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Sample records for c-coriolis interacting dyad

  1. When Training with a Partner Is Inferior to Training Alone: The Importance of Dyad Type and Interaction Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Amy E.; Beier, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Dyad training, where trainees learn in pairs but ultimately perform individually, has been shown to be an effective method for training some skills. The effectiveness of this approach, however, may be tied to the type of task to be trained and the quality of the interaction in the dyad. We report two studies on the effectiveness of dyad training…

  2. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were examined and compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were positively related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother object-oriented behaviors were positively related only among European Americans. In all groups, infant and mother behaviors within each modality were mutually contingent. Culture moderated lead-lag relations: Japanese infants were more likely than their mothers to respond in object-oriented interactions, European American mothers were more likely than their infants to respond in person-oriented interactions. Japanese American dyads behaved more like European American dyads. Interaction, infant effects, and parent socialization findings are set in cultural and accultural models of transactions between young infants and their mothers. PMID:22860874

  3. Interaction in High-Risk Dyads: Maternal Affect and Child Synchrony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen L.; Cohen, Michele

    This study examined both maternal and child interaction styles, focusing on the association between differences in maternal level and quality of involvement and the synchrony and affective quality of child interaction behaviors. The subjects were 55 mother-child dyads in which the children (ages 2-5) had been referred to a mental health center…

  4. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  5. The Development of an Individuals-within-Dyads Multilevel Performance Measure for an Interactive Cheerleading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habeeb, Christine M.; Eklund, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Dyadic interactions generate direct relationships in which interdependent sport behaviors can be destructured. The focus of this investigation was to develop a two-level performance framework and corresponding measures of individual- and dyad-level sport performance. The described procedures surrounded a male-female cheerleading paired-stunt task,…

  6. On the role of excitonic interactions in carotenoid-phthalocyanine dyads and implications for photosynthetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pen-Nan; Pillai, Smitha; Kloz, Miroslav; Gust, Devens; Moore, Ana L; Moore, Thomas A; Kennis, John T M; van Grondelle, Rienk; Walla, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    In two recent studies, energy transfer was reported in certain phthalocyanine-carotenoid dyads between the optically forbidden first excited state of carotenoids (Car S(1)) and phthalocyanines (Pcs) in the direction Pc → Car S(1) (Kloz et al., J Am Chem Soc 133:7007-7015, 2011) as well as in the direction Car S(1) → Pc (Liao et al., J Phys Chem A 115:4082-4091, 2011). In this article, we show that the extent of this energy transfer in both directions is closely correlated in these dyads. This correlation and the additional observation that Car S(1) is instantaneously populated after Pc excitation provides evidence that in these compounds excitonic interactions can occur. Besides pure energy transfer and electron transfer, this is the third type of tetrapyrrole-carotenoid interaction that has been shown to occur in these model compounds and that has previously been proposed as a photosynthetic regulation mechanism. We discuss the implications of these models for photosynthetic regulation. The findings are also discussed in the context of a model in which both electronic states are disordered and in which the strength of the electronic coupling determines whether energy transfer, excitonic coupling, or electron transfer occurs. PMID:21948493

  7. Challenges to Bonnet Monkey (Macaca radiata) Social Groups: Mother–Infant Dyad and Infant Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Laudenslager, Mark L.; Natvig, C.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, S.M.; Blevins, M.; Corcoran, C.; Pierre, P.J.; Bennett, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The mother-infant dyad is crucial to early development in a variety of species. The complexity of social groupings in nonhuman primates makes this relationship resilient as well as susceptible to early challenges associated with environmental chaos. Quantitative behavior observations of bonnet monkey mother-infant interactions were collected from 28 mother-infant dyads between one and twelve months of age. Social groups were subjected to several prenatal and/or postnatal housing relocations within a single year resulting in two study groups. One group experienced relocations (ATYPICAL, n = 14) and the second group (TYPICAL, n = 14) was conceived and reared in the same location. Behaviors in the ethogram included mother-infant interactions and infant social interactions with other members of the group. Observations between ages of two to four months were analyzed by a mixed model analysis of variance including fixed effects of per and postnatal history (TYPICAL, ATYPICAL), age, and history by age interaction and random effects of mother and infant nested within mother. A significant effect of relocation history was noted on a number of infant behaviors. ATYPICAL infants were out of direct contact with their mother at an earlier age but remained in her proximity. Control of proximity shifted to offsrping in the ATYPICAL group compared to the TYPICAL group. Furthermore, greater social interactions between two and four months of age with other members of the social group as well as the ir mother were observed in the ATYPICAL group. It is suggested that continuous challenge associated with relocation may affect the infant at later developmental ages due to these early differences in ways that are yet unclear. PMID:20583143

  8. Challenges to bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) social groups: Mother-infant dyad and infant social interactions.

    PubMed

    Laudenslager, Mark L; Natvig, C; Mikulich-Gilbertson, S M; Blevins, M; Corcoran, C; Pierre, P J; Bennett, A J

    2010-07-01

    The mother-infant dyad is crucial to early development in a variety of species. The complexity of social groupings in nonhuman primates makes this relationship resilient as well as susceptible to early challenges associated with environmental chaos. Quantitative behavior observations of bonnet monkey mother-infant interactions were collected from 28 mother-infant dyads between one and twelve months of age. Social groups were subjected to several prenatal and/or postnatal housing relocations within a single year resulting in two study groups. One group experienced relocations (ATYPICAL, n = 14) and the second group (TYPICAL, n = 14) was conceived and reared in the same location. Behaviors in the ethogram included mother-infant interactions and infant social interactions with other members of the group. Observations between ages of two to four months were analyzed by a mixed model analysis of variance including fixed effects of per and postnatal history (TYPICAL, ATYPICAL), age, and history by age interaction and random effects of mother and infant nested within mother. A significant effect of relocation history was noted on a number of infant behaviors. ATYPICAL infants were out of direct contact with their mother at an earlier age but remained in her proximity. Control of proximity shifted to offsrping in the ATYPICAL group compared to the TYPICAL group. Furthermore, greater social interactions between two and four months of age with other members of the social group as well as the ir mother were observed in the ATYPICAL group. It is suggested that continuous challenge associated with relocation may affect the infant at later developmental ages due to these early differences in ways that are yet unclear. PMID:20583143

  9. Predictors of parent-child interaction style in dyads with autism.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Kristelle; Aldred, Catherine; Wigham, Sarah; Green, Jonathan; Leadbitter, Kathy; Temple, Kathryn; Barlow, Katherine; McConachie, Helen

    2013-10-01

    Parent synchrony has been shown to be developmentally important for the growth of communication skills in young children with autism. Understanding individual-differences in parent synchrony and other associated features of dyadic interaction therefore presents as an important step toward the goal of appreciating how and why some parent-child dyads come to adopt more optimal interaction styles, while for others, parent interaction is more asynchronous and less developmentally facilitative. Within the large, well-characterized Preschool Autism Communication Trial (PACT) cohort, baseline parent-child interaction samples were coded for three key aspects of dyadic interaction style; - Parent Synchrony, Child Initiation, and Shared Attention. We explored associations among these measures, demographic characteristics and standardized child assessment scores. While various child factors were associated with each of the interaction measures, very few associations were observed with parent/familial factors. Child language age-equivalence was a significant positive predictor of variation in each interaction measure, while child repetitive symptoms predicted reduced Shared Attention. The three interaction measures were moderately positively inter-related. In the context of childhood autism, variation in dyadic interaction style appears to be driven more by child language and repetitive behaviors than age, social-communication symptoms and non-verbal ability. Parent/family factors contributed little to explaining variability in parent-child interaction, in the current study. PMID:23911646

  10. Patterns of Conflict Interaction in Mother-Toddler Dyads: Differences between Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Huang, Keng-Yen; Lima, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We examined the differences in conflict interaction between depressed mothers and their toddler and non-depressed dyads and whether these differences mediated the association of maternal depression with compromised child socioemotional development. Mother/child interaction was videotaped during a teaching task and during a free play task as part…

  11. Two-Photon Study on the Electronic Interactions between the First Excited Singlet States in Carotenoid-Tetrapyrrole Dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Pen-Nan; Pillai, Smitha; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Walla, Peter J.

    2011-03-22

    Electronic interactions between the first excited states (S1) of carotenoids (Car) of different conjugation lengths (8-11 double bonds) and phthalocyanines (Pc) in different Car-Pc dyad molecules were investigated by two-photon spectroscopy and compared with Car S1-chlorophyll (Chl) interactions in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes (LHCs). The observation of Chl/Pc fluorescence after selective two-photon excitation of the Car S1 state allowed sensitive monitoring of the flow of energy between Car S1 and Pc or Chl. It is found that two-photon excitation excites to about 80% to 100% exclusively the carotenoid state Car S1 and that only a small fraction of direct tetrapyrrole two-photon excitation occurs. Amide-linked Car-Pc dyads in tetrahydrofuran demonstrate a molecular gear shift mechanism in that effective Car S1 → Pc energy transfer is observed in a dyad with 9 double bonds in the carotenoid, whereas in similar dyads with 11 double bonds in the carotenoid, the Pc fluorescence is strongly quenched by Pc → Car S1 energy transfer. In phenylamino-linked Car-Pc dyads in toluene extremely large electronic interactions between the Car S1 state and Pc were observed, particularly in the case of a dyad in which the carotenoid contained 10 double bonds. This observation together with previous findings in the same system provides strong evidence for excitonic Car S1-Pc Qy interactions. Very similar results were observed with photosynthetic LHC II complexes in the past, supporting an important role of such interactions in photosynthetic down-regulation.

  12. Bids for Joint Attention by Parent-Child Dyads and by Dyads of Young Peers in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Before they are 3;0-3;6, children typically do not engage with peers in focused interaction, although they do with adults. With parents, children interact around the "here-and-now". We hypothesize that young peers do not attempt to establish joint attention to present objects. Using the CHILDES database, we compared attention-directives…

  13. Pattern of mother-child feeding interactions in preterm and term dyads at 18 and 24 months.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, Paola; Andrei, Federica; Neri, Erica; Chirico, Ilaria; Trombini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Literature on mother-child feeding interactions during the transition to self-feeding in preterm populations is lacking, particularly through observational methods. The present research study aims to look at the longitudinal patterns of mother-toddler feeding interactions, comparing preterm and full term dyads. To this end, a multi-method approach was used to collect data from 27 preterm to 20 full-term toddlers and their mothers. For each dyad, mother-child interactions were observed during the snack time at 18 and 24 months of age and then assessed through the Italian version of the Feeding Scale. Higher scores on the scale indicate a less healthy pattern of interaction. Additionally, at both points in time, mothers completed the BDI-II questionnaire as a screen for maternal depression and the child's developmental stage was assessed using the Griffiths Scales. A series of repeated measures Analysis of Variances were run to detect differences in feeding interactions between the two groups at the time of assessment. Our results show that preterm dyads report overall higher levels of maternal negative affection, interactional conflicts, and less dyadic reciprocity during the meal compared to full-term dyads. Additionally, longitudinal data show that dyadic conflict decreases in both groups, whereas the child's food refusal behaviors increase in the preterm group from 18 to 24 months. No differences were reported for both the BDI-II and the child's development for the two groups. The results reveal that regardless of maternal depression and the child's developmental stage, the two groups show different trajectories in the pattern of feeding interactions during the transition to self -feeding, at 18 and 24 months, with overall less positive interactions in preterm mother-child dyads. PMID:26347699

  14. Pattern of mother–child feeding interactions in preterm and term dyads at 18 and 24 months

    PubMed Central

    Salvatori, Paola; Andrei, Federica; Neri, Erica; Chirico, Ilaria; Trombini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Literature on mother–child feeding interactions during the transition to self-feeding in preterm populations is lacking, particularly through observational methods. The present research study aims to look at the longitudinal patterns of mother–toddler feeding interactions, comparing preterm and full term dyads. To this end, a multi-method approach was used to collect data from 27 preterm to 20 full-term toddlers and their mothers. For each dyad, mother–child interactions were observed during the snack time at 18 and 24 months of age and then assessed through the Italian version of the Feeding Scale. Higher scores on the scale indicate a less healthy pattern of interaction. Additionally, at both points in time, mothers completed the BDI-II questionnaire as a screen for maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage was assessed using the Griffiths Scales. A series of repeated measures Analysis of Variances were run to detect differences in feeding interactions between the two groups at the time of assessment. Our results show that preterm dyads report overall higher levels of maternal negative affection, interactional conflicts, and less dyadic reciprocity during the meal compared to full-term dyads. Additionally, longitudinal data show that dyadic conflict decreases in both groups, whereas the child’s food refusal behaviors increase in the preterm group from 18 to 24 months. No differences were reported for both the BDI-II and the child’s development for the two groups. The results reveal that regardless of maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage, the two groups show different trajectories in the pattern of feeding interactions during the transition to self –feeding, at 18 and 24 months, with overall less positive interactions in preterm mother–child dyads. PMID:26347699

  15. Drug-protein interactions assessed by fluorescence measurements in the real complexes and in model dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayá, Ignacio; Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Jiménez, M. Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2010-02-01

    In the present work, a systematic fluorescence study on supramolecular systems using two serum albumins (HSA or BSA) as hosts and the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs carprofen (CPF) or naproxen (NPX) as guests has been undertaken. In parallel, model dyads containing Tyr or Trp covalently linked to CPF or NPX have also been investigated. In HSA/(S)-CPF and BSA/(S)-CPF ( λexc = 266 nm), at 1:1 M ratio, an important degree (more than 40%) of singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) was observed to take place. The distance ( r) calculated for energy transfer from the SAs to (S)-CPF through a FRET mechanism was found to be ca. 21 Å. In the case of HSA/(S)-NPX and BSA/(S)-NPX, energy transfer occurred to a lower extent (ca. 7%), and r was determined as ca. 24 Å. In order to investigate the possible excited state interactions between bound ligands and the relevant amino acids present in the protein binding sites, four pairs of model dyads were designed and synthesised, namely ( S, S)-TyrCPF, ( S, R)-TyrCPF, ( S, S)-TrpCPF, ( S, R)-TrpCPF, ( S, S)-TyrNPX, ( S, R)-TyrNPX, ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX. A complete SSET was observed from Tyr or Trp to CPF, since no contribution from the amino acids was present in the emission of the dyads. Likewise, a very efficient Tyr or Trp to NPX energy transfer was observed. Remarkably, in ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX a configuration-dependent reduction in the emission intensity was observed, revealing a strong and stereoselective intramolecular quenching. This effect can be attributed to exciplex formation and is dynamic in nature, as the fluorescence lifetimes were much shorter in ( S, R)- and ( S, S)-TrpNPX (1.5 and 3.1 ns, respectively) than in (S)-NPX (11 ns).

  16. Face-to-Face Interactions in Unacquainted Female-Male Dyads: How Do Girls and Boys Behave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolaric, Giselle C.; Galambos, Nancy L.

    1995-01-01

    Examined adolescents' verbal and nonverbal behavior in 30 female-male dyads. All behaviors were coded. Analysis of videotaped interactions revealed more similarities between girls and boys than differences, although gender distinctions were evident in speaking time and in smiling. Results focus on developmental and contextual accounts of…

  17. Patterns of Conflict Interaction in Mother–Toddler Dyads: Differences Between Depressed and Non-depressed Mothers

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien Caughy, Margaret; Huang, Keng-Yen; Lima, Julie

    2012-01-01

    We examined the differences in conflict interaction between depressed mothers and their toddler and non-depressed dyads and whether these differences mediated the association of maternal depression with compromised child socioemotional development. Mother/ child interaction was videotaped during a teaching task and during a free play task as part of a home visit when the target child was between 16 and 18 months old. Each turn of every conflict was coded for behavior and affect of each member of the dyad. Interaction data were summarized to calculate the number of conflict turns, the rate of conflict, and the proportion of mother-initiated versus child-initiated conflicts per dyad. Sequential analysis was used to estimate the probability of specific maternal responses to specific child behaviors. Bivariate comparisons indicated that depressed dyads experienced higher rates of conflict, especially during the teaching task, and that depressed mothers were more likely to respond destructively to child oppositional behavior. Results of multivariate linear regression indicated that the higher probability of destructive response mediated the association of maternal depression with lower quality of mother–child attachment. These findings have implications for the development of interventions to support mothers in dealing with the conflicts that are so common during the second year of a child’s life. PMID:23449962

  18. Maternal Holding of Preterm Infants During the Early Weeks After Birth and Dyad Interaction at Six Months

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Madalynn; Robinson, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether a supportive nursing intervention that promoted kangaroo holding of healthy preterm infants by their mothers during the early weeks of the infant’s life facilitated co-regulation between mother and infant at six months of age. Design Randomized controlled trial. Participants Sixty-five mother-infant dyads with mean gestational age at birth of 33 weeks. Fifty percent of infants were male, and 50% were non-White. Interventions An eight week home intervention encouraged daily one hour, uninterrupted holding with either blanket (baby wrapped in blanket and held in mother’s arms) or the kangaroo (baby in skin-to-skin contact on mother’s chest) method. In both conditions, weekly home visits by an experienced RN included encouragement to hold the infant, emotional support, and information about infant behavior and development. A control group received brief social visits, had no holding constraints, and participated in all assessments. Main Outcome Measures When infants were six months of age, the Still-Face Procedure was used to assess mother-infant interaction. Outcome measures were co-regulation of the dyad’s responses during the play episodes of the Still Face Procedure and vitality in infant efforts to re-engage the mother during the neutral face portion of the Still Face procedure. Results Significant differences among groups were found in mother-infant co-regulation. Post hoc analysis showed that dyads who were supported in kangaroo holding displayed more co-regulation behavior during play than dyads in the blanket holding group. No differences were found between groups in infant vitality during the neutral face portion of the Still Face Procedure. Conclusion Dyads supported in practicing kangaroo holding in the early weeks of life may develop more co-regulated interactional strategies than other dyads. PMID:20629927

  19. Regulation of photodynamic interactions in 1,8-naphthalimide-linker-phenothiazine dyads by cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Won; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Sugimoto, Akira; Yoon, Ung Chan; Cho, Dae Won; Majima, Tetsuro

    2014-03-28

    This study examines the effects of cyclodextrin (CD) on the photophysical properties of 1,8-naphthalimide (NI) derivatives including NI-linker-phenothiazine (NI-L-PTZ) dyads in a H2O/CH3CN solution (v/v = 9 : 1). Peculiar excimer and exciplex emissions were observed with reference NI and NI-L-PTZ, respectively, in an aqueous environment. The NI-CD complexes exhibited monomeric emission spectral features, which resulted from their inclusion into the CD cavity. The complex formation constants of CDs with the NI derivatives were determined. The T1-Tn absorption band of (3)NI* was observed at around 470 nm during nanosecond-laser flash photolysis. Photoinduced electron transfer in NI-L-PTZ led to NI˙(-) and PTZ˙(+) from the T1 state. In protic polar solvents, NI˙(-) easily formed a ketyl radical (NIH˙) by hydrogen abstraction from H2O, and showed a transient absorption band at around 400 nm. The charge recombination (CR) time of the transient species at 400 nm showed a strong CD dependency, and the CR time of the dyad in γ-CD was increased markedly compared with in β-CD. This suggests that the PTZ moiety can also be included in the γ-CD cavity. PMID:24535071

  20. Analyte interactions with a new ditopic dansylamide-nitrobenzoxadiazole dyad: a combined photophysical, NMR, and theoretical (DFT) study.

    PubMed

    Bhoi, Abhas Kumar; Das, Sudhir Kumar; Majhi, Debashis; Sahu, Prabhat Kumar; Nijamudheen, A; N, Anoop; Rahaman, Abdur; Sarkar, Moloy

    2014-08-21

    We report herein the synthesis and photophysical studies on a new multicomponent chemosensor dyad comprising two fluorescing units, dansylamide (DANS) and nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD). The system has been developed to investigate receptor-analyte binding interactions in the presence of both cations and anions in a single molecular system. A dimethyl amino (in the DANS unit) group is used as a receptor for cations, and acidic hydrogens of sulfonamide and the NBD group are used as receptors for anions. The system is characterized by conventional analytical techniques. The photophysical properties of this supramolecular system in the absence and presence of various metal ions and nonmetal ions as additives are investigated in an acetonitrile medium. Utility of this system in an aqueous medium has also been demonstrated. The absorption and fluorescence spectrum of the molecular system consists of a broad band typical of an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition. A low quantum yield and lifetime of the NBD moiety in the present dyad indicates photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between DANS and the NBD moiety. The fluorescence intensity of the system is found to decrease in the presence of fluoride and acetate anions; however, the quenching is found to be much higher for fluoride. This quenching behavior is attributed to the enhanced PET from the anion receptor to the fluorophore moiety. The mechanistic aspect of the fluoride ion signaling behavior has also been studied by infrared (IR) and (1)H NMR experiments. The hydrogen bonding interaction between the acidic NH protons of the DPN moiety and F(-) is found to be primarily responsible for the fluoride selective signaling behavior. While investigating the cation signaling behavior, contrary to anions, significant fluorescence enhancement has been observed only in the presence of transition-metal ions. This behavior is rationalized by considering the disruption of PET communication between DANS and the NBD moiety due to transition-metal ion binding. Theoretical (density functional theory) studies are also performed for the better understanding of the receptor-analyte interaction. Interestingly, negative cooperativity in binding is observed when the interaction of this system is studied in the presence of both Zn(2+) and F(-). Fluorescence microscopy studies also revealed that the newly developed fluorescent sensor system can be employed as an imaging probe in live cells. PMID:25116958

  1. Photonics of styrylquinoline dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budyka, Mikhail F.

    2015-07-01

    Three types of bichromophoric styrylquinoline (SQ) dyads are discussed in the review: bisstyrylquinoline dyads, styrylquinoline-merocyanine dyads, and styrylquinoline-naphthol dyads, in comparison with the corresponding model monochromophoric compounds. A variety of photochemical and photophysical processes is observed in the dyads: photoluminescence, reversible and kinetic-driven one-way photoisomerization, [2+2]photocycloaddition with formation of a single rctt-isomer of the cyclobutane derivative, Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) where the SQ chromophore can act as an energy donor or acceptor. Operation of the dyads as photoswitches and molecular logic gates is also considered.

  2. The Preschool Teacher-Child Dyad: Sex Differences in Verbal Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Louise

    1975-01-01

    This study describes differences in the quantity and style of female preschool teachers' dyadic verbal interaction with the girls and boys in their classes. Sixteen hours of the spontaneous speech of 4 female teachers and 38 girls and boys were tape recorded in two classroom situations, then transcribed and analyzed. (Author/CS)

  3. Novel zinc phthalocyanine-benzoquinone rigid dyad and its photoinduced electron transfer properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.-H.; Guo, J.; Chen, L. X.; Mandal, B. K.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-10-10

    While preparing the first structurally rigid zinc phthalocyanine-benzoquinone (ZnPc-BQ) dyad as a model for photoinduced charge separation mimicking natural photosynthesis, a convenient method is developed for in situ generation of a benzoquinone chromophore in the dyad using an iso-butyryl mask. The dyad has no rotamers and possesses a fixed distance between ZnPc and BQ moieties (center-to-center and edge-to-edge distances are 9.40 and 2.14 {angstrom}, respectively). The dyad displays unusual electronic perturbation in the ground state, resulting from the interactions between Pc and BQ, and exhibits photoinduced electron transfer with a lifetime of 40 ps of the charged separated states. The steady-state fluorescence and electrochemical behavior of the dyad are evaluated. This study opens a route to subsequent dyads, triads, and complex architectures of electron donor-acceptor arrays with rigid structures and long charge separation states.

  4. Structural Equation Modeling with Interchangeable Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Joseph A.; Kenny, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) can be adapted in a relatively straightforward fashion to analyze data from interchangeable dyads (i.e., dyads in which the 2 members cannot be differentiated). The authors describe a general strategy for SEM model estimation, comparison, and fit assessment that can be used with either dyad-level or pairwise…

  5. Difference without Dominance: Children's Talk in Mixed- and Same-Sex Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Laura A.; Coleman, Lerita M.

    1992-01-01

    This study assesses whether third graders verbalize gender differences in dominance in mixed- and same-sex interactions, using data from tape-recordings of 43 pairs of white children (14 female and 12 male same-sex dyads and 17 different-sex dyads) playing checkers in same- or mixed-sex conditions. Children develop gender-differentiated speech…

  6. Difference without Dominance: Children's Talk in Mixed- and Same-Sex Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Laura A.; Coleman, Lerita M.

    1992-01-01

    This study assesses whether third graders verbalize gender differences in dominance in mixed- and same-sex interactions, using data from tape-recordings of 43 pairs of white children (14 female and 12 male same-sex dyads and 17 different-sex dyads) playing checkers in same- or mixed-sex conditions. Children develop gender-differentiated speech

  7. Electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry of bismanganese porphyrin-corrole dyads.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; El Ojaimi, Maya; Gros, Claude P; Richard, Philippe; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Guilard, Roger; Shen, Jing; Kadish, Karl M

    2011-04-18

    A series of homobimetallic manganese cofacial porphyrin-corrole dyads were synthesized and investigated as to their electrochemistry, spectroelectrochemistry, and ligand binding properties in nonaqueous media. Four dyads were investigated, each of which contained a Mn(III) corrole linked in a face-to-face arrangement with a Mn(III) porphyrin. The main difference between compounds in the series is the type of spacer, 9,9-dimethylxanthene, anthracene, dibenzofuran, or diphenylether, which determines the distance and interaction between the metallomacrocycles. Each redox process of the porphyrin-corrole dyads was assigned on the basis of spectroscopic and electrochemical data and by comparison with reactions and properties of the monocorrole and the monoporphyrin which were examined under the same solution conditions. The Mn(III) porphyrin part of the dyad undergoes two major one-electron reductions in pyridine and benzonitrile, the first of which involves a Mn(III)/Mn(II) process and the second the addition of an electron to the conjugated π-ring system of the macrocycle. The Mn(III) corrole part of the dyads also exhibits two major redox processes, one involving Mn(III)/Mn(II) and the other Mn(III) to Mn(IV) under the same solution conditions. The potentials and reversibility of each electron transfer reaction were shown to depend upon the solvent, type of spacer separating the two macrocycles, and the presence or absence of axial ligation, the latter of which was investigated in detail for the case of acetate ion which was found to bind within the cavity of the dyad to both manganese centers, both before and after the stepwise electroreduction to the Mn(II) forms of the two macrocycles. An intramolecular chloride ion exchange between the porphyrin part of the dyads which contain Mn(III)Cl and the singly oxidized corrole in the dyad is observed after the Mn(III)/Mn(IV) reaction of the corrole, suggesting that chloride is coordinated inside the cavity in the neutral compound. PMID:21405090

  8. An Examination of Changes in Emotion Co-Regulation Among Mother and Child Dyads During the Strange Situation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuqing; Leu, Szu-Yun; Barnard, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Elaine A; Spieker, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied State Space Grid analysis to describe how preschooler-mother dyads co-regulate emotion in the Strange Situation. Second-to-second mother and child affect during pre-separation play (baseline) and the final reunion (post perturbation) episodes of the Strange Situation were coded for 80 dyads. Change in emotion co-regulation across the two Strange Situation episodes was examined with linear mixed models for groups with secure and insecure classifications. The groups did not differ at baseline. Change in content-specific emotion co-regulation but not content-free emotion co-regulation was found to be significantly different within and between groups. Both secure and insecure dyads reduced the time spent in positive interaction but increased the time in negative interaction across two episodes; the change in secure dyads was less pronounced than in the insecure dyads. After the separation, secure dyads had more positive interactions and fewer negative interactions compared to insecure dyads. Results highlight how secure dyads adapted to the stressful change, whereas insecure dyads were more reactive and less resilient to the stress of the study’s brief imposed separation. PMID:26726296

  9. An Ordinal Pattern Analysis of Four Hypotheses Describing the Interactions between Drug-Addicted, Chronically Disadvantaged, and Middle-Class Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinker, Richard P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated interactions among 18 African American mother-infant pairs participating in an early intervention program for infants with developmental delays or at risk for developmental disabilities. The hypothesis that mothers would become less responsive to infants over time as a function of drug addiction, poverty, or serious developmental…

  10. Line Intensities of the Phosphine Dyad at 10 mu m

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Linda R.; Sams, Robert L.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Cottaz, C; Sagui, L

    2002-10-01

    Over 1000 measured line intensities of phosphine (PH3) are reported for the 830 to 1310 cm-1 region that contains the two lowest fundamentals in Coriolis interaction. These measurements are fitted to 1.5% for v2 at 992.13 cm-1 for v4 at 1118.31 cm-1, respectively, using five intensity parameters that include three Herman-Wallis type terms. In addition, some 60 intensities of the 2v2-v2 hot band are modeled. The corresponding assignments and line positions of the dyad from previous work [L. Fusina and G. Di Lonardo, J. Mol. Struct. 517-518, 67-78 (2000)] are combined with the present intensity study to provide an improved PH3 database for planetary studies. The total integrated intensity for the dyad is 156.(4) cm-2atm-1 at 296 K.

  11. Analysis of Participant Reactivity in Dyads Performing a Videotaped Conflict-Management Task

    PubMed Central

    Semeniuk, Yulia Y.; Riesch, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Videotaping is used frequently in nursing research. A threat to the validity of videotaping is participant reactivity, that is, being recorded by a camera may influence the behavior of interest. This paper's purpose is to report how youth ages 10 to 14 years old and their parent viewed participation in a videotaped conflict-management task. Five dyads, who were part of a randomized clinical trial testing an intervention to promote parent-child communication, participated in a structured interview. All parents were mothers. Youth were eighth graders. Three were boys and two were girls. Findings indicated that (a) dyads felt that the videotaped interaction had a progression of feeling unnatural in the beginning to feeling natural toward the end, (b) dyads found it relatively easy to choose a topic of discussion, and (c) dyads felt that the discussions were meaningful. Based on these data, recommendations for researchers to reduce participant reactivity are provided. PMID:21738877

  12. Magnetophotoluminescence de dyades d'azote uniques dans le gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet-Plamondon, Clauderic

    On the goal to achieve an efficient quantum light source, there are many possibilities ranging from lasers to quantum dots. One of those candiate is to use a single nitrogen dyad in GaAs. This nanostructure is composed of two nitrogen atoms in nearest neigbors subsituting for two arsenic atoms. Since both of those atoms have the same valence, the combined effet of the electronegativity and the small size of the nitrogen atoms form a potential well which attracts an electron. A hole is then bound to the electron via coulomb interaction, creating a bound exciton at the dyad from which the luminescence can be studied. In this work, we present an experimental study of the fine structure of the emission from single nitrogen dyads. The photoluminescence measurements are realised using a high resolution confocal microscope and under a magnetic field of up to 7 T. The spatial resolution combined with the sample's surface density of nitrogen dyads allows studying the properties of individual dyads. Since the C2v symmetry of the dyad lifts the degeneracy of the excitonic levels without magnetic field, four or five transitions are observed, depending on the orientation of the dyad with respect to the observation axis. Using a Hamiltonian taking into account the exchange interaction, the local crystal field and the Zeeman effect, the energie of excitonic states as well as their transition probabilites are modelised. This model reproduce the linear polarization of the emmited photons and is used to determine a range of acceptable value for the g-factor of the bound electron as well as the isotropic and anisotropic factors of the interaction of the weakly-bound hole with the magnetic field. Furthermore, from the diamagnetic shift, the radius of the wavefunction of the electron is evalutated at 16.2 °A, confirming that it is strongly localized to the dyad. Of all the dyads studied, a certain number of them had an emission strickingly different from the ones usually observed. In a first case, the environment perturbed the excitonic states making only the two states at higher energy observable. In a second case, an additional depolarised transition is observed at lower energy. We show that this transition is associated to a charged exciton, indicating for the first time that these nanotructures can bind multiple charges like their larger epitaxial and colloidal counterpart. This work gives a better comprehension of excitons bound to a nitrogen dyad and opens the way to many applications.

  13. Modulation of Phenol Oxidation in Cofacial Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bon Jun; Huynh, Michael; Halbach, Robert L.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation of two phenols on a xanthene backbone is akin to the tyrosine dyad (Y730 and Y731) of ribonucleotide reductase. X-ray crystallography reveals that the two phenol moieties are cofacially disposed at 4.35 Å. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) reveals that phenol oxidation is modulated within the dyad, which exhibits a splitting of one-electron waves with the second oxidation of the phenol dyad occurring at larger positive potential than that of a typical phenol. In contrast, a single phenol appended to a xanthene exhibits a two-electron (ECE) process, consistent with reported oxidation pathways of phenols in acetonitrile. The perturbation of the phenol potential by stacking is reminiscent of a similar effect for guanines stacked within DNA base pairs. PMID:26305909

  14. Gaze and Vocalization in Mother-Infant Dyads: Conversation or Coincidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alan; Elliott, Tony

    This paper reports two studies which examined sequential dependence in the dyadic interaction between mother and infant. In the first study, brief videotaped behavioral samples were collected for 24 primiparous mother-infant (M - I) dyads to examine the degree of reciprocal contingency in M - I interactions. Two coders, using a computer interfaced

  15. Gaze and Vocalization in Mother-Infant Dyads: Conversation or Coincidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alan; Elliott, Tony

    This paper reports two studies which examined sequential dependence in the dyadic interaction between mother and infant. In the first study, brief videotaped behavioral samples were collected for 24 primiparous mother-infant (M - I) dyads to examine the degree of reciprocal contingency in M - I interactions. Two coders, using a computer interfaced…

  16. Aggregation of a C60-didodecyloxybenzene dyad: structure, dynamics, and mechanism of vesicle growth.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, S Shankara; Patnaik, Archita

    2007-04-24

    The mechanism of formation and the stability of spontaneously formed vesicles upon self-assembly of a partially ground-state charge-separated, nonpolar-polar-nonpolar fullerene(C60)-didodecyloxybenzene (DDB) dyad in binary solvent mixtures requiring a critical dielectric constant of approximately 30 are reported. Molecular interactions giving rise to defined vesicles with in-plane bilayer packing are detailed from the predominant van der Waals and electrostatic interactions existing on the dyad's framework. The vesicles are formed with a large bending rigidity of 18kBT, which on further extraction into a polar water medium resulted in uniform spheres that corroborated well with the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the water-extracted spherical dyad aggregates at an increased dyad concentration, leading to the formation of giant micrometer-sized fractals following diffusion-limited cluster aggregation. These dyad aggregates act as efficient quenchers of fluorescent dyes with a quenching rate of 4.6 x 10(13) M(-1) s(-1). PMID:17388610

  17. Early Communication in Dyads with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattray, Julie; Zeedyk, M. Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    The ability of dyads with restricted access to the visual channel of communication to establish a reliable pre-linguistic communicative signalling system has traditionally been viewed as problematic. Such a conclusion is due in part to the emphasis that has been placed on vision as central to communication by traditional theory. The data presented…

  18. Problem-Solving Strategies in Dementia Patient-Caregiver Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, John C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined applicability of scaffolding and zone of proximal development to the study of dementia. Compared caregiver-patient dyads (n=29) to normal elderly dyads (n=16) in terms of strategies used in completing the Block Design subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Results indicated that caregiver-patient dyads can be observed…

  19. Can opposites attract? Personality heterogeneity in supervisor-subordinate dyads as a predictor of subordinate outcomes.

    PubMed

    Glomb, Theresa M; Welsh, Elizabeth T

    2005-07-01

    Unlike the majority of research hypothesizing that similarity between individuals results in positive individual outcomes, this article examines whether dissimilarity results in positive outcomes. On the basis of interpersonal interaction theory, the authors hypothesized that dissimilarity in the personality dimension of control within supervisor-subordinate dyads is positively associated with the subordinate's satisfaction with the supervisor; results obtained with polynomial regression techniques were supportive. However, for 2 other outcomes, organizational citizenship behaviors and work withdrawal, neither similarity nor dissimilarity within the dyad was important; subordinate level of control was related to organizational citizenship behaviors reported by subordinates, and supervisor level of control was related to work withdrawal reported by subordinates. These findings portray the importance of examining relationship complexities beyond similarity in organizational dyad research. PMID:16060791

  20. Working in Dyads and Alone: Examining Process Variables in Solving Insight Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidikis, Viktoria; Ash, Ivan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of working in dyads and their associated gender composition on performance (solution rate and time) and process variables (number of impasses, number of passed solutions, and number of problem solving suggestions and interactions) in a set of classic insight problem solving tasks. Two types of insight problems…

  1. Synthesis of fullerene-acene dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Claire Eunhye

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells present potential for industrial use because of their possible low cost production. However, their relatively low efficiencies render them impractical for implementation. A comprehensive understanding of the photophysical process is necessary for eventual development of high efficiency OPV cells. Studying photophysical processes of well-defined structures such as dyad or triad molecules may give insight into their photophysical processes. In this study, we selected pentacene derivatives as electron donors and fullerenes as electron acceptors for dyad and triad molecules with well-defined structures. Several new types of organothiosubstituted 6,13-dihydropentacenes with terminal functionality including carboxylic acid, alcohol and amine groups were synthesized. A sterically hindered pentacene derivative was also prepared in order to prevent cycloaddition between C60 and pentacene. Functionalized fullerenes were synthesized for use as electron acceptors. Numerous reaction methods were attempted toward the synthesis of a donor/acceptor dyad with pentacene and fullerene derivatives. However, hydroamination of pristine C 60 using a diamino dihydropentacene derivative was the only successful method demonstrated to link C60 and dihydropentacene derivatives.

  2. Intramolecular energy transfer in fullerene pyrazine dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Guldi, D.M.; Torres-Garcia, G.; Mattay, J.

    1998-11-26

    Excited-state properties of three different pyrazine derivatives 4--6 were probed by emission and transient absorption spectroscopy. They display emission maxima at 464 (4), 417 (5), and 515 nm (6) that are red-shifted with respect to their strong UV ground-state absorption and formed with overall quantum yields ({Phi}) of 0.156, 0.22, and 0.13, respectively. Once photoexcited, these triplet excited pyrazines undergo rapid intermolecular energy transfer to a monofunctionalized fullerene derivative (7) with bimolecular rate constants ranging from 3.64 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} (6) to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 10} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} (4). The product of these bimolecular energy-transfer reactions is in all cases the fullerene triplet excited state. Functionalization of pristine C{sub 60} with the investigated pyrazine derivatives promotes the UV-vis absorption characteristics and, in turn, improves the light-harvesting efficiency of the resulting dyads 1--3 relative to pristine C{sub 60}. Photoexcitation of the pyrazine moieties in dyads 1--3 leads to the formation of their singlet excited states. In contrast to the pyrazine models, photoexcitation of dyad 1--3 is followed by rapid intramolecular deactivation processes of the latter via energy transfer to the fullerene ground state with half-lives between 37 and 100 ps. In turn, energy transfer transforms the short-lived and moderately redox-active singlet excited states of pyrazine into the highly reactive fullerene triplet excited state. The latter is found to produce effectively singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) with quenching rate constants for 1--3 of (1--1.5) {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. Similarly, reductive quenching of the triplet excited states in dyads 1--3 via electron transfer with diazabicyclooctane (DABCO) occurs with rate constants of 5.2--9.4 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}.

  3. Transplant Trajectory and Relational Experience Within Living Kidney Dyads.

    PubMed

    Ummel, Deborah; Achille, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Living kidney donation is considered common practice across most Westernized countries. While extensive research has documented the experience of living donors, few studies have addressed the perspective of recipients, and even fewer have examined the experience of donor and recipient as an interactive dyad. In this study, our aim was to examine the reciprocal influence between donors and recipients across the transplantation process. We recruited a homogeneous sample of 10 donors and recipients, who were interviewed individually. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The presentation of results follows the stages of the transplantation process: the disease experience, the experience of offering and accepting a kidney, the screening period, the surgery, and the post-transplantation period. Results are discussed within the framework of Mauss's gift exchange theory, social roles, and altruism. This comprehensive description of the dyadic experience provides a way to frame and understand psychosocial aspects and relational implications of living renal transplantation. PMID:25700284

  4. Dyad Composition Effects on Cognitive Elaboration and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denessen, Eddie; Veenman, Simon; Dobbelsteen, Janine; van Schilt, Josie

    2008-01-01

    The authors addressed the following research question: Does composition of dyads in terms of gender and ability affect student participation, the level of cognitive elaborations during a collaborative activity, and individual student achievement? The study involved 24 6th-grade dyads paired as follows: a low-ability student with a medium-ability…

  5. An Interaction Analysis of Self-Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Brenda Robinson

    This study explored whether an interaction analysis of ongoing communication can be useful in describing the process of self-disclosure. Eight women were assigned to dyads: two acquaintance dyads (subjects were acquainted through a small class in communication and had known each other for two months), and two friendship dyads (subjects had been

  6. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  7. Photocurrent in Multilayered Assemblies of Porphyrin-Fullerene Covalent Dyads: Evidence for Channels for Charge Transport.

    PubMed

    Konev, Alexander S; Khlebnikov, Alexander F; Levin, Oleg V; Lukyanov, Daniil A; Zorin, Ivan M

    2016-04-01

    Specially designed porphyrin-fullerene dyads have been synthesized to verify literature predictions based on quantum chemistry calculations that certain porphyrin-fullerene dyads are able to self-arrange into specific structures providing channels for charge transport in a bulk mass of organic compound. According to AFM and SEM data, the newly synthesized compounds were indeed prone to some kind of self-arrangement, although to a lesser degree than was expected. A dispersion corrected DFT study of the molecular non-covalent interactions performed at the DFT-D3 (B3LYP, 6-31G*) level of theory showed that the least energy corresponded to head-to-head dimers, with close contacts of porphyrin-porphyrin and fullerene-fullerene fragments, thus providing a unit building block of the channel for charge transport. Experimental proof for the existence of channels for charge transport was obtained by observing a photocurrent in a simple photovoltaic cell. PMID:26893269

  8. Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents' Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12-16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison…

  9. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. PMID:26580553

  10. Subcortical representation of musical dyads: individual differences and neural generators.

    PubMed

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    When two notes are played simultaneously they form a musical dyad. The sensation of pleasantness, or "consonance", of a dyad is likely driven by the harmonic relation of the frequency components of the combined spectrum of the two notes. Previous work has demonstrated a relation between individual preference for consonant over dissonant dyads, and the strength of neural temporal coding of the harmonicity of consonant relative to dissonant dyads as measured using the electrophysiological "frequency-following response" (FFR). However, this work also demonstrated that both these variables correlate strongly with musical experience. The current study was designed to determine whether the relation between consonance preference and neural temporal coding is maintained when controlling for musical experience. The results demonstrate that strength of neural coding of harmonicity is predictive of individual preference for consonance even for non-musicians. An additional purpose of the current study was to assess the cochlear generation site of the FFR to low-frequency dyads. By comparing the reduction in FFR strength when high-pass masking noise was added to the output of a model of the auditory periphery, the results provide evidence for the FFR to low-frequency dyads resulting in part from basal cochlear generators. PMID:25636498

  11. Motor simulation beyond the dyad: Automatic imitation of multiple actors.

    PubMed

    Cracco, Emiel; De Coster, Lize; Andres, Michael; Brass, Marcel

    2015-12-01

    A large body of research has provided evidence for the idea that individuals simulate the actions of others in their motor system. However, this research has focused almost exclusively on dyadic situations, hence ignoring the fact that social situations often require that the actions of multiple persons are simulated simultaneously. In the current study, we addressed this issue by means of a widely used automatic imitation task. In Experiment 1, it is shown that individuals automatically imitate the actions of 2 agents at the same time. More specifically, the results indicate that 2 identical observed movements produce a stronger imitation effect, whereas 2 different observed movements produce 2 opposite imitation effects that cancel each other out. In Experiment 2, it is shown that the effects obtained in Experiment 1 cannot be explained in terms of attentional capture. Instead, the results point toward an explanation in terms of ideomotor theory. The finding that observers simultaneously represent the actions of multiple agents in their motor system allows for a better understanding of social interaction beyond the dyad. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389616

  12. Effects of Strong Electronic Coupling in Chlorin and Bacteriochlorin Dyads.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Suk; Esemoto, Nopondo N; Diers, James R; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Greco, Jordan A; Akhigbe, Joshua; Yu, Zhanqian; Pancholi, Chirag; Bhagavathy, Ganga Viswanathan; Nguyen, Jamie K; Kirmaier, Christine; Birge, Robert R; Ptaszek, Marcin; Holten, Dewey; Bocian, David F

    2016-01-28

    Achieving tunable, intense near-infrared absorption in molecular architectures with properties suitable for solar light harvesting and biomedical studies is of fundamental interest. Herein, we report the photophysical, redox, and molecular-orbital characteristics of nine hydroporphyrin dyads and associated benchmark monomers that have been designed and synthesized to attain enhanced light harvesting. Each dyad contains two identical hydroporphyrins (chlorin or bacteriochlorin) connected by a linker (ethynyl or butadiynyl) at the macrocycle β-pyrrole (3- or 13-) or meso (15-) positions. The strong electronic communication between constituent chromophores is indicated by the doubling of prominent absorption features, split redox waves, and paired linear combinations of frontier molecular orbitals. Relative to the benchmarks, the chlorin dyads in toluene show substantial bathochromic shifts of the long-wavelength absorption band (17-31 nm), modestly reduced singlet excited-state lifetimes (τS = 3.6-6.2 ns vs 8.8-12.3 ns), and increased fluorescence quantum yields (Φf = 0.37-0.57 vs 0.34-0.39). The bacteriochlorin dyads in toluene show significant bathochromic shifts (25-57 nm) and modestly reduced τS (1.6-3.4 ns vs 3.5-5.3 ns) and Φf (0.09-0.19 vs 0.17-0.21) values. The τS and Φf values for the bacteriochlorin dyads are reduced substantially (up to ∼20-fold) in benzonitrile. The quenching is due primarily to the increased S1 → S0 internal conversion that is likely induced by increased contribution of charge-resonance configurations to the S1 excited state in the polar medium. The fundamental insights gained into the physicochemical properties of the strongly coupled hydroporphyrin dyads may aid their utilization in solar-energy conversion and photomedicine. PMID:26765839

  13. Cooperation beyond the dyad: on simple models and a complex society.

    PubMed

    Connor, Richard C

    2010-09-12

    Players in Axelrod and Hamilton's model of cooperation were not only in a Prisoner's Dilemma, but by definition, they were also trapped in a dyad. But animals are rarely so restricted and even the option to interact with third parties allows individuals to escape from the Prisoner's Dilemma into a much more interesting and varied world of cooperation, from the apparently rare 'parcelling' to the widespread phenomenon of market effects. Our understanding of by-product mutualism, pseudo-reciprocity and the snowdrift game is also enriched by thinking 'beyond the dyad'. The concepts of by-product mutualism and pseudo-reciprocity force us to think again about our basic definitions of cooperative behaviour (behaviour by a single individual) and cooperation (the outcome of an interaction between two or more individuals). Reciprocity is surprisingly rare outside of humans, even among large-brained 'intelligent' birds and mammals. Are humans unique in having extensive cooperative interactions among non-kin and an integrated cognitive system for mediating reciprocity? Perhaps, but our best chance for finding a similar phenomenon may be in delphinids, which also live in large societies with extensive cooperative interactions among non-relatives. A system of nested male alliances in bottlenose dolphins illustrates the potential and difficulties of finding a complex system of cooperation close to our own. PMID:20679112

  14. The Clinical Learning Dyad Model: An Innovation in Midwifery Education.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Susanna R; Thomas, Celeste R; Gerard, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    There is a national shortage of women's health and primary care providers in the United States, including certified nurse-midwives and certified midwives. This shortage is directly related to how many students can be trained within the existing system. The current model of midwifery clinical training is based on apprenticeship, with one-on-one interaction between a student and preceptor. Thus, the number of newly trained midwifery providers is limited by the number of available and willing preceptors. The clinical learning dyad model (CLDM), which pairs 2 beginning midwifery students with one preceptor in a busy practice, addresses this problem. In addition, this model brings in a senior midwife student as a near-peer mentor when the students are first oriented into outpatient clinical practice. The model began as a pilot project to improve the quality of training and increase available student spots in clinical education. This article discusses the origins of the model, the specifics of its design, and the results of a midterm and one-year postintervention survey. Students and preceptors involved in this model identified several advantages to the program, including increased student accountability, enhanced socialization into the profession, improved learning, and reduced teaching burden on preceptors. An additional benefit of the CLDM is that students form a learning community and collaborate with preceptors to care for women in busy clinical settings. Challenges of the model will also be discussed. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLDM. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. PMID:26605990

  15. The Opioid dependent mother and newborn dyad: non-pharmacologic care

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Martha; Jansson, Lauren M.

    2009-01-01

    Opioid dependent pregnant and post-partum women and their infants are a complex and vulnerable population requiring individualized, comprehensive and multidisciplinary treatment. Though methadone maintenance in the setting of comprehensive service provision during pregnancy significantly improves pregnancy outcomes for opioid dependent women, its use has implications for the infant, most notably the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). NAS is comprised of physiologic signs and behaviors that indicate a dysfunctional regulation of the central and autonomic nervous systems, and is variable in its expression in affected infants. The disorganized rather than adaptive behaviors displayed by each infant undergoing the effects of in-utero opioid exposure may impair basic functions such as feeding, sleeping, and the ability to be alert and communicate clear cues to caregivers. Understanding and responding to neurobehavioral dysfunction of the newborn may help to promote the infant’s self-organization and self-regulating abilities. However, the substance abusing mother’s physical and psychological wellbeing may be debilitated in the perinatal period, and her ability to recognize and respond to the newborn’s cues may be limited. A multi-tiered comprehensive assessment and intervention of the methadone-maintained mother, her child, and the mother/infant dyad can improve early maternal nurturing interactions, a crucial component of early infant development, particularly in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to review the contribution of maternal opioid dependency to the difficulties experienced by the mother-infant dyad and their treatment providers in the postnatal period, and the non-pharmacological treatment of the infants with suggestions for practical measures with emphasis on the treatment of the mother and baby as an interactional dyad. PMID:19727440

  16. Communication during Prose Recall Conversations by Young and Old Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Odette; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on the cooperative processes occurring during collaborative prose recall by adult dyads differing in age and relationship. Indicates that all groups produced similar proportions of story-related and conversation-related products. Notes that group differences in collaboration strategies were observed only at the end of conversations. (HB)

  17. Peer Network Overlap in Twin, Sibling, and Friend Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Shirley; Segal, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sibling–peer connections are important for understanding adolescent problem behaviors. Using a novel behavioral genetic design, the current study investigated peer network overlap in 300 child–child pairs (aged 7-13 years) in 5 dyad types: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic twins, full siblings (FSs), friend pairs, and virtual…

  18. Care partner dyad strategies to support participation in community mobility.

    PubMed

    Womack, Jennifer L; Isaksson, Gunilla; Lilja, Margareta

    2016-05-01

    Background Factors supporting continued community mobility for older adults warrant attention due to the relationship between mobility, health, and social participation. Although community mobility is typically considered from the perspective of individual functional abilities, care partnerships represent a situation in which maintaining community mobility has implications for the well-being of all members. Aim The aim of this research was to explore and describe strategies used by older adult care partner dyads to support and maintain participation in community mobility. Methods Ethnographic case studies of three care partner dyads were conducted using in-depth interviews, participant observation, photographs, and reciprocal data analysis. An inductive, constant comparative data analysis resulted in thematic descriptions of strategies employed by the care partner dyads. Results Three strategies were identified in collaboration with care partners: (i) Acting in accordance with the values of the relationship, (ii) Finding and using available assistive technology and (iii) Relying on social networks. Conclusion and significance Strategies identified by participants were more relational than procedural in nature, indicating the need for occupational therapists working with care partner dyads to consider historical routines, social connectedness, and needs of the care partnership in addition to functional abilities of the care recipient when addressing community mobility. PMID:26757979

  19. Photodynamics of pyrene-flavin and phenothiazine-flavin dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirdel, J.; Penzkofer, A.; Procházka, R.; Shen, Z.; Daub, J.

    2007-06-01

    A pyrene-flavin (isoalloxazine) dyad (PFD) and a phenothiazine-phenylene-isoalloxazine dyad (PPF), dissolved in dichloromethane are characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy. These dyads are model compounds for flavin based blue-light photoreceptors. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence decay times are determined. The absorption spectra of the dyads resemble the superposition of the absorption spectra of the constituents (1-methylpyrene, isoalloxazine, and phenylphenothiazine). Photo-excitation of the flavin moiety causes fluorescence quenching by reductive electron transfer in thermodynamic equilibrium with the exited flavin subunit. The charge-separated states recover by charge recombination. Photo-excitation of the pyrene or phenylphenothiazine moiety causes oxidative electron transfer with successive recombination, and additionally Förster-type energy transfer and Dexter-type energy transfer. For PFD in dichloromethane the rates of reductive electron transfer and oxidative electron transfer were determined to be (5 ps) -1 and (77 ps) -1, respectively, and a charge recombination time of about 16 ps was found. For PPF in dichloromethane the rates of reductive electron transfer and oxidative electron transfer were determined to be (700 fs) -1 and (100 ps) -1, respectively. The HOMO level position of the pyrene radical cation subunit relative to the HOMO level of the excited isoalloxazine subunit is determined from the delayed fluorescence emission of the PFD sample.

