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Sample records for c-coriolis interacting dyad

  1. High-resolution infrared and theoretical study of the fundamental bands ν2, ν4 and ν9 and the c-Coriolis interacting dyad ν5, ν14 of 1,3,4-thiadiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelund, F.; Larsen, R. Wugt; Aitken, R. A.; Palmer, M. H.

    2008-04-01

    The Fourier transform gas-phase IR spectrum of 1,3,4-thiadiazole, C 2H 2N 2S, has been recorded with a resolution of ca. 0.003 cm -1 in the 800-1500 cm -1 spectral region. Five fundamental bands ν2(A 1; 1391.9 cm -1), ν4(A 1; 964.4 cm -1), ν5(A 1; 894.6 cm -1), ν9(B 1; 821.5 cm -1), and ν14(B 2; 898.4 cm -1) have been analysed using the Watson model. Ground state rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants as well as upper state spectroscopic constants have been obtained from fits. The ν4 and ν9 bands are unperturbed while a strong c-Coriolis resonance perturbs the close-lying ν5 and ν14 bands. This dyad system has been analysed by a model including first and second order c-Coriolis resonance using the theoretically predicted Coriolis coupling constant ς14,5c. The ν2 band is strongly perturbed by a local resonance, and we obtain a set of spectroscopic parameters using a model including second order a-Coriolis resonance with the inactive ν10 + ν14 band. Ground state rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants, anharmonic frequencies, and vibration-rotational α-constants predicted by quantum chemical calculations using a cc-pVTZ basis and B3LYP methodology, have been compared with the present experimental data, where there is generally good agreement.

  2. The high-resolution infrared spectrum of thiophene between 600 and 1200 cm -1: A spectroscopic and theoretical study of the fundamental bands ν6, ν7, ν13, and the c-Coriolis interacting dyad ν5, ν19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelund, F.; Wugt Larsen, R.; Palmer, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of gaseous thiophene, C 4H 4S, has been recorded in the 600-1200 cm -1 spectral region with a resolution of ca. 0.0030 cm -1. Five fundamental bands ν13 ( B1, 712.1 cm -1), ν7 ( A1; 840.0 cm -1), ν6 ( A1; 1036.4 cm -1), ν5 ( A1; 1081.5 cm -1) and ν19 ( B2; 1084.0 cm -1) have been analysed by the standard Watson model (A-reduction). Ground state rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants have been obtained from a simultaneous fit of ground state combination differences from four of these bands and previous microwave transitions. Upper state spectroscopic constants have been obtained for all five bands from single band fits using the Watson model. A strong c-Coriolis resonance perturbs the close lying ν5 and ν19 bands. We have analysed this dyad system by a model including first and second order Coriolis resonance using the theoretically predicted Coriolis coupling constant ς19,5c. From this analysis we locate the previously unobserved ν19 band at 1083.969 cm -1. The rotational constants, ground state quartic centrifugal distortion constants, anharmonic frequencies, and vibration-rotational constants ( α-constants) predicted by quantum chemical calculations using a cc-pVTZ basis with B3LYP methodology, are compared with the present experimental data, where there is generally good agreement. A complete set of anharmonic frequencies and α-constants for all fundamental levels of the molecule is given.

  3. Comparison of Mother-Infant Interactions between Japanese Dyads and American Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Taiko; Shinoki, Eri; Hamada, Yuko

    Mother-infant interaction creates a context for socioemotional, behavioral, and cognitive development. This study used the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS) to examine mother-infant interaction in Japanese dyads. Subjects were residing in Hikkaido, Japan, and assessments were…

  4. The Interpersonal Dynamics of Collaborative Reasoning in Peer Interactive Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Kaartinen, Sinikka

    2003-01-01

    The authors investigated the microlevel processes of collaborative reasoning in heterogeneous peer dyads working on an open-design task in elementary geometry. Special attention was paid to the nature of student social interaction, problem-solving strategies, and mathematical language and how they shape collaborative problem-solving processes.…

  5. When Training with a Partner Is Inferior to Training Alone: The Importance of Dyad Type and Interaction Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Amy E.; Beier, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Dyad training, where trainees learn in pairs but ultimately perform individually, has been shown to be an effective method for training some skills. The effectiveness of this approach, however, may be tied to the type of task to be trained and the quality of the interaction in the dyad. We report two studies on the effectiveness of dyad training…

  6. Observed Sensitivity during Family Interactions and Cumulative Risk: A Study of Multiple Dyads per Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Dillon T.; Leckie, George; Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the family, individual, and dyad-specific contributions to observed cognitive sensitivity during family interactions. Moreover, the influence of cumulative risk on sensitivity at the aforementioned levels of the family was examined. Mothers and 2 children per family were observed interacting in a round robin…

  7. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  8. The Development of an Individuals-within-Dyads Multilevel Performance Measure for an Interactive Cheerleading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habeeb, Christine M.; Eklund, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Dyadic interactions generate direct relationships in which interdependent sport behaviors can be destructured. The focus of this investigation was to develop a two-level performance framework and corresponding measures of individual- and dyad-level sport performance. The described procedures surrounded a male-female cheerleading paired-stunt task,…

  9. Observed sensitivity during family interactions and cumulative risk: A study of multiple dyads per family.

    PubMed

    Browne, Dillon T; Leckie, George; Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    The present study sought to investigate the family, individual, and dyad-specific contributions to observed cognitive sensitivity during family interactions. Moreover, the influence of cumulative risk on sensitivity at the aforementioned levels of the family was examined. Mothers and 2 children per family were observed interacting in a round robin design (i.e., mother-older sibling, mother younger-sibling and sibling-dyad, N = 385 families). Data were dyadic, in that there were 2 directional scores per interaction, and were analyzed using a multilevel formulation of the Social Relations Model. Variance partitioning revealed that cognitive sensitivity is simultaneously a function of families, individuals and dyads, though the importance of these components varies across family roles. Cognitive sensitivity for mothers was primarily attributable to individual differences, whereas cognitive sensitivity for children was predominantly attributable to family and dyadic differences, especially for youngest children. Cumulative risk explained family and individual variance in cognitive sensitivity, particularly when actors were older or in a position of relative competence or authority (i.e., mother to children, older to younger siblings). Overall, this study demonstrates that cognitive sensitivity operates across levels of family organization, and is negatively impacted by psychosocial risk. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337515

  10. Mother-infant interaction improves with a developmental intervention for mother-preterm infant dyads.

    PubMed

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-12-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (β = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (β = 0.75, p

  11. MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTION IMPROVES WITH A DEVELOPMENTAL INTERVENTION FOR MOTHER-PRETERM INFANT DYADS

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F.; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M.; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant‘s biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29–34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention Control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training–Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-minute play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (β = 2.03, p = .06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (

  12. Challenges to bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) social groups: Mother-infant dyad and infant social interactions.

    PubMed

    Laudenslager, Mark L; Natvig, C; Mikulich-Gilbertson, S M; Blevins, M; Corcoran, C; Pierre, P J; Bennett, A J

    2010-07-01

    The mother-infant dyad is crucial to early development in a variety of species. The complexity of social groupings in nonhuman primates makes this relationship resilient as well as susceptible to early challenges associated with environmental chaos. Quantitative behavior observations of bonnet monkey mother-infant interactions were collected from 28 mother-infant dyads between one and twelve months of age. Social groups were subjected to several prenatal and/or postnatal housing relocations within a single year resulting in two study groups. One group experienced relocations (ATYPICAL, n = 14) and the second group (TYPICAL, n = 14) was conceived and reared in the same location. Behaviors in the ethogram included mother-infant interactions and infant social interactions with other members of the group. Observations between ages of two to four months were analyzed by a mixed model analysis of variance including fixed effects of per and postnatal history (TYPICAL, ATYPICAL), age, and history by age interaction and random effects of mother and infant nested within mother. A significant effect of relocation history was noted on a number of infant behaviors. ATYPICAL infants were out of direct contact with their mother at an earlier age but remained in her proximity. Control of proximity shifted to offsrping in the ATYPICAL group compared to the TYPICAL group. Furthermore, greater social interactions between two and four months of age with other members of the social group as well as the ir mother were observed in the ATYPICAL group. It is suggested that continuous challenge associated with relocation may affect the infant at later developmental ages due to these early differences in ways that are yet unclear. PMID:20583143

  13. Two-Photon Study on the Electronic Interactions between the First Excited Singlet States in Carotenoid-Tetrapyrrole Dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Pen-Nan; Pillai, Smitha; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Walla, Peter J.

    2011-03-22

    Electronic interactions between the first excited states (S1) of carotenoids (Car) of different conjugation lengths (8-11 double bonds) and phthalocyanines (Pc) in different Car-Pc dyad molecules were investigated by two-photon spectroscopy and compared with Car S1-chlorophyll (Chl) interactions in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes (LHCs). The observation of Chl/Pc fluorescence after selective two-photon excitation of the Car S1 state allowed sensitive monitoring of the flow of energy between Car S1 and Pc or Chl. It is found that two-photon excitation excites to about 80% to 100% exclusively the carotenoid state Car S1 and that only a small fraction of direct tetrapyrrole two-photon excitation occurs. Amide-linked Car-Pc dyads in tetrahydrofuran demonstrate a molecular gear shift mechanism in that effective Car S1 → Pc energy transfer is observed in a dyad with 9 double bonds in the carotenoid, whereas in similar dyads with 11 double bonds in the carotenoid, the Pc fluorescence is strongly quenched by Pc → Car S1 energy transfer. In phenylamino-linked Car-Pc dyads in toluene extremely large electronic interactions between the Car S1 state and Pc were observed, particularly in the case of a dyad in which the carotenoid contained 10 double bonds. This observation together with previous findings in the same system provides strong evidence for excitonic Car S1-Pc Qy interactions. Very similar results were observed with photosynthetic LHC II complexes in the past, supporting an important role of such interactions in photosynthetic down-regulation.

  14. Bids for Joint Attention by Parent-Child Dyads and by Dyads of Young Peers in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Before they are 3;0-3;6, children typically do not engage with peers in focused interaction, although they do with adults. With parents, children interact around the "here-and-now". We hypothesize that young peers do not attempt to establish joint attention to present objects. Using the CHILDES database, we compared attention-directives…

  15. Pattern of mother–child feeding interactions in preterm and term dyads at 18 and 24 months

    PubMed Central

    Salvatori, Paola; Andrei, Federica; Neri, Erica; Chirico, Ilaria; Trombini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Literature on mother–child feeding interactions during the transition to self-feeding in preterm populations is lacking, particularly through observational methods. The present research study aims to look at the longitudinal patterns of mother–toddler feeding interactions, comparing preterm and full term dyads. To this end, a multi-method approach was used to collect data from 27 preterm to 20 full-term toddlers and their mothers. For each dyad, mother–child interactions were observed during the snack time at 18 and 24 months of age and then assessed through the Italian version of the Feeding Scale. Higher scores on the scale indicate a less healthy pattern of interaction. Additionally, at both points in time, mothers completed the BDI-II questionnaire as a screen for maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage was assessed using the Griffiths Scales. A series of repeated measures Analysis of Variances were run to detect differences in feeding interactions between the two groups at the time of assessment. Our results show that preterm dyads report overall higher levels of maternal negative affection, interactional conflicts, and less dyadic reciprocity during the meal compared to full-term dyads. Additionally, longitudinal data show that dyadic conflict decreases in both groups, whereas the child’s food refusal behaviors increase in the preterm group from 18 to 24 months. No differences were reported for both the BDI-II and the child’s development for the two groups. The results reveal that regardless of maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage, the two groups show different trajectories in the pattern of feeding interactions during the transition to self –feeding, at 18 and 24 months, with overall less positive interactions in preterm mother–child dyads. PMID:26347699

  16. Drug-protein interactions assessed by fluorescence measurements in the real complexes and in model dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayá, Ignacio; Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Jiménez, M. Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2010-02-01

    In the present work, a systematic fluorescence study on supramolecular systems using two serum albumins (HSA or BSA) as hosts and the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs carprofen (CPF) or naproxen (NPX) as guests has been undertaken. In parallel, model dyads containing Tyr or Trp covalently linked to CPF or NPX have also been investigated. In HSA/(S)-CPF and BSA/(S)-CPF ( λexc = 266 nm), at 1:1 M ratio, an important degree (more than 40%) of singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) was observed to take place. The distance ( r) calculated for energy transfer from the SAs to (S)-CPF through a FRET mechanism was found to be ca. 21 Å. In the case of HSA/(S)-NPX and BSA/(S)-NPX, energy transfer occurred to a lower extent (ca. 7%), and r was determined as ca. 24 Å. In order to investigate the possible excited state interactions between bound ligands and the relevant amino acids present in the protein binding sites, four pairs of model dyads were designed and synthesised, namely ( S, S)-TyrCPF, ( S, R)-TyrCPF, ( S, S)-TrpCPF, ( S, R)-TrpCPF, ( S, S)-TyrNPX, ( S, R)-TyrNPX, ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX. A complete SSET was observed from Tyr or Trp to CPF, since no contribution from the amino acids was present in the emission of the dyads. Likewise, a very efficient Tyr or Trp to NPX energy transfer was observed. Remarkably, in ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX a configuration-dependent reduction in the emission intensity was observed, revealing a strong and stereoselective intramolecular quenching. This effect can be attributed to exciplex formation and is dynamic in nature, as the fluorescence lifetimes were much shorter in ( S, R)- and ( S, S)-TrpNPX (1.5 and 3.1 ns, respectively) than in (S)-NPX (11 ns).

