friendships. Results suggest self-informant agreement about the BAP, friendship closeness, quality, and conflict. Actor effects were observed for the BAP and friendship values, quality, conflict, and loneliness. Findings suggest that the BAP relates in meaningful ways to self-perceptions of friendship variables in the general population. PMID:23430176

Wainer, Allison L; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke



Dynamic interactions among badgers: implications for sociality and disease transmission.  


1. Direct interactions between individuals play an important part in the sociality of group-living animals, their mating system and disease transmission. Here, we devise a methodology to quantify relative rates of proximity interaction from radio-tracking data and highlight potential asymmetries within the contact network of a moderate-density badger population in the north-east of England. 2. We analysed radio-tracking data from four contiguous social groups, collected over a 3-year period. Dynamic interaction analysis of badger dyads was used to assess the movement of individuals in relation to the movement of others, both within and between social groups. Dyads were assessed with regard to season, sex, age and sett use pattern of the badgers involved. 3. Intragroup separation distances were significantly shorter than intergroup separation distances, and interactions between groups were rare. Within groups, individuals interacted with each other more often than expected, and interaction patterns varied significantly with season and sett use pattern. Non-mover dyads (using the main sett for day-resting on > 50% of occasions) interacted more frequently than mover dyads (using an outlier sett for day-resting on > 50% of occasions) or mover-non-mover dyads. Interactions between group members occurred most frequently in winter. 4. Of close intragroup interactions (< 50 m separation distance), 88.6% were associated with a main sett and only 4.4% with outlier setts. Non-mover dyads and non-mover-mover dyads interacted significantly more often at the main sett than mover-only dyads. These results highlight the importance of the main sett to badger sociality and support the suggestion that badger social groups are comprised of different subgroups, in our case based on differential sett use patterns. 5. Asymmetries in contact structure within a population will affect the way in which diseases are transmitted through a social network. Assessment of these networks is essential for understanding the persistence and spread of disease within populations which do not mix freely or which exhibit heterogeneities in their spatial or social behaviour. PMID:18355241

Böhm, Monika; Palphramand, Kate L; Newton-Cross, Geraldine; Hutchings, Michael R; White, Piran C L



Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the…

Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald



Joint attention in parent-child dyads involving children with selective mutism: a comparison between anxious and typically developing children.  


Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint attention measures coded from direct observations with their parent during an unstructured free play task and two structured tasks. As predicted, the SM dyads established significantly fewer episodes of joint attention through parental initiation acts than the MA and CC dyads during the structured tasks. Findings suggest that children with SM may withdraw from their parents during stressful situations, thus missing out on opportunities for learning other coping skills. We discuss the implications of the present findings for understanding the maintenance and treatment of SM. PMID:20960051

Nowakowski, Matilda E; Tasker, Susan L; Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela E; Edison, Shannon; Pierre, Jeff St; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A



Premature dyad separation in meiosis II is the major segregation error with maternal age in mouse oocytes  

PubMed Central

As women get older their oocytes become susceptible to chromosome mis-segregation. This generates aneuploid embryos, leading to increased infertility and birth defects. Here we examined the provenance of aneuploidy by tracking chromosomes and their kinetochores in oocytes from young and aged mice. Changes consistent with chromosome cohesion deterioration were found with age, including increased interkinetochore distance and loss of the centromeric protector of cohesion SGO2 in metaphase II arrested (metII) eggs, as well as a rise in the number of weakly attached bivalents in meiosis I (MI) and lagging chromosomes at anaphase I. However, there were no MI errors in congression or biorientation. Instead, premature separation of dyads in meiosis II was the major segregation defect in aged eggs and these were associated with very low levels of SGO2. These data show that although considerable cohesion loss occurs during MI, its consequences are observed during meiosis II, when centromeric cohesion is needed to maintain dyad integrity.

Yun, Yan; Lane, Simon I. R.; Jones, Keith T.



Development of Unsymmetrical Dyads As Potent Noncarbohydrate-Based Inhibitors against Human ?-N-Acetyl-d-hexosaminidase  

PubMed Central

Human ?-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase has gained much attention due to its roles in several pathological processes and been considered as potential targets for disease therapy. A novel and efficient skeleton, which was an unsymmetrical dyad containing naphthalimide and methoxyphenyl moieties with an alkylamine spacer linkage as a noncarbohydrate-based inhibitor, was synthesized, and the activities were valuated against human ?-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase. The most potent inhibitor exhibits high inhibitory activity with Ki values of 0.63 ?M. The straightforward synthetic manners of these unsymmetrical dyads and understanding of the binding model could be advantageous for further structure optimization and development of new therapeutic agents for Hex-related diseases.



Contrasting intermolecular and intramolecular exciplex formation of a 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad.  


An intramolecular exciplex is formed upon excitation of the cyclohexane solution of the 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad, but little if any intramolecular CT complex exists in the ground state of this substance in solution. In contrast, in the crystalline state, the dyad forms an intermolecular mixed-stack CT complex in the ground state and an intermolecular exciplex when it is photoexcited. PMID:20353197

Imoto, Mitsutaka; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Hisaji; Tamaki, Akihiro; Takeda, Motonori; Mizuno, Kazuhiko



Mealtime Television Viewing and Dietary Quality in Low-Income African American and Caucasian Mother–Toddler Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and\\u000a to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers’ and toddlers’ food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey\\u000a design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother–toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early\\u000a Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler–Parent

Mildred A. Horodynski; Manfred Stommel; Holly E. Brophy-Herb; Lorraine Weatherspoon



Latina Mother–Daughter Dyads: Relations Between Attachment and Sexual Behavior Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations among mother–daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the\\u000a influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from\\u000a four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter\\u000a only, and non-substance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance

Mario De La Rosa; Frank R. Dillon; Patria Rojas; Seth J. Schwartz; Rui Duan



Interpersonal Communication in Parent-Adolescent Dyads: A Brief Report on the Effects of a Social Skills Training Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social skills training has been completed with several types of adolescent clinical populations; however, limited efforts have been undertaken with conflict-laden parent-adolescent dyads. It was hypothesized that social skills training could improve communications between adolescents and parents while enhancing improvement in perceived communication and problem-solving behaviors. A pretest-posttest experimental and control group design was completed, using a social skills program

P. Sean Noble; Gerald R. Adams; D. Kim Openshaw



Redox-switchable direction of photoinduced electron transfer in an Ru(bpy)3(2+)-viologen dyad.  


Quenching of the 3MLCT excited state of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (bpy=bipyridine) by the reduction products (MV*+ and MV0) of methyl viologen (MV2+) was studied by a combination of electrochemistry with laser flash photolysis or femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Both for the bimolecular reactions and for the reactions in an Ru(bpy)3(2+)-MVn+ dyad, quenching by MV*+ and MV0 is reductive and gives the reduced ruthenium complex [Ru(bpy)3]+, in contrast to the oxidative quenching by MV2+. Rate constants of quenching (kq), and thermal charge recombination (krec) and cage escape yields (phi(ce)) were determined for the bimolecular reactions, and rates of forward (kf) and backward (kb) electron transfer in the dyad were measured for quenching by MV2+, MV*+, and MV0. The reactions in the dyad are very rapid, with values up to kf = 1.3 x 10(12) s(-1) for *Ru(bpy)3(2+)-MV*+. In addition, a long-lived (tau = 15 ps) vibrationally excited state of MV*+ with a characteristically structured absorption spectrum was detected; this was generated by direct excitation of the MV*+ moiety both at 460 and 600 nm. The results show that the direction of photoinduced electron transfer in a Ru(bpy)3-MV molecule can be switched by an externally applied bias. PMID:11822443

Lomoth, Reiner; Häupl, Tilmann; Johansson, Olof; Hammarström, Leif



Nucleosomes stacked with aligned dyad axes are found in native compact chromatin in vitro.  


In this study, electron tomograms of plunge-frozen isolated chromatin in both open and compacted form were recorded. We have resolved individual nucleosomes in these tomograms in order to provide a 3D view of the arrangement of nucleosomes within chromatin fibers at different compaction states. With an optimized template matching procedure we obtained accurate positions and orientations of nucleosomes in open chromatin in "low-salt" conditions (5 mM NaCl). The mean value of the planar angle between three consecutive nucleosomes is 70°, and the mean center-to-center distance between consecutive nucleosomes is 22.3 nm. Since the template matching approach was not effective in crowded conditions, for nucleosome detection in compact fibers (40 mM NaCl and 1 mM MgCl(2)) we developed the nucleosome detection procedure based on the watershed algorithm, followed by sub-tomogram alignment, averaging, and classification by Principal Components Analysis. We find that in compact chromatin the nucleosomes are arranged with a predominant face-to-face stacking organization, which has not been previously shown for native isolated chromatin. Although the path of the DNA cannot be directly seen in compact conditions, it is evident that the nucleosomes stack with their dyad axis aligned in forming a "double track" conformation which is a consequence of DNA joining adjacent nucleosome stacks. Our data suggests that nucleosome stacking is an important mechanism for generating chromatin compaction in vivo. PMID:22138167

Scheffer, Margot P; Eltsov, Mikhail; Bednar, Jan; Frangakis, Achilleas S



Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.



Structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad monolayer on the water surface and solid substrate  

SciTech Connect

Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad TBD6a were formed on the surface of a water subphase and then transported on a solid substrate by the Langmuir-Schaefer method. A simulation was performed for the structure of a single molecule and for a molecular monolayer, according to the area per molecule in the monolayer formed, which was calculated based on an analysis of the {pi}-A isotherm. A unit cell was chosen for the proposed molecular packing (a = 1.54 nm, b = 1.50 nm, c = 1.75 nm, {alpha} = 80.0 Degree-Sign , {beta} = 90.0 Degree-Sign , and {gamma} = 90.0 Degree-Sign ), and the atomic coordinates were calculated. A comparison of the interplanar spacings and diffraction peak intensities in the experimental and calculated (for the unit cell proposed) diffraction patterns indicates that a platelike texture is formed in the monolayer and that the crystal structure of the domains corresponds to the model chosen.

D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail:; Tereshchenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere Technological University (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)



Quality of life reporting by parent-child dyads in Japan, as grouped by depressive status.  


When children are unable to assess their own health-related quality of life (HRQOL), their parents can provide useful proxy information; however, minimal agreement between the two groups on this issue has been reported in some situations. In order to clarify the degree of accordance between the self-reports of children and the proxy reports of their parents on the former's HRQOL, 679 parent-child dyads, as grouped by their depressive status, were assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). It was found that the self-reporting of the children differed significantly between those who were healthy and those who had depressive symptoms, whereas the proxy-reporting of the parents did not vary with their child's mental condition. However, the latter's reports did reveal notable dissimilarities between the healthy parents and those with depressive symptoms. The results indicated that the parents' perception of their child's HRQOL differed with their child's own perception and that the parents' perceptions were affected by their mental condition. Medical providers should assess both the child's and the parents' evaluations of the child's HRQOL, as the views of the parents could determine the use of health services and the making of decisions in clinical settings. PMID:21595809

Kobayashi, Kyoko; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko



Histone H3 phosphorylation near the nucleosome dyad alters chromatin structure  

PubMed Central

Nucleosomes contain ?146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone protein octamer that controls DNA accessibility to transcription and repair complexes. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of histone proteins regulates nucleosome function. To date, only modest changes in nucleosome structure have been directly attributed to histone PTMs. Histone residue H3(T118) is located near the nucleosome dyad and can be phosphorylated. This PTM destabilizes nucleosomes and is implicated in the regulation of transcription and repair. Here, we report gel electrophoretic mobility, sucrose gradient sedimentation, thermal disassembly, micrococcal nuclease digestion and atomic force microscopy measurements of two DNA–histone complexes that are structurally distinct from nucleosomes. We find that H3(T118ph) facilitates the formation of a nucleosome duplex with two DNA molecules wrapped around two histone octamers, and an altosome complex that contains one DNA molecule wrapped around two histone octamers. The nucleosome duplex complex forms within short ?150 bp DNA molecules, whereas altosomes require at least ?250 bp of DNA and form repeatedly along 3000 bp DNA molecules. These results are the first report of a histone PTM significantly altering the nucleosome structure.

North, Justin A.; Simon, Marek; Ferdinand, Michelle B.; Shoffner, Matthew A.; Picking, Jonathan W.; Howard, Cecil J.; Mooney, Alex M.; van Noort, John; Poirier, Michael G.; Ottesen, Jennifer J.



Histone H3 phosphorylation near the nucleosome dyad alters chromatin structure.  


Nucleosomes contain ?146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone protein octamer that controls DNA accessibility to transcription and repair complexes. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of histone proteins regulates nucleosome function. To date, only modest changes in nucleosome structure have been directly attributed to histone PTMs. Histone residue H3(T118) is located near the nucleosome dyad and can be phosphorylated. This PTM destabilizes nucleosomes and is implicated in the regulation of transcription and repair. Here, we report gel electrophoretic mobility, sucrose gradient sedimentation, thermal disassembly, micrococcal nuclease digestion and atomic force microscopy measurements of two DNA-histone complexes that are structurally distinct from nucleosomes. We find that H3(T118ph) facilitates the formation of a nucleosome duplex with two DNA molecules wrapped around two histone octamers, and an altosome complex that contains one DNA molecule wrapped around two histone octamers. The nucleosome duplex complex forms within short ?150 bp DNA molecules, whereas altosomes require at least ?250 bp of DNA and form repeatedly along 3000 bp DNA molecules. These results are the first report of a histone PTM significantly altering the nucleosome structure. PMID:24561803

North, Justin A; Simon, Marek; Ferdinand, Michelle B; Shoffner, Matthew A; Picking, Jonathan W; Howard, Cecil J; Mooney, Alex M; van Noort, John; Poirier, Michael G; Ottesen, Jennifer J



Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors.

Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.



Light harvesting zinc naphthalocyanine-perylenediimide supramolecular dyads: long-lived charge-separated states in nonpolar media.  


Photoinduced electron-transfer dynamics of self-assembled donor-acceptor dyads formed by axial coordination of zinc naphthalocyanine, ZnNc, and perylenediimide (PDI) bearing either pyridine (py) or imidazole (im) coordinating ligands were investigated. The PDIim unit was functionalized with tert-octylphenoxy groups at the bay positions, which avoid aggregation providing solubility, to examine the effect of the bulky substituents at the bay positions on the rates of electron-transfer reactions. The combination between zinc naphthalocyanine and perylenediimide entities absorbs light over a wide region of the visible and near infrared (NIR) spectrum. The binding constants of the self-assembled ZnNc:PDIpy (1) and ZnNc:PDIim (2) in toluene were found to be 2.40 × 10(4) and 1.10 × 10(5) M(-1), respectively, from the steady-state absorption and emission measurements, indicating formation of moderately stable complexes. The geometric and electronic calculations by using an ab initio B3LYP/6-311G method showed the majority of the highest occupied frontier molecular orbital (HOMO) on the zinc naphthalocyanine entity, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) was on the perylenediimide entities, suggesting that the charge-separated states of the supramolecular dyads are ZnNc?(+):PDI?(-). The electrochemical results suggest the exothermic charge-separation process via the singlet states of both ZnNc and PDI entities in nonpolar toluene. Upon coordination of perylenediimide to ZnNc, the main quenching pathway involved charge separation via the singlet-excited states of ZnNc and PDIs. Clear evidence of the intramolecular electron transfer from the singlet-excited state of ZnNc to PDI within the supramolecular dyads in toluene was monitored by the femtosecond laser photolysis by observing the characteristic absorption band of the PDI radical anion (PDI?(-)) and the ZnNc radical cation (ZnNc?(+)) in the visible and NIR regions. The rate constants of charge-separation (k(CS)) processes of the self-assembled dyads 1 and 2 were determined to be 4.05 × 10(10) and 1.20 × 10(9) s(-1), respectively. The rate constant of charge recombination (k(CR)) and the lifetime of charge-separated states (?(CS)) of dyad 1 were determined to be 2.34 × 10(8) s(-1) and 4.30 ns, respectively. Interestingly, a slower charge recombination (2.20 × 10(7) s(-1)) and a longer lifetime of the charge separated state (45 ns) were observed in dyad 2 in nonpolar toluene by utilizing the nanosecond transient measurements. The absorption in a wide section of the solar spectrum and the high charge-separation/charge-recombination ratio suggest the usefulness of the self-assembled zinc naphthalocyanine-perylenediimide dyads as good photosynthetic models. PMID:22311067

El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Gutiérrez, Ana M; Sastre-Santos, Ángela; Fernández-Lázaro, Fernando; Fukuzumi, Shunichi



Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).  


Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed. PMID:23794074

Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben



Evidence for a catalytic dyad in the active site of homocitrate synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  


Homocitrate synthase (acetyl-coenzyme A: 2-ketoglutarate C-transferase; E.C. (HCS) catalyzes the condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) to give homocitrate and CoA. Although the structure of an HCS has not been solved, the structure of isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS), a homologue, has been solved (Koon, N., Squire, C. J., and Baker, E. N. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8295-8300). Three active site residues in IPMS, Glu-218, His-379, and Tyr-410, were proposed as candidates for catalytic residues involved in deprotonation of the methyl group of AcCoA prior to the Claisen condensation to give homocitrylCoA. All three of the active site residues in IPMS are conserved in the HCS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Site-directed mutagenesis has been carried out to probe the role of the homologous residues, Glu-155, His-309, and Tyr-320, in the S. cerevisiae HCS. No detectable activity was observed for the H309A and H309N mutant enzyme, but a slight increase in activity was observed for H309A in the presence of 300 mM imidazole, which is still 1000-fold lower than that of wild type (wt). The E155Q and E155A mutant enzymes exhibited 1000-fold lower activity than wt. The activity of E155A, but not of E155Q, could be partially rescued by formate; a K act of 60 mM with a modest 4-fold maximum activation was observed. In the presence of formate, E155A gives k cat, K AcCoA, and K alpha-KG values of 0.0031 s (-1), 13 muM, and 39 microM, respectively, while a primary kinetic deuterium isotope effect of about 1.4 was obtained on V, with deuterium in the methyl of AcCoA. The pH dependence of k cat for E155A in the presence of formate gave a p K a of 7.9 for a group that must be protonated for optimum activity, similar to that observed for the wt enzyme. However, a partial change was observed on the acid side of the profile, compared to the all or none change observed for wt giving a p K a of about 6.7. The k cat for E155Q decreased at high pH, similar to the wt enzyme, but was pH independent at low pH. The Y320F mutant enzyme only lost 25-fold activity compared to that of the wt, giving k cat, K AcCoA, and K alpha-KG values of 0.039 s (-1), 33 microM, and 140 microM, respectively, and a primary kinetic deuterium isotope effect of 1.3 and 1.8 on V/ K AcCoA and V, respectively; the pH dependence of k cat was similar to that of the wt. These data, combined with a constant pH molecular dynamics simulation study, suggest that a catalytic dyad comprising Glu-155 and His-309 acts to deprotonate the methyl group of AcCoA, while Tyr320 is likely not directly involved in catalysis, but may aid in orienting the reactant and/or the catalytic dyad. PMID:18533686

Qian, Jinghua; Khandogin, Jana; West, Ann H; Cook, Paul F



A Theory-Based Online Hip Fracture Resource Center for Caregivers: Effects on Dyads  

PubMed Central

Background Hip fracture is a serious injury for older adults, usually requiring surgical repair and extensive therapy. Informal caregivers can help older adults make a successful recovery by encouraging them to adhere to the therapy plans and improve their health behaviors. Few resources, however, are available for these caregivers to learn about how to assist their care receivers and cope with their unique caregiving situations. Objective To develop a comprehensive theory-based online hip fracture resource center for caregivers, Caring for Caregivers, and conducted a feasibility trial. Method The resource center included self-learning modules, discussion boards, Ask the Experts, and a virtual library. The feasibility of the intervention was assessed by usage and usability. The feasibility of the future trial was tested using a one-group pre-post design on 36 caregiving-care receiver dyads recruited from six hospitals. The caregivers used the resource center for 8 weeks. The impact of the intervention was assessed on both caregivers (primary) and care receivers (secondary). The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, paired t-tests, and content analyses. Results On average, caregivers reviewed five modules and used the discussion board 3.1 times. The mean perceived usability score for the resource center was 74.04 ± 7.26 (range = 12–84). Exposure to the resource center significantly improved caregivers’ knowledge about the care of hip fracture patients (t = 3.17, p = .004) and eHealth literacy (t = 2.43, p = .002). Changes in other caregiver outcomes (e.g., strain, coping, social support) and care receiver outcomes (e.g., self-efficacy for exercise, osteoporosis medication adherence) were favorable but not significant. Discussion The findings suggest that the resource center was user-friendly and could be beneficial for caregivers. Additional larger scale trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of the intervention on outcomes.

Nahm, Eun-Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise; Magaziner, Jay; Bellantoni, Michelle; Sterling, Robert; Brennan, Patricia F.



Theranostic porphyrin dyad nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging guided photodynamic therapy.  


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a site-specific treatment of cancer involving the administration of a photosensitizer (PS) followed by the local light activation. Besides efficient PSs, image guidance is essential for precise and safe light delivery to the targeting site, thus improving the therapeutic effectiveness. Herein, we report the fabrication of theranostic porphyrin dyad nanoparticles (TPD NPs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided PDT cancer therapy, where the inner metal free porphyrin functions as a photosensitizer for PDT while the outer Mn-porphyrin serve as an MRI contrast agent. Covalent attachment of porphyrins to TPD NPs avoids premature release during systemic circulation. In addition, TPD NPs (?60 nm) could passively accumulate in tumors and be avidly taken up by tumor cells. The PDT and MRI capabilities of TPD NPs can be conveniently modulated by varying the molar ratio of metal free porphyrin/Mn-porphyrin. At the optimal molar ratio of 40.1%, the total drug loading content is up to 49.8%, 31.3% for metal free porphyrin and 18.5% for Mn-porphyrin. The laser light ablated the tumor completely within 7 days in the presence of TPD NPs and the tumor growth inhibition was 100%. The relaxivities were determined to be 20.58 s(-1) mm(-1) for TPD NPs, about four times as much as that of Mn-porphyrin (5.16 s(-1) mm(-1)). After 24 h intravenous injection of TPD NPs, MRI images showed that the whole tumor area remained much brighter than surrounding healthy tissue, allowing to guide the laser light to the desired tumor site for photodynamic ablation. PMID:24818886

Liang, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaoda; Jing, Lijia; Yue, Xiuli; Dai, Zhifei



Dyadic interracial interactions: a meta-analysis.  


This meta-analysis examined over 40 years of research on interracial interactions by exploring 4 types of outcomes: explicit attitudes toward interaction partners, participants' self-reports of their own emotional state, nonverbal or observed behavior, and objective measures of performance. Data were collected from 108 samples (N = 12,463) comparing dyadic interracial and same-race interactions, predominantly featuring Black and White Americans. Effect sizes were small: Participants in same-race dyads tended to express marginally more positive attitudes about their partners (r = .07), reported feeling less negative affect (r = .10), showed more friendly nonverbal behavior (r = .09), and scored higher on performance measures (r = .07) than those in interracial dyads. Effect sizes also showed substantial heterogeneity, and further analyses indicated that intersectional, contextual, and relational factors moderated these outcomes. For example, when members of a dyad were the same sex, differences between interracial and same-race dyads in negative affect were reduced. Structured interactions led to more egalitarian performance outcomes than did free-form interactions, but the effects of interaction structure on nonverbal behavior depended on participant gender. Furthermore, benefits of intergroup contact were apparent: Differences in emotional state across dyadic racial composition disappeared in longer term interactions, and racial minorities, who often have greater experience with intergroup contact, experienced less negative affect in interracial interactions than did majority group members. Finally, there was a significant historical trend toward more egalitarian outcomes across dyadic racial composition for explicit attitudes and for nonverbal behavior; however, participants' emotional responses and performance have remained consistent. PMID:22061690

Toosi, Negin R; Babbitt, Laura G; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R



Long-range electron transfer in zinc-phthalocyanine-oligo(phenylene-ethynylene)-based donor-bridge-acceptor dyads.  


In the context of long-range electron transfer for solar energy conversion, we present the synthesis, photophysical, and computational characterization of two new zinc(II) phthalocyanine oligophenylene-ethynylene based donor-bride-acceptor dyads: ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) and ZnPc-OPE-C(60). A gold(III) porphyrin and a fullerene has been used as electron accepting moieties, and the results have been compared to a previously reported dyad with a tin(IV) dichloride porphyrin as the electron acceptor (Fortage et al. Chem. Commun. 2007, 4629). The results for ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) indicate a remarkably strong electronic coupling over a distance of more than 3 nm. The electronic coupling is manifested in both the absorption spectrum and an ultrafast rate for photoinduced electron transfer (k(PET) = 1.0 × 10(12) s(-1)). The charge-shifted state in ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) recombines with a relatively low rate (k(BET) = 1.0 × 10(9) s(-1)). In contrast, the rate for charge transfer in the other dyad, ZnPc-OPE-C(60), is relatively slow (k(PET) = 1.1 × 10(9) s(-1)), while the recombination is very fast (k(BET) ? 5 × 10(10) s(-1)). TD-DFT calculations support the hypothesis that the long-lived charge-shifted state of ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) is due to relaxation of the reduced gold porphyrin from a porphyrin ring based reduction to a gold centered reduction. This is in contrast to the faster recombination in the tin(IV) porphyrin based system (k(BET) = 1.2 × 10(10) s(-1)), where the excess electron is instead delocalized over the porphyrin ring. PMID:23050927

Göransson, Erik; Boixel, Julien; Fortage, Jérôme; Jacquemin, Denis; Becker, Hans-Christian; Blart, Errol; Hammarström, Leif; Odobel, Fabrice



Parent-Child Interaction and Children's Number Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two groups of Chinese four-year-olds and their parents' interaction in joint activities were analyzed and compared. The children in Group 1 were high scorers in written number skills and the children in Group 2 were low scorers. Eighty-five dyads participated in four separate 15-minute joint activities such as book reading, mathematical work…

Zhou, Xin; Huang, Jin; Wang, Zhengke; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Zhenguo; Yang, Lei; Yang, Zhengzheng



A Longitudinal Study of Maternal Interactional Styles and Infant Visualization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined interactional and attentional relationships in 65 mother-infant dyads (infants at ages 6 and 8 months), focusing on attention following (AF), attention switching (AS), and joint attention. Found that AF and AS were unrelated at 6 months but inversely related at 8 months. AF and AS were unrelated to joint attention. (MDM)

Saxon, Terrill F.; And Others



Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

Ewy, Richard


New dyads using (metallo)porphyrins as ancillary ligands in polypyridine ruthenium complexes. Synthesis and electronic properties.  