  20. Low field photo-CIDNP in the intramolecular electron transfer of naproxen-pyrrolidine dyads.

    PubMed

    Magin, I M; Polyakov, N E; Kruppa, A I; Purtov, P A; Leshina, T V; Kiryutin, A S; Miranda, M A; Nuin, E; Marin, M L

    2016-01-14

    Photoinduced processes with partial (exciplex) and full charge transfer in donor-acceptor systems are of interest because they are frequently used for modeling drug-protein binding. Low field photo-CIDNP (chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) for these processes in dyads, including the drug, (S)- and (R)-naproxen and (S)-N-methyl pyrrolidine in solutions with strong and weak permittivity have been measured. The dramatic influence of solvent permittivity on the field dependence of the N-methyl pyrrolidine (1)H CIDNP effects has been found. The field dependences of both (R,S)- and (S,S)-dyads in a polar medium are the curves with a single extremum in the area of the S-T+ terms intersection. Moreover, the CIDNP field dependences of the same protons measured in a low polar medium present curves with several extrema. The shapes of the experimental CIDNP field dependence with two extrema have been described using the Green function approach for the calculation of the CIDNP effects in the system without electron exchange interactions. The article discusses the possible causes of the differences between the CIDNP field dependence detected in a low-permittivity solvent with the strong Coulomb interactions and in a polar solvent. PMID:26648262

  1. Dynamic Infant-Parent Affect Coupling during the Face-to-Face and Still-Face Paradigm: Inter- and Intra-Dyad Differences

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Haltigan, John D.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined dynamic infant-parent affect coupling using the Face-to-Face/Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm. The sample included 20 infants whose older siblings had been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD-sibs), and 18 infants with comparison siblings (COMP-sibs). A series of extended autoregressive models was used to represent the self-regulation and interactive dynamics of infants and parents during FFSF. Significant bidirectional affective coupling was found between infants and parents, with the former serving as the “leading members” of the dyads. Further analysis of within-dyad dynamics revealed ongoing changes in concurrent infant-parent linkages both within and across different FFSF episodes. The importance of considering both inter- and intra-dyad differences is discussed. PMID:20141307

  2. Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Donelda

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants interfere with the success of breast-feeding. Health care providers can promote breast-feeding duration by advising unlimited feeds, promoting ‘rooming-in’ at hospitals, and providing support and information. PMID:21267148

  3. Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of ?-triazoloporphyrin-xanthone dyads.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dileep Kumar; Nath, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    A novel series of ?-triazoloporphyrin-xanthone conjugates and xanthone-bridged ?-triazoloporphyrin dyads has been synthesized in moderate to good yields through Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of copper(II) 2-azido-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin or zinc(II) 2-azidomethyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin with various alkyne derivatives of xanthones in DMF containing CuSO4 and ascorbic acid at 80 C. Furthermore, these metalloporphyrins underwent demetalation under acidic conditions to afford the corresponding free-base porphyrins in good to excellent yields. After successful spectroscopic characterization, these porphyrins have been evaluated for their photophysical properties. The preliminary results revealed a bathochromic shift in the UV-vis and fluorescence spectra of these porphyrin-xanthone dyads. PMID:26425199

  4. The dyslexia-emotional dyad: implications for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kline, C L

    1986-08-01

    Extensive experience with dyslexic children indicates that developmental language problems and emotional problems represent a dyad rather than a dichotomy. An attempt is made to place this complex and extensive problem into meaningful perspective. When accurate diagnosis and carefully formulated treatment plans are effectively blended, success in helping these often hapless children is greatly enhanced. Some important guidelines, derived from clinical experiences, are indicated to be valuable in understanding and helping patients with these multi-faceted problems. PMID:3756753

  5. Erotized Transference in the Male Patient–Female Therapist Dyad

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Martha B.

    2001-01-01

    Little has been published regarding male patients' erotic transferences to female therapists. It has been suggested that male patients do not develop full erotic transferences and rarely experience erotized transferences. The author presents a case report documenting erotization in a male patient–female therapist dyad and reviews current theories on the etiology, therapeutic significance, and treatment strategies indicated for such a transference. PMID:11121005

  6. Impact of birthing practices on the breastfeeding dyad.

    PubMed

    Smith, Linda J

    2007-01-01

    For breastfeeding to start and continue, the newborn must be able to suck, swallow, and breathe; the mother must be able and willing to let her infant breastfeed; and surroundings must support the biological unit: the mother-baby dyad. This article reviews how birth practices, including epidural anesthesia, cesarean surgery, forceps, and vacuum extraction, can affect the newborn's ability to feed, the mother's motivation and lactation capacity, and the mother-baby relationship. PMID:17984000

  7. Hydroquinone–pyrrole dyads with varied linkers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Karlsson, Christoffer; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of pyrroles functionalized in the 3-position with p-dimethoxybenzene via various linkers (CH2, CH2CH2, CH=CH, C≡C) has been synthesized. Their electronic properties have been deduced from 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV–vis spectra to detect possible interactions between the two aromatic subunits. The extent of conjugation between the subunits is largely controlled by the nature of the linker, with the largest conjugation found with the trans-ethene linker and the weakest with the aliphatic linkers. DFT calculations revealed substantial changes in the HOMO–LUMO gap that correlated with the extent of conjugation found experimentally. The results of this work are expected to open up for use of the investigated compounds as components of redox-active materials in sustainable, organic electrical energy storage devices. PMID:26877811

  8. Hydroquinone-pyrrole dyads with varied linkers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Karlsson, Christoffer; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin; Gogoll, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    A series of pyrroles functionalized in the 3-position with p-dimethoxybenzene via various linkers (CH2, CH2CH2, CH=CH, C≡C) has been synthesized. Their electronic properties have been deduced from (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and UV-vis spectra to detect possible interactions between the two aromatic subunits. The extent of conjugation between the subunits is largely controlled by the nature of the linker, with the largest conjugation found with the trans-ethene linker and the weakest with the aliphatic linkers. DFT calculations revealed substantial changes in the HOMO-LUMO gap that correlated with the extent of conjugation found experimentally. The results of this work are expected to open up for use of the investigated compounds as components of redox-active materials in sustainable, organic electrical energy storage devices. PMID:26877811

  9. Antecedents of toddler aggression: dysfunctional parenting in mother-toddler dyads.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; O'Leary, Susan G

    2006-06-01

    Aggression is stable as early as 2 years of age and predicts many negative adult outcomes. Although longitudinal predictors of child aggression have been identified, information is lacking regarding the proximal precursors of toddlers' aggression. During a 30-min interaction, 54 mother-toddler dyads were observed. Toddlers were categorized as aggressive or nonaggressive based on whether they exhibited aggression toward their mothers within the interaction. Most toddlers in both groups escalated from mild to more severe forms of misbehavior. Mothers of aggressive toddlers displayed more lax and over-reactive discipline when addressing misbehaviors that preceded aggression than did mothers of nonaggressive toddlers. Mothers of aggressive toddlers either ignored or attended neutrally or positively to the aggression. Implications for parenting interventions are discussed. PMID:16597215

  10. Dyadic co-regulation, affective intensity and infant's development at 12 months: A comparison among extremely preterm and full-term dyads.

    PubMed

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Zavagli, Veronica; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2015-08-01

    Extremely low gestational age children (ELGA, born below 28 weeks of GA) represent the most at-risk preterm group in terms of survival, developmental sequelae and rates of impairment and cognitive delays. However, the impact of an extremely preterm birth on mother-infant co-regulation and affective intensity which may affect early infant's development has not been investigated. Based on a relational dynamic system approach, our study aimed to investigate the quality of co-regulation and affective intensity during spontaneous play interaction in 20 mother-infant ELGA dyads compared to 20 full-term (FT) dyads at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between the quality of dyadic co-regulation and the infant's level of cognitive, motor and language development were also investigated. The quality of dyadic co-regulation was assessed using the Revised Relational Coding System (R-RCS) by Fogel et al. (2003), the mothers' and infants' affective intensity was coded using a coding system by Lunkenheimer, Olson, Hollenstein, Sameroff, and Winter (2011). Infants' development was assessed using the Bayley Scales (BSID-III, 2006). With respect to FT dyads, ELGA dyads were characterised by less frequent symmetric and more frequent unilateral co-regulation patterns and by less positive and more neutral affective intensity of both infants and mothers. Cognitive, motor and language scores were lower in ELGA infants than in FT infants. Symmetrical co-regulation was related to motor scores in ELGA infants, and to cognitive scores in FT infants. Our findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating the difficulties of ELGA mother-infant dyads at 12 months in sharing the symmetric co-regulation and positive affective intensity and how symmetric co-regulation is strictly related to motor development in ELGA infants. Based on these findings, intervention programmes to foster joint attention, active involvement and positive affective intensity in ELGA dyads and infants' development in the first year of life should be designed. PMID:26021805

  11. Hole-transfer induced energy transfer in perylene diimide dyads with a donor-spacer-acceptor motif.

    PubMed

    Kölle, Patrick; Pugliesi, Igor; Langhals, Heinz; Wilcken, Roland; Esterbauer, Andreas J; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina; Riedle, Eberhard

    2015-10-14

    We investigate the photoinduced dynamics of perylene diimide dyads based on a donor-spacer-acceptor motif with polyyne spacers of varying length by pump-probe spectroscopy, time resolved fluorescence, chemical variation and quantum chemistry. While the dyads with pyridine based polyyne spacers undergo energy transfer with near-unity quantum efficiency, in the dyads with phenyl based polyyne spacers the energy transfer efficiency drops below 50%. This suggests the presence of a competing electron transfer process from the spacer to the energy donor as the excitation sink. Transient absorption spectra, however, reveal that the spacer actually mediates the energy transfer dynamics. The ground state bleach features of the polyyne spacers appear due to the electron transfer decay with the same time constant present in the rise of the ground state bleach and stimulated emission of the perylene energy acceptor. Although the electron transfer process initially quenches the fluorescence of the donor it does not inhibit energy transfer to the perylene energy acceptor. The transient signatures reveal that electron and energy transfer processes are sequential and indicate that the donor-spacer electron transfer state itself is responsible for the energy transfer. Through the introduction of a Dexter blocker unit into the spacer we can clearly exclude any through bond Dexter-type energy transfer. Ab initio calculations on the donor-spacer and the donor-spacer-acceptor systems reveal the existence of a bright charge transfer state that is close in energy to the locally excited state of the acceptor. Multipole-multipole interactions between the bright charge transfer state and the acceptor state enable the energy transfer. We term this mechanism coupled hole-transfer FRET. These dyads represent a first example that shows how electron transfer can be connected to energy transfer for use in novel photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:26347443

  12. Use of student clinical partner dyads as a teaching strategy to facilitate learning.

    PubMed

    Ott, Lora K; Succheralli, Lauren

    2015-03-01

    Collaborative learning has been used effectively in the classroom, but it is not well understood in the clinical setting. Student clinical partner (SCP) dyads were used as an intentional teaching method to foster teamwork, learning, and confidence. Students were assigned a patient and a student partner. SCP dyads were expected to provide complete care to their assigned patient, listen to report for their partner's patient, prioritize patient needs, participate in learning experiences for all assigned patients, and function as a team. Students (n = 26) compared their clinical rotation with SCP dyads to their clinical rotations without SCP dyads. The majority strongly agreed that SCP dyads had a positive impact on teamwork (74%), learning experiences (58%), and student clinical confidence (62%). Reflective journals stated that SCP dyads increased exposure to patient care activities, confidence in management, prioritization, teamwork, and time with the faculty. PMID:25692339

  13. Unusual stability of dyads during photochemical hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Prock, J; Strabler, C; Viertl, W; Kopacka, H; Obendorf, D; Mller, T; Tordin, E; Salzl, S; Knr, G; Mauro, M; De Cola, L; Brggeller, P

    2015-12-28

    Dyads for photochemical water splitting often suffer from instability during irradiation with visible light. However, the use of bis(bidentate) phosphines forming a five-membered ring enhances their stability. The coordination of these phosphor based chelates to soft metals like Pd(ii) prolongs the photocatalytic activity to 1000 hours. To avoid contribution to hydrogen production by colloidal metal, a small amount of Hg is added to the reaction mixture. In the course of our investigations, it turned out that colloidal palladium was not able to produce hydrogen under our irradiation conditions. As soon as metallic palladium emerged in our reaction vessels, no further hydrogen production was detected. This is confirmed by the observation that the hydrogen production depends on the kind of ancillary ligands present in the dyads. The first dyads of the type [MI(bpy)2(dppcb)MII(bpy)](4+) are presented (MI = Os, MII = Pd (1); MI = Ru, MII = Pd (2); MI = Os, MII = Pt (3); MI = Ru, MII = Pt (4)). In [Os(bpy)2(dppcb)Pd(dppm)](PF6)4 (5) the ancillary ligand is varied. Furthermore, it is also possible to produce hydrogen in an intermolecular way. Using different bidentate diphosphines instead of a bis(bidentate) tetraphosphine leads to this intermolecular approach, where the chromophore and the water reduction catalyst (WRC) belong now to two molecules. In this case the TON is sensitive to the type of diphosphine, which is only possible if intact molecules act as catalysts and no free palladium(0) is formed. PMID:26579849

  14. Spin effects in intramolecular electron transfer in naproxen- N -methylpyrrolidine dyad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magin, I. M.; Polyakov, N. E.; Khramtsova, E. A.; Kruppa, A. I.; Tsentalovich, Yu. P.; Leshina, T. V.; Miranda, M. A.; Nuin, E.; Marin, M. L.

    2011-11-01

    The intramolecular electron transfer in the naproxen- N-methylpyrrolidine dyad has been investigated by spin chemistry methods. The existence of CIDNP in a high magnetic field points to electron transfer as a possible mechanism of the quenching of the excited state of a dyad. However, the failure to detect magnetic field effects on triplet yield makes us conclude that this quenching mechanism is not the only one. The observation of CIDNP effects in the dyad in the media of low polarity and the short risetime of triplet state formation indicate a potential role of exciplex in the quenching of the excited state of the dyad.

  15. Photoinduced electron transfer in zinc naphthalocyanine-naphthalenediimide supramolecular dyads.

    PubMed

    El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Moiseev, Andrey G; van der Est, Art; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2012-04-10

    Photoinduced electron transfer was studied in self-assembled donor-acceptor dyads, formed by axial coordination of pyridine appended with naphthalenediimide (NDI) to zinc naphthalocyanine (ZnNc). The NDI-py:ZnNc (1) and NDI(CH(2))(2)-py:ZnNc (2) self-assembled dyads absorb light over a wide region of the UV/Vis/near infrared (NIR) spectrum. The formation constants of the dyads 1 and 2 in toluene were found to be 2.5×10(4) and 2.2×10(4) M(-1), respectively, from the steady-state absorption and emission measurements, suggesting moderately stable complex formation. Fluorescence quenching was observed upon the coordination of the pyridine-appended NDI to ZnNc in toluene. The energy-level diagram derived from electrochemical and optical data suggests that exergonic charge separation through the singlet state of ZnNc ((1)ZnNc*) provides the main quenching pathway. Clear evidence for charge separation from the singlet state of ZnNc to NDI was provided by femtosecond laser photolysis measurements of the characteristic absorption bands of the ZnNc radical cation in the NIR region at 960 nm and the NDI radical anion in the visible region. The rates of charge-separation of 1 and 2 were found to be 2.2×10(10) and 4.4×10(9) s(-1), respectively, indicating fast and efficient charge separation (CS). The rates of charge recombination (CR) and the lifetimes of the charge-separated states were found to be 8.50×10(8) s(-1) (1.2 ns) for 1 and 1.90×10(8) s(-1) (5.3 ns) for 2. These values indicate that the rates of the CS and CR processes decrease as the length of the spacer increases. Their absorption over a wide portion of the solar spectrum and the high ratio of the CS/CR rates suggests that the self-assembled NDI-py:ZnNc and NDI(CH(2))(2)-py:ZnNc dyads are useful as photosynthetic models. PMID:22290735

  16. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad

    PubMed Central

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143 cm−1 are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97 cm−1 and 147 cm−1 which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene. PMID:25797419

  17. Shared impression formation in the cognitively interdependent dyad.

    PubMed

    Ruscher, Janet B; Santuzzi, Alecia M; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost

    2003-09-01

    We examined the role of cognitive interdependence in determining how close friends form shared impressions of another person. Cognitive interdependence should provide a processing advantage, such that close friends are more efficient in forming shared impressions and are more successful at doing so. Under normal circumstances, the conversations of close friends should be marked by little necessity to make explicit requests for information, mutual recognition of who currently is controlling the flow of conversation, and willingness to express differences in opinion. Given these advantages, close friends also should be able to form complex shared impressions that go beyond mere one-sided stereotypic judgments and that instead resolve apparent discrepancies in the target's personality. However, if the cognitive interdependence system is disrupted by mutual distraction, these advantages should attenuate or even reverse. Dyads of varying degrees of closeness were mutually distracted or not while discussing their impressions of another female college student. Results supported predictions and are discussed with reference to how cognitive interdependence may help close dyads function within their mutual social networks. PMID:14567845

  18. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-03-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143 cm-1 are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97 cm-1 and 147 cm-1 which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene.

  19. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic characterisation of a phenothiazine flavin dyad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirdel, J.; Penzkofer, A.; Procházka, R.; Shen, Z.; Daub, J.

    2007-07-01

    The phenothiazine-phenylene-isoalloxazine dyad, 3-methyl-10-[4-(10-heptyl-10 H-phenothiazin-3-yl)-phenyl]-10 H-benzo[ g]pteridine-2,4-dione, dissolved in either dichloromethane or acetonitrile is characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Absorption cross-section spectra, stimulated emission cross-section spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and degrees of fluorescence polarisation are determined. The fluorescence decay is determined by time-resolved measurements. The dye photo-stability is investigated by observation of absorption spectral changes due to prolonged blue-light excitation. The absorption spectrum of the dyad resembles the superposition of the absorption of the isoalloxazine (flavin) moiety and of the phenylphenothiazine moiety. Photo-excitation of the flavin moiety causes fluorescence quenching by ground-state reductive electron transfer from phenylphenothiazine to isoalloxazine followed by charge recombination. Photo-excitation of the phenothiazine moiety causes (i) efficient excited-state oxidative electron transfer from phenothiazine to isoalloxazine with successive recombination, and (ii) moderate energy transfer followed by ground-state phenothiazine electron transfer and recombination.

  20. PREPP: postpartum depression prevention through the mother-infant dyad.

    PubMed

    Werner, Elizabeth A; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Lee, Seonjoo; Feng, Tianshu; Jiang, Nan; Desai, Preeya; Monk, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Most interventions to prevent postpartum depression (PPD) focus on the mother rather than the mother-infant dyad. As strong relationships between infant sleep and cry behavior and maternal postpartum mood have been demonstrated by previous research, interventions targeted at the dyad may reduce symptoms of PPD. The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting (PREPP). PREPP is a new PPD prevention protocol that aims to treat women at risk for PPD by promoting maternally mediated behavioral changes in their infants, while also including mother-focused skills. Results of this randomized control trial (RCT) (n = 54) indicate that this novel, brief intervention was well tolerated and effective in reducing maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression, particularly at 6 weeks postpartum. Additionally, this study found that infants of mothers enrolled in PREPP had fewer bouts of fussing and crying at 6 weeks postpartum than those infants whose mothers were in the Enhanced TAU group. These preliminary results indicate that PREPP has the potential to reduce the incidence of PPD in women at risk and to directly impact the developing mother-child relationship, the mother's view of her child, and child outcomes. PMID:26231973

  1. Photoinduced mixed valency in zinc porphyrin dimer of triruthenium cluster dyads.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jane; Kubiak, Clifford P

    2014-10-20

    The preparation, electrochemistry, and spectroscopic characterization of three new species, (ZnTPPpy)Ru3O(OAc)6(CO)-pz-Ru3O(OAc)6(CO)L, where ZnTPPpy = zinc(II) 5-(4-pyridyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyin, L = pyridyl ligand, and pz = pyrazine, are reported. These porphyrin-coordinated Ru3O–BL–Ru3O (BL = bridging ligand) dyads are capable of undergoing intramolecular electron transfer from the photoexcited Zn porphyrin to Ru3O donor–bridge–acceptor dimer systems. Seven reversible redox processes are observed in the cyclic voltammograms of the newly synthesized dyads, showing no significant electrochemical interaction between the redox active porphyrin and the pyrazine-bridged ruthenium dimer of Ru3O trimers. From the electrochemical behavior of the dyads, large comproportionation constants (Kc = 6.0 × 10(7) for L = dmap) were calculated from the reduction potentials of the Ru(III)Ru(III)Ru(II) clusters, indicating a stable mixed-valence state. Electronic absorption spectra of the singly reduced mixed-valence species show two intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) bands assigned within the Brunschwig–Creutz–Sutin semiclassical three-state model as metal-to-bridge and metal-to-metal in character. The progression from most to least delocalized mixed-valence dimer ions, as determined by the divergence of the IVCT bands and in agreement with electrochemical data, follows the order of L = 4-dimethylaminopyridine (dmap) > pyridine (py) > 4-cyanopyridine (cpy). These systems show dynamic coalescence of the infrared spectra in the ν(CO) region of the singly reduced state. This sets the time scale of electron exchange at <10 ps. The electron transfer from the S1 excited state of the coordinated porphyrin to the dimer is predicted to be thermodynamically favorable, with ΔGFET(0) ranging from −0.54 eV for L = dmap to −0.62 eV for L = cpy. Observation of IVCT band growth under continual photolysis (λexc = 568 nm) confirms a phototriggered intramolecular electron transfer process resulting in a strongly coupled singly reduced mixed-valence species. PMID:25260187

  2. The Effect of Television on Dyadic Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krcmar, Marina B.; Brentar, James E.

    A study examined the effects of television on dyadic interaction. Subjects, 41 dyads (mostly same sex dyads) consisting of a student in an introductory communication course (students were given extra credit for participation in the research) and a friend, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions and were videotaped by a hidden…

  3. Syntheses, Charge Separation, and Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell Application of Phenothiazine-Fullerene Dyads.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Gwendolyn D; Hiltunen, Arto J; Lim, Gary N; Kc, Chandra B; Kaunisto, Kimmo M; Vuorinen, Tommi K; Nesterov, Vladimir N; Lemmetyinen, Helge J; D'Souza, Francis

    2016-04-01

    A series of phenothiazine-fulleropyrrolidine (PTZ-C60) dyads having fullerene either at the C-3 aromatic ring position or at the N-position of phenothiazine macrocycle were newly synthesized and characterized. Photoinduced electron transfer leading to PTZ(• +)-C60(• -) charge-separated species was established from studies involving femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Because of the close proximity of the donor and acceptor entities, the C-3 ring substituted PTZ-C60 dyads revealed faster charge separation and charge recombination processes than that observed in the dyad functionalized through the N-position. Next, inverted organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were constructed using the dyads in place of traditionally used [6,6]-phenyl-C61- butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and an additional electron donor material poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The performance of the C-3 ring substituted PTZ-C60 dyad having a polyethylene glycol substituent produced a power conversion efficiency of 3.5% under inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) configuration. This was attributed to optimal BHJ morphology between the polymer and the dyad, which was further promoted by the efficient intramolecular charge separation and relatively slow charge recombination promoted by the dyad within the BHJ structure. The present finding demonstrate PTZ-C60 dyads as being good prospective materials for building organic photovoltaic devices. PMID:26990247

  4. Same-Sex Dyads and Toman's Theory of Birth-Order Compatability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidt, Rick J.

    Toman's theory of the relation of birth-order compatibility and interpersonal relations was extended to dyads (pairs) with members of the same sex. It was predicted that interpersonal compatibility between members of same-sex dyads (50 female, 27 male pairs of Vassar College roommates) would be positively correlated with birth-order compatibility…

  5. Socially Shared Metacognition of Dyads of Pupils in Collaborative Mathematical Problem-Solving Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiskala, Tuike; Vauras, Marja; Lehtinen, Erno; Salonen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how metacognition appears as a socially shared phenomenon within collaborative mathematical word-problem solving processes of dyads of high-achieving pupils. Four dyads solved problems of different difficulty levels. The pupils were 10 years old. The problem-solving activities were videotaped and transcribed in terms of…

  6. Curricular Goals and Personal Goals in Master's Thesis Projects: Dutch Student-Supervisor Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…

  7. The synthesis and self-assembly of disc-cube dyads with spacers of different lengths.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-Yao; Gu, Ke-Hua; Zhou, Yu; Zhou, Sheng; Fan, Xing-He; Shen, Zhihao

    2016-03-11

    Disc-cube dyads with a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) molecule covalently attached to a hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) molecule were designed and synthesized. The results demonstrate that the length of a spacer plays an important role in the self-assembly behavior of the HBC-POSS dyad. PMID:26872215

  8. The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

  9. Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment in Father-Child Dyads: The Case of Single Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly found that intergenerational transmission of attachment is more robust in mother-child dyads than it is in father-child dyads. They have proposed several explanations for the inconsistent father-child findings, including the use of the strange situation procedure, the young age of the children, and the fact that fathers…

  10. Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Nonmaltreating Mother-Child Dyads: Implications for Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Kimberly; Schneider, Renee; Sims, Chandler

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated maternal emotion socialization in physically maltreating and nonmaltreating mother-child dyads (N = 63 dyads) to examine the relation between maternal support in response to children's emotional displays and children's psychological adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Child participants…

  11. Developing psychotherapists’ competence through clinical supervision: protocol for a qualitative study of supervisory dyads

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health professionals face unique demands and stressors in their work, resulting in high rates of burnout and distress. Clinical supervision is a widely adopted and valued mechanism of professional support, development, and accountability, despite the very limited evidence of specific impacts on therapist or client outcomes. The current study aims to address this by exploring how psychotherapists develop competence through clinical supervision and what impact this has on the supervisees’ practice and their clients’ outcomes. This paper provides a rationale for the study and describes the protocol for an in-depth qualitative study of supervisory dyads, highlighting how it addresses gaps in the literature. Methods/Design The study of 16–20 supervisor-supervisee dyads uses a qualitative mixed method design, with two phases. In phase one, supervisors who are nominated as expert by their peers are interviewed about their supervision practice. In phase two, supervisors record a supervision session with a consenting supervisee; interpersonal process recall interviews are conducted separately with supervisor and supervisee to reflect in depth on the teaching and learning processes occurring. All interviews will be transcribed, coded and analysed to identify the processes that build competence, using a modified form of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) strategies. Using a theory-building case study method, data from both phases of the study will be integrated to develop a model describing the processes that build competence and support wellbeing in practising psychotherapists, reflecting the accumulated wisdom of the expert supervisors. Discussion The study addresses past study limitations by examining expert supervisors and their supervisory interactions, by reflecting on actual supervision sessions, and by using dyadic analysis of the supervisory pairs. The study findings will inform the development of future supervision training and practice and identify fruitful avenues for future research. PMID:23298408

  12. How Not to Let Secrets Out When Conducting Qualitative Research With Dyads.

    PubMed

    Ummel, Deborah; Achille, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Confidentiality is one of the cornerstones of research involving human participants. Researchers are the frontline gatekeepers of their participants' right to confidentiality, and situations can arise that challenge this responsibility. This is the case when individuals who have shared a common experience (i.e., dyads) are interviewed separately, but interview results are disseminated within the context of dyads. Based on our experience of conducting research with dyads and given how little literature is available to serve as guide, we set out to write this article to share the knowledge we acquired and the solutions we found. We will describe both the ethical challenges and the methodological decisions involved in conducting qualitative research with dyads. The article also describes different modalities of dyadic analysis, their benefits and drawbacks. This endeavor seems especially relevant as research with dyads is emerging in several domains involving couples, families, caregivers and health. PMID:26893306

  13. Cooperation beyond the dyad: on simple models and a complex society

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Players in Axelrod and Hamilton's model of cooperation were not only in a Prisoner's Dilemma, but by definition, they were also trapped in a dyad. But animals are rarely so restricted and even the option to interact with third parties allows individuals to escape from the Prisoner's Dilemma into a much more interesting and varied world of cooperation, from the apparently rare ‘parcelling’ to the widespread phenomenon of market effects. Our understanding of by-product mutualism, pseudo-reciprocity and the snowdrift game is also enriched by thinking ‘beyond the dyad’. The concepts of by-product mutualism and pseudo-reciprocity force us to think again about our basic definitions of cooperative behaviour (behaviour by a single individual) and cooperation (the outcome of an interaction between two or more individuals). Reciprocity is surprisingly rare outside of humans, even among large-brained ‘intelligent’ birds and mammals. Are humans unique in having extensive cooperative interactions among non-kin and an integrated cognitive system for mediating reciprocity? Perhaps, but our best chance for finding a similar phenomenon may be in delphinids, which also live in large societies with extensive cooperative interactions among non-relatives. A system of nested male alliances in bottlenose dolphins illustrates the potential and difficulties of finding a complex system of cooperation close to our own. PMID:20679112

  14. Emotional Availability and Touch in Deaf and Hearing Dyads.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Grace; Koester, Lynne Sanford

    2015-01-01

    In recent years , increasing attention has been given to the development of deaf children, though few studies have included Deaf parents. The present study examined emotional availability (EA) and functions of touch used by Deaf or hearing parents with hearing or deaf infants during free play. Sixty dyads representing four hearing status groups were observed when the infants were 18 months old. Comparisons among all four groups revealed significant differences in regard to parental sensitivity and child responsiveness, with hearing mothers with deaf infants tending to score lowest in the various subcategories of EA. Significant differences were also found for attentional touch and total touch, with deaf mothers of deaf or hearing infants using both types of touch more than hearing mothers of deaf or hearing infants. The importance of support and interventions for hearing mothers with deaf infants is discussed. PMID:26320752

  15. Enhancing early attachment: Design and pilot study of an intervention for primary health care dyads.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Francisca Figueroa; Vergara, Victoria Binda; Santelices, Mara Pa

    2012-11-16

    The attachment style of an infant with his caregiver can greatly influence his future development. Many interventions have been proposed to enhance early secure attachment styles, but few have characteristics that make them suitable for primary health care. The objective of the study wasto design a complex intervention for promoting secure attachment in dyads detected in Primary Health Care with altered patterns of attachment styles. The methodology proposed by the UK Medical Research Council was used: (1) theoretical phase: literature review; (2) modelling phase: the main components of the intervention were defined through qualitative research; and (3) exploration phase: pilot study of the preliminary intervention. The attachment style of the dyads was evaluated using the Massie-Campbell scale prior to and four months after the pilot intervention. The preliminary intervention was designed: a group workshop (five to seven dyads, with children aged between 6 and 12 months and two health care professional monitors) structured around various activities that specifically dealt with the skills associated with parental sensitivity and addressed relevant issues to child rearing. The intervention was then tested in a pilot study of 11 dyads in two primary health care centres. The analysis was done with nine dyads (two were lost in the second evaluation), and showed an improvement of 33 per cent in the secure attachment style in the dyads (not statistically significant). An original intervention is designed and proposed for dyads who have early indicators of altered styles of attachment in primary health care. PMID:23162050

  16. Photoinduced charge separation and stabilization in clusters of a fullerene-aniline dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.G.; Biju, V.; Guldi, D.M.; Kamat, P.V.; George, M.V.

    1999-10-21

    Fullerene-bridge-aniline dyad and the model fulleropyrrolidine compound form stable, optically transparent clusters in mixtures (3:1) of acetonitrile and toluene. Ground- and excited-state properties of the clusters of the dyad and the model compound are compared with their corresponding monomeric forms. Clustering of the dyad as well as the model compound exhibits a red-shifted emission maximum ({lambda}{sub max} {approximately}738 nm) compared to their monomeric forms ({lambda}{sub max} {approximately}714 nm). The electron transfer from the appended electron donor moiety to the parent fullerene core in the dyad cluster is evident from the decreased ({approximately}80%) fluorescence yield. The formation of fullerene radical anion (absorption maximum at 1010nm) with a lifetime of several hundreds of microseconds was further confirmed using nanosecond laser (337 nm) flash photolysis experiments. In contrast, the dyad molecules in their monomeric form did not yield any detectable yield of C{sub 60} radical anion following laser pulse excitation. The failure to observe any charge-transfer intermediates following laser pulse excitation. The failure to observe any charge-transfer intermediates following laser pulse excitation, even in polar solvents such as benzonitrile or nitromethane, suggested that fast back-electron-transfer process must be operative in the monomeric dyad system. On the other hand, clustering of the fullerene-based dyads in a mixed-solvent system can provide a unique way to decrease the rate of back electron transfer, thus stabilizing the electron-transfer products.

  17. Syntheses and excitation transfer studies of near-orthogonal free-base porphyrin-ruthenium phthalocyanine dyads and pentad.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Rachel; Stranius, Kati; Maligaspe, Eranda; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Zandler, Melvin E; D'Souza, Francis

    2012-03-19

    A new series of molecular dyads and pentad featuring free-base porphyrin and ruthenium phthalocyanine have been synthesized and characterized. The synthetic strategy involved reacting free-base porphyrin functionalized with one or four entities of phenylimidazole at the meso position of the porphyrin ring with ruthenium carbonyl phthalocyanine followed by chromatographic separation and purification of the products. Excitation transfer in these donor-acceptor polyads (dyad and pentad) is investigated in nonpolar toluene and polar benzonitrile solvents using both steady-state and time-resolved emission techniques. Electrochemical and computational studies suggested that the photoinduced electron transfer is a thermodynamically unfavorable process in nonpolar media but may take place in a polar environment. Selective excitation of the donor, free-base porphyrin entity, resulted in efficient excitation transfer to the acceptor, ruthenium phthalocyanine, and the position of imidazole linkage on the free-base porphyrin could be used to tune the rates of excitation transfer. The singlet excited Ru phthalocyanine thus formed instantly relaxed to the triplet state via intersystem crossing prior to returning to the ground state. Kinetics of energy transfer (k(ENT)) was monitored by performing transient absorption and emission measurements using pump-probe and up-conversion techniques in toluene, respectively, and modeled using a Förster-type energy transfer mechanism. Such studies revealed the experimental k(ENT) values on the order of 10(10)-10(11) s(-1), which readily agreed with the theoretically estimated values. Interestingly, in polar benzonitrile solvent, additional charge transfer interactions in the case of dyads but not in the case of pentad, presumably due to the geometry/orientation consideration, were observed. PMID:22390175

  18. Conformational and Optical Characteristics of Unidirectionally Twisted Binaphthyl-Bipyridyl Cyclic Dyads.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Kazuto; Suzuki, Jun; Yabe, Tatsuya; Asano, Hikaru; Nishikawa, Michihiro; Hashizume, Daisuke; Muranaka, Atsuya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yokoyama, Akihiro

    2015-08-21

    An axially chiral binaphthyl-bipyridyl cyclic dyad in which the two units are connected by short -CH2O- linkers was synthesized. Experimental and theoretical analyses indicate that the (R)-binaphthyl unit in the dyad induces (R)-chirality in the bipyridyl unit, both in the solid state and in solution. It is shown that vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) is useful to determine the twisting pattern of 2,2'-bipyridyl compounds. The dyad shows crystallization-induced emission enhancement (CIEE). PMID:26263248

  19. Photodynamics of a constrained parachute-shaped fullerene-porphyrin dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, D.I.; Cheng, P.; Wilson, S.R.

    1999-12-15

    The pronounced ability of fullerene C{sub 60} to act as an electron and energy acceptor has led to the synthesis of a large number of compounds in which C{sub 60} is covalently linked to photoactivatable groups which can serve as potential donors. Such compounds are of interest as model systems for photosynthetic reaction centers and also have potential applications in photodynamic therapy because of the highly efficient photosensitization of singlet molecular oxygen formation by C{sub 60} and C{sub 60} derivatives. By far the largest number of such systems studied to date utilize porphyrins as antennas for efficient light capture in the visible region of the spectrum, and a variety of linkers. Photophysical studies as well as molecular modeling indicate that in conformationally flexible dyads the porphyrin (P) and C{sub 60} moieties are in close proximity, due to {pi}-stacking interactions, thus facilitating through-space interactions, as demonstrated by quenching of {sup 1}P{asterisk} fluorescence and generation of fullerene-excited states (by energy transfer) or P{sup +{sm{underscore}bullet}}-C{sub 60}{sup {minus}{sm{underscore}bullet}} ion-pair states (by electron transfer).

  20. The synthesis and aggregation-induced near-infrared emission of terrylenediimide-tetraphenylethene dyads.

    PubMed

    Xie, Nuo-Hua; Li, Chong; Liu, Jun-Xia; Gong, Wen-Liang; Tang, Ben Zhong; Li, Guigen; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2016-04-30

    We design and synthesize terrylenediimide-tetraphenylethene dyads, which exhibit featured aggregation-induced near-infrared fluorescence with a maximum emission wavelength of up to 800 nm. PMID:27035468

  1. Using Threshold Autoregressive Models to Study Dyadic Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamaker, Ellen L.; Zhang, Zhiyong; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Considering a dyad as a dynamic system whose current state depends on its past state has allowed researchers to investigate whether and how partners influence each other. Some researchers have also focused on how differences between dyads in their interaction patterns are related to other differences between them. A promising approach in this area…

  2. A tyrosine–tryptophan dyad and radical-based charge transfer in a ribonucleotide reductase-inspired maquette

    PubMed Central

    Pagba, Cynthia V.; McCaslin, Tyler G.; Veglia, Gianluigi; Porcelli, Fernando; Yohannan, Jiby; Guo, Zhanjun; McDaniel, Miranda; Barry, Bridgette A.

    2015-01-01

    In class 1a ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), a substrate-based radical is generated in the α2 subunit by long-distance electron transfer involving an essential tyrosyl radical (Y122O·) in the β2 subunit. The conserved W48 β2 is ∼10 Å from Y122OH; mutations at W48 inactivate RNR. Here, we design a beta hairpin peptide, which contains such an interacting tyrosine–tryptophan dyad. The NMR structure of the peptide establishes that there is no direct hydrogen bond between the phenol and the indole rings. However, electronic coupling between the tyrosine and tryptophan occurs in the peptide. In addition, downshifted ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) frequencies are observed for the radical state, reproducing spectral downshifts observed for β2. The frequency downshifts of the ring and CO bands are consistent with charge transfer from YO· to W or another residue. Such a charge transfer mechanism implies a role for the β2 Y-W dyad in electron transfer. PMID:26627888

  3. A tyrosine-tryptophan dyad and radical-based charge transfer in a ribonucleotide reductase-inspired maquette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagba, Cynthia V.; McCaslin, Tyler G.; Veglia, Gianluigi; Porcelli, Fernando; Yohannan, Jiby; Guo, Zhanjun; McDaniel, Miranda; Barry, Bridgette A.

    2015-12-01

    In class 1a ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), a substrate-based radical is generated in the α2 subunit by long-distance electron transfer involving an essential tyrosyl radical (Y122O.) in the β2 subunit. The conserved W48 β2 is ~10 Å from Y122OH; mutations at W48 inactivate RNR. Here, we design a beta hairpin peptide, which contains such an interacting tyrosine-tryptophan dyad. The NMR structure of the peptide establishes that there is no direct hydrogen bond between the phenol and the indole rings. However, electronic coupling between the tyrosine and tryptophan occurs in the peptide. In addition, downshifted ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) frequencies are observed for the radical state, reproducing spectral downshifts observed for β2. The frequency downshifts of the ring and CO bands are consistent with charge transfer from YO. to W or another residue. Such a charge transfer mechanism implies a role for the β2 Y-W dyad in electron transfer.

  4. Joint book-reading strategies in working-class African American and white mother-toddler dyads.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Yockel, J; Haynes, W O

    1994-06-01

    Twenty working-class mother-toddler dyads were videorecorded during three joint book-reading activities. Ten of the dyads were white, and 10 were African American, balanced for parent educational level, family income, and parental occupation. The children ranged in age from 18 to 30 months and were normally developing. The parents read an experimental book to their child two times and a favorite book they brought from home one time. Videotapes of the joint book-readings were analyzed to determine cultural differences and the effects of book familiarity on the occurrence of maternal and child communication behaviors. The results show many similarities between the cultural groups in joint book-reading behaviors. However, statistical analyses revealed a significant difference between the cultural groups in the use of questions. African American mothers used significantly fewer questioning behaviors compared to the white mothers. White children produced more question-related communications, and African American children produced more spontaneous verbalizations. Several effects of familiarity were also found. The findings are compared to anthropological reports on caretaker-child interaction in African American families and implications are discussed. PMID:8084190

  5. A tyrosine-tryptophan dyad and radical-based charge transfer in a ribonucleotide reductase-inspired maquette.

    PubMed

    Pagba, Cynthia V; McCaslin, Tyler G; Veglia, Gianluigi; Porcelli, Fernando; Yohannan, Jiby; Guo, Zhanjun; McDaniel, Miranda; Barry, Bridgette A

    2015-01-01

    In class 1a ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), a substrate-based radical is generated in the α2 subunit by long-distance electron transfer involving an essential tyrosyl radical (Y122O·) in the β2 subunit. The conserved W48 β2 is ∼10 Å from Y122OH; mutations at W48 inactivate RNR. Here, we design a beta hairpin peptide, which contains such an interacting tyrosine-tryptophan dyad. The NMR structure of the peptide establishes that there is no direct hydrogen bond between the phenol and the indole rings. However, electronic coupling between the tyrosine and tryptophan occurs in the peptide. In addition, downshifted ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) frequencies are observed for the radical state, reproducing spectral downshifts observed for β2. The frequency downshifts of the ring and CO bands are consistent with charge transfer from YO· to W or another residue. Such a charge transfer mechanism implies a role for the β2 Y-W dyad in electron transfer. PMID:26627888

  6. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog-human dyad.

    PubMed

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research concerning dog-human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog-human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog-human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog-human relationships and how these may influence dogs' perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog-human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog-human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog-human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. PMID:25750549

  7. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog–human dyad

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog–human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog–human relationships and how these may influence dogs’ perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog–human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog–human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog–human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. PMID:25750549

  8. The Columbia Supervision Project: data from the dyad.

    PubMed

    Cabaniss, D L; Glick, R A; Roose, S P

    2001-01-01

    Anonymous questionnaires were sent to all candidates and supervisors at the Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research (hereafter "Columbia"). Questions focused on the four domains most emphasized in the literature on supervision: logistical issues; the "teach or treat" question; the evaluatory function of the supervisor; and the affective experience of supervision. By coding the questionnaires, anonymity of respondents was maintained while allowing for a matched pair of analyses of supervisors and supervisees. Return rate was over 85 percent. In general, rates of satisfaction with supervision were high, and candidates and supervisors agreed on such issues as the "teach or treat" question, as well as the technical and theoretical frame of reference of the supervisor. However, there were striking disagreements between candidates and supervisors as to the role of the supervisor, what candidates find useful in supervision, the evaluatory function, and the relation between supervision and progression to graduation. Although 50 percent of candidates reported anxiety about receiving credit for cases, this was not routinely discussed in supervision, and the supervisory relationship itself was not discussed in over 50 percent of dyads. Despite high overall satisfaction ratings, 25 percent of candidates said they wished they had a different supervisor for the case, and 75 percent believed that a candidate who asked to switch supervisors would be labeled problematic. In contrast, over 75 percent of supervisors reported that switching supervisors carries no stigma. In a follow-up study conducted one year later, many candidates reported that they feared reprisals for switching, and some reported that their training analysts advised against "rocking the boat." Candidates felt that participating in the study emboldened them to think more openly about supervision and in some cases to make changes. PMID:11379723

  9. Cerebral-palsied children's interactions with siblings--I. Influence of severity of disability, age and birth order.

    PubMed

    Dallas, E; Stevenson, J; McGurk, H

    1993-07-01

    Sixty-four Greek cerebral-palsied children, aged 2-13, and their siblings were observed in a semi-structured play situation at home. Compared to matched control dyads, disabled children were passive and lacking in assertiveness, while their siblings were correspondingly more directive. Interaction in disabled dyads was predominantly hierarchical in nature with disabled children assuming the role of the younger child regardless of age or birth order. Control dyads were more egalitarian, with members taking turns in initiating the interaction. Maternal intervention was higher in disabled dyads, particularly among younger groups where social skills were poorly developed. PMID:8340436

  10. A trident dithienylethene-perylenemonoimide dyad with super fluorescence switching speed and ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Yan, Hui; Zhao, Ling-Xi; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Hu, Zhe; Huang, Zhen-Li; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent diarylethenes are promising in molecular optical memory and photonic devices. However, the performance of current diarylethenes is far from satisfactory because of the scarcity of high-speed switching capability and large fluorescence on-off ratio. Here we report a trident perylenemonoimide dyad modified by triple dithienylethenes whose photochromic fluorescence quenching ratio at the photostationary state exceeds 10,000 and the fluorescence quenching efficiency is close to 100% within seconds of ultraviolet irradiation. The highly sensitive fluorescence on/off switching of the trident dyad enables recyclable fluorescence patterning and all-optical transistors. The prototype optical device based on the trident dyad enables the optical switching of incident light and conversion from incident light wavelength to transmitted light wavelength, which is all-optically controlled, reversible and wavelength-convertible. In addition, the trident dyad-staining block copolymer vesicles are observed via optical nanoimaging with a sub-100 nm resolution, portending a potential prospect of the dithienylethene dyad in super-resolution imaging.

  11. A trident dithienylethene-perylenemonoimide dyad with super fluorescence switching speed and ratio.

    PubMed

    Li, Chong; Yan, Hui; Zhao, Ling-Xi; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Hu, Zhe; Huang, Zhen-Li; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent diarylethenes are promising in molecular optical memory and photonic devices. However, the performance of current diarylethenes is far from satisfactory because of the scarcity of high-speed switching capability and large fluorescence on-off ratio. Here we report a trident perylenemonoimide dyad modified by triple dithienylethenes whose photochromic fluorescence quenching ratio at the photostationary state exceeds 10,000 and the fluorescence quenching efficiency is close to 100% within seconds of ultraviolet irradiation. The highly sensitive fluorescence on/off switching of the trident dyad enables recyclable fluorescence patterning and all-optical transistors. The prototype optical device based on the trident dyad enables the optical switching of incident light and conversion from incident light wavelength to transmitted light wavelength, which is all-optically controlled, reversible and wavelength-convertible. In addition, the trident dyad-staining block copolymer vesicles are observed via optical nanoimaging with a sub-100 nm resolution, portending a potential prospect of the dithienylethene dyad in super-resolution imaging. PMID:25502396

  12. Fast Triplet Formation via Singlet Exciton Fission in a Covalent Perylenediimide-β-apocarotene Dyad Aggregate.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Catherine M; Brown, Kristen E; Horwitz, Noah E; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    A covalent dyad was synthesized in which perylene-3,4,:9:10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) is linked to β-apocarotene (Car) using a biphenyl spacer. The dyad is monomeric in toluene and forms a solution aggregate in methylcyclohexane (MCH). Using femtosecond transient absorption (fsTA) spectroscopy, the monomeric dyad and its aggregates were studied both in solution and in thin films. In toluene, photoexcitation at 530 nm preferentially excites PDI, and the dyad undergoes charge separation in τ = 1.7 ps and recombination in τ = 1.6 ns. In MCH and in thin solid films, 530 nm excitation of the PDI-Car aggregate also results in charge transfer that competes with energy transfer from (1)*PDI to Car and with an additional process, rapid Car triplet formation in <50 ps. Car triplet formation is only observed in the aggregated PDI-Car dyad and is attributed to singlet exciton fission (SF) within the aggregated PDI, followed by rapid triplet energy transfer from (3)*PDI to the carotenoid. SF from β-apocarotene aggregation is ruled out by direct excitation of Car films at 414 nm, where no triplet formation is observed. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on aggregated PDI-Car show the formation of (3)*Car with a spin-polarization pattern that rules out radical-pair intersystem crossing as the mechanism of triplet formation as well. PMID:25961130

  13. Recruitment of Older Adult Patient-Caregiver Dyads for an Online Caregiver Resource Program: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Orwig, Denise; Resnick, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Bellantoni, Michele; Sterling, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Hip fracture is a significant health problem for older adults and generally requires surgery followed by intensive rehabilitation. Informal caregivers (CGs) can provide vital assistance to older adults recovering from hip fracture. Caregiving is a dyadic process that affects both CGs and care recipients (CRs). In a feasibility study, we assessed the effects of using a theory-based online hip fracture resource program for CGs on both CGs and CRs. In this article, we discuss our recruitment process and the lessons learned. Participants were recruited from six acute hospitals, and CGs used the online resource program for 8 weeks. A total of 256 hip fracture patients were screened, and 164 CRs were ineligible. CG screening was initiated when CRs were determined to be eligible. Among 41 eligible dyads, 36 dyads were recruited. Several challenges to the recruitment of these dyads for online studies were identified, including a low number of eligible dyads in certain hospitals and difficulty recruiting both the CR and the CG during the short hospital stay. Field nurses often had to make multiple trips to the hospital to meet with both the CR and the CG. Thus, when a subject unit is a dyad recruited from acute settings, the resources required for the recruitment may be more than doubled. These challenges could be successfully alleviated with careful planning, competent field staff members, collaboration with hospital staff members, and efficient field operations. PMID:23549905

  14. Reversible Photomodulation of Electronic Communication in a π-Conjugated Photoswitch-Fluorophore Molecular Dyad.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Javier; Schweighöfer, Felix; Wachtveitl, Josef; Hecht, Stefan

    2016-01-18

    The extent of electronic coupling between a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophore and a diarylethene (DAE) photoswitch has been modulated in a covalently linked molecular dyad by irradiation with either UV or visible light. In the open isomer, both moieties can be regarded as individual chromophores, while in the closed form the lowest electronic (S0 →S1 ) transition of the dyad is slightly shifted, enabling photomodulation of its fluorescence. Transient spectroscopy confirms that the dyad behaves dramatically different in the two switching states: while in the open isomer it resembles an undisturbed BODIPY fluorophore, in the closed isomer no fluorescence occurs and instead a red-shifted DAE behavior prevails. PMID:26667670

  15. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2011-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. We propose and test a tridimensional model among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared with Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S. immigrant dyads (473 dyads, M adolescent age = 14 years). Jamaican immigrants evidence tridimensional acculturation, orienting toward Jamaican, African American, and European American cultures. Integration is favored (70%), particularly tricultural integration; moreover, Jamaican and other Black U.S. immigrants are more oriented toward African American than European American culture. Jamaican immigrant youth adapt at least as well as non-immigrant Jamaican and U.S. peers, although assimilated adolescents, particularly first generation, have worse sociocultural adaptation than integrated and separated adolescents. PMID:22966917

  16. Sharing the burden: The interpersonal regulation of emotional arousal in mother-daughter dyads.

    PubMed

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Koval, Peter; Hollenstein, Tom

    2016-02-01

    According to social baseline theory (Beckes & Coan, 2011), load sharing is a feature of close relationships whereby the burden of emotional distress is distributed across relationship partners. Load sharing varies by physical closeness and relationship quality. We investigated the effect of load sharing on emotional arousal via galvanic skin response, an indicator of sympathetic nervous system arousal, during a social stressor. Social stress was elicited in 66 adolescent girls (Mage = 15 years) using a spontaneous public-speaking task. Mother-daughter dyads reported their relationship quality, and physical closeness was manipulated by having mothers either touch or not touch their daughter's hand during the performance. We found evidence of load sharing among dyads who held hands, independent of relationship quality. However, without physical contact, load sharing was only evident among dyads with higher relationship quality. Thus, high relationship quality buffers against threat in a similar way to the physical comfort of a loved one. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322569

  17. Coupling tendencies during exploratory behaviours of competing players in rugby union dyads.

    PubMed

    Correia, Vanda; Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Diniz, Ana; Kelso, J A Scott

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interpersonal coordination tendencies in 1vs.1 dyads in rugby union, here expressed by participants' movement velocity towards or away from the sideline as they competed to score or prevent a try. We examined whether coupling tendencies of members of each dyad shaped key performance outcomes (try or successful tackle). Data on movement displacement trajectories of eight male rugby union players (aged 11-12 years) were analysed during performance in 47 trials. To assess coordination tendencies during exploratory behaviours in the dyads, analyses of performance time series data were undertaken using variable time graphs, running correlations and cross-correlations. Results revealed distinct coupling patterns characterised by shifts between synchronous coordination and asynchronous coordination tendencies and uncoordinated actions. Observed behaviours were interpreted as attempts of competing participants to create and perceive possibilities for action while seeking to achieve specific performance goals. Findings also revealed that a variety of patterned relations between participants resulted in different performance outcomes. PMID:24814417

  18. Effects of Gender Role and Task Content on Performance in Same-Gender Dyads: Transactive Memory as a Potential Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas; Huguet, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was designed to examine the effects of gender role and task content on performance in learning dyads and to test the potential mediator effect of an intragroup process related to transactive memory. A total of 44 same-gender dyads participated in the study and were asked to collaborate on a stereotypically masculine or feminine…

  19. Counselling Australian Baby Boomers: Examining the Loss and Grief Issues Facing Aging Distance-Separated Sibling Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra Frances; Clark, Nadia; Newton, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    It has long been recognised that mature-aged sibling dyads provide each other with emotional support. What has yet to be determined is whether this support function is maintained within the baby boomer generational cohort of sibling dyads who through economic relocation/migration have become separated by distance. As such, this paper highlights…

  20. An Examination of Changes in Emotion Co-Regulation among Mother and Child Dyads during the Strange Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yuqing; Leu, Szu-Yun; Barnard, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Elaine A.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied state-space grid analysis to describe how preschooler-mother dyads co-regulate emotion in the Strange Situation. Second-to-second mother and child affect during pre-separation play (baseline) and the final reunion (post perturbation) episodes of the Strange Situation were coded for 80 dyads. Change in emotion…

  1. An Examination of Changes in Emotion Co-Regulation among Mother and Child Dyads during the Strange Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yuqing; Leu, Szu-Yun; Barnard, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Elaine A.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied state-space grid analysis to describe how preschooler-mother dyads co-regulate emotion in the Strange Situation. Second-to-second mother and child affect during pre-separation play (baseline) and the final reunion (post perturbation) episodes of the Strange Situation were coded for 80 dyads. Change in emotion

  2. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  3. The Effects of Animations on Verbal Interaction in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangin, M.; Dillenbourg, P.; Rebetez, Cyril; Betrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaelle

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interaction patterns of learners studying in pairs who were provided with multimedia learning material. In a previous article, we reported that learning scores were higher for dyads of an "animations" condition than for dyads of a "static pictures" condition. Results also showed that offering a persistent display of one…

  4. Six Principles for Developmental Communication: Silent-Film Montage and Adult-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the model of the adult-infant dyad developing interaction, and then language, in the infant, is a better model than adult language for the analysis of some communication-like systems. When applied to silent film, the adult-infant dyad leads to the extraction of six principles of visually based developmental communication. (25…

  5. Attachment Style, Vagal Tone, and Empathy during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Butterworth, Molly R.

    2012-01-01

    We tested associations among empathic responsiveness, attachment style, and vagal tone (a physiologic index of emotion regulation) in 103 mother-adolescent dyads. Dyads discussed positive and negative topics and then separately reviewed a videotape of the interaction and rated their own and the other person's affect at one-minute intervals. We

  6. Influence Techniques in Dyads Composed of Interdependent Middle and Lower Class Preschool Children. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Howard M.; Russell, Richard L.