  17. Analyte interactions with a new ditopic dansylamide-nitrobenzoxadiazole dyad: a combined photophysical, NMR, and theoretical (DFT) study.

    PubMed

    Bhoi, Abhas Kumar; Das, Sudhir Kumar; Majhi, Debashis; Sahu, Prabhat Kumar; Nijamudheen, A; N, Anoop; Rahaman, Abdur; Sarkar, Moloy

    2014-08-21

    We report herein the synthesis and photophysical studies on a new multicomponent chemosensor dyad comprising two fluorescing units, dansylamide (DANS) and nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD). The system has been developed to investigate receptor-analyte binding interactions in the presence of both cations and anions in a single molecular system. A dimethyl amino (in the DANS unit) group is used as a receptor for cations, and acidic hydrogens of sulfonamide and the NBD group are used as receptors for anions. The system is characterized by conventional analytical techniques. The photophysical properties of this supramolecular system in the absence and presence of various metal ions and nonmetal ions as additives are investigated in an acetonitrile medium. Utility of this system in an aqueous medium has also been demonstrated. The absorption and fluorescence spectrum of the molecular system consists of a broad band typical of an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition. A low quantum yield and lifetime of the NBD moiety in the present dyad indicates photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between DANS and the NBD moiety. The fluorescence intensity of the system is found to decrease in the presence of fluoride and acetate anions; however, the quenching is found to be much higher for fluoride. This quenching behavior is attributed to the enhanced PET from the anion receptor to the fluorophore moiety. The mechanistic aspect of the fluoride ion signaling behavior has also been studied by infrared (IR) and (1)H NMR experiments. The hydrogen bonding interaction between the acidic NH protons of the DPN moiety and F(-) is found to be primarily responsible for the fluoride selective signaling behavior. While investigating the cation signaling behavior, contrary to anions, significant fluorescence enhancement has been observed only in the presence of transition-metal ions. This behavior is rationalized by considering the disruption of PET communication between DANS and the NBD moiety

  18. Patterns of mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months among dyads with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Haabrekke, Kristin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of mother-infant interaction patterns from 3 to 12 months among three groups of mother-baby pairs recruited during pregnancy: one group from residential substance abuse treatment (n=28), a second group from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n=22), and a third group from well-baby clinics (n=30). The mother-infant interaction at 3 and 12 months was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA), which consists of maternal, child and dyadic subscales (Clark, 2006). Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze group differences and the changes in mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months. At 3 months, pairwise comparisons showed that the group with psychiatric problems had significantly more difficulties in the mother-infant interaction than the two other groups. The group with substance abuse problems was not significantly different from the two other groups. At 12 months, the mother-infant pairs in the substance abuse group showed significantly more relational disturbances than the non-clinical pairs, as well as a poorer affective quality of interaction than the dyads in the group with psychiatric problems. Analysis of change from 3 to 12 months showed that difficulties in the interaction increased among the mother-baby pairs in the substance abuse group, while improvements were displayed in the two other groups. These results underline that mother-infant pairs at double risk due to maternal substance abuse and other non-optimal factors, are in need for long-term follow up in order to prevent the development of negative interactional patterns. PMID:25459795

  19. The Preschool Teacher-Child Dyad: Sex Differences in Verbal Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Louise

    1975-01-01

    This study describes differences in the quantity and style of female preschool teachers' dyadic verbal interaction with the girls and boys in their classes. Sixteen hours of the spontaneous speech of 4 female teachers and 38 girls and boys were tape recorded in two classroom situations, then transcribed and analyzed. (Author/CS)

  20. Emotional interactions in European American mother-infant firstborn and secondborn dyads: A within-family study.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2016-09-01

    The developmental science literature is riven with respect to (a) parental similar versus different treatment of siblings and (b) sibling similarities and differences. Most methodologies in the field are flawed or confounded. To address these issues, this study employed a within-family longitudinal design to examine developmental processes of continuity and stability in emotional interactions in mothers with their firstborn and secondborn 5-month-old infants (ns = 61 mothers and 122 infants). As independently rated by the Emotional Availability Scales, mothers' observed and coded behavioral expressions of sensitivity, structuring, nonintrusiveness, and nonhostility were consistent in group mean levels between firstborns and secondborns and (largely) between daughters and sons. Neither firstborns and secondborns, nor girls and boys, differed in their responsiveness or involvement of mother. However, mothers' emotional interactions with their firstborn and secondborn children were uncorrelated, as were firstborn and secondborn infants' interactions with their mother. These group-mean consistencies and individual-differences inconsistencies in emotional interactions are discussed in relation to the shared and nonshared lives of siblings in the same family. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505695

  1. Novel zinc phthalocyanine-benzoquinone rigid dyad and its photoinduced electron transfer properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.-H.; Guo, J.; Chen, L. X.; Mandal, B. K.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-10-10

    While preparing the first structurally rigid zinc phthalocyanine-benzoquinone (ZnPc-BQ) dyad as a model for photoinduced charge separation mimicking natural photosynthesis, a convenient method is developed for in situ generation of a benzoquinone chromophore in the dyad using an iso-butyryl mask. The dyad has no rotamers and possesses a fixed distance between ZnPc and BQ moieties (center-to-center and edge-to-edge distances are 9.40 and 2.14 {angstrom}, respectively). The dyad displays unusual electronic perturbation in the ground state, resulting from the interactions between Pc and BQ, and exhibits photoinduced electron transfer with a lifetime of 40 ps of the charged separated states. The steady-state fluorescence and electrochemical behavior of the dyad are evaluated. This study opens a route to subsequent dyads, triads, and complex architectures of electron donor-acceptor arrays with rigid structures and long charge separation states.

  2. Difference without Dominance: Children's Talk in Mixed- and Same-Sex Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Laura A.; Coleman, Lerita M.

    1992-01-01

    This study assesses whether third graders verbalize gender differences in dominance in mixed- and same-sex interactions, using data from tape-recordings of 43 pairs of white children (14 female and 12 male same-sex dyads and 17 different-sex dyads) playing checkers in same- or mixed-sex conditions. Children develop gender-differentiated speech…

  3. The Effects of Student-Instructor Interaction on Achievement in a Dyad Computer-Based Training Environment. Interim Technical Paper for Period June 1991-August 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Stanley D.

    Most computer-based training (CBT) research has ignored variables other than the software itself. Yet other factors can influence achievement. This study explores the impact of interaction between the student and instructor when students work CBT in pairs. Compared to an earlier study in which such interaction positively influenced achievement…

  4. An Examination of Changes in Emotion Co-Regulation Among Mother and Child Dyads During the Strange Situation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuqing; Leu, Szu-Yun; Barnard, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Elaine A; Spieker, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied State Space Grid analysis to describe how preschooler-mother dyads co-regulate emotion in the Strange Situation. Second-to-second mother and child affect during pre-separation play (baseline) and the final reunion (post perturbation) episodes of the Strange Situation were coded for 80 dyads. Change in emotion co-regulation across the two Strange Situation episodes was examined with linear mixed models for groups with secure and insecure classifications. The groups did not differ at baseline. Change in content-specific emotion co-regulation but not content-free emotion co-regulation was found to be significantly different within and between groups. Both secure and insecure dyads reduced the time spent in positive interaction but increased the time in negative interaction across two episodes; the change in secure dyads was less pronounced than in the insecure dyads. After the separation, secure dyads had more positive interactions and fewer negative interactions compared to insecure dyads. Results highlight how secure dyads adapted to the stressful change, whereas insecure dyads were more reactive and less resilient to the stress of the study’s brief imposed separation. PMID:26726296

  5. An Ordinal Pattern Analysis of Four Hypotheses Describing the Interactions between Drug-Addicted, Chronically Disadvantaged, and Middle-Class Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinker, Richard P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated interactions among 18 African American mother-infant pairs participating in an early intervention program for infants with developmental delays or at risk for developmental disabilities. The hypothesis that mothers would become less responsive to infants over time as a function of drug addiction, poverty, or serious developmental…

  6. Mother and child characteristics and involvement in dyads in which very young children have eczema.

    PubMed

    Solomon, C R; Gagnon, C

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify statements made in the literature concerning the personality characteristics of mothers of children who have eczema, those of the children, and their dyadic interaction. Three observers made five 2-hour home visits to 14 mother-child dyads when the children were 29, 33, 37, 41, and 45 weeks old. Seven dyads included a child who had eczema. The results showed these dyads to be significantly different from the control dyads, in that they were less aware and less involved with each other, and less mutually positively reinforcing. However, neither the mothers nor the children, nor the interaction between them fit the descriptions made of them in the literature. The authors therefore caution against making generalizations about the psychological contributions to or psychomaintenance of childhood eczema. PMID:3611362

  7. Line Intensities of the Phosphine Dyad at 10 mu m

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Linda R.; Sams, Robert L.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Cottaz, C; Sagui, L

    2002-10-01

    Over 1000 measured line intensities of phosphine (PH3) are reported for the 830 to 1310 cm-1 region that contains the two lowest fundamentals in Coriolis interaction. These measurements are fitted to 1.5% for v2 at 992.13 cm-1 for v4 at 1118.31 cm-1, respectively, using five intensity parameters that include three Herman-Wallis type terms. In addition, some 60 intensities of the 2v2-v2 hot band are modeled. The corresponding assignments and line positions of the dyad from previous work [L. Fusina and G. Di Lonardo, J. Mol. Struct. 517-518, 67-78 (2000)] are combined with the present intensity study to provide an improved PH3 database for planetary studies. The total integrated intensity for the dyad is 156.(4) cm-2atm-1 at 296 K.

  8. Dogmatism within the Counselor-Client Dyad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Donald J.

    1970-01-01

    Different levels of counselor and client dogmatism combined additively in terms of their effect on client ratings of the relationship. Client ratings of the relationship were progressively higher as more openness occurred in the dyad. (Author)

  9. Modulation of Phenol Oxidation in Cofacial Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bon Jun; Huynh, Michael; Halbach, Robert L.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation of two phenols on a xanthene backbone is akin to the tyrosine dyad (Y730 and Y731) of ribonucleotide reductase. X-ray crystallography reveals that the two phenol moieties are cofacially disposed at 4.35 Å. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) reveals that phenol oxidation is modulated within the dyad, which exhibits a splitting of one-electron waves with the second oxidation of the phenol dyad occurring at larger positive potential than that of a typical phenol. In contrast, a single phenol appended to a xanthene exhibits a two-electron (ECE) process, consistent with reported oxidation pathways of phenols in acetonitrile. The perturbation of the phenol potential by stacking is reminiscent of a similar effect for guanines stacked within DNA base pairs. PMID:26305909

  10. Photoswitchable Spiropyran Dyads for Biological Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of a small-molecule dyad consisting of a far-red-emitting silicon rhodamine dye that is covalently linked to a photochromic spironaphthothiopyran unit, which serves as a photoswitchable quencher, is reported. This system can be switched reversibly between the fluorescent and nonfluorescent states using visible light at wavelengths of 405 and 630 nm, respectively, and it works effectively in aqueous solution. Live-cell imaging demonstrates that this dyad has several desirable features, including excellent membrane permeability, fast and reversible modulation of fluorescence by visible light, and good contrast between the bright and dark states. PMID:27456166

  11. Photoswitchable Spiropyran Dyads for Biological Imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yaoyao; Rivera-Fuentes, Pablo; Sezgin, Erdinc; Vargas Jentzsch, Andreas; Eggeling, Christian; Anderson, Harry L