Porphyrins bearing enaminoketones at their periphery have been used as ancillary ligands in ruthenium complexes. Free base, nickel and zinc porphyrins were successfully coordinated to Ru(bpy)(2)Cl(2) under microwave irradiation. The positive contribution of the ruthenium complex was demonstrated by the complexes' wide absorption domains that covered the 500-600 nm region where the parent porphyrins did not absorb. Electrochemical as well as computational data revealed an efficient electronic communication between the porphyrins and the ruthenium cation in the dyads. PMID:22987044

Lachaud, Fabien; Jeandon, Christophe; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier; Beley, Marc; Ruppert, Romain; Gros, Philippe C



Dyads for photoinduced charge separation based on platinum diimine bis(acetylide) chromophores: synthesis, luminescence and transient absorption studies.  


The platinum diimine bis(acetylide) chromophore was utilized to explore photoinduced intramolecular reductive quenching with phenothiazine donors in chromophore-donor dyad complexes. Compounds of the general formula Pt(X(2)-bpy)(C triple bond C-p-C(6)H(4)CH(2)(D))(2) (where D = phenothiazine (PTZ) or trifluromethylphenothiazine (TPZ) and X = (t)Bu or CO(2)Et) were synthesized from the corresponding Pt(X(2)-bpy)Cl(2) and aryl acetylene by a CuI-catalyzed coupling reaction. Solvent dependence was explored for the system with X = (t)Bu in MeCN, CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc, and toluene. Electron transfer quenching of the (3)MLCT excited state of the platinum diimine bis(acetylide) takes place in MeCN leaving no intrinsic emission from the excited state, but in toluene both the PTZ and TPZ dyad complexes exhibit no emission quenching. Picosecond pump-probe transient absorption (TA) experiments were used to monitor decay of the (3)MLCT excited state and electron transfer to form the charge-separated (CS) state. Electrochemical measurements were used to estimate the driving force for charge recombination (CR), with deltaE(CR) based on the reduction potential corresponding to Pt(X(2)-bpy)(C triple bond C-Ar)(2) --> Pt(X(2)-bpy(*)(-))(C triple bond C-Ar)(2) and the oxidation corresponding to donor --> donor(*)(+). Kinetic information from the TA measurements was used to correlate rate and driving force with the electron transfer reactions. Concomitant with the decay of the (3)MLCT excited state was the observation of a transient absorption at ca. 500 nm due to formation of the PTZ or TPZ radical cation in the CS state, with the rate of charge separation, k(CS), being 1.8 x 10(9) to 2 x 10(10) s(-1) for the three dyads explored in MeCN and 1:9 CH(2)Cl(2)/MeCN. The fastest rate of CR occurs for X = CO(2)Et and D = PTZ, the compound with smallest deltaE(CR) = 1.71 V. The rate of CR for dyads with X = (t)Bu and D = PTZ or TPZ was estimated to be 1.7-2.0 x 10(8) s(-1) in MeCN. The slower rate corresponds to a greater driving force for CR, deltaE(CR) = 2.18 and 2.36 V for D = PTZ and TPZ, respectively, suggesting that the driving force for charge recombination places it in the Marcus inverted region. PMID:12844308

McGarrah, James E; Eisenberg, Richard



Towards the characterization of energy-transfer processes in organic donor acceptor dyads based on triphenyldiamine and perylenebisimides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated energy-transfer processes in a bridged organic donor-acceptor dyad system of triphenyldiamine and perylenebisimide using time-resolved and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The fluorescence lifetimes of the isolated model components and their mixtures have been determined as a function of the concentration of the chromophores. Subsequently, energy-transfer experiments were conducted in solutions of free donors, free acceptors and their mixtures. The results of these experiments are in reasonable agreement with predictions based on Förster theory. Finally, experiments were performed on a donor-acceptor system covalently bound by a C 12H 24-linker.

Scharf, Ch.; Peter, K.; Bauer, P.; Jung, Ch.; Thelakkat, M.; Köhler, J.



Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.



Enhanced intersystem crossing via a high energy charge transfer state in a perylenediimide-perylenemonoimide dyad.  


The electronic relaxation processes of a photoexcited linear perylenediimide-perylenemonoimide (PDI-PMI) acceptor-donor dyad were studied. PDI-PMI serves as a model compound for donor-acceptor systems in photovoltaic devices and has been designed to have a high-energy PDI (-*)-PMI (+*) charge transfer (CT) state. Our study focuses on the minimal Gibbs free energy (Delta G ET) required to achieve quantitative CT and on establishing the role of charge recombination to a triplet state. We used time-resolved photoluminescence and picosecond photoinduced absorption (PIA) to investigate excited singlet (S 1) and CT states and complemented these experiments with singlet oxygen ( (1)Delta g) luminescence and PIA measurements on longer timescales to study the population of triplet excited states (T 1). In an apolar solvent like cyclohexene (CHX), photoinduced electron transfer does not occur, but in more polar solvents such as toluene (TOL) and chlorobenzene (CB), photoexcitation is followed by a fast electron transfer, populating the PDI (-*)-PMI (+*) CT state. We extract rate constants for electron transfer (ET; S 1-->CT), back electron transfer (BET; S 1<--CT), and charge recombination (CR) to lower-energy states (CT-->S 0 and CT-->T 1). Temperature-dependent measurements yield the barriers for the transfer reactions. For ET and BET, these correspond to predictions from Marcus-Jortner theory and show that efficient, near quantitative electron transfer ( k ET/ k BET >or= 100) can be obtained when Delta G ET approximately -120 meV. With respect to triplet state formation, we find a relatively low triplet quantum yield (Phi T < 25%) in CHX but much higher values (Phi T = 30-98%) in TOL and CB. We identify the PDI (-*)-PMI (+*) state as a precursor to the T 1 state. Recombination to T 1, rather than to the ground-state S 0, is required to rationalize the experimental barrier for CR. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these results for electron donor-acceptor films in photovoltaic devices. PMID:18729442

Veldman, Dirk; Chopin, Stéphanie M A; Meskers, Stefan C J; Janssen, René A J



Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads  

PubMed Central

Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk factor for childhood obesity. Further research is needed to help understand the larger socio-cultural context and its influence on feeding dynamics among immigrant families and families of lower incomes. How parents establish a certain feeding style in their home country compared to when they move to the US “obesogenic” environment, should also be explored.



Non-Native Speaker Interaction Management Strategies in a Network-Based Virtual Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the dyad-based communication of two groups of non-native speakers (NNSs) of English involved in real time interaction in a type of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool known as a MOO. The object of this semester long study was to examine the ways in which the subjects managed their L2 interaction during…

Peterson, Mark



Origins of Infant-Mother Attachment: An Examination of Interactional Synchrony during the Infant's First Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested the hypothesis that development of secure attachments is predictable from synchronous, and insecure attachments from asynchronous interactions across the first year. Findings from 30 dyads (10 secure, 10 avoidant, 10 resistant) supported the hypothesis at one and three months, with synchronous interaction observed at significantly,…

Isabella, Russell A.; And Others



Unresolved States of Mind, Disorganized Attachment Relationships, and Disrupted Interactions of Adolescent Mothers and their Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The links between unresolved maternal attachment status, disrupted maternal interaction in play situations, and disorganized attachment relationships were examined in a study of 82 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal interactive behavior was measured using the Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification coding…

Madigan, Sheri; Moran, Greg; Pederson, David R.



Parent Cognitions and Parent-Infant Interaction: The Relationship with Development in the First 12 Months  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parent cognitions and parent-infant interaction in terms of their contribution to infant development in the first 12 months. With a sample of 95 mother-infant dyads, results using structural equation modelling confirmed the expected finding that parent-infant interaction mediates the association between parent cognitions and…

Ferrier-Lynn, Melissa; Skouteris, Helen



Photophysical properties of new bis-perylene dyads for potential upconversion use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new bis-perylenes, BPC with a meta-disubstituted benzene linker, and BPD with a p,p?-disubstituted biphenyl linker, have been synthesized and their photophysical parameters measured. Their singlet and triplet energies decrease incrementally in the order perylene, BPC, BPD, making them ideally matched with C60 for triplet-triplet energy transfer in sensitized photon upconversion schemes. Following photosensitization by triplet C60, BPC exhibits strong fluorescence upconversion by triplet-triplet annihilation, indicating that these bis-perylene dyads (and the multimers that can be constructed from them) will be interesting candidates for use in organic devices such as bulk-heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells employing non-coherent photon upconversion. Excitation of C60 at 532 nm will produce its long-lived lowest triplet state with near unit quantum efficiency under the conditions of this experiment [33]. The thermal energy loss usually associated with triplet-triplet energy transfer, Eq. (2), is minimal in this system as the triplet energies of the donor and acceptor are nearly identical at ca. 1.5 eV. In the absence of self-quenching of the fluorescing singlet state, increasing the relative concentrations of acceptor to donor can raise the overall efficiency of the sensitization process to nearly 100%, even if their triplet energies are the same, due to entropic assistance [34]. This was confirmed by measuring the upconversion intensity as a function of dyad concentration at constant absorbed power (Supplementary Information), and by transient absorption measurements of C60 (T1) at 740 nm (Supplementary Information). The latter show that C60(T1) decays with a lifetime on the order of 400 ns for equimolar C60 + BPC concentrations, i.e. at a rate at least 100 times faster (due to quenching by energy transfer) than it would decay in the absence of the BPC triplet energy acceptor. Note also that the dimers with their slightly lower triplet energies are expected to exhibit greater net C60 donor to acceptor triplet energy transfer efficiencies than perylene itself [23], albeit with a slight incremental thermal energy loss of ca. 0.05-0.10 eV. The lifetime of the BPC triplet could not be measured by transient absorption because of its weak absorption cross-section in the probe wavelength region. Nevertheless, the unquenched lifetime of the BPC triplet is expected to be long. The lifetime of the triplet of perylene itself is ca. 5 ms in fluid degassed solution at room temperature [22], and mono- or di-substitution of the perylene ring system with light-atom substituents does not produce an order-of-magnitude decrease in this value [35]. The measured first order rate constant in this case would, however, be the sum of all first order and pseudo-first order processes, with the latter dominating the overall triplet decay rate under the experimental conditions employed. Using anthanthrene or bis-tetracene as a reasonable model [18,23], the lifetime of BPC(T1) is likely to be about two orders of magnitude shorter than its unquenched lifetime under the conditions of these experiments, i.e. of the order of a few tens of ?s, consistent with the generally first order decay found at the low to moderate laser excitation power density range shown in Figure 3. Again using well-known upconverters as models [15,22,23], the rate constant for TTA of BPC is likely to approach within a factor of 2 or 3 of the diffusion-controlled limit (1.1 × 1010 M-1 s-1), spin statistical limitations notwithstanding, as described by Schmidt et al. [36]. The rate constants for the relaxation of the product S1 state of TTA in the bis-perylenes are provided in Table 1. In an upconverting solar photovoltaic cell, the thermal energy losses in excess of those associated with the Shockley-Queisser limit will be small in this system. Using the zero point energies of the electronic excited states involved in the absorption, sensitization and upconversion steps as reference data, the S1-T1 thermal energy loss in the C60 absorber is 0.20 eV per absorbed p

Ribas, Marcos R.; Steer, Ronald P.; Rüther, Ricardo



Electronic energy harvesting multi BODIPY-zinc porphyrin dyads accommodating fullerene as photosynthetic composite of antenna-reaction center.  


Efficient electronic energy transfer (EET) in the newly synthesized dyads comprised of zinc porphyrin covalently linked to one, two or four numbers of boron dipyrrin (BDP) entities is investigated. Both steady-state and time-resolved emission as well as transient absorption studies revealed occurrence of efficient singlet-singlet energy transfer from BDP to zinc porphyrin with the time scale ranging between 28 and 48 ps. A decrease in time constants for energy transfer with increasing the number of BDP units is observed revealing better antenna effect of dyads bearing higher number of boron dipyrrin entities. Further, supramolecular triads to mimic the 'antenna-reaction center' functionality of photosynthetic reaction center have been successfully constructed by coordinating fulleropyrrolidine appended with an imidazole ligand to the zinc porphyrin. The structural integrity of the supramolecular triads was arrived by optical, computational and electrochemical studies. Free energy calculations revealed possibility of photoinduced electron transfer from singlet excited zinc porphyrin to fullerene, and the preliminary transient absorption studies involving pump-probe technique are supportive of occurrence of electron transfer from (1)ZnP* to fullerene in the supramolecular triads. PMID:20544099

Maligaspe, E; Kumpulainen, T; Subbaiyan, N K; Zandler, M E; Lemmetyinen, H; Tkachenko, N V; D'Souza, F



Perylenediimide-based donor-acceptor dyads and triads: impact of molecular architecture on self-assembling properties.  


Perylenediimide-based donor-acceptor co-oligomers are particularly attractive in plastic electronics because of their unique electro-active properties that can be tuned by proper chemical engineering. Herein, a new class of co-oligomers has been synthesized with a dyad structure (AD) or a triad structure (DAD and ADA) in order to understand the correlations between the co-oligomer molecular architecture and the structures formed by self-assembly in thin films. The acceptor block A is a perylene tetracarboxyl diimide (PDI), whereas the donor block D is made of a combination of thiophene, fluorene, and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole derivatives. D and A blocks are linked by a short and flexible ethylene spacer to ease self-assembling in thin films. Structural studies using small and wide X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that AD and ADA lamellae are made of a double layer of co-oligomers with overlapping and strongly ?-stacked PDI units because the sectional area of the PDI is about half that of the donor block. These structural models allow rationalizing the absence of organization for the DAD co-oligomer and therefore to draw general rules for the design of PDI-based dyads and triads with proper self-assembling properties of use in organic electronics. PMID:24669830

Schwartz, Pierre-Olivier; Biniek, Laure; Zaborova, Elena; Heinrich, Benoît; Brinkmann, Martin; Leclerc, Nicolas; Méry, Stéphane




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set values for the initial position, velocity, and mass of the two particles, and click on the button "Initialize Animation" to play the animation using your specified values. Note, if m or v are too large, the particles may actually pass through one another which will seem a little strange. Note: the interaction between the particles is a "non-contact" interaction, much like the electrostatic force on two charges. Mathematically, it is actually a Hooke's law interaction.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario



Interrelationship of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization within and between pneumococcal-vaccine na?ve mother-child dyads  

PubMed Central

Background A high prevalence of bacterial nasopharyngeal co-infections has been reported in children, however, such data is limited in adults. We examined the interaction of Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae pharyngeal colonization in mother-child dyads. Methods Pneumococcal-vaccine naïve children and their mothers had pharyngeal swabs undertaken at 1.6, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 7.4, 9.5, 12.5, 16.2 and 24.2 months of child’s age. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and S. aureus using standard microbiologic methods. Multivariate generalized estimating equation-models were used to explore the associations of the three bacteria within and between children and their mothers. Results In children, the observed probability of co-colonization was higher than expected. Well-defined associations in colonization between the bacteria were observed in children but not among mothers. In children, a synergistic association was observed between S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.75, 95% CI: 1.32-2.32) and a negative association between S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (AOR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.39-0.67) or H. influenzae and S. aureus (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.16-0.34) colonization. Additionally, all three bacteria had a higher likelihood of concurrent colonization. There was a strong association in colonization by the bacteria in children and their mothers, including increased likelihood of maternal colonization if the child was colonized by S. pneumoniae (AOR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.28-2.63) and H. influenzae (AOR: 6.34, 95% CI: 2.24-18.0). Conclusions The effects of immunization of children with pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine in settings such as ours needs monitoring with regard to potential changes of pharyngeal bacterial ecology which could occur in vaccinated and –unvaccinated age-groups.



Effect of mutual position of electron donor and acceptor on photoinduced electron transfer in supramolecular chlorophyll-fullerene dyads.  


In this study we have explored the influence of mutual position of chlorin electron donor and fullerene C60 electron acceptor on photoinduced electron transfer. Two zinc-chlorin-aza-[18]crown-6 compounds and three pyrrolidino[60]fullerenes with alkyl aminium and varying coordinative moieties were synthesized and used for self-assembling of a set of complexes via two-point binding. The aza[18]crown6 moieties were connected to chlorins via amide linker either at 13(4) or 17(4) position, hence, being attached on different sides of the chlorin plane. Furthermore, in the former case, the linker holds the crown closely spaced, whereas, in the latter, the linker gives more space and conformational freedom for the crown with respect to the chlorin macrocycle. The coordinative moieties at fullerene site, 3-pyridine, 4-pyridine, and 3-furan, were built by utilizing the Prato reaction. The two-point binding drove the molecules into specific complex formation by self-assembling; aminium ion was chelated by crown ether, while zinc moiety of chlorin was coordinated by pyridine and furan. Such pairing resulted in distinct supramolecular chlorin-fullerene dyads with defined distance and orientation. The performed computational studies at DFT level in solution, with TPSS-D3/def2-TZVP//def2-SVP, indicated different geometries and binding energies for the self-assembling complexes. Notably, the computations pointed out that for all the studied complexes, the donor-acceptor distances and binding energies were dictated by chirality of pyrrolidino ring at C60. The selective excitation of chlorin chromophore revealed efficient emission quenching in all dyads. The ultrafast spectroscopy studies suggested a fast and efficient photoinduced charge transfer in the dyads. The lifetimes of the charge separated states range from 55 to 187 ps in o-dichlorobenzene and from 14 to 60 ps in benzonitrile. Expectedly, the electron transfer rate was found to be critically dependent on the donor-acceptor distance; additionally, the mutual orientation of these entities was found to have significant contribution on the rate. PMID:24495002

Stranius, Kati; Iashin, Vladimir; Nikkonen, Taru; Muuronen, Mikko; Helaja, Juho; Tkachenko, Nikolai



Growth Curve Models for Indistinguishable Dyads Using Multilevel Modeling and Structural Equation Modeling: The Case of Adolescent Twins' Conflict with Their Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growth modeling is a useful tool for studying change over time, and it is becoming increasingly popular with developmental researchers. There is a considerable methodological literature surrounding growth modeling for individuals; however, far less attention has been focused on growth models for pairs of related individuals (i.e., dyads). In this…

Kashy, Deborah A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Burt, S. Alexandra; McGue, Matt



Examining the Reactions of White, Black, and Latino/a Counseling Psychologists to a Study of Racial Issues in Counseling and Supervision Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 30 years ago, Vontress (1971) advocated for counselor training programs to address the role of race in the counseling process and the ways in which racial factors impede the development of counselor-client rapport. He posited that the anxiety experienced by White clinicians in cross-racial counseling dyads is manifest in reactions of…

Utsey, Shawn O.; Hammar, Lawrence; Gernat, Carol A.



Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey



Interaction Domains and Suicide: A Population-Based Panel Study of Suicides in Stockholm, 1991-1999  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how suicides influence suicide risks of others within two interaction domains: the family and the workplace. A distinction is made between dyad-based social-interaction effects and degree-based exposure effects. A unique database including all individuals who ever lived in Stockholm during the 1990s is analyzed. For about 5.6…

Hedstrom, Peter; Liu, Ka-Yuet; Nordvik, Monica K.



Six-Week Postpartum Maternal Self-Criticism and Dependency and 4-Month Mother-Infant Self- and Interactive Contingencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were…

Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard



Expressed Emotion and Familial Interaction: A Study with Agoraphobic and Obsessive–Compulsive Patients and Their Relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (n = 40) or obsessive–compulsive disorder (n = 61) participated in a 10-min problem-solving interaction with their primary relative. Relatives were categorized as hostile or nonhostile toward the patient on the basis of a measure of expressed emotion (EE). Observed interactions between patients and their hostile relatives, relative to those of dyads with a

Dianne L. Chambless; Frank J. Floyd; Thomas L. Rodebaugh; Gail S. Steketee



Do Verbal Interactions with Infants during Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on Their Language Development as Toddlers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ("media verbal interactions") might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads

Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy



The influence of triplet energy levels of bridging ligands on energy transfer processes in Ir(III)/Eu(III) dyads.  


A series of N^N,O^O-bridging ligands based on substituted 1-(pyridin-2-yl)-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone and their corresponding heteroleptic iridium(III) complexes as well as Ir-Eu bimetallic complexes were synthesized and fully characterized. The influence of the triplet energy levels of the bridging ligands on the energy transfer (ET) process from the Ir(III) complexes to Eu(III) ions in solution was investigated at 77 K in Ir(III)/Eu(III) dyads. Photophysical experiment results show the bridging ligands play an important role in the ET process. Only when the triplet energy level of the bridging ligand was lower than the triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) energy level of the Ir moiety, was pure emission from the Eu(III) ion observed, implying complete ET took place from the Ir moiety to the Eu(III) ion. PMID:21931913

Jiang, Weili; Lou, Bin; Wang, Jianqiang; Lv, Hongbin; Bian, Zuqiang; Huang, Chunhui



Selective triplet-state formation during charge recombination in a fullerene/Bodipy molecular dyad (Bodipy=borondipyrromethene).  


A conformationally restricted molecular dyad has been synthesized and subjected to detailed photophysical examination. The dyad comprises a borondipyrromethene (Bodipy) dye covalently linked to a buckminsterfullerene C60 residue, and is equipped with hexadecyne units at the boron centre in order to assist solubility. The linkage consists of a diphenyltolane, attached at the meso position of the Bodipy core and through an N-methylpyrrolidine ring at the C60 surface. Triplet states localised on the two terminals are essentially isoenergetic. Cyclic voltammetry indicates that light-induced electron transfer from Bodipy to C60 is thermodynamically favourable and could compete with intramolecular energy transfer in the same direction. The driving force for light-induced electron abstraction from Bodipy by the singlet excited state of C60 depends critically on the solvent polarity. Thus, in non-polar solvents, light-induced electron transfer is thermodynamically uphill, but fast excitation energy transfer occurs from Bodipy to C60 and is followed by intersystem crossing and subsequent equilibration of the two triplet excited states. Moving to a polar solvent switches on light-induced electron transfer. Now, in benzonitrile, the charge-transfer state (CTS) is positioned slightly below the triplet levels, such that charge recombination restores the ground state. However, in CH2Cl2 or methyltetrahydrofuran, the CTS is slightly higher in energy than the triplet levels, and decays, in part, to form the triplet state localized on the C60 residue. This step is highly specific and does not result in direct formation of the triplet excited state localized on the Bodipy unit. Subsequent equilibration of the two triplets takes place on a relatively slow timescale. PMID:19551782

Ziessel, Raymond; Allen, Ben D; Rewinska, Dorota B; Harriman, Anthony



Langmuir-Blodgett films of a cationic zinc porphyrin-imidazole-functionalized fullerene dyad: formation and photoelectrochemical studies.  


Electron donor-acceptor dyad ensembles of a water-soluble cationic zinc porphyrin (viz., zinc tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium)porphyrin tetrachloride, Zn(TMPyP)) and a C60 derivative that bears an imidazole ligand (viz., 2-(phenylimidazolyl)fulleropyrrolidine, C60im) were assembled during the formation of Langmuir and then Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. Surface pressure versus surface area isotherms and surface pressure time profiles, as well as Brewster angle microscopic images documented that the Langmuir films formed were remarkably stable. Subsequently, these Langmuir films were transferred onto different solid substrates, by using the LB technique, for spectroscopic and photoelectrochemical characterization. The UV-vis spectroscopic investigations confirmed that the water-soluble Zn(TMPyP) was, indeed, transferred together with C60im in the LB films. Upon visible light illumination of these LB films, deposited on the ITO transparent conductive supports, a photocurrent generated in the C60im-Zn(TMPyP) system is ascribed to an efficient photoinduced electron transfer from the electron donor, porphyrin singlet excited-state to the electron acceptor, C60. Overall, internal photon-to-current efficiency, IPCE, of the photoanodic current generation (with ascorbate as a sacrificial electron donor) in the ITO/C60im-Zn(TMPyP)/ascorbate/Pt construct is over 5x larger than that of the photocathodic system (with methyl viologen, MV2+, as a sacrificial electron acceptor) in the ITO/Zn(TMPyP)-C60im/MV2+/Pt construct. Highly ordered film stacking favors vectorial electron transfer within the dyad, giving rise to the highest IPCE values of 2.5% determined for a photoanode that was composed of around 20 monolayer films. PMID:17279675

Marczak, Renata; Sgobba, Vito; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; Gadde, Suresh; D'Souza, Francis; Guldi, Dirk M



A semiempirical study for the ground and excited states of free-base and zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ground and excited states of a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad in both its free-base and zinc forms (D. Kuciauskas et al., J. Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 15926) have been investigated by semiempirical methods. The excited-state properties are discussed by investigation of the character of the molecular orbitals. All frontier MOs are mainly localized on either the donor or the acceptor subunit. Thus, the absorption spectra of both systems are best described as the sum of the spectra of the single components. The experimentally observed spectra are well reproduced by the theoretical computations. Both molecules undergo efficient electron transfer in polar but not in apolar solvents. This experimental finding is explained theoretically by explicitly considering solvent effects. The tenth excited state in the gas phase is of charge-separated character where an electron is transferred from the porphyrin donor to the fullerene acceptor subunit. This state is stabilized in energy in polar solvents due to its large formal dipole moment. The stabilization energy for an apolar environment such as benzene is not sufficient to lower this state to become the first excited singlet state. Thus, no electron transfer is observed, in agreement with experiment. In a polar environment such as acetonitrile, the charge-separated state becomes the S, state and electron transfer takes place, as observed experimentally. The flexible single bond connecting both the donor and acceptor subunits allows free rotation by ca. +/- 30 degrees about the optimized ground-state conformation. For the charge-separated state this optimized geometry has a maximum dipole moment. The geometry of the charge-separated state thus does not change relatively to the ground-state conformation. The electron-donating properties of porphyrin are enhanced in the zinc derivative due to a reduced porphyrin HOMO-LUMO energy gap. This yields a lower energy for the charge-separated state compared to the free-base dyad.

Parusel, A. B.



Dyads at Risk: Methadone-Maintained Women and Their Four-Month-Old Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares 17 methadone-exposed and 23 control four-month-old infants in interactions with their mothers. Results indicate that methadone is only one of several risk factors affecting interaction. Mothers rated poor in communication have poor psychosocial and psychological resources, and infants rated poor in communication showed problematic motor…

Jeremy, Rita Jeruchimowicz; Bernstein, Victor J.