    The procedures by which children from lower and middle class backgrounds attempt to obtain rewarding outcomes from each other were observed under semicontrolled conditions. Ten male and 9 female dyads, each composed of 1 middle class and 1 lower class preschool child, were required to complete 12 simple block puzzles in which each was given some…

  7. Couple Coping and Adjustment to Multiple Sclerosis in Care Receiver-Carer Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    1998-01-01

    The utility of "coping congruency" and "average level of couple coping" in explaining adjustment to multiple sclerosis was examined. Interview and questionnaire data was collected for 45 dyads with a 12-month follow-up. Predictors include Time 1 illness, caregiving, and coping variables. Findings support both concepts for explaining collective and…

  8. Corrective Feedback via Instant Messenger Learning Activities in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotillo, Susana

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examines corrective feedback in native speaker-nonnative speaker (NS-NNS) and NNS-NNS dyads while participants were engaged in communicative and problem-solving activities via "Yahoo! Instant Messenger" (YIM). As "negotiation of meaning" studies of the 1990s have shown, linguistic items which learners negotiate in

  9. African American and European American Therapists' Experiences of Addressing Race in Cross-Racial Psychotherapy Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Sarah; Burkard, Alan W.; Johnson, Adanna J.; Suzuki, Lisa A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2003-01-01

    Using Consensual Qualitative Research, 12 licensed psychologists' overall experiences addressing race in psychotherapy were investigated, as were their experiences addressing race in a specific cross-racial therapy dyad. Results indicated that only African American psychologists reported routinely addressing race with clients of color or when race…

  10. Structural Features of Sibling Dyads and Attitudes toward Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggio, Heidi R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sibling-dyad structural variables (sex composition, age difference, current coresidence, position adjacency, family size, respondent and/or sibling ordinal position) and attitudes toward adult sibling relationships. A sample of 1,053 young adults (M age = 22.1 years) described one sibling using the Lifespan Sibling Relationship…

  11. Role of Intentionality in Mediating Responses to Inequity in the Dyad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, James; Libby, William L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This study confirmed the prediction that members of a dyad, whose work inputs are equal, endeavor to divide their joint reward equally. Results also suggested that outcomes intentionally produced by relevant others are included in the computation of equity, while unintentional outcomes are ignored. (Author/KM)

  12. Investigation of an Activity-Based Text-Processing Strategy in Mixed-Age Child Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marley, Scott C.; Szabo, Zsuzsanna; Levin, Joel R.; Glenberg, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined an activity-based listening strategy with first- and third-grade children in mixed-grade dyads. On the basis of theories of cognitive development and previous research, the authors predicted the following: (a) children in an activity-based strategy would recall more story events compared with those in a repetition strategy and…

  13. Custodial Grandmother-Grandfather Dyads: Pathways among Marital Distress, Grandparent Dysphoria, Parenting Practice, and Grandchild Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on…

  14. Let the Force Be with Us: Dyads Exploit Haptic Coupling for Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Knoblich, Guenther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    People often perform actions that involve a direct physical coupling with another person, such as when moving furniture together. Here, we examined how people successfully coordinate such actions with others. We tested the hypothesis that dyads amplify their forces to create haptic information to coordinate. Participants moved a pole (resembling a…

  15. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

  16. Revisiting the Generation Gap: Exploring the Relationships of Parent/Adult-Child Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Adam

    2004-01-01

    There is some evidence that older parents and their adult children may evaluate their relationships with each other in different ways. To date, we know little about what may account for these discrepancies. This investigation compares the perceptions of intergenerational solidarity among 2,590 adult-child/older-parent dyads from the National…

  17. Peer Collaboration: The Case for Treating the Dyad as the Unit of Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudge, Jonathan

    In a study of peer collaboration among children, the case is made for treating the dyad, rather than the individual, as the unit of analysis. Subjects included 154 children aged 5 to 9 years from a broad range of social classes. Children worked in 14 problems (representing 6 types of problems) predicting the movement of a balance beam. Children…

  18. Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. II. Recoupled pair bond dyads in carbon and sulfur difluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, Thom H.; Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Xu, Lu T.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of a bond between a second ligand and a molecule with a recoupled pair bond results in a recoupled pair bond dyad. We examine the recoupled pair bond dyads in the a3B1 states of CF2 and SF2, which are formed by the addition of a fluorine atom to the a4Σ- states of CF and SF, both of which possess recoupled pair bonds. The two dyads are very different. In SF2, the second FS-F bond is very strong (De = 106.3 kcal/mol), the bond length is much shorter than that in the SF(a4Σ-) state (1.666 Å versus 1.882 Å), and the three atoms are nearly collinear (θe = 162.7°) with only a small barrier to linearity (0.4 kcal/mol). In CF2, the second FC-F bond is also very strong (De = 149.5 kcal/mol), but the bond is only slightly shorter than that in the CF(a4Σ-) state (1.314 Å versus 1.327 Å), and the molecule is strongly bent (θe = 119.0°) with an 80.5 kcal/mol barrier to linearity. The a3B1 states of CF2 and SF2 illustrate the fundamental differences between recoupled pair bond dyads formed from 2s and 3p lone pairs.

  19. Identity Styles and Conflict Resolution Styles: Associations in Mother-Adolescent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad.…

  20. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.

  1. Corrective Feedback via Instant Messenger Learning Activities in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotillo, Susana

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examines corrective feedback in native speaker-nonnative speaker (NS-NNS) and NNS-NNS dyads while participants were engaged in communicative and problem-solving activities via "Yahoo! Instant Messenger" (YIM). As "negotiation of meaning" studies of the 1990s have shown, linguistic items which learners negotiate in…

  2. Corrole-fullerene dyads: formation of long-lived charge-separated states in nonpolar solvents.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Francis; Chitta, Raghu; Ohkubo, Kei; Tasior, Mariusz; Subbaiyan, Navaneetha K; Zandler, Melvin E; Rogacki, Maciek K; Gryko, Daniel T; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2008-10-29

    The first example of covalently linked free-base corrole-fullerene dyads is reported. In the newly synthesized dyads, the free-energy calculations performed by employing the redox and singlet excited-state energy in both polar and nonpolar solvents suggested the possibility of electron transfer from the excited singlet state of corrole to the fullerene entity. Accordingly, steady-state and time-resolved emission studies revealed efficient fluorescence quenching of the corrole entity in the dyads. Further studies involving femtosecond laser flash photolysis and nanosecond transient absorption studies confirmed electron transfer to be the quenching mechanism, in which the electron-transfer product, the fullerene anion radical, was able to be spectrally characterized. The rate of charge separation, kCS, was found to be on the order of 10(10)-10(11) s(-1), suggesting an efficient photoinduced electron-transfer process. Interestingly, the rate of charge recombination, kCR, was slower by 5 orders of magnitude in nonpolar solvents, cyclohexane and toluene, resulting in a radical ion-pair lasting for several microseconds. Careful analysis of the kinetic and thermodynamic data using the Marcus approach revealed that this novel feature is due to appropriately positioning the energy level of the charge-separated state below the triplet states of either of the donor and acceptor entities in both polar and nonpolar solvents, a feature that was not evident in donor-acceptor dyads constructed using symmetric tetrapyrroles as electron donors. PMID:18837500

  3. A novel BF2-chelated azadipyrromethene-fullerene dyad: synthesis, electrochemistry and photodynamics.

    PubMed

    Amin, Anu N; El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Subbaiyan, Navaneetha K; Zandler, Melvin E; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; D'Souza, Francis

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis, structure, electrochemistry and photodynamics of a BF(2)-chelated azadipyrromethene-fullerene dyad are reported in comparison with BF(2)-chelated azadipyrromethene without fullerene. The attachment of fullerene resulted in efficient generation of the triplet excited state of the azadipyrromethene via photoinduced electron transfer. PMID:22083226

  4. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

  5. Intramolecular electron transfer in fullerene/ferrocene based donor-bridge-acceptor dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Guldi, D.M.; Maggini, M.; Scorrano, G.; Prato, M.

    1997-02-05

    A systematic steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved flash photolytic investigation of a series of covalently linked fullerene/ferrocene based donor-bridge-acceptor dyads is reported as a function of the nature of the spacer between the donor site (ferrocene) and acceptor site (fullerene) and the dielectric constant of the medium. The fluorescence of the investigated dyads 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 in methylcyclohexane at 77 K were substantially quenched, relative to N-methylfulleropyrrolidine 1, indicating intramolecular quenching of the fullerene excited singlet state. Excitation of N-methylfulleropyrrolidine revealed the immediate formation of the excited singlet state, with {lambda}{sub max} around 886 nm. A rapid intersystem crossing ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 1.2 ps ) to the excited triplet state was observed with characteristic absorption around 705 nm. Picosecond resolved photolysis of dyads 2-6 in toluene showed light-induced formation of the excited singlet state which undergoes rapid intramolecular quenching. Nanosecond-resolved photolysis of dyads 3 and 4 in degassed benzonitrile revealed long-lived charge separated states with characteristic fullerene radical-anion bands at {lambda}{sub max} = 1055 nm. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Speech synthesis by linear interpolation of spectral parameters between dyad boundaries.

    PubMed

    Shadle, C H; Atal, B S

    1979-11-01

    A recent study [Olive and Spickenagel, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59, 993-996 (1976)] has shown that area parameters derived from linear prediction analysis can be linearly interpolated between dyad boundaries with very little distortion in the resultant synthesized speech. The success of area parameter interpolation raises a question: can other acoustic parameters, such as the power spectrum of the speech waveform, be similarly interpolated? The spectrum is of special interest because speech can be synthesized in real time from spectral parameters on a programmable digital filter. To study this question a speech analysis-synthesis system using spectral parameters (samples of power spectra at different frequencies) was simulated. These parameters were determined from the speech signal at every dyad boundary, and interpolated for intermediate values. Dyad boundaries (representing the limits of transition regions between phonemes) were determined manually. Informal listening tests comparing synthetic speech with and without linear interpolation showed slight degradation in the interpolated speech. This degradation is significantly reduced by using an additional point within the dyad boundaries for interpolation. PMID:500970

  7. Identity Styles and Conflict Resolution Styles: Associations in Mother-Adolescent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad.

  8. Counseling Supervisors' Assessment of Race, Racial Identity, and Working Alliance in Supervisory Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Christine Suniti; Davis, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of race, racial identity attitudes and working alliance in counseling supervision using data obtained from supervisors in supervisory dyads. Results revealed the strongest working alliance for supervisor-supervisee pairs with high racial identity development and the weakest working alliance for pairs with low

  9. Energy and electron transfer in beta-alkynyl-linked porphyrin-[60]fullerene dyads.

    PubMed

    Vail, Sean A; Schuster, David I; Guldi, Dirk M; Isosomppi, Marja; Tkachenko, Nikolai; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Palkar, Amit; Echegoyen, Luis; Chen, Xihua; Zhang, John Z H

    2006-07-27

    Three porphyrin-fullerene dyads, in which a diyne bridge links C(60) with a beta-position on a tetraarylporphyrin, have been synthesized. The free-base dyad was prepared, as well as the corresponding Zn(II) and Ni(II) materials. These represent the first examples of a new class of conjugatively linked electron donor-acceptor systems in which pi-conjugation extends from the porphyrin ring system directly to the fullerene surface. The processes that occur following photoexcitation of these dyads were examined using fluorescence and transient absorption techniques on the femtosecond, picosecond, and nanosecond time scales. In sharp contrast to the photodynamics associated with singlet excited-state decay of reference tetraphenylporphyrins (ZnTPP, NiTPP, and H(2)TPP), the diyne-linked dyads undergo ultrafast (<10 ps) singlet excited-state deactivation in toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and benzonitrile (PhCN). Transient absorption techniques with the ZnP-C(60) dyad clearly show that in toluene intramolecular energy transfer (EnT) to ultimately generate C(60) triplet excited states is the dominant singlet decay mechanism, while intramolecular electron transfer (ET) dominates in THF and PhCN to give the ZnP(*+)/C(60)(*-) charge-separated radical ion pair (CSRP). Electrochemical studies indicate that there is no significant charge transfer in the ground states of these systems. The lifetime of ZnP(*+)/C(60)(*-) in PhCN was approximately 40 ps, determined by two different types of transient absorption measurement in two different laboratories. Thus, in this system, the ratio of the rates for charge separation (k(CS)) to rates for charge recombination (k(CR)), k(CS)/k(CR), is quite small, approximately 7. The fact that charge separation (CS) rates increase with increasing solvent polarity is consistent with this process occurring in the normal region of the Marcus curve, while the slower charge recombination (CR) rates in less polar solvents indicate that the CR process occurs in the Marcus inverted region. While photoinduced ET occurs on a similar time scale in a related dyad 15 in which a diethynyl bridge connects C(60) to the para position of a meso phenyl moiety of a tetrarylporphyrin, CR occurs much more slowly; i.e., k(CS)/k(CR) approximately equal to 7400. Thus, the position at which the conjugative linker is attached to the porphyrin moiety has a dramatic influence on k(CR) but not on k(CS). On the basis of electron density calculations, we tentatively conclude that unfavorable orbital symmetries inhibit charge recombination in 15 vis a vis the beta-linked dyads. PMID:16854114

  10. Epistasis between COMT and MTHFR in Maternal-Fetal Dyads Increases Risk for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Lori D.; York, Timothy P.; Kusanovic, Juan P.; Gomez, Ricardo; Eaves, Lindon J.; Romero, Roberto; Strauss, Jerome F.

    2011-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This disorder is thought to be multifactorial in origin, with multiple genes, environmental and social factors, contributing to disease. One proposed mechanism is placental hypoxia-driven imbalances in angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, causing endothelial cell dysfunction. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt)-deficient pregnant mice have a preeclampsia phenotype that is reversed by exogenous 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), an estrogen metabolite generated by COMT. 2-ME inhibits Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α, a transcription factor mediating hypoxic responses. COMT has been shown to interact with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which modulates the availability of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a COMT cofactor. Variations in MTHFR have been associated with preeclampsia. By accounting for allelic variation in both genes, the role of COMT has been clarified. COMT allelic variation is linked to enzyme activity and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs6269, rs4633, rs4680, and rs4818) form haplotypes that characterize COMT activity. We tested for association between COMT haplotypes and the MTHFR 677 C→T polymorphism and preeclampsia risk in 1103 Chilean maternal-fetal dyads. The maternal ACCG COMT haplotype was associated with reduced risk for preeclampsia (P = 0.004), and that risk increased linearly from low to high activity haplotypes (P = 0.003). In fetal samples, we found that the fetal ATCA COMT haplotype and the fetal MTHFR minor “T” allele interact to increase preeclampsia risk (p = 0.022). We found a higher than expected number of patients with preeclampsia with both the fetal risk alleles alone (P = 0.052) and the fetal risk alleles in combination with a maternal balancing allele (P<0.001). This non-random distribution was not observed in controls (P = 0.341 and P = 0.219, respectively). Our findings demonstrate a role for both maternal and fetal COMT in preeclampsia and highlight the importance of including allelic variation in MTHFR. PMID:21304959

  11. Should I stay or should I go? Initiation of joint travel in mother-infant dyads of two chimpanzee communities in the wild.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Marlen; Wittig, Roman M; Pika, Simone

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that great apes communicate via intentionally produced, elaborate and flexible gestural means. Yet relatively little is known about the most fundamental steps into this communicative endeavour-communicative exchanges of mother-infant dyads and gestural acquisition; perhaps because the majority of studies concerned captive groups and single communities in the wild only. Here, we report the first systematic, quantitative comparison of communicative interactions of mother-infant dyads in two communities of wild chimpanzees by focusing on a single communicative function: initiation of carries for joint travel. Over 156 days of observation, we recorded 442 actions, 599 cases of intentional gesture production, 51 multi-modal combinations and 80 vocalisations in the Kanyawara community, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the Taï South community, Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Our results showed that (1) mothers and infants differed concerning the signal frequency and modality employed to initiate joint travel, (2) concordance rates of mothers' gestural production were relatively low within but also between communities, (3) infant communicative development is characterised by a shift from mainly vocal to gestural means, and (4) chimpanzee mothers adjusted their signals to the communicative level of their infants. Since neither genetic channelling nor ontogenetic ritualization explains our results satisfactorily, we propose a revised theory of gestural acquisition, social negotiation, in which gestures are the output of social shaping, shared understanding and mutual construction in real time by both interactants. PMID:26833496

  12. "New beginnings" in South African shelters for the homeless: piloting of a group psychotherapy intervention for high-risk mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Bain, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The New Beginnings program was developed at the Anna Freud Centre and originally piloted in Her Majesty Prisons in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore the use of this manualized parent-infant psychotherapy group model in an African setting with high-risk mother-infant dyads, and describes the implementation and investigation of this 12-week group psychotherapy intervention in two Johannesburg shelters for homeless women. The measures used to investigate treatment efficacy were the Parent Development Interview (A. Slade, J.L. Aber, I. Bresgi, B. Berger, & M. Kaplan,), the Emotional Availability Scales (Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde,), the Kessler-10 (R.C. Kessler et al.,), and the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development (D. Luiz et al., . At pretesting, infants exhibited delays in a number of developmental areas, and mothers showed high levels of depression and generally low capacities for reflective function. While significant shifts in the mothers' capacities for reflective function were not found in the treatment condition, significant shifts were found in the infants' speech abilities and in the mothers' abilities to structure their interactions with their infants. This suggests that the program enabled mothers to become more sensitized to their infants' needs in interaction and that communication between mother and infant increased. The number of sessions attended by the dyads correlated with improvements made by the mothers and their infants. PMID:25798508

  13. The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

  14. Factors Affecting Co-Operative vs. Competitive Behavior in Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Gerald; Phelan, Joseph G.

    Theoretical interpretations of cooperation and competition are discussed in relation to motivational and situational determinants. It is suggested that the degree of competition exhibited in an interaction is an inverse function of the quantity of resources available, and that the effect of situational characteristics on cooperative behavior is…

  15. Promising fast energy transfer system via an easy synthesis: Bodipy-porphyrin dyads connected via a cyanuric chloride bridge, their synthesis, and electrochemical and photophysical investigations.

    PubMed

    Lazarides, Theodore; Charalambidis, Georgios; Vuillamy, Alexandra; Réglier, Marius; Klontzas, Emmanuel; Froudakis, Georgios; Kuhri, Susanne; Guldi, Dirk M; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G

    2011-09-19

    The boron dipyrrin (Bodipy) chromophore was combined with either a free-base or a Zn porphyrin moiety (H(2)P and ZnP respectively), via an easy synthesis involving a cyanuric chloride bridging unit, yielding dyads Bodipy-H(2)P (4) and Bodipy-ZnP (5). The photophysical properties of Bodipy-H(2)P (4) and Bodipy-ZnP (5) were investigated by UV-Vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The comparison of the absorption spectra and cyclic voltammograms of dyads Bodipy-H(2)P (4) and Bodipy-ZnP (5) with those of their model compounds Bodipy, H(2)P, and ZnP shows that the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the constituent chromophores are essentially retained in the dyads indicating negligible interaction between them in the ground state. In addition, luminescence and transient absorption experiments show that excitation of the Bodipy unit in Bodipy-H(2)P (4) and Bodipy-ZnP (5) into its first singlet excited state results in rapid Bodipy to porphyrin energy transfer-k(4) = 2.9 × 10(10) s(-1) and k(5) = 2.2 × 10(10) s(-1) for Bodipy-H(2)P (4) and Bodipy-ZnP (5), respectively-generating the first porphyrin-based singlet excited state. The porphyrin-based singlet excited states give rise to fluorescence or undergo intersystem crossing to the corresponding triplet excited states. The title complexes could also be used as precursors for further substitution on the third chlorine atom on the cyanuric acid moiety. PMID:21846119

  16. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of a new 1,8-naphthalimide dyad as detector for metal cations and protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staneva, Desislava; McKena, Mark; Bosch, Paula; Grabchev, Ivo

    2010-07-01

    A new dyad containing two 1,8-naphthalimides has been synthesized. N, N-Dimetylaminoethylamino group has been used as substituent at C-4 position of the 1,8-naphthalimide chromophore structure. The photophysical characteristics of the dyad have been investigated in organic solvents with different polarity. In acetonitrile solution the newly synthesized dyad enhance its fluorescent intensity in the presence of metal cations (Ni 2+, Co 2+, Cu 2+, Pb 2+, Zn 2+, Fe 3+) and protons due to quenching of photoinduced electron transfer.

  17. Rough-and-Tumble Play and the Regulation of Aggression: An Observational Study of Father–Child Play Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Flanders, Joseph L.; Leo, Vanessa; Paquette, Daniel; Pihl, Robert O.; Séguin, Jean R.

    2012-01-01

    Rough-and-tumble play (RTP) is a common form of play between fathers and children. It has been suggested that RTP can contribute to the development of selfregulation. This study addressed the hypothesis that the frequency of father–child RTP is related to the frequency of physically aggressive behavior in early childhood. This relationship was expected to be moderated by the dominance relationship between father and son during play. Eighty-five children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were videotaped during a free-play session with their fathers in their homes and questionnaire data was collected about father–child RTP frequency during the past year. The play dyads were rated for the degree to which the father dominated play interactions. A significant statistical interaction revealed that RTP frequency was associated with higher levels of physical aggression in children whose fathers were less dominant. These results indicate that RTP is indeed related to physical aggression, though this relationship is moderated by the degree to which the father is a dominant playmate. PMID:19431190

  18. A deformation energy-based model for predicting nucleosome dyads and occupancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoqing; Xing, Yongqiang; Zhao, Hongyu; Wang, Jianying; Shang, Yu; Cai, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosome plays an essential role in various cellular processes, such as DNA replication, recombination, and transcription. Hence, it is important to decode the mechanism of nucleosome positioning and identify nucleosome positions in the genome. In this paper, we present a model for predicting nucleosome positioning based on DNA deformation, in which both bending and shearing of the nucleosomal DNA are considered. The model successfully predicted the dyad positions of nucleosomes assembled in vitro and the in vitro map of nucleosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Applying the model to Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, we achieved satisfactory results. Our data also show that shearing energy of nucleosomal DNA outperforms bending energy in nucleosome occupancy prediction and the ability to predict nucleosome dyad positions is attributed to bending energy that is associated with rotational positioning of nucleosomes. PMID:27053067

  19. A deformation energy-based model for predicting nucleosome dyads and occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guoqing; Xing, Yongqiang; Zhao, Hongyu; Wang, Jianying; Shang, Yu; Cai, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosome plays an essential role in various cellular processes, such as DNA replication, recombination, and transcription. Hence, it is important to decode the mechanism of nucleosome positioning and identify nucleosome positions in the genome. In this paper, we present a model for predicting nucleosome positioning based on DNA deformation, in which both bending and shearing of the nucleosomal DNA are considered. The model successfully predicted the dyad positions of nucleosomes assembled in vitro and the in vitro map of nucleosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Applying the model to Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, we achieved satisfactory results. Our data also show that shearing energy of nucleosomal DNA outperforms bending energy in nucleosome occupancy prediction and the ability to predict nucleosome dyad positions is attributed to bending energy that is associated with rotational positioning of nucleosomes. PMID:27053067

  20. Worker-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals: Perpetrator Characteristics and Common Dyads.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Lydia E; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-02-01

    Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator-target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899

  1. Charge separation and charge recombination photophysical studies in a series of perylene-C60 linear and cyclic dyads.

    PubMed

    Pla, S; Niemi, M; Martín-Gomis, L; Fernández-Lázaro, F; Lemmetyinen, H; Tkachenko, N V; Sastre-Santos, Á

    2016-01-27

    A new donor-acceptor doubly bridged perylenediimide-fullerene dyad (PDI-C60, ), where the perylenediimide (PDI) acts as a donor, has been synthesized and studied by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. The undergoes an electron transfer (ET) in both polar and non-polar media under photo-excitation. Structurally the dyad resembles four other recently studied dyads (R. K. Dubey et al., Chem. Eur. J., 2013, 19, 6791-6806). Analysis of the ET reactions in this series of dyads was carried out in frame of both classic and semi-quantum ET theories. The result of the analysis for suggests that the electronic coupling for the ET reaction is roughly 0.005 eV, internal reorganization energy is 0.16 eV, and outer sphere or solvent reorganization energy is 0.5 and 0.3 eV in benzonitrile and toluene, respectively. PMID:26752333

  2. Custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads: Pathways among marital distress, grandparent dysphoria, parenting practice, and grandchild adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2009-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on grandchildren's adjustment difficulties were mediated by dysfunctional parenting. The effects of family-related contextual forces on grandchildren's adjustment were also indirect through direct effects on grandparents’ psychological and marital distress. PMID:20454600

  3. Spectral, electrochemical, and photophysical studies of a magnesium porphyrin-fullerene dyad.

    PubMed

    El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Araki, Yasuyuki; Ito, Osamu; Gadde, Suresh; McCarty, Amy L; Karr, Paul A; Zandler, Melvin E; D'Souza, Francis

    2005-09-01

    A covalently linked magnesium porphyrin-fullerene (MgPo-C60) dyad was synthesized and its spectral, electrochemical, molecular orbital, and photophysical properties were investigated and the results were compared to the earlier reported zinc porphyrin-fullerene (ZnPo-C60) dyad. The ab initio B3LYP/3-21G(*) computed geometry and electronic structure of the dyad predicted that the HOMO and LUMO are mainly localized on the MgP and C60 units, respectively. In o-dichlorobenzene containing 0.1 M (n-Bu)4NClO4, the synthesized dyad exhibited six one-electron reversible redox reactions within the potential window of the solvent. The oxidation and reduction potentials of the MgP and C60 units indicate stabilization of the charge-separated state. The emission, monitored by both steady-state and time-resolved techniques, revealed efficient quenching of the singlet excited state of the MgP and C60 units. The quenching pathway of the singlet excited MgP moiety involved energy transfer to the appended C60 moiety, generating the singlet excited C60 moiety, from which subsequent charge-separation occurred. The charge recombination rates, k(CR), evaluated from nanosecond transient absorption studies, were found to be 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than the charge separation rate, k(CS). In o-dichlorobenzene, the lifetime of the radical ion-pair, MgPo*+-C60*-, was found to be 520 ns which is longer than that of ZnPo*+-C60*- indicating better charge stabilization in MgPo-C60. Additional prolongation of the lifetime of MgPo*+-C60*- was achieved by coordinating nitrogenous axial ligands. The solvent effect in controlling the rates of forward and reverse electron transfer is also investigated. PMID:16240027

  4. Post-Disaster Mental Health Among Parent–Child Dyads After a Major Earthquake in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Juth, Vanessa; Seyle, D. Conor; Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Tan, Edwin T.

    2015-01-01

    The interdependent adjustment of children and their parents following disasters has been well documented. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to provide an appropriate analytical framework for examining how family members may contribute to each other’s post-disaster mental health. Independent self-reports were collected from parent–child dyads (n=397) residing in a rural community in Indonesia that was devastated by a major earthquake. Elementary school children (M=10 years; 51 % female) and one of their parents (M=41 years; 73 % female) each reported on their disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and general distress. The APIM was used to examine mental health within dyads and moderation by gender across dyads. Children reported lower disaster exposure and fewer PTS symptoms, but similar general distress levels, as their parents. Children’s and parents’ disaster-specific PTS symptoms were the strongest predictor of their own general distress. Parents’ PTS symptoms were associated with children’s general distress (b=0.14, p<0.001), but children’s PTS symptoms were not associated with parents’ general distress (b=−0.02, p>0.05). Findings were not moderated by parents’ or children’s gender. Although children and parents may respond differently to natural disasters, they may be best understood as a dyad. APIM analyses provide new evidence suggesting a unidirectional path of influence from parents’ disaster-related symptomatology to children’s general mental health. Dyadic approaches to understanding mental health and treating symptoms of distress among disaster survivors and their families following trauma are encouraged. PMID:25851238

  5. Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. II. Recoupled pair bond dyads in carbon and sulfur difluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, Thom H. Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Xu, Lu T.

    2015-01-21

    Formation of a bond between a second ligand and a molecule with a recoupled pair bond results in a recoupled pair bond dyad. We examine the recoupled pair bond dyads in the a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2}, which are formed by the addition of a fluorine atom to the a{sup 4}Σ{sup −} states of CF and SF, both of which possess recoupled pair bonds. The two dyads are very different. In SF{sub 2}, the second FS–F bond is very strong (D{sub e} = 106.3 kcal/mol), the bond length is much shorter than that in the SF(a{sup 4}Σ{sup −}) state (1.666 Å versus 1.882 Å), and the three atoms are nearly collinear (θ{sub e} = 162.7°) with only a small barrier to linearity (0.4 kcal/mol). In CF{sub 2}, the second FC–F bond is also very strong (D{sub e} = 149.5 kcal/mol), but the bond is only slightly shorter than that in the CF(a{sup 4}Σ{sup −}) state (1.314 Å versus 1.327 Å), and the molecule is strongly bent (θ{sub e} = 119.0°) with an 80.5 kcal/mol barrier to linearity. The a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2} illustrate the fundamental differences between recoupled pair bond dyads formed from 2s and 3p lone pairs.

  6. Effect of geometrical orientation on the charge transfer energetics of supramolecular (tetraphenyl)-porphyrin/fullerens dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguin, Marco; Zope, Rajendra; Baruah, Tunna

    2013-03-01

    We present our study of several low lying charge-transfer (CT) excitation energies for a widely used donor-acceptor system composed of a porphyrin-fullerene pair. The dyad systems consist of C60 and C70 acceptor systems coupled to tetraphenyl-porphyrin (TPP) and tetraphenyl-(zinc)porphyrin (ZnTPP) donor systems in a co-facial orientation. We find that replacing C60 by C70 in a given dyad may increase the lowest charge transfer excitation energy by about 0.27 eV, whereas varying the donor in these complexes had marginal effect on the lowest charge transfer excitation energy. Additionally, we examined the effect of geometrical orientation on the CT energy by calculating several CT excited state energies for an end-on orientation of the porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The CT excitation energies are larger for the end-on orientation in comparison to the co-facial orientation by 0.6 eV - 0.75 eV. The difference is attributed to a reduced exciton binding energy in going from the co-facial to the end-on orientation. Supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the US Department of Energy.

  7. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d) staying active, and (e) recognizing emotions and behaviors. Results of the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention protocols are also presented. Design and Methods: Caregiving dyads were randomly assigned to participate in the intervention. Participants in the treatment condition were asked to complete a series of evaluation questions after each intervention session and an overall evaluation of the program. Data were also collected from the intervention specialists who implemented the protocols. Results: Overall, the evaluation data indicated that the content and process of the intervention were viewed as highly acceptable and feasible by both participants and intervention specialists. Implications: This article highlights the merit of using a strength-based approach for working with caregiving dyads with dementia and how a single intervention protocol can be used to address the goals of both care partners. Furthermore, the intervention program was found to be highly acceptable and feasible, which is an important aspect of developing dyadic protocols. PMID:19808841

  8. Remote Control by π-Conjugation of the Emissive Properties of Fischer Carbene-BODIPY Dyads.

    PubMed

    Chu, Gong M; Guerrero-Martínez, Andrés; Ramírez de Arellano, Carmen; Fernández, Israel; Sierra, Miguel A

    2016-03-21

    The synthesis, structure, and complete characterization of mono- and bimetallic dyads joining Fischer carbene complexes and BODIPY chromophores are reported. In these organometallic species, the Fischer carbene complex is attached to the BODIPY moiety through a p-aminophenyl group linked at the C8 carbon atom of the BODIPY core. The photophysical properties, namely the corresponding UV/vis absorption and emission spectra of these new metal-carbene complexes, are analyzed and discussed. It is found that whereas the absorption of the considered dyads strongly resembles that of the parent 4-anilinyl-substituted BODIPY, the fluorescence emission is significantly reduced in these species, very likely as a result of a Förster-type energy transfer mechanism. At variance, the replacement of the pentacarbonyl-metal(0) fragment by a carbonyl group leads to high fluorescence emission intensity. In addition, the emissive properties of the BODIPY core in these organometallic dyads can be tuned by remote groups by means of π-conjugation, as supported by density functional theory calculations. PMID:26938956

  9. Effects of psychosocial variables in the similarity and interdependence of physical activity levels among adolescent best friend dyads.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vítor P; Gabbard, Carl; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2016-05-01

    Given that physical activity (PA) tends to decrease with age during adolescence, addressing factors that affect change is important. This study examined the similarity and interdependence of PA as influenced by psychosocial factors among adolescent best friend dyads. A total of 660 adolescents, representing 330 best friend dyads, completed questionnaires with regard to PA, sitting time, perceived exercise benefits and barriers, physical self-perception and social support for PA. Dyads were also identified as reciprocal and non-reciprocal best friends; reciprocal means that both considered each other best friends and non-reciprocal were those in which only one considered the other a best friend. Data were analysed using a hierarchical linear model framework. Results indicated significant similarities between reciprocal best friend dyads for PA and sitting time, and for sitting time in non-reciprocal best friends (P values <.01). Psychosocial variables were associated with PA in reciprocal best friend dyads and with sitting time in reciprocal and non-reciprocal best friend dyads. Best friend gender, regular sports practice of the person, perceived exercise barriers of the best friend and best friend social support were the best predictors for PA. PMID:26238302

  10. Supramolecular BODIPY-Zn(II)-bisporphyrin dyad and trinitrofluorenone encapsulated triad as models of antenna-reaction center: synthesis, structure and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Pritam; Chaudhary, Arvind; Rath, Sankar Prasad

    2013-09-14

    We describe the synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of the dyads Zn2DEP·TNF (1) and Zn2DEP·2Py-BDP (2) and triad Zn2DEP·2Py-BDP·TNF (3), which enable us to investigate the changes in the spectroscopic properties upon the axial coordination of pyridine substituted bodipy (Py-BDP) to Zn2DEP in the dyads and the further encapsulation of TNF in the triad. Zn2DEP·TNF (1) is structurally characterized while the other compounds, Py-BDP, 2 and 3, are geometrically optimized using DFT in the absence of X-ray crystallography. It has been found that the encapsulated TNF guest within the bisporphyrin cavity is involved in strong π-π interactions with the host resulting in robust host-guest assemblies that also retain the structural integrity in solution for a long time. The association constants, K, between the host and guests are calculated at 298 K by measuring the change in the fluorescence emission in solution and are found to be 1.0 × 10(7) M(-2) for the 1 : 2 binding in 2 and 1.2 × 10(3) M(-1) for the 1 : 1 binding in 3. The solution (1)H NMR spectrum of the supramolecular dyad 2 shows an upfield shift of the Py-BDP protons due to the strong ring current of the porphyrin rings. Similarly, upon the encapsulation of TNF in triad 3, the guest protons undergo an upfield shift owing to the ring current effect. Electrochemical studies of dyad 2 indicate that the Py-BDP and Zn-bisporphyrin subunits in the dyads interact very weakly. The negative and positive shifts of the reduction and oxidation potentials indicate that it is difficult to reduce/oxidize the encapsulated complex 3. The steady state emission spectrum shows that the fluorescence intensity of the axially coordinated Py-BDP in 2 (excited at 500 nm) is remarkably quenched in comparison to free Py-BDP due to efficient photoinduced intramolecular singlet-to-singlet energy transfer from the excited state of Py-BDP to the zinc-bisporphyrin in 2. The remarkable quenching of the fluorescence intensity of Py-BDP upon excitation at 500 nm in 3 is due to photoinduced electron transfer from the excited states of Py-BDP to TNF, which is also thermodynamically favorable. The location of the electron densities on the HOMO and LUMO further support the formation of a charge-separated state in which the zinc-bisporphyrin acts as an electron donor whilst TNF acts as an electron acceptor in the supramolecular triad 3. The electrochemically evaluated HOMO-LUMO gap also maintains a good agreement with the computed HOMO-LUMO gap. PMID:23860746

  11. Examining "fat talk" experimentally in a female dyad: how are women influenced by another woman's body presentation style?

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katheryn L; Martz, Denise M; Curtin, Lisa A; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-06-01

    Fat talk, the verbal dissatisfaction that women express about their bodies, was studied in a female dyad whereby participants interacted with a female confederate who either self-derogated, self-accepted, or self-aggrandized. A 2 (participant body esteem: high vs. low) x3 (confederate style of body image presentation) design was used. Results revealed that participants' public disclosure of their body image varied according to confederate's style. Consistent with a reciprocity effect, participants disclosed the lowest public body image ratings in the self-derogate condition, with moderate ratings in the self-accept condition, and highest ratings in the self-aggrandize condition. Moreover, participants with low compared to high body esteem stated lower public body image. Participants' judgments of the confederates' likeability did not vary as a function of the confederate's body presentational style. Findings support the recursive nature of the social psychology of body image such that personal body image dissatisfaction is partially influenced by fat talk social norms. PMID:18089261

  12. Maternal recasts and activity variations: a comparison of mother-child dyads involving children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Stefano; de Weck, Geneviève; Salazar Orvig, Anne; da Silva Genest, Christine; Rahmati, Somayeh

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated maternal recast and the children's responses comparing dyads made up of a mother and a child with typical language development (TD) or a child with specific language impairment (SLI). More specifically, this article deals with the influence of the type of activity being carried out on the number and types of maternal recasts. A sample of 17 French-speaking children with SLI (age 5 to 7 years) matched with 17 TD same-age peers was observed in interaction with their mother during four different activities (joint reading, symbolic play, question guessing game and clue guessing game). The results showed that group and activity had an impact on the number and type of recasts. Mothers of children with SLI offered more recasts than mothers of TD children. The former preferred phonological recasts whereas the latter preferred lexical ones. Moreover, recasts were more frequently used in joint reading than in other activities. Regarding the children's responses, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Children with SLI took up the maternal proposition more frequently after a lexical recast than after a recast of another type. The findings provide evidence for considering the features of the activities in clinical settings. PMID:23819678

  13. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    PubMed

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. PMID:24463037

  14. Echinocystic acid reduces reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Han, Jing; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Feng, Bin; Deng, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xin-Shang; Yang, Qi; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain has consistently been correlated with depression. Echinocystic acid (EA), a natural triterpone enriched in various herbs and used for medicinal purpose in many Asian countries, exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, little is known the effects of EA on the depression. In present study, we investigated the anti-depression activities in the mouse model of reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad. Reserpine (1 mg/kg subcutaneously daily for 3 days) caused significant depression-like behaviors and pain sensation. Subsequent treatment of EA (5 mg/kg intragastrically daily for 5 days) attenuated the reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad as shown by the increase of pain threshold and the behaviors in forced swimming test, tail suspension test, and open field test. Furthermore, treatment of EA reversed the decrease of biogenic amines (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) in the brain region of hippocampus, a structure involved in the formation of emotional disorders. Levels of serotonin receptor 5-HT1A were decreased and levels of 5-HT2A were increased in the reserpine-injected mice. Treatment of EA could restore the alterations of serotonin receptors. At the same time, the increase in GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, p-GluA1-Ser831, PSD-95 and CaMKII were integrated with the increase in caspase-3 and iNOS levels in the hippocampus of the reserpine-injected mice. EA significantly reversed the changes of above proteins. However, EA did not affect the levels of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors and the total levels of GluA1 and p-GluA1-Ser845. Our study provides strong evidence that EA attenuates reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad partially through regulating the biogenic amines levels and GluN2B receptors in the hippocampus. PMID:26729203

  15. Syntheses, electrochemistry, and photodynamics of ferrocene-azadipyrromethane donor--acceptor dyads and triads.

    PubMed

    Amin, Anu N; El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Subbaiyan, Navaneetha K; Zandler, Melvin E; Supur, Mustafa; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; D'Souza, Francis

    2011-09-01

    A near-IR-emitting sensitizer, boron-chelated tetraarylazadipyrromethane, has been utilized as an electron acceptor to synthesize a series of dyads and triads linked with a well-known electron donor, ferrocene. The structural integrity of the newly synthesized dyads and triads was established by spectroscopic, electrochemical, and computational methods. The DFT calculations revealed a 'molecular clip'-type structure for the triads wherein the donor and acceptor entities were separated by about 14 Å. Differential pulse voltammetry combined with spectroelectrochemical studies have revealed the redox states and estimated the energies of the charge-separated states. Free-energy calculations revealed the charge separation from the covalently linked ferrocene to the singlet excited ADP to yield Fc(+)-ADP(•-) to be energetically favorable. Consequently, the steady-state emission studies revealed quantitative quenching of the ADP fluorescence in all of the investigated dyads and triads. Femtosecond laser flash photolysis studies provided concrete evidence for the occurrence of photoinduced electron transfer in these donor-acceptor systems by providing spectral proof for formation of ADP radical anion (ADP(•-)) which exhibits a diagnostic absorption band in the near-IR region. The kinetics of charge separation and charge recombination measured by monitoring the rise and decay of the ADP(•-) band revealed ultrafast charge separation in these molecular systems. The charge-separation performance of the triads with two ferrocenes and a fluorophenyl-modified ADP macrocycle was found to be superior. Nanosecond transient absorption studies revealed the charge-recombination process to populate the triplet ADP as well as the ground state. PMID:21793546

  16. Probing the Dipolar Coupling in a Heterospin Endohedral Fullerene-Phthalocyanine Dyad.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shen; Yamamoto, Masanori; Briggs, G Andrew D; Imahori, Hiroshi; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos

    2016-02-01

    Paramagnetic endohedral fullerenes and phthalocyanine (Pc) complexes are promising building blocks for molecular quantum information processing, for which tunable dipolar coupling is required. We have linked these two spin qubit candidates together and characterized the resulting electron paramagnetic resonance properties, including the spin dipolar coupling between the fullerene spin and the copper spin. Having interpreted the distance-dependent coupling strength quantitatively and further discussed the antiferromagnetic aggregation effect of the CuPc moieties, we demonstrate two ways of tuning the dipolar coupling in such dyad systems: changing the spacer group and adjusting the solution concentration. PMID:26745202

  17. Estimating time-varying RSA to examine psychophysiological linkage of marital dyads.

    PubMed

    Gates, Kathleen M; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Sandsten, Maria; Blandon, Alysia Y

    2015-08-01

    One of the primary tenets of polyvagal theory dictates that parasympathetic influence on heart rate, often estimated by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), shifts rapidly in response to changing environmental demands. The current standard analytic approach of aggregating RSA estimates across time to arrive at one value fails to capture this dynamic property within individuals. By utilizing recent methodological developments that enable precise RSA estimates at smaller time intervals, we demonstrate the utility of computing time-varying RSA for assessing psychophysiological linkage (or synchrony) in husband-wife dyads using time-locked data collected in a naturalistic setting. PMID:25851933

  18. [Multidisciplinary care during peripartum: mother-baby dyad in the center of the relational constellations].

    PubMed

    Girard, E; Ortiz, N; Alberque, C; Almeida Heymans, A; Epiney, M; Canuto, A; Weber, K

    2013-02-13

    Pregnancy and new motherhood may be crisis and vulnerability periods and therefore increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. Liaison psychiatry plays a major role in the first psychiatric evaluation of mothers in order to specify a diagnosis and to initiate a treatment when necessary. This article describes the care of mothers suffering from peripartum psychiatric disorders by the liaison psychiatry in the maternity ward, an outpatient practice, as well as an in-patient care unit where mother and baby can stay together. The multidisciplinary approach and its constellation around the mother-baby dyad are detailed and two clinical cases are reported. PMID:23477067

  19. Autoregulation of fos: the dyad symmetry element as the major target of repression.

    PubMed Central

    Knig, H; Ponta, H; Rahmsdorf, U; Bscher, M; Schnthal, A; Rahmsdorf, H J; Herrlich, P

    1989-01-01

    Fos and Jun co-operatively repress the fos promoter. Removal of all putative Fos/Jun binding sites from the fos promoter neither obliterates the repression by Fos/Jun in transient cotransfection experiments in NIH3T3 cells nor the turn-off kinetics of serum-induced fos expression in stably transfected NIH3T3 cells. The dyad symmetry element (DSE) suffices to subject a promoter to this type of repression. However, one of the putative Fos/Jun binding sites (-292 to -299 and thus located immediately adjacent to the DSE), determines the very low level of basal expression. Images PMID:2511006

  20. A Randomized Trial of a Representational Intervention for Cancer Pain: Does Targeting the Dyad Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Sandra E.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Donovan, Heidi S.; Ameringer, Suzanne W.; Hughes, Susan; Pe-Romashko, Klaren; Wang, Ko-Kung

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy in overcoming attitudinal barriers to reporting cancer pain and using analgesics of an educational intervention presented to patients accompanied by a significant other (SO) compared to patients alone. Design Patient-SO pairs (N=161) were randomized to the Dyad condition (patient and SO received the intervention), Solo condition (patient received the intervention), or care-as-usual. Dyad and Solo conditions received the intervention at baseline, and two- and four-weeks later. Main Outcome Measures Patients and SOs attitudes about analgesic use and patients’ pain outcomes (pain severity, pain relief, interference with life, negative mood, and global quality of life [QOL]) at baseline (T1), five weeks later (T2), and nine weeks later (T3). Results Completers’ analyses revealed no significant differences between groups at T2. At T3, patients in the Dyad and the Solo groups showed greater decreases in attitudinal barriers compared to controls. T1-T3 changes in patients’ barriers mediated between the Dyad and Solo interventions and pain severity, pain relief, pain interference, negative mood, and global QOL. Conclusion The intervention was no more efficacious when it was presented to dyads than to patients alone. Conditions under which to include SOs in interventions need to be determined. PMID:19751085

  1. An ionic charge-transfer dyad prepared cost-effectively from a tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate anion and a TMPyP cation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li-Jun; Huo, Peng; Li, Yan-Hong; Hou, Jin-Le; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie

    2016-01-20

    Great progress has been made in combining a TTF moiety with a porphyrin unit by covalent bonds, but only a few examples were reported in which TTF and porphyrin assembled by noncovalent interactions. In contrast to the energy- and time-consuming synthetic procedures for the covalent system, the assembly of a non-covalent ionic system would be a cost-effective way to construct donor-acceptor ensembles. Herein a new type of ionic TTF-porphyrin dyad is obtained. A methylated tetra(4-pyridyl) porphyrin (5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin, TMPyP) is selected as the cation, and TTF-bicarboxylate (L(1)) or TTF-tetracarboxylate (L(2)) is used as the anion. Crystal structures of two TTF-TMPyP ionic D-A compounds, TMPyP-(HL(1))4·3H2O () and TMPyP-(H2L(2))2·5H2O (), were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The strong ionic interaction enhances the charge-transfer between the regular mixed-stacking donors and acceptors, which are investigated comprehensively by spectral, electrochemical and theoretical studies. The variation in properties between L(1) and L(2) is of great advantage to understand the influence factors for charge-transfer. The charge-transfer properties can be modulated not only by the nature of the donor or the acceptor, but also the cation-anion ratio in the salt, which shows great flexibility of the D-A ionic dyad in the design and preparation of new charge-transfer systems. PMID:26732050

  2. Fluorescent photoswitching of a naphthopyran-benzimidazole dyad with high-degree fluorescent modulation within poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuangqing; Si, Yanling; Tong, Cuiyan; Wang, Guang; Qi, Bin; Yang, Guochun

    2013-06-01

    A naphthopyran-bridge-benzimidazole dyad which exhibits both fluorescence and photochromism was synthesized and its fluorescence photoswitching was investigated. Irradiation with UV light induces the isomerization of the naphthopyran component to the corresponding merocyanine. The fluorescence of the dyad was switched reversibly between on and off upon UV irradiation and thermal bleaching of the naphthopyran. Using ultraviolet illumination a pattern was created on a polymethylmethacrylate doped film with the dyad. Thus either a non-destructive photoswitch or an image recording system becomes available. The measurement of redox potentials by cyclic voltammetry combined with electronic spectra and a molecular energy diagram of the individual naphthopyran and benzimidazole demonstrated that the transformation of naphthopyran induced energy and electron transfer from the fluorescent benzimidazole to the photochromic naphthopyran, a feature which was also supported by our DFT calculations.

  3. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and daughters such that mothers reported later expectations for the timing of behavioral autonomy than did daughters. Follow-up analyses indicated that findings appeared to be driven by maternal nativity, with dyads comprised of Mexico-born mothers reporting the latest age expectations for behavioral autonomy when compared with dyads comprised of U.S.-born mothers. Findings underscore the need to examine normative development among Latino adolescents and their families with a specific focus on how sociocultural characteristics can contribute to within-family differences. PMID:22093152

  4. Fluorophore(s) appended fullerene dyads and triads for probing photoinduced energy transfer: syntheses, electronic structure, and fluorescence studies.

    PubMed

    Deviprasad, Gollapalli R; Smith, Phillip M; Zandler, Melvin E; Rogers, Lisa M; D'Souza, Francis

    2006-01-01

    Fullerene, C(60) was functionalized to possess one or two fluorophore entities. The fluorophore-fullerene dyads thus synthesized contain either a naphthalene, pyrene, or fluorene entity while the triads contain either a pyrene or fluorene entity in addition to a naphthalene entity. The redox behavior of these dyads and triads were probed by cyclic voltammetric technique, while the geometry and electronic structures were deduced from ab initio B3LYP/3-21G(*) method. Steady-state emission studies revealed the occurrence of energy transfer from the singlet excited fluorophore to the fullerene entity in the case of the dyads while the occurrence of step-by-step sequential energy transfer is envisioned in the case of the triads. A better 'antenna-effect' owing to the extended range of excitation wavelength to induce energy transfer to the appended fullerene has been achieved in the case of the triads. PMID:16404521

  5. Broadband Two-Photon Absorption Characteristics of Highly Photostable Fluorenyl-Dicyanoethylenylated [60]Fullerene Dyads.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seaho; Wang, Min; Ji, Wei; Tan, Loon-Seng; Cooper, Thomas; Chiang, Long Y

    2016-01-01

    We synthesized four C60-(light-harvesting antenna) dyads C60 (>CPAF-Cn) (n = 4, 9, 12, or 18) 1-Cn for the investigation of their broadband nonlinear absorption effect. Since we have previously demonstrated their high function as two-photon absorption (2PA) materials at 1000 nm, a different 2PA wavelength of 780 nm was applied in the study. The combined data taken at two different wavelength ranges substantiated the broadband characteristics of 1-Cn. We proposed that the observed broadband absorptions may be attributed by a partial π-conjugation between the C60 > cage and CPAF-Cn moieties, via endinitrile tautomeric resonance, giving a resonance state with enhanced molecular conjugation. This transient state could increase its 2PA and excited-state absorption at 800 nm. In addition, a trend of concentration-dependent 2PA cross-section (σ₂ ) and excited-state absorption magnitude was detected showing a higher σ value at a lower concentration that was correlated to increasing molecular separation with less aggregation for dyads C60(>CPAF-C18) and C60(>CPAF-C₉), as better 2PA and excited-state absorbers. PMID:27187350

  6. Mother-Daughter Dyad Recruitment and Cancer Intervention Challenges in an African American Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ports, Katie; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn

    2014-01-01

    Developing an effective youth-based health messaging intervention for African American women, who remain disparately impacted by cancer, presents unique challenges. This paper reports on the challenges with recruiting familial dyads from predominantly low-income, African American neighborhoods, as well as the challenges associated with designing and implementing an upward-directed cancer screening intervention. We developed and pilot tested an educational workshop that provided adolescents with cancer screening information to share with their mother or female relative. Data from follow-up interviews and focus groups, as well as observation records regarding implementation obstacles highlight important lessons learned. The use of familial dyads as well as issues of access posed challenges for recruitment and follow-up. Workshop-related challenges stemmed from the approach, content and length. Finally, personal and environmental factors presented barriers to adolescent message delivery and adult follow-through. By identifying these challenges, we hope to influence and enable the future development of effective adolescent-initiated health messaging interventions. PMID:25489496

  7. Superior–subordinate dyads: Dependence of leader effectiveness on mutual reinforcement contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ram K.; Mawhinney, T. C.

    1991-01-01

    Task contingencies were modeled from bureaucratic organizations in which vague job descriptions provide incomplete contingency specifications. Response rates within dyads were examined using two nonsocial, two social, and two control contingencies. In the first social contingency, responses by the superior produced monetary reinforcement for a subordinate while the superior received no reinforcement from his subordinate. A second social contingency was identical to the first except that the subordinate's rate of responding determined the rate of reinforcement delivered to his superior. Within this contingency, mutual reinforcement occurred whenever rates of superior and subordinate responding were correlated. Two control contingencies were identical to the second social contingency except that either the superior or the subordinate received a rate of response-independent reinforcement virtually identical to the rate received during the second social contingency. Leadership, in this context, was the difference between rates of subordinate responding produced by a nonsocial contingency and rates produced by each of the two social contingencies. The two nonsocial contingencies supported almost no responding among subjects. The first social contingency produced minimal levels of leadership within every dyad. The second social contingency produced high levels of leadership. Response-independent reinforcement generally reduced or eliminated responding. PMID:16812640

  8. Photoinduced electron transfer processes in 1,8-naphthalimide-linker-phenothiazine dyads.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Won; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Sugimoto, Akira; Yoon, Ung Chan; Mariano, Patrick S; Majima, Tetsuro

    2006-06-15

    Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes of 1,8-naphthalimide-linker-phenothiazine (NI-L-PTZ) dyads have been investigated using the nanosecond- and picosecond-transient absorption measurements. Two kinds of linker were introduced, i.e., polymethylene-linked dyad (NI-C8-PTZ and NI-C11-PTZ) and a poly(ethyl ether)-linked one (NI-O-PTZ). The 355 nm pulsed laser excitation of NI-C8-PTZ, NI-C11-PTZ, and NI-O-PTZ in acetonitrile produced NI radical anion (NI*-) and PTZ radical cation (PTZ*+) with the absorption bands around 420 and 520 nm, respectively, through charge transfer from PTZ to NI in the singlet excited state (NI(S1)) as well as in the triplet excited states (NI(T1)) in acetonitrile. On the other hand, the charge transfer process occurred only from NI(S1) in nonpolar solvents. The rates of charge transfer and charge recombination processes largely depended on the solvent polarity and they are affected by the length of linkers and electronic coupling through polyether linker. The PET mechanism is discussed in terms of the free energy change for the charge transfer. PMID:16771366

  9. Discrepant Perspectives on Conflict Situations Among Urban Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    PubMed

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R; Jones, Vanya C; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-03-01

    Parents influence urban youths' violence-related behaviors. To provide effective guidance, parents should understand how youth perceive conflict, yet little empirical research has been conducted regarding parent and youth perceptions of conflict. The aims of this article are to (a) report on the nature of discrepancies in attribution of fault, (b) present qualitative data about the varying rationales for fault attribution, and (c) use quantitative data to identify correlates of discrepancy including report of attitudes toward violence, parental communication, and parents' messages about retaliatory violence. Interviews were conducted with 101 parent/adolescent dyads. The study population consisted of African American female caretakers (n = 92; that is, mothers, grandmothers, aunts) and fathers (n = 9) and their early adolescents (mean age = 13.6). A total of 53 dyads were discrepant in identifying instigators in one or both videos. When discrepancy was present, the parent was more likely to identify the actor who reacted to the situation as at fault. In the logistic regression models, parental attitudes about retaliatory violence were a significant correlate of discrepancy, such that as parent attitudes supporting retaliatory violence increased, the odds of discrepancy decreased. The results suggest that parents and adolescents do not always view conflict situations similarly, which may inhibit effective parent-child communication, parental advice, and discipline. Individuals developing and implementing family-based violence prevention interventions need to be cognizant of the complexity of fault attribution and design strategies to promote conversations around attribution of fault and effective conflict management. PMID:25535252

  10. Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Dyads: Short-Term Stability and Continuity from Variable-Centered and Person-Centered Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a prominent index of socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Can basic psychometric properties of EA be looked at from both variable (scale) and person (cluster) points of view in individuals and in dyads? Is EA stable and continuous over a short period of time? This methodological study shows significant…

  11. Resemblance of dietary intakes of snacks, sweets, fruit, and vegetables among mother-child dyads from low income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in low-income mother–child dyads. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from Head Start centers in Houston, Texas, and Birmingham, Alabama. Twenty-four-hour dietary ...