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of a small-molecule dyad consisting of a far-red-emitting silicon rhodamine dye that is covalently linked to a photochromic spironaphthothiopyran unit, which serves as a photoswitchable quencher, is reported. This system can be switched reversibly between the fluorescent and nonfluorescent states using visible light at wavelengths of 405 and 630 nm, respectively, and it works effectively in aqueous solution. Live-cell imaging demonstrates that this dyad has several desirable features, including excellent membrane permeability, fast and reversible modulation of fluorescence by visible light, and good contrast between the bright and dark states. PMID:27456166

  12. Early Communication in Dyads with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattray, Julie; Zeedyk, M. Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    The ability of dyads with restricted access to the visual channel of communication to establish a reliable pre-linguistic communicative signalling system has traditionally been viewed as problematic. Such a conclusion is due in part to the emphasis that has been placed on vision as central to communication by traditional theory. The data presented…

  13. Covalent Photosensitizer-Polyoxometalate-Catalyst Dyads for Visible-Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Schönweiz, Stefanie; Rommel, Sebastian A; Kübel, Joachim; Micheel, Mathias; Dietzek, Benjamin; Rau, Sven; Streb, Carsten

    2016-08-16

    A general concept for the covalent linkage of coordination compounds to bipyridine-functionalized polyoxometalates is presented. The new route is used to link an iridium photosensitizer to an Anderson-type hydrogen-evolution catalyst. This covalent dyad catalyzes the visible-light-driven hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and shows superior HER activity compared with the non-covalent reference. Hydrogen evolution is observed over periods >1 week. Spectroscopic, photophysical, and electrochemical analyses give initial insight into the stability, electronic structure, and reactivity of the dyad. The results demonstrate that the proposed linkage concept allows synergistic covalent interactions between functional coordination compounds and reactive molecular metal oxides. PMID:27418410

  14. Working in Dyads and Alone: Examining Process Variables in Solving Insight Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidikis, Viktoria; Ash, Ivan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of working in dyads and their associated gender composition on performance (solution rate and time) and process variables (number of impasses, number of passed solutions, and number of problem solving suggestions and interactions) in a set of classic insight problem solving tasks. Two types of insight problems…

  15. Antecedents of Toddler Aggression: Dysfunctional Parenting in Mother-Toddler Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; O'Leary, Susan G.

    2006-01-01

    Aggression is stable as early as 2 years of age and predicts many negative adult outcomes. Although longitudinal predictors of child aggression have been identified, information is lacking regarding the proximal precursors of toddlers' aggression. During a 30-min interaction, 54 mother-toddler dyads were observed. Toddlers were categorized as…

  16. Photoinduced electron transfer in a porphyrin dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L.; Leggett, L.; Lin, S.; DeGraziano, J.M.; Hermant, R.M.; Nicodem, D.; Craig, P.; Seely, G.R.; Nieman, R.A. )

    1993-07-29

    A prophyrin dyad designed to facilitate vectorial interporphyrin electron transfer has been synthesized and studied using steady-state and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopies. The dyad features a zinc tetraaylporphyrin bearing electron-donating substituents linked by an amide bond to a free base porphyrin carrying electron-withdrawing groups. Excitation of the zinc porphyrin moiety in dichloromethane solution is followed by singlet energy transfer to the free base and concurrent electron transfer to the same moiety to yield a charge-separated state. The free base first excited singlet state decays by accepting an electron from the zinc porphyrin to form the same charge-separated state. Similar results are observed in butyronitrile. Transient absorption studies in butyronitrile verify the formation of a short-lived (8 ps) charge-separated state from the porphyrin first excited singlet states. The results support the suggestion that fluorescence quenching in related porphyrin dyads and carotenoid--diporphyrin triads is due to photoinduced electron transfer, rather than some other decay process. 17 refs., 8 refs.

  17. Synthesis of fullerene-acene dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Claire Eunhye

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells present potential for industrial use because of their possible low cost production. However, their relatively low efficiencies render them impractical for implementation. A comprehensive understanding of the photophysical process is necessary for eventual development of high efficiency OPV cells. Studying photophysical processes of well-defined structures such as dyad or triad molecules may give insight into their photophysical processes. In this study, we selected pentacene derivatives as electron donors and fullerenes as electron acceptors for dyad and triad molecules with well-defined structures. Several new types of organothiosubstituted 6,13-dihydropentacenes with terminal functionality including carboxylic acid, alcohol and amine groups were synthesized. A sterically hindered pentacene derivative was also prepared in order to prevent cycloaddition between C60 and pentacene. Functionalized fullerenes were synthesized for use as electron acceptors. Numerous reaction methods were attempted toward the synthesis of a donor/acceptor dyad with pentacene and fullerene derivatives. However, hydroamination of pristine C 60 using a diamino dihydropentacene derivative was the only successful method demonstrated to link C60 and dihydropentacene derivatives.

  18. Interpersonal Responses Among Sibling Dyads Tested for BRCA1/BRCA2 Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Heidi A.; Croyle, Robert T.; Smith, Timothy W.; Smith, Ken R.; Ruiz, John M.; Kircher, John C.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The familial context plays an important role in psychosocial responses to genetic testing. The purpose of this study was to compare sibling pairs with different combinations of BRCA1/BRCA2 test results on measures of affect, interpersonal responses, and physiological reactions. Design Forty-nine sibling dyads with different combinations of BRCA1/BRCA2 test results (i.e., mixed, positive, negative) completed a questionnaire, and 35 of the dyads also participated in a laboratory-based discussion of genetic testing. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome variables included participant reports of supportive actions toward their sibling, state anger and anxiety, perceptions of sibling behavior, and electrodermal responses. Results Compared to positive and negative dyads, mixed pairs reported less friendly general support actions, noted more anger, and perceived their sibling to be less friendly and more dominant during the interactions. In comparisons between same-result (i.e., positive, negative) pairs, positive dyads reported more dominant support behaviors and perceived their sibling to be friendlier during the interactions. Conclusion Data suggest that siblings who have different test results may experience more interpersonal strain than siblings who have the same test result. Future research on genetic testing and family relationships can expand upon these findings. PMID:18230020

  19. Intramolecular energy transfer in fullerene pyrazine dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Guldi, D.M.; Torres-Garcia, G.; Mattay, J.

    1998-11-26

    Excited-state properties of three different pyrazine derivatives 4--6 were probed by emission and transient absorption spectroscopy. They display emission maxima at 464 (4), 417 (5), and 515 nm (6) that are red-shifted with respect to their strong UV ground-state absorption and formed with overall quantum yields ({Phi}) of 0.156, 0.22, and 0.13, respectively. Once photoexcited, these triplet excited pyrazines undergo rapid intermolecular energy transfer to a monofunctionalized fullerene derivative (7) with bimolecular rate constants ranging from 3.64 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} (6) to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 10} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} (4). The product of these bimolecular energy-transfer reactions is in all cases the fullerene triplet excited state. Functionalization of pristine C{sub 60} with the investigated pyrazine derivatives promotes the UV-vis absorption characteristics and, in turn, improves the light-harvesting efficiency of the resulting dyads 1--3 relative to pristine C{sub 60}. Photoexcitation of the pyrazine moieties in dyads 1--3 leads to the formation of their singlet excited states. In contrast to the pyrazine models, photoexcitation of dyad 1--3 is followed by rapid intramolecular deactivation processes of the latter via energy transfer to the fullerene ground state with half-lives between 37 and 100 ps. In turn, energy transfer transforms the short-lived and moderately redox-active singlet excited states of pyrazine into the highly reactive fullerene triplet excited state. The latter is found to produce effectively singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) with quenching rate constants for 1--3 of (1--1.5) {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. Similarly, reductive quenching of the triplet excited states in dyads 1--3 via electron transfer with diazabicyclooctane (DABCO) occurs with rate constants of 5.2--9.4 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}.

  20. Transplant Trajectory and Relational Experience Within Living Kidney Dyads.

    PubMed

    Ummel, Deborah; Achille, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Living kidney donation is considered common practice across most Westernized countries. While extensive research has documented the experience of living donors, few studies have addressed the perspective of recipients, and even fewer have examined the experience of donor and recipient as an interactive dyad. In this study, our aim was to examine the reciprocal influence between donors and recipients across the transplantation process. We recruited a homogeneous sample of 10 donors and recipients, who were interviewed individually. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The presentation of results follows the stages of the transplantation process: the disease experience, the experience of offering and accepting a kidney, the screening period, the surgery, and the post-transplantation period. Results are discussed within the framework of Mauss's gift exchange theory, social roles, and altruism. This comprehensive description of the dyadic experience provides a way to frame and understand psychosocial aspects and relational implications of living renal transplantation. PMID:25700284

  1. Enhancing motor learning through dyad practice: contributions of observation and dialogue.

    PubMed

    Granados, Carolina; Wulf, Gabriele

    2007-06-01

    It has been shown that practice in dyads, as compared to individual practice, can enhance motor learning and increase the efficiency of practice (as two participants can be trained at the same time; Shea, Wulf, & Whitacre, 1999). The dyad practice protocol used by Shea et al. included both observation and dialogue between partners. Thus, it was not clear whether the learning benefits of dyad practice were due to observation, dialogue, or both. The present study examined the individual and interactive effects of observation and dialogue. The task used was speed cup stacking. Participants practiced under one of four conditions: observation/dialogue, observation/no dialogue, no observation/dialogue, and no observation/no dialogue. The two conditions that included observational practice were more effective (i.e., produced faster movement times) than the two conditions without it, both during practice and on a retention test performed under individual performance conditions. This suggests that the learning advantages of dyad practice are primarily due to the opportunity to observe another learner. PMID:17679493

  2. Effects of mutual dyad support on quality of life in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Laura Bond; Erlen, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mutual dyadic support intervention between survivors and women newly diagnosed with breast cancer on the quality of life and interpersonal relationships of the participants. This matched-pairs, baseline-postintervention study included 31 survivors and 31 newly diagnosed women with stage I or II breast cancer. The women met in mutually supportive, self-directed dyads at least twice a week for 8 weeks. Instruments included contact Logs and Meaningful Observations Journals. Content analysis of the Logs showed that most dyad interactions were by telephone. Most participant dyadic conversations focused on the health and functioning of newly diagnosed partners, with survivors providing informational and emotional support. Meaningful Observations Journal thematic analysis supported the social exchange theory to describe dyad partner relationships. Most dyadic relationships were supportive, some were reciprocal, and some experienced conflict. Themes varied little between groups and from baseline to postintervention. Themes across time were support of others, health, changing priorities, and faith. Further quantitative study is needed to examine the effects of a dyad support intervention on quality of life in more diverse populations of women with breast cancer. Nurses need to evaluate the existing social-network support systems of patients with breast cancer and consider the need for dyadic peer support. PMID:17135823

  3. Dyad Composition Effects on Cognitive Elaboration and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denessen, Eddie; Veenman, Simon; Dobbelsteen, Janine; van Schilt, Josie

    2008-01-01

    The authors addressed the following research question: Does composition of dyads in terms of gender and ability affect student participation, the level of cognitive elaborations during a collaborative activity, and individual student achievement? The study involved 24 6th-grade dyads paired as follows: a low-ability student with a medium-ability…

  4. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  5. Photocurrent in Multilayered Assemblies of Porphyrin-Fullerene Covalent Dyads: Evidence for Channels for Charge Transport.