Stability of Maternal Discipline Practices and the Quality of Mother-Child Interaction during Toddlerhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother-child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother-toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e.,…

Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice



Playing with Technology: Mother-Toddler Interaction Scores Lower during Play with Electronic Toys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate play with electronic toys (battery-operated or digital), 25 mother-toddler (16-24 months old) dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with sets of age-appropriate electronic and non-electronic toys for approximately 10 min each. Parent-child interactions were coded from recorded segments of both of the play conditions using the…

Wooldridge, Michaela B.; Shapka, Jennifer



Gravitating toward Science: Parent-Child Interactions at a Gravitational-Wave Observatory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the nature of parent-child conversations at an informal science education center housed in an active gravitational-wave observatory. Each of 20 parent-child dyads explored an interactive exhibit hall privately, without the distraction of other visitors. Parents employed a variety of strategies to support their children's…

Szechter, Lisa E.; Carey, Elizabeth J.



Gender differences of children's social skills and parenting using Interaction Rating Scale (IRS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this paper is to describe the gender differences of the Interaction Rating Scale (IRS) as an evidence-based practical index of children's social skills and parenting.Methods: The participants in our study, which was conducted as part of a Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) cohort study project, were 370 dyads of children with their caregivers were followed

T. Anme; R. Shinohara; Y. Sugisawa; L. Tong; E. Tanaka; T. Watanabe; Y. Onda; Y. Kawashima; M. Hirano; E. Tomisaki; H. Mochizuki; K. Morita; A. Gan-Yadam; Y. Yato; N. Yamakawa



Parent-Child Relationships during Middle Childhood: Gender Differences in Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in interactional style between parents and children, focusing on gender socialization and emotional expression. The subjects were 38 mother-child and father-child dyads from intact families, of which about 75 percent were Caucasian; 15 percent, Hispanic; and 10 percent, African American or Asian. Parents…

Shepard, Beth A.; Zboyan, Holly A.


Dyad Rapport and the Accuracy of Its Judgment Across Situations: A Lens Model Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecology of rapport and its perception within 2 contexts (i.e., adversarial and cooperative) were examined from a Brunswikian perspective. A lens model analysis determined (a) which observable cues were indicative of rapport, (b) whether observer judgments covaried with such cues, and (c) whether observers could assess accurately the rapport between opposite-sex interactants. Whereas the manifestation of rapport was context specific,

Frank J. Bernieri; John S. Gillis; Janet M. Davis; Jon E. Grahe



A Comparison of Dyadic Interactions and Coping with Still-Face in Healthy Pre-Term and Full-Term Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre-term birth has a significant impact on infants' social and emotional competence, however, little is known about regulatory processes in pre-term mother-infant dyads during normal or stressful interactions. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the differences in infant and caregiver interactive behaviour and dyadic coordination…

Montirosso, Rosario; Borgatti, Renato; Trojan, Sabina; Zanini, Rinaldo; Tronick, Ed



Talking to Strangers--A Sociolinguistic Experiment: Variation in Initial Dyadic Interactions between Spanish-Speakers in Early 21st Century Buenos Aires, Argentina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the chances of a dyad of Spanish-speaking strangers using informal address in casual, initial interactions in Buenos Aires, Argentina, today? To discover the pattern(s) of contemporary address, the Principal Investigator (PI) conducted a sociolinguistic experiment focusing on strangers' initial interactions to minimize the influence of…

Dziugis, Mary Ann



How close can you get? Studies of ultrafast light-induced processes in ruthenium-[60] fullerene dyads with short pyrazolino and pyrrolidino links.  


Two pyrazoline- and one pyrrolidine-bridged Ru(II)bipyridine-[60]fullerene dyads have been prepared and studied by ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. A silver-assisted synthesis route, in which Ag(I) removes the chlorides from the precursor complex Ru(bpy) 2Cl 2 facilitates successful coordination of the [60]fullerene-substituted third ligand. Upon light excitation of the ruthenium moiety, the emission was strongly quenched by the fullerene. The main quenching mechanism is an exceptionally fast direct energy transfer ( k obs > 1 x 10 (12) s (-1) in the pyrazoline-bridged dyads), resulting in population of the lowest excited triplet state of fullerene. No evidence for electron transfer was found, despite the extraordinarily short donor-acceptor distance that could kinetically favor that process. The observations have implications on the ongoing development of devices built from Ru-polypyridyl complexes and nanostructured carbon, such as C 60 or nanotubes. PMID:18636706

Karlsson, Susanne; Modin, Judit; Becker, Hans-Christian; Hammarström, Leif; Grennberg, Helena



Highly efficient singlet-singlet energy transfer in light-harvesting [60,70]fullerene-4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide dyads.  


New C60 and C70 fullerene dyads formed with 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide chromophores have been prepared by the Bingel cyclopropanation reaction. The resulting monoadducts were investigated with respect to their fluorescence properties (quantum yields and lifetimes) to unravel the role of the charge-transfer naphthalimide chromophore as a light-absorbing antenna and excited-singlet-state sensitizer of fullerenes. The underlying intramolecular singlet-singlet energy transfer (EnT) process was fully characterized and found to proceed quantitatively (?(EnT)?1) for all dyads. Thus, these conjugates are of considerable interest for applications in which fullerene excited states have to be created and photonic energy loss should be minimized. In polar solvents (tetrahydrofuran and benzonitrile), fluorescence quenching of the fullerene by electron transfer from the ground-state aminonaphthalimide was postulated as an additional path. PMID:23868354

Remón, Patricia; Parente Carvalho, Cátia; Baleizão, Carlos; Berberan-Santos, Mario Nuno; Pischel, Uwe



Mapping cardiac physiology and parenting processes in maltreating mother-child dyads.  


Child maltreatment (CM) lies on an extreme end of the continuum of parenting-at-risk, and while CM has been linked with a variety of behavioral indicators of dysregulation in children, less is known about how physiological markers of regulatory capacity contribute to this association. The present study examined patterns of mother and child physiological regulation and their relations with observed differences in parenting processes during a structured interaction. Abusing, neglecting, and non-CM mothers and their 3- to 5-year-old children completed a resting baseline and moderately challenging joint task. The structural analysis of social behavior was used to code mother-child interactions while simultaneous measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia were obtained. Results indicated that physically abusive mothers were more likely to react to children's positive bids for autonomy with strict and hostile control, than either neglecting or non-CM mothers. CM exposure and quality of maternal responding to children's autonomous bids were uniquely associated with lower parasympathetic tone in children. Results provide evidence of neurodevelopmental associations between early CM exposure, the immediate interactive context of parenting, and children's autonomic physiology. PMID:21842991

Skowron, Elizabeth A; Loken, Eric; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth A; Woehrle, Petra L; Van Epps, John J; Gowda, Anjali; Ammerman, Robert T



Thieno-Pyrrole-Fused 4,4-Difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-Fullerene Dyads: Utilization of Near-Infrared Sensitizers for Ultrafast Charge Separation in Donor-Acceptor Systems.  


Donor-acceptor dyads featuring near-IR sensitizers derived from thieno-pyrrole-fused BODIPY (abbreviated as SBDPiR) and fullerene, C60 have been newly synthesized and characterized. Occurrence of ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer (PET) leading to the formation of charge-separated state in these dyads, capable of harvesting light energy from the near-IR region, is established from femtosecond transient absorption studies. PMID:24820034

Bandi, Venugopal; Das, Sushanta K; Awuah, Samuel G; You, Youngjae; D'Souza, Francis



Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571: Crystal Structure and Insights into a New Class of Ser-Lys Dyad Proteins  

PubMed Central

Cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH) catalyzes the hydrolytic ring-opening of cyanuric acid (2,4,6-trihydroxy-1,3,5-triazine), an intermediate in s-triazine bacterial degradation and a by-product from disinfection with trichloroisocyanuric acid. In the present study, an X-ray crystal structure of the CAH-barbituric acid inhibitor complex from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571 has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution. The CAH protein fold consists of three structurally homologous domains forming a ?-barrel-like structure with external ?-helices that result in a three-fold symmetry, a dominant feature of the structure and active site that mirrors the three-fold symmetrical shape of the substrate cyanuric acid. The active site structure of CAH is similar to that of the recently determined AtzD with three pairs of active site Ser-Lys dyads. In order to determine the role of each Ser-Lys dyad in catalysis, a mutational study using a highly sensitive, enzyme-coupled assay was conducted. The 109-fold loss of activity by the S226A mutant was at least ten times lower than that of the S79A and S333A mutants. In addition, bioinformatics analysis revealed the Ser226/Lys156 dyad as the only absolutely conserved dyad in the CAH/barbiturase family. These data suggest that Lys156 activates the Ser226 nucleophile which can then attack the substrate carbonyl. Our combination of structural, mutational, and bioinformatics analyses differentiates this study and provides experimental data for mechanistic insights into this unique protein family.

Cho, Seunghee; Shi, Ke; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Dodge, Anthony G.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aihara, Hideki



Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Despite vitamin A supplementation programs, vitamin A deficiency in children remains a public health concern in Honduras.\\u000a Aim of the study We investigated the effectiveness of short-term dietary supplementation of mothers with red palm oil as a strategy for improving\\u000a the vitamin A status of the mother-infant dyad. Methods Lactating mothers in Colonia Los Pinos, a barrio of Tegucigalpa,

Louise M. Canfield; Rina G. Kaminsky; Douglas L. Taren; Elysa Shaw; Jay K. Sander



The Ugi four-component reaction as a concise modular synthetic tool for photo-induced electron transfer donor-anthraquinone dyads  

PubMed Central

Summary Phenothiazinyl and carbazolyl-donor moieties can be covalently coupled to an anthraquinone acceptor unit through an Ugi four-component reaction in a rapid, highly convergent fashion and with moderate to good yields. These novel donor–acceptor dyads are electronically decoupled in the electronic ground state according to UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. However, in the excited state the inherent donor luminescence is efficiently quenched. Previously performed femtosecond spectroscopic measurements account for a rapid exergonic depopulation of the excited singlet states into a charge-separated state. Calculations of the Gibbs energy of photo-induced electron transfer from readily available UV–vis spectroscopic and cyclovoltammetric data applying the Weller approximation enables a quick evaluation of these novel donor–acceptor dyads. In addition, the X-ray structure of a phenothiazinyl–anthraquinone dyad supports short donor–acceptor distances by an intramolecular ?-stacking conformation, an important assumption also implied in the calculations of the Gibbs energies according to the Weller approximation.

Bay, Sarah; Makhloufi, Gamall; Janiak, Christoph



Effect of geometrical orientation on the charge-transfer energetics of supramolecular (tetraphenyl)-porphyrin/C60 dyads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge transfer (CT) excited state energies of donor-acceptor (D/A) pairs determine the achievable open-circuit voltage of D/A-based organic solar cell devices. Changes in the relative orientation of donor-acceptor pairs at the interface influence the frontier orbital energy levels, which impacts the dissociation of bound excitons at the D/A-interface. We examine the effect of relative orientation on CT excited state energies of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The donors studied are base- and Zn-tetraphenyl porphyrin coupled to C60 as the acceptor molecule in an end-on configuration. We compare the energetics of a few low-lying CT states for the end-on geometry to our previously calculated CT energetics of a co-facial orientation. The calculated CT excitation energies are larger for the end-on orientation in comparison to the co-facial structure by about 0.7 eV, which primarily occurs due to a decrease in exciton binding energy in going from the co-facial to the end-on orientation. Furthermore, changes in relative donor-acceptor orientation have a larger impact on the CT energies than changes in donor-acceptor distance.

Olguin, Marco; Zope, Rajendra R.; Baruah, Tunna



Analysis of DNA methylation acquisition at the imprinted Dlk1 locus reveals asymmetry at CpG dyads  

PubMed Central

Background Differential distribution of DNA methylation on the parental alleles of imprinted genes distinguishes the alleles from each other and dictates their parent of origin-specific expression patterns. While differential DNA methylation at primary imprinting control regions is inherited via the gametes, additional allele-specific DNA methylation is acquired at secondary sites during embryonic development and plays a role in the maintenance of genomic imprinting. The precise mechanisms by which this somatic DNA methylation is established at secondary sites are not well defined and may vary as methylation acquisition at these sites occurs at different times for genes in different imprinting clusters. Results In this study, we show that there is also variability in the timing of somatic DNA methylation acquisition at multiple sites within a single imprinting cluster. Paternal allele-specific DNA methylation is initially acquired at similar stages of post-implantation development at the linked Dlk1 and Gtl2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). In contrast, unlike the Gtl2-DMR, the maternal Dlk1-DMR acquires DNA methylation in adult tissues. Conclusions These data suggest that the acquisition of DNA methylation across the Dlk1/Gtl2 imprinting cluster is variable. We further found that the Dlk1 differentially methylated region displays low DNA methylation fidelity, as evidenced by the presence of hemimethylation at approximately one-third of the methylated CpG dyads. We hypothesize that the maintenance of DNA methylation may be less efficient at secondary differentially methylated sites than at primary imprinting control regions.



Testing the perfectionism model of binge eating in mother-daughter dyads: a mixed longitudinal and daily diary study.  


The perfectionism model of binge eating is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is tied to binge eating. This study extended and tested this emerging model by proposing daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., perceiving one's mother is harshly demanding perfection of oneself) and mothers' psychological control (i.e., a negative parenting style involving control and demandingness) contribute indirectly to daughters' binge eating by generating situations or experiences that trigger binge eating. These binge triggers include discrepancies (i.e., viewing oneself as falling short of one's mother's expectations), depressive affect (i.e., feeling miserable and sad), and dietary restraint (i.e., behaviors aimed at reduced caloric intake). This model was tested in 218 mother-daughter dyads studied using a mixed longitudinal and daily diary design. Daughters were undergraduate students. Results largely supported hypotheses, with bootstrapped tests of mediation suggesting daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism and mothers' psychological control contribute to binge eating through binge triggers. For undergraduate women who believe their mothers rigidly require them to be perfect and whose mothers are demanding and controlling, binge eating may provide a means of coping with or escaping from an unhealthy, unsatisfying mother-daughter relationship. PMID:23557815

Mushquash, Aislin R; Sherry, Simon B



High resolution study of MGeH4 (M=76, 74) in the dyad region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared spectrum of GeH4 (88.1% of 76GeH4, 11.5% of 74GeH4, and minor amounts of three other stable isotopic species in the sample) was measured in the 700-1080 cm-1 region with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform interferometer (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and analyzed. 1922 transitions with J=26 were assigned to the ?4 and ?2 bands of 76GeH4 (?2 is a symmetry forbidden absorption band, and its transitions appear in the spectrum only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ?4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with an accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The result of analogous analysis of the 74GeH4 isotopologue (the number of assigned transitions is 788) is also presented.

Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Sennikov, P. G.; Koshelev, M. A.; Velmuzhova, I. A.; Velmuzhov, A. P.; Bulanov, A. D.



Examining the Role of Communication on Sibling Relationship Quality and Interaction for Sibling Pairs with and without a Developmental Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent…

Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.



Patterns in Early Interaction between Young Preschool Children with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments and Their Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to examine whether the asymmetrical pattern of communication usually found between people who use augmentative and alternative communication and their partners using natural speech was also found in the interaction between non-vocal young preschool children with cerebral palsy and their parents. Three parent-child dyads

Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Liliedahl, Marie



Sensitivity in Interactions between Hearing Mothers and their Toddlers with Hearing Loss: The Effect of Cochlear Implantation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential effects of cochlear implantation and age at implantation on maternal interactional sensitivity. Three groups of dyads were studied at two points over 1 year. The hearing aid (HA) group wore hearing aids throughout the study, the early cochlear implanted (ECI) group were implanted prior to 22 months of age, and…

Bakar, Zaharah Abu; Brown, P. Margaret; Remine, Maria D.



Synchrony, complexity and directiveness in mothers' interactions with infants pre- and post-cochlear implantation.  


This study investigated effects of profound hearing loss on mother-infant interactions before and after cochlear implantation with a focus on maternal synchrony, complexity, and directiveness. Participants included two groups of mother-infant dyads: 9 dyads of mothers and infants with normal hearing; and 9 dyads of hearing mothers and infants with profound hearing loss. Dyads were observed at two time points: Time 1, scheduled to occur before cochlear implantation for infants with profound hearing loss (mean age=13.6 months); and Time 2 (mean age=23.3 months), scheduled to occur approximately six months after cochlear implantation. Hearing infants were age-matched to infants with hearing loss at both time points. Dependent variables included the proportion of maternal utterances that overlapped infant vocalizations, maternal mean length of utterance, infant word use, and combined maternal directives and prohibitions. Results showed mothers' utterances overlapped the vocalizations of infants with hearing loss more often before cochlear implantation than after, mothers used less complex utterances with infants with cochlear implants compared to hearing peers (Time 2), and mothers of infants with profound hearing loss used frequent directives and prohibitions both before and after cochlear implantation. Together, mothers and infants adapted relatively quickly to infants' access to cochlear implants, showing improved interactional synchrony, increased infant word use, and levels of maternal language complexity compatible with infants' word use, all within seven months of cochlear implant activation. PMID:24793733

Fagan, Mary K; Bergeson, Tonya R; Morris, Kourtney J



Interactive Minds: A Facilitative Setting for Wisdom-Related Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two goals guided the present study: to develop ecologically relevant and functional interactive-minds settings for the assessment of wisdom-related performance and to investigate whether and under which conditions such settings would facilitate higher levels of wisdom-related performance. After baseline assessment of wisdom-related performance, a sample of 122 natural dyads (244 participants), ranging in age from 20 to 70 years, were

Ursula M. Staudinger; Paul B. Baltes



Positive Socialization Mechanisms in Secure and Insecure Parent-Child Dyads: Two Longitudinal Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early security amplified beneficial effects of children's willing, receptive stance toward the parent on socialization outcomes. Methods We examined parent-child early attachment organization, assessed in Strange Situation at 14–15 months, as moderating links between children's willing stance toward parents and socialization outcomes in Study 1 (108 mothers and children, followed to 73 months) and Study 2 (101 mothers, fathers, and children, followed to 80 months). Children's willing stance was observed as committed compliance at 14 and 22 months in Study 1, and as responsiveness to the parent in naturalistic interactions and teaching contexts at 25 and 67 months in Study 2. Socialization outcomes included children's internalization of maternal prohibition, observed at 33, 45, and 56 months, and maternal ratings of children's externalizing problems at 73 months in Study 1, and mothers' and fathers' ratings of children's Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder symptoms at 80 months in Study 2. Results Indirect effects of attachment were replicated across both studies and diverse measures: Attachment security significantly amplified the links between children's willing stance to mothers and all outcomes. Secure children's willing, cooperative stance to mothers predicted future successful socialization outcomes. Insecure children's willing stance conferred no beneficial effects. Conclusions Implications of early attachment extend to long-term, indirect developmental sequelae. Security in the first year serves as a catalyst for future positive socialization processes.

Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.



Mealtime television viewing and dietary quality in low-income African American and Caucasian mother-toddler dyads.  


To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy. PMID:19629662

Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine



Hunter-Gatherer Inter-Band Interaction Rates: Implications for Cumulative Culture  

PubMed Central

Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%–29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture.

Hill, Kim R.; Wood, Brian M.; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A. Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T.



Parent—child interaction in Nigerian families: conversation analysis, context and culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a conversation analysis (CA) approach to explore parent—child interaction (PCI) within Nigerian families. We illustrate how speech and language therapists (SLTs), by using CA, can tailor recommendations according to the interactional style of each individual family that are consonant with the family's cultural beliefs. Three parent—child dyads were video-taped playing and talking together in their home environments.

Annabel Burns; Julie Radford



Physical and relational aggression in young children: the role of mother–child interactional synchrony  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between the quality of parent–child interactions, specifically interactional synchrony (IS), and physical and relational aggression in young children. Seventy-three children (3–6 years; 44 males, 29 females) and their mothers participated in this study. The children's level of aggression was assessed through questionnaires completed by their mothers and teachers\\/caregivers. Mother–child dyads engaged in a free play

Holly N. Ambrose; Rosanne Menna



Attenuation of Reserpine-Induced Pain/Depression Dyad by Gentiopicroside Through Downregulation of GluN2B Receptors in the Amygdala of Mice.  


Epidemiological studies demonstrate that pain frequently occurs comorbid with depression. Gentiopicroside (Gent) is a secoiridoid compound isolated from Gentiana lutea that exhibits analgesic properties and inhibits the expression of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice. However, the effects of Gent on the reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Reserpine administration (1 mg/kg subcutaneous daily for 3 days) caused a significant decrease in the nociceptive threshold as evidenced by the reduced paw withdrawal latency in response to a radiant heat source and mechanical allodynia. Behavioral detection indicated a significant increase in immobility time during a forced swim test, as well as decreased time in the central area and total travel distance in an open field test. Furthermore, reserpinized animals exhibited increased oxidative stress. Systemic Gent administration dose-dependently ameliorated the behavioral deficits associated with reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad. At the same time, the decrease in biogenic amine levels (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) was integrated with the increase in caspase-3 levels and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the amygdala of the reserpine-injected mice. Gent significantly reversed the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, caspase-3, and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in amygdala. However, Gent did not affect the expression of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors. The inhibitory effects of Gent on oxidative stress were occluded by simultaneous treatment of GluN2B receptors antagonist Ro25-6981. Our study provides strong evidence that Gent inhibits reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad by downregulating GluN2B receptors in the amygdala. PMID:24584520

Liu, Shui-Bing; Zhao, Rong; Li, Xu-Sheng; Guo, Hong-Ju; Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Nan; Gao, Guo-Dong; Zhao, Ming-Gao



The 'functional' dyad of scorpion toxin Pi1 is not itself a prerequisite for toxin binding to the voltage-gated Kv1.2 potassium channels.  

PubMed Central

Pi1 is a 35-residue scorpion toxin cross-linked by four disulphide bridges that acts potently on both small-conductance Ca2+-activated (SK) and voltage-gated (Kv) K+ channel subtypes. Two approaches were used to investigate the relative contribution of the Pi1 functional dyad (Tyr-33 and Lys-24) to the toxin action: (i) the chemical synthesis of a [A24,A33]-Pi1 analogue, lacking the functional dyad, and (ii) the production of a Pi1 analogue that is phosphorylated on Tyr-33 (P-Pi1). According to molecular modelling, this phosphorylation is expected to selectively impact the two amino acid residues belonging to the functional dyad without altering the nature and three-dimensional positioning of other residues. P-Pi1 was directly produced by peptide synthesis to rule out any possibility of trace contamination by the unphosphorylated product. Both Pi1 analogues were compared with synthetic Pi1 for bioactivity. In vivo, [A24,A33]-Pi1 and P-Pi1 are lethal by intracerebroventricular injection in mice (LD50 values of 100 and 40 microg/mouse, respectively). In vitro, [A24,A33]-Pi1 and P-Pi1 compete with 125I-apamin for binding to SK channels of rat brain synaptosomes (IC50 values of 30 and 10 nM, respectively) and block rat voltage-gated Kv1.2 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes (IC50 values of 22 microM and 75 nM, respectively), whereas they are inactive on Kv1.1 or Kv1.3 channels at micromolar concentrations. Therefore, although both analogues are less active than Pi1 both in vivo and in vitro, the integrity of the Pi1 functional dyad does not appear to be a prerequisite for the recognition and binding of the toxin to the Kv1.2 channels, thereby highlighting the crucial role of other toxin residues with regard to Pi1 action on these channels. The computed simulations detailing the docking of Pi1 peptides on to the Kv1.2 channels support an unexpected key role of specific basic amino acid residues, which form a basic ring (Arg-5, Arg-12, Arg-28 and Lys-31 residues), in toxin binding.

Mouhat, Stephanie; Mosbah, Amor; Visan, Violeta; Wulff, Heike; Delepierre, Muriel; Darbon, Herve; Grissmer, Stephan; De Waard, Michel; Sabatier, Jean-Marc



The Impact of Visual Communication on the Intersubjective Development of Early Parent?Child Interaction with 18- to 24-Month-Old Deaf Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a study that examined the impact of visual communication on the quality of the early interaction between deaf and hearing mothers and fathers and their deaf children aged between 18 and 24 months. Three communication mode groups of parent?deaf child dyads that differed by the use of signing and visual?tactile communication…

Loots, Gerrit; Devise, Isabel; Jacquet, Wolfgang



The Effect of Behavioral Realism and Form Realism of Real-Time Avatar Faces on Verbal Disclosure, Nonverbal Disclosure, Emotion Recognition, and Copresence in Dyadic Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realism of avatars in terms of behavior and form is critical to the development of collaborative virtual environments. In the study we utilized state of the art, real- time face tracking technology to track and render facial expressions unobtrusively in a desktop CVE. Participants in dyads interacted with each other via either a video- conference (high behavioral realism and

Jeremy N. Bailenson; Nick Yee; Dan Merget; Ralph Schroeder



Mother-Toddler Interaction and Maternal Perception of Child Temperament in Two Ethnic Groups: Chinese-American and European-American.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to compare experiential features of mother/toddler interaction and maternal perception of toddler temperament in two ethnic groups: Chinese-Americans and European-Americans. Subjects were 16 mother/toddler dyads with five girls and three boys in each group matched for sex, age, and birth order. Caucasian mothers were…

Smith, Sheila; Freedman, Daniel G.


Excited-state dynamics in a dyad comprising terpyridine-platinum(II) ethynylene linked to pyrrolidino-[60]fullerene.  


A hybrid [Pt((t)Bu(3)terpy)(C[triple bond]C-Ph-C(60))](+) complex (Pt-Fu) wherein a phosphorescent platinum center is linked to fullerene has been prepared using a copper(I)-promoted cross-coupling reaction. The electrochemical and spectroscopic properties were understood in light of the properties of the isolated building blocks and references compounds, Pt and Fu. In particular, in Pt-Fu, the electrochemical studies revealed that the first reduction process is fullerene-based and that the lowest-energy Pt(+)-Fu(-) charge-separated (CS) state lies in the range 2.0-2.1 eV. The luminescence properties of the investigated species have been monitored in a CH(2)Cl(2) solvent at room temperature and in a MeOH/EtOH (1:4 v/v) glassy solution at 77 K. Upon excitation at 450 nm at room temperature and in air-free solvent, Pt displays an intense luminescence of (3)MLCT nature, with lambda(max) = 605 nm (523 nm at 77 K, corresponding to 2.37 eV), phi(em) = 0.013, and tau(em) = 920 ns. Under the same conditions, Fu exhibits the typical (1)C(60) fluorescence, with lambda(max) = 708 nm (703 nm at 77 K, corresponding to 1.76 eV), phi(em) = 6.0 x 10(-4), and tau(em) = 1.2 ns. For Pt-Fu, room-temperature excitation at 450 nm yields Pt*- and Fu*-centered excited states in a 1.2:1 proportion. However, no Pt-based emission is observed, and (i) in an air-free solvent, (1)Fu fluorescence is observed, while (ii) in an air-equilibrated solvent, singlet oxygen sensitization by the (3)Fu level takes place. Very close (1)O(2)* fluorescence intensities are observed at 1278 nm for isoabsorbing solutions at 450 nm of Fu and Pt-Fu, consistent with complete Pt --> Fu energy transfer in the dyad. The room-temperature nanosecond transient absorption spectra for Pt-Fu and Fu exhibit peaks at 680 and 690 nm with tau(TA) = 14.3 and 24.8 micros, respectively; in both cases, these are attributed to absorption by the fullerene triplet. By contrast, no CS species, Pt(+)-Fu(-), are detected. The Pt --> Fu energy transfer is discussed, and the rate constant for the (3)Pt-Fu --> Pt-(1)Fu step is evaluated, k(en) > 10(7) s(-1). PMID:19526994

Ventura, Barbara; Barbieri, Andrea; Zanelli, Alberto; Barigelletti, Francesco; Seneclauze, Julie Batcha; Diring, Stéphane; Ziessel, Raymond



The relationship of preschool and early school age attachment to mother-child interaction.  