  12. The Role of Maternal Factors in Sibling Relationship Quality: A Multilevel Study of Multiple Dyads per Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and…

  13. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and…

  14. Resemblance of dietary intakes of snacks, sweets, fruit, and vegetables among mother-child dyads from low income families.

    PubMed

    Wroten, Kathryn C; O'Neil, Carol E; Stuff, Janice E; Liu, Yan; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in low-income mother-child dyads. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from Head Start centers in Houston, Texas and Birmingham, Alabama. Twenty four hour dietary recalls for one weekend day were collected from mother (mean 31.8 yrs [range: 20.1-72.4 yrs])-child (mean 4.4 yrs [range 2.8-5.8 yrs]) dyads (N=650). Means±SD were calculated for intake of food categories and energy. Pearson's partial correlation coefficients were used to detect associations between the intakes of the dyads. Main outcome measures were the correlations between the intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in the mother-child dyads. Partial correlations showed that children's intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy were all correlated with the mother's intake of these foods/energy (all p<0.001). Children's intake of fruit was correlated with the mother's intake of vegetables (p<0.001); children's energy intake was correlated with mother's intake of sweets, fruit, and vegetables (all p<0.001). It is important that food and nutrition professionals provide the guidance needed that encourages intake of nutrient-dense snacks and fruit and vegetables in mothers so they can model healthier food consumption behaviors for their children. PMID:22634195

  15. Short-Term Reliability and Continuity of Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Dyads across Contexts of Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Gini, Motti; Putnick, Diane L.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Painter, Kathleen M.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2006-01-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a prominent index of socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Is EA affected by context? In this methodological study, 34 mothers and their 2-year-olds were observed in 2 different settings (home vs. laboratory) 1 week apart. Significant cross-context reliability and continuity in EA as measured with the…

  16. Social Decision Schemes of the Same Dyads and Tetrads on Two Different Disjunctive Tasks. Educational Reports Umea, No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerbladh, Thor

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to test several social decision schemes to obtain plausible explanations of different group processes in solving different disjunctive tasks; and (2) to study both dyads and tetrads solving a eureka and a non-eureka disjunctive task. Social decision schemes theory assumes that a group decision is a joint…

  17. Joint Book-Reading Strategies in Middle-Class African American and White Mother-Toddler Dyads: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, William O.; Saunders, Dawn J.

    1999-01-01

    Twenty socioeconomically middle-class mother/toddler dyads (half White and half African American) were video recorded during joint book-reading activities. Unlike an earlier study, most book-reading behaviors were similar between the two groups, although the White group used significantly more labeling than the African-American group. Results…

  18. Fast transient absorption spectroscopy of the early events in photoexcited chiral benzophenone naphthalene dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Ruiz, Raul; Groeneveld, Michiel; van Stokkum, Ivo H. M.; Tormos, Rosa; Williams, René M.; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2006-09-01

    Photoinduced intra-molecular energy transfer in two ketoprofen(KP)-naproxol(NPX) diastereomers proceeds via two pathways. Very fast singlet-triplet energy transfer ( k = 1.2 × 10 11 s -1) from KP to NPX occurs for a small percentage (6%) and the major pathway is triplet-triplet energy transfer ( k ˜ 3 × 10 9 s -1). This was shown with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and global and target analysis. Whereas the NPX triplet decay is strongly stereospecific (ratio of 1.6), the NPX triplet state formation for both dyads is very similar (ratio of 1 for the fast process and 1.2 for the slower process).

  19. Revisiting the generation gap: exploring the relationships of parent/adult-child dyads.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Adam

    2004-01-01

    There is some evidence that older parents and their adult children may evaluate their relationships with each other in different ways. To date, we know little about what may account for these discrepancies. This investigation compares the perceptions of intergenerational solidarity among 2,590 adult-child/older-parent dyads from the National Survey of Families and Households. Further, this study examines a social structural model to test the relative contribution of individuals' sociodemographic and social structural positions to the correspondence between generational perceptions of solidarity. The findings indicate that there is a high degree of disagreement between how adult children and their parents view their relationship. Parents are more likely to report greater relationship quality, while children report greater contact and exchanges of assistance. While a number of variables influence the correspondence between generations, the strongest and most consistent predictors are sex, age, child's marital status, and residential proximity. PMID:15259880

  20. Preen secretions encode information on MHC similarity in certain sex-dyads in a monogamous seabird

    PubMed Central

    Leclaire, Sarah; van Dongen, Wouter F. D.; Voccia, Steeve; Merkling, Thomas; Ducamp, Christine; Hatch, Scott A.; Blanchard, Pierrick; Danchin, Étienne; Wagner, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are known to select mates to maximize the genetic diversity of their offspring in order to achieve immunity against a broader range of pathogens. Although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), it remains unknown whether they can use olfactory cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners. Here we combined gas chromatography data with genetic similarity indices based on MHC to test whether similarity in preen secretion chemicals correlated with MHC relatedness in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a species that preferentially mates with genetically dissimilar partners. We found that similarity in preen secretion chemicals was positively correlated with MHC relatedness in male-male and male-female dyads. This study provides the first evidence that preen secretion chemicals can encode information on MHC relatedness and suggests that odor-based mechanisms of MHC-related mate choice may occur in birds. PMID:25370306

  1. Cocaine Self-Administration in Social Dyads Using Custom-Built Operant Conditioning Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Ryan T.; Strickland, Justin C.; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditionally, the analysis of intravenous drug self-administration is limited to conditions in which subjects are tested in isolation. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because drug use in humans often occurs in the presence of others. Newmethod We used custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed social dyads visual, olfactory, auditory, and limited tactile contact while concurrently self-administering cocaine. Male rats were trained to respond according to a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement (with a limited hold) in order to determine if patterns of cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration became more similar over time in social pairs. Cocaine self-administration was tested across five days according to a 10-min fixed interval schedule (with a 5-min limited hold). Quarter-life values (time at which 25% of responses were emitted per interval) were analyzed using intraclass correlations. Results The total number of reinforcers obtained did not vary across the five days of testing; however, quarter-life values became progressively more similar between individuals within the social dyads. Comparison with existing methods Standard operant conditioning chambers are unable to assess responding in multiple animals due to their small size, the need to prevent subjects from responding on the lever of their partner, and the need to prevent infusion lines from entangling. By using custom-built social operant conditioning chambers, we assessed the effects of social contact on cocaine self-administration. Conclusion Social operant conditioning chambers can be used as a preclinical method to examine social influences on drug self-administration under conditions that approximate human substance use. PMID:25109902

  2. CenteringParenting: an innovative dyad model for group mother-infant care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Joanna; Rising, Sharon Schindler

    2013-01-01

    CenteringParenting is a group model that brings a cohort of 6 to 7 mothers and infants together for care during the first year of life. During 9 group sessions the clinician provides well-baby care and also attends to the health, development, and safety issues of the mother. Ideally, CenteringParenting provides continuity of care for a cohort of women who have received care in CenteringPregnancy, group prenatal care that is 10 sessions throughout the entire pregnancy and that leads to community building, better health outcomes, and increased satisfaction with prenatal care. The postpartum year affects the entire family, but especially the mother, who is redefining herself and her own personal goals. Issues of weight/body image, breastfeeding, depression, contraception, and relationship issues all may surface. In traditional care, health resources for support and intervention are frequently lacking or unavailable. Women's health clinicians also note the loss of contact with women they have followed during the prenatal period, often not seeing a woman again until she returns for another pregnancy. CenteringParenting recognizes that the health of the mother is tied to the health of the infant and that assessment and interventions are more appropriate and efficient when done in a dyad context. Facilitative leadership, rather than didactic education, encourages women to fully engage in their care, to raise issues of importance to them, and to discuss concerns within an atmosphere that allows for the surfacing of culturally appropriate values and beliefs. Implementing the model calls for system changes that are often significant. It also requires the building of a substantial team relationship among care providers. This overview describes the CenteringParenting mother-infant dyad care model with special focus on the mother and reviews the perspectives and experiences of staff from several practice sites. PMID:24406037

  3. GADEM: a genetic algorithm guided formation of spaced dyads coupled with an EM algorithm for motif discovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Leping

    2009-02-01

    Genome-wide analyses of protein binding sites generate large amounts of data; a ChIP dataset might contain 10,000 sites. Unbiased motif discovery in such datasets is not generally feasible using current methods that employ probabilistic models. We propose an efficient method, GADEM, which combines spaced dyads and an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Candidate words (four to six nucleotides) for constructing spaced dyads are prioritized by their degree of overrepresentation in the input sequence data. Spaced dyads are converted into starting position weight matrices (PWMs). GADEM then employs a genetic algorithm (GA), with an embedded EM algorithm to improve starting PWMs, to guide the evolution of a population of spaced dyads toward one whose entropy scores are more statistically significant. Spaced dyads whose entropy scores reach a pre-specified significance threshold are declared motifs. GADEM performed comparably with MEME on 500 sets of simulated "ChIP" sequences with embedded known P53 binding sites. The major advantage of GADEM is its computational efficiency on large ChIP datasets compared to competitors. We applied GADEM to six genome-wide ChIP datasets. Approximately, 15 to 30 motifs of various lengths were identified in each dataset. Remarkably, without any prior motif information, the expected known motif (e.g., P53 in P53 data) was identified every time. GADEM discovered motifs of various lengths (6-40 bp) and characteristics in these datasets containing from 0.5 to >13 million nucleotides with run times of 5 to 96 h. GADEM can be viewed as an extension of the well-known MEME algorithm and is an efficient tool for de novo motif discovery in large-scale genome-wide data. The GADEM software is available at (www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/software/GADEM/). PMID:19193149

  4. Influence of donor-acceptor distance variation on photoinduced electron and proton transfer in rhenium(I)-phenol dyads.

    PubMed

    Kuss-Petermann, Martin; Wolf, Hilke; Stalke, Dietmar; Wenger, Oliver S

    2012-08-01

    A homologous series of four molecules in which a phenol unit is linked covalently to a rhenium(I) tricarbonyl diimine photooxidant via a variable number of p-xylene spacers (n = 0-3) was synthesized and investigated. The species with a single p-xylene spacer was structurally characterized to get some benchmark distances. Photoexcitation of the metal complex in the shortest dyad (n = 0) triggers release of the phenolic proton to the acetonitrile/water solvent mixture; a H/D kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 2.0 ± 0.4 is associated with this process. Thus, the shortest dyad basically acts like a photoacid. The next two longer dyads (n = 1, 2) exhibit intramolecular photoinduced phenol-to-rhenium electron transfer in the rate-determining excited-state deactivation step, and there is no significant KIE in this case. For the dyad with n = 1, transient absorption spectroscopy provided evidence for release of the phenolic proton to the solvent upon oxidation of the phenol by intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer. Subsequent thermal charge recombination is associated with a H/D KIE of 3.6 ± 0.4 and therefore is likely to involve proton motion in the rate-determining reaction step. Thus, some of the longer dyads (n = 1, 2) exhibit photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), albeit in a stepwise (electron transfer followed by proton transfer) rather than concerted manner. Our study demonstrates that electronically strongly coupled donor-acceptor systems may exhibit significantly different photoinduced PCET chemistry than electronically weakly coupled donor-bridge-acceptor molecules. PMID:22809316

  5. Formation, spectral, electrochemical, and photochemical behavior of zinc N-confused porphyrin coordinated to imidazole functionalized fullerene dyads.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Francis; Smith, Phillip M; Rogers, Lisa; Zandler, Melvin E; Shafiqul Islam, D-M; Araki, Yasuyaki; Ito, Osamu

    2006-06-26

    Donor-acceptor dyads were constructed using zinc N-confused porphyrin (ZnNCP), a structural isomer of zinc tetraphenylporphyrin, as a donor, and fullerene as an electron acceptor. Two derivatives, pyridine-coordinated zinc N-confused porphyrin (Py:ZnNCP) and the zinc N-confused porphyrin dimer (ZnNCP-dimer) were utilized to form the dyads with an imidazole-appended fulleropyrrolidine (C60Im). These porphyrin isomers formed well-defined 1:1 supramolecular dyads (C60Im:ZnNCP) via axial coordination. The dyads were characterized by optical absorption and emission, ESI-mass, 1H NMR, and electrochemical methods. The binding constant, K, was found to be 2.8 x 10(4) M(-1) for C60Im:ZnNCP. The geometric and electronic structure of C60Im:ZnNCP were probed by using DFT B3LYP/3-21G methods. The HOMO was found to be on the ZnNCP entity, while the LUMO was primarily on the fullerene entity. The electrochemical properties of C60Im:ZnNCP was probed using cyclic voltammetry in o-dichlorobenzene, 0.1 n-Bu4NClO4. The Py:ZnNCP was found to be easier to oxidize by over 340 mV compared to Py:ZnTPP. Upon dyad formation via axial coordination, the first oxidation revealed an anodic shift of nearly 90 mV. Evidence of photoinduced charge separation from the singlet excited ZnNCP to the appended fullerene was established from time-resolved emission and nanosecond transient absorption studies. PMID:16780327

  6. Time Resolved Spectroscopic Studies on a Novel Synthesized Photo-Switchable Organic Dyad and Its Nanocomposite Form in Order to Develop Light Energy Conversion Devices.

    PubMed

    Dutta Pal, Gopa; Paul, Abhijit; Yadav, Somnath; Bardhan, Munmun; De, Asish; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Jana, Aindrila; Ganguly, Tapan

    2015-08-01

    UV-vis absorption, steady state and time resolved spectroscopic investigations in pico and nanosecond time domain were made in the different environments on a novel synthesized dyad, 3-(2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (MNTMA) in its pristine form and when combined with gold (Au) nanoparticles i.e., in its nanocomposite structure. Both steady state and time resolved measurements coupled with the DFT calculations performed by using Gaussian 03 suit of software operated in the linux operating system show that though the dyad exhibits mainly the folded conformation in the ground state but on photoexcitation the nanocomposite form of dyad prefers to be in elongated structure in the excited state indicating its photoswitchable nature. Due to the predominancy of elongated isomeric form of the dyad in the excited state in presence of Au Nps, it appears that the dyad MNTMA may behave as a good light energy converter specially in its nanocomposite form. As larger charge separation rate (kcs ~ 4 x 10(8) s-1) is found relative to the rate associated with the energy wasting charge recombination processes (kcR ~ 3 x 10(5) s-1) in the nanocomposite form of the dyad, it demonstrates the suitability of constructing the efficient light energy conversion devices with Au-dyad hybrid nanomaterials. PMID:26369151

  7. Big Five predictors of behavior and perceptions in initial dyadic interactions: personality similarity helps extraverts and introverts, but hurts "disagreeables".

    PubMed

    Cuperman, Ronen; Ickes, William

    2009-10-01

    The authors used the unstructured dyadic interaction paradigm to examine the effects of gender and the Big Five personality traits on dyad members' behaviors and perceptions in 87 initial, unstructured interactions. Most of the significant Big Five effects (84%) were associated with the traits of Extraversion and Agreeableness. There were several significant actor and partner effects for both of these traits. However, the most interesting and novel effects took the form of significant Actor x Partner interactions. Personality similarity resulted in relatively good initial interactions for dyads composed of 2 extraverts or 2 introverts, when compared with dissimilar (extravert-introvert) pairs. However, personality similarity resulted in uniquely poor initial interactions for dyads composed of 2 "disagreeables." In summary, the Big Five traits predict behavior and perceptions in initial dyadic interactions, not just in the form of actor and partner "main effects" but also in the form of Actor x Partner interactions. PMID:19785485

  8. Joint attention in parent-child dyads involving children with selective mutism: a comparison between anxious and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Matilda E; Tasker, Susan L; Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela E; Edison, Shannon; Pierre, Jeff St; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2011-02-01

    Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint attention measures coded from direct observations with their parent during an unstructured free play task and two structured tasks. As predicted, the SM dyads established significantly fewer episodes of joint attention through parental initiation acts than the MA and CC dyads during the structured tasks. Findings suggest that children with SM may withdraw from their parents during stressful situations, thus missing out on opportunities for learning other coping skills. We discuss the implications of the present findings for understanding the maintenance and treatment of SM. PMID:20960051

  9. Photoinduced electron transfer in phenothiazine and pyrene based dyades studied by picosecond time-gated Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.; Kurzawa, J.; Stockmann, A.; Engl, R.; Daub, J.; Matousek, P.; Towrie, M.

    2001-11-01

    Picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman (TR 3) spectroscopy was applied to investigate the photoinduced electron transfer in dyades employing phenothiazine as electron donor and pyrene as electron acceptor. Because the vibrational spectra of the pyrene excited state and the pyrene radical anion exhibit pronounced differences, the occurrence of photoinduced electron transfer can be proven beyond doubt for those derivatives, for which estimates yield ΔGet<0.

  10. Surrogate utility estimation by long-term partners and unfamiliar dyads

    PubMed Central

    Tunney, Richard J.; Ziegler, Fenja V.

    2015-01-01

    To what extent are people able to make predictions about other people's preferences and values?We report two experiments that present a novel method assessing some of the basic processes in surrogate decision-making, namely surrogate-utility estimation. In each experiment participants formed dyads who were asked to assign utilities to health related items and commodity items, and to predict their partner's utility judgments for the same items. In experiment one we showed that older adults in long-term relationships were able to accurately predict their partner's wishes. In experiment two we showed that younger adults who were relatively unfamiliar with one another were also able to predict other people's wishes. Crucially we demonstrated that these judgments were accurate even after partialling out each participant's own preferences indicating that in order to make surrogate utility estimations people engage in perspective-taking rather than simple anchoring and adjustment, suggesting that utility estimation is not the cause of inaccuracy in surrogate decision-making. The data and implications are discussed with respect to theories of surrogate decision-making. PMID:25859227

  11. Aggregation-Induced Emission from Fluorophore-Quencher Dyads with Long-Lived Luminescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biao; Sun, Xingxing; Evans, Ruffin E; Zhou, Rui; Demas, James N; Trindle, Carl O; Zhang, Guoqing

    2015-08-20

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) is an important photophysical phenomenon in molecular materials and has found broad applications in optoelectronics, bioimaging, and chemosensing. Currently, the majority of reported AIE-active molecules are based on either propeller-shaped rotamers or donor-acceptor molecules with strong intramolecular charge-transfer states. Here, we report a new design motif, where a fluorophore is covalently tethered to a quencher, to expand the scope of AIE-active materials. The fluorophore-quencher dyad (FQD) is nonemissive in solutions due to photoinduced electron-transfer quenching but becomes luminescent in the solid state. The intrinsic emission lifetimes are found to be within the microseconds domain at both room and low temperatures. We performed single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurement for each of the FQDs as well as theoretical calculations to account for the possible origin of the long-lived AIE. These FQDs represent a new class of AIE-active molecules with potential applications in organic optoelectronics. PMID:26218805

  12. Ultrafast Electronic Energy Transfer Beyond the Weak Coupling Limit in a Proximal but Orthogonal Molecular Dyad.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Gordon J; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Benniston, Andrew C; Harriman, Anthony; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2015-12-24

    Electronic energy transfer (EET) from a donor to an acceptor is an important mechanism that controls the light harvesting efficiency in a wide variety of systems, including artificial and natural photosynthesis and contemporary photovoltaic technologies. The detailed mechanism of EET at short distances or large angles between the donor and acceptor is poorly understood. Here the influence of the orientation between the donor and acceptor on EET is explored using a molecule with two nearly perpendicular chromophores. Very fast EET with a time constant of 120 fs is observed, which is at least 40 times faster than the time predicted by Coulombic coupling calculations. Depolarization of the emission signal indicates that the transition dipole rotates through ca. 64°, indicating the near orthogonal nature of the EET event. The rate of EET is found to be similar to structural relaxation rates in the photoexcited oligothiophene donor alone, which suggests that this initial relaxation brings the dyad to a conical intersection where the excitation jumps to the acceptor. PMID:26617059

  13. A Culturally Appropriate Intervention To Improve Health Behaviors in Hispanic MotherChild Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Philip R.; Kennedy, Christine; Gahagan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity interventions targeting Hispanic preschool children are still nascent, and few are culturally appropriate. We evaluated the feasibility of a culturally relevant 9-month intervention program to improve health behaviors in low-income Mexican mothers with 3- to 5-year-old children. Methods A community engagement approach was used to culturally and linguistically tailor an intervention program that was pilot tested with 33 motherchild dyads enrolled from a large California urban health center. A one-group, pretestposttest design assessed changes in children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), mothers' pedometer steps, and BMI. Data were collected at baseline, postintervention and at 6 months postintervention. Results At postintervention, SSB consumption had significantly decreased for soda and other sugary drinks with a modest reduction for 100% juice. Consumption of water had significantly increased, whereas milk had an increased trend. Maternal step counts significantly increased for weekdays by 69% and weekend days by 49%. Overall, maternal BMI decreased while children's BMI% remained stable. At 6 months postintervention, children's soda and juice consumption reverted toward baseline levels, as did maternal step counts, but children's consumption of sugary drinks remained lower, while water and milk remained higher. Conclusions Findings suggest that a culturally relevant intervention was feasible for improving target health behaviors in a low-income Mexican community. Future work should assess an enhanced intervention including a maintenance phase for long-term adherence to health behavior changes and influence on maternal and child BMI. PMID:23514697

  14. C60-dyad aggregates: Self-organized structures in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskova, O. A.; Varanasi, S. R.; Sommer, J.-U.

    2014-10-01

    Extensive full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-organization of C60-fullerene dyad molecules in water, namely phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and fulleropyrrolidines, which have two elements of ordering, the hydrophobic fullerene cage and the hydrophilic/ionic group. While pristine fullerene or phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester forms spherical droplets in order to minimize the surface tension, the amphiphilic nature of charged solute molecules leads to the formation of supramolecular assemblies having cylindrical shape driven by charge repulsion between the ionic groups located on the surface of the aggregates. We show that formation of non-spherical micelles is the geometrical consequence if the fullerene derivatives are considered as surfactants where the ionized groups are only hydrophilic unit. The agglomeration behavior of fullerenes is evaluated by determining sizes of the clusters, solvent accessible surface areas, and shape parameters. By changing the size of the counterions from chloride over iodide to perchlorate we find a thickening of the cylinder-like structures which can be explained by stronger condensation of larger ions and thus partial screening of the charge repulsion on the cluster surface. The reason for the size dependence of counterion condensation is the formation of a stronger hydration shell in case of small ions which in turn are repelled from the fullerene aggregates. Simulations are also in good agreement with the experimentally observed morphologies of decorated C60-nanoparticles.

  15. Communication Strategies to Reduce Cancer Disparities: Insights from African-American Mother-Daughter Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Wilson Genderson, Maureen; Ports, Katie A.; Carlyle, Kellie E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mothers and daughters share a powerful and unique bond, which has potential for the dissemination of information on a variety of women's health issues, including the primary and secondary prevention of breast and cervical cancer. This study presents formative research from a long-term project examining the potential of mother-daughter communication in promoting cancer screening among African-American women. Methods Thirty-two mother-daughter pairs (N = 64) completed orally administered surveys regarding their cancer knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and barriers to care. This study compares the attitudes and beliefs of low-income, urban, African-American mothers and their adolescent daughters regarding cervical and breast cancer screening. Results Both mothers and daughters had fairly high levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer. In addition, there was a high concordance rate between mothers' and daughters' responses, suggesting a potential sharing of health knowledge between mother and daughter. Discussion These results have implications for selecting communication strategies to reduce health disparities, and support that the mother-daughter dyad could be a viable unit to disseminate targeted screening information. PMID:26461906

  16. Histone H3 phosphorylation near the nucleosome dyad alters chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    North, Justin A.; Šimon, Marek; Ferdinand, Michelle B.; Shoffner, Matthew A.; Picking, Jonathan W.; Howard, Cecil J.; Mooney, Alex M.; van Noort, John; Poirier, Michael G.; Ottesen, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosomes contain ∼146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone protein octamer that controls DNA accessibility to transcription and repair complexes. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of histone proteins regulates nucleosome function. To date, only modest changes in nucleosome structure have been directly attributed to histone PTMs. Histone residue H3(T118) is located near the nucleosome dyad and can be phosphorylated. This PTM destabilizes nucleosomes and is implicated in the regulation of transcription and repair. Here, we report gel electrophoretic mobility, sucrose gradient sedimentation, thermal disassembly, micrococcal nuclease digestion and atomic force microscopy measurements of two DNA–histone complexes that are structurally distinct from nucleosomes. We find that H3(T118ph) facilitates the formation of a nucleosome duplex with two DNA molecules wrapped around two histone octamers, and an altosome complex that contains one DNA molecule wrapped around two histone octamers. The nucleosome duplex complex forms within short ∼150 bp DNA molecules, whereas altosomes require at least ∼250 bp of DNA and form repeatedly along 3000 bp DNA molecules. These results are the first report of a histone PTM significantly altering the nucleosome structure. PMID:24561803

  17. Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

  18. Quality of life reporting by parent-child dyads in Japan, as grouped by depressive status.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kyoko; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2011-06-01

    When children are unable to assess their own health-related quality of life (HRQOL), their parents can provide useful proxy information; however, minimal agreement between the two groups on this issue has been reported in some situations. In order to clarify the degree of accordance between the self-reports of children and the proxy reports of their parents on the former's HRQOL, 679 parent-child dyads, as grouped by their depressive status, were assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). It was found that the self-reporting of the children differed significantly between those who were healthy and those who had depressive symptoms, whereas the proxy-reporting of the parents did not vary with their child's mental condition. However, the latter's reports did reveal notable dissimilarities between the healthy parents and those with depressive symptoms. The results indicated that the parents' perception of their child's HRQOL differed with their child's own perception and that the parents' perceptions were affected by their mental condition. Medical providers should assess both the child's and the parents' evaluations of the child's HRQOL, as the views of the parents could determine the use of health services and the making of decisions in clinical settings. PMID:21595809

  19. Simulation of solution phase electron transfer in a compact donor-acceptor dyad.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Tim; Wang, Lee-Ping; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2011-10-27

    Charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) rates in photosynthetic architectures are difficult to control, yet their ratio can make or break photon-to-current conversion efficiencies. A rational design approach to the enhancement of CS over CR requires a mechanistic understanding of the underlying electron-transfer (ET) process, including the role of the environment. Toward this goal, we introduce a QM/MM protocol for ET simulations and use it to characterize CR in the formanilide-anthraquinone dyad (FAAQ). Our simulations predict fast recombination of the charge-transfer excited state, in agreement with recent experiments. The computed electronic couplings show an electronic state dependence and are weaker in solution than in the gas phase. We explore the role of cis-trans isomerization on the CR kinetics, and we find strong correlation between the vertical energy gaps of the full simulations and a collective solvent polarization coordinate. Our approach relies on constrained density functional theory to obtain accurate diabatic electronic states on the fly for molecular dynamics simulations, while orientational and electronic polarization of the solvent is captured by a polarizable force field based on a Drude oscillator model. The method offers a unified approach to the characterization of driving forces, reorganization energies, electronic couplings, and nonlinear solvent effects in light-harvesting systems. PMID:21961889

  20. C{sub 60}-dyad aggregates: Self-organized structures in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Guskova, O. A. E-mail: s.raovaranasi@uq.edu.au; Varanasi, S. R. E-mail: s.raovaranasi@uq.edu.au; Sommer, J.-U.

    2014-10-14

    Extensive full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-organization of C{sub 60}-fullerene dyad molecules in water, namely phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester and fulleropyrrolidines, which have two elements of ordering, the hydrophobic fullerene cage and the hydrophilic/ionic group. While pristine fullerene or phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester forms spherical droplets in order to minimize the surface tension, the amphiphilic nature of charged solute molecules leads to the formation of supramolecular assemblies having cylindrical shape driven by charge repulsion between the ionic groups located on the surface of the aggregates. We show that formation of non-spherical micelles is the geometrical consequence if the fullerene derivatives are considered as surfactants where the ionized groups are only hydrophilic unit. The agglomeration behavior of fullerenes is evaluated by determining sizes of the clusters, solvent accessible surface areas, and shape parameters. By changing the size of the counterions from chloride over iodide to perchlorate we find a thickening of the cylinder-like structures which can be explained by stronger condensation of larger ions and thus partial screening of the charge repulsion on the cluster surface. The reason for the size dependence of counterion condensation is the formation of a stronger hydration shell in case of small ions which in turn are repelled from the fullerene aggregates. Simulations are also in good agreement with the experimentally observed morphologies of decorated C{sub 60}-nanoparticles.

  1. Photoinduced electron transfer in a donor acceptor dyad oriented by an aligned nematic liquid crystal solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinks, Louise; Fuller, Michael J.; Liu, Wenhao; Ahrens, Michael J.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    Ultrafast photoinduced charge separation in the donor-acceptor dyad, N-(10-phenyl-10-H-phenothiazine)-9-cyano-1,6-bis(3,5-di- tert-butylphenoxy)-perylene-3,4-dicarboximide (CNPMI-PTZ) occurs readily in both toluene and benzonitrile. When CNPMI-PTZ is dissolved in the nematic liquid crystal 4-( n-pentyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) and the mixture is incorporated into a cell whose interior surfaces are coated with a rubbed polymer, both the liquid crystal director and CNPMI-PTZ align parallel to the rub direction. This geometry allows selective excitation of the CNPMI chromophores aligned along the director using linearly polarized light. Transient absorption measurements using aligned CNPMI-PTZ are compared to those obtained in isotropic solvents. It is found that both charge separation and charge recombination are adiabatic in the aligned 5CB and the charge transfer kinetics are slow relative to the motions of the aligned donor-acceptor molecule. The adiabaticity leads to enhanced ion pair lifetimes, which most likely will prove useful for designing systems for the photoconversion of solar energy.

  2. Novel aluminum-BODIPY dyads: intriguing dual-emission via photoinduced energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Changho; Jeong, Jisu; Lee, Ji Hye; Choi, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Hyonseok; Bae, Gyun-Tack; Lee, Kang Mun; Park, Myung Hwan

    2016-04-01

    Three novel BODIPY-based heterodinuclear complexes, [salen(3,5-(t)Bu)2Al-(OC6H4-BODIPY)] (6), [salen(3,5-(t)Bu)2Al-(OC6F2H2-BODIPY)] (7), and [(mq)2Al-(OC6H4-BODIPY)] (8) (salen = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine, BODIPY = 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene, and mq = methyl-8-quinolinolato) were prepared and characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The specific structures of 6-8 were also determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. In particular, the salen-based heterodinuclear complexes 6 and 7 exhibited higher thermal stability (Td5 = 309 and 306 °C, respectively) than that of the closely related mononuclear aluminum or BODIPY compounds, except for 8. The UV/vis absorption and PL spectra for 6 and 7 indicated a significant photoinduced energy transfer from the aluminum-salen moiety to the BODIPY group in an intramolecular manner. Theoretical calculations revealed independent transition states of the aluminum-salen moiety or the BODIPY group in the Al(III)-BODIPY dyads, further supporting these experimental results. PMID:26937761

  3. DiiodoBodipy-rhodamine dyads: preparation and study of the acid-activatable competing intersystem crossing and energy transfer processes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kejing; Xie, Yun; Cui, Xiaoneng; Zhao, Jianzhang; Glusac, Ksenija D

    2015-03-19

    Iodo-bodipy/rhodamine dyads with cyanuric chloride linker were prepared with the goal of achieving pH switching of the triplet excited state formation. The pH switching takes advantage of the acid-activated reversible cyclic lactam↔opened amide transformation of the rhodamine unit and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The photophysical properties of the dyads were studied with steady-state and femtosecond/nanosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopies, electrochemical methods, as well as TD-DFT calculations. Our results show that the model dyad is an efficient triplet state generator under neutral condition, when the rhodamine unit adopts the closed form. The triplet generation occurs at the iodo-bodipy moiety and the triplet state is long-lived, with a lifetime of 51.7 μs. In the presence of the acid, the rhodamine unit adopts an opened amide form, and in this case, the efficient FRET occurs from iodo-bodipy to the rhodamine moiety. The FRET is much faster (τFRET = 81 ps) than the intersystem crossing of iodo-bodipy (τISC = 178 ps), thus suppressing the triplet generation is assumed. However, we found that the additional energy transfer occurs at the longer timescale, which eventually converts the rhodamine-based S1 state to the T1 state localized on the iodo-bodipy unit. PMID:25699638

  4. Electronic structure and charge transfer excitation energies of three endohedral fullerene- ZnTPP/ZnPc dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerikheirabadi, Fatemeh; Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra; Baruah, Tunna

    2015-03-01

    Organic donor-acceptor (D-A) moieties make up the main component of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). It has been proved that the open circuit voltage of these devices which is a parameter in efficiency determination, is directly related to the charge transfer excited states of the D-A pairs. Fullerenes having lots of interesting acceptor properties and porphyrins as well as phthalocyanines possessing intriguing donor characteristics, are shown to be promising nominees. In this work, we computationally analyze three donor-acceptor dyads of Zn-tetraphenyl porphyrin and Zn-phthalocyanine with novel endohedral fullerenes: Sc3N@C80_ZnTPP, Y3N@C80_ZnTPPandSc3N@C80_ZnPc.TheSc3N@C80_and Y3N@C80 belong to a particular class of fullerenes called trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes where the trimellatic nitrides form the endohedral units. Density functional theory, as implemented in NRLMOL code, is used to study the electronic structure and the related properties of these D-A complexes. The charge transfer excitation energies are calculated using the perturbative delta self-consistent field method recently developed in our group. We find that the CT excitation energies are larger for endohedral fullerene based dyads compared to similar C60 based dyads.

  5. Light-driven generation of hydrogen: New chromophore dyads for increased activity based on Bodipy dye and Pt(diimine)(dithiolate) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bo; Sabatini, Randy P.; Fu, Wen-Fu; Eum, Min-Sik; Brennessel, William W.; Wang, Lidong; McCamant, David W.; Eisenberg, Richard

    2015-01-01

    New dyads consisting of a strongly absorbing Bodipy (dipyrromethene-BF2) dye and a platinum diimine dithiolate (PtN2S2) charge transfer (CT) chromophore have been synthesized and studied in the context of the light-driven generation of H2 from aqueous protons. In these dyads, the Bodipy dye is bonded directly to the benzenedithiolate ligand of the PtN2S2 CT chromophore. Each of the new dyads contains either a bipyridine (bpy) or phenanthroline (phen) diimine with an attached functional group that is used for binding directly to TiO2 nanoparticles, allowing rapid electron photoinjection into the semiconductor. The absorption spectra and cyclic voltammograms of the dyads show that the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the dyads are the sum of the individual chromophores (Bodipy and the PtN2S2 moieties), indicating little electronic coupling between them. Connection to TiO2 nanoparticles is carried out by sonication leading to in situ attachment to TiO2 without prior hydrolysis of the ester linking groups to acids. For H2 generation studies, the TiO2 particles are platinized (Pt-TiO2) so that the light absorber (the dyad), the electron conduit (TiO2), and the catalyst (attached colloidal Pt) are fully integrated. It is found that upon 530 nm irradiation in a H2O solution (pH 4) with ascorbic acid as an electron donor, the dyad linked to Pt-TiO2 via a phosphonate or carboxylate attachment shows excellent light-driven H2 production with substantial longevity, in which one particular dyad [4(bpyP)] exhibits the highest activity, generating ∼40,000 turnover numbers of H2 over 12 d (with respect to dye). PMID:26116625

  6. Contrasting intermolecular and intramolecular exciplex formation of a 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Mitsutaka; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Hisaji; Tamaki, Akihiro; Takeda, Motonori; Mizuno, Kazuhiko

    2010-05-01

    An intramolecular exciplex is formed upon excitation of the cyclohexane solution of the 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad, but little if any intramolecular CT complex exists in the ground state of this substance in solution. In contrast, in the crystalline state, the dyad forms an intermolecular mixed-stack CT complex in the ground state and an intermolecular exciplex when it is photoexcited. PMID:20353197

  7. Light-driven generation of hydrogen: New chromophore dyads for increased activity based on Bodipy dye and Pt(diimine)(dithiolate) complexes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; Sabatini, Randy P; Fu, Wen-Fu; Eum, Min-Sik; Brennessel, William W; Wang, Lidong; McCamant, David W; Eisenberg, Richard

    2015-07-28

    New dyads consisting of a strongly absorbing Bodipy (dipyrromethene-BF2) dye and a platinum diimine dithiolate (PtN2S2) charge transfer (CT) chromophore have been synthesized and studied in the context of the light-driven generation of H2 from aqueous protons. In these dyads, the Bodipy dye is bonded directly to the benzenedithiolate ligand of the PtN2S2 CT chromophore. Each of the new dyads contains either a bipyridine (bpy) or phenanthroline (phen) diimine with an attached functional group that is used for binding directly to TiO2 nanoparticles, allowing rapid electron photoinjection into the semiconductor. The absorption spectra and cyclic voltammograms of the dyads show that the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the dyads are the sum of the individual chromophores (Bodipy and the PtN2S2 moieties), indicating little electronic coupling between them. Connection to TiO2 nanoparticles is carried out by sonication leading to in situ attachment to TiO2 without prior hydrolysis of the ester linking groups to acids. For H2 generation studies, the TiO2 particles are platinized (Pt-TiO2) so that the light absorber (the dyad), the electron conduit (TiO2), and the catalyst (attached colloidal Pt) are fully integrated. It is found that upon 530 nm irradiation in a H2O solution (pH 4) with ascorbic acid as an electron donor, the dyad linked to Pt-TiO2 via a phosphonate or carboxylate attachment shows excellent light-driven H2 production with substantial longevity, in which one particular dyad [4(bpyP)] exhibits the highest activity, generating ? 40,000 turnover numbers of H2 over 12 d (with respect to dye). PMID:26116625

  8. Turkish Mothers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Styles of Interactions with Their Children with Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.

    2009-01-01

    Turkish mothers' self-efficacy beliefs and their interactional behaviors with their children with language delays are described and explored. Participants included 19 mother-child dyads. Mothers' interaction with their children with language delays was videotaped for 30 minutes in a free-play context. Regarding mothers' interactional behaviors,…

  9. Child-Directed Interaction: Prediction of Change in Impaired Mother-Child Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Michelle D.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2006-01-01

    The first phase of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), called child-directed interaction, teaches parents to use positive and differential social attention to improve the parent-child relationship. This study examined predictors of change in mother and child functioning during the child-directed interaction for 100 mother-child dyads. The…

  10. A cross-cultural comparison of tonal synchrony and pitch imitation in the vocal dialogs of Belgian Flemish-speaking and Mexican Spanish-speaking mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Loots, Gerrit; Gillisjans, Lobcke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Quintana, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural comparison of the vocal pitch patterns of 15 Mexican Spanish-speaking and 15 Belgian Flemish-speaking dyads, recorded during 5min of free-play in a laboratory setting. Both cultures have a tradition of dyadic face-to-face interaction but differ in language origins (i.e., Romanic versus Germanic). In total, 374 Mexican and 558 Flemish vocal exchanges were identified, analyzed and compared for their incidence of tonal synchrony (harmonic/pentatonic series), non-tonal synchrony (with/without imitations) and pitch and/or interval imitations. The main findings revealed that dyads in both cultures rely on tonal synchrony using similar pitch ratios and timing patterns. However, there were significant differences in the infants' vocal pitch imitation behavior. Additional video-analyzes on the contingency patterns involved in pitch imitation showed a cross-cultural difference in the maternal selective reinforcement of pitch imitation. The results are interpreted with regard to linguistic, developmental and cultural aspects and the 'musilanguage' model. PMID:26021806

  11. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M.; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and ‘fun task’ conditions. We focused on the link between interactants’ affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants’ personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants’ body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation. PMID:25505435

  12. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed. PMID:23794074

  13. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Stéphane G; Banner, David; Huang, Stephen S H; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J; Kelvin, Alyson A

    2015-10-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus infection in the mother-infant dyad initiate immunological and oncogenic signaling cascades within the mammary gland. These findings suggest the mammary gland may have a greater role in infection and immunity than previously thought. PMID:26448646

  14. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Stephen S. H.; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J.; Kelvin, Alyson A.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus infection in the mother-infant dyad initiate immunological and oncogenic signaling cascades within the mammary gland. These findings suggest the mammary gland may have a greater role in infection and immunity than previously thought. PMID:26448646

  15. Alkyl- and aryl-substituted corroles. 5. Synthesis, physicochemical properties, and X-ray structural characterization of copper biscorroles and porphyrin-corrole dyads.

    PubMed

    Guilard, Roger; Gros, Claude P; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Espinosa, Enrique; Jrme, Franois; Tabard, Alain; Latour, Jean-Marc; Shao, Jianguo; Ou, Zhongping; Kadish, Karl M

    2004-11-15

    The synthesis and characterization of cofacial copper biscorroles and porphyrin-corroles linked by a biphenylenyl or anthracenyl spacer are described. The investigated compounds are represented as (BCA)Cu(2) and (BCB)Cu(2) in the case of the biscorrole (BC) derivatives and (PCA)Cu(2) and (PCB)Cu(2) in the case of porphyrin (P)-corrole (C) dyads, where A and B represent the anthracenyl and biphenylenyl bridges, respectively. A related monomeric corrole (Me(4)Ph(5)Cor)Cu and monomeric porphyrin (Me(2)Et(6)PhP)Cu that comprise the two halves of the porphyrin-corrole dyads were also studied. Electron spin resonance (ESR), (1)H NMR, and magnetic measurements data demonstrate that the copper corrole macrocycle, when linked to another copper corrole or copper(II) porphyrin, can be considered to be a Cu(III) complex in equilibrium with a Cu(II) radical species, copper(III) corrole being the main oxidation state of the corrole species at all temperatures. The cofacial orientation of (BCB)Cu(2), (BCA)Cu(2), and (PCB)Cu(2) was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Structural data: (BCB)Cu(2)(C(110)H(82)N(8)Cu(2).3CDCl(3)), triclinic, space group P, a = 10.2550(2) A, b = 16.3890(3) A, c = 29.7910(8) A, alpha = 74.792(1) degrees , beta = 81.681(1) degrees , gamma = 72.504(2) degrees , Z = 2; (BCA)Cu(2)(C(112)H(84)N(8)Cu(2).C(7)H(8).1.5H(2)O), monoclinic, space group P 2(1)/c, a = 16.0870(4) A, b = 35.109(2) A, c = 19.1390(8) A, beta = 95.183(3) degrees , Z = 4; (PCB)Cu(2)(C(89)H(71)N(8)Cu(2).CHCl(3)), monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n, a = 16.7071(3) A, b = 10.6719(2) A, c = 40.8555(8) A, beta = 100.870(1) degrees , Z = 4. The two cofacial biscorroles, (BCA)Cu(2) and (BCB)Cu(2), both show three electrooxidations under the same solution conditions. The reduction of (BCA)Cu(2) involves a reversible electron addition to each macrocycle at the same potential of E(1/2) = -0.20 V although (BCB)Cu(2) is reversibly reduced in two steps to give first [(BCB)Cu(2)](-) and then [(BCB)Cu(2)](2)(-), each of which was characterized by ESR spectroscopy as containing a Cu(II) center. These latter electrode reactions occur at E(1/2) = -0.36 and -0.51 V versus a saturated calomel reference electrode. The half-reduced and fully reduced (BCB)Cu(2) show similar Cu(II) ESR spectra, and no evidence of a triplet signal is observed. The two well-separated reductions of (BCB)Cu(2) to give [(BCB)Cu(2)](2)(-) can be attributed to a stronger pi-pi interaction between the two macrocycles of this dimer as compared to those of (BCA)Cu(2). The copper porphyrin-corrole dyads, (PCA)Cu(2) and (PCB)Cu(2), show five reversible oxidations and two reversible reductions, and these potentials are compared with corresponding values for electrochemical reactions of the porphyrin and corrole monomers under the same solution conditions. PMID:15530095

  16. Dyadic interracial interactions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Toosi, Negin R; Babbitt, Laura G; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined over 40 years of research on interracial interactions by exploring 4 types of outcomes: explicit attitudes toward interaction partners, participants' self-reports of their own emotional state, nonverbal or observed behavior, and objective measures of performance. Data were collected from 108 samples (N = 12,463) comparing dyadic interracial and same-race interactions, predominantly featuring Black and White Americans. Effect sizes were small: Participants in same-race dyads tended to express marginally more positive attitudes about their partners (r = .07), reported feeling less negative affect (r = .10), showed more friendly nonverbal behavior (r = .09), and scored higher on performance measures (r = .07) than those in interracial dyads. Effect sizes also showed substantial heterogeneity, and further analyses indicated that intersectional, contextual, and relational factors moderated these outcomes. For example, when members of a dyad were the same sex, differences between interracial and same-race dyads in negative affect were reduced. Structured interactions led to more egalitarian performance outcomes than did free-form interactions, but the effects of interaction structure on nonverbal behavior depended on participant gender. Furthermore, benefits of intergroup contact were apparent: Differences in emotional state across dyadic racial composition disappeared in longer term interactions, and racial minorities, who often have greater experience with intergroup contact, experienced less negative affect in interracial interactions than did majority group members. Finally, there was a significant historical trend toward more egalitarian outcomes across dyadic racial composition for explicit attitudes and for nonverbal behavior; however, participants' emotional responses and performance have remained consistent. PMID:22061690

  17. Parent-Child Interaction and Children's Number Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xin; Huang, Jin; Wang, Zhengke; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Zhenguo; Yang, Lei; Yang, Zhengzheng

    2006-01-01

    Two groups of Chinese four-year-olds and their parents' interaction in joint activities were analyzed and compared. The children in Group 1 were high scorers in written number skills and the children in Group 2 were low scorers. Eighty-five dyads participated in four separate 15-minute joint activities such as book reading, mathematical work…

  18. Adolescents' Interactions with a Best Friend: Associations with Attachment Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Barbara L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.; Oldenburg, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested whether adolescents' attachment style is related to friendship interactions and perceptions of friendship quality. Attachment pairings were contrasted to examine whether dyad members' security of attachment or their models of others was more related to friendship. A total of 44 pairs of same-sex adolescent friends were videotaped…

  19. Social Interactions of Mothers and Young Children: Implications for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farran, Dale C.; And Others

    This study attempted to identify maternal variables within social class which were predictive of child status over time. Data on patterns of mother/child interactions were collected for the experimental and control groups of poverty mother/child dyads at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center and a group of general population high…

  20. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  1. The Association between Parental Interaction Style and Children's Joint Engagement in Families with Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Elder, Lauren; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between parental interaction style (responsive vs directive) and child-initiated joint engagement within caregiver-child interactions with toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Method: Videotaped interactions of 85 toddler-caregiver dyads were coded for child engagement and both parental

  2. Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

  3. Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided

  4. The Association between Parental Interaction Style and Children's Joint Engagement in Families with Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Elder, Lauren; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between parental interaction style (responsive vs directive) and child-initiated joint engagement within caregiver-child interactions with toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Method: Videotaped interactions of 85 toddler-caregiver dyads were coded for child engagement and both parental…

  5. Dyads for photoinduced charge separation based on platinum diimine bis(acetylide) chromophores: synthesis, luminescence and transient absorption studies.

    PubMed

    McGarrah, James E; Eisenberg, Richard

    2003-07-14

    The platinum diimine bis(acetylide) chromophore was utilized to explore photoinduced intramolecular reductive quenching with phenothiazine donors in chromophore-donor dyad complexes. Compounds of the general formula Pt(X(2)-bpy)(C triple bond C-p-C(6)H(4)CH(2)(D))(2) (where D = phenothiazine (PTZ) or trifluromethylphenothiazine (TPZ) and X = (t)Bu or CO(2)Et) were synthesized from the corresponding Pt(X(2)-bpy)Cl(2) and aryl acetylene by a CuI-catalyzed coupling reaction. Solvent dependence was explored for the system with X = (t)Bu in MeCN, CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc, and toluene. Electron transfer quenching of the (3)MLCT excited state of the platinum diimine bis(acetylide) takes place in MeCN leaving no intrinsic emission from the excited state, but in toluene both the PTZ and TPZ dyad complexes exhibit no emission quenching. Picosecond pump-probe transient absorption (TA) experiments were used to monitor decay of the (3)MLCT excited state and electron transfer to form the charge-separated (CS) state. Electrochemical measurements were used to estimate the driving force for charge recombination (CR), with deltaE(CR) based on the reduction potential corresponding to Pt(X(2)-bpy)(C triple bond C-Ar)(2) --> Pt(X(2)-bpy(*)(-))(C triple bond C-Ar)(2) and the oxidation corresponding to donor --> donor(*)(+). Kinetic information from the TA measurements was used to correlate rate and driving force with the electron transfer reactions. Concomitant with the decay of the (3)MLCT excited state was the observation of a transient absorption at ca. 500 nm due to formation of the PTZ or TPZ radical cation in the CS state, with the rate of charge separation, k(CS), being 1.8 x 10(9) to 2 x 10(10) s(-1) for the three dyads explored in MeCN and 1:9 CH(2)Cl(2)/MeCN. The fastest rate of CR occurs for X = CO(2)Et and D = PTZ, the compound with smallest deltaE(CR) = 1.71 V. The rate of CR for dyads with X = (t)Bu and D = PTZ or TPZ was estimated to be 1.7-2.0 x 10(8) s(-1) in MeCN. The slower rate corresponds to a greater driving force for CR, deltaE(CR) = 2.18 and 2.36 V for D = PTZ and TPZ, respectively, suggesting that the driving force for charge recombination places it in the Marcus inverted region. PMID:12844308

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Innovative Postpartum Care Model for Mother-Baby Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, Corinne; Dunn, Sandra; Pound, Catherine; Sourial, Nadia; Yasseen, Abdool S.; Millar, David; Rennicks White, Ruth; Walker, Mark; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and maternal satisfaction of a newly established integrative postpartum community-based clinic providing comprehensive support for mothers during the first month after discharge from the hospital. Our primary interests were breastfeeding rates, readmission and patient satisfaction. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Ottawa, Canada, where 472 mothers were randomized via a 1:2 ratio to either receive standard of care (n = 157) or to attend the postpartum breastfeeding clinic (n = 315). Outcome data were captured through questionnaires completed by the participants at 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were conducted to determine the effect of the intervention on exclusive breastfeeding at 12 weeks (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included breastfeeding rate at 2, 4 and 24 weeks, breastfeeding self-efficacy scale, readmission rate, and satisfaction score. Results More mothers in the intervention group (n = 195, 66.1%) were exclusively breastfeeding at 12 weeks compared to mothers in the control group (n = 81, 60.5%), however no statistically significant difference was observed (OR = 1.28; 95% CI:0.84–1.95)). The rate of emergency room visits at 2 weeks for the intervention group was 11.4% compared to the standard of care group (15.2%) (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.39–1.23). The intervention group was significantly more satisfied with the overall care they received for breastfeeding compared to the control group (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 3.50–6.88)). Conclusion This new model of care did not significantly increase exclusive breastfeeding at 12 weeks. However, there were clinically meaningful improvements in the rate of postnatal problems and satisfaction that support this new service delivery model for postpartum care. A community-based multidisciplinary postpartum clinic is feasible to implement and can provide appropriate and highly satisfactory care to mother-baby dyads. This model of care may be more beneficial in a population that is not already predisposed to breastfeed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02043119 PMID:26871448

  7. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk factor for childhood obesity. Further research is needed to help understand the larger socio-cultural context and its influence on feeding dynamics among immigrant families and families of lower incomes. How parents establish a certain feeding style in their home country compared to when they move to the US “obesogenic” environment, should also be explored. PMID:22642962

  8. Assessing Whether Measurement Invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across Child-Parent Dyad Depends on the Child Gender: A Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children’s and parents’ perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant items across girl-parent dyad were mostly detected in the psychological well-being and the social support and peers domains. Moreover, the boys and their parents differed mainly in the autonomy and parent relation domain. Detecting different non-invariant items across the girl-parent dyad compared to the boy-parent dyad underlines the importance of taking the child’s gender into account when assessing measurement invariance between children and their parents and consequently deciding about children’s physical, psychological or social well-being from the parents’ viewpoint. PMID:25169000

  9. Assessing whether measurement invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across child-parent dyad depends on the child gender: a multiple group confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children's and parents' perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant items across girl-parent dyad were mostly detected in the psychological well-being and the social support and peers domains. Moreover, the boys and their parents differed mainly in the autonomy and parent relation domain. Detecting different non-invariant items across the girl-parent dyad compared to the boy-parent dyad underlines the importance of taking the child's gender into account when assessing measurement invariance between children and their parents and consequently deciding about children's physical, psychological or social well-being from the parents' viewpoint. PMID:25169000

  10. Properties of noncovalent tetraphenylporphine···C60 dyads as studied by different long-range and dispersion-corrected DFT functionals.