    PubMed

    Konev, Alexander S; Khlebnikov, Alexander F; Levin, Oleg V; Lukyanov, Daniil A; Zorin, Ivan M

    2016-04-01

    Specially designed porphyrin-fullerene dyads have been synthesized to verify literature predictions based on quantum chemistry calculations that certain porphyrin-fullerene dyads are able to self-arrange into specific structures providing channels for charge transport in a bulk mass of organic compound. According to AFM and SEM data, the newly synthesized compounds were indeed prone to some kind of self-arrangement, although to a lesser degree than was expected. A dispersion corrected DFT study of the molecular non-covalent interactions performed at the DFT-D3 (B3LYP, 6-31G*) level of theory showed that the least energy corresponded to head-to-head dimers, with close contacts of porphyrin-porphyrin and fullerene-fullerene fragments, thus providing a unit building block of the channel for charge transport. Experimental proof for the existence of channels for charge transport was obtained by observing a photocurrent in a simple photovoltaic cell. PMID:26893269

  6. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. PMID:26580553

  7. Injecting Equipment Sharing in Russian Drug Injecting Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Li, Nan; Tobin, Karin E.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Sokolov, Nikolai; Levchenko, Julia; Batluk, Julia; Kozlov, Andrei A.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how individual attributes, dyad characteristics and social network characteristics may influence engaging in receptive syringe sharing, distributive syringe sharing and sharing cookers in injecting partnerships of IDUs in St Petersburg, Russia. We found that all three levels were associated with injecting equipment sharing, and that dyad characteristics were modified by characteristics of the social network. Self-reported HIV discordance and male gender concordance played a role in the risk of equipment sharing. Dyad interventions may not be sufficient to reduce injecting risk in IDU partnerships, but a combination of dyad and network interventions that target both IDU partnerships and the entire IDU population may be more appropriate to address injecting risk among IDUs. PMID:19214731

  8. Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents' Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12-16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison…

  9. Subcortical representation of musical dyads: individual differences and neural generators.

    PubMed

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    When two notes are played simultaneously they form a musical dyad. The sensation of pleasantness, or "consonance", of a dyad is likely driven by the harmonic relation of the frequency components of the combined spectrum of the two notes. Previous work has demonstrated a relation between individual preference for consonant over dissonant dyads, and the strength of neural temporal coding of the harmonicity of consonant relative to dissonant dyads as measured using the electrophysiological "frequency-following response" (FFR). However, this work also demonstrated that both these variables correlate strongly with musical experience. The current study was designed to determine whether the relation between consonance preference and neural temporal coding is maintained when controlling for musical experience. The results demonstrate that strength of neural coding of harmonicity is predictive of individual preference for consonance even for non-musicians. An additional purpose of the current study was to assess the cochlear generation site of the FFR to low-frequency dyads. By comparing the reduction in FFR strength when high-pass masking noise was added to the output of a model of the auditory periphery, the results provide evidence for the FFR to low-frequency dyads resulting in part from basal cochlear generators. PMID:25636498

  10. Effects of Strong Electronic Coupling in Chlorin and Bacteriochlorin Dyads.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Suk; Esemoto, Nopondo N; Diers, James R; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Greco, Jordan A; Akhigbe, Joshua; Yu, Zhanqian; Pancholi, Chirag; Bhagavathy, Ganga Viswanathan; Nguyen, Jamie K; Kirmaier, Christine; Birge, Robert R; Ptaszek, Marcin; Holten, Dewey; Bocian, David F

    2016-01-28

    Achieving tunable, intense near-infrared absorption in molecular architectures with properties suitable for solar light harvesting and biomedical studies is of fundamental interest. Herein, we report the photophysical, redox, and molecular-orbital characteristics of nine hydroporphyrin dyads and associated benchmark monomers that have been designed and synthesized to attain enhanced light harvesting. Each dyad contains two identical hydroporphyrins (chlorin or bacteriochlorin) connected by a linker (ethynyl or butadiynyl) at the macrocycle β-pyrrole (3- or 13-) or meso (15-) positions. The strong electronic communication between constituent chromophores is indicated by the doubling of prominent absorption features, split redox waves, and paired linear combinations of frontier molecular orbitals. Relative to the benchmarks, the chlorin dyads in toluene show substantial bathochromic shifts of the long-wavelength absorption band (17-31 nm), modestly reduced singlet excited-state lifetimes (τS = 3.6-6.2 ns vs 8.8-12.3 ns), and increased fluorescence quantum yields (Φf = 0.37-0.57 vs 0.34-0.39). The bacteriochlorin dyads in toluene show significant bathochromic shifts (25-57 nm) and modestly reduced τS (1.6-3.4 ns vs 3.5-5.3 ns) and Φf (0.09-0.19 vs 0.17-0.21) values. The τS and Φf values for the bacteriochlorin dyads are reduced substantially (up to ∼20-fold) in benzonitrile. The quenching is due primarily to the increased S1 → S0 internal conversion that is likely induced by increased contribution of charge-resonance configurations to the S1 excited state in the polar medium. The fundamental insights gained into the physicochemical properties of the strongly coupled hydroporphyrin dyads may aid their utilization in solar-energy conversion and photomedicine. PMID:26765839

  11. The Clinical Learning Dyad Model: An Innovation in Midwifery Education.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Susanna R; Thomas, Celeste R; Gerard, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    There is a national shortage of women's health and primary care providers in the United States, including certified nurse-midwives and certified midwives. This shortage is directly related to how many students can be trained within the existing system. The current model of midwifery clinical training is based on apprenticeship, with one-on-one interaction between a student and preceptor. Thus, the number of newly trained midwifery providers is limited by the number of available and willing preceptors. The clinical learning dyad model (CLDM), which pairs 2 beginning midwifery students with one preceptor in a busy practice, addresses this problem. In addition, this model brings in a senior midwife student as a near-peer mentor when the students are first oriented into outpatient clinical practice. The model began as a pilot project to improve the quality of training and increase available student spots in clinical education. This article discusses the origins of the model, the specifics of its design, and the results of a midterm and one-year postintervention survey. Students and preceptors involved in this model identified several advantages to the program, including increased student accountability, enhanced socialization into the profession, improved learning, and reduced teaching burden on preceptors. An additional benefit of the CLDM is that students form a learning community and collaborate with preceptors to care for women in busy clinical settings. Challenges of the model will also be discussed. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLDM. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. PMID:26605990

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic properties and photodynamic activity of porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyads with application in the photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ballatore, M Belén; Spesia, Mariana B; Milanesio, M Elisa; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2014-08-18

    A covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyad 5 was synthesized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition using 5-(4-formylphenyl)-10,15,20-tris[3-(N-ethylcarbazoyl)]porphyrin, N-methylglycine and fullerene C60. Methylation of 5 was used to obtain a cationic dyad 6. Spectroscopic properties were compared in toluene, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and toluene/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/water reverse micelles. Absorption spectra of the dyads were essentially a superposition of the spectra of the porphyrin and fullerene reference compounds, indicating a very weak interaction between the chromophores in the ground state. The fluorescence emission of the porphyrin moiety in the dyads was strongly quenched by the attached fullerene C60 unit. The singlet molecular oxygen, O2((1)Δg), productions (ΦΔ) were strongly dependent on the solvent polarity. Similar ΦΔ values were obtained for 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[3-(N-ethylcarbazoyl)]porphyrin (TCP) in both solvents. Also, dyad 5 showed a high O2((1)Δg) generation in toluene. However, O2((1)Δg) production mediated by 5 considerably diminished in the more polar solvent DMF. Also, a high photodynamic activity involving O2((1)Δg) was found for both dyads in a simple biomimetic system formed by AOT reverse micelles. The photoinactivation ability of these dyads was investigated in Staphylococcus aureus cell suspensions. Photosensitized inactivation of S. aureus by dyad 6 exhibits a 4.5 log decrease of cell survival (99.997% cell inactivation), when the cultures are treated with 5 μM photosensitizer and irradiated with visible light (350-800 nm) for 30 min. Under these conditions, a lower photocytotoxic effect was found for 5 (3.2 log decrease). Furthermore, photoinactivation induced by 6 was higher than those obtained with the separate moieties of the dyad. Therefore, molecular structures formed by porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyads represent interesting photosensitizers to inactivate S. aureus. PMID:25010938

  13. Peer Network Overlap in Twin, Sibling, and Friend Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Shirley; Segal, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sibling–peer connections are important for understanding adolescent problem behaviors. Using a novel behavioral genetic design, the current study investigated peer network overlap in 300 child–child pairs (aged 7-13 years) in 5 dyad types: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic twins, full siblings (FSs), friend pairs, and virtual…

  14. Analysis of Relational Communication in Dyads: New Measurement Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, L. Edna; Farace, Richard

    Relational communication refers to the control or dominance aspects of message exchange in dyads--distinguishing it from the report or referential aspects of communication. In relational communicational analysis, messages as transactions are emphasized; major theoretical concepts which emerge are symmetry, transitoriness, and complementarity of…

  15. Parent-Caregiver Relationship Dyad in Greek Day Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2011-01-01

    High quality early childhood education and care programmes encourage frequent, positive communication with and positive, effective relationships between parents and early childhood educators. The present study aimed to examine the adult relationship aspects of childcare and, more precisely, the parent/caregiver relationship dyad. The way in which…

  16. A qualitative analysis of a dyad approach to health-related quality of life measurement in children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Cara; Cousins, Martha; Boydell, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children often relies on parents as proxy respondents. Yet, several studies have shown poor to moderate correlations between parent and child responses, questioning the validity of the parent as proxy. This qualitative study examined a dyad approach, where parent and child were interviewed together. The objective was to observe and describe the interaction in a dyad interview, wherein both parent and child perspectives are used and where the parent may expand the child’s cognitive abilities to create a more meaningful description of the child’s HRQOL. Children aged 8–15 years with a clinical diagnosis of asthma and their primary caregivers were recruited from The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. The dyads were administered the Health Utilities Index Mark II/III, the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire and the PedsQL™ Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Interviews were audio-taped and a second researcher recorded observations. Consistent with Grounded Theory methodology, observations were indexed according to categories and subcategories related to the response process. Data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding and constant comparison. Saturation was achieved at 16 dyad interviews. A cultural review and reflexive role taking were included to minimize interviewer bias and enhance rigour. Findings were grouped in the following 11 themes: recall difficulty, respondent bias, interviewer bias, frustration, coercion/parental influence, inter-relational conflict, psychic discomfort for health states, emotional sensitivity, parent as advocate, parent as enabler and comprehension. The specification of these categories facilitated the creation of an interview guide to accompany the administration of standardized HRQOL questionnaires to parent–child dyads. Such a guide would facilitate discussion between parent and child and enhance the consistency of the interview

  17. USING THE PARENT-INFANT RELATIONSHIP GLOBAL ASSESSMENT SCALE TO IDENTIFY CAREGIVER-INFANT/TODDLER DYADS WITH ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIP PATTERNS IN SIX EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Hatzinikolaou, Kornilia; Karveli, Vassiliki; Skoubourdi, Aggeliki; Zarokosta, Foteini; Antonucci, Gianluca; Visci, Giovanni; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; MagalhÃes, Eunice; Essau, Cecilia; Allan, Sharon; Pithia, Jayshree; Walji, Fahreen; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Perez-Robles, Ruth; Fanti, Kostas A; Katsimicha, Evita; Hadjicharambous, Maria-Zoe; Nikolaidis, George; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-07-01

    The study examined whether the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised Edition (DC: 0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005) Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) is applicable to six European countries and contributes to the identification of caregiver-infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns. The sample consisted of 115 dyads with children's ages ranging from 1 to 47 months. Sixty-four dyads were recruited from community settings without known violence problems, and 51 dyads were recruited from clinical settings and already had been identified with violence problems or as being at risk for violence problems. To classify the dyads on the PIR-GAS categories, caregiver-child interactions were video-recorded and coded with observational scales appropriate for child age. To test whether the PIR-GAS allows for reliable identification of dyads with abusive relationship patterns, PIR-GAS ratings were compared with scores on the the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect's (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parental Version (ICAST-P; D.K. Runyan et al., ), a questionnaire measuring abusive parental disciplinary practices. It was found that PIR-GAS ratings differentiated between the general and the clinical sample, and the dyads with abusive patterns of relationship were identified by both the PIR-GAS and the ICAST-P. Interrater reliability for the PIR-GAS ranged from moderate to excellent. The value of a broader use of tools such as the DC: 0-3R to promote early identification of families at risk for infant and toddler abuse and neglect is discussed. PMID:27351372

  18. Nonverbal Communication in Across-Race Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Virginia C.; Powell, Evan R.

    This is one of a series of proxemic studies of dyadic communication behavior made by the authors in natural, academic and laboratory settings with the use of the DIAD. Based on the theory of anthropologists Hall (1966) and Birdwhistell (1970) and developed empirically as initial observations of dyadic interaction were made, the Dennis…

  19. Hydroquinone-pyrrole dyads with varied linkers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Karlsson, Christoffer; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin; Gogoll, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    A series of pyrroles functionalized in the 3-position with p-dimethoxybenzene via various linkers (CH2, CH2CH2, CH=CH, C≡C) has been synthesized. Their electronic properties have been deduced from (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and UV-vis spectra to detect possible interactions between the two aromatic subunits. The extent of conjugation between the subunits is largely controlled by the nature of the linker, with the largest conjugation found with the trans-ethene linker and the weakest with the aliphatic linkers. DFT calculations revealed substantial changes in the HOMO-LUMO gap that correlated with the extent of conjugation found experimentally. The results of this work are expected to open up for use of the investigated compounds as components of redox-active materials in sustainable, organic electrical energy storage devices. PMID:26877811

  20. Hydroquinone–pyrrole dyads with varied linkers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Karlsson, Christoffer; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of pyrroles functionalized in the 3-position with p-dimethoxybenzene via various linkers (CH2, CH2CH2, CH=CH, C≡C) has been synthesized. Their electronic properties have been deduced from 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV–vis spectra to detect possible interactions between the two aromatic subunits. The extent of conjugation between the subunits is largely controlled by the nature of the linker, with the largest conjugation found with the trans-ethene linker and the weakest with the aliphatic linkers. DFT calculations revealed substantial changes in the HOMO–LUMO gap that correlated with the extent of conjugation found experimentally. The results of this work are expected to open up for use of the investigated compounds as components of redox-active materials in sustainable, organic electrical energy storage devices. PMID:26877811

  1. Erotized Transference in the Male Patient–Female Therapist Dyad

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Martha B.