This article focuses on the description and meaning of attachment relationships and their relation to patterns of caregiver-child interaction. Concepts fundamental to coding separation-reunion behavior in older children (J. Cassidy & R. S. Marvin, 1992; M. Main & J. Cassidy, 1988) are discussed and then applied to delineating the distinct patterns characterizing secure, avoidant, dependent, and disorganized/controlling at preschool and school age. A scale for rating the quality and relationship structure of adult-child interaction is described. Analyses comparing the interactive patterns of 121 mother-child (ages 5-7 years) dyads revealed a significant difference among the 4 attachment groups and specifically distinguished disorganized/controlling dyads. The study validates current school age attachment measures as well as a new taxonomy suitable for further research in naturalistic or clinical settings. PMID:15709856

Humber, Nancy; Moss, Ellen



Generation of Phosphorescent Triplet States via Photoinduced Electron Transfer: Energy and Electron Transfer Dynamics in Pt Porphyrin-Rhodamine B Dyads  

PubMed Central

Control over generation and dynamics of excited electronic states is fundamental to their utilization in all areas of technology. We present the first example of multichromophoric systems in which emissive triplet states are generated via a pathway involving photoinduced electron transfer (ET), as opposed to local intrachromophoric processes. In model dyads, PtP-Phn-pRhB+ (1-3, n=1-3), comprising platinum(II) meso-tetraarylporphyrin (PtP) and rhodamine B piperazine derivative (pRhB+), linked by oligo-p-phenylene bridges (Phn), upon selective excitation of pRhB+ at a frequency below that of the lowest allowed transition of PtP, room-temperature T1?S0 phosphorescence of PtP was observed. The pathway leading to the emissive PtP triplet state includes excitation of pRhB+, ET with formation of the singlet radical pair, intersystem crossing within that pair and subsequent radical recombination. Due to the close proximity of the triplet energy levels of PtP and pRhB+, reversible triplet-triplet (TT) energy transfer between these states was observed in dyads 1 and 2. As a result, the phosphorescence of PtP was extended in time by the long decay of the pRhB+ triplet. Observation of ET and TT in the same series of molecules enabled direct comparison of the distance attenuation factors ? between these two closely related processes.

Mani, Tomoyasu; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.



Protest or pleasure? The response of first-born children to interactions between their mothers and infant siblings.  


Triadic interactions between mother, pre-school age first-born, and 14-month-old second-born siblings were studied in 40 families as part of a longitudinal study using home observations. Interactions between mother and second-born exerted as important influence on the behaviour of the first-born; individual differences in the response of the first-born children were associated with difference in temperament of the first child, their reaction to the sibling birth, and with the sex of the sibling dyad. The age gap between siplings and the sex of sibling dyad influenced the time mother and second-born spent in interaction and the quality of this interaction. PMID:7068789

Kendrick, C; Dunn, J



Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads  

PubMed Central

Background International studies suggest ethnic differences in obesity prevalence may be due, in part, to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction between groups. Further, there is evidence to suggest that there is a familial resemblance in body image between mothers and their younger (preadolescent) daughters. This research was therefore conducted to specifically identify the extent to which family status (presented as mother-daughter resemblance) and ethnicity impact on body image attitudes and perceptions of South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Methods Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white) answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status), their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score). Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Results Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308), regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI). The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685). The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960) regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342) between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p = 0.693, respectively). In this instance, black mother-daughter dyads chose significantly heavier silhouettes than the other ethnic groups. This implies that black mothers and daughters associate beauty, respect and happiness with a bigger body size. Conclusion Resemblances exist between pre-adolescent girls and their mothers on issues related to ideal and attitudinal body image. In this regard, South African researchers should consider the effects ethnicity and family status on body image of women when developing targeted interventions to prevent or manage obesity.



The origins of 12-month attachment: A microanalysis of 4-month mother–infant interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch,

Beatrice Beebe; Joseph Jaffe; Sara Markese; Karen Buck; Henian Chen; Patricia Cohen; Lorraine Bahrick; Howard Andrews; Stanley Feldstein



Enhancing Building, Conversation, and Learning Through Caregiver–Child Interactions in a Children’s Museum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors adapted an experimental design to examine effects of instruction prior to entry into a children’s museum exhibit on caregiver–child interactions and children’s learning. One hundred twenty-one children (mean age = 6.6 years) and their caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 conditions that varied according to what, if any, preexhibit instruction the dyads received: (a) building and

Nora Benjamin; Catherine A. Haden; Erin Wilkerson



First Study of the v2= 3 Dyad {(130), (031)} of Ozone through the Analysis of Hot Bands in the 2300-2600 cm -1Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot bands ? 1+ 3? 2- ? 2and 3? 2+ ? 3- ? 2of 16O 3in the region 2300-2600 cm -1and the cold band 3? 2+ ? 3in the region 3050-3110 cm -1, corresponding to the v2= 3 dyad {(130), (031)}, have been observed for the first time, using the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at Reims and the usual experimental setup providing a large product pressure × path length, p × l. Three hundred sixty-five rovibration energy levels of the upper states were obtained with Jand Kaup to 46 and 9, respectively. The fit of these data gives a r.m.s. deviation of 1.93 × 10 -3cm -1. The v2dependence of the rotational parameters A, B, and Cfor the (1 v20) and (0 v21) states is discussed.

Barbe, A.; Mikhailenko, S.; Plateaux, J. J.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.



Dyad of CD40/CD40 ligand fosters neuroinflammation at the blood brain barrier and is regulated via JNK signaling: Implications for HIV-1 encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection may result in activation of peripheral monocytes followed by their infiltration into the central nervous system, where the release of pro-inflammatory mediators causes neurologic disease. Previously we detected high levels of soluble CD40-ligand (CD40L) in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of HIV-infected patients with cognitive impairment. We now show that CD40, a receptor for CD40L, is highly expressed in brain endothelial cells of patients affected by HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE), suggesting an important role for the CD40/CD40L dyad in regulating blood-brain-barrier (BBB) functions. This concept was further supported by in-vitro experiments. Exposure of primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) to CD40L up-regulated the expression of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, which caused a 4-fold increase in monocyte adhesion to BMVEC and stimulated migration across an in-vitro BBB model. Investigations into the intracellular signaling pathways that govern these events revealed that cJUN-N-terminal kinase (JNK) is critical to CD40 activation in the BMVEC. CD40L induced activation of mixed-lineage-kinase-3 (MLK-3) and JNK leading to the subsequent activation of cJUN/AP-1 (activating-protein-1). JNK inhibition in the BMVEC prevented CD40L-mediated induction of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration. These new findings support the concept that the CD40/CD40L dyad plays an important role in HIVE neuroinflammation.

Ramirez, Servio H.; Fan, Shongshan; Dykstra, Holly; Reichenbach, Nancy; Del Valle, Luis; Potula, Raghava; Phipps, Richard P.; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Persidsky, Yuri



Mother-Infant Person- and Object-Directed Interactions in Latino Immigrant Families: A Comparative Approach  

PubMed Central

Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother–infant person-and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother–infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother–infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers and infants engaged in person-directed behaviors longer than Latino immigrant or European American mothers and infants. Mother and infant person-directed behaviors were positively related; mother and infant object-related behaviors were related for some cultural groups but not others. Nearly all mother and infant behaviors were mutually contingent. Mothers were more responsive to infants’ behaviors than infants were to mothers. Some cultural differences in responsiveness emerged. Immigrant status has a differentiated role in mother–infant interactions.

Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Bakeman, Roger



Joint Book Reading across Cultures: A Comparison of Surinamese-Dutch, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch Parent-Child Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how parents from different cultural groups mediated a simple narrative text to their 4-year-old children. Suggests when reading is less important for the parents personally, they are less inclined to deviate from the text to negotiate meaning. Notes the ethnic groups differed in how the parents interacted with their children, but these…

Bus, Adriana G.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Keultjes, Petra



Determination of preferential molecular orientation in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad molecules with zinc atoms incorporated into the porphyrin ring (ZnDHD6ee) on the surface of aqueous subphase and on Si substrates have been investigated by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry. The experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions and on synchrotron radiation sources (KMC-2 station of BESSY II (Berlin) and Langmuir station at the National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute'). Depth distributions of Zn atoms and electron density in the monolayer film are calculated. On the basis of the analysis of these distributions, it is concluded that ZnDHD6ee dyad molecules in monolayers have preferential orientation. The data obtained indicate that the molecules in monolayer film retain their orientation when the monolayer is transferred from a liquid subphase surface onto a solid substrate.

Seregin, A. Yu., E-mail:; D'yakova, Yu. A.; Yakunin, S. N.; Makhotkin, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Tereschenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)



The Effect of Personality on Collaborative Task Performance and Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collocated, multi-user technologies, which support group-work are becoming increasingly popular. Examples include MERL’s Diamondtouch and Microsoft’s Surface, both of which have evolved from research prototypes to commercial products. Many applications have been developed for such technologies which support the work and entertainment needs of small groups of people. None of these applications however, have been studied in terms of the interactions and performances of their users with regards to their personality. In this paper, we address this research gap by conducting a series of user studies involving dyads working on a number of multi-user applications on the DiamondTouch tabletop device.

Givney, Sinéad Mc; Smeaton, Alan F.; Lee, Hyowon


D-?-A-A-?-D prototype 2,2'-bipyridine dyads exhibiting large structure and environment-sensitive fluorescence: synthesis, photophysics, and computation.  


A series of 4,4'-?-conjugated-2,2'-bipyridine chromophores (MS 1-8) were synthesized, and their photophysical and thermal properties were investigated. The title "push-pull' chromophores", except MS 1, were integrated with both alkoxy and alkylamino donor functionalities that differ in their donation capabilities. The oligophenylenevinylene (OPV) chromophores MS 4-8 are associated with a ?-extended backbone in which the position and the number of alkoxy donors were systematically varied. All of the studied systems possess a D-?-A-A-?-D dyad archetype in which the A-A is the central 2,2'-bipyridine acceptor core that is electronically attached with the donor termini through ?-linkers. The fluorescence quantum yields of the synthesized chromophores are found to be sensitive to the molecular archetype and the solvent medium. Out of the eight fluorescent compounds reported in this article, the compound MS 5 exhibits fluorescence in the solid state also. The modulating effect of the nature, position, and number of donor functionalities on the optical properties of these classes of compounds has further been comprehended on the basis of DFT and TD-DFT computation in a solvent reaction field. PMID:22059490

Sarma, Monima; Chatterjee, Tanmay; Ghanta, Susanta; Das, Samar K



School-based nutrition programs are associated with reduced child food insecurity over time among Mexican-origin mother-child dyads in Texas Border Colonias.  


In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers' and children's (aged 6-11 y) perspectives and experiences of child food insecurity and its seasonal volatility, including the effects of school-based and summertime nutrition programs. Forty-eight Mexican-origin mother-child dyads completed standardized, Spanish-language food-security instruments during 2 in-home visits between July 2010 and March 2011. Multilevel longitudinal logistic regression measured change in food security while accounting for correlation in repeated measurements by using a nested structure. Cohen's ? statistic assessed dyadic discordance in child food insecurity. School-based nutrition programs reduced the odds of child food insecurity by 74% [OR = 0.26 (P < 0.01)], showcasing the programs' impact on the condition. Single head of household was associated with increased odds of child food insecurity [OR = 4.63 (P = 0.03)]. Fair dyadic agreement of child food insecurity was observed [? = 0.21 (P = 0.02)]. Obtaining accurate prevalence rates and understanding differences of intrahousehold food insecurity necessitate measurement at multiple occasions throughout the year while considering children's perceptions and experiences of food insecurity in addition to parental reports. PMID:23486977

Nalty, Courtney C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R



A highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe for Hg2+ based on bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad and for live cells imaging.  


A new photochromic diarylethene derivative bearing rhodamine 6G dimmer as a fluorescent molecular probe is designed and synthesized successfully. All the compounds are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad exhibit excellent phtochromism with reversibly color and fluorescence changes alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. Upon addition of Hg(2+), its color changes from colorless to red and its fluorescence is remarkably enhanced. Whereas other ions including K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Fe(3+), Al(3+), Cr(3+) and so on induce basically no spectral changes, which constitute a highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe toward Hg(2+). Furthermore, by means of laser confocal scanning microscopy experiments, it is demonstrated that this probe can be applied for live cell imaging and monitoring Hg(2+) in living lung cancer cells with satisfying results, which shows its value of potential application in environmental and biological systems. PMID:24691371

Xu, Li; Wang, Sheng; Lv, Yingnian; Son, Young-A; Cao, Derong



Highly selective fluorescent OFF-ON thiol probes based on dyads of BODIPY and potent intramolecular electron sink 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl subunits.  


Two highly selective OFF-ON green emitting fluorescent thiol probes (1 and 2) with intense absorption in the visible spectrum (molar extinction coefficient ? is up to 73?800 M(-1) cm(-1) at 509 nm) based on dyads of BODIPY (as electron donor of the photo-induced electron transfer, i.e.PET) and 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl (DNBS) (as electron acceptor of the PET process) were devised. The single crystal structures of the two probes were determined. The distance between the electron donor (BODIPY fluorophore) and the electron acceptor (DNBS) of probe 2 is larger than that of probe 1, as a result the contrast ratio (or the PET efficiency) of probe 2 is smaller than that of probe 1. However, fluorescence OFF-ON switching effects were observed for both probe 1 and probe 2 in the presence of cysteine (the emission enhancement is 300-fold for probe 1 and 54-fold for probe 2). The fluorescence OFF-ON sensing mechanism is rationalized by DFT/TDDFT calculations. We demonstrated with DFT calculations that DNBS is ca. 0.76 eV more potent to accept electrons than the maleimide moiety. The probes were used for fluorescent imaging of cellular thiols. PMID:21487590

Guo, Huimin; Jing, Yingying; Yuan, Xiaolin; Ji, Shaomin; Zhao, Jianzhang; Li, Xiaohuan; Kan, Yanyan



A compact tetrathiafulvalene-benzothiadiazole dyad and its highly symmetrical charge-transfer salt: ordered donor ?-stacks closely bound to their acceptors.  


A compact and planar donor-acceptor molecule 1 comprising tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and benzothiadiazole (BTD) units has been synthesised and experimentally characterised by structural, optical, and electrochemical methods. Solution-processed and thermally evaporated thin films of 1 have also been explored as active materials in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). For these devices, hole field-effect mobilities of ?FE = (1.3±0.5)×10(-3) and (2.7±0.4)×10(-3) ?cm(2) ?V?s(-1) were determined for the solution-processed and thermally evaporated thin films, respectively. An intense intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition at around 495?nm dominates the optical absorption spectrum of the neutral dyad, which also shows a weak emission from its ICT state. The iodine-induced oxidation of 1 leads to a partially oxidised crystalline charge-transfer (CT) salt {(1)2I3}, and eventually also to a fully oxidised compound {1I3}?1/2I2. Single crystals of the former CT compound, exhibiting a highly symmetrical crystal structure, reveal a fairly good room temperature electrical conductivity of the order of 2?S?cm(-1). The one-dimensional spin system bears compactly bonded BTD acceptors (spatial localisation of the LUMO) along its ridge. PMID:24737663

Geng, Yan; Pfattner, Raphael; Campos, Antonio; Hauser, Jürg; Laukhin, Vladimir; Puigdollers, Joaquim; Veciana, Jaume; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Rovira, Concepció; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia



Study of structural order in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers formed on the surface of aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough and transferred onto solid substrates has been studied. The data obtained are interpreted using simulation of the structure of isolated molecules and their packing in monolayer and modeling of diffraction patterns from molecular aggregates having different sizes and degrees of order. Experiments on the formation of condensed ZnDHD6ee monolayers are described. The structure of these monolayers on a water surface is analyzed using {pi}-A isotherms. The structure of the monolayers transferred onto solid substrates is investigated by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The unit-cell parameters of two-dimensional domains, which are characteristic of molecular packing in monolayers and deposited films, are determined. Domains are found to be organized into a texture (the molecular axes are oriented by the [001] direction perpendicular to the substrate). The monolayers contain a limited number of small 3D domains.

D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, Andrei S.; Orekhov, Anton S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gainutdinov, R. V.; Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail:; Tereschenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)



Content Validity and Acceptability of the Daily Enhancement of Meaningful Activity Program Intervention for Mild Cognitive Impairment Patient-Spouse Dyads  

PubMed Central

Persons with mild cognitive Impairment (PwMCI) are at greater risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease and they experience various difficulties that decrease their quality of life. Very few interventions focus on helping PwMCI improve or maintain functional performance and enhance quality of life through meaningful activity engagement. The purpose of the study was to explore PwMCI and their spouses’ perspectives on the content validity, usefulness, and acceptability of the daily enhancement of meaningful activity (DEMA) program, which included 6 bi-weekly face-to-face sessions, between session assignments, and a self-management tool kit of written educational handouts. Nine PwMCI-care partner dyads participated in three focus groups (PwMCI alone, spouses alone, couples) to capture their perspectives on DEMA. The transcribed focus group data were analyzed through content analysis. The three groups provided support for content validity and acceptability of the program, and they suggested additional content areas important to couples experiencing MCI. They also attested to the usefulness of the tool kit and gave suggestions for its further improvement. The findings provide evidence of the content validity and acceptability of the DEMA program. A pilot study to assess feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the DEMA on health-related outcomes is the recommended next research step for this program.

Lu, Yvonne Yueh-Feng; Haase, Joan E.



A highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe for Hg2+ based on bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad and for live cells imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new photochromic diarylethene derivative bearing rhodamine 6G dimmer as a fluorescent molecular probe is designed and synthesized successfully. All the compounds are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad exhibit excellent phtochromism with reversibly color and fluorescence changes alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. Upon addition of Hg2+, its color changes from colorless to red and its fluorescence is remarkably enhanced. Whereas other ions including K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Cr3+ and so on induce basically no spectral changes, which constitute a highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe toward Hg2+. Furthermore, by means of laser confocal scanning microscopy experiments, it is demonstrated that this probe can be applied for live cell imaging and monitoring Hg2+ in living lung cancer cells with satisfying results, which shows its value of potential application in environmental and biological systems.

Xu, Li; Wang, Sheng; Lv, Yingnian; Son, Young-A.; Cao, Derong



A panchromatic supramolecular fullerene-based donor-acceptor assembly derived from a peripherally substituted bodipy-zinc phthalocyanine dyad.  


A panchromatic 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-zinc phthalocyanine conjugate (Bodipy-ZnPc) 1 was synthesized starting from phthalocyanine aldehyde 4, via dipyrromethane 3 and dipyrromethene 2. Conjugate 1 represents the first example in which a Bodipy unit is tethered to the peripheral position of a phthalocyanine core. Electrochemical and optical measurements provided evidence for strong electronic interactions between the Bodipy and ZnPc constituents in the ground state of 1. When conjugate 1 is subjected to photoexcitation in the spectral region corresponding to the Bodipy absorption, the strong fluorescence characteristic of the latter subunit is effectively quenched (i.e., > or = 97%). Excitation spectral analysis confirmed that the photoexcited Bodipy and the tethered ZnPc subunits interact and that intraconjugate singlet energy transfer occurs with an efficiency of ca. 25%. Treatment of conjugate 1 with N-pyridylfulleropyrrolidine (8), an electron-acceptor system containing a nitrogen ligand, gives rise to the novel electron donor-acceptor hybrid 1<-->8 through ligation to the ZnPc center. Irradiation of the resulting supramolecular ensemble within the visible range leads to a charge-separated Bodipy-ZnPc(*+)-C(60)(*-) radical-ion-pair state, through a sequence of excited-state and charge transfers, characterized by a remarkably long lifetime of 39.9 ns in toluene. PMID:20039345

Rio, Yannick; Seitz, Wolfgang; Gouloumis, Andreas; Vázquez, Purificacion; Sessler, Jonathan L; Guldi, Dirk M; Torres, Tomás



Bidirectional Influences in Mother-Toddler Dyads: An Examination of the Relative Influence of Mothers' and Children's Behaviors  

PubMed Central

This study examined bidirectional relations between mothers’ lax and overreactive discipline and children’s misbehavior and negative affect. We examined the moment-to-moment stability of mothers’ and children’s behaviors (actor effects) and mothers’ and children’s influence on their partners’ subsequent behaviors (partner effects). Participants were 71 mothers and their 24–48-month-old children observed during a thirty-minute interaction. Both children and mothers exhibited stability in their own behaviors and influenced the subsequent behaviors of their partners. Additionally, a comparison of partner effects indicated that overreactive discipline more strongly predicted child negative affect than child negative affect predicted overreactive discipline. In contrast, although a child’s negative affect predicted lax discipline, lax discipline did not predict subsequent child negative affect.

Del Vecchio, Tamara; Rhoades, Kimberly A.



Mother-child relationships as sources of support or stress: a comparison of competent, average, aggressive, and anxious dyads.  


We tested the proposition that mother-child relationships can be sources of support or stress, by comparing patterns of mother-child interactions in a problem-solving task that children completed with their own and with an unfamiliar mother. 4 groups of preschoolers (n = 30 in each group)--identified on the basis of teacher ratings as socially competent, average, aggressive, or anxious--participated. Mothers of competent and average children were highly positive and reciprocal toward their own and unfamiliar children. Mothers of aggressive and anxious children were only positive and reciprocal toward unfamiliar children but generally indiscriminate (aggressive group) or aversive and negatively reciprocal (anxious group) toward their own. Children in all 4 groups tended to be reciprocal toward their own mothers, but only competent and average children were reciprocal toward unfamiliar mothers also. Aggressive and anxious children generally responded to unfamiliar mothers by ignoring or actively rejecting their overtures. Results (1) indicate that the relationship with the primary caregiver may serve as a major source of support or stress in the preschool years; (2) focus attention on the dynamic organization of interactions rather than on the presence or frequency of particular behaviors, indicating that a dynamic of reciprocity enables children and mothers to adapt positively to the ever changing demands of new social situations; (3) point to the need to develop new means of assessing relationships to better understand how they influence development; and (4) highlight the importance of incorporating transactional models in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood dysfunctions rather than accounting for them solely in terms of limited skills in parents or children. PMID:8112116

Dumas, J E; LaFreniere, P J



Brain-Mind Dyad, Human Experience, the Consciousness Tetrad and Lattice of Mental Operations: And Further, The Need to Integrate Knowledge from Diverse Disciplines  

PubMed Central

Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other’s basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other’s work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of cooperative but evidential and critical enquiry – this is the goal for this monograph, and the work to follow.

Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.



The behaviour of young children with social communication disorders during dyadic interaction with peers.  


Children with social communication disorders are known to experience more problematic peer relations than typically-developing children. However, detailed observation of their behaviour and communication during interaction with peers has not previously been undertaken. Micro-analytic observational methods were used to analyse the audio-taped interaction of children (N?=?112) selected from mainstream schools (ages 5-6 years-old) on a computerised dyadic collaborative task. Comparisons were made between children with average-to-high- and low-pragmatic language skill as measured by the Test of Pragmatic Skills. Dyads were composed of an average-to-high-skilled child plus a low-skilled child (32 dyads), or of two average-to-high-skilled children (24 dyads). Consistently with their pragmatic language scores, low-skilled children were more likely to ignore other children's questions and requests than were average-to-high-skilled children. When average-to-high-skilled children worked with low-skilled children, as opposed to with other average-to-high-skilled children, they showed some sensitivity and adaptation to these children's difficulties; they used significantly more directives, clarification and provided more information. However, there was a cost in terms of the emotional tone of these interactions; when working with low-skilled children, the average-to-high-skilled children expressed considerably more negative feelings towards their partners than with another average-to-high-skilled child. In conclusion, observation of the interaction of average-to-high- and low-skilled children suggests promise for peer-assisted interventions and specifies which communicative behaviours could be targeted. However, care should be taken to manage the affective climate of these interactions for the benefit of all children involved. PMID:23794095

Murphy, Suzanne M; Faulkner, Dorothy M; Farley, Laura R



Social coordination in toddler's word learning: interacting systems of perception and action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.

Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen



Maternal cocaine use: estimated effects on mother-child play interactions in the preschool period.  


The study objective was to evaluate the quality of parent-child interactions in preschool-aged children exposed prenatally to cocaine. African-American mothers and their full-term newborns (n = 343) were enrolled prospectively at birth and classified as either prenatally cocaine-exposed (n = 157) or non-cocaine-exposed (n = 186) on the basis of maternal self-report and bioassays. Follow-up evaluations at 3 years of age (mean age, 40 mo) included a videotaped dyadic play session and maternal interviews to assess ongoing drug use and maternal psychological distress. Play interactions were coded using a modified version of Egeland et al's Teaching Task coding scheme. Regression analyses indicated cocaine-associated deficits in mother-child interaction, even with statistical adjustment for multiple suspected influences on interaction dynamics. Mother-child interactions were most impaired in cocaine-exposed dyads when the mother continued to report cocaine use at the 3-year follow-up. Multivariate profile analysis of the Egeland interaction subscales indicated greater maternal intrusiveness and hostility, poorer quality of instruction, lower maternal confidence, and diminished child persistence in the cocaine-exposed dyads. PMID:12177564

Johnson, Arnise L; Morrow, Connie E; Accornero, Veronica H; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C; Bandstra, Emmalee S



The origins of 12-month attachment: a microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant interaction.  