    PubMed

    Amelines-Sarria, Oscar; Basiuk, Vladimir A; Duarte-Alaniz, Víctor; Rivera, Margarita

    2015-11-01

    The noncovalent dyad of tetraphenylporphine and C60 fullerene (H2TPP···C60) and the tetraphenylporphine dimer (H2TPP···H2TPP) were studied by density functional theory (DFT), using functionals that incorporate empirical dispersion correction (DFT-D), functionals that use a long-range correction (LC) scheme, a hybrid functional (B3LYP) and a highly parametrized empirical exchange-correlation functional (M05-2X). The results were compared to X-ray structures and interaction energies reported in previous experimental and theoretical studies. It was found that B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals fail to reproduce the X-ray structures and binding energies of the TPP···C60 system. DFT-D functionals overestimated the π···π energy interactions for both systems, however, the optimized structures agree well with those observed experimentally. The LC-BLYP functional predicts geometries similar to X-ray structures; nevertheless, due to the lack of correction in the dispersion energy, the predicted energies for both model systems are low. On the other hand, the M05-2X functional exhibited the best performance. Both the structures and binding energies calculated with M05-2X are consistent with experimental and theoretical evidence reported by other authors, as well as with our experimental results obtained by means of atomic force microscopy on H2TPP thin films grown on the HOPG/C60 substrate by physical vapor deposition. PMID:26422808

  11. Mother-Infant Interaction and Infant Development Among the Wolof of Senegal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Diane; Lewis, Michael

    Ten mother-infant dyads were observed in their homes for four hours each during one month in order to measure interactive aspects of their behavior. Demographic data are included for the participating families, who are members of the Wolof in Senegal, Africa. For this study, interaction was defined as a sequence of behaviors involving both…

  12. Non-Native Speaker Interaction Management Strategies in a Network-Based Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the dyad-based communication of two groups of non-native speakers (NNSs) of English involved in real time interaction in a type of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool known as a MOO. The object of this semester long study was to examine the ways in which the subjects managed their L2 interaction during

  13. Effects of Parental Interaction on Infant Vocalization Rate, Variability and Vocal Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Beau; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Messinger, Daniel; Bene, Edina; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Lee, Chia-Chang; Lambert, Brittany; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Examination of infant vocalization patterns across interactive and noninteractive contexts may facilitate better understanding of early communication development. In the current study, with 24 infant-parent dyads, infant volubility increased significantly when parent interaction ceased (presenting a "still face," or SF) after a period of

  14. Mutuality in Mother-Child Interactions in an Antillean Intervention Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boomstra, Nienke W.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study on mutuality in mother-child interaction during reading and playing sessions. Within mother-child interaction, mutuality is seen as important in language acquisition. The study was executed within a group of Netherlands Antillean mother-child dyads who participated in an intervention programme. Mutuality was…

  15. Non-Native Speaker Interaction Management Strategies in a Network-Based Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the dyad-based communication of two groups of non-native speakers (NNSs) of English involved in real time interaction in a type of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool known as a MOO. The object of this semester long study was to examine the ways in which the subjects managed their L2 interaction during…

  16. Effects of Parental Interaction on Infant Vocalization Rate, Variability and Vocal Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Beau; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Messinger, Daniel; Bene, Edina; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Lee, Chia-Chang; Lambert, Brittany; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Examination of infant vocalization patterns across interactive and noninteractive contexts may facilitate better understanding of early communication development. In the current study, with 24 infant-parent dyads, infant volubility increased significantly when parent interaction ceased (presenting a "still face," or SF) after a period of…

  17. The Effects of Televised Advertising on Mother-Child Interactions at the Grocery Store.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron; Atkin, Charles K.

    One hundred mother/child dyads were involved in a study to provide empirical evidence on parent/child interaction in grocery stores and on the contributions of Saturday morning television commercials to those interactions and to the purchase of candy and cereals. Data were collected in 15 supermarkets in two midwestern cities. First, the…

  18. Photophysical properties of new bis-perylene dyads for potential upconversion use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Marcos R.; Steer, Ronald P.; Rüther, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Two new bis-perylenes, BPC with a meta-disubstituted benzene linker, and BPD with a p,p‧-disubstituted biphenyl linker, have been synthesized and their photophysical parameters measured. Their singlet and triplet energies decrease incrementally in the order perylene, BPC, BPD, making them ideally matched with C60 for triplet-triplet energy transfer in sensitized photon upconversion schemes. Following photosensitization by triplet C60, BPC exhibits strong fluorescence upconversion by triplet-triplet annihilation, indicating that these bis-perylene dyads (and the multimers that can be constructed from them) will be interesting candidates for use in organic devices such as bulk-heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells employing non-coherent photon upconversion. Excitation of C60 at 532 nm will produce its long-lived lowest triplet state with near unit quantum efficiency under the conditions of this experiment [33]. The thermal energy loss usually associated with triplet-triplet energy transfer, Eq. (2), is minimal in this system as the triplet energies of the donor and acceptor are nearly identical at ca. 1.5 eV. In the absence of self-quenching of the fluorescing singlet state, increasing the relative concentrations of acceptor to donor can raise the overall efficiency of the sensitization process to nearly 100%, even if their triplet energies are the same, due to entropic assistance [34]. This was confirmed by measuring the upconversion intensity as a function of dyad concentration at constant absorbed power (Supplementary Information), and by transient absorption measurements of C60 (T1) at 740 nm (Supplementary Information). The latter show that C60(T1) decays with a lifetime on the order of 400 ns for equimolar C60 + BPC concentrations, i.e. at a rate at least 100 times faster (due to quenching by energy transfer) than it would decay in the absence of the BPC triplet energy acceptor. Note also that the dimers with their slightly lower triplet energies are expected to exhibit greater net C60 donor to acceptor triplet energy transfer efficiencies than perylene itself [23], albeit with a slight incremental thermal energy loss of ca. 0.05-0.10 eV. The lifetime of the BPC triplet could not be measured by transient absorption because of its weak absorption cross-section in the probe wavelength region. Nevertheless, the unquenched lifetime of the BPC triplet is expected to be long. The lifetime of the triplet of perylene itself is ca. 5 ms in fluid degassed solution at room temperature [22], and mono- or di-substitution of the perylene ring system with light-atom substituents does not produce an order-of-magnitude decrease in this value [35]. The measured first order rate constant in this case would, however, be the sum of all first order and pseudo-first order processes, with the latter dominating the overall triplet decay rate under the experimental conditions employed. Using anthanthrene or bis-tetracene as a reasonable model [18,23], the lifetime of BPC(T1) is likely to be about two orders of magnitude shorter than its unquenched lifetime under the conditions of these experiments, i.e. of the order of a few tens of μs, consistent with the generally first order decay found at the low to moderate laser excitation power density range shown in Figure 3. Again using well-known upconverters as models [15,22,23], the rate constant for TTA of BPC is likely to approach within a factor of 2 or 3 of the diffusion-controlled limit (1.1 × 1010 M-1 s-1), spin statistical limitations notwithstanding, as described by Schmidt et al. [36]. The rate constants for the relaxation of the product S1 state of TTA in the bis-perylenes are provided in Table 1. In an upconverting solar photovoltaic cell, the thermal energy losses in excess of those associated with the Shockley-Queisser limit will be small in this system. Using the zero point energies of the electronic excited states involved in the absorption, sensitization and upconversion steps as reference data, the S1-T1 thermal energy loss in the C60 absorber is 0.20 eV per absorbed photon, the triplet energy of C60 is less than 0.1 eV greater than that of BPC, the difference in energy between 2 T1 and the radiating S1 state of BPC is 0.15 eV and BPC's Stokes shift is small. Thermal losses in excess of the Shockley-Queisser limit will amount to a total of only ca. 0.7 eV per upconverted BPC molecule. Of course the overall efficiency of any photovoltaic device would then be assessed by applying the net energy or electron transfer efficiency of each step in the upconversion-driven mechanism to this augmented Shockley-Queisser limit. The most sensitive of these steps is the TTA process itself, where bimolecular (or bi-excitonic) triplet annihilation must compete with a number of processes by which the triplet decays by other radiationless means. However, the best overall radiative energy conversion efficiency will be obtained when 2ΔE(T1 - S0) ⩾ ΔE(S1 - S0) in the upconverter, when the oscillator strength and fluorescence quantum yield of the S1-S0 transition both approach 1 [37], and when the annihilation itself occurs at the diffusion-controlled limit with a large singlet product yield. In all these respects these compounds and perhaps their multimeric extensions appear to have significant promise. Finally, note that because 2 E(T1) > E(S1) and the non-radiative decay rates of S1 are small, the bis-perylenes will not serve as potential candidates for singlet exciton fission, unlike some of the bis-tetracenes [17].

  19. Reciprocal Peer Learning with Task Cards: Analysis of Behaviour and Verbal Interactions in Structured and Unstructured Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iserbyt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is a part of a larger research project where the effect of instructional guidance in terms of role definition and role switching was investigated on students' learning of Basic Life Support (BLS) during a 20-minute reciprocal learning episode with task cards. BLS is a lifesaving skill consisting of nine sub skills to be…

  20. Effects of big-five personality traits on the quality of relationship and satisfaction in Chinese coach-athlete dyads.

    PubMed

    Yang, S X; Jowett, S; Chan, D K C

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach-athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach-athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach-athlete dyad. PMID:25367655

  1. Hair cortisol concentrations in higher- and lower-stress mother-daughter dyads: A pilot study of associations and moderators.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Sarah J; Russell, Evan; Kryski, Katie R; Sheikh, Haroon I; Singh, Shiva M; Koren, Gideon; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are receiving increased attention as a novel biomarker of psychophysiological responses to chronic stress, with potential relevance for psychopathology risk research. We examined the validity of HCC as a marker of psychosocial stress in mother (M(age)  = 37.87 years)-daughter (M(age)  = 7.62 years) dyads characterized by higher (n = 30) or lower (n = 30) maternal chronic stress. Additionally, we examined whether early care moderated similarity of HCC levels within dyads. Higher-stress mothers had significantly lower HCC compared to lower-stress mothers, consistent with other research showing that chronic stress leads to blunted HPA axis activity over time. Further, HCC in daughters were significantly and positively associated with previously assessed salivary cortisol stress reactivity. Finally, mother-daughter HCC associations were significantly moderated by negative parenting styles, such that associations became stronger as quality of parenting decreased. Findings overall indicate that HCC may be a useful marker of cortisol responses to chronic stress. PMID:25820649

  2. Electronic energy harvesting multi BODIPY-zinc porphyrin dyads accommodating fullerene as photosynthetic composite of antenna-reaction center.

    PubMed

    Maligaspe, E; Kumpulainen, T; Subbaiyan, N K; Zandler, M E; Lemmetyinen, H; Tkachenko, N V; D'Souza, F

    2010-07-21

    Efficient electronic energy transfer (EET) in the newly synthesized dyads comprised of zinc porphyrin covalently linked to one, two or four numbers of boron dipyrrin (BDP) entities is investigated. Both steady-state and time-resolved emission as well as transient absorption studies revealed occurrence of efficient singlet-singlet energy transfer from BDP to zinc porphyrin with the time scale ranging between 28 and 48 ps. A decrease in time constants for energy transfer with increasing the number of BDP units is observed revealing better antenna effect of dyads bearing higher number of boron dipyrrin entities. Further, supramolecular triads to mimic the 'antenna-reaction center' functionality of photosynthetic reaction center have been successfully constructed by coordinating fulleropyrrolidine appended with an imidazole ligand to the zinc porphyrin. The structural integrity of the supramolecular triads was arrived by optical, computational and electrochemical studies. Free energy calculations revealed possibility of photoinduced electron transfer from singlet excited zinc porphyrin to fullerene, and the preliminary transient absorption studies involving pump-probe technique are supportive of occurrence of electron transfer from (1)ZnP* to fullerene in the supramolecular triads. PMID:20544099

  3. Self assembling of porphyrin-fullerene dyads in the Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films: formation as well as spectral, electrochemical and vectorial electron transfer studies.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Renata; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Nowakowski, Robert; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; Desbat, Bernard; Araki, Yasuyaki; Ito, Osamu; Gadde, Suresh; Zandler, Melvin E; D'Souza, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Donor-acceptor dyads of water-soluble Zn porphyrins and C60 bearing either pyridine or imidazole ligand were self assembled via axial coordination in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. Compression and surface potential versus area per molecule isotherms as well as ellipsometry and BAM measurements showed that molecules were aggregated in all Langmuir films before compression. The area per molecule in the absence of aggregation was determined by linear extrapolation of the area at the zero surface pressure to infinite adduct dilution. Comparison of the extrapolated and theoretically calculated areas, being dependent on the composition of the subphase solution, indicated that dyads were oriented with their porphyrin macrocycles in plane of the air-solution interface. Calculated by molecular modeling thickness of the Langmuir films was in accord with that determined by ellipsometry. The Langmuir films were transferred, by using the LB technique, onto different solid substrates for spectroscopic, microscopic, electroanalytical, and photochemical characterization. From the IR spectroscopy investigations it followed that the porphyrin macrocycle of the dyad was either nearly parallel or tilted with respect to the substrate plane. Molecularly modeled pseudo-hexagonal packing and thickness of the LB films were in accord with that imaged by STM and determined by ellipsometry, respectively. The electrochemical redox states of the dyads were established by performing simultaneous cyclic voltammetry and piezoelectric microgravimetry measurements of the LB films on Au-quartz electrodes. Both steady-state and time-resolved emission studies of the zinc porphyrin-fullerene LB films revealed efficient quenching of the singlet-excited Zn porphyrin. Based on the free-energy calculations and dyad orientation in the film, this quenching was attributed to vectorial electron transfer within the dyad. PMID:17450913

  4. Autism spectrum disorder: does neuroimaging support the DSM-5 proposal for a symptom dyad? A systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-07-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with 'autism spectrum disorder' (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported abnormal function and structure of fronto-temporal and limbic networks with social and pragmatic language deficits, of temporo-parieto-occipital networks with syntactic-semantic language deficits, and of fronto-striato-cerebellar networks with repetitive behaviors and restricted interests in ASD patients. Therefore, this review partially supports the DSM-5 proposal for the ASD dyad. PMID:21932156

  5. Evidence for substrate binding-induced zwitterion formation in the catalytic Cys-His dyad of the SARS-CoV main protease.

    PubMed

    Paasche, Alexander; Zipper, Andreas; Schäfer, Simon; Ziebuhr, John; Schirmeister, Tanja; Engels, Bernd

    2014-09-23

    The coronavirus main protease (M(pro)) represents an attractive drug target for antiviral therapy of coronavirus (CoV) infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The SARS-CoV M(pro) and related CoV proteases have several distinct features, such as an uncharged Cys-His catalytic dyad embedded in a chymotrypsin-like protease fold, that clearly separate these enzymes from archetypical cysteine proteases. To further characterize the catalytic system of CoV main proteases and to obtain information about improved inhibitors, we performed comprehensive simulations of the proton-transfer reactions in the SARS-CoV M(pro) active site that lead to the Cys(-)/His(+) zwitterionic state required for efficient proteolytic activity. Our simulations, comprising the free enzyme as well as substrate-enzyme and inhibitor-enzyme complexes, lead us to predict that zwitterion formation is fostered by substrate binding but not inhibitor binding. This indicates that M(pro) employs a substrate-induced catalytic mechanism that further enhances its substrate specificity. Our computational data are in line with available experimental results, such as X-ray geometries, measured pKa values, mutagenesis experiments, and the measured differences between the kinetic parameters of substrates and inhibitors. The data also provide an atomistic picture of the formerly postulated electrostatic trigger involved in SARS-CoV M(pro) activity. Finally, they provide information on how a specific microenvironment may finely tune the activity of M(pro) toward specific viral protein substrates, which is known to be required for efficient viral replication. Our simulations also indicate that the low inhibition potencies of known covalently interacting inhibitors may, at least in part, be attributed to insufficient fostering of the proton-transfer reaction. These findings suggest ways to achieve improved inhibitors. PMID:25196915

  6. Dyads at Risk: Methadone-Maintained Women and Their Four-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeremy, Rita Jeruchimowicz; Bernstein, Victor J.

    1984-01-01

    Compares 17 methadone-exposed and 23 control four-month-old infants in interactions with their mothers. Results indicate that methadone is only one of several risk factors affecting interaction. Mothers rated poor in communication have poor psychosocial and psychological resources, and infants rated poor in communication showed problematic motor…

  7. Six-Week Postpartum Maternal Self-Criticism and Dependency and 4-Month Mother-Infant Self- and Interactive Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were…

  8. Adolescents and Adults at the Mall: Dyadic Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Readdick, Christine A.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines differences in interpersonal engagements between teen-teen dyads (n=865) and teen-adults dyads (n=190) in a mall. Results indicate that teen-teen dyads differed from teen-adult dyads on two variables: conversation and shopping evidence. Within teen-teen dyad comparisons yielded gender and racial differences, but only one age difference.…

  9. Similarities amid the Difference: Caregiving Burden and Adaptation Outcomes in Dyads of Parents and Their Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carona, C.; Crespo, C.; Canavarro, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study had two main objectives: first, to examine the direct and indirect effects, via social support, of caregiving burden on the adaptation outcomes of children/adolescents with cerebral palsy and their parents; and second, to assess the invariance of such models in clinical vs. healthy subsamples. Participants were 210 dyads of…

  10. Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine.

    PubMed

    Saisawang, Chonticha; Saitornuang, Sawanan; Sillapee, Pornpan; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R; Ketterman, Albert J

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional and is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease and show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine and serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases and would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target. PMID:26597768

  11. Another Look Inside the Gap: Ecological Contributions to the Transmission of Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabulsy, George M.; Bernier, Annie; Provost, Marc A.; Maranda, Johanne; Larose, Simon; Moss, Ellen; Larose, Marie; Tessier, Rejean

    2005-01-01

    Ecological contributions to attachment transmission were studied in a sample of 64 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal sensitivity was assessed when infants were 6 and 10 months old, and infant security was assessed at 15 and 18 months. Maternal attachment state of mind was measured with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) after the 1st

  12. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperin, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective, and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and US American metropolitan and rural residence…

  13. Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine

    PubMed Central

    Saisawang, Chonticha; Saitornuang, Sawanan; Sillapee, Pornpan; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R.; Ketterman, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional and is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease and show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine and serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases and would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target. PMID:26597768

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

  15. Long Term Follow-Up after a Randomized Integrated Educational and Psychosocial Intervention in Patient-Partner Dyads Affected by Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, contemporary heart failure care remains patient-focused, but awareness of the partners’ and families’ situation is increasing. Randomized studies have mainly evaluated the short-term effects of dyadic interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the 24-month effects of an intervention with psych-educational support in dyads of heart failure patients and their partners. Methods This study used a randomized study design and 155 patient-partner dyads were enrolled. The intervention included a nurse-led program of three sessions addressing psychoeducational support. Results The intervention did not have any effect on health, depressive symptoms or perceived control among the patient-partner dyads after 24 months. Furthermore, time to first event did not differ significantly between the intervention group and the control patients. Conclusion This study may be regarded as a first step in trying to understand dyads’ need for supportive care. Individualized and more targeted interventions seem necessary to achieve a higher impact on dyad outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02398799 PMID:26406475

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported

  17. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  18. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as

  19. Attachment security and HPA axis reactivity to positive and challenging emotional situations in child-mother dyads in naturalistic settings.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela; Oliveira, Tania F; Oliveira, Rui F

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated adrenocortical activity in response to different challenging and positive affect emotional contexts in child-mother dyads, as function of attachment security (children's secure base behaviors and mothers' attachment representations). Fifty-one children ranging in age from 18 to 26 months and their mothers participated in this study. Secure children showed significant increases in their cortisol levels after fear episodes and significant decreases, after positive affect ones. No significant changes were found for frustration/anger episodes. Insecure children did not show significant differences in cortisol levels in any of the episodes, which suggests that insecure attachment may be related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in response to challenging and positive contexts. Mothers of insecure children showed significantly higher cortisol concentrations in pre- and post-session samples, than mothers of secure children. Mothers' personal attachment representations influenced their own cortisol responses, as well as their children's (in a marginal significant way). PMID:22487942

  20. A Ruthenium(II)-Copper(II) Dyad for the Photocatalytic Oxygenation of Organic Substrates Mediated by Dioxygen Activation.

    PubMed

    Iali, Wissam; Lanoe, Pierre-Henri; Torelli, Stéphane; Jouvenot, Damien; Loiseau, Frédérique; Lebrun, Colette; Hamelin, Olivier; Ménage, Stéphane

    2015-07-13

    Dioxygen activation by copper complexes is a valuable method to achieve oxidation reactions for sustainable chemistry. The development of a catalytic system requires regeneration of the Cu(I) active redox state from Cu(II). This is usually achieved using extra reducers that can compete with the Cu(II)(O2) oxidizing species, causing a loss of efficiency. An alternative would consist of using a photosensitizer to control the reduction process. Association of a Ru(II) photosensitizing subunit with a Cu(II) pre-catalytic moiety assembled within a unique entity is shown to fulfill these requirements. In presence of a sacrificial electron donor and light, electron transfer occurs from the Ru(II) center to Cu(II). In presence of dioxygen, this dyad proved to be efficient for sulfide, phosphine, and alkene catalytic oxygenation. Mechanistic investigations gave evidence about a predominant (3)O2 activation pathway by the Cu(I) moiety. PMID:26013299

  1. A semiempirical study for the ground and excited states of free-base and zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyads.

    PubMed

    Parusel, A B

    2000-01-01

    The ground and excited states of a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad in both its free-base and zinc forms (D. Kuciauskas et al., J. Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 15926) have been investigated by semiempirical methods. The excited-state properties are discussed by investigation of the character of the molecular orbitals. All frontier MOs are mainly localized on either the donor or the acceptor subunit. Thus, the absorption spectra of both systems are best described as the sum of the spectra of the single components. The experimentally observed spectra are well reproduced by the theoretical computations. Both molecules undergo efficient electron transfer in polar but not in apolar solvents. This experimental finding is explained theoretically by explicitly considering solvent effects. The tenth excited state in the gas phase is of charge-separated character where an electron is transferred from the porphyrin donor to the fullerene acceptor subunit. This state is stabilized in energy in polar solvents due to its large formal dipole moment. The stabilization energy for an apolar environment such as benzene is not sufficient to lower this state to become the first excited singlet state. Thus, no electron transfer is observed, in agreement with experiment. In a polar environment such as acetonitrile, the charge-separated state becomes the S, state and electron transfer takes place, as observed experimentally. The flexible single bond connecting both the donor and acceptor subunits allows free rotation by ca. +/- 30 degrees about the optimized ground-state conformation. For the charge-separated state this optimized geometry has a maximum dipole moment. The geometry of the charge-separated state thus does not change relatively to the ground-state conformation. The electron-donating properties of porphyrin are enhanced in the zinc derivative due to a reduced porphyrin HOMO-LUMO energy gap. This yields a lower energy for the charge-separated state compared to the free-base dyad. PMID:10942085

  2. Dyad content is reduced in cardiac myocytes of mice with impaired calmodulin regulation of RyR2.

    PubMed

    Lavorato, Manuela; Huang, Tai-Qin; Iyer, Venkat Ramesh; Perni, Stefano; Meissner, Gerhard; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara

    2015-04-01

    In cardiac muscle, calmodulin (CaM) regulates the activity of several membrane proteins involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis (CaV1.2; RyR2, SERCA2, PMCA). Three engineered amino acid substitutions in the CaM binding site of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) in mice (Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) ) strongly affect cardiac function, with impaired CaM inhibition of RyR2, reduced SR Ca(2+) sequestration, and early cardiac hypertrophy and death (Yamaguchi et al., J Clin Invest 117:1344-1353, 2007). We have examined the ultrastructure and RyR2 immunolocalization in WT and Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) hearts at ~10 days after birth. The myocytes show only minor evidence of structural damage: some increase in intermyofibrillar space, with occasional areas of irregular SR disposition and an increase in frequency of smaller myofibrils, despite an increase of about 15 % in average myocyte cross sectional area. Z line streaming, a sign of myofibrillar stress, is limited and fairly rare. Immunolabeling with an anti-RyR2 antibody shows that RyR-positive foci located at the level of the Z lines are less frequent in mutant hearts. A dramatic decrease in the frequency and size of dyads, accompanied by a decrease in occupancy of the gap by RyR2, but without obvious alterations in location and general structure is a notable ultrastructural feature. The data suggest that the uneven distribution of dyads or calcium release sites within the cells resulting from an overall reduction in RyR2 content may contribute to the poor cardiac performance and early death of Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) mice. An unusual fragmentation of mitochondria, perhaps related to imbalances in free cytoplasmic calcium levels, accompanies these changes. PMID:25694159

  3. A semiempirical study for the ground and excited states of free-base and zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parusel, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    The ground and excited states of a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad in both its free-base and zinc forms (D. Kuciauskas et al., J. Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 15926) have been investigated by semiempirical methods. The excited-state properties are discussed by investigation of the character of the molecular orbitals. All frontier MOs are mainly localized on either the donor or the acceptor subunit. Thus, the absorption spectra of both systems are best described as the sum of the spectra of the single components. The experimentally observed spectra are well reproduced by the theoretical computations. Both molecules undergo efficient electron transfer in polar but not in apolar solvents. This experimental finding is explained theoretically by explicitly considering solvent effects. The tenth excited state in the gas phase is of charge-separated character where an electron is transferred from the porphyrin donor to the fullerene acceptor subunit. This state is stabilized in energy in polar solvents due to its large formal dipole moment. The stabilization energy for an apolar environment such as benzene is not sufficient to lower this state to become the first excited singlet state. Thus, no electron transfer is observed, in agreement with experiment. In a polar environment such as acetonitrile, the charge-separated state becomes the S, state and electron transfer takes place, as observed experimentally. The flexible single bond connecting both the donor and acceptor subunits allows free rotation by ca. +/- 30 degrees about the optimized ground-state conformation. For the charge-separated state this optimized geometry has a maximum dipole moment. The geometry of the charge-separated state thus does not change relatively to the ground-state conformation. The electron-donating properties of porphyrin are enhanced in the zinc derivative due to a reduced porphyrin HOMO-LUMO energy gap. This yields a lower energy for the charge-separated state compared to the free-base dyad.

  4. Photoinduced charge separation in zinc-porphyrin/tungsten-alkylidyne dyads: generation of reactive porphyrin and metallo radical states.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Davis B; Hopkins, Michael D

    2013-12-01

    The luminescent tungsten-alkylidyne metalloligand [WCl(≡C-4,4'-C6H4CC-py)(dppe)2] (1; dppe=1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane) and the zinc-tetraarylporphyrins ZnTPP and ZnTP(Cl)P (TPP=tetraphenylporphyrin, TP(Cl)P=tetra(p-chlorophenyl)porphyrin) self-assemble in fluorobenzene solution to form the dyads ZnTPP(1) and ZnTP(Cl)P(1), in which the metalloligand is axially coordinated to the porphyrin. Excitation of the porphyrin-centered S1 excited states of these dyads initiates intramolecular energy-transfer (ZnPor→1) and electron-transfer (1→ZnPor) processes, which together efficiently quench the S1 state (~90%). Transient-absorption spectroscopy and an associated kinetic analysis reveal that the net product of the energy-transfer process is the (3)[dπ*] state of coordinated 1, which is formed by S1→(1)[dπ*] singlet-singlet (Förster) energy transfer followed by (1)[dπ*]→(3)[dπ*] intersystem crossing. The data also demonstrate that coordinated 1 reductively quenches the porphyrin S1 state to produce the [ZnPor(-)][1(+)] charge-separated state. This is a rare example of the reductive quenching of zinc porphyrin chromophores. The presence in the [ZnPor(-)][1(+)] charge-separated states of powerfully reducing zinc-porphyrin radical anions, which are capable of sensitizing a wide range of reductive electrocatalysts, and the 1(+) ion, which can initiate the oxidation of H2, produces an integrated photochemical system with the thermodynamic capability of driving photoredox processes that result in the transfer of renewable reducing equivalents instead of the consumption of conventional sacrificial donors. PMID:24307366

  5. Predictors of calcium intake at dinner meals of ethnically diverse mother-child dyads from families with limited incomes.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Nicklas, Theresa A; Franklin, Frank; Liu, Yan

    2009-10-01

    Diets adequate in calcium and other key nutrients early in life are critical for optimal growth. This study's objective was to determine associations between beverage and dairy food intakes of mothers and their young children and food/beverage contributions to calcium at dinner meals from ethnically diverse families with limited incomes. This was a secondary analysis of dietary data on mother-child dyads from a cross-sectional study. The sample was 465 children (4.4+/-0.6 years) and their mothers, 41% African American, 34% Hispanic, and 21% white. Dietary and anthropometric data were collected in 52 Head Start centers in Alabama and Texas during 1 year starting fall 2004. Associations between mother-child intakes were examined by race/ethnicity using correlations. Calcium intake from dinners was predicted (stepwise regression) from four beverage categories-milk, sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juices, and non-energy-containing beverages plus water-and from cheese and dairy desserts. Overall, the mother's dinnertime intake of milk did not predict that of her child. Mother-child intakes of cheese, dairy desserts, and sweetened beverages correlated more strongly than did milk. All the beverages and dairy groups demonstrated moderate correlations for dyads with those for cheese (r=0.56), dairy desserts (r=0.39), fruit juice (r=0.36), and sweetened beverages (r=0.31) higher than that for milk overall (r=0.29, P<0.01). Milk and cheese predicted the most variance in calcium intake for both mothers and children overall (R(2)=0.82), and for all race-ethnic groups, except African-American children, where the contribution from cheese predominated. Food and nutrition professionals should encourage replacing sweet beverages at dinner with low-fat milk or calcium-fortified beverages to improve the nutrient density of meals. PMID:19782174

  6. Photoinduced charge-separation and charge-recombination processes of fullerene[60] dyads covalently connected with phenothiazine and its trimer.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Hidehito; Suzuki, Shuichi; Kozaki, Masatoshi; Okada, Keiji; Islam, D-M Shafiqul; Araki, Yasuyuki; Ito, Osamu; Yamanaka, Ken-ichi

    2008-07-01

    Photoinduced charge-separation and charge-recombination processes of fullerene[60] dyads covalently connected with phenothiazine and its trimer (PTZ n -C 60, n = 1 and 3) with a short amide linkage were investigated. A time-resolved fluorescence study provided evidence of charge separation via the excited singlet state of a C 60 moiety ( (1)C 60*), which displayed high efficiencies in various solvents; Phi (S) CS (quantum yield of charge separation via (1)C 60*) = 0.59 (toluene) to 0.87 (DMF) for PTZ 1-C 60 and 0.78 (toluene) to 0.91 (DMF) for PTZ 3-C 60. The transient absorption measurement with a 6 ns time resolution in the visible and near-IR regions showed evidence of the generation of radical ion pairs in relatively polar solvents for both dyads. In nonpolar toluene, only PTZ 1- (3)C 60* was observed for PTZ 1-C 60, whereas PTZ 3- (3)C 60* as well as the radical ion pair state in equilibrium were observed for PTZ 3-C 60. The radical ion pairs had relatively long lifetimes: 60 (DMF) to 910 ns ( o-dichlorobenzene) for (PTZ) 1 (*+)-C 60 (*-) and 230 (PhCN) to 380 ns ( o-dichlorobenzene) for (PTZ) 3 (*+)-C 60 (*-). The small reorganization energy (lambda) and the electronic coupling element (| V|) were estimated by the temperature dependence of the charge-recombination rates, i.e., lambda = 0.53 eV and | V| = 1.6 cm (-1) for (PTZ) 3 (*+)-C 60 (*-). PMID:18543888

  7. Photoconductive and supramolecularly engineered organic field-effect transistors based on fibres from donor-acceptor dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treier, Matthias; Liscio, Andrea; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.; Kastler, Marcel; Müllen, Klaus; Palermo, Vincenzo; Samorì, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    We report on the formation of photoconductive self-assembled fibres by solvent induced precipitation of a HBC-PMI donor-acceptor dyad. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy revealed that upon illumination with white light the surface potential of the fibres shifted to negative values due to a build-up of negative charge. When integrated in a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration, the devices can be turned `on' much more efficiently using light than conventional bias triggered field-effect, suggesting that these structures could be used for the fabrication of light sensing devices. Such a double gating represents an important step towards bi-functional organic FETs, in which the current through the junction can be modulated both optically (by photoexcitation) and electrically (by gate control).We report on the formation of photoconductive self-assembled fibres by solvent induced precipitation of a HBC-PMI donor-acceptor dyad. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy revealed that upon illumination with white light the surface potential of the fibres shifted to negative values due to a build-up of negative charge. When integrated in a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration, the devices can be turned `on' much more efficiently using light than conventional bias triggered field-effect, suggesting that these structures could be used for the fabrication of light sensing devices. Such a double gating represents an important step towards bi-functional organic FETs, in which the current through the junction can be modulated both optically (by photoexcitation) and electrically (by gate control). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and photoresponse on spin-coated film (3 pages). See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11635a

  8. Global analysis of the high temperature infrared emission spectrum of (12)CH4 in the dyad (ν2/ν4) region.

    PubMed

    Amyay, Badr; Louviot, Maud; Pirali, Olivier; Georges, Robert; Vander Auwera, Jean; Boudon, Vincent

    2016-01-14

    We report new assignments of vibration-rotation line positions of methane ((12)CH4) in the so-called dyad (ν2/ν4) region (1100-1500 cm(-1)), and the resulting update of the vibration-rotation effective model of methane, previously reported by Nikitin et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10071 (2013)], up to and including the tetradecad. High resolution (0.01 cm(-1)) emission spectra of methane have been recorded up to about 1400 K using the high-enthalpy source developed at Institut de Physique de Rennes associated with the Fourier transform spectrometer of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility (AILES beamline). Analysis of these spectra allowed extending rotational assignments in the well-known cold band (dyad-ground state (GS)) and related hot bands in the pentad-dyad system (3000 cm(-1)) up to Jmax = 30 and 29, respectively. In addition, 8512 new transitions belonging to the octad-pentad (up to J = 28) and tetradecad-octad (up to J = 21) hot band systems were successfully identified. As a result, the MeCaSDa database of methane was significantly improved. The line positions assigned in this work, together with the information available in the literature, were fitted using 1096 effective parameters with a dimensionless standard deviation σ = 2.09. The root mean square deviations dRMS are 3.60 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for dyad-GS cold band, 4.47 ×10(-3) cm(-1) for the pentad-dyad, 5.43 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for the octad-pentad, and 4.70 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for the tetradecad-octad hot bands. The resulting new line list will contribute to improve opacity and radiative transfer models for hot atmospheres, such as those of hot-Jupiter type exoplanets. PMID:26772576

  9. Global analysis of the high temperature infrared emission spectrum of 12CH4 in the dyad (ν2/ν4) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amyay, Badr; Louviot, Maud; Pirali, Olivier; Georges, Robert; Vander Auwera, Jean; Boudon, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    We report new assignments of vibration-rotation line positions of methane (12CH4) in the so-called dyad (ν2/ν4) region (1100-1500 cm-1), and the resulting update of the vibration-rotation effective model of methane, previously reported by Nikitin et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10071 (2013)], up to and including the tetradecad. High resolution (0.01 cm-1) emission spectra of methane have been recorded up to about 1400 K using the high-enthalpy source developed at Institut de Physique de Rennes associated with the Fourier transform spectrometer of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility (AILES beamline). Analysis of these spectra allowed extending rotational assignments in the well-known cold band (dyad-ground state (GS)) and related hot bands in the pentad-dyad system (3000 cm-1) up to Jmax = 30 and 29, respectively. In addition, 8512 new transitions belonging to the octad-pentad (up to J = 28) and tetradecad-octad (up to J = 21) hot band systems were successfully identified. As a result, the MeCaSDa database of methane was significantly improved. The line positions assigned in this work, together with the information available in the literature, were fitted using 1096 effective parameters with a dimensionless standard deviation σ = 2.09. The root mean square deviations dRMS are 3.60 × 10-3 cm-1 for dyad-GS cold band, 4.47 ×10-3 cm-1 for the pentad-dyad, 5.43 × 10-3 cm-1 for the octad-pentad, and 4.70 × 10-3 cm-1 for the tetradecad-octad hot bands. The resulting new line list will contribute to improve opacity and radiative transfer models for hot atmospheres, such as those of hot-Jupiter type exoplanets.

  10. The impact of a pilot cooking intervention for parent-child dyads on the consumption of foods prepared away from home.

    PubMed

    Robson, Shannon M; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Stark, Lori J

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of a parent-child dyad cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home. Eating away from home often results in consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that can contribute to excess energy consumption in children. A pre-post design to evaluate a 10-week cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home, energy intake, and improving diet quality was implemented. The intervention was delivered at an instructional kitchen on a university campus and assessments were completed at a children's academic medical center. Subjects included six parent-child dyads whom reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times/week and in which the parent was overweight based on their body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 kg/m(2). Parents were a mean age of 34.7 (SD = 3.9) years, and children were a mean age of 8.7 (SD = 2.0) years. Two-thirds of parents self-identified themselves and their children as White. Results showed the proportion of dinners consumed by parent-child dyads away from home significantly decreased (F (1,161) = 16.1, p < 0.05) from 56% at baseline to 25% at post-treatment. Dyad cholesterol intake at dinner also significantly decreased over time; however, changes in energy intake, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium at dinner were not significant. A large effect size was found for changes in parent ratings of enjoyment of cooking between baseline and post-treatment. A cooking intervention that involves parent-child dyads and incorporates behavior management strategies and nutrition education may be an innovative obesity prevention intervention. PMID:26779887

  11. Social signal processing for studying parent–infant interaction

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent–infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies. PMID:25540633

  12. Parent-Child Relationships during Middle Childhood: Gender Differences in Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Beth A.; Zboyan, Holly A.

    This study examined gender differences in interactional style between parents and children, focusing on gender socialization and emotional expression. The subjects were 38 mother-child and father-child dyads from intact families, of which about 75 percent were Caucasian; 15 percent, Hispanic; and 10 percent, African American or Asian. Parents…

  13. A Cross-Cultural Assessment of Maternal-Child Interaction: Links to Health and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberg, Charles N.; And Others

    Twenty-four mother-toddler dyads, 12 each from the Hmong and Caucasian communities of the Twin Cities, took part in a cross-cultural study of maternal-child interaction and its links to health and development. Findings showed that the Hmong mothers were rated as more attentive, expressive, sensitive, responsive, and patient in childrearing than…

  14. Family Behavior in Public Places: Interaction Patterns Within and Across Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.; Cleaves, Wallace T.

    1981-01-01

    In a study of relative priorities for interaction in groups containing adults and children, 570 family groups in public settings were observed for 10-second time periods. There was far more adult/child touching than adult/adult touching. Adults tended to talk more than children and talking was reciprocated at higher rates in adult/adult dyads than…

  15. Playing with Technology: Mother-Toddler Interaction Scores Lower during Play with Electronic Toys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Michaela B.; Shapka, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To investigate play with electronic toys (battery-operated or digital), 25 mother-toddler (16-24 months old) dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with sets of age-appropriate electronic and non-electronic toys for approximately 10 min each. Parent-child interactions were coded from recorded segments of both of the play conditions using the…

  16. Gravitating toward Science: Parent-Child Interactions at a Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szechter, Lisa E.; Carey, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the nature of parent-child conversations at an informal science education center housed in an active gravitational-wave observatory. Each of 20 parent-child dyads explored an interactive exhibit hall privately, without the distraction of other visitors. Parents employed a variety of strategies to support their children's…

  17. Socio-Cognitive Functions of L1 Collaborative Interaction in the L2 Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Marta; DiCamilla, Frederick J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of native-language (L1) use in the collaborative interaction of five dyads of native English-speaking adult learners of Spanish as a second language found that L1 serves a critical function in students' attempts to mutually define task elements, provide each other with scaffolding help, and externalize inner speech. (Author/MSE)

  18. Socio-Cognitive Functions of L1 Collaborative Interaction in the L2 Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Maria; DiCamilla, Frederick

    1998-01-01

    A study of native language (L1) use in the collaborative interaction of five dyads of native English-speaking adult learners of Spanish as a second language (L2) found that L1 serves a critical function in students' attempts to mutually define task elements, provide each other with scaffolding help, and externalize inner speech. (Author/MSE)

  19. The Influence of Interactive Context on Prelinguistic Vocalizations and Maternal Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gros-Louis, Julie; West, Meredith J.; King, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have documented influences of maternal responsiveness on cognitive and language development. Given the bidirectionality of interactions in caregiver-infant dyads, it is important to understand how infant behavior elicits variable responses. Prior studies have shown that mothers respond differentially to features of prelinguistic…

  20. A Dyadic Interactive Approach to the Study of Leader Behavior. Technical Report 506.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Donald S.

    The interactive effects of leader characteristics, follower characteristics, and the task situation on leader behavior were assessed. Focuses of the investigation were the degree of leader-follower compatibility, Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) versus the Average Leadership Style analysis of leader behavior, and the general problem of assessing leader

  1. Sex and Sibling Structure: Interaction Effects upon the Accuracy of Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas Ewin

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 291 mother-child and 221 father-child dyads to examine adolescent perceptions of parental educational goals. Results showed family size and student's age had no effect, but birth order and sibling sex composition interact with sex of the parent and the adolescent in effects on accuracy of perception. (JAC)

  2. Examining the Effects of Gender and Genre on Interactions in Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jim; Anderson, Ann; Lynch, Jacqueline; Shapiro, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fathers and mothers read differently to their four-year-old sons and daughters and to examine the effect of genre on the interactions that occurred in parent-child, shared book reading. Twenty-five dyads shared two narrative texts and two non-narrative texts. Results indicated that overall,…

  3. Stability of Maternal Discipline Practices and the Quality of Mother-Child Interaction during Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother-child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother-toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e.,…

  4. Gravitating toward Science: Parent-Child Interactions at a Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szechter, Lisa E.; Carey, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the nature of parent-child conversations at an informal science education center housed in an active gravitational-wave observatory. Each of 20 parent-child dyads explored an interactive exhibit hall privately, without the distraction of other visitors. Parents employed a variety of strategies to support their children's

  5. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads were formed between keepers and zoo animals, which influenced animal behaviour. PMID:26509670

  6. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha J.; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman’s zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals’ latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: “attitude towards the animals” and “knowledge and experience of the animals”. In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads were formed between keepers and zoo animals, which influenced animal behaviour. PMID:26509670

  7. A Model for Early Intervention in Maladaptive Mother-Child Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milar, Christopher R.; Schroeder, Carolyn S.

    This conference presentation describes a six-week intervention training program for parents with children who exhibit negative behavior (noncompliance, temper tantrums, whining). The focus of the program is to increase positive parent-child interaction, as well as to teach parents how to make and follow through on commands to their children.…

  8. Interaction and behaviour imaging: a novel method to measure mother-infant interaction using video 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Leclère, C; Avril, M; Viaux-Savelon, S; Bodeau, N; Achard, C; Missonnier, S; Keren, M; Feldman, R; Chetouani, M; Cohen, D

    2016-01-01

    Studying early interaction is essential for understanding development and psychopathology. Automatic computational methods offer the possibility to analyse social signals and behaviours of several partners simultaneously and dynamically. Here, 20 dyads of mothers and their 13-36-month-old infants were videotaped during mother-infant interaction including 10 extremely high-risk and 10 low-risk dyads using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) sensors. From 2D+3D data and 3D space reconstruction, we extracted individual parameters (quantity of movement and motion activity ratio for each partner) and dyadic parameters related to the dynamics of partners heads distance (contribution to heads distance), to the focus of mutual engagement (percentage of time spent face to face or oriented to the task) and to the dynamics of motion activity (synchrony ratio, overlap ratio, pause ratio). Features are compared with blind global rating of the interaction using the coding interactive behavior (CIB). We found that individual and dyadic parameters of 2D+3D motion features perfectly correlates with rated CIB maternal and dyadic composite scores. Support Vector Machine classification using all 2D-3D motion features classified 100% of the dyads in their group meaning that motion behaviours are sufficient to distinguish high-risk from low-risk dyads. The proposed method may present a promising, low-cost methodology that can uniquely use artificial technology to detect meaningful features of human interactions and may have several implications for studying dyadic behaviours in psychiatry. Combining both global rating scales and computerized methods may enable a continuum of time scale from a summary of entire interactions to second-by-second dynamics. PMID:27219342

  9. A Comparison of Dyadic Interactions and Coping with Still-Face in Healthy Pre-Term and Full-Term Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montirosso, Rosario; Borgatti, Renato; Trojan, Sabina; Zanini, Rinaldo; Tronick, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Pre-term birth has a significant impact on infants' social and emotional competence, however, little is known about regulatory processes in pre-term mother-infant dyads during normal or stressful interactions. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the differences in infant and caregiver interactive behaviour and dyadic coordination…

  10. Talking to Strangers--A Sociolinguistic Experiment: Variation in Initial Dyadic Interactions between Spanish-Speakers in Early 21st Century Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziugis, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    What are the chances of a dyad of Spanish-speaking strangers using informal address in casual, initial interactions in Buenos Aires, Argentina, today? To discover the pattern(s) of contemporary address, the Principal Investigator (PI) conducted a sociolinguistic experiment focusing on strangers' initial interactions to minimize the influence of…

  11. Electron transfer reaction of light harvesting zinc naphthalocyanine-subphthalocyanine self-assembled dyad: spectroscopic, electrochemical, computational, and photochemical studies.

    PubMed

    El-Khouly, Mohamed E

    2010-10-21

    Electron transfer reaction of a self-assembled donor-acceptor dyad formed by axial coordination of zinc naphthalocyanine, ZnNc, and subphthalocyanine appended with pyridine coordinating ligand, SubPc(py), was investigated in the present study. The SubPc(Py) : ZnNc self-assembled dyad absorbs the light in a wide section of the UV/Vis/NIR spectra. The formation constant of SubPc(py) : ZnNc in o-dichlorobenzene was found to be 1.2 × 10(5) M(-1) from the steady-state absorption and emission measurements, suggesting stable complex formation. The geometric and electronic calculations by using ab initio B3LYP/6-311G methods showed the majority of the highest occupied frontier molecular orbital (HOMO) on the zinc naphthalocyanine entity, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) was on the subphthalocyanine entity, suggesting that the charge-separated state of the supramolecular complex is (SubPc(py))˙(-) : ZnNc˙(+). The electrochemical results suggest the exothermic charge-separation process via the singlet states of both SubPc(py) and ZnNc entities. Upon coordination the pyridine appended subphthalocyanine to ZnNc; the main quenching pathway involved charge separation via the singlet excited states of ZnNc and SubPc(py). A clear evidence of the intramolecular electron transfer from the singlet state of ZnNc to SubPc(py) was monitored by femtosecond laser photolysis in o-dichlorobenzene by observing the characteristic absorption band of the ZnNc radical cation in the NIR region at 960 nm. The rate of charge-separation process was found to be 1.3 × 10(10) s(-1), indicating fast and efficient charge separation. The rate of charge recombination and the lifetime of the charge-separated state were found to be 1.0 × 10(9) s(-1) and 1 ns, respectively. The absorption in a wide section of the solar spectrum and high charge-separation/charge-recombination ratio suggests the usefulness of self-assembled SubPc(Py) : ZnNc for being a photosynthetic model. PMID:20820580

  12. Self-assembled via axial coordination magnesium porphyrin-imidazole appended fullerene dyad: spectroscopic, electrochemical, computational, and photochemical studies.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Francis; El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Gadde, Suresh; McCarty, Amy L; Karr, Paul A; Zandler, Melvin E; Araki, Yasuyaki; Ito, Osamu

    2005-05-26

    Spectroscopic, redox, and electron transfer reactions of a self-assembled donor-acceptor dyad formed by axial coordination of magnesium meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (MgTPP) and fulleropyrrolidine appended with an imidazole coordinating ligand (C(60)Im) were investigated. Spectroscopic studies revealed the formation of a 1:1 C(60)Im:MgTPP supramolecular complex, and the anticipated 1:2 complex could not be observed because of the needed large amounts of the axial coordinating ligand. The formation constant, K(1), for the 1:1 complex was found to be (1.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(4) M(-1), suggesting fairly stable complex formation. The geometric and electronic structures of the dyads were probed by ab initio B3LYP/3-21G() methods. The majority of the highest occupied frontier molecular orbital (HOMO) was found to be located on the MgTPP entity, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) was on the fullerene entity, suggesting that the charge-separated state of the supramolecular complex is C(60)Im(*-):MgTPP(*+). Redox titrations involving MgTPP and C(60)Im allowed accurate determination of the oxidation and reduction potentials of the donor and acceptor entities in the supramolecular complex. These studies revealed more difficult oxidation, by about 100 mV, for MgTPP in the pentacoordinated C(60)Im:MgTPP compared to pristine MgTPP in o-dichlorobenzene. A total of six one-electron redox processes corresponding to the oxidation and reduction of the zinc porphyrin ring and the reduction of fullerene entities was observed within the accessible potential window of the solvent. The excited state events were monitored by both steady state and time-resolved emission as well as transient absorption techniques. In o-dichlorobenzene, upon coordination of C(60)Im to MgTPP, the main quenching pathway involved electron transfer from the singlet excited MgTPP to the C(60)Im moiety. The rate of forward electron transfer, k(CS), calculated from the picosecond time-resolved emission studies was found to be 1.1 x 10(10) s(-1) with a quantum yield, Phi(CS), of 0.99, indicating fast and efficient charge separation. The rate of charge recombination, k(CR), evaluated from nanosecond transient absorption studies, was found to be 8.3 x 10(7) s(-1). A comparison between k(CS) and k(CR) suggested an excellent opportunity to utilize the charge-separated state for further electron-mediating processes. PMID:16852225

  13. The Structure of the RLIP76 RhoGAP-Ral Binding Domain Dyad: Fixed Position of the Domains Leads to Dual Engagement of Small G Proteins at the Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekar, Karthik V.; Campbell, Louise J.; Nietlispach, Daniel; Owen, Darerca; Mott, Helen R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary RLIP76 is an effector for Ral small GTPases, which in turn lie downstream of the master regulator Ras. Evidence is growing that Ral and RLIP76 play a role in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis. RLIP76 contains both a RhoGAP domain and a Ral binding domain (GBD) and is, therefore, a node between Ras and Rho family signaling. The structure of the RhoGAP-GBD dyad reveals that the RLIP76 RhoGAP domain adopts a canonical RhoGAP domain structure and that the linker between the two RLIP76 domains is structured, fixing the orientation of the two domains and allowing RLIP76 to interact with Rho-family GTPases and Ral simultaneously. However, the juxtaposed domains do not influence each other functionally, suggesting that the RLIP76-Ral interaction controls cellular localization and that the fixed orientation of the two domains orientates the RhoGAP domain with respect to the membrane, allowing it to be perfectly poised to engage its target G proteins. PMID:24207123

  14. The neural basis of perceiving person interactions.

    PubMed

    Quadflieg, Susanne; Gentile, Francesco; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether the grouping of people into meaningful social scenes (e.g., two people having a chat) impacts the basic perceptual analysis of each partaking individual. To explore this issue, we measured neural activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants sex-categorized congruent as well as incongruent person dyads (i.e., two people interacting in a plausible or implausible manner). Incongruent person dyads elicited enhanced neural processing in several high-level visual areas dedicated to face and body encoding and in the posterior middle temporal gyrus compared to congruent person dyads. Incongruent and congruent person scenes were also successfully differentiated by a linear multivariate pattern classifier in the right fusiform body area and the left extrastriate body area. Finally, increases in the person scenes' meaningfulness as judged by independent observers was accompanied by enhanced activity in the bilateral posterior insula. These findings demonstrate that the processing of person scenes goes beyond a mere stimulus-bound encoding of their partaking agents, suggesting that changes in relations between agents affect their representation in category-selective regions of the visual cortex and beyond. PMID:25697049

  15. High resolution study of MGeH4 (M=76, 74) in the dyad region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Sennikov, P. G.; Koshelev, M. A.; Velmuzhova, I. A.; Velmuzhov, A. P.; Bulanov, A. D.

    2014-09-01

    The infrared spectrum of GeH4 (88.1% of 76GeH4, 11.5% of 74GeH4, and minor amounts of three other stable isotopic species in the sample) was measured in the 700-1080 cm-1 region with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform interferometer (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and analyzed. 1922 transitions with J=26 were assigned to the ν4 and ν2 bands of 76GeH4 (ν2 is a symmetry forbidden absorption band, and its transitions appear in the spectrum only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ν4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with an accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The result of analogous analysis of the 74GeH4 isotopologue (the number of assigned transitions is 788) is also presented.