    2001-01-01

    Little has been published regarding male patients' erotic transferences to female therapists. It has been suggested that male patients do not develop full erotic transferences and rarely experience erotized transferences. The author presents a case report documenting erotization in a male patient–female therapist dyad and reviews current theories on the etiology, therapeutic significance, and treatment strategies indicated for such a transference. PMID:11121005

  2. Friendship in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder: mixed and non-mixed dyads.

    PubMed

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Aviezer, Anat; Heung, Kelly; Brown, John; Rogers, Sally J

    2008-08-01

    Friendships containing a child with autism and a friend with typical development ("mixed" friendships, n = 26) and those of children with autism and a friend with a disability ("non-mixed," n = 16) were contrasted with friendships of typically developing subjects and their friends (n = 31). Measures included dyadic interaction samples, and interview and questionnaire data from subjects, friends, and parents. Mixed friendship interactions resembled typical friendships. Participants in mixed friendships were more responsive to one another, had stronger receptive language skills, exhibited greater positive social orientation and cohesion, and demonstrated more complex coordinated play than in the non-mixed dyads. Exposure to typical peers appears to have significant effects on friendship behaviors. PMID:18058212

  3. Exchange and cohesion in dyads and triads: A test of Simmel's hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeongkoo; Thye, Shane R; Lawler, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    This paper uses social exchange theory to address a classic question posed by Simmel (1964) regarding dyads and triads. The question is whether exchanges in a triad will generate more cohesion at the group level than exchanges in an isolated dyad. The main hypotheses, integrating several ideas from Simmel and social exchange theories, are as follows. First, triads generate less variability of behavior than dyads; that is, there is more uniformity or convergence in triads. Second, in the context of repeated exchange, we predict higher levels of cohesion in triads than in dyads. Third, positive emotion or affect has a stronger impact on cohesion in dyads than in triads, whereas uncertainty reduction has a stronger impact on cohesion in triads. To test these hypotheses, an experiment compared isolated dyads to dyads nested in a triadic exchange network. Subjects engaged in exchanges across a series of distinct episodes, using standard experimental procedures from research on relational cohesion (Lawler and Yoon, 1996) and exchange networks (Molm and Cook, 1995; Willer, 1999). Consistent with the hypotheses, the results reveal more convergence of behavior and higher cohesion in triads than in dyads; moreover, uncertainty reduction is the primary basis for cohesion in the triad, whereas positive affect was the primary basis for cohesion in the dyad. These results are discussed in relation to Simmelian dyad-triad dynamics and the theory of relational cohesion. PMID:24090845

  4. Hole-transfer induced energy transfer in perylene diimide dyads with a donor-spacer-acceptor motif.

    PubMed

    Kölle, Patrick; Pugliesi, Igor; Langhals, Heinz; Wilcken, Roland; Esterbauer, Andreas J; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina; Riedle, Eberhard

    2015-10-14

    We investigate the photoinduced dynamics of perylene diimide dyads based on a donor-spacer-acceptor motif with polyyne spacers of varying length by pump-probe spectroscopy, time resolved fluorescence, chemical variation and quantum chemistry. While the dyads with pyridine based polyyne spacers undergo energy transfer with near-unity quantum efficiency, in the dyads with phenyl based polyyne spacers the energy transfer efficiency drops below 50%. This suggests the presence of a competing electron transfer process from the spacer to the energy donor as the excitation sink. Transient absorption spectra, however, reveal that the spacer actually mediates the energy transfer dynamics. The ground state bleach features of the polyyne spacers appear due to the electron transfer decay with the same time constant present in the rise of the ground state bleach and stimulated emission of the perylene energy acceptor. Although the electron transfer process initially quenches the fluorescence of the donor it does not inhibit energy transfer to the perylene energy acceptor. The transient signatures reveal that electron and energy transfer processes are sequential and indicate that the donor-spacer electron transfer state itself is responsible for the energy transfer. Through the introduction of a Dexter blocker unit into the spacer we can clearly exclude any through bond Dexter-type energy transfer. Ab initio calculations on the donor-spacer and the donor-spacer-acceptor systems reveal the existence of a bright charge transfer state that is close in energy to the locally excited state of the acceptor. Multipole-multipole interactions between the bright charge transfer state and the acceptor state enable the energy transfer. We term this mechanism coupled hole-transfer FRET. These dyads represent a first example that shows how electron transfer can be connected to energy transfer for use in novel photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:26347443

  5. Use of student clinical partner dyads as a teaching strategy to facilitate learning.

    PubMed

    Ott, Lora K; Succheralli, Lauren

    2015-03-01

    Collaborative learning has been used effectively in the classroom, but it is not well understood in the clinical setting. Student clinical partner (SCP) dyads were used as an intentional teaching method to foster teamwork, learning, and confidence. Students were assigned a patient and a student partner. SCP dyads were expected to provide complete care to their assigned patient, listen to report for their partner's patient, prioritize patient needs, participate in learning experiences for all assigned patients, and function as a team. Students (n = 26) compared their clinical rotation with SCP dyads to their clinical rotations without SCP dyads. The majority strongly agreed that SCP dyads had a positive impact on teamwork (74%), learning experiences (58%), and student clinical confidence (62%). Reflective journals stated that SCP dyads increased exposure to patient care activities, confidence in management, prioritization, teamwork, and time with the faculty. PMID:25692339

  6. O. J. Simpson as shared (and unshared) reality: the impact of consensually shared beliefs on interpersonal perceptions and task performance in different- and same-ethnicity dyads.

    PubMed

    Conley, Terri D; Rabinowitz, Joshua L; Hardin, Curtis D

    2010-09-01

    Shared reality theory postulates that interpersonal relationships are regulated by the degree to which people share experiences and beliefs (Hardin & Higgins, 1996). To assess consequences of shared (and unshared) reality for interpersonal relationships, we examined the effects of the 1990s Simpson trial on actual interpersonal interactions in same- and different-ethnicity dyads. In 3 experiments (conducted directly following, 5 years after, and 10 years after the trial), people who had been primed with Simpson participated in cooperative problem-solving tasks. Because the trial represented a dimension of belief discrepancy between Blacks and Whites but a dimension of shared beliefs within the two ethnic groups, shared reality theory predicts that activating memories of the trial would affect interpersonal interactions differently depending upon ethnic composition of dyads. As predicted, thoughts of Simpson caused decrements in quality of interpersonal perceptions and behaviors for different-ethnicity dyads but increases for same-ethnicity dyads. In addition, in a 4th study, we found that consensus predicted liking among partners in the previous 3 experiments and that these effects were significant in the expected direction for both same- and different-ethnicity pairs. PMID:20804262

  7. Langmuir-Blodgett films of self-assembled (alkylether-derivatized Zn phthalocyanine)-(C₆₀ imidazole adduct) dyad with controlled intermolecular distance for photoelectrochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Obraztsov, Ievgen; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Hart, Aaron; Gobeze, Habtom B; Kc, Chandra B; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; D'Souza, Francis

    2014-06-11

    A multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of the self-assembled electron donor-acceptor dyad of Zn phthalocyanine, appended with four long-chain aliphatic ether peripheral substituents, and an imidazole adduct of C60 was prepared and applied as a photoactive material in a photoelectrochemical cell. Changes in the simultaneously recorded surface pressure and surface potential vs area per molecule compression isotherms for Langmuir films of the dyad and, separately, of its components helped to identify phase transitions and mutual interactions of molecules in films. The Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) imaging of the Langmuir films showed circular condensed phase domains of the dyad molecules. The determined area per molecule was lower than that estimated for the dyad and its components, separately. The multilayer LB films of the dyad were transferred onto hydrophobized fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated (FTO) glass slides under different conditions. The presence of both components in the dyad LB films was confirmed with the UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. For the LB films transferred at different surface pressures, the PM-IRRAS measurements revealed that the phthalocyanine macrocycle planes and ether moieties in films were tilted with respect to the FTO surface. The AFM imaging of the LB films indicated formation of relatively uniform dyad LB films. Then, the femtosecond transient absorption spectral studies evidenced photoinduced electron transfer in the LB film. The obtained transient signals corresponding to both Zn(TPPE)(•+) and C60im(•-) confirmed the occurrence of intramolecular electron transfer. The determined rate constants of charge separation, kcs = 2.6 × 10(11) s(-1), and charge recombination, kcr = 9.7 × 10(9) s(-1), indicated quite efficient electron transfer within the film. In the photoelectrochemical studies, either photoanodic or photocathodic current was generated depending on the applied bias potential when the dyad LB film-coated FTO was used

  8. Disrupting aggregation of tethered rhodamine B dyads through inclusion in cucurbit[7]uril.

    PubMed

    Halterman, Ronald L; Moore, Jason L; Mannel, Lisa M

    2008-04-18

    Hexano- and dodecano-tethered diesters of rhodamine B were prepared. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of these flexibly tethered dyads were compared with those of the rhodamine 3B ethyl ester. Increased J- and H-type dimer formation and decreased fluorescence emission were observed for the tethered dyads. Complexation of the cationic chromophoric units in cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) hosts decreased H-dimer aggregation, especially for the dodecano-tethered dyad. The monomeric dye and both dye dyads exhibited enhanced fluorescence upon addition of CB7. PMID:18366221

  9. Shared impression formation in the cognitively interdependent dyad.

    PubMed

    Ruscher, Janet B; Santuzzi, Alecia M; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost

    2003-09-01

    We examined the role of cognitive interdependence in determining how close friends form shared impressions of another person. Cognitive interdependence should provide a processing advantage, such that close friends are more efficient in forming shared impressions and are more successful at doing so. Under normal circumstances, the conversations of close friends should be marked by little necessity to make explicit requests for information, mutual recognition of who currently is controlling the flow of conversation, and willingness to express differences in opinion. Given these advantages, close friends also should be able to form complex shared impressions that go beyond mere one-sided stereotypic judgments and that instead resolve apparent discrepancies in the target's personality. However, if the cognitive interdependence system is disrupted by mutual distraction, these advantages should attenuate or even reverse. Dyads of varying degrees of closeness were mutually distracted or not while discussing their impressions of another female college student. Results supported predictions and are discussed with reference to how cognitive interdependence may help close dyads function within their mutual social networks. PMID:14567845

  10. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lanjewar, Swapnil S; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Joshi, Saurabh; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Kothagundla, Chandrasekhar; Kaul, Sudesh; Spodick, David H

    2013-01-01

    Background The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration. Methods We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were computed and compared between the two subgroups. Results There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1) between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusion The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration. PMID:24293995

  11. PREPP: postpartum depression prevention through the mother-infant dyad.

    PubMed

    Werner, Elizabeth A; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Lee, Seonjoo; Feng, Tianshu; Jiang, Nan; Desai, Preeya; Monk, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Most interventions to prevent postpartum depression (PPD) focus on the mother rather than the mother-infant dyad. As strong relationships between infant sleep and cry behavior and maternal postpartum mood have been demonstrated by previous research, interventions targeted at the dyad may reduce symptoms of PPD. The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting (PREPP). PREPP is a new PPD prevention protocol that aims to treat women at risk for PPD by promoting maternally mediated behavioral changes in their infants, while also including mother-focused skills. Results of this randomized control trial (RCT) (n = 54) indicate that this novel, brief intervention was well tolerated and effective in reducing maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression, particularly at 6 weeks postpartum. Additionally, this study found that infants of mothers enrolled in PREPP had fewer bouts of fussing and crying at 6 weeks postpartum than those infants whose mothers were in the Enhanced TAU group. These preliminary results indicate that PREPP has the potential to reduce the incidence of PPD in women at risk and to directly impact the developing mother-child relationship, the mother's view of her child, and child outcomes. PMID:26231973

  12. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-03-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143 cm-1 are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97 cm-1 and 147 cm-1 which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene.

  13. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad

    PubMed Central

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143 cm−1 are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97 cm−1 and 147 cm−1 which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene. PMID:25797419

  14. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad.