A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1 s time base; mother and infant facial-visual "engagement" variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual's own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual's behavior that were correlated with the partner's previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother, yielded comparable numbers of findings. Rather than the more usual hypothesis that more contingency is "better," we partially supported our hypothesis that 12-month insecurity is associated with both higher and lower 4-month self- and interactive contingency values than secure, as a function of mother vs. infant and communication modality. Thus, in the origins of attachment security, more contingency is not necessarily better. A remarkable degree of differentiation was identified in the 4-month patterns of "future" C and D infants, classified as resistant and disorganized, respectively, at 12 months. The central feature of future C dyads was dysregulated tactile and spatial exchanges, generating approach-withdrawal patterns. The intact maternal contingent coordination overall safeguards the future C infant's interactive agency. However, future C infants likely come to expect maternal spatial/tactile impingement, and to expect to "dodge" as mothers "chase." They managed maternal touch by tuning it out, sacrificing their ability to communicate about maternal touch. They "approached" by vigilantly coordinating their facial-visual engagement with maternal facial-visual engagement, but they "withdrew" by inhibiting their facial-visual engagement coordination with maternal touch. We proposed that future C infants will have difficulty feeling sensed and known during maternal spatial/tactile impingements. The central feature of future D dyads is intrapersonal and interpersonal discordance or conflict in the context of intensely distressed infants. Lowered maternal contingent coordination, and failures of maternal affective correspondence, constituted maternal emotional withdrawal from distressed infants, compromising infant interactive agency and emotional coherence. The level of dysregulation in future D dyads was thus of an entirely different order than that of future C dyads. We proposed that the future D infant represents not being sensed and known by the mother, particularly in states of distress. We proposed that the emer

Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley



[Gender-specific aspects of the physician-patient interaction].  


This article aims at shedding light on the role of physician and patient gender in the medical consultation. Because of the scarce amount of studies concentrating on gender aspects of the physician-patient interaction in rehabilitation or chronic disease, mostly results from general medicine are reported. Female physicians have a more emotional and less dominant communication style. Female patients bring up more psychosocial topics and disclose more information about themselves in general. Both female and male physicians give more information and apply a more partnership-oriented communication style when seeing a female patient. Female and male patients communicate more partnership-oriented with female physicians and share more psychosocial and medical information with them. Same-gender dyads seem beneficial most of the time for physician-patient communication. Mixed-gender dyads are more difficult, especially when a younger female physician sees a male patient. There is no single good communication style recommendable for all physicians. Rather, the research results presented should be applied to communication trainings for physicians. This could provide physicians with a flexible choice of communication styles to apply according to different situations. PMID:20963672

Cronauer, C Klöckner; Schmid Mast, M



The Social Interactive Behaviour of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Mothers: Is There an Effect of Familiarity of the Interaction Partner?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study the social behaviour of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their mothers is compared within two different dyads: a dyad consisting of a mother and her own child and a dyad consisting of a mother and an unfamiliar child. Mothers did not change the frequency of their social initiatives and responsiveness with an…

Meirsschaut, Mieke; Roeyers, Herbert; Warreyn, Petra



Compulsory citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of organizational identification and perceived interactional justice.  


This article examines the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of interactional justice in influencing the mediation. Using a time-lagged research design, the authors collected two waves of data from 388 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 67 teams to test the moderated mediation model. Results revealed that CCB negatively influenced OCB via impairing organizational identification. Moreover, interactional justice moderated the strength of the indirect effect of CCB on OCB (through organizational identification), such that the mediated relationship was stronger under low interactional justice than under high interactional justice. PMID:24684078

Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Chen, Hsiu-Kuei



Control of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release by stochastic RyR gating within a 3D model of the cardiac dyad and importance of induction decay for CICR termination.  


The factors responsible for the regulation of regenerative calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) during Ca(2+) spark evolution remain unclear. Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) gating in rats and sheep was recorded at physiological Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and ATP levels and incorporated into a 3D model of the cardiac dyad, which reproduced the time course of Ca(2+) sparks, Ca(2+) blinks, and Ca(2+) spark restitution. The termination of CICR by induction decay in the model principally arose from the steep Ca(2+) dependence of RyR closed time, with the measured sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) lumen Ca(2+) dependence of RyR gating making almost no contribution. The start of CICR termination was strongly dependent on the extent of local depletion of junctional SR Ca(2+), as well as the time course of local Ca(2+) gradients within the junctional space. Reducing the dimensions of the dyad junction reduced Ca(2+) spark amplitude by reducing the strength of regenerative feedback within CICR. A refractory period for Ca(2+) spark initiation and subsequent Ca(2+) spark amplitude restitution arose from 1), the extent to which the regenerative phase of CICR can be supported by the partially depleted junctional SR, and 2), the availability of releasable Ca(2+) in the junctional SR. The physical organization of RyRs within the junctional space had minimal effects on Ca(2+) spark amplitude when more than nine RyRs were present. Spark amplitude had a nonlinear dependence on RyR single-channel Ca(2+) flux, and was approximately halved by reducing the flux from 0.6 to 0.2 pA. Although rat and sheep RyRs had quite different Ca(2+) sensitivities, Ca(2+) spark amplitude was hardly affected. This suggests that moderate changes in RyR gating by second-messenger systems will principally alter the spatiotemporal properties of SR release, with smaller effects on the amount released. PMID:23708355

Cannell, M B; Kong, C H T; Imtiaz, M S; Laver, D R



Control of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Release by Stochastic RyR Gating within a 3D Model of the Cardiac Dyad and Importance of Induction Decay for CICR Termination  

PubMed Central

The factors responsible for the regulation of regenerative calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) during Ca2+ spark evolution remain unclear. Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) gating in rats and sheep was recorded at physiological Ca2+, Mg2+, and ATP levels and incorporated into a 3D model of the cardiac dyad, which reproduced the time course of Ca2+ sparks, Ca2+ blinks, and Ca2+ spark restitution. The termination of CICR by induction decay in the model principally arose from the steep Ca2+ dependence of RyR closed time, with the measured sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) lumen Ca2+ dependence of RyR gating making almost no contribution. The start of CICR termination was strongly dependent on the extent of local depletion of junctional SR Ca2+, as well as the time course of local Ca2+ gradients within the junctional space. Reducing the dimensions of the dyad junction reduced Ca2+ spark amplitude by reducing the strength of regenerative feedback within CICR. A refractory period for Ca2+ spark initiation and subsequent Ca2+ spark amplitude restitution arose from 1), the extent to which the regenerative phase of CICR can be supported by the partially depleted junctional SR, and 2), the availability of releasable Ca2+ in the junctional SR. The physical organization of RyRs within the junctional space had minimal effects on Ca2+ spark amplitude when more than nine RyRs were present. Spark amplitude had a nonlinear dependence on RyR single-channel Ca2+ flux, and was approximately halved by reducing the flux from 0.6 to 0.2 pA. Although rat and sheep RyRs had quite different Ca2+ sensitivities, Ca2+ spark amplitude was hardly affected. This suggests that moderate changes in RyR gating by second-messenger systems will principally alter the spatiotemporal properties of SR release, with smaller effects on the amount released.

Cannell, M.B.; Kong, C.H.T.; Imtiaz, M.S.; Laver, D.R.



Emotional signals in nonverbal interaction: dyadic facilitation and convergence in expressions, appraisals, and feelings.  


We examined social facilitation and emotional convergence in amusement, sadness, and fear in dynamic interactions. Dyads of friends or strangers jointly watched emotion-eliciting films while they either could or could not communicate nonverbally. We assessed three components of each emotion (expressions, appraisals, and feelings), as well as attention to and social motives toward the co-participant. In Study 1, participants interacted through a mute videoconference. In Study 2, they sat next to each other and either were or were not separated by a partition. Results revealed that facilitation and convergence are not uniform across different emotions and emotion components. Particularly strong supporting patterns emerged for the facilitation of and convergence in smiling. When direct interaction was possible (Study 2), friends showed a general tendency for strong convergence, with the exception of fear-related appraisals. This suggests that underlying processes of emotional contagion and social appraisal are differentially relevant for different emotions. PMID:22471853

Bruder, Martin; Dosmukhambetova, Dina; Nerb, Josef; Manstead, Antony S R



Mechanisms of Contextual Risk for Adolescent Self-Injury: Invalidation and Conflict Escalation in Mother-Child Interactions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE According to developmental theories of self-injury, both child characteristics and environmental contexts shape and maintain problematic behaviors. Although progress has been made toward identifying biological vulnerabilities to self-injury, mechanisms underlying psychosocial risk have received less attention. METHOD In the present study, we compared self-injuring adolescents (n=17) with typical controls (n=20) during a mother-child conflict discussion. Dyadic interactions were coded using both global and microanalytic systems, allowing for a highly detailed characterization of mother-child interactions. We also assessed resting state psychophysiological regulation, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RESULTS Global coding revealed that maternal invalidation was associated with adolescent anger. Furthermore, maternal invalidation and coerciveness were both related to adolescent opposition/defiance. Results from the microanalytic system indicated that self-injuring dyads were more likely to escalate conflict, suggesting a potential mechanism through which emotion dysregulation is shaped and maintained over time. Finally, mother and teen aversiveness interacted to predict adolescent resting RSA. Low-aversive teens with highly aversive mothers had the highest RSA, whereas teens in high-high dyads showed the lowest RSA. CONCLUSIONS These findings are consistent with theories that emotion invalidation and conflict escalation are possible contextual risk factors for self-injury.

Crowell, Sheila E.; Baucom, Brian R.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Potapova, Natalia V.; Fitelson, Martha; Barth, Heather; Smith, Cindy J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.



ADHD Medication Vacations and Parent-Child Interactions by Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine medication vacations among children with ADHD according to parent-child dyads (e.g., mother-son, father-daughter, mother-daughter, and father-son). Method: In a survey study of 259 parents of children with ADHD, the use of medication vacations according to parent-child sex dyads was…

Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sulak, Tracey



Enhancing building, conversation, and learning through caregiver-child interactions in a children's museum.  


The authors adapted an experimental design to examine effects of instruction prior to entry into a children's museum exhibit on caregiver-child interactions and children's learning. One hundred twenty-one children (mean age = 6.6 years) and their caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 conditions that varied according to what, if any, preexhibit instruction the dyads received: (a) building and conversation instruction, (b) building instruction only, (c) conversation instruction only, (d) presentation of models of buildings and conversations without instruction, or (e) no instruction or control. Building instruction included information about triangular cross-bracing. Conversation instruction emphasized the use of elaborative wh-questions and associations. When observed in the exhibit, dyads in the groups that received building instruction included more triangles in their structures than those in the other groups. Caregivers provided with conversation instruction asked more wh-questions, made more associations, and engaged in more caregiver-child joint talk compared with those who received building instruction alone. Type of instruction was further linked to differences across conditions in the engineering content of talk, performance during immediate assessments of learning, and children's memory following 1-day and 2-week delays. PMID:20210509

Benjamin, Nora; Haden, Catherine A; Wilkerson, Erin



Synthesis and Characterization of Ru(II) Tris(1,1O-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads Incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium Cation or N-Benzyl-N'-methyl-viologen. Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Optical Oxygen Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The title compounds (1 and 2, above) were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions of appropriate Ru(1I) complexes with the electron a cceptors. Characterization was conducted in solution and in frozen ma trices. Finally, the title compounds were evaluated as dopants of sol-gel materials. It was found that the intramolecular quenching efficie ncy of 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridinium cation in solution depends on the solvent: photoluminescence is quenched completely in CH,CN, but not i n methanol or ethanol. On the other hand, intramolecular emission que nching by 4-benzyl-N-methyl viologen is complete in all solvents. The difference between the two quenchers is traced electrochemically to t he solvation of the 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridiniums by alcohol. In froze n matrices or adsorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both Ru(I1) complex/electron acceptor dyads of this study are photoluminescent, and the absence of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigi dity. When doped aerogels are cooled at 77 K, the emission intensity increases by approximately 4x, and the spectra shift to the blue, analogous to what is observed with Ru(I1) complexes in solutions undergoi ng fluid-to-rigid transition. However, in contrast to frozen solution s, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at low tempe ratures are still accessible to gas-phase quenchers diffusing through the mesopores, leading to more sensitive platforms for sensors than o ther room-temperature configurations. Thus the photoluminescence of o ur Ru(I1) complex dyads adsorbed on aerogel is quenchable by O2 both at room temperature and at 77 K. Furthermore, it was also found that O 2 modulates the photoluminescence of aerogels doped with 4-benzoyl -N -methylpyridinium-based dyads over a wider dynamic range compared wi th aerogels doped with either our vislogen-based dyads or with Ru(I1) tris(1,lO-phenanthroline) itself.

Leventis, Nicholas; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monen M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia



The interactive effects of belongingness and charisma on helping and compliance.  


This study tests the main and interactive effects of belongingness and perceived charismatic leadership on 2 forms of organizational citizenship behavior (helping and compliance). In line with expectations, a study of 115 manager-subordinate dyads demonstrates that employees show more helping (manager rated) when they have a stronger sense of belongingness at work and more helping as well as compliance when they perceive their leader to be more charismatic (subordinate rated). Belongingness partially mediates the relationship between charisma and helping. Also, as hypothesized, belongingness and charisma have interactive effects on employees' helping and compliance. The impact of perceived charisma on these behaviors is stronger for employees with a low sense of belongingness at work than for individuals with a higher sense of belongingness. PMID:17638470

Den Hartog, Deanne N; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Keegan, Anne E



Parent-Adolescent Relationship Qualities, Internal Working Models, and Styles as Predictors of Adolescents' Observed Interactions with Friends.  


This study examined how current parent-adolescent relationship qualities and adolescents' representations of relationships with parents were related to friendship interactions in 200 adolescent-close friend dyads. Adolescents and friends were observed discussing problems during a series of structured tasks. Negative interactions with mothers were significantly related to adolescents' greater conflict with friends, poorer focus on tasks, and poorer communication skills. Security of working models (as assessed by interview) was significantly associated with qualities of friendship interactions, whereas security of attachment styles (as assessed by questionnaire) was not. More dismissing (vs. secure) working models were associated with poorer focus on problem discussions and weaker communication skills with friends, even after accounting for gender differences and current parent-adolescent relationship qualities. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed links between dimensions of parent-adolescent relationships and friendships. We also consider methodological and conceptual differences between working model and style measures of attachment representations. PMID:20174459

Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol



Examining the role of communication on sibling relationship quality and interaction for sibling pairs with and without a developmental disability.  


This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent communicators and their siblings did not differ in terms of syntactic complexity but typically developing siblings dominated the interaction and exhibited greater lexical diversity regardless of communication status. Communication status did not impact the warmth/closeness, rivalry, or conflict in the sibling relationship, but siblings of independent communicators engaged in the greatest amount of helping and managing behaviors. These results represent a first step in understanding the role of communication skills in the sibling relationship for families of children with disabilities. PMID:24245732

Smith, Ashlyn L; Romski, Maryann; Sevcik, Rose A



Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in a Community Setting: Examining Outcomes, Attrition, and Treatment Setting  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) deployed in a community setting comparing in-home with the standard office-based intervention. Child behavior, parent stress, parent functioning, and attrition were examined. Methods Using a quasi-experimental design, standardized measures at three time points were collected from parent-child dyads (n=120) with thirty-seven families completing treatment. Results Growth modeling analyses indicate significant improvements in child and parent outcomes in both treatment settings with more rapid improvements in parent outcomes within office-based treatment. Attrition was predicted by income and parent functioning. Conclusion PCIT delivered in the community can produce measureable improvements. In-home PCIT is a feasible option but future research should consider benefits and costs. Treatment completion remains a challenge.

Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patrica L.; Benz, Joan; Swinger, Dawn; Moussette, Pam; Drake, Brett



Powerful Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactions are the daily exchanges in words and gestures one has with others. As a teacher, the interactions he/she has with young children can make a positive difference in their lives. A teacher's powerful interactions with children play an important role in their emotional well-being and learning. Powerful interactions are not the same as…

Dombro, Amy Laura; Jablon, Judy R.; Stetson, Charlotte



Identifying Dyads and their conservation in Drosphila.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Core promoter regions in Drosophila are enriched with binding sites like TATA, Inr, DPE, MTE, etc. They have very strict spacing between each other in promoters where they occur together. For example, in Drosophila melanogaster TATA-Inr has a spacing of 25-30 bp. Our aim in this work is to identify all such pair of motifs having strict positional constraint in the core promoters of all Drosophila species. We discover how these motifs and the spacing between them evolve within Drosophila species. For this we analyze 700 bp upstream and 300 bp downstream of TSS in D. melanogaster and the corresponding orthologous region in other Drosophila species. For each species, this 1000 bp region is searched for statistically over-represented compound words of the form W1NLW2, where L is the spacing between words W1 and W2. These compound words are systematically clustered for further analysis.

Dan, Debasis



Longitudinal Dyad Models in Family Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multilevel modeling allows for the simultaneous analysis of data gathered at more than 1 unit of analysis (e.g., children nested in schools). It is often used to examine the effects of various contexts on individual differences in change. This paper promotes the application of multilevel models to longitudinal dyadic data in family research. By…

Lyons, Karen S.; Sayer, Aline G.



Reciprocity and Credit Building in Dyads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four hypotheses, based on Gouldner's theory of reciprocity, were tested in an experimental gaming situation, with the following results: More reward was provided to the other person, (a) the more he had given in the past, (b) the larger his future resourc...

D. G. Pruitt



Construction of Trust Judgments within Cooperative Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: One of the aims of physical education (PE) is to develop social skills such as cooperation, teamwork, and mutual helping among students. Cooperation is a broad research topic, implicating several disciplines in the human sciences (e.g. psychology, sociology, linguistics, philosophy). It is also an important topic in various domains…

Evin, Agathe; Sève, Carole; Saury, Jacques



Mother-Infant Person- and Object-Directed Interactions in Latino Immigrant Families: A Comparative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother-infant person- and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother-infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother-infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers…

Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Bakeman, Roger



Positive maternal interaction behavior moderates the relation between maternal anxiety and infant regulatory problems.  


Regulatory problems in infancy are determined by different risk factors. This study aims to examine how psychosocial risk factors are connected, and how they impact the early regulatory ability of 3-month-old infants. In a sample of 57 mother-infant dyads, maternal anxiety and infant crying, sleeping and feeding habits were assessed. As a possible moderator, the role of positive maternal behavior was analyzed by videotaping face-to-face interactions. During the interaction, interactive stress was provoked with the face-to-face still-face paradigm (FFSF). Thus, this study differentiated between the effects of maternal behavior in both an ordinary play context, as well as a stressful interaction context. Results revealed that the relation between maternal anxiety and infant regulatory problems in crying and sleeping varied as a function of positive maternal engagement in stressful situations. However, a significant moderation effect influencing infant feeding problems could not be demonstrated. These findings stress the importance of positive maternal interaction behavior in at least some parts of regulatory adjustment of at-risk infants. PMID:23728294

Richter, Nina; Reck, Corinna



Hyperfine Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Chap. 2, for the sake of simplicity, we dealt with transitions between unperturbed energy levels of “bare” nuclei with the mean transition energy E 0. In reality, however, nuclei are exposed to electric and magnetic fields created by the electrons of the Mössbauer atom itself and by other atoms in the neighborhood. These fields generally interact with the electric charge distribution and the magnetic dipole moment of the Mössbauer nucleus and perturb its nuclear energy states. The perturbation, called nuclear hyperfine interaction, may be such that it shifts the nuclear energy levels, as is the case in the electric monopole interaction (e0), or such that it splits degenerate states, as afforded by the electric quadrupole interaction (e2) and the magnetic dipole interaction (m1). Only these three kinds of interaction must be considered in practical Mössbauer spectroscopy.

Gütlich, Philipp; Bill, Eckhard; Trautwein, Alfred X.


Drug Interactions  

PubMed Central

One of the most clinically significant complications related to the use of pharmacotherapy is the potential for drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. The gastrointestinal system plays a large role in the pharmacokinetic profile of most medications, and many medications utilized in gastroenterology have clinically significant drug interactions. This review will discuss the impact of alterations of intestinal pH, interactions mediated by phase I hepatic metabolism enzymes and P-glycoprotein, the impact of liver disease on drug metabolism, and interactions seen with commonly utilized gastrointestinal medications.

Tong Logan, Angela; Silverman, Andrew



Interactive Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key to the group dynamics process in teleconferencing is interaction and the use of interactive technologies. The user of teleconferencing for instruction has to accept several underlying assumptions: lecture is not necessarily sound instruction, especially for adults; teleconferencing is easy; and teleconferences require planning. Benefits are…

Sumner, Jack A.


High-resolution infrared and theoretical study of four fundamental bands of gaseous 1,3,4-oxadiazole between 800 and 1600 cm -1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of gaseous 1,3,4-oxadiazole, C 2H 2N 2O, has been recorded in the 800-1600 cm -1 wavenumber region with a resolution around 0.0030 cm -1. The four fundamental bands ?9(B 1; 852.5 cm -1), ?14(B 2; 1078.5 cm -1), ?4(A 1; 1092.6 cm -1), and ?2(A 1; 1534.9 cm -1) are analyzed by the standard Watson model. Ground state rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants are obtained from a simultaneous fit of ground state combination differences from three of these bands and previous microwave transitions. Upper state spectroscopic constants are obtained for all four bands from single band fits using the Watson model. The ?4 and ?14 bands form a c-Coriolis interacting dyad, and the two bands are analyzed simultaneously by a model including first and second order Coriolis resonance using the ab initio predicted Coriolis coupling constant ?14,4c. An extended local resonance in ?2 is explained as higher order b-Coriolis type resonance with ?6 + ?10, which is further perturbed globally by the ?15 + ?10 level. A fit of selected low- J transitions to a triad model including ?2(A 1), ?6 + ?10(B 1), and ?15 + ?10(A 2) using an ab initio calculated Coriolis coupling constant ?15,6c is performed. The rotational constants, ground state quartic centrifugal distortion constants, anharmonic frequencies, and vibration-rotational constants ( ?-constants) predicted by quantum chemical calculations using a cc-pVTZ and TZ2P basis with B3LYP methodology, are compared with the present experimental data, where there is generally good agreement. A complete set of anharmonic frequencies and ?-constants for all fundamental levels of the molecule is given.

Hegelund, F.; Larsen, R. Wugt; Aitken, R. A.; Aitken, K. M.; Palmer, M. H.



Interactive Investigator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Investigator, available through Virtual Museum Canada, is a website "for anyone with an interest in the different scientific methods used to solve crimes." Users will find a database of forensic science, containing short but informative essays on forensic entomology, toxicology, alcohol analysis, and various other forensic science topics. A simple timeline reviews key dates in the development of forensics, starting with the creation of the Paris Institute for Forensic Science in 1868. But the main feature (and the most fun) is an interactive game, in which players collect and analyze crime scene clues to solve a murder case. Interactive Investigator is also available in French.


Interactions Everywhere!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of an environment and the interactions within it through written and hands-on webbing activities. They also learn about environmental engineering careers and the roles of these engineers in our society.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


Interactive Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Physics is a complete modeling and simulation environment that allows teachers and students to explore physics concepts such as mechanics, conservation of energy, vectors, time/distance/force equations, planetary motion, relative motion and electrostatics.



Know thine enemy: fighting fish gather information from observing conspecific interactions  

PubMed Central

Many of the signals that animals use to communicate transmit relatively large distances and therefore encompass several potential signallers and receivers. This observation challenges the common characterization of animal communication systems as consisting of one signaller and one receiver. Furthermore, it suggests that the evolution of communication behaviour must be considered as occurring in the context of communication networks rather than dyads. Although considerations of selection pressures acting upon signallers in the context of communication networks have rarely been expressed in such terms, it has been noted that many signals exchanged during aggressive interactions will transmit far further than required for information transfer between the individuals directly involved, suggesting that these signals have been designed to be received by other, more distant, individuals. Here we consider the potential for receivers in communication networks to gather information, one aspect of which has been termed eavesdropping. We show that male Betta splendens monitor aggressive interactions between neighbouring conspecifics and use the information on relative fighting ability in subsequent aggressive interactions with the males they have observed.

Oliveira, R. F.; McGregor, P. K.; Latruffe, C.



Hierarchical Continuous-Time Sequential Analysis: A Strategy for Clinical Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents strategy for analyzing interdyadic differences in sequential data on social interactions. Shows how to statistically describe interactional structure within each dyad governing stream of that dyad's social interactive behavior and how scores describing dyadic structures can be related to covariate information about dyads. (Author/NB)

Gardner, William



Strong Interaction  

SciTech Connect

We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.



DNA Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNA Interactive is an educational site celebrating the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick. The web site features interactive modules about the history of DNA science; discovering and reading the DNA code; manipulating the code to create tailored molecules; studying the human genome; applications of DNA research; and a chronicle of the eugenics movement. These modules feature rare video interviews with scientists, 3D animations, and narrative text to present and explain DNA science. Other materials include a teacher's guide with downloadable, printable lessons, an online teaching community, and information on further resources.



Interactive Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents guiding principles for developing interactive lessons for the World Wide Web. Describes "Amazing Space: Education Online from the Hubble Space Telescope", a program where students study spectacular Hubble Space Telescope images of stars and star-forming regions to learn about the life cycle of stars and the creation of atoms. (JRH)

Martin, Jean K.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is an interactive on-line book based upon the book “Your Amazing Immune System” which brings students to an exploration on how our immune system protects our body from infectious diseases. In addition, it gives students background on autoimmune diseases, immune reactions, and how immunology can be used in fighting cancer.

European Federation Of Immunological Societies, Efis



Mohr Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mohr's Circle is a graphical method that allows engineers to visualize and analyze internal stress (force per unit area) within engineering materials. The Mohrs applet is designed to interactively explore the relationship between a given stress state, the frame of reference and the graphical Mohr's Circle representation.

Love, Garrett R.; Feiner, Joel


Pressure Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page allows you to change the state variables in the two ensembles and observe the interactions between the state variables. The piston mass is 50x the particles mass. This large piston mass produces a slow mechanical oscillation about the equal-pressure equilibrium point whenever a disequilibrium is created.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario



Interactive Spreadsheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Excel spreadsheets display hard-to-understand concepts in statistics, quantum mechanics, physics, and more. Parameters are adjusted by clicking on easy-to-use buttons or by using numeric input boxes. Graphs, tables, and/or figures are then created reflecting the change in parameters.


Dinosaur Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore why animals, specifically dinosaurs, live in families. Learners examine Dinosphere scenes (drawing of dinosaurs in groups) and sort the scenes by reasons the animals are living in groups. Then, learners glue together geometric shapes to create dinosaurs interacting in groups and families. This activity is featured on page 26 of the "Dinosphere" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Crosslin, Rick; Fortney, Mary; Indianapolis, The C.