  16. Cyanuric acid hydrolase from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571: crystal structure and insights into a new class of Ser-Lys dyad proteins.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seunghee; Shi, Ke; Seffernick, Jennifer L; Dodge, Anthony G; Wackett, Lawrence P; Aihara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH) catalyzes the hydrolytic ring-opening of cyanuric acid (2,4,6-trihydroxy-1,3,5-triazine), an intermediate in s-triazine bacterial degradation and a by-product from disinfection with trichloroisocyanuric acid. In the present study, an X-ray crystal structure of the CAH-barbituric acid inhibitor complex from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571 has been determined at 2.7 resolution. The CAH protein fold consists of three structurally homologous domains forming a ?-barrel-like structure with external ?-helices that result in a three-fold symmetry, a dominant feature of the structure and active site that mirrors the three-fold symmetrical shape of the substrate cyanuric acid. The active site structure of CAH is similar to that of the recently determined AtzD with three pairs of active site Ser-Lys dyads. In order to determine the role of each Ser-Lys dyad in catalysis, a mutational study using a highly sensitive, enzyme-coupled assay was conducted. The 10?-fold loss of activity by the S226A mutant was at least ten times lower than that of the S79A and S333A mutants. In addition, bioinformatics analysis revealed the Ser226/Lys156 dyad as the only absolutely conserved dyad in the CAH/barbiturase family. These data suggest that Lys156 activates the Ser226 nucleophile which can then attack the substrate carbonyl. Our combination of structural, mutational, and bioinformatics analyses differentiates this study and provides experimental data for mechanistic insights into this unique protein family. PMID:24915109

  17. Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571: Crystal Structure and Insights into a New Class of Ser-Lys Dyad Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seunghee; Shi, Ke; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Dodge, Anthony G.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aihara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH) catalyzes the hydrolytic ring-opening of cyanuric acid (2,4,6-trihydroxy-1,3,5-triazine), an intermediate in s-triazine bacterial degradation and a by-product from disinfection with trichloroisocyanuric acid. In the present study, an X-ray crystal structure of the CAH-barbituric acid inhibitor complex from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571 has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution. The CAH protein fold consists of three structurally homologous domains forming a β-barrel-like structure with external α-helices that result in a three-fold symmetry, a dominant feature of the structure and active site that mirrors the three-fold symmetrical shape of the substrate cyanuric acid. The active site structure of CAH is similar to that of the recently determined AtzD with three pairs of active site Ser-Lys dyads. In order to determine the role of each Ser-Lys dyad in catalysis, a mutational study using a highly sensitive, enzyme-coupled assay was conducted. The 109-fold loss of activity by the S226A mutant was at least ten times lower than that of the S79A and S333A mutants. In addition, bioinformatics analysis revealed the Ser226/Lys156 dyad as the only absolutely conserved dyad in the CAH/barbiturase family. These data suggest that Lys156 activates the Ser226 nucleophile which can then attack the substrate carbonyl. Our combination of structural, mutational, and bioinformatics analyses differentiates this study and provides experimental data for mechanistic insights into this unique protein family. PMID:24915109

  18. Using RSAT oligo-analysis and dyad-analysis tools to discover regulatory signals in nucleic sequences.

    PubMed

    Defrance, Matthieu; Janky, Rekin's; Sand, Olivier; van Helden, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    This protocol explains how to discover functional signals in genomic sequences by detecting over- or under-represented oligonucleotides (words) or spaced pairs thereof (dyads) with the Regulatory Sequence Analysis Tools (http://rsat.ulb.ac.be/rsat/). Two typical applications are presented: (i) predicting transcription factor-binding motifs in promoters of coregulated genes and (ii) discovering phylogenetic footprints in promoters of orthologous genes. The steps of this protocol include purging genomic sequences to discard redundant fragments, discovering over-represented patterns and assembling them to obtain degenerate motifs, scanning sequences and drawing feature maps. The main strength of the method is its statistical ground: the binomial significance provides an efficient control on the rate of false positives. In contrast with optimization-based pattern discovery algorithms, the method supports the detection of under- as well as over-represented motifs. Computation times vary from seconds (gene clusters) to minutes (whole genomes). The execution of the whole protocol should take approximately 1 h. PMID:18802440

  19. Heterobimetallic complexes of cobalt(IV) porphyrin-corrole dyads. Synthesis, physicochemical properties, and X-ray structural characterization.

    PubMed

    Guilard, Roger; Burdet, Fabien; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Gros, Claude P; Espinosa, Enrique; Shao, Jianguo; Ou, Zhongping; Zhan, Riqiang; Kadish, Karl M

    2005-05-30

    The synthesis of a novel family of heterobinuclear cofacial biphenylene (B), anthracene (A), 9,9-dimethylxanthene (X), or dibenzofuran (O) bridged porphyrin-corrole complexes, (PCY)MClCoCl, is reported, M being either an iron(III) or manganese(III) ion. Each complex was characterized by electrochemistry, mass spectrometry, UV-vis, IR, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Unlike previously examined biscobalt porphyrin-corrole dyads, the cobalt ion of the corrole moiety is present in a high-valence +4 oxidation state, as proven by electrochemistry, spectroelectrochemistry, and an X-ray diffraction study of (PCB)FeClCoCl, which shows the presence of a bound Cl- anion on the cobalt corrole. Structural data: (PCB)FeClCoCl x 0.5(C7H16) x 0.5(CH2Cl2) x 2H2O, triclinic, space group P1, a = 13.8463(3) A, b = 16.8164(5) A, c = 17.9072(6) A, alpha = 93.780(1) degrees, beta = 111.143(1) degrees, gamma = 97.463(2) degrees, Z = 2. PMID:15907125

  20. A network analysis of relationship dynamics in sexual dyads as correlates of HIV risk misperceptions among high-risk MSM

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Williams, Mark L; Ross, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Relationship dynamics influence the perception of HIV risk in sexual dyads. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of relational dynamics on knowledge or perception of a partner's HIV status in a sample of most at-risk men who have sex with men (MSM): drug-using male sex workers. The study identified relationship dimensions and examined their association with misperceptions about a particular partner's HIV status. Methods The analytical sample for the study consisted of 168 sexual partnerships of 116 male sex workers and their associates. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify dimensions of the interpersonal relationships in sexual partnerships that were then regressed on risky misperceptions (misperceiving HIV negative when partner's self-report was positive or unknown). Results Six relationship dimensions of intimate, commitment, socialising, financial, trust and honesty were extracted. Commitment was found to be protective against misperception (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.45), while trust was not (AOR=2.78). Other factors also were found to be associated with misperception. HIV-negative MSM (AOR=7.69) and partners who were both self-identified as gay (AOR=3.57) were associated with misperception, while encounters identified as sex work (AOR=0.29), in which both partners were Caucasian (AOR=0.16), and involved with an older partner (AOR=0.90) were protective. Conclusions Couple-based HIV intervention efforts among MSM should consider that less trust and more commitment are protective factors in sexual partnerships. PMID:25305211

  1. External and internal reality: the impact of the current socio-economic crisis on the analytic dyad.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Anna

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the impact of the current economic crisis on the psychic functioning of the patient and the analyst, their relationship and collaboration. This intrusion of 'external reality' is multidimensional, and thus with multiple meanings. The critical role of the economic factor brings various dimensions of money into play, such as self-preservation, power as well as aspects of psychosexual development. In addition, the crisis involves symbolic loss of basic ideals such as honesty and social responsibility. Patient and analyst are affected in similar and different ways in their respective roles as well as according to the specific intrapsychic functioning of each. Moreover, unique characteristics of the crisis often create a crisis in the analysis. In order to avoid deformation of the analytic relationship, the analytic dyad must examine and work through the multiple meanings of the crisis as well as the meaning of the impact of the crisis on the analytic relationship for both patient and analyst. This complex transference- countertransference interplay poses specific challenges to the analyst. After discussion of these issues, clinical material is presented that demonstrates how they appear in analytic practice today. PMID:25376265

  2. A triazine di(carboxy)porphyrin dyad versus a triazine di(carboxy)porphyrin triad for sensitizers in DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Zervaki, G E; Tsaka, Vasilitsa; Vatikioti, Alexandra; Georgakaki, Irene; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Sharma, G D; Coutsolelos, A G

    2015-08-14

    Two porphyrin-chromophores, i.e. triad PorZn-(PorCOOH)(2)-(piper)2 (GZ-T1) and dyad (PorZn)(2)-NMe2 (GZ-T1), have been synthesized and their photophysical and electrochemical properties have been investigated. The optical properties together with the appropriate electronic energy levels, i.e. the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, revealed that both porphyrin assemblies can function as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The and -based DSSCs have been prepared and studied using 20 mM CDCA as coadsorbent and were found to exhibit an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.88% and 4.56%, respectively (under an illumination intensity of 100 mW cm(-2) with TiO(2) films of 12 μm). The higher PCE of the -sensitized DSSC, as revealed from the current-voltage characteristic under illumination and the incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectra of the two DSSCs, is mainly attributed to its enhanced short circuit current (J(sc)), although both the open circuit voltage (V(oc)) and the fill factor are improved too. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) demonstrated a shorter electron transport time, longer electron lifetime and higher charge recombination resistance for the DSSC sensitized with the dye as well as a larger dye loading onto the TiO(2) surface. PMID:26134439

  3. Dynamics of photoinduced electron-transfer processes in fullerene-based dyads: effects of varying the donor strength.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K George; Biju, V; Kamat, Prashant V; George, M V; Guldi, Dirk M

    2003-12-15

    Two classes of fullerene-based donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) systems containing donors of varying oxidation potentials have been synthesized. These systems include fullerenes linked to heteroaromatic donor groups (phenothiazine/phenoxazine) as well as substituted anilines (p-anisidine/p-toluidine). In contrast to the model compound, an efficient intramolecular electron transfer is observed from the fullerene singlet excited state in polar solvents. An increase in the rate constant and quantum yield of charge separation (kcs and phi cs) has been observed for both classes of dyads, with decrease in the oxidation potentials of the donor groups. This observation indicates that the rates of the forward electron transfer fall in the normal region of the Marcus curve. The long-lived charge separation enabled the characterization of electron transfer products, namely, the radical cation of the donor and radical anion of the pyrrolidinofullerene, by using nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The small reorganization energy (lambda) of C60 coupled with large negative free energy changes (-delta G degree) for the back electron transfer places the back electron process in the inverted region of Marcus curve, thereby stabilizing the electron transfer products. PMID:14714377

  4. Involving family members in the implementation and evaluation of technologies for dementia: a dyad case study.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Amanda; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of individuals worldwide are affected by dementia and it is important to examine nonpharmacological care approaches. A dyadic case study of a 6-month evaluation of a technology designed to engage individuals with dementia in activities in a memory care unit is presented. Findings show one caretaker of an individual with dementia (i.e., her mother) used the computer in a manner consistent with her usual style of interaction and supportive care; she continued to maintain awareness of her mother's activity preferences and cultivated her mother's quality of life by using the provided technology. These findings demonstrate a use for technology to support activities of older adults with dementia while engaging family and provide future directions for technology design and research in this population. PMID:25800405

  5. Emotional Relationships in Mothers and Infants: Culture-Common and Community-Specific Characteristics of Dyads from Rural and Metropolitan Settings in Argentina, Italy, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; de Galperín, Celia Zingman; Gini, Motti; Tichovolsky, Marianne Heslington

    2010-01-01

    This study uses country and regional contrasts to examine culture-common and community-specific variation in mother-infant emotional relationships. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American mothers and their daughters and sons, living in rural and metropolitan settings, were observed at home at infant age 5 months. Both variable- and person-centered perspectives of dyadic emotional relationships were analyzed. Supporting the notion that adequate emotional relationships are a critical and culture-common characteristic of human infant development, across all samples most dyads scored in the adaptive range in terms of emotional relationships. Giving evidence of community-specific characteristics, Italian mothers were more sensitive, and Italian infants more responsive, than Argentine and U.S. mothers and infants; in addition, rural mothers were more intrusive than metropolitan mothers, and rural dyads more likely than expected to be classified as mid-range in emotional relationships and less likely to be classified as high in emotional relationships. Adaptive emotional relationships appear to be a culture-common characteristic of mother-infant dyads near the beginning of life, but this relational construct is moderated by community-specific (country and regional) context. PMID:22247569

  6. The Ugi four-component reaction as a concise modular synthetic tool for photo-induced electron transfer donor-anthraquinone dyads.

    PubMed

    Bay, Sarah; Makhloufi, Gamall; Janiak, Christoph; Müller, Thomas J J

    2014-01-01

    Phenothiazinyl and carbazolyl-donor moieties can be covalently coupled to an anthraquinone acceptor unit through an Ugi four-component reaction in a rapid, highly convergent fashion and with moderate to good yields. These novel donor-acceptor dyads are electronically decoupled in the electronic ground state according to UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. However, in the excited state the inherent donor luminescence is efficiently quenched. Previously performed femtosecond spectroscopic measurements account for a rapid exergonic depopulation of the excited singlet states into a charge-separated state. Calculations of the Gibbs energy of photo-induced electron transfer from readily available UV-vis spectroscopic and cyclovoltammetric data applying the Weller approximation enables a quick evaluation of these novel donor-acceptor dyads. In addition, the X-ray structure of a phenothiazinyl-anthraquinone dyad supports short donor-acceptor distances by an intramolecular π-stacking conformation, an important assumption also implied in the calculations of the Gibbs energies according to the Weller approximation. PMID:24991251

  7. Electronic energy and electron transfer processes in photoexcited donor-acceptor dyad and triad molecular systems based on triphenylene and perylene diimide units.

    PubMed

    Lee, K J; Woo, J H; Kim, E; Xiao, Y; Su, X; Mazur, L M; Attias, A-J; Fages, F; Cregut, O; Barsella, A; Mathevet, F; Mager, L; Wu, J W; D'Aléo, A; Ribierre, J-C

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the photophysical properties of organic donor-acceptor dyad and triad molecular systems based on triphenylene and perylene diimide units linked by a non-conjugated flexible bridge in solution using complementary optical spectroscopy techniques. When these molecules are diluted in dichloromethane solution, energy transfer from the triphenylene to the perylene diimide excited moieties is evidenced by time-resolved fluorescence measurements resulting in a quenching of the emission from the triphenylene moieties. Simultaneously, another quenching process that affects the emission from both donor and acceptor units is observed. Solution ultrafast transient absorption measurements provide evidence of photo-induced charge transfer from either the donor or the acceptor depending upon the excitation. Overall, the analysis of the detailed time-resolved spectroscopic measurements carried out in the dyad and triad systems as well as in the triphenylene and perylene diimide units alone provides useful information both to better understand the relations between energy and charge transfer processes with molecular structures, and for the design of future functional dyad and triad architectures based on donor and acceptor moieties for organic optoelectronic applications. PMID:26911420

  8. The Ugi four-component reaction as a concise modular synthetic tool for photo-induced electron transfer donor-anthraquinone dyads

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Sarah; Makhloufi, Gamall; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Summary Phenothiazinyl and carbazolyl-donor moieties can be covalently coupled to an anthraquinone acceptor unit through an Ugi four-component reaction in a rapid, highly convergent fashion and with moderate to good yields. These novel donor–acceptor dyads are electronically decoupled in the electronic ground state according to UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. However, in the excited state the inherent donor luminescence is efficiently quenched. Previously performed femtosecond spectroscopic measurements account for a rapid exergonic depopulation of the excited singlet states into a charge-separated state. Calculations of the Gibbs energy of photo-induced electron transfer from readily available UV–vis spectroscopic and cyclovoltammetric data applying the Weller approximation enables a quick evaluation of these novel donor–acceptor dyads. In addition, the X-ray structure of a phenothiazinyl–anthraquinone dyad supports short donor–acceptor distances by an intramolecular π-stacking conformation, an important assumption also implied in the calculations of the Gibbs energies according to the Weller approximation. PMID:24991251

  9. Ultrafast singlet-singlet energy transfer in self-assembled via metal-ligand axial coordination of free-base porphyrin-zinc phthalocyanine and free-base porphyrin-zinc naphthalocyanine dyads.

    PubMed

    Maligaspe, Eranda; Kumpulainen, Tatu; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Subbaiyan, Navaneetha K; Zandler, Melvin E; D'Souza, Francis

    2010-01-14

    Singlet-singlet energy transfer in self-assembled via axial coordination of imidazole-appended (at different positions of one of the meso-phenyl entities) free-base tetraphenylporphyrin, H(2)PIm, to either zinc phthalocyanine, ZnPc, or zinc naphthalocyanine, ZnNc, dyads is investigated in noncoordinating solvents, o-dichlorobenzene and toluene, using both steady-state and time-resolved transient absorption techniques. The newly formed supramolecular dyads were fully characterized by spectroscopic, computational, and electrochemical methods. The binding constants measured from optical absorption spectral data were found to be in the range of 10(4)-10(5) M(-1) for the 1:1 dyads, suggesting fairly stable complex formation. Electrochemical and computational studies suggested that photoinduced electron transfer is a thermodynamically unfavorable process when free-base porphyrin is excited in these dyads. Selective excitation of the donor free-base porphyrin entity was possible in both types of dyads formed by either of the ZnPc or ZnNc energy acceptors. Efficient singlet-singlet energy transfer was observed in these dyads, and the position of imidazole linkage on the free-base porphyrin entity, although flexible, seems to have some control over the overall efficiency of excited energy transfer process. Kinetics of energy transfer was monitored by performing transient absorption measurements using both up-conversion and pump-probe techniques. Such studies revealed ultrafast singlet-singlet energy transfer in the studied dyads with time constants on the order of 2-25 ps depending upon the type of the dyad. PMID:19928821

  10. Examining the Role of Communication on Sibling Relationship Quality and Interaction for Sibling Pairs with and without a Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent

  11. Patterns in Early Interaction between Young Preschool Children with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Liliedahl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether the asymmetrical pattern of communication usually found between people who use augmentative and alternative communication and their partners using natural speech was also found in the interaction between non-vocal young preschool children with cerebral palsy and their parents. Three parent-child dyads

  12. Effects of Age and Age-Mix on Toddler Peer Interaction and Development of Role-Taking Ability in Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Celia A.

    On the basis of two sets of videotaped observations collected on same-sex, same-age and mixed-age dyads composed of children 18 and/or 24 months old, issues concerning research on infants and toddlers are addressed. The first set of observations was a simple description of the structure and content of children's peer interaction during 15 minutes…

  13. Examining the Role of Communication on Sibling Relationship Quality and Interaction for Sibling Pairs with and without a Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent…

  14. Examining Peer Acceptance in Verbal and Non-Verbal Interaction during Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Implications for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of peer acceptance in a study investigating the interactions of pairs of disabled and non-disabled pupils working together on computer-based tasks in mainstream primary schools in Cyprus. Twenty dyads of pupils were observed and videotaped while working together at the computer. Data analyses were based on the…

  15. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Delivered to At-Risk Families in the Home Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Rachel; Self-Brown, Shannon; Valente, Jessica R.; Dorsey, Shannon; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Bertuglia-Haley, Michelle; Prieto, Metta

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted for 83 parent-child dyads who participated in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) delivered in-home by community agency therapists. Data included self-report measures and therapist observations at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated significant positive changes in child/parent behavior and parent attitudes…

  16. Comparing the Quality of Third, Fourth, and Fifth Graders' Social Interactions and Cognitive Strategy Use during Structured Online Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coiro, Julie; Sekeres, Diane Carver; Castek, Jill; Guzniczak, Lizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the social and cognitive interaction patterns of third, fourth, and fifth graders as they collaboratively read on the Internet and responded to an inquiry prompt. Data analysis revealed patterns of cognitive strategy use that intersected with social forms and functions of dialogue. Dyads that exhibited higher levels of…

  17. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Delivered to At-Risk Families in the Home Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Rachel; Self-Brown, Shannon; Valente, Jessica R.; Dorsey, Shannon; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Bertuglia-Haley, Michelle; Prieto, Metta

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted for 83 parent-child dyads who participated in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) delivered in-home by community agency therapists. Data included self-report measures and therapist observations at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated significant positive changes in child/parent behavior and parent attitudes

  18. Sensitivity in Interactions between Hearing Mothers and their Toddlers with Hearing Loss: The Effect of Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakar, Zaharah Abu; Brown, P. Margaret; Remine, Maria D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of cochlear implantation and age at implantation on maternal interactional sensitivity. Three groups of dyads were studied at two points over 1 year. The hearing aid (HA) group wore hearing aids throughout the study, the early cochlear implanted (ECI) group were implanted prior to 22 months of age, and…

  19. Aggregation-induced emission on benzothiadiazole dyads with large third-order optical nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songhua; Qin, Zhihong; Liu, Taifeng; Wu, Xingzhi; Li, Yongjun; Liu, Huibiao; Song, Yinglin; Li, Yuliang

    2013-08-14

    Two kinds of D-A molecular of (4-(4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl))-7-nitrobenzothiadiazole (BSC) and 4-((4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)ethynyl)-7-nitrobenzothiadiazole (BEC) containing carbazole moieties as the donor were synthesized. X-ray crystal data elucidated the multiple intermolecular interactions. They exhibit distinctly different self-assembly behaviours. The nonlinear optical properties were studied using the top-hat Z-scan technique at 532 nm with a 21 ps pulse. The results indicate that they exhibit large third-order nonlinear absorption effects. The nonlinear absorption coefficients ?2 fitting the experimental data are 6.3 10(-12) m W(-1) for BSC and 3.6 10(-11) m W(-1) for BEC. The time-resolved pump-probe results show that both nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of BEC in CH2Cl2 solution have rapid optical responses, which indicate the nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction mechanism are excited-state nonlinear. Moreover, both of these two compounds are observed to be aggregation-induced emission (AIE) active. The aggregates of the well-formed one-dimensional microrods of BEC and BSC endow the material with potential applications in the field of optical devices. PMID:23793230

  20. Histone Acetylation near the Nucleosome Dyad Axis Enhances Nucleosome Disassembly by RSC and SWI/SNF.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; North, Justin A; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Manohar, Mridula; Prasad, Rashmi; Luger, Karolin; Ottesen, Jennifer J; Poirier, Michael G; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2015-12-01

    Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as "readers," which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers. PMID:26416878

  1. Synchrony, Complexity and Directiveness in Mothers’ Interactions with Infants Pre- and Post-Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Mary K.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Morris, Kourtney J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of profound hearing loss on mother-infant interactions before and after cochlear implantation with a focus on maternal synchrony, complexity, and directiveness. Participants included two groups of mother-infant dyads: 9 dyads of mothers and infants with normal hearing; and 9 dyads of hearing mothers and infants with profound hearing loss. Dyads were observed at two time points: Time 1, scheduled to occur before cochlear implantation for infants with profound hearing loss (mean age = 13.6 months); and Time 2 (mean age = 23.3 months), scheduled to occur approximately six months after cochlear implantation. Hearing infants were age-matched to infants with hearing loss at both time points. Dependent variables included the proportion of maternal utterances that overlapped infant vocalizations, maternal mean length of utterance, infant word use, and combined maternal directives and prohibitions. Results showed mothers’ utterances overlapped the vocalizations of infants with hearing loss more often before cochlear implantation than after, mothers used less complex utterances with infants with cochlear implants compared to hearing peers (Time 2), and mothers of infants with profound hearing loss used frequent directives and prohibitions both before and after cochlear implantation. Together, mothers and infants adapted relatively quickly to infants’ access to cochlear implants, showing improved interactional synchrony, increased infant word use, and levels of maternal language complexity compatible with infants’ word use, all within seven months of cochlear implant activation. PMID:24793733

  2. Patterns of interaction-dominant dynamics in individual versus collaborative memory foraging.

    PubMed

    Szary, Janelle; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T; Rhodes, Theo

    2015-11-01

    The extent to which a cognitive system's behavioral dynamics fit a power law distribution is considered indicative of the extent to which that system's behavior is driven by multiplicative, interdependent interactions between its components. Here, we investigate the dynamics of memory processes in individual and collaborating participants. Collaborative dyads showed the characteristic collaborative inhibition effect when compared to nominal groups in terms of the number of items retrieved in a categorical recall task, but they also generate qualitatively different patterns of search behavior. To categorize search behavior, we used multi-model inference to compare the degree to which five candidate models (normal, exponential, gamma, lognormal, and Pareto) described the temporal distribution of each individual and dyad's recall processes. All individual and dyad recall processes were best fit by interaction-dominant distributions (lognormal and Pareto), but a clear difference emerged in that individual behavior is more power law, and collaborative behavior was more lognormal. We discuss these results in terms of the cocktail model (Holden et al. in Psychol Rev 116(2):318-342, 2009), which suggests that as a task becomes more constrained (such as through the necessity of collaborating), behavior can shift from power law to lognormal. This shift may reflect a decrease in the dyad's ability to flexibly shift between perseverative and explorative search patterns. Finally, our results suggest that a fruitful avenue for future research would be to investigate the constraints modulating the shift from power law to lognormal behavior in collaborative memory search. PMID:26314586

  3. Factors influencing the temporal patterns of dyadic behaviours and interactions between domestic cats and their owners.

    PubMed

    Wedl, Manuela; Bauer, Barbara; Gracey, Dorothy; Grabmayer, Christine; Spielauer, Elisabeth; Day, Jon; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Human-cat dyads may be similar in interaction structure to human dyads because many humans regard their cats as being social companions. Consequently, we predict that dyadic structure will be contingent on owner and cat personalities, sex, and age as well as duration of cohabitation of the partners. Forty owner-cat dyads were visited in their homes, on four occasions, during which their behaviours and interactions were video-taped. Behaviour was coded from tape and was analysed for temporal (t)-patterns using Theme (Noldus; Magnusson, 1996). Owner personality was assessed using the NEO-FFI. Five cat personality axes were identified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on observer-rated items and on coded behaviours. We found that the higher the owner in neuroticism, the fewer t-patterns occurred per minute. The higher the owner in extraversion, the higher was the number of non-overlapping patterns per minute. The more "active" the cat, the fewer non-overlapping patterns occurred per minute, but the higher was the event type complexity. The older the cat, the lower was dyadic event type complexity. We suggest that basic temporal structures similar to those of human-cat dyads may also be found in other long-term and complex dyadic relationships, including those between humans. PMID:20837114

  4. Near-IR excitation transfer and electron transfer in a BF2-chelated dipyrromethane-azadipyrromethane dyad and triad.

    PubMed

    El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Amin, Anu N; Zandler, Melvin E; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; D'Souza, Francis

    2012-04-23

    A molecular dyad and triad, comprised of a known photosensitizer, BF(2)-chelated dipyrromethane (BDP), covalently linked to its structural analog and near-IR emitting sensitizer, BF(2)-chelated tetraarylazadipyrromethane (ADP), have been newly synthesized and the photoinduced energy and electron transfer were examined by femtosecond and nanosecond laser flash photolysis. The structural integrity of the newly synthesized compounds has been established by spectroscopic, electrochemical, and computational methods. The DFT calculations revealed a molecular-clip-type structure for the triad, in which the BDP and ADP entities are separated by about 14 Å with a dihedral angle between the fluorophores of around 70°. Differential pulse voltammetry studies have revealed the redox states, allowing estimation of the energies of the charge-separated states. Such calculations revealed a charge separation from the singlet excited BDP ((1)BDP*) to ADP (BDP(.+)-ADP(.-)) to be energetically favorable in nonpolar toluene and in polar benzonitrile. In addition, the excitation transfer from the singlet BDP to ADP is also envisioned due to good spectral overlap of the BDP emission and ADP absorption spectra. Femtosecond laser flash photolysis studies provided concrete evidence for the occurrence of energy transfer from (1)BDP* to ADP (in benzonitrile and toluene) and electron transfer from BDP to (1)ADP* (in benzonitrile, but not in toluene). The kinetic study of energy transfer was measured by monitoring the rise of the ADP emission and revealed fast energy transfer (ca. 10(11) s(-1)) in these molecular systems. The kinetics of electron transfer via (1)ADP*, measured by monitoring the decay of the singlet ADP at λ=820 nm, revealed a relatively fast charge-separation process from BDP to (1)ADP*. These findings suggest the potential of the examined ADP-BDP molecules to be efficient photosynthetic antenna and reaction center models. PMID:22416038

  5. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun; Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways.

  6. Ruthenium-phenothiazine electron transfer dyad with a photoswitchable dithienylethene bridge: flash-quench studies with methylviologen.

    PubMed

    He, Bice; Wenger, Oliver S

    2012-04-01

    A molecular ensemble composed of a phenothiazine (PTZ) electron donor, a photoisomerizable dithienylethene (DTE) bridge, and a Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) electron acceptor was synthesized and investigated by optical spectroscopic and electrochemical means. Our initial intention was to perform flash-quench transient absorption studies in which the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) unit is excited selectively ("flash") and its (3)MLCT excited state is quenched oxidatively ("quench") by excess methylviologen prior to intramolecular electron transfer from phenothiazine to Ru(III) across the dithienylethene bridge. However, after selective Ru(bpy)(3)(2+1)MLCT excitation of the dyad with the DTE bridge in its open form, (1)MLCT → (3)MLCT intersystem crossing on the metal complex is followed by triplet-triplet energy transfer to a (3)π-π* state localized on the DTE unit. This energy transfer process is faster than bimolecular oxidative quenching with methylviologen at the ruthenium site (Ru(III) is not observed); only the triplet-excited DTE then undergoes rapid (10 ns, instrumentally limited) bimolecular electron transfer with methylviologen. Subsequently, there is intramolecular electron transfer with PTZ. The time constant for formation of the phenothiazine radical cation via intramolecular electron transfer occurring over two p-xylene units is 41 ns. When the DTE bridge is photoisomerized to the closed form, PTZ(+) cannot be observed any more. Irrespective of the wavelength at which the closed isomer is irradiated, most of the excitation energy appears to be funneled rapidly into a DTE-localized singlet excited state from which photoisomerization to the open form occurs within picoseconds. PMID:22435739

  7. Hunter-Gatherer Inter-Band Interaction Rates: Implications for Cumulative Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kim R.; Wood, Brian M.; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A. Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%–29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture. PMID:25047714

  8. Hunter-gatherer inter-band interaction rates: implications for cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kim R; Wood, Brian M; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%-29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture. PMID:25047714

  9. Boys Withdraw More in One-on-One Interactions, Whereas Girls Withdraw More in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Heath, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Past research predicts that males will be more likely to withdraw in one-on-one interactions versus groups, whereas females will be more likely to withdraw in groups than in one-on-one interactions. Ninety-eight 10-year-old children engaged in a word generation task either in same-sex dyads or in groups. Boys completed significantly more words in…

  10. Information-governing dynamics of attacker-defender interactions in youth rugby union.

    PubMed

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Gouveia, Luis; Milho, João; Serpa, Sidónio

    2008-11-01

    Previous work on dynamics of interpersonal interactions in 1 vs. 1 sub-phases of basketball has identified changes in interpersonal distance between an attacker and defender as a potential control parameter for influencing organizational states of attacker-defender dyads. Other studies have reported the constraining effect of relative velocity between an attacker and defender in 1 vs. 1 dyads. To evaluate the relationship between these candidate control parameters, we compared the impact of both interpersonal distance and relative velocity on the pattern-forming dynamics of attacker-defender dyads in the sport of rugby union. Results revealed that when interpersonal distance achieved a critical value of less than 4 m, and relative velocity values increased or were maintained above 1 m x s(-1), a successful outcome (i.e. clean attempt) for an attacker was predicted. Alternatively, when values of relative velocity suddenly decreased below this threshold, at the same critical value of interpersonal distance, a successful outcome for the defender was predicted. Data demonstrated how the coupling of these two potential, nested control parameters moved the dyadic system to phase transitions, characterized as a try or a tackle. Observations suggested that relative velocity increased its influence on the organization of attacker-defender dyads in rugby union over time as spatial proximity to the try line increased. PMID:18923958

  11. Attenuation of reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad by gentiopicroside through downregulation of GluN2B receptors in the amygdala of mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shui-bing; Zhao, Rong; Li, Xu-sheng; Guo, Hong-ju; Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Nan; Gao, Guo-dong; Zhao, Ming-gao

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate that pain frequently occurs comorbid with depression. Gentiopicroside (Gent) is a secoiridoid compound isolated from Gentiana lutea that exhibits analgesic properties and inhibits the expression of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice. However, the effects of Gent on the reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Reserpine administration (1 mg/kg subcutaneous daily for 3 days) caused a significant decrease in the nociceptive threshold as evidenced by the reduced paw withdrawal latency in response to a radiant heat source and mechanical allodynia. Behavioral detection indicated a significant increase in immobility time during a forced swim test, as well as decreased time in the central area and total travel distance in an open field test. Furthermore, reserpinized animals exhibited increased oxidative stress. Systemic Gent administration dose-dependently ameliorated the behavioral deficits associated with reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad. At the same time, the decrease in biogenic amine levels (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) was integrated with the increase in caspase-3 levels and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the amygdala of the reserpine-injected mice. Gent significantly reversed the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, caspase-3, and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in amygdala. However, Gent did not affect the expression of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors. The inhibitory effects of Gent on oxidative stress were occluded by simultaneous treatment of GluN2B receptors antagonist Ro25-6981. Our study provides strong evidence that Gent inhibits reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad by downregulating GluN2B receptors in the amygdala. PMID:24584520

  12. The fragility of intergroup relations: divergent effects of delayed audiovisual feedback in intergroup and intragroup interaction.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Adam R; West, Tessa V; Dovidio, John F; Powers, Stacie Renfro; Buck, Ross; Henning, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Intergroup interactions between racial or ethnic majority and minority groups are often stressful for members of both groups; however, the dynamic processes that promote or alleviate tension in intergroup interaction remain poorly understood. Here we identify a behavioral mechanism-response delay-that can uniquely contribute to anxiety and promote disengagement from intergroup contact. Minimally acquainted White, Black, and Latino participants engaged in intergroup or intragroup dyadic conversation either in real time or with a subtle temporal disruption (1-s delay) in audiovisual feedback. Whereas intergroup dyads reported greater anxiety and less interest in contact after engaging in delayed conversation than after engaging in real-time conversation, intragroup dyads reported less anxiety in the delay condition than they did after interacting in real time. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for understanding intergroup communication and social dynamics and for promoting positive intergroup contact. PMID:19121137

  13. It's Not Just Your Goal, but Also Who You Know: How the Cognitive Associations among Goals and Relationships Influence Goal Detection in Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment tested a theoretical framework for goal detection in dyadic interactions of close friends and unacquainted strangers wherein one conversationalist pursued a goal unbeknownst to a detector. The extent to which pursuers' conversation goal was cognitively associated with the dyad's relational type was manipulated. As hypothesized,…

  14. Mother-Toddler Interaction and Maternal Perception of Child Temperament in Two Ethnic Groups: Chinese-American and European-American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheila; Freedman, Daniel G.

    A study was conducted to compare experiential features of mother/toddler interaction and maternal perception of toddler temperament in two ethnic groups: Chinese-Americans and European-Americans. Subjects were 16 mother/toddler dyads with five girls and three boys in each group matched for sex, age, and birth order. Caucasian mothers were…

  15. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  16. Communication: Charge-transfer rate constants in zinc-porphyrin-porphyrin-derived dyads: A Fermi golden rule first-principles-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, Arun K.; Dunietz, Barry D.

    2014-09-28

    We investigate photoinduced charge transfer (CT) processes within dyads consisting of porphyrin derivatives in which one ring ligates a Zn metal center and where the rings vary by their degree of conjugation. Using a first-principles approach, we show that molecular-scale means can tune CT rates through stabilization affected by the polar environment. Such means of CT tuning are important for achieving high efficiency optoelectronic applications using organic semiconducting materials. Our fully quantum mechanical scheme is necessary for reliably modeling the CT process across different regimes, in contrast to the pervading semi-classical Marcus picture that grossly underestimates transfer in the far-inverted regime.

  17. Generation of Phosphorescent Triplet States via Photoinduced Electron Transfer: Energy and Electron Transfer Dynamics in Pt Porphyrin-Rhodamine B Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.

    2012-01-01

    Control over generation and dynamics of excited electronic states is fundamental to their utilization in all areas of technology. We present the first example of multichromophoric systems in which emissive triplet states are generated via a pathway involving photoinduced electron transfer (ET), as opposed to local intrachromophoric processes. In model dyads, PtP-Phn-pRhB+ (1-3, n=1-3), comprising platinum(II) meso-tetraarylporphyrin (PtP) and rhodamine B piperazine derivative (pRhB+), linked by oligo-p-phenylene bridges (Phn), upon selective excitation of pRhB+ at a frequency below that of the lowest allowed transition of PtP, room-temperature T1→S0 phosphorescence of PtP was observed. The pathway leading to the emissive PtP triplet state includes excitation of pRhB+, ET with formation of the singlet radical pair, intersystem crossing within that pair and subsequent radical recombination. Due to the close proximity of the triplet energy levels of PtP and pRhB+, reversible triplet-triplet (TT) energy transfer between these states was observed in dyads 1 and 2. As a result, the phosphorescence of PtP was extended in time by the long decay of the pRhB+ triplet. Observation of ET and TT in the same series of molecules enabled direct comparison of the distance attenuation factors β between these two closely related processes. PMID:22400988

  18. Communication, Coping, and Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Survivors and Family/Friend Dyads: A Pilot Study of Chinese- and Korean-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung-won

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to understand the dyadic relationships between family communication and quality of life (QOL) and between coping and QOL in Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivor (BCS)-family member dyads. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 32 Chinese- and Korean-American BCS-family member dyads were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program and area hospitals in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The dyadic data were analyzed using a pooled regression actor-partner interdependence model. Results The study findings demonstrated that the survivors’ general communication and use of reframing coping positively predicted their own QOL. The survivors’ and family members’ general communication was also a strong predictor of the family members’ physical-related QOL score specifically. Meanwhile, each person’s use of mobilizing coping negatively predicted his or her partner’s QOL. Conclusions The study findings add important information to the scarce literature on the QOL of Asian-American survivors of breast cancer. The findings suggest that Chinese- and Korean-American BCS and their family members may benefit from interventions that enhance communication and coping within the family unit. PMID:24700695

  19. Photoinduced Charge and Energy Transfer within meta- and para-Linked Chlorophyll a-Perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) Donor-Acceptor Dyads.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhih; Harris, Michelle A; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Margulies, Eric A; Dyar, Scott M; Lindquist, Rebecca J; Wu, Yilei; Roznyatovskiy, Vladimir V; Wu, Yi-Lin; Young, Ryan M; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Connecting electron donors and acceptors to a benzene ring in a meta or para relationship results in quantum interference effects that can strongly influence charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) processes in these systems. We report on the energy and electron transfer behavior of chlorophyll-based para- and meta-linked donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) dyads, where the semisynthetic chlorophyll a derivative, zinc methyl 3-ethyl-pyrochlorophyllide a (D), is covalently attached at its 20-position to the para position of one phenyl of diphenylacetylene (B). The meta or para position of the phenyl in B distal to the donor is in turn attached to perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) (A). Photoexcitation of the D-B-A dyads produces long-lived radical ion pairs D(•+)-B-A(•-), which recombine to the ground state and to both (3*)D-B-A and D-B-(3*)A. Time-resolved optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies were used to monitor the charge transfer and triplet energy transfer (TEnT) processes. At longer times, TEnT occurs from (3*)D-B-A to D-B-(3*)A. Surprisingly, the D-B-A molecules linked via the meta linkage exhibit faster CS, CR, and TEnT rates than do those with the para linkage in contrast to most other meta/para-linked D-B-A molecules previously examined. PMID:26731377

  20. Effect of situation on mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Maas, A Janneke B M; Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2013-02-01

    Research has shown that the early parent-infant relationship is of critical importance for children's developmental outcomes. While the effect of different settings on mother-infant interactive behavior is well studied, only few researchers systematically examined the effect of situational variables on mother-infant interaction. In the present study the effect of situational variables within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interaction at 6 months was examined as well as the consistency in the quality of behaviors of mother and infant across these situations. During a home visit 292 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in three different situations (i.e., free play, face-to-face play, and diaper change). Interactive behaviors of mother and infant were assessed with the NICHD global ratings scales. Results showed substantial effects of situation on the interactive behavior of the mother-infant dyad. Despite the observed situational effects maternal sensitivity to non-distress, intrusiveness, stimulation of development, and positive regard and all five infant behavioral scales remained stable across the different situations. Insight into situational effects within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interactive behavior may assist researchers to make well-informed decisions about measuring the parent-infant interaction in one or more specific situations. PMID:23261788

  1. Interactions During Feeding with Mothers and Their Infants with Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Schmiege, Sarah J.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Fehringer, Karen; Workman, Rachel; Marcheggianni-Howard, Cassandra; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To examine whether maternal–child interaction during feedings was suboptimal in dyads in which the infant had gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to compare massage therapy to a nonmassage therapy sham treatment in improving the mother–child interaction in these dyads. Design: In this randomized, controlled pilot study, infants received massage therapy (n=18) or a nonmassage touch/holding sham treatment (n=18). Mothers, data collectors, and the investigator who scored the feeding observations were blinded to group assignment. Settings/Location: Dyads were recruited from pediatric care providers in the Denver metropolitan area and online advertisements at the University of Colorado. Treatments were given in the home of the dyad. Participants: Healthy infants, born at 38–42 weeks gestational age, were 5–10 weeks of age at enrollment; had a score of at least 16 on the Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire-Revised; and were diagnosed with GERD by their pediatric provider. Mothers were English speaking and at least 18 years of age. Interventions: Treatments were given for 30 minutes twice weekly for 6 weeks. A certified infant massage therapist administered massage, and a registered nurse or physical therapist experienced with infants administered the control treatment. Outcome Measures: Maternal and infant scores on the Nursing Child Assessment of Feeding Scale (NCAFS). Results: NCAFS scores were significantly lower than national norms. Small to moderately sized effects showing improvement in the massage group relative to the nonmassage group were seen for Sensitivity to Cues, Social-Emotional Growth Fostering, Cognitive Growth Fostering, and Clarity of Cues (Cohen d) and ranged from 0.24 to 0.56. Conclusions: Mothers and infants with GERD experience significantly worse interactions than those without GERD. Massage given twice weekly by a professional trended toward improved interaction during feeding. Daily maternal administration of massage may have a positive effect on the relationship. PMID:24742255

  2. Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background International studies suggest ethnic differences in obesity prevalence may be due, in part, to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction between groups. Further, there is evidence to suggest that there is a familial resemblance in body image between mothers and their younger (preadolescent) daughters. This research was therefore conducted to specifically identify the extent to which family status (presented as mother-daughter resemblance) and ethnicity impact on body image attitudes and perceptions of South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Methods Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white) answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status), their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score). Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Results Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308), regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI). The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685). The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960) regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342) between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p = 0.693, respectively). In this instance, black mother-daughter dyads chose significantly heavier silhouettes than the other ethnic groups. This implies that black mothers and daughters associate beauty, respect and happiness with a bigger body size. Conclusion Resemblances exist between pre-adolescent girls and their mothers on issues related to ideal and attitudinal body image. In this regard, South African researchers should consider the effects ethnicity and family status on body image of women when developing targeted interventions to prevent or manage obesity. PMID:21645339

  3. Effects of Maternal Stimulant Medication on Observed Parenting in Mother-Child Dyads with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rooney, Mary; Seymour, Karen E.; Lavin, Heather Jones; Pian, Jessica; Robb, Adelaide; Efron, Lisa; Conlon, Charles; Stein, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study of 23 mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their offspring with ADHD examined the effects of maternal stimulant medication on observed interactions. Parent-child interactions were observed using a structured protocol before and after mothers underwent a 5-week, double-blind stimulant titration. Despite…

  4. The horse-human dyad: can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram?

    PubMed

    McGreevy, P D; Oddie, C; Burton, F L; McLean, A N

    2009-07-01

    This article examines the recently completed equid ethogram and shows how analogues of social interactions between horses may occur in various human-horse interactions. It discusses how some specific horse-horse interactions have a corresponding horse-human interaction - some of which may be directly beneficial for the horse while others may be unusual or even abnormal. It also shows how correspondent behaviours sometimes become inappropriate because of their duration, consistency or context. One analogue is unlikely to hold true for all horse-human contexts, so when applying any model from horse-horse interactions to human-horse interactions, the limitations of the model may eclipse the intended outcome of the intervention. These limitations are especially likely when the horse is being ridden. Such analyses may help to determine the validity of extrapolating intra-specific interactions to the inter-specific setting, as is advocated by some popular horse-training methods, and highlight the subsequent limitations where humans play the role of the 'alpha mare' or leader in horse handling and training. This examination provides a constructive framework for further informed debate and empirical investigation of the critical features of successful intra-specific interactions. PMID:19375965

  5. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperín, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed. PMID:20824179

  6. Perceived Friendship Quality of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder as Compared to their Peers in Mixed and Non-mixed Dyads.

    PubMed

    Petrina, Neysa; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer; Sweller, Naomi

    2016-04-01

    There has been limited research exploring the similarity of perception of friendship quality between children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their friends. In this study, 45 children with ASD participated together with their friends. Two levels of friendship quality congruency were investigated: reciprocity and mutuality. A high proportion of the friendships were reciprocated for both the mixed and non-mixed friendship groups. Nevertheless, students with ASD reported substantial differences in perceptions of their friendship quality as compared to their nominated friends. The findings of the present study mirrored those of previous research with typically developing children. Further study is required to systematically investigate the differences in friendship quality perceptions within friendship dyads for both typically developing children and those with ASD diagnosis. PMID:26659812

  7. Crystal structures of yellowtail ascites virus VP4 protease: trapping an internal cleavage site trans acyl-enzyme complex in a native Ser/Lys dyad active site.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ivy Yeuk Wah; Paetzel, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Yellowtail ascites virus (YAV) is an aquabirnavirus that causes ascites in yellowtail, a fish often used in sushi. Segment A of the YAV genome codes for a polyprotein (pVP2-VP4-VP3), where processing by its own VP4 protease yields the capsid protein precursor pVP2, the ribonucleoprotein-forming VP3, and free VP4. VP4 protease utilizes the rarely observed serine-lysine catalytic dyad mechanism. Here we have confirmed the existence of an internal cleavage site, preceding the VP4/VP3 cleavage site. The resulting C-terminally truncated enzyme (ending at Ala(716)) is active, as shown by a trans full-length VP4 cleavage assay and a fluorometric peptide cleavage assay. We present a crystal structure of a native active site YAV VP4 with the internal cleavage site trapped as trans product complexes and trans acyl-enzyme complexes. The acyl-enzyme complexes confirm directly the role of Ser(633) as the nucleophile. A crystal structure of the lysine general base mutant (K674A) reveals the acyl-enzyme and empty binding site states of VP4, which allows for the observation of structural changes upon substrate or product binding. These snapshots of three different stages in the VP4 protease reaction mechanism will aid in the design of anti-birnavirus compounds, provide insight into previous site-directed mutagenesis results, and contribute to understanding of the serine-lysine dyad protease mechanism. In addition, we have discovered that this protease contains a channel that leads from the enzyme surface (adjacent to the substrate binding groove) to the active site and the deacylating water. PMID:23511637

  8. Fruits and vegetables as a healthier snack throughout the day among families with older children: findings from a survey of parent-child dyads.

    PubMed

    Smith, Teresa M; Pinard, Courtney A; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Wethington, Holly; Blanck, Heidi M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2015-04-01

    Most U.S. youth fail to eat the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (FV) however many consume too many calories as added sugars and solid fats, often as snacks. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with serving FV as snacks and with meals using parent-child dyads. A cross-sectional sample of U.S. children aged 9 to 18, and their caregiver/parent (n=1522) were part of a Consumer Panel of households for the 2008 YouthStyles mail survey. Chi-square test of independence and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations between serving patterns of FV as snacks with variations in serving patterns, and covariates including dietary habits. Most parents (72%) reported serving FV at meals and as snacks. Fruit was most frequently served as a snack during the day (52%) and vegetables were most frequently served as a snack during the day (22%) but rarely in the morning. Significant differences in child FV intake existed among FV as a snack serving patterns by parents. Compared to children whose parents served FV only at meals, children whose parents reported serving FV as snacks in addition to meals were significantly more likely to have consumed FV the day before (using a previous day screener), P<0.05. Contributing to the growing collection of literature describing parent-child dyad dietary behaviors, these findings suggest promoting FV access and intake throughout the day, not only at meals, by including serving as snacks, may increase FV intake among older children and adolescents. PMID:25706949

  9. Dyad of CD40/CD40 ligand fosters neuroinflammation at the blood-brain barrier and is regulated via JNK signaling: implications for HIV-1 encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Servio H; Fan, Shongshan; Dykstra, Holly; Reichenbach, Nancy; Del Valle, Luis; Potula, Raghava; Phipps, Richard P; Maggirwar, Sanjay B; Persidsky, Yuri

    2010-07-14

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection may result in activation of peripheral monocytes followed by their infiltration into the CNS, where the release of proinflammatory mediators causes neurologic disease. Previously, we detected high levels of soluble CD40 ligand (CD40L) in CSF and plasma of HIV-infected patients with cognitive impairment. We now show that CD40, a receptor for CD40L, is highly expressed in brain endothelial cells of patients affected by HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE), suggesting an important role for the CD40/CD40L dyad in regulating blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions. This concept was further supported by in vitro experiments. Exposure of primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) to CD40L upregulated the expression of adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, which caused a fourfold increase in monocyte adhesion to BMVECs and stimulated migration across an in vitro BBB model. Investigations into the intracellular signaling pathways that govern these events revealed that cJUN-N-terminal kinase (JNK) is critical to CD40 activation in the BMVECs. CD40L induced activation of mixed-lineage-kinase-3 and JNK, leading to the subsequent activation of cJUN/AP-1 (activating-protein-1). JNK inhibition in the BMVECs prevented CD40L-mediated induction of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion, and transendothelial migration. These new findings support the concept that the CD40/CD40L dyad plays an important role in HIVE neuroinflammation. PMID:20631174

  10. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context. PMID:25175679

  11. Hesitant avoidance while walking: an error of social behavior generated by mutual interaction

    PubMed Central

    Honma, Motoyasu; Koyama, Shinichi; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Altering physical actions when responding to changing environmental demands is important but not always effectively performed. This ineffectiveness, which is an error of social behavior generated by mutual interactions, is not well understood. This study investigated mechanisms of a hesitant behavior that occurs in people walking toward each other, causing people to move in the same direction when attempting to avoid a collision. Using a motion capture device affixed to 17 pairs, we first confirmed the hesitant behavior by a difference between the experimental task, which involved an indeterminate situation to assess the actions of another individual, and the control task, which involved a predetermined avoiding direction, in a real-time situation involving two people. We next investigated the effect of three external factors: long distance until an event, synchronized walking cycle, and different foot relations in dyads on the hesitant behavior. A dramatic increase in freezing and near-collision behavior occurred in dyads for which the avoiding direction was not predetermined. The behavior related with the combination of long distance until an event, synchronized walking cycle, and different foot relations in dyads. We found that the hesitant behavior is influenced by an interpersonal relationship under enough distance to predict other movement. The hesitant behavior has possibly emerged as an undesired by-product of joint action. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptive control of perception-action coupling in mutual interaction. PMID:26257675

  12. Parent-child interaction during feeding or joint eating in parents of different weights.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Verena; Bergmann, Sarah; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigates parent-child interaction during feeding or during joint eating, and aimed to explore differences in feeding interactions between mothers and fathers, as well as between overweight, obese and not overweight parents. 148 mothers and 148 fathers with children aged between 7 and 47months were observed during feeding of or joint eating with their child in the laboratory. The videotaped mother-child and father-child dyads were coded using the Chatoor Feeding Scale. This scale consists of 5 subscales: Dyadic Reciprocity, Dyadic Conflict, Talk and Distraction during Feeding, Struggle for Control, and Non-Contingency. Compared to mothers, fathers showed higher readings on the Talk and Distraction scale; in all other subscales no differences were found. The comparison between overweight, obese and not overweight mother-child dyads revealed no significant differences. Differences in father-child dyads between overweight, obese and not overweight fathers were identified in the subscale Struggle for Control: overweight fathers were marked by a higher amount of Struggle for Control than obese and not overweight fathers. Taken together, differences found in the present observational study are small to moderate, and thus the current results support extant literature demonstrating that there are no differences in feeding behaviour between mothers and fathers or between obese and non-obese parents. PMID:26051882

  13. Mother-Child Interaction as a Window to a Unique Social Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and in Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Omri; Feldman, Ruth; Burg-Malki, Merav; Keren, Miri; Geva, Ronny; Diesendruck, Gil; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-08-01

    Mother-child interactions in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) were coded for maternal sensitivity/intrusiveness, child's expression of affect, levels of engagement, and dyadic reciprocity. WS children were found to express more positive emotions towards their mothers compared to 22q11.2DS children and those with developmental delay in a conflict interaction. During the same interaction, dyads of 22q11.2DS children were characterized by higher levels of maternal intrusiveness, lower levels of child's engagement and reduced reciprocity compared to dyads of typically developing children. Finally, 22q11.2DS children with the COMT Met allele showed less adaptive behaviors than children with the Val allele. Dyadic behaviors partially coincided with the distinct social phenotypes in these syndromes and are potential behavioral markers of psychopathological trajectory. PMID:25791124

  14. Acceleration of an Aromatic Claisen Rearrangement via a Designed Spiroligozyme Catalyst that Mimics the Ketosteroid Isomerase Catalytic Dyad

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of hydrogen-bonding catalysts have been designed for the aromatic Claisen rearrangement of a 1,1-dimethylallyl coumarin. These catalysts were designed as mimics of the two-point hydrogen-bonding interaction present in ketosteroid isomerase that has been proposed to stabilize a developing negative charge on the ether oxygen in the migration of the double bond.1 Two hydrogen bond donating groups, a phenol alcohol and a carboxylic acid, were grafted onto a conformationally restrained spirocyclic scaffold, and together they enhance the rate of the Claisen rearrangement by a factor of 58 over the background reaction. Theoretical calculations correctly predict the most active catalyst and suggest that both preorganization and favorable interactions with the transition state of the reaction are responsible for the observed rate enhancement. PMID:24456160

  15. The transcendent function, moments of meeting and dyadic consciousness: constructive and destructive co-creation in the analytic dyad.