    PubMed

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143 cm(-1) are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97 cm(-1) and 147 cm(-1) which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene. PMID:25797419

  15. Emotional Reactions of Mothers Facing Premature Births: Study of 100 Mother-Infant Dyads 32 Gestational Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Lempp, Franziska; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Dodane, Catherine; Bednarek, Nathalie; De Mare, Laurence; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. Methods A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. Results Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A “depressed” score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. Conclusions Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth. PMID:25153825

  16. Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Nonmaltreating Mother-Child Dyads: Implications for Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Kimberly; Schneider, Renee; Sims, Chandler

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated maternal emotion socialization in physically maltreating and nonmaltreating mother-child dyads (N = 63 dyads) to examine the relation between maternal support in response to children's emotional displays and children's psychological adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Child participants…

  17. Enhancing Motor Learning through Dyad Practice: Contributions of Observation and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granados, Carolina; Wulf, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that practice in dyads, as compared to individual practice, can enhance motor learning and increase the efficiency of practice (as two participants can be trained at the same time; Shea, Wulf, & Whitacre, 1999). The dyad practice protocol used by Shea et al. included both observation and dialogue between partners. Thus, it was…

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment in Father-Child Dyads: The Case of Single Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly found that intergenerational transmission of attachment is more robust in mother-child dyads than it is in father-child dyads. They have proposed several explanations for the inconsistent father-child findings, including the use of the strange situation procedure, the young age of the children, and the fact that fathers…

  19. Perceptions of Conflict Strategies and Communication Competence in Task-Oriented Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael A.; Guerrero, Laura K.; Alberts, Jess K.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals in temporary task-oriented dyads or groups must manage conflict competently if they hope to be successful in reaching their goals. Thus far, however, research on the associations between conflict styles and communication competence has focused on acquainted dyads, such as relational partners and coworkers, rather than unacquainted…

  20. Same-Sex Dyads and Toman's Theory of Birth-Order Compatability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidt, Rick J.

    Toman's theory of the relation of birth-order compatibility and interpersonal relations was extended to dyads (pairs) with members of the same sex. It was predicted that interpersonal compatibility between members of same-sex dyads (50 female, 27 male pairs of Vassar College roommates) would be positively correlated with birth-order compatibility…

  1. The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

  2. Syntheses, Charge Separation, and Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell Application of Phenothiazine-Fullerene Dyads.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Gwendolyn D; Hiltunen, Arto J; Lim, Gary N; KC, Chandra B; Kaunisto, Kimmo M; Vuorinen, Tommi K; Nesterov, Vladimir N; Lemmetyinen, Helge J; D'Souza, Francis

    2016-04-01

    A series of phenothiazine-fulleropyrrolidine (PTZ-C60) dyads having fullerene either at the C-3 aromatic ring position or at the N-position of phenothiazine macrocycle were newly synthesized and characterized. Photoinduced electron transfer leading to PTZ(•+)-C60(•-) charge-separated species was established from studies involving femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Because of the close proximity of the donor and acceptor entities, the C-3 ring substituted PTZ-C60 dyads revealed faster charge separation and charge recombination processes than that observed in the dyad functionalized through the N-position. Next, inverted organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were constructed using the dyads in place of traditionally used [6,6]-phenyl-C61- butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and an additional electron donor material poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The performance of the C-3 ring substituted PTZ-C60 dyad having a polyethylene glycol substituent produced a power conversion efficiency of 3.5% under inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) configuration. This was attributed to optimal BHJ morphology between the polymer and the dyad, which was further promoted by the efficient intramolecular charge separation and relatively slow charge recombination promoted by the dyad within the BHJ structure. The present finding demonstrate PTZ-C60 dyads as being good prospective materials for building organic photovoltaic devices. PMID:26990247

  3. Socially Shared Metacognition of Dyads of Pupils in Collaborative Mathematical Problem-Solving Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiskala, Tuike; Vauras, Marja; Lehtinen, Erno; Salonen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how metacognition appears as a socially shared phenomenon within collaborative mathematical word-problem solving processes of dyads of high-achieving pupils. Four dyads solved problems of different difficulty levels. The pupils were 10 years old. The problem-solving activities were videotaped and transcribed in terms of…

  4. Curricular Goals and Personal Goals in Master's Thesis Projects: Dutch Student-Supervisor Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…

  5. Evaluative Language Used by Mandarin-Chinese-Speaking Dyads in Personal Narratives: Age and Socioeconomic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…

  6. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Dyads for Estimating Global Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Patel, Ronak; Crawford, John R

    2015-08-01

    All possible two-subtest combinations of the core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) subtests were evaluated as possible viable short forms for estimating full-scale IQ (FSIQ). Validity of the dyads was evaluated relative to FSIQ in a large clinical sample (N = 482) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Sample validity measures included correlations, mean discrepancies, and levels of agreement between dyad estimates and FSIQ scores. In addition, reliability and validity coefficients were derived from WAIS-IV standardization data. The Coding + Information dyad had the strongest combination of reliability and validity data. However, several other dyads yielded comparable psychometric performance, albeit with some variability in their particular strengths. We also observed heterogeneity between validity coefficients from the clinical and standardization-based estimates for several dyads. Thus, readers are encouraged to also consider the individual psychometric attributes, their clinical or research goals, and client or sample characteristics when selecting among the dyadic short forms. PMID:25271008

  7. Cooperation beyond the dyad: on simple models and a complex society

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Players in Axelrod and Hamilton's model of cooperation were not only in a Prisoner's Dilemma, but by definition, they were also trapped in a dyad. But animals are rarely so restricted and even the option to interact with third parties allows individuals to escape from the Prisoner's Dilemma into a much more interesting and varied world of cooperation, from the apparently rare ‘parcelling’ to the widespread phenomenon of market effects. Our understanding of by-product mutualism, pseudo-reciprocity and the snowdrift game is also enriched by thinking ‘beyond the dyad’. The concepts of by-product mutualism and pseudo-reciprocity force us to think again about our basic definitions of cooperative behaviour (behaviour by a single individual) and cooperation (the outcome of an interaction between two or more individuals). Reciprocity is surprisingly rare outside of humans, even among large-brained ‘intelligent’ birds and mammals. Are humans unique in having extensive cooperative interactions among non-kin and an integrated cognitive system for mediating reciprocity? Perhaps, but our best chance for finding a similar phenomenon may be in delphinids, which also live in large societies with extensive cooperative interactions among non-relatives. A system of nested male alliances in bottlenose dolphins illustrates the potential and difficulties of finding a complex system of cooperation close to our own. PMID:20679112

  8. Photoinduced charge separation and stabilization in clusters of a fullerene-aniline dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.G.; Biju, V.; Guldi, D.M.; Kamat, P.V.; George, M.V.

    1999-10-21

    Fullerene-bridge-aniline dyad and the model fulleropyrrolidine compound form stable, optically transparent clusters in mixtures (3:1) of acetonitrile and toluene. Ground- and excited-state properties of the clusters of the dyad and the model compound are compared with their corresponding monomeric forms. Clustering of the dyad as well as the model compound exhibits a red-shifted emission maximum ({lambda}{sub max} {approximately}738 nm) compared to their monomeric forms ({lambda}{sub max} {approximately}714 nm). The electron transfer from the appended electron donor moiety to the parent fullerene core in the dyad cluster is evident from the decreased ({approximately}80%) fluorescence yield. The formation of fullerene radical anion (absorption maximum at 1010nm) with a lifetime of several hundreds of microseconds was further confirmed using nanosecond laser (337 nm) flash photolysis experiments. In contrast, the dyad molecules in their monomeric form did not yield any detectable yield of C{sub 60} radical anion following laser pulse excitation. The failure to observe any charge-transfer intermediates following laser pulse excitation. The failure to observe any charge-transfer intermediates following laser pulse excitation, even in polar solvents such as benzonitrile or nitromethane, suggested that fast back-electron-transfer process must be operative in the monomeric dyad system. On the other hand, clustering of the fullerene-based dyads in a mixed-solvent system can provide a unique way to decrease the rate of back electron transfer, thus stabilizing the electron-transfer products.

  9. Angular relationships regulate coordination tendencies of performers in attacker-defender dyads in team sports.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Pedro T; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Davids, Keith; Esteves, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the continuous interpersonal interactions of performers in dyadic systems in team sports, as a function of changing information constraints. As a task vehicle, we investigated how attackers attained success in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball by exploring angular relations with immediate opponents and the basket. We hypothesized that angular relations would convey information for the attackers to dribble past defenders. Four basketball players performed as an attacker and defender in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball, in which the co-positioning and orientation of participants relative to the basket was manipulated. After video recording performance behaviors, we digitized participant movement displacement trajectories and categorized trials as successful or unsuccessful (from the attackers' viewpoint). Results revealed that, to successfully dribble past a defender, attackers tended to explore the left hand side of the space by defenders by increasing their angular velocity and decreasing their angular variability, especially in the center of the court. Interpersonal interactions and goal-achievement in attacker-defender dyads appear to have been constrained by the angular relations sustained between participants relative to the scoring target. Results revealed the functionality of exploratory behaviors of participants attempting re-align spatial relations with an opponent in 1v1 sub-phases of team games. PMID:25625811

  10. Photodynamics of a constrained parachute-shaped fullerene-porphyrin dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, D.I.; Cheng, P.; Wilson, S.R.

    1999-12-15

    The pronounced ability of fullerene C{sub 60} to act as an electron and energy acceptor has led to the synthesis of a large number of compounds in which C{sub 60} is covalently linked to photoactivatable groups which can serve as potential donors. Such compounds are of interest as model systems for photosynthetic reaction centers and also have potential applications in photodynamic therapy because of the highly efficient photosensitization of singlet molecular oxygen formation by C{sub 60} and C{sub 60} derivatives. By far the largest number of such systems studied to date utilize porphyrins as antennas for efficient light capture in the visible region of the spectrum, and a variety of linkers. Photophysical studies as well as molecular modeling indicate that in conformationally flexible dyads the porphyrin (P) and C{sub 60} moieties are in close proximity, due to {pi}-stacking interactions, thus facilitating through-space interactions, as demonstrated by quenching of {sup 1}P{asterisk} fluorescence and generation of fullerene-excited states (by energy transfer) or P{sup +{sm{underscore}bullet}}-C{sub 60}{sup {minus}{sm{underscore}bullet}} ion-pair states (by electron transfer).

  11. The synthesis and aggregation-induced near-infrared emission of terrylenediimide-tetraphenylethene dyads.

    PubMed

    Xie, Nuo-Hua; Li, Chong; Liu, Jun-Xia; Gong, Wen-Liang; Tang, Ben Zhong; Li, Guigen; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2016-04-30

    We design and synthesize terrylenediimide-tetraphenylethene dyads, which exhibit featured aggregation-induced near-infrared fluorescence with a maximum emission wavelength of up to 800 nm. PMID:27035468

  12. Low molecular weight Neutral Boron Dipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads for fluorescence-based neural imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Dan; Benniston, Andrew C.; Clift, Sophie; Baisch, Ulrich; Steyn, Jannetta; Everitt, Nicola; Andras, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The neutral low molecular weight julolidine-based borondipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads JULBD and MJULBD were used for fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neurons in the crab stomatogastric ganglion. The fluorescence modulation of the dyads mirrors alterations in the membrane potential of the imaged neurons. The toxicity of the dyes towards the neurons is related to their structure in that methyl groups at the 3,5 positions results in reduced toxic effects.

  13. Smoking Concordance in Lung and Colorectal Cancer Patient-Caregiver Dyads and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Kathryn E.; Rowland, Julia H.; Augustson, Erik; Atienza, Audie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Distress may be heightened among members of cancer patient-caregiver dyads that are mismatched on smoking status (either the patient or caregiver smokes, but the other does not), negatively affecting quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between patient-caregiver smoking concordance, caregiver psychological adjustment, and caregiver and patient mental and physical QoL. Methods Lung and colorectal patient-caregiver dyads (N= 742) were identified from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) and CanCORS Caregiver studies. The majority of the cancer patients were male (67.0 %) with local (45.6 %) or regional (12.9 %) disease. The majority of the informal caregivers were females (78.6%), under 65 years of age (69.6%), and often spouses (57.8%) of the patients. Results Lung and colorectal cancer caregivers who were members of dyads where one or both members continued to smoke, reported worse mental health QoL than non-smoking dyads. For colorectal cancer patients, continuing to smoke when the caregiver did not was associated with worse mental health QoL compared to non-smoking dyads. Dyad smoking was less strongly associated with physical QoL for both caregivers and patients. Conclusion Results highlight the importance of assessing smoking in both cancer patients and their caregivers and referring families to appropriate psychosocial and smoking cessation services. Impact This is the first study to show associations between cancer patient-caregiver smoking status and QoL for both dyad members. Future studies will need to confirm these associations longitudinally and investigate potential mechanisms linking dyad smoking and QoL. PMID:21177426

  14. A tyrosine–tryptophan dyad and radical-based charge transfer in a ribonucleotide reductase-inspired maquette

    PubMed Central

    Pagba, Cynthia V.; McCaslin, Tyler G.; Veglia, Gianluigi; Porcelli, Fernando; Yohannan, Jiby; Guo, Zhanjun; McDaniel, Miranda; Barry, Bridgette A.