Characterization of the interaction between HMGB1 and H3--a possible means of positioning HMGB1 in chromatin  

PubMed Central

High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) binds to the internucleosomal linker DNA in chromatin and abuts the nucleosome. Bending and untwisting of the linker DNA results in transmission of strain to the nucleosome core, disrupting histone/DNA contacts. An interaction between H3 and HMGB1 has been reported. Here we confirm and characterize the interaction of HMGB1 with H3, which lies close to the DNA entry/exit points around the nucleosome dyad, and may be responsible for positioning of HMGB1 on the linker DNA. We show that the interaction is between the N-terminal unstructured tail of H3 and the C-terminal unstructured acidic tail of HMGB1, which are presumably displaced from DNA and the HMG boxes, respectively, in the HMGB1-nucleosome complex. We have characterized the interaction by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and show that it is extensive for both peptides, and appears not to result in the acquisition of significant secondary structure by either partner.

Watson, Matthew; Stott, Katherine; Fischl, Harry; Cato, Laura; Thomas, Jean O.



Putting Interaction into Interactive Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current technology provides many new ideas and alternatives to traditional education and training practices. From the experience of the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Academic Instructor School (AIS) and current research in the field, teaching via interactive television (teleseminar/video teletraining) requires new teaching skills and new ways of thinking…

Wolfe, Thomas E.


Infant Television and Video Exposure Associated With Limited Parent-Child Verbal Interactions in Low Socioeconomic Status Households  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess verbal interactions related to television and other electronic media exposure among mothers and 6 month-old-infants. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 154 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development. Setting Urban public hospital. Participants Low socioeconomic status mothers of 6-month-old infants. Main Exposure Media exposure and content. Main Outcome Measures Mother-infant verbal interaction associated with media exposure and maternal coviewing. Results Of 154 low socioeconomic status mothers, 149 (96.8%) reported daily media exposure in their infants, with median exposure of 120 (interquartile range, 60-210) minutes in a 24-hour period. Among 426 program exposures, mother-infant interactions were reported during 101 (23.7%). Interactions were reported most frequently with educational young child–oriented media (42.8% of programs), compared with 21.3% of noneducational young child–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.98) and 14.7% of school-age/teenage/adult–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.3). Among coviewed programs with educational content, mothers reported interactions during 62.7% of exposures. Coviewing was not reported more frequently for educational young child–oriented programs. Conclusions We found limited verbal interactions during television exposure in infancy, with interactions reported for less than one-quarter of exposures. Although interactions were most commonly reported among programs with educational content that had been coviewed, programs with educational content were not more likely to be coviewed than were other programs. Our findings do not support development of infant-directed educational programming in the absence of strategies to increase coviewing and interactions.

Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Berkule, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Huberman, Harris S.; Alvir, Jose; Dreyer, Benard P.



Math Interactives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math Interactives is part of a larger site, called, which is "designed and developed to assist kindergarten to Grade 12 teachers in Alberta locate and utilize digital learning and teaching resources. The design of the site is reflective of how teachers think and work in an online environment." Visitors interested in multiple ways to learn math will love the print and video math activities available on the site. There are four categories from which visitors can choose, on the left hand side of the homepage: Number, Pattern and Relations, Shape and Space and Statistics and Probability. Each section contains a video and an interactive that encourages students to explore the concept in question. For example, students may learn about linear equations through a video about the costs of feeding animals at the Calgary Zoo, and later come up with their own linear equations to predict the costs, accounting for price of food, amount needed, and delivery fees.



Physiological Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Improvement in both temporal and spatial resolution of MDCT has brought the ability to explore both the heart and lung within\\u000a a single examination and opened the field of functional evaluation. However, interactions between heart and lung have long\\u000a been identified as important physiological phenomena in pathology (Pinsky 2005). For the radiologist, they are involved in difficulties of interpretation in

Francois Laurent; Michel Montaudon


Seasons Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation contains several interactive features: An orbital panel (labeled Seasons) is an interactive animation of the Earth's axis of rotation which is tilted relative to the plane of the EarthÂs yearly orbit around the sun. A location on the revolving Earth is marked with an 'X' at the 45 degree latitude which is depicted in an animated landscape panel which shows the path of the Sun in the sky over the course of 24 hour day. (For this learning goal, the orbital season panel and landscape panel will be used.) Additional components of the resource include the changing sunlight angle at this latitude hitting the earth and a thermometer showing the average daily temperature through one orbit of the planet around the sun. Two control panels located on the bottom right hand side allows changes to the tilt of the Earth's axis of rotation with respect to the plane of its orbit and the speed of the rotation and orbit around the Sun. The Sun's path can also be set to trace across the sky for each season. Two other planets, Venus and Uranus, are included for axis tilt comparison. Clickable buttons on top of screen provide a text Introduction, How To, Interactive, Exercises, and Solutions.


Interactive atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Where is ozone located in the atmosphere? This informational activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, explores the changes in ozone concentration with altitude. Students are introduced to layers of the atmosphere and the amount of ozone found at each layer of the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. The activity also discusses why the addition of ozone to the atmosphere at different levels determines the temperatures of those levels. Students can move up and down to different layers of the atmosphere. A temperature scale is shown that runs from the surface of the Earth to the outer most reaches of the atmosphere. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)



Interactive Physlets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What, you may ask, is a physlet? It is a portmanteau combining the words "physics" and "applet" which can be used "to demonstrate a concept in physics through animation or interaction." Physlets are handy tools, especially for visual learners. These physlets were created by scholars at the Grenfell Campus of Memorial University in Corner Brook, Newfoundland. Designed to be used in several different introductory physics courses, the physlets cover a range of topics, including friction, conservation of energy, projectile motion, magnetism, and simple harmonic motion. Visitors will find that they can play each physlet, pause it along the way, or skip ahead to the next one as they see fit.



Cosmic Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An image based on data taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope reveals a triplet of galaxies intertwined in a cosmic dance. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The three galaxies, catalogued as NGC 7173 (top), 7174 (bottom right) and 7176 (bottom left), are located 106 million light-years away towards the constellation of Piscis Austrinus (the 'Southern Fish'). NGC 7173 and 7176 are elliptical galaxies, while NGC 7174 is a spiral galaxy with quite disturbed dust lanes and a long, twisted tail. This seems to indicate that the two bottom galaxies - whose combined shape bears some resemblance to that of a sleeping baby - are currently interacting, with NGC 7176 providing fresh material to NGC 7174. Matter present in great quantity around the triplet's members also points to the fact that NGC 7176 and NGC 7173 have interacted in the past. Astronomers have suggested that the three galaxies will finally merge into a giant 'island universe', tens to hundreds of times as massive as our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02b/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The triplet is part of a so-called 'Compact Group', as compiled by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the early 1980s. The group, which is the 90th entry in the catalogue and is therefore known as HCG 90, actually contains four major members. One of them - NGC 7192 - lies above the trio, outside of this image, and is another peculiar spiral galaxy. Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of typically four to ten galaxies in close proximity to one another. Another striking example is Robert's Quartet. Compact groups are excellent laboratories for the study of galaxy interactions and their effects, in particular the formation of stars. As the striking image reveals, there are many other galaxies in the field. Some are distant ones, while others seem to be part of the family. Studies made with other telescopes have indeed revealed that the HCG 90 group contains 16 members, most of them much smaller in size than the four members with an entry in the NGC catalogue.



Matter & Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter from Volume 1 of "Research-Based Reform of University Physics" describes Matter & Interactions, a modern calculus-based introductory curriculum that emphasizes the power of fundamental principles, and guides students through the process of starting from these principles in analyzing physical systems, on both the macroscopic and the microscopic level. The continual emphasis on the application of fundamental principles and on the atomic nature of matter makes possible the integration of topics that are traditionally taught as disconnected: mechanics and thermal physics are intertwined, and electrostatics and circuits are analyzed using the same tools for both topics. The development of the curriculum has been shaped by research on learning and on research in physics education. For additional information, see

Chabay, Ruth; Sherwood, Bruce



Electroweak interactions  

SciTech Connect

A point of view of the electroweak interaction is presented. It begins phenomenologically and moves in stages toward the conventional gauge theory formalism containing elementary scalar Higgs-fields and then beyond. The purpose in so doing is that the success of the standard SU(2) x U(1) theory in accounting for low energy phenomena need not automatically imply success at high energies. It is deemed unlikely by most theorists that the predicted W/sup + -/ or Z/sup 0/ does not exist or does not have the mass and/or couplings anticipated in the standard model. However, the odds that the standard predictions will work are not 100%. Therefore there is some reason to look at the subject as one would were he forced by a wrong experimental outcome - to go back to fundamentals and ascertain what is the minimal amount of theory necessary to account for the data.

Bjorken, J.D.



Cloud Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 1 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 258.8 East (101.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.



Asymmetric partner pronoun use and demand-withdraw interaction in couples coping with health problems.  


Recent research links first-person plural pronoun use (we-talk) by individual romantic partners to adaptive relationship functioning and individual health outcomes. To examine a possible boundary condition of adaptive we-talk in couples coping with health problems, we correlated asymmetric couple-level we/I-ratios (more we-talk relative to I-talk by the spouse than the patient) with a concurrent pattern of directional demand-withdraw (D-W) interaction in which the spouse demands change while the patient withdraws. Couples in which a partner who abused alcohol (n = 65), smoked cigarettes despite having heart or lung disease (n = 24), or had congestive heart failure (n = 58) discussed a health-related disagreement during a video-recorded interaction task. Transcripts of these conversations provided measures of pronoun use for each partner, and trained observers coded D-W patterns from the recordings. As expected, partner asymmetry in we/I-ratio scores predicted directional demand-withdraw, such that spouses who used more we-talk (relative to I-talk) than patients tended to assume the demand role in concurrent D-W interaction. Asymmetric I-talk rather than we-talk accounted for this association, and asymmetric you-talk contributed independently as well. In contrast to previous studies of we-talk by individual partners, the present results identify dyad-level pronoun patterns that clearly do not mark beneficent processes: asymmetric partner we/I-ratios and you-talk reflect problematic demand-withdraw interaction. PMID:24098961

Rentscher, Kelly E; Rohrbaugh, Michael J; Shoham, Varda; Mehl, Matthias R



Conversational Structure and Topic Performance in Mother-Child Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conversational analysis of 30 mother-child dyads, (children from six years old) indicated that children shared similar characteristics of conversational participation with their mothers. However, mothers maintained their role as facilitators of the structure and cohesiveness of discourse. (Author/CL)

Wanska, Susan K.; Bedrosian, Jan L.



"Badminton Player-Coach" Interactions between Failing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Physical education teachers often use the player-coach dyad in individual opposition sports so that students can obtain information on their actions and then better regulate them. This type of work also develops methodological and social skills. However, the task of observing a partner often poses problems for failing students, who…

Mascret, Nicolas



Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna



"You Didn't Teach Me, You Showed Me": Variations in Sibling Teaching Strategies in Early and Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined siblings' teaching strategies in 72 dyads (firstborn and second born, M ages = 81.64 and 56.31 months) as a function of dyad age, age gap between siblings, and teacher birth order. One child per dyad was randomly assigned to teach her or his sibling to construct a tractor toy. Interactions were coded for the topic of teachers'…

Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina; Alexander, Stephanie



Independent and Interactive Contributions of Parenting Behaviors and Beliefs in the Prediction of Early Childhood Behavior Problems  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective This study examined interactions between parenting beliefs and parenting behaviors in the prediction of early childhood externalizing and internalizing symptoms Design Negative intrusive and sensitive parenting behaviors during infancy and toddlerhood were observed in conjunction with self-reported maternal beliefs about the importance of discipline/control and concerns regarding spoiling in a community sample of 185 African American and European American mother-child dyads. Multiple regression techniques modeled interactions between parenting beliefs and observed behaviors to predict mother-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms at 30 and 36 months. The analyses also explored the role of ethnicity as a moderator of these relations. Results The combination of low and average spoiling beliefs and low levels of sensitive parenting was associated with elevated internalizing symptoms. Negative parenting and beliefs reflecting concerns about spoiling were independent risk factors for elevated externalizing symptoms. Conclusion Parenting beliefs and behaviors should be considered jointly to identify risks for the development of early behavior problems.

Barnett, Melissa A.; Shanahan, Lilly; Deng, Min; Haskett, Mary E.; Cox, Martha J.



Formation et interaction (Teacher Education and Interaction).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective interaction is as important in inservice education programs for language teachers as it is in the foreign language classroom. Techniques are described for improving the quality of interaction in teacher workshops through simulation exercises. (MSE)

Bertocchini, Paola; Costanzo, Edwige



Substantial Contribution of the Two Imidazole Rings of the His13-His14 Dyad to Cu(II) Binding in Amyloid-? (1-16) at Physiological pH and Its Significance  

PubMed Central

The interaction of amyloid-? (A?) peptide with Cu(II) appears to play an important role in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. At physiological pH, the Cu(II) coordination in A? is heterogeneous, and there exist at least two binding modes in which Cu(II) is coordinated by histidine residues. Electron spin resonance studies have revealed a picture of the Cu(II) binding at a higher or lower pH, where only one of the two binding modes is almost exclusively present. We describe a procedure to directly examine the coordination of Cu(II) to each histidine residue in the dominant binding mode at physiological pH. We use nonlabeled and residue-specifically 15N-labeled A?(1–16). For quantitative analysis, the intensities of three-pulse electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectra are analyzed. Spectral simulations show that ESEEM intensities provide information about the contribution of each histidine residue. Indeed, the ESEEM experiments at pH 6.0 confirm the dominant contribution of His6 to the Cu(II) coordination as expected from the work of other researchers. Interestingly, however, the ESEEM data obtained at pH 7.4 reveal that the contributions of the three residues to the Cu(II) coordination are in the order of His14 ? His6 > His13 in the dominant binding mode. The order indicates a significant contribution from the simultaneous coordination by His13 and His14 at physiological pH, which has been underappreciated. These findings are supported by hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy experiments. The simultaneous coordination by the two adjacent residues is likely to be present in a non–?-sheet structure. The coexistence of different secondary structures is possibly the molecular origin for the formation of amorphous aggregates rather than fibrils at relatively high concentrations of Cu(II). Through our approach, precise and useful information about Cu(II) binding in A?(1–16) at physiological pH is obtained without any side-chain modification, amino acid residue replacement, or pH change, each of which might lead to an alteration in the peptide structure or the coordination environment.

Shin, Byong-kyu; Saxena, Sunil



Interacting with virtual characters in interactive storytelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several paradigms have emerged for interactive storytelling. In character-based storytelling, plot generation is based on the behaviour of autonomous characters. In this paper, we describe user interaction in a fully-implemented prototype of an interactive storytelling system. We describe the planning techniques used to control autonomous characters, which derive from HTN planning. The hierarchical task network representing a

Marc Cavazza; Fred Charles; Steven J. Mead



Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)-dependent recruitment of origin recognition complex (Orc) on oriP of Epstein-Barr virus with purified proteins: stimulation by Cdc6 through its direct interaction with EBNA1.  


Origin recognition complex (Orc) plays an essential role in directing assembly of prereplicative complex at selective sites on chromosomes. However, Orc from vertebrates is reported to bind to DNA in a sequence-nonspecific manner, and it is still unclear how it selects specific genomic loci and how Cdc6, another conserved AAA(+) factor known to interact with Orc, participates in this process. Replication from oriP, the latent origin of Epstein-Barr virus, provides an excellent model system for the study of initiation on the host chromosomes because it is known to depend on prereplicative complex factors, including Orc and Mcm. Here, we show that Orc is recruited selectively at the essential dyad symmetry element in nuclear extracts in a manner dependent on EBNA1, which specifically binds to dyad symmetry. With purified proteins, EBNA1 can recruit both Cdc6 and Orc independently on a DNA containing EBNA1 binding sites, and Cdc6 facilitates the Orc recruitment by EBNA1. Purified Cdc6 directly binds to EBNA1, whereas association of Orc with EBNA1 requires the presence of the oriP DNA. Nuclease protection assays suggest that Orc associates with DNA segments on both sides adjacent to the EBNA1 binding sites and that this process is stimulated by the presence of Cdc6. Thus, EBNA1 can direct localized assembly of Orc in a process that is facilitated by Cdc6. The possibility of similar modes of recruitment of Orc/Cdc6 at the human chromosomal origins will be discussed. PMID:22589552

Moriyama, Kenji; Yoshizawa-Sugata, Naoko; Obuse, Chikashi; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Masai, Hisao



Specifying Interaction Surfaces Using Interaction Maps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Defining how 3D models respond to user actions is a crucial step in building an interactive 3D world. Unfortunately, existing tools make it very difficult for interaction designers to assign responses to any part of a 3D model that is not a pre-defined gr...

J. S. Pierce R. Pausch



Effective Leadership in Superior-Subordinate Dyads: Theory and Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and experimentally demonstrates the main tenets of an operant theory of leadership. Leadership is characterized in the current paper as involving problem solving operant behavior (Cerutti, 1989; Skinner, 1969) in a social context (Skinner, 1953). The theory was assessed under two experimental analogs modeled from generic…

Mawhinney, Thomas C.



Coping in Marital Dyads: Patterns and Associations with Psychological Symptoms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined data from 153 married couples to determine their patterns of coping with stress and association between couples' coping and psychological symptoms in each spouse. Found pattern of dyadic coping marked by strong reliance on escape-avoidance coping by both husband and wife was associated with high levels of symptoms in both spouses.…

Giunta, Carole T.; Compas, Bruce E.



Determinants of Continuity in Conventional Industrial Channel Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the question of how to build stable, long-term relationships between manufacturers and members of conventional channels. This descriptive field study concerns a basic requirement for building long-term relationships, which is the expectation by a marketing intermediary that the relationship will last. Hypotheses about the continuity of relationships are developed from the literature on

Erin Anderson; Barton Weitz



Imitation by Second-Borns in Adult-Sibling Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five- to seven-year-old second-born children from white, middle-class, intact families were the subjects for this study. Older siblings served as role model for each child, and the parent surrogate models were selected from a pool and trained to act as the child's real parent. The imitation task emphasized verbal, postural, and motor responses of…

Hodapp, Albert F.; LaVoie, Joseph C.


A monomer-dimer equilibrium modulates the interaction of the sunflower homeodomain leucine-zipper protein Hahb-4 with DNA.  

PubMed Central

We have analysed the interaction of the sunflower homeodomain leucine-zipper (Hd-Zip) protein Hahb-4 with DNA. The complete Hd-Zip domain from Hahb-4 was able to select specific sequences from a random oligonucleotide mixture that contained a 9-bp core with four fixed and five degenerate positions. Analysis of the binding of some of the selected sequences suggests that Hahb-4 preferentially binds the dyad-symmetrical sequence CAAT(A/T)ATTG. Single-nucleotide replacements at positions 1, 5 or 9 of this sequence produced a decrease in binding of 2-4-fold. DNA binding as a function of protein concentration was non-hyperbolic. This behaviour could be explained by an equation in which dimer formation is a pre-requisite for DNA binding. A global dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.31x10(-14) M2 could be calculated. The removal of the leucine zipper promoted a change in specificity and a decrease in binding affinity (Kd=5. 03x10(-5) M). Mutation of Phe-20 of the homeodomain into Leu completely abolished DNA binding. The mutant protein, however, was able to inhibit DNA binding by the non-mutant form, presumably through the formation of heterodimers. The analysis of this inhibitory effect at different mutant concentrations allowed the estimation of the Kd for the dimer-monomer equilibrium [about (2-4)x10(-6) M]; from this, a Kd of 3-6x10(-9) M for the dimer-DNA complex could be estimated. The results obtained indicate that the formation of dimers is the main factor influencing the interaction of Hahb-4 with DNA. It is proposed that shifts in a dimer-monomer equilibrium could be used within the cell to modulate the interaction of this protein with target genes.

Palena, C M; Gonzalez, D H; Chan, R L



Sepup Seasons Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An interactive that illustrates the relationships between the axial tilt of the Earth, latitude, and temperature. Several data sets (including temperature, Sun-Earth distance, daylight hours) can be collected using this interactive.

California, Regents O.; Sepup


Interactive Worksheets and More  


... currently configured not to display inline frames. Home > Interactive worksheets & more See where you stand Check your ... for quitting Social support Professional help Resources Tools Interactive worksheets Calculators Info & help links Q & As About ...


Health Data Interactive  


... please visit this page: About . Data Access Data Access Interactive Tables and Databases Health Data Interactive Getting ... use and expenditures Health conditions Health insurance and access Mortality and life expectancy Pregnancy and birth Risk ...


Biological Interactions of Nanomaterials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Biological Interactions of Nanomaterials project focuses on biological characterization of nanomaterials of particular interest to the Air Force. This report describes the basic mechanism of biological interactions of engineered nanomaterials, and exp...

A. M. Schrand J. L. Speshock K. O. Yu L. K. Braydich-Stolle S. M. Hussain



Electron-Positron Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experimental information available on e exp + e exp - interactions at the time of the Tbilisi Conference (Juli 1976) is reviewed. The topics of these lectures are: electron-positron storage rings, purely electromagnetic ee-interactions, phenomenology ...

B. H. Wiik G. Wolf



University-Industry Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is posited that university industry interaction is highly desirable from the viewpoint of the long term economic development of the country as well as being desirable for the Space Grant Programs. The present and future possible interactions are review...

D. E. Hastings



Metal-Dielectric Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metal direlectric surface interactions and dielectric films on metal substrates were investigated. Since interfacial interaction depends so heavily on the nature of the surfaces, analytical surface tools such as Auger emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoele...

D. H. Buckley



The cation-? interaction.  


The chemistry community now recognizes the cation-? interaction as a major force for molecular recognition, joining the hydrophobic effect, the hydrogen bond, and the ion pair in determining macromolecular structure and drug-receptor interactions. This Account provides the author's perspective on the intellectual origins and fundamental nature of the cation-? interaction. Early studies on cyclophanes established that water-soluble, cationic molecules would forego aqueous solvation to enter a hydrophobic cavity if that cavity was lined with ? systems. Important gas phase studies established the fundamental nature of the cation-? interaction. The strength of the cation-? interaction (Li(+) binds to benzene with 38 kcal/mol of binding energy; NH4(+) with 19 kcal/mol) distinguishes it from the weaker polar-? interactions observed in the benzene dimer or water-benzene complexes. In addition to the substantial intrinsic strength of the cation-? interaction in gas phase studies, the cation-? interaction remains energetically significant in aqueous media and under biological conditions. Many studies have shown that cation-? interactions can enhance binding energies by 2-5 kcal/mol, making them competitive with hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in drug-receptor and protein-protein interactions. As with other noncovalent interactions involving aromatic systems, the cation-? interaction includes a substantial electrostatic component. The six (four) C(?-)-H(?+) bond dipoles of a molecule like benzene (ethylene) combine to produce a region of negative electrostatic potential on the face of the ? system. Simple electrostatics facilitate a natural attraction of cations to the surface. The trend for (gas phase) binding energies is Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+): as the ion gets larger the charge is dispersed over a larger sphere and binding interactions weaken, a classical electrostatic effect. On other hand, polarizability does not define these interactions. Cyclohexane is more polarizable than benzene but a decidedly poorer cation binder. Many studies have documented cation-? interactions in protein structures, where lysine or arginine side chains interact with phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. In addition, countless studies have established the importance of the cation-? interaction in a range of biological processes. Our work has focused on molecular neurobiology, and we have shown that neurotransmitters generally use a cation-? interaction to bind to their receptors. We have also shown that many drug-receptor interactions involve cation-? interactions. A cation-? interaction plays a critical role in the binding of nicotine to ACh receptors in the brain, an especially significant case. Other researchers have established important cation-? interactions in the recognition of the "histone code," in terpene biosynthesis, in chemical catalysis, and in many other systems. PMID:23214924

Dougherty, Dennis A



Dynamics of interacting galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of interacting galaxies as observed in the present epoch is reviewed. Topics discussed include numerical methods for modeling galactic interactions, the signatures of interacting galaxies due to tidal forces, and events that add mass to a galaxy. The review also covers major mergers between systems of comparable mass, forms of activity triggered or induced by galactic interactions, and galaxies' return to normality and related cosmological issues. Finally, some questions that yet have to be answered are examined.

Barnes, Joshua E.; Hernquist, Lars



Interactive journey through physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly interactive CD-ROM is designed to augment the traditional learning experiences of lecture, lab, and text. It includes several dynamic components--simulation, animation, video, and interactive problem solving--that enable students to interact and visualize concepts in ways not possible in traditional learning programs.

Schwarz, Cindy; Beichner, Robert J.



Dynamic Interactive Learning Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews and discusses the notions of interactivity and dynamicity of learning systems in relation to information technologies and design principles that can contribute to interactive and dynamic learning. It explores the concept of dynamic interactive learning systems based on the emerging generation of information as part of a…

Sabry, Khaled; Barker, Jeff



Towards Bidirectional Dancing Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dancing is an entertaining form of taskless interaction. When interacting with a dancing Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA), the lack of a clear task presents the challenge of eliciting an interaction be- tween user and ECA in a dierent way. In this paper we describe our Virtual Dancer, which is an ECA that invites a user to dance. In our system

Dennis Reidsma; Herwin Van Welbergen; Ronald Poppe; Pieter Bos; Anton Nijholt; R. Harper; M. Rauterberg; M. Combetto



Global Interaction in Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a virtual conference, Glide'08 (Global Interaction in Design Education), that brought international design scholars together online, this special issue expands on the topics of cross-cultural communication and design and the technological affordances that support such interaction. The author discusses the need for global interaction in…

Bennett, Audrey Grace



Multimodal interactive machine translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive machine translation (IMT) [1] is an alternative approach to machine translation, integrating human expertise into the automatic translation process. In this framework, a human iteratively interacts with a system until the output desired by the human is completely generated. Traditionally, interaction has been performed using a keyboard and a mouse. However, the use of touchscreens has been popularised recently.

Vicent Alabau; Daniel Ortiz-Martínez; Alberto Sanchis; Francisco Casacuberta



Interactive Reactor Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the field of chemical engineering, interactive process models can simulate the dynamic behavior and analysis of chemical processes. DYFLO was the process simulation program selected as a foundation for development of interactive programs for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in chemical engineering. Interactive Computing and time sharing…

Nuttall, Herbert E., Jr.; Himmelblau, David M.