    PubMed

    Carter, Linda

    2010-04-01

    In reading the work of Beebe (2002), Sander (Amadei & Bianchi 2008), Tronick (2007) and Stern and the Boston Change Process Study Group (1998), resonances to the transcendent function can be registered but these researchers seem to be more focused on the interpersonal domain. In particular Tronick's concept of 'dyadic expansion of consciousness' and 'moments of meeting' from the Boston Change Process Study Group describe external dyadic interactions between mothers and babies and therapists and patients while, in contrast, Jung's early focus was on the intrapsychic process of internal interaction between conscious and unconscious within an individual. From an overall perspective, the interpersonal process of change described by infant researchers, when held in conjunction with Jung's internal process of change, together form a transcendent whole that could also be called a complex adaptive system. Such new theoretical perspectives from other fields confirm and elaborate long held Jungian notions such as the transcendent function which is, in many ways, harmonious with a systems perspective. Throughout this paper, clinical vignettes of interactive moments along with sand play and dreams will be used to illustrate theoretical points regarding the healthy process of the transcendent function along with descriptions of failures of such conjunctive experiences. PMID:20518964

  16. Effect of axial ligation or pi-pi-type interactions on photochemical charge stabilization in "two-point" bound supramolecular porphyrin-fullerene conjugates.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Francis; Chitta, Raghu; Gadde, Suresh; Zandler, Melvin E; McCarty, Amy L; Sandanayaka, Atula S D; Araki, Yasuyaki; Ito, Osamu

    2005-07-18

    Two types of structurally well-defined, self-assembled zinc porphyrin-fullerene conjugates were formed by "two-point" binding strategies to probe the effect of axial ligation or pi-pi-type interactions on the photochemical charge stabilization in the supramolecular dyads. To achieve this, meso-tetraphenylporphyrin was functionalized to possess one or four [18]crown-6 moieties at different locations on the porphyrin macrocycle while fullerene was functionalized to possess an alkyl ammonium cation, and a pyridine or phenyl entities. As a result of the crown ether-ammonium cation complexation, and zinc-pyridine coordination or pi-pi-type interactions, stable zinc porphyrin-fullerene conjugates with defined distance and orientation were formed. Evidence for the zinc-pyridine complexation or pi-pi-type interactions was obtained from the spectral and computational studies. Steady-state and time-resolved emission studies revealed efficient quenching of the zinc-porphyrin singlet excited state in these dyads, and the measured rates of charge separation, k(CS) were found to be slightly better in the case of the dyads held by axial coordination and crown ether-cation complexation. Nanosecond transient absorption studies provided evidence for the electron transfer reactions, and these studies also revealed charge stabilization in these dyads. The lifetimes of the radical ion pairs were found to depend upon the type of porphyrins utilized to form the dyads, that is, porphyrin possessing the crown ether moiety at the ortho position of one of the phenyl rings yielded prolonged charge stabilized states. Addition of pyridine to the supramolecular dyads eliminated the zinc-pyridine coordination or pi-pi-type interactions of the "two-point" bound systems due to the formation of a new zinc-pyridine axial bond thus giving a unique opportunity to probe the effect of axial coordination or pi-pi interactions on k(CS) and k(CR). Under these conditions, the measured electron transfer rates revealed faster k(CS) and slower k(CR) as compared to those obtained in the absence of added pyridine. The evaluated lifetimes of the radical ion-pairs were found to be hundreds of nanoseconds and were longer in the presence of pyridine. PMID:15883985

  17. Inter-brain synchronization during social interaction.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Guillaume; Nadel, Jacqueline; Soussignan, Robert; Martinerie, Jacques; Garnero, Line

    2010-01-01

    During social interaction, both participants are continuously active, each modifying their own actions in response to the continuously changing actions of the partner. This continuous mutual adaptation results in interactional synchrony to which both members contribute. Freely exchanging the role of imitator and model is a well-framed example of interactional synchrony resulting from a mutual behavioral negotiation. How the participants' brain activity underlies this process is currently a question that hyperscanning recordings allow us to explore. In particular, it remains largely unknown to what extent oscillatory synchronization could emerge between two brains during social interaction. To explore this issue, 18 participants paired as 9 dyads were recorded with dual-video and dual-EEG setups while they were engaged in spontaneous imitation of hand movements. We measured interactional synchrony and the turn-taking between model and imitator. We discovered by the use of nonlinear techniques that states of interactional synchrony correlate with the emergence of an interbrain synchronizing network in the alpha-mu band between the right centroparietal regions. These regions have been suggested to play a pivotal role in social interaction. Here, they acted symmetrically as key functional hubs in the interindividual brainweb. Additionally, neural synchronization became asymmetrical in the higher frequency bands possibly reflecting a top-down modulation of the roles of model and imitator in the ongoing interaction. PMID:20808907

  18. Perceived Spouse Responses to Pain: The Level of Agreement in Couple Dyads and the Role of Catastrophizing, Marital Satisfaction, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pence, Laura; Cano, Annmarie; Thorn, Beverly; Ward, L. Charles

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine whether individuals with chronic pain (“participants”) and their spouses agree on perceptions of solicitous, distracting, and punishing spouse responses to pain. The second aim was to examine the role of participant catastrophizing (a negative mental set about pain), participant and spouse marital satisfaction, and participant and spouse depression in participant perceptions of spouse responses, spouse perceptions of their responses, and agreement between participants and spouses. Individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their spouses (N=108 couples) completed questionnaire packets. Examination of overall group averages (participants vs. spouses) indicated little or no differences between participant and spouse ratings. Examination of individual agreement in participant and spouse ratings indicated substantial disagreement. The proposed moderators predicted both participant and spouse perceptions and jointly made minor contributions to dyad agreement. Although neither participant nor spouse perceptions of spouse responses are necessarily a reflection of actual behavior, the lack of agreement in this study suggests it may not be valid to use only patient perceptions in research related to spouse responses. PMID:16960758

  19. Molecular motions of [Beta]-carotene and a carotenoporphyrin dyad in solution. A carbon-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation time study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Swindle, S.L.; Smith, S.K.; Nieman, R.A.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. )

    1995-03-09

    Analysis of [sup 13]C NMR spin-lattice relaxation times (T[sub 1]) yields information concerning both overall tumbling of molecules in solution and internal rotations about single bonds. Relaxation time and nuclear Overhauser effect data have been obtained for [Beta]-carotene and two related molecules, squalane and squalene, for zinc meso-tetraphenylporphyrin, and for a dyad consisting of a porphyrin covalently linked to a carotenoid polyene through a trimethylene bridge. Squalane and squalene, which lack conjugated double bonds, behave essentially as limp string, with internal rotations at least as rapid as overall isotropic tumbling motions. In contrast, [Beta]-carotene reorients as a rigid rod, with internal motions which are too slow to affect relaxation times. Modeling it as an anisotropic rotor yields a rotational diffusion coefficient for motion about the major axis which is 14 times larger than that for rotation about axes perpendicular to that axis. The porphyrin reorients more nearly isotropically and features internal librational motions about the single bonds to the phenyl groups. The relaxation time data for the carotenoporphyrin are consistent with internal motions similar to those of a medieval military flail. 31 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. A highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe for Hg2+ based on bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad and for live cells imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li; Wang, Sheng; Lv, Yingnian; Son, Young-A.; Cao, Derong

    2014-07-01

    A new photochromic diarylethene derivative bearing rhodamine 6G dimmer as a fluorescent molecular probe is designed and synthesized successfully. All the compounds are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad exhibit excellent phtochromism with reversibly color and fluorescence changes alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. Upon addition of Hg2+, its color changes from colorless to red and its fluorescence is remarkably enhanced. Whereas other ions including K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Cr3+ and so on induce basically no spectral changes, which constitute a highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe toward Hg2+. Furthermore, by means of laser confocal scanning microscopy experiments, it is demonstrated that this probe can be applied for live cell imaging and monitoring Hg2+ in living lung cancer cells with satisfying results, which shows its value of potential application in environmental and biological systems.

  1. A highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe for Hg2+ based on bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad and for live cells imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Wang, Sheng; Lv, Yingnian; Son, Young-A; Cao, Derong

    2014-07-15

    A new photochromic diarylethene derivative bearing rhodamine 6G dimmer as a fluorescent molecular probe is designed and synthesized successfully. All the compounds are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad exhibit excellent phtochromism with reversibly color and fluorescence changes alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. Upon addition of Hg(2+), its color changes from colorless to red and its fluorescence is remarkably enhanced. Whereas other ions including K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Fe(3+), Al(3+), Cr(3+) and so on induce basically no spectral changes, which constitute a highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe toward Hg(2+). Furthermore, by means of laser confocal scanning microscopy experiments, it is demonstrated that this probe can be applied for live cell imaging and monitoring Hg(2+) in living lung cancer cells with satisfying results, which shows its value of potential application in environmental and biological systems. PMID:24691371

  2. Geometries, Electronic Couplings, and Hole Dissociation Dynamics of Photoinduced Electron-Hole Pairs in Polyhexylthiophene-Fullerene Dyads Rigidly Linked by Oligophenylenes.

    PubMed

    Miura, Taku; Tao, Ran; Shibata, Sho; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Tachikawa, Takashi; Imahori, Hiroshi; Kobori, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-11

    To shed a light on fundamental molecular functions of photoinduced charge conductions by organic photovoltaic materials, it is important to directly observe molecular geometries of the intermediate charges just after the photoinduced electron-transfer reactions. However, highly inhomogeneous molecular environments at the bulk heteojunction interfaces in the photoactive layers have prevented us from understanding the mechanism of the charge conductions. We have herein investigated orbital geometries, electronic couplings, and hole-dissociation dynamics of photoinduced charge-separated (CS) states in a series of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-fullerene linked dyads bridged by rigid oligo-p-phenylene spacers by using time-resolved EPR spectroscopy. It has been revealed that one-dimensional intramolecular hole-dissociations exothermically take place from localized holes in initial CS states, following bridge-mediated, photoinduced charge-separations via triplet exciton diffusions in the conjugated polymer-backbones. This molecular wire property of the photoinduced charges in solution at room temperature demonstrates the potential utility of the covalently bridged polymer molecules applied for the molecular devices. PMID:27082279

  3. Photoinduced electron transfer in covalent ruthenium-anthraquinone dyads: relative importance of driving-force, solvent polarity, and donor-bridge energy gap.

    PubMed

    Hankache, Jihane; Wenger, Oliver S

    2012-02-28

    Four rigid rod-like molecules comprised of a Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) photosensitizer, a 9,10-anthraquinone electron acceptor, and a molecular bridge connecting the two redox partners were synthesized and investigated by optical spectroscopic and electrochemical means. An attempt was made to assess the relative importance of driving-force, solvent polarity, and bridge variation on the rates of photoinduced electron transfer in these molecules. Expectedly, introduction of tert-butyl substituents in the bipyridine ligands of the ruthenium complex and a change in solvent from dichloromethane to acetonitrile lead to a significant acceleration of charge transfer rates. In dichloromethane, photoinduced electron transfer is not competitive with the inherent excited-state deactivation processes of the photosensitizer. In acetonitrile, an increase in driving-force by 0.2 eV through attachment of tert-butyl substituents to the bpy ancillary ligands causes an increase in electron transfer rates by an order of magnitude. Replacement of a p-xylene bridge by a p-dimethoxybenzene spacer entails an acceleration of charge transfer rates by a factor of 3.5. In the dyads from this study, the relative order of importance of individual influences on electron transfer rates is therefore as follows: solvent polarity ≥ driving-force > donor-bridge energy gap. PMID:22258761

  4. Bidirectional Influences in Mother-Toddler Dyads: An Examination of the Relative Influence of Mothers’ and Children’s Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; Rhoades, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional relations between mothers’ lax and overreactive discipline and children’s misbehavior and negative affect. We examined the moment-to-moment stability of mothers’ and children’s behaviors (actor effects) and mothers’ and children’s influence on their partners’ subsequent behaviors (partner effects). Participants were 71 mothers and their 24–48-month-old children observed during a thirty-minute interaction. Both children and mothers exhibited stability in their own behaviors and influenced the subsequent behaviors of their partners. Additionally, a comparison of partner effects indicated that overreactive discipline more strongly predicted child negative affect than child negative affect predicted overreactive discipline. In contrast, although a child’s negative affect predicted lax discipline, lax discipline did not predict subsequent child negative affect. PMID:20953329

  5. Bidirectional Influences in Mother-Toddler Dyads: An Examination of the Relative Influence of Mothers' and Children's Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; Rhoades, Kimberly A

    2010-09-01

    This study examined bidirectional relations between mothers' lax and overreactive discipline and children's misbehavior and negative affect. We examined the moment-to-moment stability of mothers' and children's behaviors (actor effects) and mothers' and children's influence on their partners' subsequent behaviors (partner effects). Participants were 71 mothers and their 24-48-month-old children observed during a thirty-minute interaction. Both children and mothers exhibited stability in their own behaviors and influenced the subsequent behaviors of their partners. Additionally, a comparison of partner effects indicated that overreactive discipline more strongly predicted child negative affect than child negative affect predicted overreactive discipline. In contrast, although a child's negative affect predicted lax discipline, lax discipline did not predict subsequent child negative affect. PMID:20953329

  6. Electrochemistry of the self-assembled monolayers of dyads consisting of tripod-shaped trithiol and bithiophene on gold.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Toshikazu; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Takao; Komatsu, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of tripod-shaped trithiols, consisting of an adamantane core with three CH2SH legs and a bithiophene group, were prepared on a Au(111) surface. Adsorption in a tripod-like fashion was supported by polarization modulation-infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) of the SAMs, which indicated the absence of free SH groups. Cyclic voltammetry showed an irreversible cathodic wave due to reductive desorption. The SAM also showed an anodic wave due to the single-electron oxidation of the bithiophene moiety without concomitant desorption of the molecules. Although oxidation was irreversible in the absence of a protecting group, it became reversible with the introduction of a terminal phenyl group. The charge of the oxidation was one-third that of the reductive desorption, confirming a three-point adsorption. The surface coverage was ca. 50% of that expected for the anti bithiophene conformation, which suggested that an increase in the surface area per molecule had been caused by the presence of an energetically high-lying syn conformer. In accordance with this, the line shape of the oxidation wave suggested an electrostatic repulsive interaction between neighboring molecules. PMID:25255246

  7. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan supportive interventions. PMID:26388792

  8. Maternal Cocaine Use: Estimated Effects on Mother-Child Play Interactions in the Preschool Period

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Arnise L.; Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the quality of parent-child interactions in preschool-aged children exposed prenatally to cocaine. African-American mothers and their full-term newborns (n = 343) were enrolled prospectively at birth and classified as either prenatally cocaine-exposed (n = 157) or non–cocaine-exposed (n = 186) on the basis of maternal self-report and bioassays. Follow-up evaluations at 3 years of age (mean age, 40 mo) included a videotaped dyadic play session and maternal interviews to assess ongoing drug use and maternal psychological distress. Play interactions were coded using a modified version of Egeland et al’s Teaching Task coding scheme. Regression analyses indicated cocaine-associated deficits in mother-child interaction, even with statistical adjustment for multiple suspected influences on interaction dynamics. Mother-child interactions were most impaired in cocaine-exposed dyads when the mother continued to report cocaine use at the 3-year follow-up. Multivariate profile analysis of the Egeland interaction subscales indicated greater maternal intrusiveness and hostility, poorer quality of instruction, lower maternal confidence, and diminished child persistence in the cocaine-exposed dyads. PMID:12177564

  9. Social coordination in toddler’s word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen

    2010-01-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants’ body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M = 18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner’s hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child’s learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed. PMID:20953274

  10. Photoinduced electron-transfer dynamics and long-lived CS states of donor acceptor linked dyads and a triad containing a gold porphyrin in nonpolar solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Kei; Sintic, Paul J.; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Lemmetyinen, Helge; E, Wenbo; Ou, Zhongping; Shao, Jianguo; Kadish, Karl M.; Crossley, Maxwell J.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2006-07-01

    An electron donor-acceptor linked compound containing Zn(II) and Au(III) porphyrins (ZnPQ-AuPQ+PF6-) has been designed and synthesized to examine its electrochemical and photophysical properties. Time-resolved transient absorption spectra of ZnPQ-AuPQ + were measured by nanosecond laser photolysis in toluene and cyclohexane. The observed transient absorption bands at 600-800 nm are assigned to the charge-shift state (ZnPQ rad + -AuPQ). The charge-shifted state decays via back electron transfer (BET) to the ground state rather than to the triplet excited state. The BET rate was determined from the disappearance of the absorption band at 750 nm due to ZnPQ rad + in ZnPQ rad + -AuPQ. The decay of the absorption band obeys first-order kinetics. The kBET value in cyclohexane is determined as 1.0 × 10 5 s -1, which corresponds to a lifetime of 10μs, whereas the lifetime becomes much shorter (250 ps) in benzonitrile. The charge-shift state is also observed for a zinc porphyrin-free base porphyrin-gold porphyrin triad (ZnPQ-2HPQ-AuPQ +), which has a longer lifetime of 14 μs in cyclohexane. The detailed photodynamics of ZnPQ-AuPQ + and ZnPQ-H 2PQ-AuPQ + are also reported. We have successfully attained long-lived charge-shift states in nonpolar solvents using the ZnPQ-AuPQ + dyad and the ZnPQ-H 2PQ-AuPQ + triad. This photoinduced electron-transfer in low dielectric environment mimics a key feature of photosynthetic reaction centers.

  11. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother–child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. Setting The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 70 mother–child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. Design The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and depression in mothers of children infected with HIV. The relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour warrants further investigation. PMID:24334155

  12. Brain-Mind Dyad, Human Experience, the Consciousness Tetrad and Lattice of Mental Operations: And Further, The Need to Integrate Knowledge from Diverse Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other’s basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other’s work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of cooperative but evidential and critical enquiry – this is the goal for this monograph, and the work to follow. PMID:21694960

  13. Direct observation of hole shift and characterization of spin states in radical ion pairs generated from photoinduced electron transfer of (phenothiazine)(n)-anthraquinone (n = 1, 3) dyads.

    PubMed

    Karimata, Ayumu; Suzuki, Shuichi; Kozaki, Masatoshi; Kimoto, Kenshi; Nozaki, Koichi; Matsushita, Hironori; Ikeda, Noriaki; Akiyama, Kimio; Kosumi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Hideki; Okada, Keiji

    2014-11-26

    Photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer of dyad PTZ3-PTZ2-PTZ1-B-AQ consisting of phenothiazine trimer (PTZ3-PTZ2-PTZ1), bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (B), and anthraquinone (AQ) was investigated. After excitation (∼20 ps) of the AQ moiety in THF, a metastable radical ion pair (RIP) PTZ3-PTZ2-PTZ1(+)-B-AQ(-) appeared at ∼620 nm. From 500 ps to 6 ns the spectrum changed to a new absorption (∼950 nm), which was assigned to the hole-shifted stable RIP state PTZ3-PTZ2(+)-PTZ1-B-AQ(-). The time constant of the hole-shift process was determined to be 6.0 ns. The hole-shifted RIP state had a lifetime (τ) of 250 ns and was characterized by spin-polarized signals as a spin-correlated radical pair (SCRP) by means of time-resolved ESR. These results were compared with those for the phenothiazine monomer analog PTZ-B-AQ, which also produced the RIP state PTZ(+)-B-AQ(-) with τ = 1.9 μs. Time-resolved ESR showed an all emission signal pattern showing the triplet mechanism of PTZ-B-(3)AQ* → (3)[PTZ(+)-B-AQ(-)]. The origin of the difference in the lifetimes between the trimer and the monomer RIP states was discussed from various points of view, including free energy difference in the RIP states, reorganization energy difference in the charge recombination process, and the spin-state difference. Of these, the spin-state difference effect provided the most reasonable explanation. PMID:25347200

  14. RFC-1 80G>A Polymorphism in Case-Mother/Control-Mother Dyads Is Associated with Risk of Nephroblastoma and Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Montalvão-de-Azevedo, Rafaela; Vasconcelos, Gisele M.; Vargas, Fernando R.; Thuler, Luiz Claudio; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Embryonic tumors are associated with an interruption during normal organ development; they may be related to disturbances in the folate pathway involved in DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Prenatal supplementation with folic acid is associated with a decreased risk of neuroblastoma, brain tumors, retinoblastoma, and nephroblastoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR rs1801133 (C677T) and RFC-1 rs1051266 (G80A) genotypes with the risk of developing nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma. Materials and Methods: Case-mother/control-mother dyad study. Samples from Brazilian children with nephroblastoma (n=80), neuroblastoma (n=66), healthy controls (n=453), and their mothers (case n=93; control n=75) were analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells and/or buccal cells and genotyped to identify MTHFR C677T and RFC-1 G80A polymorphisms. Differences in genotype distribution between patients and controls were tested by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Risk for nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma was two- to fourfold increased among children with RFC-1 polymorphisms. An increased four- to eightfold risk for neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma was seen when the child and maternal genotypes were combined. Conclusion: Our results suggest that mother and child RFC-1 G80A genotypes play a role on the risk of neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma since this polymorphism may impair the intracellular levels of folate, through carrying fewer folate molecules to the cell interior, and thus, the intracellular concentration is not enough to maintain regular DNA synthesis and methylation pathways. PMID:25536437

  15. Relational Demography in Coaching Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagas, Michael; Paetzold, Ramona; Ashley, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The decline in the proportion of female head coaches in the intercollegiate ranks is one of the most significant issues in the realm of women's sports today. To extend the body of research that has studied this topic, we investigated the impact relational demographic effects on the work attitudes of coaches, which differs from previous research…

  16. Anger and Gender Effects in Observed Supervisor-Subordinate Dyadic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Glomb; Hulin

    1997-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of a supervisor's anger and supervisor's and subordinate's gender on evaluations made by observers of interacting supervisor-subordinate dyads. In a laboratory experiment, 370 undergraduates viewed one of eight video-tapes representing the conditions of the 2 (gender of supervisor) x 2 (gender of subordinate) x 2 (presence or absence of anger) design and then completed evaluations of the supervisor and the subordinate. A field study using 265 employees from three organizations replicated the laboratory results. In spite of constant dialogue in the interactions across all eight conditions, supervisors expressing anger were rated lower and female supervisors were rated higher by observers. Subordinates were rated higher when interacting with an angry supervisor and when interacting with a male supervisor. Main effects of supervisor's gender may reflect over-evaluation of unexpected, albeit average, performance. The joint supervisor and subordinate effects are interpreted as reflecting a dyadic rating effect in which high ratings assigned to one member of the dyad are accompanied by lower ratings assigned to the other member. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. PMID:9606168

  17. Comparative Network Analysis of Preterm vs. Full-Term Infant-Mother Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kalmár, Magda; Tóth, Ildikó; Krishna, Sandeep; Jensen, Mogens H.; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported that interactions of mothers with preterm infants show differential characteristics compared to that of mothers with full-term infants. Interaction of preterm dyads is often reported as less harmonious. However, observations and explanations concerning the underlying mechanisms are inconsistent. In this work 30 preterm and 42 full-term mother-infant dyads were observed at one year of age. Free play interactions were videotaped and coded using a micro-analytic coding system. The video records were coded at one second resolution and studied by a novel approach using network analysis tools. The advantage of our approach is that it reveals the patterns of behavioral transitions in the interactions. We found that the most frequent behavioral transitions are the same in the two groups. However, we have identified several high and lower frequency transitions which occur significantly more often in the preterm or full-term group. Our analysis also suggests that the variability of behavioral transitions is significantly higher in the preterm group. This higher variability is mostly resulted from the diversity of transitions involving non-harmonious behaviors. We have identified a maladaptive pattern in the maternal behavior in the preterm group, involving intrusiveness and disengagement. Application of the approach reported in this paper to longitudinal data could elucidate whether these maladaptive maternal behavioral changes place the infant at risk for later emotional, cognitive and behavioral disturbance. PMID:23805298

  18. Family caregiver role acquisition: role-making through situated interaction.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, K L

    1995-01-01

    Family caregiver role acquisition is an important, but little studied phenomenon. In this article, a conceptual approach for research on caregiver role acquisition is suggested. Caregiver role acquisition is defined as a family role transition. During this transition, the caregiving role is created through interaction between the caregiver and care receiver and between the dyad and others. Thus, caregiver role acquisition is a role-making process. An approach to social roles that integrates symbolic interactionism and structural role theory suggests that the role-making processes inherent in caregiver role acquisition occur through situated interaction. Concepts are identified from interactionist and structural perspectives that account for variation in individual experience with role acquisition. Indicators of health during caregiver role acquisition are also identified. Included are subjective indicators (role strain and role satisfaction), behavioral indicators (role insufficiency and role mastery), and interpersonal indicators (family conflict and mutuality). PMID:8570975

  19. [Early mother-infant interaction and factors negatively affecting parenting].

    PubMed

    Cerezo, María Angeles; Trenado, Rosa María; Pons-Salvador, Gemma

    2006-08-01

    The social information-processing model contributes to identifying the psychological processes underlying the construct "sensitivity" in early mother-child interaction. Negative emotional states associated with inadequate self-regulation in coping with stressors affect the mother's attention skills and the processing of the baby's signals. This leads to less synchronous parental practices, particularly unsatisfactory when the baby is unhappy, or crying because the required self-regulation is not provided. This micro-social research studies the sequential profile of maternal reactions to the baby's positive/neutral vs. difficult behaviours and compares them in two groups of dyads, one with mothers who reported high levels of distress and other negative factors for parenting and another group with low levels. The unfavourable circumstances of the high stress group and their negative effects on interaction were observed in some indiscriminate maternal responses and particularly as they reacted to their baby's difficult behaviour, when the mother's regulatory role is more necessary. PMID:17296085

  20. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-04-21

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender's and receiver's temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions. PMID:25848050

  1. The Social Interactive Behaviour of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Mothers: Is There an Effect of Familiarity of the Interaction Partner?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meirsschaut, Mieke; Roeyers, Herbert; Warreyn, Petra

    2011-01-01

    In this study the social behaviour of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their mothers is compared within two different dyads: a dyad consisting of a mother and her own child and a dyad consisting of a mother and an unfamiliar child. Mothers did not change the frequency of their social initiatives and responsiveness with an…

  2. Compulsory citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of organizational identification and perceived interactional justice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Chen, Hsiu-Kuei

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of interactional justice in influencing the mediation. Using a time-lagged research design, the authors collected two waves of data from 388 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 67 teams to test the moderated mediation model. Results revealed that CCB negatively influenced OCB via impairing organizational identification. Moreover, interactional justice moderated the strength of the indirect effect of CCB on OCB (through organizational identification), such that the mediated relationship was stronger under low interactional justice than under high interactional justice. PMID:24684078

  3. Playfulness and Interaction: An Exploratory Study of Past and Current Exposure to Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Bundy, Anita; Katz, Noomi

    2015-04-01

    Violence against women affects mother-child interactions, which may in turn affect their children's playfulness. We examined the effect of a history of violence against mothers on mother-child interactions and children's playfulness. This cross-sectional pilot study consisted of 36 mother-child dyads residing in family crisis shelters due to serious violence from an intimate partner. One subgroup had experienced violence during childhood, another had posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Instruments included Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, Test of Playfulness, and Coding Interactive Behavior System. Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated. Results indicated that children of mothers without PTSD were more playful than children of mothers with PTSD. Mothers who had not reported of childhood exposure to violence and who did not have PTSD had better interactions with more playful children. PMID:26460471

  4. The Origins of 12-Month Attachment: A Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    A detailed microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of essential communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1s time base; mother and infant facial-visual “engagement” variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual’s behavior that were correlated with the partner’s previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother, yielded comparable numbers of findings. Rather than the more usual hypothesis that more contingency is “better,” we partially supported our hypothesis that 12-month insecurity is associated with both higher and lower 4-month self- and interactive contingency values than secure, as a function of mother vs. infant and communication modality. Thus, in the origins of attachment security, more contingency is not necessarily better. A remarkable degree of differentiation was identified in the 4-month patterns of “future” C and D infants, classified as resistant and disorganized, respectively, at 12 months. Only future D infants were emotionally distressed, with simultaneous positive and negative discrepant affect; only their mothers showed difficulty in sharing infant affect, particularly distress, and lowered their contingent coordination with infant facial-visual engagement. This lowered contingent coordination makes it more difficult for infants to come to expect that their emotional/attentional states can influence mothers to coordinate with them and thus compromises the infant’s sense of interactive efficacy. Only future C dyads showed the spatial approach/avoid pattern of “chase and dodge;” only mothers of future D infants showed the spatial intrusion pattern of “looming” into the infant’s face. Both future C and D dyads showed patterns of touch dysregulation. Future C infants inhibited their emotional coordination with mothers’ less affectionate touch, as if tuning it out. Future D dyads showed a dyadic touch dysregulation, in which mothers lowered their coordination with infant touch, while infants had a lowered ability to use their own touch. Both mothers of future C and D infants disturbed the stability of the spatial “frame” of the encounter by transitioning among upward, forward and loom orientations in less predictable ways than mothers of future B infants. Only mothers of future D infants disturbed the attentional “frame” as well, by looking and looking away from the infant’s face in less predictable ways than mothers of future B infants. Only mothers of future D infants showed methods of managing their own state which distanced them from their infants, such as extensive looking away and “closing up” their faces. The intact interactive contingency of the mother of the future C infant overall safeguards the infant’s interactive agency, and the infant’s expectation that mother will match the direction of infant affective change, sharing infant states. However, we proposed that the future C infant will have difficulty feeling sensed and known by mother during her spatial/tactile intrusions. The central feature of future D dyads is intrapersonal and interpersonal discordance or conflict in the context of intensely distressed infants. Lowered maternal contingent coordination, and failures of maternal affective correspondence, constitute maternal emotional withdrawal from distressed infants, compromising infant interactive agency and emotional coherence. The level of dysregulation in future D dyads is thus of an entirely different order than that of future C dyads. We proposed that the future D infant represents not being sensed and known by the mother, particularly in states of distress. We proposed that the emerging internal working model of future D infants includes confusion about their own basic emotional organization, about their mothers’ emotional organization, and about their mothers’ response to their distress, setting a trajectory in development which may disturb the fundamental integration of the person. The findings have rich implications for clinical intervention, with remarkable specificity for different kinds of mother and infant distress. The concepts of heightened and lowered self- and interactive contingency, in different modalities, as well as the specific behavioral qualities identified, provide a more differentiated set of concepts to guide clinical intervention. PMID:20390524

  5. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother-child interactions during feeding practice.

    PubMed

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children's autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasizes parents' emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children's age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive conflicts and negative affective states, all of which can hinder the development of adequate interactive patterns during feeding. The results suggest that IWMs can constitute an indicator for the evaluation of the relational quality of the dyad and that evaluations of dyadic interactions should be considered when programming interventions. PMID:26379576

  6. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother–child interactions during feeding practice

    PubMed Central

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S.; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother–child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger–satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasizes parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother–child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive conflicts and negative affective states, all of which can hinder the development of adequate interactive patterns during feeding. The results suggest that IWMs can constitute an indicator for the evaluation of the relational quality of the dyad and that evaluations of dyadic interactions should be considered when programming interventions. PMID:26379576

  7. Capturing the Temporal Sequence of Interaction in Young Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Fiona; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We explored whether young children exhibit subtypes of behavioral sequences during sibling interaction. Ten-minute, free-play observations of over 300 sibling dyads were coded for positivity, negativity and disengagement. The data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling (GMM). Younger (18-month-old) children’s temporal behavioral sequences showed a harmonious (53%) and a casual (47%) class. Older (approximately four-year-old) children’s behavior was more differentiated revealing a harmonious (25%), a deteriorating (31%), a recovery (22%) and a casual (22%) class. A more positive maternal affective climate was associated with more positive patterns. Siblings’ sequential behavioral patterns tended to be complementary rather than reciprocal in nature. The study illustrates a novel use of GMM and makes a theoretical contribution by showing that young children exhibit distinct types of temporal behavioral sequences that are related to parenting processes. PMID:25996957

  8. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153

  9. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications.

    PubMed

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153

  10. Understanding treatment effectiveness for aggressive youth: the importance of regulation in mother-child interactions.

    PubMed

    De Rubeis, Sera; Granic, Isabela

    2012-02-01

    Reviews summarizing hundreds of studies cite parent management training (PMT) and cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) as some of the most effective interventions for aggressive youth. However, studies continue to report variability in outcomes, and researchers have yet to understand why certain interventions only produce behavior change in some children. Using a clinical sample of 57 children (53 boys, 4 girls; mean age = 9.33, standard deviation = 1.16) and their mothers enrolled in a combined PMT/CBT program, the current study examined the relation between changes in real-time mother-child interactions, and children's externalizing outcomes from pre- to posttreatment. Results showed that dyads who were regulated in their interactions over time reported greater reductions in externalizing symptoms from pre- to posttreatment as compared with dysregulated dyads. Changes in mean levels of affective content (e.g., negativity) were not associated with externalizing outcomes. Findings suggest that dyadic regulation may be an important process associated with treatment success for aggressive youth. PMID:22309818

  11. Mechanisms of Contextual Risk for Adolescent Self-Injury: Invalidation and Conflict Escalation in Mother-Child Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Baucom, Brian R.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Potapova, Natalia V.; Fitelson, Martha; Barth, Heather; Smith, Cindy J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE According to developmental theories of self-injury, both child characteristics and environmental contexts shape and maintain problematic behaviors. Although progress has been made toward identifying biological vulnerabilities to self-injury, mechanisms underlying psychosocial risk have received less attention. METHOD In the present study, we compared self-injuring adolescents (n=17) with typical controls (n=20) during a mother-child conflict discussion. Dyadic interactions were coded using both global and microanalytic systems, allowing for a highly detailed characterization of mother-child interactions. We also assessed resting state psychophysiological regulation, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RESULTS Global coding revealed that maternal invalidation was associated with adolescent anger. Furthermore, maternal invalidation and coerciveness were both related to adolescent opposition/defiance. Results from the microanalytic system indicated that self-injuring dyads were more likely to escalate conflict, suggesting a potential mechanism through which emotion dysregulation is shaped and maintained over time. Finally, mother and teen aversiveness interacted to predict adolescent resting RSA. Low-aversive teens with highly aversive mothers had the highest RSA, whereas teens in high-high dyads showed the lowest RSA. CONCLUSIONS These findings are consistent with theories that emotion invalidation and conflict escalation are possible contextual risk factors for self-injury. PMID:23581508

  12. Interaction Rating Scale (IRS) as an Evidence-Based Practical Index of Children’s Social Skills and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Anme, Tokie; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tong, Lian; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Kawashima, Yuri; Hirano, Maki; Tomisaki, Etsuko; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Morita, Kentaro; Gan-Yadam, Amarsanaa; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to describe the features of the Interaction Rating Scale (IRS) as an evidence-based practical index of children’s social skills and parenting. Methods The participants in our study, which was conducted as part of a Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) project, were 370 dyads of children (aged 18, 30, and 42 month) and 81 dyads of 7-year-old children with their caregivers. The participants completed the five minute interaction session and were observed using the IRS. Results The results indicated that the IRS can measure children’s social skill development and parenting with high validity. Along with the discriminate validity for pervasive development disorder (PDD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), abuse and maltreatment, a high correlation with the SDQ (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire), and high reliability, the IRS is effective in describing features of social skill development. Conclusions The IRS provides further evidence of the fact that in order to study children’s social skill development, it is important to evaluate various features of the caregiver-child interaction as a predictor of social skills. PMID:20179371

  13. Interactions between and among Heritage Language Learners and Second Language Learners during Collaborative Writing Activities: How Learners Attend to Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined

  14. Interactions between and among Heritage Language Learners and Second Language Learners during Collaborative Writing Activities: How Learners Attend to Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined…

  15. Assessing the feeding/eating interaction as a context for the development of social competence in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Spegman, Adele Mattinat; Houck, Gail M

    2005-01-01

    Social competence likely develops through the reciprocal nature of mother-child interactions. Interactions around food provide the young child with consistent and predictable social experiences with the mother, which may establish templates for interactive patterns with others. The Toddler Snack Scale (TSS) assesses the pattern of toddler social behaviors in relation to maternal behaviors during an eating episode. Scale reliability was examined with a sample of 126 dyads at the child's ages of 12, 24, and 36 months. Significant associations were found between TSS classifications and concurrent measures assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS), the Control-Autonomy Balance Scale (CABS), and the Adaptive Social Behavioral Inventory (ASBI). Child temperament contributed to child expressions of social competence, but not to the assignment of maternal or child interaction styles. The scale identifies salient areas for parent-child assessment and intervention throughout infancy and toddlerhood. PMID:16356895

  16. Using Dyad-Specific Social Stories to Increase Communicative and Social Skills of Preschoolers with Hearing Loss in Self-Contained and Inclusive Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, Sharon A.; Bobzien, Jonna; Richels, Corrin; Hester, Peggy; Anthony, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Children with profound hearing loss often do not have the same prelinguistic opportunities for social and communication interaction as peers with typical hearing and benefit from structured opportunities to learn these skills. This study examined the effect of two interventions to improve the communicative and social skills of four preschoolers…

  17. A Comparison of Equine-Assisted Intervention and Conventional Play-Based Early Intervention for Mother-Child Dyads with Insecure Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beetz, Andrea; Winkler, Nora; Julius, Henri; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Early interventions aim at promoting a good mother-child relationship as basis for a good socio-emotional development, especially in high-risk populations, and at correcting already unfavorable patterns of interaction and are common today. Insecure attachment, both of the child and of the mother, has been identified as a risk factor for early…

  18. A comparison of dyadic interactions and coping with still-face in healthy pre-term and full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Montirosso, Rosario; Borgatti, Renato; Trojan, Sabina; Zanini, Rinaldo; Tronick, Ed

    2010-06-01

    Pre-term birth has a significant impact on infants' social and emotional competence, however, little is known about regulatory processes in pre-term mother-infant dyads during normal or stressful interactions. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the differences in infant and caregiver interactive behaviour and dyadic coordination of clinically healthy pre-term compared to full-term infant-mother dyads and to examine pre-term infants' capacity for coping with stress using the face-to-face still-face paradigm (FFSF). Fifty mother-infant dyads, including 25 pre-term infants and 25 full-term infants were videotaped during the FFSF. All infants were 6-9 months of age (corrected for gestational age in the pre-term group). Infant and maternal socio-emotional expressivity and self-regulatory behaviours were coded and measures of dyadic coordination (Matching, Reparation Rate, and Synchrony) were calculated. There were no significant differences in infant and caregiver socio-emotional behaviours between the two groups and both groups demonstrated the still-face (SF) effect and the reunion effect. There was a difference in self-regulatory behaviour. Pre-term infants were more likely than full-term infants to use distancing (e.g., by turning away, twisting, or arching) from their mothers during the FFSF. Additionally, during the Reunion episode of the FFSF pre-term infants showed more social monitoring compared to full-term infants. Regardless of the birth status, the dyads showed less coordination and a slower rate of reparation during the Reunion episode than during the Play episode. The higher proportion of distancing in the pre-term group and the increase in social monitoring suggest that even in normal interactions pre-term infants may experience a higher level of stress and have less capacity for self-regulation compared to the full-terms and that pre-term infants appear to use a compensatory strategy of increased social monitoring to cope with the stress of renegotiating the interaction during Reunion. The findings suggest that pre-term infants have different regulatory and interactive capacities than full-term infants. PMID:20481392

  19. ADHD Medication Vacations and Parent-Child Interactions by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sulak, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine medication vacations among children with ADHD according to parent-child dyads (e.g., mother-son, father-daughter, mother-daughter, and father-son). Method: In a survey study of 259 parents of children with ADHD, the use of medication vacations according to parent-child sex dyads was

  20. ADHD Medication Vacations and Parent-Child Interactions by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sulak, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine medication vacations among children with ADHD according to parent-child dyads (e.g., mother-son, father-daughter, mother-daughter, and father-son). Method: In a survey study of 259 parents of children with ADHD, the use of medication vacations according to parent-child sex dyads was…

  1. Enhancing building, conversation, and learning through caregiver-child interactions in a children's museum.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Nora; Haden, Catherine A; Wilkerson, Erin

    2010-03-01

    The authors adapted an experimental design to examine effects of instruction prior to entry into a children's museum exhibit on caregiver-child interactions and children's learning. One hundred twenty-one children (mean age = 6.6 years) and their caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 conditions that varied according to what, if any, preexhibit instruction the dyads received: (a) building and conversation instruction, (b) building instruction only, (c) conversation instruction only, (d) presentation of models of buildings and conversations without instruction, or (e) no instruction or control. Building instruction included information about triangular cross-bracing. Conversation instruction emphasized the use of elaborative wh-questions and associations. When observed in the exhibit, dyads in the groups that received building instruction included more triangles in their structures than those in the other groups. Caregivers provided with conversation instruction asked more wh-questions, made more associations, and engaged in more caregiver-child joint talk compared with those who received building instruction alone. Type of instruction was further linked to differences across conditions in the engineering content of talk, performance during immediate assessments of learning, and children's memory following 1-day and 2-week delays. PMID:20210509

  2. The interactive effects of belongingness and charisma on helping and compliance.

    PubMed

    Den Hartog, Deanne N; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Keegan, Anne E

    2007-07-01

    This study tests the main and interactive effects of belongingness and perceived charismatic leadership on 2 forms of organizational citizenship behavior (helping and compliance). In line with expectations, a study of 115 manager-subordinate dyads demonstrates that employees show more helping (manager rated) when they have a stronger sense of belongingness at work and more helping as well as compliance when they perceive their leader to be more charismatic (subordinate rated). Belongingness partially mediates the relationship between charisma and helping. Also, as hypothesized, belongingness and charisma have interactive effects on employees' helping and compliance. The impact of perceived charisma on these behaviors is stronger for employees with a low sense of belongingness at work than for individuals with a higher sense of belongingness. PMID:17638470

  3. The electronic structure and charge transfer excited states of the endohedral trimetallic nitride C80 (I(h)) fullerenes-Zn-tetraphenyl porphyrin dyads.

    PubMed

    Basurto, Luis; Amerikheirabadi, Fatemeh; Zope, Rajendra; Baruah, Tunna

    2015-02-28

    Endohedral fullerenes offer the possibility of tuning their properties through a choice of the endohedral unit. The Sc3N@C80 fullerene is the most abundant fullerene after C60 and C70. Recently, Sc3N@C80 has been tested for light harvesting properties with encouraging results. In this work, we study the electronic structure of three endohedral fullerene-Zn tetraphenyl porphyrin complexes using density functional theory. The binding between the components in these complexes arises due to van der Waals interaction. A fragment orbital analysis is carried out to examine the interaction between the two components which shows that a small charge transfer occurs in the ground state from the ZnTPP to the fullerenes and that the orientation of the Sc3N plane affects the ground state charge transfer. The charge transfer excited state energies are calculated using our perturbative delta-SCF method. A comparison with earlier calculations shows that the charge transfer excitation energy increases as C60-ZnTPP < C70-ZnTPP < Sc3N@C80-ZnTPP < Y3N@C80-ZnTPP. The orientation of the endohedral unit does not influence the excitation energy in the donor-acceptor complexes. PMID:25631359

  4. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Qualities, Internal Working Models, and Styles as Predictors of Adolescents’ Observed Interactions with Friends

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how current parent-adolescent relationship qualities and adolescents’ representations of relationships with parents were related to friendship interactions in 200 adolescent-close friend dyads. Adolescents and friends were observed discussing problems during a series of structured tasks. Negative interactions with mothers were significantly related to adolescents’ greater conflict with friends, poorer focus on tasks, and poorer communication skills. Security of working models (as assessed by interview) was significantly associated with qualities of friendship interactions, whereas security of attachment styles (as assessed by questionnaire) was not. More dismissing (vs. secure) working models were associated with poorer focus on problem discussions and weaker communication skills with friends, even after accounting for gender differences and current parent-adolescent relationship qualities. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed links between dimensions of parent-adolescent relationships and friendships. We also consider methodological and conceptual differences between working model and style measures of attachment representations. PMID:20174459

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Ru(II) Tris(1,1O-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads Incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium Cation or N-Benzyl-N'-methyl-viologen. Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Optical Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monen M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2004-01-01

    The title compounds (1 and 2, above) were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions of appropriate Ru(1I) complexes with the electron a cceptors. Characterization was conducted in solution and in frozen ma trices. Finally, the title compounds were evaluated as dopants of sol-gel materials. It was found that the intramolecular quenching efficie ncy of 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridinium cation in solution depends on the solvent: photoluminescence is quenched completely in CH,CN, but not i n methanol or ethanol. On the other hand, intramolecular emission que nching by 4-benzyl-N-methyl viologen is complete in all solvents. The difference between the two quenchers is traced electrochemically to t he solvation of the 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridiniums by alcohol. In froze n matrices or adsorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both Ru(I1) complex/electron acceptor dyads of this study are photoluminescent, and the absence of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigi dity. When doped aerogels are cooled at 77 K, the emission intensity increases by approximately 4x, and the spectra shift to the blue, analogous to what is observed with Ru(I1) complexes in solutions undergoi ng fluid-to-rigid transition. However, in contrast to frozen solution s, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at low tempe ratures are still accessible to gas-phase quenchers diffusing through the mesopores, leading to more sensitive platforms for sensors than o ther room-temperature configurations. Thus the photoluminescence of o ur Ru(I1) complex dyads adsorbed on aerogel is quenchable by O2 both at room temperature and at 77 K. Furthermore, it was also found that O 2 modulates the photoluminescence of aerogels doped with 4-benzoyl -N -methylpyridinium-based dyads over a wider dynamic range compared wi th aerogels doped with either our vislogen-based dyads or with Ru(I1) tris(1,lO-phenanthroline) itself.

  6. Adult romantic relationships as contexts of human development: a multimethod comparison of same-sex couples with opposite-sex dating, engaged, and married dyads.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn I; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships was examined at multiple levels of analysis via self-reports and partner reports, laboratory observations, and measures of physiological reactivity during dyadic interactions. Additionally, individuals in same-sex, engaged, and marital relationships were compared with one another on adult attachment security as assessed through the coherence of participants' narratives about their childhood experiences. Results indicated that individuals in committed same-sex relationships were generally not distinguishable from their committed heterosexual counterparts, with one exception--lesbians were especially effective at working together harmoniously in laboratory observations. PMID:18194008

  7. Physiological and cognitive consequences of suppressing and expressing emotion in dyadic interactions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brett J; Overall, Nickola C; Jamieson, Jeremy P

    2014-10-01

    Engaging in emotional suppression typically has negative consequences. However, relatively little is known about response-focused emotion regulation processes in dyadic interactions. We hypothesized that interacting with suppressive partners would be more threatening than interacting with expressive partners. To test predictions, two participants independently watched a negatively-valenced video and then discussed their emotional responses. One participant (the regulator) was assigned to express/suppress affective signals during the interaction. Their partner was given no special instructions prior to the interaction. Engaging in suppression versus expression elicited physiological responses consistent with threat-sympathetic arousal and increased vasoconstriction-in anticipation of and during dyadic interactions. Partners of emotional suppressors also exhibited more threat responses during the interaction, but not before, compared to partners of emotional expressors. Partner and interaction appraisals mirrored physiological findings. Emotional suppressors found the task more uncomfortable and intense while their partners reported them as being poor communicators. This work broadens our understanding of connections between emotion regulation, physiological responses, and cognitive processes in dyads. PMID:25109434

  8. Reciprocal and Complementary Sibling Interactions: Relations with Socialization Outcomes in the Kindergarten Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Achacoso, Joseph A.; John, Aesha; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings To examine associations between sibling interaction patterns and later social outcomes in single- and two-parent families, 113 kindergarteners took part in naturalistic observations at home with siblings, classmates participated in sociometric interviews, and teachers completed behavior ratings. Sibling interactions were coded using a newly-developed 39-item checklist, and proportions of complementary and reciprocal sibling interactions computed. Complementarity occurred more among dyads where kindergartners were with toddler or infant siblings than among kindergartners with older or near-age younger siblings. Higher levels of complementarity predicted lower levels of internalizing but were not related to externalizing problems. Kindergartners’ sociometric status in the classroom differed as a function of sibling interaction patterns, with neglected and controversial children experiencing less complementarity/more reciprocity than popular, average, and rejected children. Finally, there was some evidence for differential associations of sibling interaction patterns with social outcomes for children in single- versus two-parent families: regressions testing interaction effects show sibling reciprocity positively associated with kindergartners’ social skills only in single-parent families, and complementary sibling interactions positively related to internalizing problems only in two-parent families. Implications for Practice Those working with divorcing or other single-parent families might consider sibling interactions as a potential target for social skill building. PMID:26005311

  9. Development of the Brief Romantic Relationship Interaction Coding Scheme (BRRICS)

    PubMed Central

    Humbad, Mikhila N.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Although observational studies of romantic relationships are common, many existing coding schemes require considerable amounts of time and resources to implement. The current study presents a new coding scheme, the Brief Romantic Relationship Interaction Coding Scheme (BRRICS), designed to assess various aspects of romantic relationship both quickly and efficiently. The BRRICS consists of four individual coding dimensions assessing positive and negative affect in each member of the dyad, as well as four codes assessing specific components of the dyadic interaction (i.e., positive reciprocity, demand-withdraw pattern, negative reciprocity, and overall satisfaction). Concurrent associations with measures of marital adjustment and conflict were evaluated in a sample of 118 married couples participating in the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Couples were asked to discuss common conflicts in their marriage while being videotaped. Undergraduate coders used the BRRICS to rate these interactions. The BRRICS scales were correlated in expected directions with self-reports of marital adjustment, as well as children’s perception of the severity and frequency of marital conflict. Based on these results, the BRRICS may be an efficient tool for researchers with large samples of observational data who are interested in coding global aspects of the relationship but do not have the resources to use labor intensive schemes. PMID:21875192

  10. Adaptation of a Communication Interaction Behavior Instrument for use in Mechanically Ventilated, Nonvocal Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Marci; Happ, Mary Beth; Donovan, Heidi; Barnato, Amber; Hoffman, Leslie; Sereika, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Valid and reliable instruments are needed to measure communication interaction behaviors between nurses and mechanically ventilated (MV) intensive care unit (ICU) patients who are without oral speech. Objectives To refine and evaluate preliminary validity and reliability of a Communication Interaction Behavior Instrument (CIBI) adapted for use with nonvocal, MV ICU patients. Methods Raters observed nurse-patient communication interactions using a checklist of nurse and patient behaviors, categorized as positive and negative behaviors. We used 3-minute video-recorded observations of 5 MV ICU adults (<60 years) and their nurses to establish preliminary inter-rater reliability and confirm appropriateness of definitions (4 observations per dyad, N=20). Based on expert input and reliability results, the behaviors and item definitions on the CIBI were revised. The revised tool was then tested in a larger sample of 38 MV ICU patients (≥60 years) and their nurses (4 observations per dyad, N=152) to determine inter-rater reliability. Results For preliminary testing, percent agreement for individual items ranged from 60–100% for nurse behaviors and 20–100% for patient behaviors across the 5 pilot cases. Based on these results, 11 definitions were modified and 4 items were dropped. Using the revised 29-item instrument, percent agreement improved for nurse behaviors (73–100%) and patient behaviors (68–100%). Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.13–1.00, with lower coefficients for patient behaviors. Conclusion Preliminary results suggest that the revised CIBI has good face validity and demonstrates good inter-rater reliability for many of the behaviors but further refinement is needed. The use of dual raters with adjudication of discrepancies is the recommended method of administration for the revised CIBI. PMID:24335909

  11. TRANSITION FROM ADVERSARIAL TO COOPERATIVE STRATEGIC INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-08-01

    This note extends the game theoretic analysis of strategic conflicts begun in earlier Seminars on Planetary Emergencies to interactions with and without defenses between two or more adversaries with more realistic target structures. It reviews the essentials of game theory as applied to the analysis of strategic decisions, the application of first and second strike costs as payoffs, and solution optimization, which resolves several inconsistencies seen with earlier metrics. The stability of the current bilateral offensive configuration is shown to be high and insensitive to deep reductions in offensive forces, the deployment of limited defenses, and the exchange of significant offensive forces for defenses. The transition from adversarial to cooperative interaction is represented by the progressive reduction of the parameters representing each side's preference for damaging or deterring the other, which monotonically improves stability. Estimates of strike incentives in bilateral and trilateral configurations are reduced by the inclusion of high value targets in both sides' force allocations, which dominates the details of offensive and defensive forces. The shift to high value targets stabilizes trilateral offensive configurations, a result that differs with that from analyses based on military costs only. When defenses are included, they lead to a balance between a large defended side and small undefended side that resembles the balance between two large sides. Including the large side's preference for defense of high value targets in the analyses reduces its strike incentives and thus the small side's incentive to preempt. However, it also removes the large sides' ability to deter, so the stability of multi-polar configurations continues to be controlled by the least stable dyad, which places constraints on the size of defenses that can be deployed stably that could be more stringent than those from the bilateral balance.

  12. A qualitative study of the instructional behaviors and practices of a dyad of educators in self-contained and inclusive co-taught secondary biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Shanon D.

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1997) mandates that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum. School districts have developed a variety of service delivery models to provide challenging educational experiences for all students. Co-teaching or collaborative teaching is the most widely used of the different service delivery models. While the philosophy of inclusion is widely accepted, the efficacy of the various inclusion models has recently been the focus of educational research. Researchers have questioned whether the presence of a special educator in the general education classroom has resulted in students with high incidence disabilities receiving specialized instruction. A qualitative study was designed to examine the instructional behaviors and practices exhibited and used by a dyad of educators in self-contained learning disabilities and inclusive co-taught secondary Biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period. In addition to utilizing interviews, observations, and classroom observation scales to answer the research questions, supporting student data (time-sampling measurement/opportunity to learn and student grades) were collected. The study concluded that the presence of a special educator in a co-taught classroom: (1) did contribute to the creation of a new learning environment, and notable changes in the instructional behaviors and practices of a general educator; (2) did contribute to limited specialized instruction for students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms and embedded (not overt) special education practices related to the planning and decision-making of the educators; (3) did contribute to the creation of a successful co-teaching partnership including the use of effective teaching behaviors; and (4) did impact success for some of the students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms; but (5) did not ensure the continuation of some of the new instructional behaviors and practices in the general education classroom if the collaboration ended.

  13. Drug/protein interactions studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Vay, Ignacio; Bonanca, Paula; Jimnez, M. C.; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2014-09-01

    We report here on a recent time-resolved fluorescence study [1] of the interaction between flurbiprofen (FBP), a chiral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and human serum albumin (HSA), the main transport protein in the human body. We compare the results obtained for the drug-protein complex with those of various covalently linked flurbiprofentryptophan dyads having well-defined geometries. In all cases stereoselective dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed, varying greatly from one system to another. In addition, the fluorescence anisotropy decays also display a clear stereoselectivity. For the drug-protein complexes, this can be interpreted in terms of the protein microenvironment playing a significant role in the conformational relaxation of FBP, which is more restricted in the case of the (R)- enantiomer.

  14. Increasing Responsive Parent-Child Interactions and Joint Engagement: Comparing the Influence of Parent-Mediated Intervention and Parent Psychoeducation.