    2015-01-01

    In class 1a ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), a substrate-based radical is generated in the α2 subunit by long-distance electron transfer involving an essential tyrosyl radical (Y122O·) in the β2 subunit. The conserved W48 β2 is ∼10 Å from Y122OH; mutations at W48 inactivate RNR. Here, we design a beta hairpin peptide, which contains such an interacting tyrosine–tryptophan dyad. The NMR structure of the peptide establishes that there is no direct hydrogen bond between the phenol and the indole rings. However, electronic coupling between the tyrosine and tryptophan occurs in the peptide. In addition, downshifted ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) frequencies are observed for the radical state, reproducing spectral downshifts observed for β2. The frequency downshifts of the ring and CO bands are consistent with charge transfer from YO· to W or another residue. Such a charge transfer mechanism implies a role for the β2 Y-W dyad in electron transfer. PMID:26627888

  15. Conformation-Controlled Diplatinum(II)-Ferrocene Dyads to Achieve Long-Lived Charge-Separated States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ge-Xia; Feng, Ke; Crossley, Maxwell J; Xing, Ling-Bao; Xiao, Hong-Yan; Li, Wen; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-08-16

    Square-planar polypyridyl platinum(II) complexes possess a rich range of structural and spectroscopic properties that are ideal for designing artificial photosynthetic centers. Taking advantage of the directionality in the charge-transfer excitation from the metal to the polypyridyl ligand, we describe here diplatinum(II)-ferrocene dyads, open-butterfly-like dyad 1 and closed-butterfly-like dyad 2, which were designed to understand the conformation and orientation effects to prolong the lifetime of charge-separated state. In contrast to the open-butterfly-like dyad 1, the closed-butterfly-like dyad 2 shows three-times long lifetime of charge separated state upon photoexcitation, demonstrating that the orientation in the rigid structure of dyad 2 is a very important issue to achieve long-lived charge separated state. PMID:27339465

  16. Role of the bridge in photoinduced electron transfer in porphyrin-fullerene dyads.

    PubMed

    Pelado, Beatriz; Abou-Chahine, Fawzi; Calbo, Joaquín; Caballero, Rubén; de la Cruz, Pilar; Junquera-Hernández, José M; Ortí, Enrique; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Langa, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    The role of π-conjugated molecular bridges in through-space and through-bond electron transfer is studied by comparing two porphyrin-fullerene donor-acceptor (D-A) dyads. One dyad, ZnP-Ph-C60 (ZnP = zinc porphyrin), incorporates a phenyl bridge between D and A and behaves very similarly to analogous dyads studied previously. The second dyad, ZnP-EDOTV-C60, introduces an additional 3,4-ethylenedioxythienylvinylene (EDOTV) unit into the conjugated bridge, which increases the distance between D and A, but, at the same time, provides increased electronic communication between them. Two essential outcomes that result from the introduction of the EDOTV unit in the bridge are as follows: 1) faster charge recombination, which indicates enhanced electronic coupling between the charge-separated and ground electronic states; and 2) the disappearance of the intramolecular exciplex, which mediates photoinduced charge separation in the ZnP-Ph-C60 dyad. The latter can be interpreted as a gradual decrease in electronic coupling between locally excited singlet states of D and A when introducing the EDOTV unit into the D-A bridge. PMID:25737468

  17. Fast Triplet Formation via Singlet Exciton Fission in a Covalent Perylenediimide-β-apocarotene Dyad Aggregate.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Catherine M; Brown, Kristen E; Horwitz, Noah E; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    A covalent dyad was synthesized in which perylene-3,4,:9:10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) is linked to β-apocarotene (Car) using a biphenyl spacer. The dyad is monomeric in toluene and forms a solution aggregate in methylcyclohexane (MCH). Using femtosecond transient absorption (fsTA) spectroscopy, the monomeric dyad and its aggregates were studied both in solution and in thin films. In toluene, photoexcitation at 530 nm preferentially excites PDI, and the dyad undergoes charge separation in τ = 1.7 ps and recombination in τ = 1.6 ns. In MCH and in thin solid films, 530 nm excitation of the PDI-Car aggregate also results in charge transfer that competes with energy transfer from (1)*PDI to Car and with an additional process, rapid Car triplet formation in <50 ps. Car triplet formation is only observed in the aggregated PDI-Car dyad and is attributed to singlet exciton fission (SF) within the aggregated PDI, followed by rapid triplet energy transfer from (3)*PDI to the carotenoid. SF from β-apocarotene aggregation is ruled out by direct excitation of Car films at 414 nm, where no triplet formation is observed. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on aggregated PDI-Car show the formation of (3)*Car with a spin-polarization pattern that rules out radical-pair intersystem crossing as the mechanism of triplet formation as well. PMID:25961130

  18. A trident dithienylethene-perylenemonoimide dyad with super fluorescence switching speed and ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Yan, Hui; Zhao, Ling-Xi; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Hu, Zhe; Huang, Zhen-Li; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent diarylethenes are promising in molecular optical memory and photonic devices. However, the performance of current diarylethenes is far from satisfactory because of the scarcity of high-speed switching capability and large fluorescence on-off ratio. Here we report a trident perylenemonoimide dyad modified by triple dithienylethenes whose photochromic fluorescence quenching ratio at the photostationary state exceeds 10,000 and the fluorescence quenching efficiency is close to 100% within seconds of ultraviolet irradiation. The highly sensitive fluorescence on/off switching of the trident dyad enables recyclable fluorescence patterning and all-optical transistors. The prototype optical device based on the trident dyad enables the optical switching of incident light and conversion from incident light wavelength to transmitted light wavelength, which is all-optically controlled, reversible and wavelength-convertible. In addition, the trident dyad-staining block copolymer vesicles are observed via optical nanoimaging with a sub-100 nm resolution, portending a potential prospect of the dithienylethene dyad in super-resolution imaging.

  19. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) dyad monthly association rates by demographic group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary data from GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota indicated wolves had low association rates with packmates during summer. However, aerial-telemetry locations of very high frequency (VHF)-radioed wolves in this same area showed high associations among packmates during winter. We analyzed aerial-telemetry-location data from VHF-collared wolves in several packs (n=18 dyads) in this same area from 1994-2012 by month, and found lowest association rates occurred during June. While other studies have found low association among wolf packmates during summer, information on differences in association patterns depending on the wolf associates’ demographics is sparse. During May-July, association rates were greatest for breeding pairs, followed by sibling dyads, and lowest for parent– offspring dyads. Our findings improve our understanding of how individual wolf relationships affect monthly association rates. We highlight some important remaining questions regarding wolf packmate associations.

  20. Coupling tendencies during exploratory behaviours of competing players in rugby union dyads.

    PubMed

    Correia, Vanda; Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Diniz, Ana; Kelso, J A Scott

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interpersonal coordination tendencies in 1vs.1 dyads in rugby union, here expressed by participants' movement velocity towards or away from the sideline as they competed to score or prevent a try. We examined whether coupling tendencies of members of each dyad shaped key performance outcomes (try or successful tackle). Data on movement displacement trajectories of eight male rugby union players (aged 11-12 years) were analysed during performance in 47 trials. To assess coordination tendencies during exploratory behaviours in the dyads, analyses of performance time series data were undertaken using variable time graphs, running correlations and cross-correlations. Results revealed distinct coupling patterns characterised by shifts between synchronous coordination and asynchronous coordination tendencies and uncoordinated actions. Observed behaviours were interpreted as attempts of competing participants to create and perceive possibilities for action while seeking to achieve specific performance goals. Findings also revealed that a variety of patterned relations between participants resulted in different performance outcomes. PMID:24814417

  1. A research on the thermal strength of dyad gas oven briquette

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Dongyao; Huang Zhongcheng; Wang Peilan

    1998-12-31

    Thermal strength characteristic curve of the dyad gas oven briquette during carbonization is introduced in this paper. The cohesiveness of the raw coal exercises a strong influence on the briquette thermal compressive strength during carbonization. The briquette is to be made from coking coal, and if the briquette is produced through the usual technique, will drop down and is not suitable for dyad gasoven. Also if a briquette rends to pieces during carbonization or removal from the coke oven, the briquette is not suitable for dyad gas oven. Some techniques to eliminate the cohesiveness of the raw coal and to preserve the briquette from rending to pieces is described in this paper. The methods decreasing the cohesiveness of briquette increase the porosity of the briquette and add powdery coke through a special briquetting technique.

  2. Reversible Photomodulation of Electronic Communication in a π-Conjugated Photoswitch-Fluorophore Molecular Dyad.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Javier; Schweighöfer, Felix; Wachtveitl, Josef; Hecht, Stefan

    2016-01-18

    The extent of electronic coupling between a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophore and a diarylethene (DAE) photoswitch has been modulated in a covalently linked molecular dyad by irradiation with either UV or visible light. In the open isomer, both moieties can be regarded as individual chromophores, while in the closed form the lowest electronic (S0 →S1 ) transition of the dyad is slightly shifted, enabling photomodulation of its fluorescence. Transient spectroscopy confirms that the dyad behaves dramatically different in the two switching states: while in the open isomer it resembles an undisturbed BODIPY fluorophore, in the closed isomer no fluorescence occurs and instead a red-shifted DAE behavior prevails. PMID:26667670

  3. Near-infrared molecular imaging probes based on chlorin-bacteriochlorin dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptaszek, Marcin; Kee, Hooi Ling; Muthiah, Chinnasamy; Nothdurft, Ralph; Akers, Walter; Achilefu, Samuel; Culver, Joseph P.; Holten, Dewey

    2010-02-01

    Chlorin-bacteriochlorin dyads as a new class of near-infrared fluorophores were synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. Each dyad is comprised of a chlorin macrocycle (free base or zinc chelate) as an energy donor (and absorber) and a free base bacteriochlorin as an energy acceptor (and emitter). Excitation of the chlorin (λ= 650 nm, zinc chelate; 675 nm, free base) results in fast (5 ps) and nearly quantitative (>99%) energy transfer to the adjacent bacteriochlorin moiety, and consequently bacteriochlorin fluorescence (λ= 760 nm). Thus, each chlorinbacteriochlorin dyad behaves as a single chromophore, with a large effective Stokes shift (85 or 110 nm), a significant fluorescence quantum yield (Φf = 0.19), long excited-state lifetime (τ = 5.4 ns), narrow excitation and emission bands (<20 nm), and high chemical stability. Imaging experiments performed using phantoms show that the chlorin-bacteriochlorin dyads exhibit a range of superior properties compare with commercially available imaging dyes. While the latter are six-fold brighter (comparing ɛ•Φf values), the chlorin-bacteriochlorin dyads exhibit narrower excitation and emission bands and larger Stokes shift, therefore allowing more efficient and selective excitation and detection of fluorescence. The high selectivity is further demonstrated with in vivo imaging studies using mice. This selectivity together with the tunability of absorption and emission wavelengths using substituent effects under synthetic control make the chlorin-bacteriochlorin dyads ideal candidates for multicolor imaging applications. In addition, the long fluorescence lifetimes make those probes suitable for lifetime-imaging applications.