Laser pointer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group meetings and other non-desk situations require that people be able to interact at a distance from a display surface. This paper describes a technique using a laser pointer and a camera to accomplish just such interactions. Calibration techniques are given to synchronize the display and camera coordinates. A series of interactive techniques are described for navigation and entry of

Dan R. Olsen Jr.; Travis Nielsen



The interactive brain hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Enactive approaches foreground the role of interpersonal interaction in explanations of social understanding. This motivates, in combination with a recent interest in neuroscientific studies involving actual interactions, the question of how interactive processes relate to neural mechanisms involved in social understanding. We introduce the Interactive Brain Hypothesis (IBH) in order to help map the spectrum of possible relations between social interaction and neural processes. The hypothesis states that interactive experience and skills play enabling roles in both the development and current function of social brain mechanisms, even in cases where social understanding happens in the absence of immediate interaction. We examine the plausibility of this hypothesis against developmental and neurobiological evidence and contrast it with the widespread assumption that mindreading is crucial to all social cognition. We describe the elements of social interaction that bear most directly on this hypothesis and discuss the empirical possibilities open to social neuroscience. We propose that the link between coordination dynamics and social understanding can be best grasped by studying transitions between states of coordination. These transitions form part of the self-organization of interaction processes that characterize the dynamics of social engagement. The patterns and synergies of this self-organization help explain how individuals understand each other. Various possibilities for role-taking emerge during interaction, determining a spectrum of participation. This view contrasts sharply with the observational stance that has guided research in social neuroscience until recently. We also introduce the concept of readiness to interact to describe the practices and dispositions that are summoned in situations of social significance (even if not interactive). This latter idea links interactive factors to more classical observational scenarios.

Di Paolo, Ezequiel; De Jaegher, Hanne



The Interactive Learning Toolkit: supporting interactive classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research-based interactive learning techniques have dramatically improved student understanding. We have created the 'Interactive Learning Toolkit' (ILT), a web-based learning management system, to help implement two such pedagogies: Just in Time Teaching and Peer Instruction. Our main goal in developing this toolkit is to save the instructor time and effort and to use technology to facilitate the interaction between the students and the instructor (and between students themselves). After a brief review of both pedagogies, we will demonstrate the many exciting new features of the ILT. We will show how technology can not only implement, but also supplement and improve these pedagogies. We would like acknowdge grants from NSF and DEAS, Harvard University

Dutta, S.; McCauley, V.; Mazur, E.



[Drug-drug interactions : Interactions between xenobiotics].  


Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a major topic in programs for continuous medical education (CME). Many physicians are afraid of being trapped into charges of malpractice; however, DDI cannot be avoided in many cases. They belong to routine medical practice and it is often impossible to avoid them. Moreover, they do not just occur between drugs but between any kind of foreign substance (xenobiotica), such as food (e.g. grapefruit juice, broccoli, barbecue) as well as legal (e.g. tobacco smoke, caffeine and alcohol) and illegal drugs. Therefore, the medical challenge is not just to avoid any interaction. Instead the physician faces the question of how to proceed with drug treatment in the presence of such interactions. Based on the medical education a physician has to judge first of all whether there is a risk for interactions in the prescription being planned for an individual patient. The classification of interactions proposed in this article (PD1-PD4, PK1-PK3) might help as a sort of check list. For more detailed information the physician can then consult one of the many databases available on the internet, such as PSIAConline ( and MediQ ( Pharmacokinetic interactions can be easily assessed, monitored and controlled by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Besides these tools it is important to keep in mind that nobody knows everything; even physicians do not know everything. So take pride in asking someone who might help and for this purpose AGATE offers a drug information service AID ( Just good for nothing, without being based on any kind of medical approach are computer programs that judge prescriptions without taking into account a patient's individual peculiarities. In case these types of programs produce red exclamation marks or traffic lights to underline their judgment, they might even work in a contrapuntal way by just eliciting insecurity and fear. PMID:24619146

Haen, E



Beam-Bem interactions  

SciTech Connect

In high energy storage-ring colliders, the nonlinear effect arising from beam-beam interactions is a major source that leads to the emittance growth, the reduction of beam life time, and limits the collider luminosity. In this paper, two models of beam-beam interactions are introduced, which are weak-strong and strong-strong beam-beam interactions. In addition, space-charge model is introduced.

Kim, Hyung Jin; /Fermilab



Cognition friendly interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper identifies yet another field of research, the discipline of human computer interaction, where the concept of 1/f noise can play a vital role. It is argued that friendly interactions between cognition and computation must have a memory and be antipersistent. A mathematical model of such interactions is obtained. The question is then raised as how to build a friendly software, and a possible evolutionary process is indicated. .

Das, Balaram



Food-Drug Interactions  

PubMed Central

The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least food-drug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.

Bushra, Rabia; Aslam, Nousheen; Khan, Arshad Yar



Multimodal transformed social interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding human-human interaction is fundamental to the long-term pursuit of powerful and natural multimodal interfaces. Nonverbal communication, including body posture, gesture, facial expression, and eye gaze, is an important aspect of human-human interaction. We introduce a paradigm for studying multimodal and nonverbal communication in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) called Transformed Social Interaction (TSI), in which a user's visual representation is

Matthew Turk; Jeremy N. Bailenson; Andrew C. Beall; Jim Blascovich; Rosanna E. Guadagno



Material-Environment Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no usage of materials without interaction with the environment. Material-environment interactions are relevant for all types of materials, be they of inorganic or organic in origin. Interactions with the environment can cause damage to materials but also might lead to an improvement of materials properties (e.g. oxidative passivation of aluminium or patina formation on copper surfaces). Interactions with the environment might also occur prior to the usage of materials, i.e. in the production phase. For example, before steel can be used for manufacturing of metal products, iron ore has to be extracted and processed.

Simon, Franz-Georg; Jann, Oliver; Wickström, Ulf


Two interacting Hofstadter butterflies  

SciTech Connect

The problem of two interacting particles in a quasiperiodic potential is addressed. Using analytical and numerical methods, we explore the spectral properties and eigenstates structure from the weak to the strong interaction case. More precisely, a semiclassical approach based on noncommutative geometry techniques is used to understand the intricate structure of such a spectrum. An interaction induced localization effect is furthermore emphasized. We discuss the application of our results on a two-dimensional model of two particles in a uniform magnetic field with on-site interaction. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Barelli, A.; Bellissard, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Jacquod, P. [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland), Confederation Helvetique] [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland), Confederation Helvetique; Shepelyansky, D.L. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)



The Science of Interaction  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing recognition with the visual analytics community that interaction and inquiry are inextricable. It is through the interactive manipulation of a visual interface – the analytic discourse – that knowledge is constructed, tested, refined, and shared. This paper reflects on the interaction challenges raised in the original visual analytics research and development agenda and further explores the relationship between interaction and cognition. It identifies recent exemplars of visual analytics research that have made substantive progress toward the goals of a true science of interaction, which must include theories and testable premises about the most appropriate mechanisms for human-information interaction. Six areas for further work are highlighted as those among the highest priorities for the next five years of visual analytics research: ubiquitous, embodied interaction; capturing user intentionality; knowledge-based interfaces; principles of design and perception; collaboration; and interoperability. Ultimately, the goal of a science of interaction is to support the visual analytics community through the recognition and implementation of best practices in the representation of and interaction with visual displays.

Pike, William A.; Stasko, John T.; Chang, Remco; O'Connell, Theresa



Nerve-pulse interactions  

SciTech Connect

Some recent experimental and theoretical results on mechanisms through which individual nerve pulses can interact are reviewed. Three modes of interactions are considered: (1) interaction of pulses as they travel along a single fiber which leads to velocity dispersion; (2) propagation of pairs of pulses through a branching region leading to quantum pulse code transformations; and (3) interaction of pulses on parallel fibers through which they may form a pulse assembly. This notion is analogous to Hebb's concept of a cell assembly, but on a lower level of the neural hierarchy.

Scott, A.C.



How Interactive Is the Interactive Whiteboard?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive whiteboard (IWB) is simply a surface onto which a computer screen can be displayed, via a projector. It is touch-sensitive and lets one use a pen like a mouse, controlling the computer from the board itself. Everything that can be displayed on a computer can be displayed onto the whiteboard and, if the computer is linked to speakers…

Quashie, Valerie



Language Use in Mother-Child and Mother-Child-Sibling Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication in mother-infant dyads and mother-infant-sibling triads was examined to determine how variation in the number of people and type of activity affect the ways language is used by all participants. Homebased observations were made of 16 first- and 16 later-born children when they were between 18 and 23 months old. (Author/BN)

Jones, Celeste Pappas; Adamson, Lauren B.



Contingent Interactions between Parents and Young Children with Severe Expressive Communication Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and their children with severe expressive impairments may have limited successful communicative exchanges due to each partner's difficulty in recognizing and responding to communicative behaviors of the other. This study examined the communicative functions and modes of communication that received contingent responses in 20 dyads of…

Cress, Cynthia J.; Grabast, Jodi; Burgers Jerke, Kimberly



Affiliative and Instrumental Marital Discord, Mother's Negative Affect, and Children's Negative Interactions with Unfamiliar Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indices of marital discord and mother-child affective processes were used to predict levels of negativity children displayed with unfamiliar peers. Thirty-nine mothers and their 5-year-olds were observed with 5-7 other mother-child dyads during a 30-minute free play session. Mother and child negativity were coded and two types of marital discord…

Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Harrist, Amanda W.; Ainslie, Ricardo C.



Effect of Peer Interaction on the Problem-Solving Behavior of Mentally Retarded Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-four educable mentally retarded young adults were given a one-bit logic problem (Experiment 1) or a test of conservation (Experiment 2) and classified as either low or high performers. In a second session, the low performers were paired with the high performers, and the dyads were required to agree on the solution to the problems presented.…

Borys, Suzanne V.; Spitz, Herman H.



Socio-Emotional Climate of Storybook Reading Interactions for Mothers and Preschoolers with Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study describes the storybook reading behaviors of 45 preschoolers [30 with language impairment (LI) and 15 with typical language (TL)] and their mothers. Each dyad was observed reading a storybook within their homes, and sessions were subsequently coded for indicators of emotional and instructional quality as well as for child…

Skibbe, Lori E.; Moody, Amelia J.; Justice, Laura M.; McGinty, Anita S.



White Racial Identity Dyadic Interactions in Supervision: Implications for Supervisees' Multicultural Counseling Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining supervisory dyads consisting of a White supervisor and a White supervisee, the authors sought to determine the effects of similarities and differences in levels of supervisor and supervisee racial identity schemas or attitudes on White supervisees' self-reported multicultural counseling competence and multicultural case conceptualization…

Constantine, Madonna G.; Warren, Anika K.; Miville, Marie L.



Charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic leaders: An examination of leader–leader interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a number of researchers have examined and demonstrated the unique relationships different types of leaders develop with their followers (Dansereau, F., Graen, G.B., & Haga, W.J. (1975). A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13, 46–78.; Dienesh & Liden, 1986; Mumford, 2006), relatively

Katrina Bedell-Avers; Samuel T. Hunter; Amanda D. Angie; Dawn L. Eubanks; Michael D. Mumford



Dual Development of Conversational and Narrative Discourse: Mother and Child Interactions during Narrative Co-Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated longitudinally the co-constructed narratives of 31 mother-child dyads collected when the children were 3-, 4-, and 5-years old, examining the dual development of child conversational and narrative discourse skills and the impact of maternal verbal assistance. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed that children's developmental…

Kelly, Kimberly Reynolds; Bailey, Alison L.



Characteristics of Mother-Child Interactions Related to Adolescents' Positive Values and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretical model that considered accurate perception and acceptance of maternal values in relation to adolescents' positive values and behaviors. One hundred fifty-one mother-adolescent dyads completed measures targeting adolescent and maternal perceptions of prosocial values and adolescent behaviors (M…

Padilla-Walker, Laura M.



Full-term and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants' self-regulating behaviors during a Still-Face interaction: influences of maternal touch.  


The present study was designed to examine maternal touch and infants' self-regulating behavior in full-term and very-low-birth-weight preterm (VLBW/PT) infant-mother dyads. Mothers and their 5½-month-old full-term (n=40) and VLBW/PT (n=40) infants participated in a Still-Face (SF) procedure. Mothers used high levels of touching (82% of the interaction) and the functions of touch changed across periods. More attention-getting touch was used during the Normal period and more nurturing and playful touch during the Reunion Normal period. Mothers of VLBW/PT infants engaged in more playful touch across periods. Similar amounts of self-regulatory behaviors were observed for both groups across all three periods; however, full-term infants exhibited greater self-comfort regulatory behaviors during the Reunion Normal period. Finally, for both groups the presence and quality of maternal touch were associated with infants' self-regulating behavior; thus providing evidence for the regulatory roles of maternal touch. These findings underscore how both maternal touch and infants' self-regulating behaviors are important and effective components of infants' emotion regulation. PMID:22982279

Jean, Amélie D L; Stack, Dale M



Venus: Interaction with Solar Wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar wind interaction with VENUS provides the archetypal interaction of a flowing magnetized PLASMA with a PLANETARY IONOSPHERE. Mars interacts with the solar wind in much the same way as does Venus, while the rotating plasma in the Saturnian magnetosphere is believed to interact similarly with its moon, Titan (see SATURN: MAGNETOSPHERE INTERACTION WITH TITAN). The interaction of the Jovian ...

Russell, C.; Luhmann, J.; Murdin, P.



Primary Care Strategies for Promoting Parent-Child Interactions and School Readiness in At-Risk Families  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effects of pediatric primary care interventions on parent-child interactions in families with low socioeconomic status. Design In this randomized controlled trial, participants were randomized to 1 of 2 interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP] or Building Blocks [BB]) or the control group. Setting Urban public hospital pediatric primary care clinic. Participants Mother-newborn dyads enrolled post partum from November 1, 2005, through October 31, 2008. Interventions In the VIP group, mothers and newborns participated in 1-on-1 sessions with a child development specialist who facilitated interactions in play and shared reading by reviewing videos made of the parent and child on primary care visit days; learning materials and parenting pamphlets were also provided. In the BB group, parenting materials, including age-specific newsletters suggesting interactive activities, learning materials, and parent-completed developmental questionnaires, were mailed to the mothers. Main Outcome Measures Parent-child interactions were assessed at 6 months with the StimQ-Infant and a 24-hour shared reading recall diary. Results A total of 410 families were assessed. The VIP group had a higher increased StimQ score (mean difference, 3.6 points; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 5.6 points; Cohen d, 0.51; 0.22 to 0.81) and more reading activities compared to the control group. The BB group also had an increased overall StimQ score compared with the control group (Cohen d, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.60). The greatest effects for the VIP group were found for mothers with a ninth-grade or higher reading level (Cohen d, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.33 to 1.03). Conclusions The VIP and BB groups each led to increased parent-child interactions. Pediatric primary care represents a significant opportunity for enhancing developmental trajectories in at-risk children. Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00212576

Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Huberman, Harris S.; Berkule, Samantha B.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Morrow, Lesley M.; Dreyer, Benard P.



Collectivity and random interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diverse quantum systems, from nuclei to buckyballs to superconducting metals, often show similar collective behaviors, such as pairing or collective bands. These universalities show up when one uses random two-body interactions. In this talk I will discuss some new signatures of collectivity found in fermion systems with random interactions.

Johnson, Calvin



Interaction Protocols in Agentis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agentis is a framework for building interactive multi- agent applications which is based upon a model of agent interaction whose key elements are services and tasks. Central to the operation of the system is the set of proto- cols that permit reliable, concurrent request and provision of services and tasks from and to agents, using an underly- ing asynchronous point-to-point

Mark D'inverno; David Kinny; Michael Luck



What Is Interactivity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author attempts to develop a definition of "interactivity" that meets two sometimes incompatible goals: the definition should be in accord with the best intuitions on how the term should be used, and it should usefully differentiate interactivity from related but incompatible concepts with which it is often confused. The…

Smuts, Aaron



Flow Interaction with Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module explores the fundamental concepts used to determine how air flow interacts with topography. Using the simple analogy of a marble rolling over a hill, this module examines the relationship between wind speed and static stability of the atmosphere. These results are further extended to include three-dimensional terrain barriers as well as the evolution through time of the interaction.

Spangler, Tim



Climate: A Complex Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article continues an examination of each of the seven essential principles of climate literacy on which the online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle is structured. Principle 2 covers the complex interactions among the components of the Earth system. The author discusses the scientific concepts underlying the interactions and expands the discussion with diagrams, photos, and online resources.

Lightle, Kimberly



Interactive music composition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to construct an interactive system which composes a musical work satisfying each user. This study makes a great importance to human subjectivity toward music, and constructs a music composition system reflecting each user's feeling. The system uses 3 types of user evaluations toward music to generate 16-bars musical work. The interactive genetic algorithm is

M. Unehara; T. Onisawa



Interacting Chaplygin gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a kind of interacting Chaplygin gas model in which the Chaplygin gas plays the role of dark energy and interacts with cold dark matter particles. We find that there exists a stable scaling solution at late times with the Universe evolving into a phase of steady state. Furthermore, the effective equation of state of Chaplygin gas may cross

Hongsheng Zhang; Zong-Hong Zhu



Interacting generalized Chaplygin gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model with the interaction between generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) and dark matter is studied. We show that the stationary attractor exists and the universe will enter a de Sitter phase in which the energy densities of both the GCG and dark matter are constant. Because of the interaction between the GCG and the dark matter, the equation of state

Puxun Wu; Hongwei Yu



Interacting with America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Interacting With America" is comprised of rich data on human development in the US that readers can explore through a clearly depicted, interactive map on health, wealth and education in the 50 states. Teachers and students alike can draw comparisons between states through the use of the intuitively constructed histograms which display the human development indexes measured for each state.

Project, American H.


Antiproton-nucleus interaction  

SciTech Connect

Several facets of antinucleon-nucleus interactions are explored. The topics treated are: coherent interactions, production of unusual states and particles in the nuclear medium, and the creation of extreme states of matter by antimatter annihilation. It is found that temperatures of the magnitude necessary to achieve the predicted quark-gluon phase transition are obtained. 20 references.

Gibbs, W.R.



University-industry interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is posited that university industry interaction is highly desirable from the viewpoint of the long term economic development of the country as well as being desirable for the Space Grant Programs. The present and future possible interactions are reviewed for the three university levels namely, undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research.

Hastings, Daniel E.



Elementary particle interactions  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to {mu}{sup +} and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics. (LSP)

Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.



The Audio Interactive Tutor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes The Audio Interactive Tutor (TAIT), an interactive audio/oral computer-assisted study device. TAIT's output consists of explanations and examples along with commands and questions requiring responses from the user. It uses speech recognition to determine the responses made by the user and constructs an evolving model of what the user…

Waters, Richard C.



Interaction: Additivity plus Nonlinearity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether or not there is an interaction between two factors in their effects on a dependent variable is often a central question. This paper proposes a general mechanism by which an interaction may arise: (a) the two factors are the same thing--or, at least, have a dimension in common--in the sense that it is meaningful to add (or subtract) them;…

Hutchinson, T. P.



Interaction and Children's Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interprets and contrasts children's mathematical interaction from the points of view of radical constructivism and of Soviet activity theory. Proposes a superseding model based on the interrelations between the basic sequence of actions and perturbation and the interaction of constructs. Supports the model by describing how children used…

Steffe, Leslie P.; Tzur, Ron



Implementing Interactive Video.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents guidelines for the successful implementation of interactive video programs that were identified during the development of the Purdue Academic Learning Opportunity System (PALOS) Mathematics Project, which was designed to improve basic mathematics achievement levels of adults using interactive video and computer-assisted instruction.…

Russell, James; And Others



Roball interacting with children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This video shows a light hearted view of a rolling autonomous robot named Roball. Roball is shown interacting with various children who age from 10 months old to teenagers at a high school. The clips show the different ways children interact with Roball and also the different types of reactions the children can have to Roball. Each clip was taken

Tamie Salter; François Michaud; Dominic Létourneau



An Interactive Multimedia Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of "Communism and the Cold War," an interactive multimedia videodisk designed for teaching about the post-World War II world. Concludes that, although the program is a first step in the use of interactive media in the classroom, it provides a vision of an exciting and dynamic social studies classroom in the future. (CFR)

Benedicks, William, Jr.; Felton, Randall G.



Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Summary We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions.

Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Frandsen, Cathrine



Forces and Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the purist will state that there are four forces, when explaining observed phenomena at the nanoscale it is very useful to include interactions such as ionic and covalent bonding, hydrogen bonds, Brownian motion, van der Waals forces, thermal vibration, rotation , adhesive and cohesive forces and subcategories of these interactions. Often, the effect of what is observed at any scale (macroscale to nanoscale) is dependent upon the priorities of these forces. For example the interaction between planets is driven by the gravitational force because of the large mass of the objects, The strength of the interaction of planets due to the electrostatic forces exists, but is very small -- overshadowed by the gravitational forces. The opposite is often true at the nanoscale, atoms and molecules are significantly impacted by electrostatic forces - and because of the small mass, minimally impacted by gravitational attraction. So it is just a matter of which force or interaction is the top interaction for any given situation. These modules use many different activities which allow students to evaluate the priority of different forces and interactions with different materials and at different scales.



Electric and Magnetic Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book offers a myriad of lessons, experiments, and demonstrations in all topics in the field of electricity and magnetism. From charge interactions to electromagnetic radiation and induction, it covers the material of a second semester calculus-based introductory physics course. This book is the second of two in the Matter & Interactions series. The Matter & Interactions series emphasizes that there are only a few fundamental principles that underlie the behavior of matter, and that it is possible to construct models that can explain and predict a wide variety of physical phenomena using these principles.

Chabay, Ruth; Sherwood, Bruce



Interactive Weather Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interactive Weather Information Network (IWIN) is a collection of interactive weather maps and satellite images that is updated every five seconds. Visitors can see cloud cover animation loops, NEXRAD Radar images of precipitation, a map of all current weather fronts, and an interactive national map to see information about any particular state. Other information on the site includes a listing of any active weather warnings, a link for world weather data, and more, making this a must-see site for all those users interested in the most current weather happenings anywhere.



Early Interactive Emotional Development  

PubMed Central

Early infant emotional development concerns the interactive emergence of emotional states that motivate approach and withdrawal. These are indexed by different patterns of infant facial expressions, vocalization, and gazing that emerge within parent-infant interactions in the first 10 months of life. Specifically, the interface of a limited number of interactive parameters creates complex real-time patterns which change over developmental time. These phenomena are described below using techniques from our laboratory such as statistical simulations, continuous ratings, and computer vision modeling.

Messinger, Daniel S.; Mahoor, Mohammad H.; Cadavid, Steven; Chow, Sy-Miin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.



Adverse Drug Interactions  

PubMed Central

The potential for interactions with current medications should always be considered when administering or prescribing any drug. Considering the staggering number of drugs patients may be taking, this task can be daunting. Fortunately, drug classes employed in dental practice are relatively few in number and therapy is generally brief in duration. While this reduces the volume of potential interactions, there are still a significant number to be considered. This article will review basic principles of drug interactions and highlight those of greatest concern in dental practice.

Becker, Daniel E.



Flux bundle interactions  

SciTech Connect

We show that magnetic flux lattice interactions are important at fields above a few thousand gauss. These interactions interfere with thermally activated current-induced flux bundle hopping and reduce the superconductor's flux creep resistance below that estimated from the standard flux creep models (which assume completely independent hopping). We find that the flux bundles can hop independently at the low fields at which, e.g., antennas and SQUID detection coils would be used, but interact very strongly at fields typical of magnet applications.

Stephens, R.B. (General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (US))



Inferring protein-protein interactions using interaction network topologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two novel methods for predicting protein interactions, using only the topology of an observed protein interaction network. The first method searches the protein interaction network for defective cliques (i.e. nearly complete complexes of pair wise interacting proteins), and predicts the interactions that complete them. The second method computes the diffusion distance between each pair of proteins and then

Alberto Paccanarot; Valery Trifonovl; Haiyuan Yut; Mark Gerstein



Cortico-Hypothalamic Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Cardiac conditioning; Excitability of the central nervous system and motivational states; Cortico-hypothalamic interaction; Targeting reflex in cats; Chronic isolated midbrain; Auditory avoidance behavior after extensive and restricted neocortic...

S. Middleton



Biochemical Interactions Among Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains summary papers by 19 participants on a wide variety of plant-plant interactions, including: Biosynthesis, metabolism and egress of allelochemics; mechanisms of action of chemical inhibitors; involvement of soils and organisms in allelo...



Interactive Periodic Table  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Periodic Table (application/applet) has been designed as a learning tool to help the beginning high school or undergraduate chemistry student gain insight. It could be used either as a lecture aid or distributed to students.


Interactive Office User's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

E. E. Montgomery B. Lowers T. L. Nabors



Interactive Reflective Logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates pr

Deaton, Benjamin E.; Deaton, Cynthia M.; Leland, Katina



Interactive Office user's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

Montgomery, Edward E.; Lowers, Benjamin; Nabors, Terri L.



Plant/Insect Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of 12 investigative questions is designed to help students observe how insects interact with plants in their habitat. The one-page printable PDF list includes questions about the insect behavior and the plant characteristics.


Modeling Fluid Structure Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal goal of this program is on integrating experiments with analytical modeling to develop physics-based reduced-order analytical models of nonlinear fluid-structure interactions in articulated naval platforms. The critical research path for thi...

H. Benaroya T. Wei



Phonon Interactions in Crystals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental work is summarized on the measurement of the signal velocity of acoustic waves in an amplifying acoustic maser. Theory and experiment have previously shown that the signal velocity is decreased when the acoustic waves can interact with absorb...

A. H. Nethercot M. Pomerantz N. S. Shiren



Interactive ADA Workstation  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Interactive Ada Workstation (IAW) major concern is with decreasing the cost and development time of future systems implemented with Ada programming language. During the design phase, developing software with Ada takes longer and cost more than with co...



Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction is a joint effort by professors from Michigan State University, the University of Wuerzburg, and Ludwig-Maximilians University at Munich. A multitude of examples are used to present atom scattering, crystal structure, convolution theorem, Fourier transformations of crystal phase, and other topics. The interactive examples are simulations, using software developed by the authors, where students can input the number of atoms or atom type, etc. and view results as .gif images.


Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction is a joint effort by professors from Michigan State University, the University of Wuerzburg, and Ludwig-Maximilians University at Munich. A multitude of examples are used to present atom scattering, crystal structure, convolution theorem, Fourier transformations of crystal phase, and other topics. The interactive examples are simulations, using software developed by the authors, where students can input the number of atoms or atom type, etc. and view results as .gif images.



Conceiving Interactive Story Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A story is considered to be a sequence of events. So-called linear storytelling means that authors tell these events in a designed order. The sources for events can be actions of agents or other circumstances. In Interactive Storytelling, authors need to conceive events in a different, indirect way. This concept is outlined and illustrated with examples from authoring. The goal is to find a general structure for the conception of interactive story events.