    PubMed

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2016-05-01

    Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children's signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents' responsive behaviour in association with children's social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention. Eighty-five dyads were randomized to one of two 10-week caregiver-training interventions. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parental responsivity and children's joint engagement. Significant gains in responsivity and time jointly engaged were found post JASPER parent-mediated intervention over a psychoeducation intervention. Further, combining higher levels of responsive behaviour with greater adoption of intervention strategies was associated with greater time jointly engaged. Findings encourage a focus on enhancing responsive behaviour in parent-mediated intervention models. PMID:26797940

  15. Interactive Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Jack A.

    A key to the group dynamics process in teleconferencing is interaction and the use of interactive technologies. The user of teleconferencing for instruction has to accept several underlying assumptions: lecture is not necessarily sound instruction, especially for adults; teleconferencing is easy; and teleconferences require planning. Benefits are…

  16. A critical examination of indices of dynamic interaction for wildlife telemetry studies.

    PubMed

    Long, Jed A; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Webb, Stephen L; Gee, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01

    Wildlife scientists continue to be interested in studying ways to quantify how the movements of animals are interdependent - dynamic interaction. While a number of applied studies of dynamic interaction exist, little is known about the comparative effectiveness and applicability of available methods used for quantifying interactions between animals. We highlight the formulation, implementation and interpretation of a suite of eight currently available indices of dynamic interaction. Point- and path-based approaches are contrasted to demonstrate differences between methods and underlying assumptions on telemetry data. Correlated and biased correlated random walks were simulated at a range of sampling resolutions to generate scenarios with dynamic interaction present and absent. We evaluate the effectiveness of each index at identifying different types of interactive behaviour at each sampling resolution. Each index is then applied to an empirical telemetry data set of three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) dyads. Results from the simulated data show that three indices of dynamic interaction reliant on statistical testing procedures are susceptible to Type I error, which increases at fine sampling resolutions. In the white-tailed deer examples, a recently developed index for quantifying local-level cohesive movement behaviour (the di index) provides revealing information on the presence of infrequent and varying interactions in space and time. Point-based approaches implemented with finely sampled telemetry data overestimate the presence of interactions (Type I errors). Indices producing only a single global statistic (7 of the 8 indices) are unable to quantify infrequent and varying interactions through time. The quantification of infrequent and variable interactive behaviour has important implications for the spread of disease and the prevalence of social behaviour in wildlife. Guidelines are presented to inform researchers wishing to study dynamic interaction patterns in their own telemetry data sets. Finally, we make our code openly available, in the statistical software R, for computing each index of dynamic interaction presented herein. PMID:24428545

  17. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  18. Characteristics and Qualities of the Play Dates of Children with Down Syndrome: Emerging or True Friendships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Kasari, Connie

    2002-01-01

    A study of the interactions of 27 dyads of children (ages 5-11) in a play-date situation were examined; one dyad member had Down syndrome. Dyads similar in gender, chronological age, and classroom experiences had better quality interactions. Twenty dyads met strict friendship criteria and could be classified as friends. (Contains references.)…

  19. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning. PMID:21874515

  20. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle

  1. Topical Concerns in the Poetry Coaching Dyad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Carolyn

    Eight coaches of oral interpretation from colleges across the United States were asked to tape record the coaching sessions that brought eight novices to tournament readiness. All of the students used the same three-poem program on the general theme of animals and children, but each student was required to write the introduction and transitions.…

  2. Dynamic Dyads: Sharing and Creating Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sophie T.; Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    In today's competitive market, it is essential to maximize employees' efficiency through job structure and knowledge exchange. This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of sharing and creating knowledge in teams of two. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with four dyadic teams. Data analysis revealed four major themes…

  3. Construction of Trust Judgments within Cooperative Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evin, Agathe; Sève, Carole; Saury, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the aims of physical education (PE) is to develop social skills such as cooperation, teamwork, and mutual helping among students. Cooperation is a broad research topic, implicating several disciplines in the human sciences (e.g. psychology, sociology, linguistics, philosophy). It is also an important topic in various domains…

  4. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  5. Manipulation of Non-verbal Interaction Style and Demographic Embodiment to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2005-02-01

    For years, people have sought more natural means of communicating with their computers. Many have suggested that interaction with a computer should be as easy as interacting with other people, taking advantage of the multimodal nature of human communication. While users should, in theory, gravitate to such anthropomorphic embodiments, quite the contrary has been experienced; users generally have been dissatisfied and abandoned their use. This suggests a disconnect between the factors that make human-human communication engaging and those used by designers to support human-agent interaction. This paper discusses a set of empirical studies that attempted to replicate human-human nonverbal behavior. The focus revolved around the behaviors that portrayed a credible façade, helping the embodied conversational agent (ECA) to form a successful cooperative dyad with the user. Based on a review of the nonverbal literature, a framework was created that identified trustworthy and credible nonverbal behaviors across five areas and formed design guidelines for character interaction. The design suggestions for those areas emanating from the facial region (facial expression, eye contact and paralanguage) were experimentally supported but there was no concordant increase in perceived trust when bodily regions (posture and gesture) were added. In addition, in examining the importance of demographic elements in the embodiment, it was found that users prefer to interact with characters that match their ethnicity and are young looking. There was no significant preference for gender. The implications of these results, as well as other interesting consequences are discussed.

  6. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise

    PubMed Central

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D.; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender’s and receiver’s temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions. PMID:25848050

  7. Strong Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.

    2009-09-29

    We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

  8. Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1957-06-01

    Experimental results on the non-conservation of parity and charge conservation in weak interactions are reviewed. The two-component theory of the neutrino is discussed. Lepton reactions are examined under the assumption of the law of conservation of leptons and that the neutrino is described by a two- component theory. From the results of this examination, the universal Fermi interactions are analyzed. Although reactions involving the neutrino can be described, the same is not true of reactions which do not involve the lepton, as the discussion of the decay of K mesons and hyperons shows. The question of the invariance of time reversal is next examined. (J.S.R.)

  9. Method of assessing parent-child grocery store purchasing interactions using a micro-camcorder.

    PubMed

    Calloway, Eric E; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; McInnis, Katie A; Romo-Palafox, Maria J; Briley, Margaret E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of using participant worn micro-camcorders (PWMC) to collect data on parent-child food and beverage purchasing interactions in the grocery store. Parent-child dyads (n = 32) were met at their usual grocery store and shopping time. Parents were mostly Caucasian (n = 27, 84.4%), mothers (n = 30, 93.8%). Children were 2-6 years old with 15 girls and 17 boys. A micro-camcorder was affixed to a baseball style hat worn by the child. The dyad proceeded to shop while being shadowed by an in-person observer. Video/audio data were coded for behavioral and environmental variables. The PWMC method was compared to in-person observation to assess sensitivity and relative validity for measuring parent-child interactions, and compared to receipt data to assess criterion validity for evaluating purchasing decisions. Inter-rater reliability for coding video/audio data collected using the PWMC method was also assessed. The PWMC method proved to be more sensitive than in-person observation revealing on average 1.4 (p < 0.01) more parent-child food and beverage purchasing interactions per shopping trip. Inter-rater reliability for coding PWMC data showed moderate to almost perfect agreement (Cohen's kappa = 0.461-0.937). The PWMC method was significantly correlated with in-person observation for measuring occurrences of parent-child food purchasing interactions (rho = 0.911, p < 0.01) and characteristics of those interactions (rho = 0.345-0.850, p < 0.01). Additionally, there was substantial agreement between the PWMC method and receipt data for measuring purchasing decisions (Cohen's kappa = 0.787). The PWMC method proved to be well suited to assess parent-child food and beverage purchasing interactions in the grocery store. PMID:25091810

  10. Interactive Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jean K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents guiding principles for developing interactive lessons for the World Wide Web. Describes "Amazing Space: Education Online from the Hubble Space Telescope", a program where students study spectacular Hubble Space Telescope images of stars and star-forming regions to learn about the life cycle of stars and the creation of atoms. (JRH)

  11. Interacting Compasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, Hector G.; Betancourt, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The use of multiple compasses to map and visualize magnetic fields is well-known. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the compasses aligning them along the lines of force. Some science museums show the field of a magnet using a table with many compasses in a closely packed arrangement. However, the very interesting interactions that occur

  12. Interacting Compasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, Hector G.; Betancourt, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The use of multiple compasses to map and visualize magnetic fields is well-known. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the compasses aligning them along the lines of force. Some science museums show the field of a magnet using a table with many compasses in a closely packed arrangement. However, the very interesting interactions that occur…

  13. The Interaction Between Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Gestational Weight Gain Shapes Infant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, William J.; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi; Barkin, Shari L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify the combined effect of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) on the shape of infant growth throughout the first year of life. Methods A retrospective cohort of maternal-child dyads with children born between January 2007 and May 2012 was identified in a linked electronic medical record. Data were abstracted to define the primary exposures of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG, and the primary outcome of infant growth trajectory. Results We included 499 maternal-infant dyads. The average maternal age was 28.2 years; 55% of mothers were overweight or obese prior to pregnancy and 42% of mothers had excess GWG, as defined by the Institute of Medicine. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.001), and the interaction between pre-pregnancy BMI and maternal GWG (p=0.02) showed significant association with infant growth trajectory through the first year of life after controlling for breastfeeding and other covariates, while GWG alone did not reach statistical significance (p=0.38). Among infants of mothers with excess GWG, a pre-pregnancy BMI of 40 kg/m2 versus 25 kg/m2 resulted in a 13.6% (95% CI 5.8%, 21.5%; p<0.001) increase in 3-month infant weight/length percentile that persisted at 12 months (8.4%, 95% CI 0.2%, 16.5%; p=0.04). Conclusions The combined effect of excess maternal GWG and pre-pregnancy obesity resulted in higher infant birth weight, rapid weight gain in the first 3 months of life, with a sustained elevation throughout the first year of life. These findings highlight the importance of the preconception and prenatal periods for pediatric obesity prevention. PMID:25169157

  14. A LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF MOTHER-INFANT PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT: OUTCOMES ON MOTHERS AND INTERACTIONS.

    PubMed

    Salomonsson, Majlis Winberg; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Salomonsson, Bjrn

    2015-11-01

    An earlier randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared 80 mother-infant dyads in a Stockholm sample. One had received mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment [mother-infant psychoanalytic therapies (MIP) group], and the other received Child Health Center care (CHCC group). Effects were found on mother-reported depression and expert-rated mother-infant relationship qualities and maternal sensitivity. When the children were 412 years, the dyads were followed up with assessments of the children's attachment representations, social and emotional development, and global functioning, and the mothers' psychological well-being and representations of the child as well as the mother-child interactions. We gathered data from 66 cases approximately 312 years' posttreatment. All scores involving the mothers had now approached community levels. We found effects on maternal depression in favor of MIP, but no other between-group differences. The MIP treatments seemed to have helped the mothers to recover more quickly on personal well-being, to become more sensitive to their babies' suffering, and to better support and appreciate their children throughout infancy and toddlerhood. If so, this would explain why the MIP children had a better global functioning and were more often "OK" and less often "Troubled" at 412 years. PMID:26551600

  15. Do you put your best foot forward? Interactive effects of task performance and impression management tactics on career outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jen-Wei; Chiu, Wei-La; Chang, Yi-Ying; Johnstone, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the interactive effects of task performance and impression management tactics on career outcomes from the socioanalytic perspective. Based on a survey of 195 employee-supervisor dyads from various industries in Taiwan, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that (1) the relationship between task performance and a one-year salary adjustment was greater among employees who frequently employ ingratiation than among those who do not, (2) the relationship between task performance and a one-year salary adjustment was greater among employees who frequently employ exemplification than among those who do not, and (3) the relationship between task performance and career satisfaction was greater among employees who frequently employ self-promotion than among those who do not. This study concludes by suggesting implications for research and practice, and offers some directions for future research. PMID:25175887

  16. High-resolution infrared and theoretical study of gaseous oxazole in the 600-1400 cm -1 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelund, F.; Larsen, R. Wugt; Palmer, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    The Fourier transform gas-phase IR spectrum of oxazole, C 3H 3NO, has been recorded with a resolution of ca. 0.0030 cm -1 in the wavenumber region 600-1400 cm -1. The rotational structures of 10 fundamental bands (four of a-type, three of b-type and three of c-type) have been analysed using the Watson model. Ground state rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants as well as upper state spectroscopic constants have been obtained from the fits. A number of perturbations have been identified in the bands. From a local crossing observed in ν15 we located the very weak ν14 band at 858.19(1) cm -1. Also ν13 is definitively located at 899.3 cm -1. The three global c-Coriolis interacting dyads ν9/ ν10, ν10/ ν11, and ν12/ ν13 have each been analysed by a model including first and second order Coriolis resonance using ab initio predicted first order Coriolis coupling constants; second order Coriolis interaction parameters are determined. The rotational constants, harmonic and anharmonic frequencies, intensities, and vibration-rotation constants (alphas, ανA,B,C) have been predicted by quantum chemical calculations using a cc-pVTZ basis at the MP2 and B3LYP methodology levels, and compared with the present experimental data. Both the rotational constants and frequencies are marginally closer to experiment from the B3LYP calculations. In order to make more significant comparisons between theory and experiment for the alphas, we take differences between ground and vibronic state values; under these circumstances, the B3LYP definitely have a closer fit to experiment.

  17. Putting Interaction into Interactive Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Thomas E.

    Current technology provides many new ideas and alternatives to traditional education and training practices. From the experience of the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Academic Instructor School (AIS) and current research in the field, teaching via interactive television (teleseminar/video teletraining) requires new teaching skills and new ways of thinking…

  18. Stability of maternal discipline practices and the quality of mother-child interaction during toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother-child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother-toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e., child sex, temperament) that might moderate the association between maternal discipline and quality of mother-child interactions were also examined. Maternal discipline, quality of mother-child interactions, and temperamental moderators were measured at 16-18 months (Time 1) and 34-37 months (Time 2). Results showed that the stability of maternal use of discipline strategies over the toddler years was moderate. Lower maternal use of PD, higher maternal use of ID, and higher preference/reliance on ID (relative to PD) were associated with higher quality of mother-child interactions. Moderation effects of child temperament were also found. High ID and PD were associated with low quality of mother-child relationships in non-temperamentally difficult children but not in temperamentally difficult children. PMID:23450036

  19. Stability of maternal discipline practices and the quality of mother–child interaction during toddlerhood✩

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother–child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother–toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e., child sex, temperament) that might moderate the association between maternal discipline and quality of mother–child interactions were also examined. Maternal discipline, quality of mother–child interactions, and temperamental moderators were measured at 16–18 months (Time 1) and 34–37 months (Time 2). Results showed that the stability of maternal use of discipline strategies over the toddler years was moderate. Lower maternal use of PD, higher maternal use of ID, and higher preference/reliance on ID (relative to PD) were associated with higher quality of mother–child interactions. Moderation effects of child temperament were also found. High ID and PD were associated with low quality of mother–child relationships in non-temperamentally difficult children but not in temperamentally difficult children. PMID:23450036

  20. Electroweak interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Renton, P.

    1990-01-01

    The central part of the book consists of a comprehensive discussion of many scattering and decay processes involving electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions. A list of topics includes electron-proton scattering, Compton scattering, muon decay, electron-positron annihilation, photon and hadron structure functions, neutrino-nucleus scattering, Cabibbo theory, tau-lepton decays, W and Z boson decays, mixing phenomena and many others. For most processes, the author presents the appropriate Feynman diagrams, first-order matrix elements and the resulting cross sections or decay rates. The last section of Electroweak Interactions discusses some of the open or unanswered questions in the standard model, including the undiscovered top quark, the Higgs mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and detailed tests involving radiative effects. The book concludes with a brief account of ideas that extend beyond the standard model, such as left-right symmetric models, grand unified theories, compositeness, supersymmetry and string theory.

  1. Why Synchrony Matters during Mother-Child Interactions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Avril, Marie; Achard, Catherine; Chetouani, Mohamed; Missonnier, Sylvain; Cohen, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of mother-child interactions is a core issue of early child development and psychopathology. This paper focuses on the concept of “synchrony” and examines (1) how synchrony in mother-child interaction is defined and operationalized; (2) the contribution that the concept of synchrony has brought to understanding the nature of mother-child interactions. Method Between 1977 and 2013, we searched several databases using the following key-words: « synchrony » « interaction » and « mother-child ». We focused on studies examining parent-child interactions among children aged 2 months to 5 years. From the 63 relevant studies, we extracted study description variables (authors, year, design, number of subjects, age); assessment conditions and modalities; and main findings. Results The most common terms referring to synchrony were mutuality, reciprocity, rhythmicity, harmonious interaction, turn-taking and shared affect; all terms were used to characterize the mother-child dyad. As a consequence, we propose defining synchrony as a dynamic and reciprocal adaptation of the temporal structure of behaviors and shared affect between interactive partners. Three main types of assessment methods for studying synchrony emerged: (1) global interaction scales with dyadic items; (2) specific synchrony scales; and (3) micro-coded time-series analyses. It appears that synchrony should be regarded as a social signal per se as it has been shown to be valid in both normal and pathological populations. Better mother-child synchrony is associated with familiarity (vs. unknown partner), a healthy mother (vs. pathological mother), typical development (vs. psychopathological development), and a more positive child outcomes. Discussion Synchrony is a key feature of mother-infant interactions. Adopting an objective approach in studying synchrony is not a simple task given available assessment tools and due to its temporality and multimodal expression. We propose an integrative approach combining clinical observation and engineering techniques to improve the quality of synchrony analysis. PMID:25469637

  2. Cosmic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    An image based on data taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope reveals a triplet of galaxies intertwined in a cosmic dance. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The three galaxies, catalogued as NGC 7173 (top), 7174 (bottom right) and 7176 (bottom left), are located 106 million light-years away towards the constellation of Piscis Austrinus (the 'Southern Fish'). NGC 7173 and 7176 are elliptical galaxies, while NGC 7174 is a spiral galaxy with quite disturbed dust lanes and a long, twisted tail. This seems to indicate that the two bottom galaxies - whose combined shape bears some resemblance to that of a sleeping baby - are currently interacting, with NGC 7176 providing fresh material to NGC 7174. Matter present in great quantity around the triplet's members also points to the fact that NGC 7176 and NGC 7173 have interacted in the past. Astronomers have suggested that the three galaxies will finally merge into a giant 'island universe', tens to hundreds of times as massive as our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02b/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The triplet is part of a so-called 'Compact Group', as compiled by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the early 1980s. The group, which is the 90th entry in the catalogue and is therefore known as HCG 90, actually contains four major members. One of them - NGC 7192 - lies above the trio, outside of this image, and is another peculiar spiral galaxy. Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of typically four to ten galaxies in close proximity to one another. Another striking example is Robert's Quartet. Compact groups are excellent laboratories for the study of galaxy interactions and their effects, in particular the formation of stars. As the striking image reveals, there are many other galaxies in the field. Some are distant ones, while others seem to be part of the family. Studies made with other telescopes have indeed revealed that the HCG 90 group contains 16 members, most of them much smaller in size than the four members with an entry in the NGC catalogue.

  3. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P. Read; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent’s preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner’s appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner’s model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference. PMID:26053429

  4. Perceiving nonverbal behavior: neural correlates of processing movement fluency and contingency in dyadic interactions.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Alexandra L; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Santos, Natacha S; Tepest, Ralf; Bente, Gary; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that nonverbal dyadic social interactions are abundant in the environment, the neural mechanisms underlying their processing are not yet fully understood. Research in the field of social neuroscience has suggested that two neural networks appear to be involved in social understanding: (1) the action observation network (AON) and (2) the social neural network (SNN). The aim of this study was to determine the differential contributions of the AON and the SNN to the processing of nonverbal behavior as observed in dyadic social interactions. To this end, we used short computer animation sequences displaying dyadic social interactions between two virtual characters and systematically manipulated two key features of movement activity, which are known to influence the perception of meaning in nonverbal stimuli: (1) movement fluency and (2) contingency of movement patterns. A group of 21 male participants rated the "naturalness" of the observed scenes on a four-point scale while undergoing fMRI. Behavioral results showed that both fluency and contingency significantly influenced the "naturalness" experience of the presented animations. Neurally, the AON was preferentially engaged when processing contingent movement patterns, but did not discriminate between different degrees of movement fluency. In contrast, regions of the SNN were engaged more strongly when observing dyads with disturbed movement fluency. In conclusion, while the AON is involved in the general processing of contingent social actions, irrespective of their kinematic properties, the SNN is preferentially recruited when atypical kinematic properties prompt inferences about the agents' intentions. PMID:23813661

  5. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange.

    PubMed

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P Read; Dayan, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent's preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner's appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner's model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference. PMID:26053429

  6. Attachment style dimensions are associated with brain activity in response to gaze interaction.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Marco; Iannoni, Maria Elena; Pandolfo, Anna Lucia; Aceto, Paola; Lai, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the time course of brain processes involved in the visual perception of different gaze interactions in woman-child dyads and the association between attachment dimensions and brain activation during the presentation of gaze interactions. The hypothesis was that the woman avoidance will produce a greater activation of primary somatosensory and limbic areas. The attachment styles dimensions avoidant-related will be associated with fronto-limbic brain intensity during the convergence of gaze. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded using a 256-channel HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net in 44 female subjects (age: 24 ± 2 years). Event-related potential (ERP) components and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) were analyzed. Participants were administered the attachment style questionnaire before EEG task. A lower P350 latency was found in the fronto-central montage in response to woman avoidance. sLORETA analysis showed a greater intensity of limbic and primary somatosensory areas in response to woman avoidance compared to the others gaze interactions. In response to convergence gaze, the confidence attachment dimension was negatively correlated with the intensities of the right temporal and limbic areas, and the relationships as secondary attachment dimension were positively correlated with the intensities of the bilateral frontal areas and of the left parietal area. PMID:25568957

  7. Maternal mobile device use during a structured parent-child interaction task

    PubMed Central

    Radesky, Jenny; Miller, Alison L.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Appugliese, Danielle; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine associations of maternal mobile device use with the frequency of mother-child interactions during a structured laboratory task. Methods Participants included 225 low-income mother-child pairs. When children were ~6 years old, dyads were videotaped during a standardized protocol in order to characterize how mothers and children interacted when asked to try familiar and unfamiliar foods. From videotapes, we dichotomized mothers based on whether or not they spontaneously used a mobile device, and counted maternal verbal and nonverbal prompts toward the child. We used multivariate Poisson regression to study associations of device use with eating prompt frequency for different foods. Results Mothers were an average of 31.3 (SD 7.1) years old and 28.0% were of Hispanic/non-white race/ethnicity. During the protocol, 23.1% of mothers spontaneously used a mobile device. Device use was not associated with any maternal characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, education, depressive symptoms, or parenting style. Mothers with device use initiated fewer verbal (RR 0.80 [95% CI: 0.63, 1.03]) and nonverbal (0.61 [0.39, 0.96]) interactions with their children than mothers who did not use a device, when averaged across all foods. This association was strongest during introduction of halva, the most unfamiliar food (0.67 [0.48, 0.93] for verbal and 0.42 [0.20, 0.89] for nonverbal interactions). Conclusions Mobile device use was common and associated with fewer interactions with children during a structured interaction task, particularly nonverbal interactions and during introduction of an unfamiliar food. More research is needed to understand how device use affects parent-child engagement in naturalistic contexts. PMID:25454369

  8. A theoretical study on the hydrogen-bonding interactions between flavonoids and ethanol/water.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Zhou, Yu; Liang, Qin; Chen, Da-Fu; Guo, Rui

    2016-04-01

    Ethanol and water are the solvents most commonly used to extract flavonoids from propolis. Do hydrogen-bonding interactions exist between flavonoids and ethanol/water? In this work, this question was addressed by using density functional theory (DFT) to provide information on the hydrogen-bonding interactions between flavonoids and ethanol/water. Chrysin and Galangin were chosen as the representative flavonoids. The investigated complexes included chrysin-H2O, chrysin-CH3CH2OH, galangin-H2O and galangin-CH3CH2OH dyads. Molecular geometries, hydrogen-bond binding energies, charges of monomers and dyads, and topological analysis were studied at the B3LYP/M062X level of theory with the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The main conclusions were: (1) nine and ten optimized hydrogen-bond geometries were obtained for chrysin-H2O/CH3CH2OH and galangin-H2O/CH3CH2OH complexes, respectively. (2) The hydrogen atoms except aromatic H1 and H5 and all of the oxygen atoms can form hydrogen-bonds with H2O and CH3CH2OH. Ethanol and water form strong hydrogen-bonds with the hydroxyl, carbonyl and ether groups in chrysin/galangin and form weak hydrogen-bonds with aromatic hydrogen atoms. Except in structures labeled A and B, chrysin and galangin interact more strongly with H2O than CH3CH2OH. (3) When chrysin and galangin form hydrogen-bonds with H2O and CH3CH2OH, charge transfers from the hydrogen-bond acceptor (H2O and CH3CH2OH in structures A, B, G, H, I, J) to the hydrogen-bond donor (chrysin and galangin in structure A, B, G, H, I, J). The stronger hydrogen-bond makes the hydrogen-bond donor lose more charge (A> B> G> H> I> J). (4) Most of the hydrogen-bonds in chrysin/galangin-H2O/CH3CH2OH complexes may be considered as electrostatic dominant, while C-O2···H in structures labeled E and C-O5···H in structures labeled J are hydrogen-bonds combined of electrostatic and covalent characters. H9, H7, and O4 are the preferred hydrogen-bonding sites. PMID:27029620

  9. Interaction, unscripted.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Barbara K

    2011-05-01

    Quality care for clients with mental illness begins in the classroom. This article describes an effective use of drama with undergraduate nursing students. Because of nursing students' fear and anxiety related to the psychiatric-mental health clinical experience, dramatic presentations are used as a way to expose students to a "real-life" client in a controlled setting. A student volunteer portraying a nurse and the faculty person portraying an individual with a mental illness interact without a written script in front of the class. Following the depiction, the class is encouraged to use the nursing process to plan care for the individual. Students have evaluated the presentations favorably and have indicated that the presentations decrease their anxiety and fear and build their confidence. Practicing nurses could use this kind of simulation as a way to enhance their own communication skills. When faced with a difficult patient, nurses may use drama together in a controlled setting and practice how best to provide quality care to that patient using the nursing process. PMID:21485977

  10. Speaking and Listening with the Eyes: Gaze Signaling during Dyadic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Simon; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive scientists have long been interested in the role that eye gaze plays in social interactions. Previous research suggests that gaze acts as a signaling mechanism and can be used to control turn-taking behaviour. However, early research on this topic employed methods of analysis that aggregated gaze information across an entire trial (or trials), which masks any temporal dynamics that may exist in social interactions. More recently, attempts have been made to understand the temporal characteristics of social gaze but little research has been conducted in a natural setting with two interacting participants. The present study combines a temporally sensitive analysis technique with modern eye tracking technology to 1) validate the overall results from earlier aggregated analyses and 2) provide insight into the specific moment-to-moment temporal characteristics of turn-taking behaviour in a natural setting. Dyads played two social guessing games (20 Questions and Heads Up) while their eyes were tracked. Our general results are in line with past aggregated data, and using cross-correlational analysis on the specific gaze and speech signals of both participants we found that 1) speakers end their turn with direct gaze at the listener and 2) the listener in turn begins to speak with averted gaze. Convergent with theoretical models of social interaction, our data suggest that eye gaze can be used to signal both the end and the beginning of a speaking turn during a social interaction. The present study offers insight into the temporal dynamics of live dyadic interactions and also provides a new method of analysis for eye gaze data when temporal relationships are of interest. PMID:26309216

  11. Six-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency and 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard

    2007-11-01

    Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were defined as auto- and lagged cross-correlation, respectively, using multilevel time-series models. Statistical significance was defined as p<.05. Regarding self-contingency, (a) more self-critical mothers showed primarily lowered self-contingency, whereas their infants showed both lowered and heightened, and (b) infants of more dependent mothers showed primarily lowered self-contingency, whereas findings were absent in mothers. Regarding interactive contingency, (a) more self-critical mothers showed lowered attention and emotion contingencies but heightened contingent touch coordination with infant touch, and (b) more dependent mothers and their infants showed heightened facial/vocal interactive contingencies. Thus, maternal self-criticism and dependency have different effects on mother-infant communication. PMID:18020817

  12. Characterization of the interaction between HMGB1 and H3a possible means of positioning HMGB1 in chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Matthew; Stott, Katherine; Fischl, Harry; Cato, Laura; Thomas, Jean O.

    2014-01-01

    High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) binds to the internucleosomal linker DNA in chromatin and abuts the nucleosome. Bending and untwisting of the linker DNA results in transmission of strain to the nucleosome core, disrupting histone/DNA contacts. An interaction between H3 and HMGB1 has been reported. Here we confirm and characterize the interaction of HMGB1 with H3, which lies close to the DNA entry/exit points around the nucleosome dyad, and may be responsible for positioning of HMGB1 on the linker DNA. We show that the interaction is between the N-terminal unstructured tail of H3 and the C-terminal unstructured acidic tail of HMGB1, which are presumably displaced from DNA and the HMG boxes, respectively, in the HMGB1-nucleosome complex. We have characterized the interaction by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and show that it is extensive for both peptides, and appears not to result in the acquisition of significant secondary structure by either partner. PMID:24157840

  13. Infant Television and Video Exposure Associated With Limited Parent-Child Verbal Interactions in Low Socioeconomic Status Households

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Berkule, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Huberman, Harris S.; Alvir, Jose; Dreyer, Benard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess verbal interactions related to television and other electronic media exposure among mothers and 6 month-old-infants. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 154 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development. Setting Urban public hospital. Participants Low socioeconomic status mothers of 6-month-old infants. Main Exposure Media exposure and content. Main Outcome Measures Mother-infant verbal interaction associated with media exposure and maternal coviewing. Results Of 154 low socioeconomic status mothers, 149 (96.8%) reported daily media exposure in their infants, with median exposure of 120 (interquartile range, 60-210) minutes in a 24-hour period. Among 426 program exposures, mother-infant interactions were reported during 101 (23.7%). Interactions were reported most frequently with educational young child–oriented media (42.8% of programs), compared with 21.3% of noneducational young child–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.98) and 14.7% of school-age/teenage/adult–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.3). Among coviewed programs with educational content, mothers reported interactions during 62.7% of exposures. Coviewing was not reported more frequently for educational young child–oriented programs. Conclusions We found limited verbal interactions during television exposure in infancy, with interactions reported for less than one-quarter of exposures. Although interactions were most commonly reported among programs with educational content that had been coviewed, programs with educational content were not more likely to be coviewed than were other programs. Our findings do not support development of infant-directed educational programming in the absence of strategies to increase coviewing and interactions. PMID:18458186

  14. Multivalent Interactions by the Set8 Histone Methyltransferase With Its Nucleosome Substrate.

    PubMed

    Girish, Taverekere S; McGinty, Robert K; Tan, Song

    2016-04-24

    Set8 is the only mammalian monomethyltransferase responsible for H4K20me1, a methyl mark critical for genomic integrity of eukaryotic cells. We present here a structural model for how Set8 uses multivalent interactions to bind and methylate the nucleosome based on crystallographic and solution studies of the Set8/nucleosome complex. Our studies indicate that Set8 employs its i-SET and c-SET domains to engage nucleosomal DNA 1 to 1.5 turns from the nucleosomal dyad and in doing so, it positions the SET domain for catalysis with H4 Lys20. Surprisingly, we find that a basic N-terminal extension to the SET domain plays an even more prominent role in nucleosome binding, possibly by making an arginine anchor interaction with the nucleosome H2A/H2B acidic patch. We further show that proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the nucleosome compete for binding to Set8 through this basic extension, suggesting a mechanism for how nucleosome binding protects Set8 from proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent degradation during the cell cycle. PMID:26953260

  15. Early development of turn-taking in vocal interaction between mothers and infants

    PubMed Central

    Gratier, Maya; Devouche, Emmanuel; Guellai, Bahia; Infanti, Rubia; Yilmaz, Ebru; Parlato-Oliveira, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Infants are known to engage in conversation-like exchanges from the end of the second month after birth. These ‘protoconversations’ involve both turn-taking and overlapping vocalization. Previous research has shown that the temporal organization of adult–infant turn-taking sequences is similar to that of adult verbal conversation. It has also been shown that young infants adjust the quality of their vocalization in response to the quality and timing of adult vocalization. We present new evidence of turn-taking interaction in infants aged between 8 and 21 weeks based on the analysis of 176 samples of naturalistic face-to-face interactions from 51 dyads. We found high levels of latched turns as well as frequent initiation of turn-taking by infants at these ages. Our data do not support the hypothesis that turn-taking ability increases with age between 2 and 5 months but do suggest that infants are active participants in turn-taking from the earliest age and that mothers adjust turn-taking formats to infants. PMID:26388790

  16. Early development of turn-taking in vocal interaction between mothers and infants.

    PubMed

    Gratier, Maya; Devouche, Emmanuel; Guellai, Bahia; Infanti, Rubia; Yilmaz, Ebru; Parlato-Oliveira, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Infants are known to engage in conversation-like exchanges from the end of the second month after birth. These 'protoconversations' involve both turn-taking and overlapping vocalization. Previous research has shown that the temporal organization of adult-infant turn-taking sequences is similar to that of adult verbal conversation. It has also been shown that young infants adjust the quality of their vocalization in response to the quality and timing of adult vocalization. We present new evidence of turn-taking interaction in infants aged between 8 and 21 weeks based on the analysis of 176 samples of naturalistic face-to-face interactions from 51 dyads. We found high levels of latched turns as well as frequent initiation of turn-taking by infants at these ages. Our data do not support the hypothesis that turn-taking ability increases with age between 2 and 5 months but do suggest that infants are active participants in turn-taking from the earliest age and that mothers adjust turn-taking formats to infants. PMID:26388790

  17. Maternal dispositional empathy and electrodermal reactivity: Interactive contributions to maternal sensitivity with toddler-aged children.

    PubMed

    Emery, Helen T; McElwain, Nancy L; Groh, Ashley M; Haydon, Katherine C; Roisman, Glenn I

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: Dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix's (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent's empathic tendencies and his or her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry vs. laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child's distress vs. nondistress). PMID:24955589

  18. Too many motives? The interactive effects of multiple motives on organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Riki; Bolino, Mark C; Lin, Cheng-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Prior research indicates that employees engage in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) because of prosocial values, organizational concern, and impression management motives. Building upon and extending prior research, we investigate all 3 OCB motives by developing a categorization scheme to differentiate their distinctiveness and by building a contextualized argument regarding their interactive effects on OCB in a more collectivistic culture. In a sample of 379 Chinese employee-supervisor dyads from Taiwan, we found that the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was strengthened by organizational concern motives; likewise, the relationship between organizational concern and OCBs directed at the organization was strengthened by prosocial values motives. However, in contrast to prior research (Grant & Mayer, 2009), the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was weakened by impression management motives. A 3-way interaction between all 3 motives further suggests that, in Asian cultures, impression management motives may undermine the positive effects of prosocial values and organizational concern motives on OCBs directed at individuals but not OCBs directed at the organization. PMID:25198096

  19. Bystanders, parcelling, and an absence of trust in the grooming interactions of wild male chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation remains a central issue in socio-biology with the fundamental problem of how individuals minimize the risks of being short-changed ('cheated') should their behavioural investment in another not be returned. Economic decisions that individuals make during interactions may depend upon the presence of potential partners nearby, which offers co operators a temptation to defect from the current partner. The parcelling model posits that donors subdivide services into parcels to force cooperation, and that this is contingent on opportunities for defection; that is, the presence of bystanders. Here we test this model and the effect of bystander presence using grooming interactions of wild chimpanzees. We found that with more bystanders, initiators gave less grooming at the beginning of the bout and were more likely to abandon a grooming bout, while bouts were less likely to be reciprocated. We also found that the groomer's initial investment was not higher among frequent groomers or stronger reciprocators, suggesting that contrary to current assumptions, grooming decisions are not based on trust, or bonds, within dyads. Our work highlights the importance of considering immediate social context and the influence of bystanders for understanding the evolution of the behavioural strategies that produce cooperation. PMID:26856371

  20. Bystanders, parcelling, and an absence of trust in the grooming interactions of wild male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation remains a central issue in socio-biology with the fundamental problem of how individuals minimize the risks of being short-changed (‘cheated’) should their behavioural investment in another not be returned. Economic decisions that individuals make during interactions may depend upon the presence of potential partners nearby, which offers co operators a temptation to defect from the current partner. The parcelling model posits that donors subdivide services into parcels to force cooperation, and that this is contingent on opportunities for defection; that is, the presence of bystanders. Here we test this model and the effect of bystander presence using grooming interactions of wild chimpanzees. We found that with more bystanders, initiators gave less grooming at the beginning of the bout and were more likely to abandon a grooming bout, while bouts were less likely to be reciprocated. We also found that the groomer’s initial investment was not higher among frequent groomers or stronger reciprocators, suggesting that contrary to current assumptions, grooming decisions are not based on trust, or bonds, within dyads. Our work highlights the importance of considering immediate social context and the influence of bystanders for understanding the evolution of the behavioural strategies that produce cooperation. PMID:26856371

  1. Beyond the average marital communication: Latent profiles of the observed interactions among Chinese newlywed couples.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongjian; Fang, Xiaoyi; Fine, Mark A; Ju, Xiaoyan; Lan, Jing; Liu, Xuanwen

    2015-12-01

    Employing a multicontext observational design, using a person-centered approach, and treating the marital dyad as the unit of analysis, this study examined the within-couple communication patterning of 144 Chinese newlywed couples and its association with relationship satisfaction. Latent profile analysis consistently revealed 3 profiles of spouses' interactive behaviors across contexts differing in both topic nature (i.e., problem-solving vs. social support) and initiator (i.e., husbands vs. wives): (a) traditionally undemonstrative profile, (b) emotionally quarrelling profile, and (c) warmly supportive profile. The prevalence of communication profiles changed markedly with the nature of the discussion topic and the topic initiator. Further, using latent class analysis, we classified couples into subgroups based on their identified profile memberships across contexts (i.e., consistency of interaction mode across contexts). Three classes were identified: (a) consistently quarrelling class, (b) consistently supportive class, and (c) modestly traditional class. Both the consistently supportive class and the modestly traditional class reported significantly higher levels of marital satisfaction than did the consistently quarrelling class. PMID:26192133

  2. Prenatal Ultrasound Screening: False Positive Soft Markers May Alter Maternal Representations and Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Viaux-Savelon, Sylvie; Dommergues, Marc; Rosenblum, Ouriel; Bodeau, Nicolas; Aidane, Elizabeth; Philippon, Odile; Mazet, Philippe; Vibert-Guigue, Claude; Vauthier-Brouzes, Danièle; Feldman, Ruth; Cohen, David

    2012-01-01

    Background In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a “soft marker” (SM) that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. Methodology and Principal Findings Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. Conclusion False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences. PMID:22292077

  3. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to understandings of normative language development for non-Western, non middle-class children in multilingual contexts. PMID:25972828

  4. H1-nucleosome interactions and their functional implications.

    PubMed

    Bednar, Jan; Hamiche, Ali; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Linker histones are three domain proteins and consist of a structured (globular) domain, flanked by two likely non-structured NH2- and COOH-termini. The binding of the linker histones to the nucleosome was characterized by different methods in solution. Apparently, the globular domain interacts with the linker DNA and the nucleosome dyad, while the binding of the large and rich in lysines COOH-terminus results in "closing" the linker DNA of the nucleosome and the formation of the "stem" structure. What is the mode of binding of the linker histones within the chromatin fiber remains still elusive. Nonetheless, it is clear that linker histones are essential for both the assembly and maintenance of the condensed chromatin fiber. Interestingly, linker histones are post-translationally modified and how this affects both their binding to chromatin and functions is now beginning to emerge. In addition, linker histones are highly mobile in vivo, but not in vitro. No explanation of this finding is reported for the moment. The higher mobility of the linker histones should, however, have strong impact on their function. Linker histones plays an important role in gene expression regulation and other chromatin related process and their function is predominantly regulated by their posttranslational modifications. However, the detailed mechanism how the linker histones do function remains still not well understood despite numerous efforts. Here we will summarize and analyze the data on the linker histone binding to the nucleosome and the chromatin fiber and will discuss its functional consequences. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Histone H1, edited by Dr. Albert Jordan. PMID:26477489

  5. Infant Physiological Regulation and Maternal Risks as Predictors of Dyadic Interaction Trajectories in Families With a Preterm Infant

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Bolt, Daniel M.; Hane, Amanda; Burnson, Cynthia; Winters, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of rates of growth in dyadic interaction quality in children born preterm who did not experience significant neurological findings during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. Multiple methods were used to collect data from 120 preterm infants (48% girls, 52% boys) and their mothers. Infant heart rate variability (HRV), gestational age, neonatal health, feeding route, and maternal socioeconomic (SES) risks were assessed at NICU discharge (mean of 36 weeks postconception). Mother–child interactions were observed at 4, 9, 16, and 24 months postterm and analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling. On average, children’s quality of play, interest, and attention increased over time while their dysregulation and irritability decreased, whereas average maternal positive affect and involvement declined in quality (ps < .05), although there was individual variation in rates of change. Mothers of infants with higher postfeeding HRV (i.e., vagal regulation) exhibited less decrease in positive affect and involvement between 4 months and 24 months, compared with mothers of infants with lower HRV (p < .05). Although infants with higher postfeeding HRV showed less positive affect and communication at 4 months, they exhibited significantly greater increases in positive affect and social competence and decreases in dysregulation and irritability between 4 months and 24 months, compared with infants with lower HRV (ps < .05). Dyads experiencing more SES risks showed less optimal interactions at 4 months; this difference remained as children grew older (ps < .05). Results have implications for our understanding of social development in preterm infants. PMID:21244152

  6. Early maternal relational traumatic experiences and psychopathological symptoms: a longitudinal study on mother-infant and father-infant interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tambelli, Renata; Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Early maternal relational traumas and psychopathological risk can have an impact on mother-infant interactions. Research has suggested the study of fathers and of their psychological profiles as protection or risk factors. The aim of the paper is to assess the quality of parental interactions during feeding in families with mothers with early traumatic experiences. One hundred thirty-six (N = 136) families were recruited in gynecological clinics: Group A included families with mothers who experienced early sexual/physical abuse; Group B was composed of families with mothers who experienced early emotional abuse or neglect; and Group C comprised healthy controls. The subjects participated in a 10-month longitudinal protocol [at the fourth month of pregnancy (T0), 3 months after child birth (T1), and 6 months after child birth (T2)] that included an observation of mother-infant and father-infant interactions during feeding (Scala di Valutazione dell’Interazione Alimentare [SVIA]) and a self-reporting 90-item Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R). Maternal higher rates of depression and early traumatic experiences of neglect and emotional abuse predicted more maladaptive scores on the affective state of the dyad SVIA subscale. Paternal anxiety predicted more severe levels of food refusal in the child during feeding. PMID:26354733

  7. Dyadic Coregulation and Deviant Talk in Adolescent Friendships: Interaction Patterns Associated With Problematic Substance Use in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Piehler, Timothy F.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention synchrony). Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, deviant content in adolescent interactions at age 16–17 years was strongly predictive of problematic use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana at ages 22 and 23. Although dyadic coregulation was not directly predictive of early adulthood substance use, it did moderate the impact of deviant talk within the dyad on future alcohol and marijuana use. For these substances, high levels of dyadic coregulation increased the risk associated with high levels of deviant talk for problematic use in early adulthood. Results held when comparing across genders and across ethnic groups. The results suggest that these interpersonal dynamics are associated with developmental trajectories of risk for or resilience to peer influence processes. PMID:24188039

  8. Early maternal relational traumatic experiences and psychopathological symptoms: a longitudinal study on mother-infant and father-infant interactions.

    PubMed

    Tambelli, Renata; Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Early maternal relational traumas and psychopathological risk can have an impact on mother-infant interactions. Research has suggested the study of fathers and of their psychological profiles as protection or risk factors. The aim of the paper is to assess the quality of parental interactions during feeding in families with mothers with early traumatic experiences. One hundred thirty-six (N = 136) families were recruited in gynecological clinics: Group A included families with mothers who experienced early sexual/physical abuse; Group B was composed of families with mothers who experienced early emotional abuse or neglect; and Group C comprised healthy controls. The subjects participated in a 10-month longitudinal protocol [at the fourth month of pregnancy (T0), 3 months after child birth (T1), and 6 months after child birth (T2)] that included an observation of mother-infant and father-infant interactions during feeding (Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare [SVIA]) and a self-reporting 90-item Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R). Maternal higher rates of depression and early traumatic experiences of neglect and emotional abuse predicted more maladaptive scores on the affective state of the dyad SVIA subscale. Paternal anxiety predicted more severe levels of food refusal in the child during feeding. PMID:26354733

  9. Communicative Interaction between Nonverbal, Severely Handicapped Children and Their Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lynne G.; Sweda, Janet P.

    The study examined the dyadic relationship between two nonverbal, severely handicapped children (5 and 6 years old) and their mothers. Ss were videotaped in a classroom at an early intervention program, and approximately 110 maternal verbalizations were transcribed. Among findings were that the dyads used little eye contact while communicating;…

  10. Communicative Interaction between Teachers and Children with Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study of 21 teacher-child dyads showed that teachers of children (aged 2-8) with severe handicaps adjusted the complexity of their linguistic requests based on the child's communication level and modulated their requests based on children's responses. Teachers' adjustment of language structure was not as closely attuned to children's…

  11. Collaboration in Children: Dyadic Interaction Skills in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Catherine R.

    Communication behaviors which facilitate cooperative problem solving were investigated in 3- to 5-year-old children. Thirty-two dyads, matched on age, sex and friendship were videotaped as they used balance scales to locate pairs of blocks of varying weight and surface design, but identical in size. All subjects had conventional labels for the…

  12. "Badminton Player-Coach" Interactions between Failing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascret, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical education teachers often use the player-coach dyad in individual opposition sports so that students can obtain information on their actions and then better regulate them. This type of work also develops methodological and social skills. However, the task of observing a partner often poses problems for failing students, who…

  13. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator.

    PubMed

    Tina, K G; Bhadra, R; Srinivasan, N

    2007-07-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bonds, interactions between hydrophobic residues, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, aromatic-aromatic interactions, aromatic-sulphur interactions and cation-pi interactions within a protein or between proteins in a complex. Interactions are calculated on the basis of standard, published criteria. The identified interactions between residues can be visualized using a RasMol and Jmol interface. The advantage with PIC server is the easy availability of inter-residue interaction calculations in a single site. It also determines the accessible surface area and residue-depth, which is the distance of a residue from the surface of the protein. User can also recognize specific kind of interactions, such as apolar-apolar residue interactions or ionic interactions, that are formed between buried or exposed residues or near the surface or deep inside. PMID:17584791

  14. Development and validation of the Peer Interaction Macro-coding System scales (PIMS): A new tool for observational measurement of social competence in youth with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holbein, Christina E.; Zebracki, Kathy; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with chronic health conditions encounter enduring difficulties in their peer interactions and friendships. This study aimed to create and validate scales derived from an observational coding system (i.e., Peer Interaction Macro-coding System; PIMS) in a sample of children with spina bifida and their peers. 106 target child-peer dyads completed a battery of questionnaires and interviews and were videotaped performing four interaction tasks, which were then coded across multiple domains of social functioning. Five scales (i.e., Control, Prosocial Skills, Positive Affect, Conflict, and Dyadic Cohesion) were rationally derived based on a review of the literature and a panel of experts. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability at the scale level were good-to-excellent for all five scales. Interscale correlations were in the low-to-moderate range for four of the scales, although the Dyadic Cohesion scale was highly correlated with two other scales and was subsequently dropped. Convergent and discriminant validity were established by examining the four remaining scales in association with comparable questionnaire and interview data. The four PIMS scales appear to be reliable and valid measures of social competence and may enhance future multimethod research efforts aimed at learning more about peer interactions and overall social competence. PMID:24932641

  15. Development and validation of the Peer Interaction Macro-Coding System Scales (PIMS): a new tool for observational measurement of social competence in youth with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Holbein, Christina E; Zebracki, Kathy; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2014-12-01

    Many children with chronic health conditions encounter enduring difficulties in their peer interactions and friendships. This study aimed to create and validate scales derived from an observational coding system (i.e., Peer Interaction Macro-Coding System, or PIMS) in a sample of children with spina bifida and their peers. Participants were 106 target child-peer dyads who completed a battery of questionnaires and interviews and were videotaped performing 4 interaction tasks, which were then coded across multiple domains of social functioning. Five scales (i.e., Control, Prosocial Skills, Positive Affect, Conflict, and Dyadic Cohesion) were rationally derived based on a review of the literature and a panel of experts. Internal consistency and interrater reliability at the scale level were good to excellent for all 5 scales. Interscale correlations were in the low-to-moderate range for 4 of the scales, although the Dyadic Cohesion Scale was highly correlated with two other scales and was subsequently dropped. Convergent validity and discriminant validity were established by examining the 4 remaining scales in association with comparable questionnaire and interview data. The 4 PIMS scales appear to be reliable and valid measures of social competence and may enhance future multimethod research efforts aimed at learning more about peer interactions and overall social competence. PMID:24932641

  16. Theoretical studies on the geometrical and electronic structures of supramolecule bis(2,2‧-bipyridine)-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline ruthenium(II)/functionalized SWCNT dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadnezhad, M.; Darvish Ganji, M.; Rezvani, M.

    2015-11-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotube (CNT) with multiple redox and photo active entities is one of the extensive processes due to its importance in building molecular or supramolecular electronic devices, solar energy storage and conversion systems. Thus, to have better understanding about structural aspects and correct electronic structure of these large systems, the quantum studies have gained increased popularity. In present study, we have investigated the structural and electronic properties of functionalized CNTs (fCNTs) with [Ru(bpy)2(5-NH2-1,10-phen)]+2, (Ru-bpy-phen)+2, supramolecule based on DFT calculations. Main attention has been applied to obtain stable configuration, binding energies and effect of functionalization on electronic behavior of the selected supramolcule. We also evaluate the effect of nanotube's diameter and chirality on electronic properties of considered supramolecule. Calculated binding energies show that interaction between the (Ru-bpy-phen)+2 and the host CNTs depends on the tube diameter while the chirality doesn't affect significantly on the binding nature of respected complex. We have also investigated the influence of non-local dispersion interactions (vdW) and temperature on the stability and electronic structure of the considered system. Results obtained from the ab initio MD simulations showed that increasing the temperature can affect the distance between C and N atoms in the linkage position. The charge analysis indicates the existence of remarkable charge transfer between (Ru-bpy-phen)+2 as donor and fCNTs as acceptor moieties in the isolated molecule. In the presence of vdW forces and at higher temperature, the charge transfer was decreased but the direction of transferred charge remains unchanged.

  17. Predictors of treatment attrition and treatment length in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Taiwanese families✩,✩✩

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.

    2015-01-01

    Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has been used successfully in the United States and in other countries around the world, but its use in Asian countries has been more limited. The present study is the first of its kind to examine the predictors of treatment attrition and length in a sample of Taiwanese caregivers and their children. It is also the first to examine PCIT outcomes in Taiwanese families. Maladaptive personality characteristics of the caregiver were the best predictor of attrition, followed by single-parent, removal of the child from the home, and lower levels of caregiver education. Treatment length was predicted by child minority status and parent–child interactions (i.e., parent commands and negative parent talk). In terms of outcomes, statistically significant treatment changes were noted for all treatment outcome variables at post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that PCIT is a promising intervention for this population. The predictors of treatment attrition and length can be used when Taiwanese caregiver–child dyads present for services so that additional assistance can be provided prior to or during treatment to increase adherence to the recommended number of treatment sessions for maximal impact. Future studies may replicate the present study with a larger clinical sample to examine the long-term effects of PCIT and to include a no-treatment control condition to afford a more robust empirical evaluation. PMID:26705373

  18. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN EARLY MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, OTHER PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY.

    PubMed

    Gul, Hesna; Erol, Nese; Pamir Akin, Duygu; Ustun Gullu, Belgin; Akcakin, Melda; Alpas, Başak; Öner, Özgür

    2016-03-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a method to assess early parent-child dyadic interactions for emotional awareness, perception, experience, and expression between child and parent that describe global relational quality (Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, ). The current study aimed to examine the effects of an infant's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and developmental delay (DD) on the maternal EA Scale (EAS; Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, ; Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, ) scores and the relative contributions of infant's age, gender, diagnosis, developmental level, and maternal education on EAS scores in a clinical Turkish sample. Three hundred forty-five infant-mother dyads participated in this study. Results of the research indicated that EAS adult scores were associated with maternal education and infant's diagnosis whereas child scores were associated with infant's age, diagnosis, and developmental level. Infants' involvement and responsiveness to the mother were lower in the group with ASD. Children with OPD, particularly when their mothers have lower education, might be at increased risk of having problems in parent-child interactions. Young ASD subjects with developmental delay are in greatest need of support to increase reactions toward their mother. These findings underscore the importance of using all of the EA dimensions rather than only one measure on children in high-risk populations. PMID:26891759

  19. Functional Mapping of Protein-Protein Interactions in an Enzyme Complex by Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Roderer, Kathrin; Neuenschwander, Martin; Codoni, Giosiana; Sasso, Severin; Gamper, Marianne; Kast, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The shikimate pathway enzyme chorismate mutase converts chorismate into prephenate, a precursor of Tyr and Phe. The intracellular chorismate mutase (MtCM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly active on its own, but becomes >100-fold more efficient upon formation of a complex with the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (MtDS). The crystal structure of the enzyme complex revealed involvement of C-terminal MtCM residues with the MtDS interface. Here we employed evolutionary strategies to probe the tolerance to substitution of the C-terminal MtCM residues from positions 84–90. Variants with randomized positions were subjected to stringent selection in vivo requiring productive interactions with MtDS for survival. Sequence patterns identified in active library members coincide with residue conservation in natural chorismate mutases of the AroQδ subclass to which MtCM belongs. An Arg-Gly dyad at positions 85 and 86, invariant in AroQδ sequences, was intolerant to mutation, whereas Leu88 and Gly89 exhibited a preference for small and hydrophobic residues in functional MtCM-MtDS complexes. In the absence of MtDS, selection under relaxed conditions identifies positions 84–86 as MtCM integrity determinants, suggesting that the more C-terminal residues function in the activation by MtDS. Several MtCM variants, purified using a novel plasmid-based T7 RNA polymerase gene expression system, showed that a diminished ability to physically interact with MtDS correlates with reduced activatability and feedback regulatory control by Tyr and Phe. Mapping critical protein-protein interaction sites by evolutionary strategies may pinpoint promising targets for drugs that interfere with the activity of protein complexes. PMID:25551646

  20. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.