Spierling, Ulrike


Flank solar wind interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report we will summarize the results of the work performed under the 'Flank Solar Wind Interaction' investigation in support of NASA's Space Physics Guest Investigator Program. While this investigation was focused on the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind as observed by instruments on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3 spacecraft, it also represents the culmination of decades of research performed by scientists at TRW on the rich phenomenology of collisionless shocks in space.

Moses, Stewart L.; Greenstadt, Eugene W.; Coroniti, Ferdinand V.



Interactive Real Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Real Analysis is an online, interactive textbook for Real Analysis or Advanced Calculus in one real variable. Organized into the topics of sets and relations, infinity and induction, sequences of numbers, topology, continuity and differentiation, the integral (Riemann and Lebesgue), sequences of functions, and metric spaces. Features Java tools Function Plotter, Continuity Checker, Root Finder, Family Plotter, and Derivative Checker. Also includes a glossary of calculus terms and biographies, with definitions, theorems, and problems.

Wachsmuth, Bert G.



BasketMath Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BasketMath Interactive is an Educational Online Interactive for grades 4-10. Students click on a topic from the table of contents and they are given a mathematics question and animation. When a question is correctly answered, students will see a basketball animation. When they incorrectly answer the question, students are given the correct response and, at times, the solution. Incorrect responses are tracked and areas of improvement are shown.

Cummings, Robert; Software, Science A.



Human-machine interactions  


Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)



Interacting with mouse and touch devices on horizontal interactive displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents and discusses findings on collaborative interaction on horizontal interactive displays using touch and\\u000a mouse input devices. Tabletop interaction environments are suitable for small computer-supported group collaboration, and\\u000a usually allow for concurrent interaction by multiple users. The appropriate support of interaction on horizontal interactive\\u000a displays is crucial to the successful design and adoption of digital tabletops for work,

Christian Müller-Tomfelde


Inferring domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein-protein interactions are important events in cellular and biochemical processes within a cell. Several researchers have undertaken the task of analyzing protein-protein interactions covering all genes of an organism by using yeast two-hybrid assays. Protein-protein interactions involve physical interactions between protein domains. Therefore, understanding protein interactions at the domain level gives a global view of the protein interaction network, and

Minghua Deng; Shipra Mehta; Fengzhu Sun; Ting Chen



Effect of communication media on developmental relationships: Self-reported and observed behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of four communication modes (computer-based video teleconferencing, computer-based electronic chat, telephone, and face-to-face) on developmental interactions between dyads; specifically on the transmission of psychosocial versus instrumental information. The dyads con- sisted of undergraduates at a southeastern university. One member of the dyad was an incoming first year student; the second member was an upper division

Rosemarie Reynolds; Michael T. Brannick



A model to conceptualize interactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model to conceptualize interactivity to help people involved in interaction design. Previous studies\\u000a on interactivity prototyping focus on tools to implement interactivity concepts. Little is found on models for conceptualizing\\u000a interactivity. Our objective is to suggest an analytic model to explore the whole user experience by examining the degree\\u000a of interactivity of a product. This is

Tek-Jin Nam; Sunyoung Park; Jouke Verlinden



Interactions between photodegradation components  

PubMed Central

Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09), very low P-value (<.0.0001), non-significant lack of fit, the coefficient of R-squared (R2?=?0.999), adjusted R-squared (Radj2?=?0.998), predicted R-squared (Rpred2?=?0.994) and the adequate precision (95.94). Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (< 0.8 g/L) and 100 mg/L p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method.



Phonons and their interactions  

SciTech Connect

The phonon energy spectra nu(vector q) of crystalline materials contains key information about the interatomic interactions. However, it is generally not possible to fully understand the phonon spectra without also understanding the influence on phonon energies and lifetimes caused by interactions with defects, electrons and other excitations. The study of several of these types of interactions have grown over the years so as to now constitute subfields of solid state physics and the contributions of neutron scattering research to each has been, if not of paramount importance, at least very significant. In the present review we can merely touch on a few highlights. Perhaps the largest research effort is expended on electron-phonon interactions. These interactions are, of course, fundamental to the properties of metallic solids. They are seen in the phonon nu(vector q) of metals in a wide variety of effects. We shall mention three: the relatively small fine structure produced by Kohn singularities, large anomalies and phonon lifetimes measured in some superconductors and in materials with fluctuating valence.

Nicklow, R.M.



Drugs and their interactions.  


Small molecules with selective efficacy can be used as drugs. Drugs typically have a therapeutic dose range where the benefit from intended effects outweighs the cost of unintended (side) effects. Herein, I use case scenarios to illustrate potential advantages and pitfalls of treatment with drugs alone or in combination. Combinations of drugs may show surprising effects given the effects of individual drugs, in phenomena known as drug interactions. Drug interactions can be classified as synergistic or antagonistic, if the effect of the combination is higher or lower than expected, respectively. A better understanding of drug interactions and their relationship to phenotypes offers hope in finding drug combinations that have high therapeutic values. PMID:23237673

Cokol, Murat



NSP-interacting GTPase  

PubMed Central

Despite the significant progress in the identification of essential components of the nuclear transport machinery, some events of this process are still unclear. Particularly, functional information about the release of nuclear-exported macromolecules at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex and their subsequent trans-cytoplasmic movement is lacking. Recently, we identified a cytoplasmic GTPase, designated NIG (NSP-interacting GTPase), which may play a relevant role in these processes. NIG interacts in vivo with the geminivirus NSP and promotes the translocation of the viral protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it is redirected to the cell surface to interact with the viral movement protein, MP. Here we position the NIG function into the mechanistic model for the intracellular trafficking of viral DNA and discuss the putative role of NIG in general cellular nucleocytoplasmic transport of nucleic acid-protein complexes.

Carvalho, Claudine M; Machado, Joao Paulo B; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo



Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry is a nicely designed companion website to Dr. Rodney Boyer's _Concepts in Biochemistry, second edition_. Developed collaboratively by Science Technologies and others, this multimedia site is archived on the Wiley Publishers website. Site visitors will enjoy exploring the engaging and instructive collection of Interactive Animations. The collection includes Animations about DNA Replication, Signal Transduction, Photosynthesis, Cell Structure, Protein Synthesis, and more. The site also features a number of tutorials regarding Kinesin, Myoglobin & Hemoglobin, tRNA, and Protein-DNA Interactions, to name a few. In addition, the website offers reviews of such concepts as Logarithms, Thermodynamics, and Elementary Kinetics; quizzes that correspond to chapters in Boyer's book; and a collection of articles that consider the role of biochemistry in addressing issues like Lactose Intolerance, Alcohol Abuse, and using Methanol as Fuel.

Boyer, Rodney F.


Light and Matter Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students âÂÂare introduced to the basic concepts of light, followed by several interactive simulations that model the interactions of light with matter." The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, questions to answer, and models they can manipulate. The content of the module is divided into eight pages: Introducing Light and Photons, The Electromagnetic Spectrum, Photon Absorption and Emission 1 and II, Different Substances Have Different Photon Absorptions and Emissions, Light Can Heat Matter, Simulating Black Color, and Heated Matter Can Emit Light. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments and rubric, details of the central concepts, and correlation of the concepts to AAAS and NSES standards.



Dynamics of Galaxy Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface Theory of Interacting Galaxies The Role of Gravity Holmberg's Work on Tidal Interactions "Galactic Bridges and Tails" Dark Matter Numerical Stellar Dynamics Collisionless Stellar Systems Simulating the Stars Force Calculation Time Integration Errors and Relaxation Effects Initial Conditions Numerical Gas Dynamics A Sketch of the Interstellar Medium Simulating the ISM Gas in B/D/H Models Tidal Interactions Test-Particle Studies: Bridges and Tails Self-Consistent Studies Bars and Spirals Tidal Dwarf Galaxies Self-Consistent "Lookalikes" Getting the Feel of the Antennae Sneaking Up on the Mice What Happened to the Whirlpool? Unresolved Issues Mechanics of Merging Tidal Drag Orbit Decay Violent Relaxation Final Encounters Remnant Structure Phase Mixing Characteristics Scales Radial Profiles Shapes and Kinematics Orbit Structure Gas Dynamics in Mergers Inflows in Perturbed Disks Merging Encounters Remnant Structure Dissipation and Stellar Backlash Galaxy transformation and the Arrow of Time

Barnes, Joshua E.


Fat and bone interactions.  


Fat and bone have a complicated relationship. Although obesity has been associated with low fracture risk, there is increasing evidence that some of the factors that are released by peripheral fat into the circulation may also have a deleterious effect on bone mass, thus, predisposing to fractures. More importantly, the local interaction between fat and bone within the bone marrow seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. This "local interaction" occurs inside the bone marrow and is associated with the autocrine and paracrine release of fatty acids and adipokines, which affect the cells in their vicinity including the osteoblasts, reducing their function and survival. In this review, we explore the particularities of the fat and bone cell interactions within the bone marrow, their significance in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and the potential therapeutic applications that regulating marrow fat may have in the near future as a novel pharmacologic treatment for osteoporosis. PMID:24599601

Bermeo, Sandra; Gunaratnam, Krishanthi; Duque, Gustavo



Statistically interacting vacancy particles.  


The equilibrium statistical mechanics of one-dimensional lattice gases with interactions of arbitrary range and shape between first-neighbor atoms is solved exactly on the basis of statistically interacting vacancy particles. Two sets of vacancy particles are considered. In one set all vacancies are of one-cell size. In the other set the sizes of vacancy particles match the separation between atoms. Explicit expressions are obtained for the Gibbs free energy and the distribution of spaces between atoms at thermal equilibrium. Applications to various types of interaction potentials are discussed, including long-range potentials that give rise to phase transitions. Extensions to hard rod systems are straightforward and are shown to agree with existing results for lattice models and their continuum limits. PMID:24580202

Bakhti, Benaoumeur; Karbach, Michael; Maass, Philipp; Mokim, Mohammad; Müller, Gerhard



Dike/Drift Interactions  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).

E. Gaffiney



Interaction relabelling and extreme characters: methods for exploring aesthetic interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aesthetics and interaction are interwoven concepts, rather than separate entities. An aesthetics of interaction must consider richness in appearance, actions, and role. Moving beyond a narrow focus on usability in this way requires new methods for understanding design possibilities. Here we describe two: interaction relabelling, in which possible interactions with a known mechanical device are mapped to the functions of

J. P. Djajadiningrat; W. W. Gaver; J. W. Frens



An interactive forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a prototype of a forest in which a video game player can move and interact physically with the trees.\\u000a \\u000a The trees are procedurally built on-the-fly at each redraw. Two animation approaches are combined: a procedural method which\\u000a handles most of the trees efficiently, and a physically-based method which allows user interaction with the trees. The physically-based\\u000a method is

Thomas Di Giacomo; Stéphane Capo; Franrrois Faure


Interactive atmosphere lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ozone layer makes up an important part of our atmosphere. This informational activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, explores changes in ozone concentration with altitude. Students view a diagram that shows the layers of the atmosphere with a temperature scale running from the surface of the Earth to the outermost reaches of the atmosphere. After reading introductory material, students are presented with nine questions about the layers of the atmosphere and interactions with ozone. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)



Interacting Chaplygin gas  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a kind of interacting Chaplygin gas model in which the Chaplygin gas plays the role of dark energy and interacts with cold dark matter particles. We find that there exists a stable scaling solution at late times with the Universe evolving into a phase of steady state. Furthermore, the effective equation of state of Chaplygin gas may cross the so-called phantom divide w=-1. The above results are derived from continuity equations, which means that they are independent of any gravity theories. Assuming standard general relativity and a spatially flat Friedamnn-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric, we also find the deceleration parameter is well consistent with current observations.

Zhang Hongsheng; Zhu Zonghong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)



The Interactive 500  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Week offers an annual list of companies that earned the most money from their Web operations. The good news this year is that, while as we know, a large number of dot.coms have folded or been purchased, the aggregate revenue of this year's list is more than double that of last year's. The list begins with a nice overview of e-conomy trends, proceeds to a brief description of methodology, and .pdf charts of the Interactive 500. The feature includes a wealth of articles, some focused on particular industries, others on companies, and some on more general topics.



Towards interactive narrative medicine.  


Interactive Storytelling technologies have attracted significant interest in the field of simulation and serious gaming for their potential to provide a principled approach to improve user engagement in training scenarios. In this paper, we explore the use of Interactive Storytelling to support Narrative Medicine as a reflective practice. We describe a workflow for the generation of virtual narratives from high-level descriptions of patients' experiences as perceived by physicians, which can help to objectivize such perceptions and support various forms of analysis. PMID:23400131

Cavazza, Marc; Charles, Fred



Synchronization via Hydrodynamic Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An object moving in a viscous fluid creates a flow field that influences the motion of neighboring objects. We review examples from nature in the microscopic world where such hydrodynamic interactions synchronize beating or rotating filaments. Bacteria propel themselves using a bundle of rotating helical filaments called flagella which have to be synchronized in phase. Other micro-organisms are covered with a carpet of smaller filaments called cilia on their surfaces. They beat highly synchronized so that metachronal waves propagate along the cell surfaces. We explore both examples with the help of simple model systems and identify generic properties for observing synchronization by hydrodynamic interactions.

Kendelbacher, Franziska; Stark, Holger



Interactive Terascale Particle Visualization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the methods used to produce an interactive visualization of a 2 TB computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data set using particle tracing (streaklines). We use the method introduced by Bruckschen et al. (2001) that pre-computes a large nu...

D. Ellsworth B. Green P. Moran



The Sun Dagger Interactive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sun Dagger Interactive is a real-time computer simulation of the ancient site on Fajada Butte in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, and is now part of a permanent exhibit on cultural astronomy at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago. The exhibit opened on March 20, 2002.The Sun Dagger construct is dated over a thousand years old and is believed to mark

Alan Price



Interactions of cosmic superstrings  

SciTech Connect

We develop methods by which cosmic superstring interactions can be studied in detail. These include the reconnection probability and emission of radiation such as gravitons or small string loops. Loop corrections to these are discussed, as well as relationships to (p; q)-strings. These tools should allow a phenomenological study of string models in anticipation of upcoming experiments sensitive to cosmic string radiation.

Jackson, Mark G.; /Fermilab



Interactive Reflective Logs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina



Epidemics on Interacting Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemic spreading is of great importance in public health, as well as in related fields such as infrastructure. While complex network models have been used with great success to analyze epidemic behavior on single networks, the reality is that our world is made up of a system of interacting networks that do not necessarily share common characteristics. I introduce a model for constructing interacting networks and show that the phase transtion depends on the parameters ?T, kappaA and ?B, where ?T= / over the nodes in both networks, including internetwork links, and ?A and ?B are over the networks considered individually, with no internetwork links. For strongly interacting networks (?T> ?Aand ?B), there exists only one phase transition, between a disease-free phase and an epidemic phase across both networks. For weakly interacting networks (?T< ?A or ?B), a third, ``mixed,'' phase exists, where the disease enters an epidemic on one network alone. The analytic predictions are confirmed by Monte-Carlo simulations.

Dickison, Mark; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. E.



Bacterial interactions with silver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This review examines interactions between bacteria and the biologically non-essential metal, silver. Aspects of silver toxicity, tolerance and accumulation (possible binding and uptake as opposed to energy-dependent transport) in bacteria are discussed. In addition, plasmid biology is examined briefly since little information is available on the exact mechanism(s) of plasmid-endoced silver resistance in bacteria.

R. M. Slawson; H. Lee; J. T. Trevors



Geriatric Live Interactive Teleconferencing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document includes a successful model for implementing educational teleconferencing, the Geriatric Live Interactive Teleconferencing program at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU). As a vehicle for continuing professional education, teleconferencing can transmit the latest information to large numbers of health professionals in a variety of…

Parham, Iris A.; Wood, Joan



Customer Interaction Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing emphasis on business awareness, we are all asked to play a more active role in interfacing with customers, both internal as well as external. This new role poses a challenge for those of us who may need guidance to improve their effectiveness in customer interaction. Who is the customer of an IT professional? We say the customer

Linda Rising


Towards interactive robots


Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the potential of using interactive environments in autism therapy. We specifically address issues relevant to the Aurora project, which studies the possible role of autonomous, mobile robots as therapeutic tools for children with autism. Theories of mindreading, social cognition and imitation that informed the Aurora project are discussed and their relevance to the project is outlined. Our

Kerstin Dautenhahn; Iain Werry


Creating an Interactive PDF  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive

Branzburg, Jeffrey



Latent Variable Interaction Modeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used simulation to study two different approaches to latent variable interaction modeling with continuous observed variables: (1) a LISREL 8.30 program and (2) data analysis through PRELIS2 and SIMPLIS programs. Results show that parameter estimation was similar but standard errors were different. Discusses differences in ease of implementation.…

Schumacker, Randall E.



Interacting Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several scenarios of interacting neural networks which are trained either in an identical or in a competitive way are solved analytically. In the case of identical training each perceptron receives the output of its neighbour. The symmetry of the stationary state as well as the sensitivity to the used training algorithm are investigated. Two competitive perceptrons trained on mutually exclusive

R. Metzler; I. Kanter



Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

Dominich, Sandor



Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are interactive multimodal learning environments and how should they be designed to promote students' learning? In this paper, we offer a cognitive-affective theory of learning with media from which instructional design principles are derived. Then, we review a set of experimental studies in which we found empirical support for five design…

Moreno, Roxana; Mayer, Richard



EMP Simulator - Site Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EMP simulators interact with test objects and subsequently do not provide a test excitation environment that equals that of the threat EMP. This study compares the excitation from a horizontal simulator (TEMPS) to that from a horizontal EMP (HEMP). This c...

A. L. Whitson W. E. Scharfman



Lateral interactions in amblyopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied lateral neural interactions in strabismic (n=6) and anisometropic amblyopes (n=3) by measuring reductions in the perceived contrast of a foveally viewed Gabor centred in a horizontal array of closely neighboring Gabors. Strabismic amblyopes, but not anisometropic amblyopes, failed to show the reduction in perceived contrast typical of normal vision [J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15 (1998) 1733] when

Dave Ellemberg; Robert F. Hess; A. Serge Arsenault



Lateral interactions in amblyopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied lateral neural interactions in strabismic (n ¼ 6) and anisometropic amblyopes (n ¼ 3) by measuring reductions in the perceived contrast of a foveally viewed Gabor centred in a horizontal array of closely neighboring Gabors. Strabismic amblyopes, but not anisometropic amblyopes, failed to show the reduction in perceived contrast typical of normal vision (J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A

Dave Ellemberg; Robert F. Hess; A. Serge



Brain-computer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) technology is to augment human capabilities by enabling people to interact with a computer through a conscious and spontaneous modulation of their brainwaves after a short training period. Indeed, by analyzing brain electrical activity online, several groups have designed brain-actuated systems that provide alternative channels for communication, entertainment and control. Thus, a person can

José Del R. Millán



Computers for Interactive Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes features of computer-based interactive video including sophisticated answer judging, diagnostic feedback, simulation, animation, audible tones, touch sensitive screen, function keys, and video enhancements, and matches these to the characteristics and pedagogical styles of learners. The learner characteristics discussed include internal…

Grabowski, Barbara; Aggen, William



long-range interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss effects of 1\\/rtype long-range (LR) interactions in a tight-binding model by utilizing the bosonization technique, renormalization group and conformal field theory (CFT). We obtain the low energy action known for Kibble's model which generates the mass gap in 3 dimension when ? = 1, the Coulomb force case. In one dimension, the dispersion relations predict that the system

Hitoshi Inoue


Interaction and Children's Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we propose the beginnings of a constructivist model of mathematical learning that supersedes Piaget's and Vygotsky's views on learning. First, we analyze aspects of Piaget's and Vygotsky's grand theories of learning and development. Then, we formulate our superseding model, which is based on the interrelations between two types of interaction in constructivism—the basic sequence of action and

Leslie P. Steffe; Ron Tzur



Interactively Editing Structured Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Document preparation systems that are oriented to an author's preparation of printed material must permit the flexible specification, modification, and reuse of the contents of the document. Interactive document preparation systems commonly have incorporated simple representations—an unconstrained linear list of document objects in the 'What You See Is What You Get' (WYSIWYG) systems. Recent research projects have been directed

Richard Furuta; Vincent Quint; Jacques André



Interaction: Examples and Possibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores examples of software that employs interactivity to engage students in a dialogue with the past: (1) "Reverse America"; (2) "Pilgrims and Indians"; (3) "Keys to Victory in the War for Independence"; (4) "Monmouth"; (5) "Critical Period"; (6) "Translating"; (7) "Founders"; and (8) "Convention". (CMK)

Schick, James B. M.



Interactive virtual angioscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual angioscopy is a non invasive medical procedure for explor- ing parts of the human vascular system. We have developed an in- teractive tool that takes as input data acquired with standard med- ical imaging modalities and regards it as a virtual environment to be interactively inspected. The system supports real-time naviga- tion with stereoscopic direct volume rendering and dynamic

Enrico Gobbetti; Piero Pili; Antonio Zorcolo; Massimiliano Tuveri



Nanophotonics: Nanoscale Optical Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanophotonics defined as nanoscale optical science and technology is a new frontier, which includes nanoscale confinement of radiation, nanoscale confinement of matter, and nanoscale photophysical or photochemical transformation. Selected examples of our research work in each of these areas are presented here. Nonlinear optical interactions involving nanoscale confinement of radiation is both theoretically and experimentally studied using a near-field geometry.

Sung-Jae Chung; Kyoung-Soo Kim; Tzu-Chau Lin; Yuzhen Shen; Przemyslaw Markowicz; Guang S. He; Paras N. Prasad



Crime and Social Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high degree of variance of crime rates across space (and across time) is one of the oldest puzzles in the social sciences (see Quetelet (1835)). Our empirical work strongly suggests that this variance is not the result of observed or unobserved geographic attributes. This paper presents a model where social interactions create enough covariance across individuals to explain the

Edward E. Glaeser; Bruce Sacerdote; Jose A. Scheinkman



Herb-drug interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin,

Adriane Fugh-Berman


Interactive Genetics Tutorial Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Interactive Genetics Tutorial (IGT) project and the Intelligent Tutoring System for the IGT project named MENDEL supplement genetics instruction in biology courses by providing students with experience in designing, conducting, and evaluating genetics experiments. The MENDEL software is designed to: (1) simulate genetics experiments that…

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction.


Azithromycin and warfarin interaction.  


A 57-year-old Caucasian woman came to the clinic with symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection. She was treated with a 5-day course of oral azithromycin 500 mg on day 1, then 250 mg/day for 4 days. During this period, the patient decreased her cigarette smoking from 1 pack/day to 1 pack every 3 days. No additional confounding variables were present. Two days after the completion of therapy, her international normalized ratio (INR) was 8.32. Six case reports documented in the literature have suggested an azithromycin-warfarin interaction with a resultant increase in INR. Many confounding variables existed in each of these cases, such as hepatic dysfunction, poor appetite, and concomitant drugs that resulted in an increased anticoagulant response. We report a case that involved only one potential confounding variable. Continued documentation of azithromycin-warfarin interactions is valuable considering no mention of this drug interaction exists in most tertiary references and in the package insert for azithromycin, the demonstration that no drug interaction occurred in a retrospective review of 52 cases, and the widespread use of azithromycin in the community. Clinicians should be mindful when prescribing azithromycin in combination with warfarin, and INR values should be monitored. PMID:15303459

Shrader, Sarah P; Fermo, Joli D; Dzikowski, Amy L



?-hyperon interaction with nucleons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the interaction of ?-hyperon with proton and neutron inside a nucleus within the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) formalism. The single-particle energy levels for some of the specific proton and neutron orbits are analyzed with the addition of ?-successively. The neutron energy level is more deeper, because of decrease in symmetry energy due to substitution of neutron by ?-hyperon.

Ikram, M.; Singh, S. K.; Biswal, S. K.; Bhuyan, M.; Patra, S. K.



Random interactions with isospin  

SciTech Connect

The explicit inclusion of isospin degrees of freedom in sd-shell shell-model calculations with random two-body interactions produces a richer and more varied pattern of ground-state spins and isospins than has been found with only a single type of valence nucleon. The degree of dominance of 0{sup +} ground states in even-even nuclei is far from uniform in the presence of different numbers of valence neutrons and protons and is mirrored by the prevalence of 1{sup +} ground states in odd-odd nuclei. Random interactions distinguish between the ground-state patterns of even-even and odd-odd nuclei. The natural isospin ordering observed in nuclei (with states of minimum isospin lying lowest in energy and increasing in energy with increasing isospin) is also prominent despite the randomness of the interactions. Universal 0{sup +} even-even ground states and almost universal natural isospin ordering, as observed in nuclei, evidently still require two-body interactions with specific dynamic properties.

Kirson, Michael W.; Mizrahi, Jonathan A. [Department of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)



Empowered interaction through creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects upon a case study where exploration, play and empowerment in interactive therapy sessions with audio and visual stimuli resulted in achievement, self-esteem and a shared pride between a young adult with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD), his mother and the special teacher that conducted the sessions. Following the gift to the mother of a video recording

Stefan Hasselblad; Eva Petersson; Tony Brooks



Interactive Statistical Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This narrative report consists of five chapters: Chapters 1 and 2 describe interactive graphical units and present examples of the use of these units, with photographs of the screen taken in the Fall of 1977, when the intergrated system was operational on...

R. E. Bargmann H. Bouver



Electron interaction in matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data on the scattering of 1-MeV electrons in aluminum for the case of non-normal incidence, electron-bremsstrahlung cross-sections in thin targets, and the production of bremstrahlung by electron interaction in thick targets, are presented both in tabular and graphic form. These results may interest physicists and radiologists.

Dance, W. E.; Rainwater, W. J.; Rester, D. H.



Interactive collaborative media environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual reality (VR) provides a revolutionary interface between man and machine. However, present display and interface peripherals limit the potential of virtual environments within many activities or scenarios. Mainstream immersive VR is centred on head mounted display (HMD) based solutions in which the user is isolated from their surrounding environment. The occlusion of real world interaction within such systems imposes

D M Traill; J. D. Bowshill; P. J. Lawrence



Strength of Glueball Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interaction strength between glueballs in a pure Yang-Mills theory is characterized by the triple glueball vertex function on-shell. This quantity is estimated by strong coupling methods. The result, which is in agreement with Monte Carlo calculations...

G. Muenster



Software Review: "Interactive Calculus."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive, multimedia text for calculus instruction that contains the entire contents of a corresponding textbook is evaluated and found to have features that enhance concepts with dynamic examples of graphs and problems that make good use of animation, audio, and video. Its design accommodates diverse student abilities and educational…

Connors, Edward A.