  4. Psychological adaptation to life-threatening injury in dyads: the role of dysfunctional disclosure of trauma

    PubMed Central

    Pielmaier, Laura; Maercker, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background Certain modes of trauma disclosure have been found to be associated with more severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in different trauma populations: the reluctance to disclose trauma-related thoughts and feelings, a strong urge to talk about it, and physical as well as emotional reactions during disclosure. Although social-contextual influences gain more and more interest in trauma research, no study has yet investigated these “dysfunctional disclosure tendencies” and their association with PTS from an interpersonal perspective. Objective (1) To replicate previous findings on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies in patients with life-threatening injury and their significant others and (2) to study interpersonal associations between dysfunctional disclosure style and PTS at a dyadic level. Method PTS symptom severity and self-reports on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies were assessed in N=70 dyads comprising one individual with severe traumatic brain injury and a significant other (“proxy”) 3 months after injury. Results Regression analyses predicting PTS symptom severity revealed dysfunctional disclosure tendencies to have incremental validity above and beyond sex, age, and trauma severity within the individual (both patient and proxy), with moderate effect sizes. The interaction between patient's and proxy's disclosure style explained additional portions of the variance in patients’ PTS symptom severity. Conclusions Findings suggest that dysfunctional disclosure tendencies are related to poorer psychological adaptation to severe traumatic brain injury. This intrapersonal association may be exacerbated by dysfunctional disclosure tendencies on the part of a significant other. Although the results require replication in other trauma samples without brain injury to further generalize the findings beyond the observed population, the study contributes to the expanding literature on the crucial role of interpersonal relationships in trauma

  5. Effects of Gender Role and Task Content on Performance in Same-Gender Dyads: Transactive Memory as a Potential Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas; Huguet, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was designed to examine the effects of gender role and task content on performance in learning dyads and to test the potential mediator effect of an intragroup process related to transactive memory. A total of 44 same-gender dyads participated in the study and were asked to collaborate on a stereotypically masculine or feminine…

  6. An Examination of Changes in Emotion Co-Regulation among Mother and Child Dyads during the Strange Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yuqing; Leu, Szu-Yun; Barnard, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Elaine A.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied state-space grid analysis to describe how preschooler-mother dyads co-regulate emotion in the Strange Situation. Second-to-second mother and child affect during pre-separation play (baseline) and the final reunion (post perturbation) episodes of the Strange Situation were coded for 80 dyads. Change in emotion…

  7. Counselling Australian Baby Boomers: Examining the Loss and Grief Issues Facing Aging Distance-Separated Sibling Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra Frances; Clark, Nadia; Newton, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    It has long been recognised that mature-aged sibling dyads provide each other with emotional support. What has yet to be determined is whether this support function is maintained within the baby boomer generational cohort of sibling dyads who through economic relocation/migration have become separated by distance. As such, this paper highlights…

  8. Attachment Style, Vagal Tone, and Empathy during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Butterworth, Molly R.

    2012-01-01

    We tested associations among empathic responsiveness, attachment style, and vagal tone (a physiologic index of emotion regulation) in 103 mother-adolescent dyads. Dyads discussed positive and negative topics and then separately reviewed a videotape of the interaction and rated their own and the other person's affect at one-minute intervals. We…

  9. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  10. Let the Force Be with Us: Dyads Exploit Haptic Coupling for Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Knoblich, Guenther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    People often perform actions that involve a direct physical coupling with another person, such as when moving furniture together. Here, we examined how people successfully coordinate such actions with others. We tested the hypothesis that dyads amplify their forces to create haptic information to coordinate. Participants moved a pole (resembling a…

  11. Custodial Grandmother-Grandfather Dyads: Pathways among Marital Distress, Grandparent Dysphoria, Parenting Practice, and Grandchild Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on…

  12. Structural Features of Sibling Dyads and Attitudes toward Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggio, Heidi R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sibling-dyad structural variables (sex composition, age difference, current coresidence, position adjacency, family size, respondent and/or sibling ordinal position) and attitudes toward adult sibling relationships. A sample of 1,053 young adults (M age = 22.1 years) described one sibling using the Lifespan Sibling Relationship…

  13. Identity Styles and Conflict Resolution Styles: Associations in Mother-Adolescent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad.…

  14. PATTERNS OF EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN MOTHER-INFANT DYADS: ASSOCIATIONS WITH MULTIPLE LEVELS OF CONTEXT.

    PubMed

    Mingo, M Verónica; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study explored emotional availability (EA)- an individual's emotional responsiveness and attunement to another's needs and goals (R.N. Emde, 1980)- among a high social risk group of 226 adolescent mothers and their infants (average = 12 months old). The aim was to identify dyadic patterns of EA and to examine their association with multiple indicators of the ecological context. Maternal sensitivity, maternal nonhostility, and child responsiveness were assessed with the Emotional Availability Scales, Third Edition (Z. Biringen, J. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 1998) during free play and teaching observations at home. Four EA patterns were identified using k-means cluster analysis: (a) "low functioning," (b) "high functioning," (c) "low functioning dyads with nonhostile mothers," and (d) "inconsistently sensitive mother and responsive child." These patterns had distinct associations with (a) mothers' parenting attitudes regarding children's power and independence and parent-child role reversal, (b) mothers' strategies in conflict resolution with their partners and their children, and (c) the dyads' living arrangements. This study makes a contribution to the understanding of the mother-child relationship from a systemic and relational perspective and explores the association of EA patterns with the dyads' relational context. Implications for programs and treatment approaches aimed at supporting dyads at social risk are discussed. PMID:26331847

  15. Influence Techniques in Dyads Composed of Interdependent Middle and Lower Class Preschool Children. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Howard M.; Russell, Richard L.

    The procedures by which children from lower and middle class backgrounds attempt to obtain rewarding outcomes from each other were observed under semicontrolled conditions. Ten male and 9 female dyads, each composed of 1 middle class and 1 lower class preschool child, were required to complete 12 simple block puzzles in which each was given some…

  16. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  17. Couple Coping and Adjustment to Multiple Sclerosis in Care Receiver-Carer Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    1998-01-01

    The utility of "coping congruency" and "average level of couple coping" in explaining adjustment to multiple sclerosis was examined. Interview and questionnaire data was collected for 45 dyads with a 12-month follow-up. Predictors include Time 1 illness, caregiving, and coping variables. Findings support both concepts for explaining collective and…

  18. Corrective Feedback via Instant Messenger Learning Activities in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotillo, Susana

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examines corrective feedback in native speaker-nonnative speaker (NS-NNS) and NNS-NNS dyads while participants were engaged in communicative and problem-solving activities via "Yahoo! Instant Messenger" (YIM). As "negotiation of meaning" studies of the 1990s have shown, linguistic items which learners negotiate in…

  19. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

  20. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

  1. Intramolecular electron transfer in fullerene/ferrocene based donor-bridge-acceptor dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Guldi, D.M.; Maggini, M.; Scorrano, G.; Prato, M.

    1997-02-05

    A systematic steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved flash photolytic investigation of a series of covalently linked fullerene/ferrocene based donor-bridge-acceptor dyads is reported as a function of the nature of the spacer between the donor site (ferrocene) and acceptor site (fullerene) and the dielectric constant of the medium. The fluorescence of the investigated dyads 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 in methylcyclohexane at 77 K were substantially quenched, relative to N-methylfulleropyrrolidine 1, indicating intramolecular quenching of the fullerene excited singlet state. Excitation of N-methylfulleropyrrolidine revealed the immediate formation of the excited singlet state, with {lambda}{sub max} around 886 nm. A rapid intersystem crossing ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 1.2 ps ) to the excited triplet state was observed with characteristic absorption around 705 nm. Picosecond resolved photolysis of dyads 2-6 in toluene showed light-induced formation of the excited singlet state which undergoes rapid intramolecular quenching. Nanosecond-resolved photolysis of dyads 3 and 4 in degassed benzonitrile revealed long-lived charge separated states with characteristic fullerene radical-anion bands at {lambda}{sub max} = 1055 nm. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. African American and European American Therapists' Experiences of Addressing Race in Cross-Racial Psychotherapy Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Sarah; Burkard, Alan W.; Johnson, Adanna J.; Suzuki, Lisa A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2003-01-01

    Using Consensual Qualitative Research, 12 licensed psychologists' overall experiences addressing race in psychotherapy were investigated, as were their experiences addressing race in a specific cross-racial therapy dyad. Results indicated that only African American psychologists reported routinely addressing race with clients of color or when race…

  3. The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

  4. Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

    1997-01-01

    Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…

  5. Factors Affecting Co-Operative vs. Competitive Behavior in Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Gerald; Phelan, Joseph G.

    Theoretical interpretations of cooperation and competition are discussed in relation to motivational and situational determinants. It is suggested that the degree of competition exhibited in an interaction is an inverse function of the quantity of resources available, and that the effect of situational characteristics on cooperative behavior is…

  6. "New beginnings" in South African shelters for the homeless: piloting of a group psychotherapy intervention for high-risk mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Bain, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The New Beginnings program was developed at the Anna Freud Centre and originally piloted in Her Majesty Prisons in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore the use of this manualized parent-infant psychotherapy group model in an African setting with high-risk mother-infant dyads, and describes the implementation and investigation of this 12-week group psychotherapy intervention in two Johannesburg shelters for homeless women. The measures used to investigate treatment efficacy were the Parent Development Interview (A. Slade, J.L. Aber, I. Bresgi, B. Berger, & M. Kaplan,), the Emotional Availability Scales (Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde,), the Kessler-10 (R.C. Kessler et al.,), and the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development (D. Luiz et al., . At pretesting, infants exhibited delays in a number of developmental areas, and mothers showed high levels of depression and generally low capacities for reflective function. While significant shifts in the mothers' capacities for reflective function were not found in the treatment condition, significant shifts were found in the infants' speech abilities and in the mothers' abilities to structure their interactions with their infants. This suggests that the program enabled mothers to become more sensitized to their infants' needs in interaction and that communication between mother and infant increased. The number of sessions attended by the dyads correlated with improvements made by the mothers and their infants. PMID:25798508

  7. Should I stay or should I go? Initiation of joint travel in mother-infant dyads of two chimpanzee communities in the wild.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Marlen; Wittig, Roman M; Pika, Simone

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that great apes communicate via intentionally produced, elaborate and flexible gestural means. Yet relatively little is known about the most fundamental steps into this communicative endeavour-communicative exchanges of mother-infant dyads and gestural acquisition; perhaps because the majority of studies concerned captive groups and single communities in the wild only. Here, we report the first systematic, quantitative comparison of communicative interactions of mother-infant dyads in two communities of wild chimpanzees by focusing on a single communicative function: initiation of carries for joint travel. Over 156 days of observation, we recorded 442 actions, 599 cases of intentional gesture production, 51 multi-modal combinations and 80 vocalisations in the Kanyawara community, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the Taï South community, Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Our results showed that (1) mothers and infants differed concerning the signal frequency and modality employed to initiate joint travel, (2) concordance rates of mothers' gestural production were relatively low within but also between communities, (3) infant communicative development is characterised by a shift from mainly vocal to gestural means, and (4) chimpanzee mothers adjusted their signals to the communicative level of their infants. Since neither genetic channelling nor ontogenetic ritualization explains our results satisfactorily, we propose a revised theory of gestural acquisition, social negotiation, in which gestures are the output of social shaping, shared understanding and mutual construction in real time by both interactants. PMID:26833496

  8. Multivariate models of parent-late adolescent gender dyads: the importance of parenting processes in predicting adjustment.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-06-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample for this study consisted of 151 male and 324 female late adolescents, who reported on their mothers' and fathers' parenting style, their family environment, their mothers' and fathers' expectations for them, the conflict that they experience with their mothers and fathers, and their own adjustment. Overall, the variables had significant relationships with one another. Further, the male-father, male-mother, and female-father structural equation models that were examined suggested that parenting style has an indirect relationship with late adolescents' adjustment through characteristics of the family environment and the conflict that is experienced in families; such findings were not evident for the female-mother model. Thus, the examination of parent-late adolescent interactions should occur in the context of the gender of parents and their late adolescents. PMID:17710537

  9. Worker-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals: Perpetrator Characteristics and Common Dyads.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Lydia E; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-02-01

    Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator-target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899

  10. A deformation energy-based model for predicting nucleosome dyads and occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guoqing; Xing, Yongqiang; Zhao, Hongyu; Wang, Jianying; Shang, Yu; Cai, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosome plays an essential role in various cellular processes, such as DNA replication, recombination, and transcription. Hence, it is important to decode the mechanism of nucleosome positioning and identify nucleosome positions in the genome. In this paper, we present a model for predicting nucleosome positioning based on DNA deformation, in which both bending and shearing of the nucleosomal DNA are considered. The model successfully predicted the dyad positions of nucleosomes assembled in vitro and the in vitro map of nucleosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Applying the model to Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, we achieved satisfactory results. Our data also show that shearing energy of nucleosomal DNA outperforms bending energy in nucleosome occupancy prediction and the ability to predict nucleosome dyad positions is attributed to bending energy that is associated with rotational positioning of nucleosomes. PMID:27053067

  11. Highly efficient modulation of FRET in an orthogonally arranged BODIPY–DTE dyad

    PubMed Central

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Hammer, Christopher A.; Gustmann, Henrik; Zastrow, Marc; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The photoswitchable boron-dipyrromethene–dithienylethene molecular dyad is introduced as a prototype for the efficient fluorescence intensity modulation on the molecular level. The functionality of the system is based on the photochromism of the dithienylethene, which facilitates an efficient on- and off-switching of a Förster-type intramolecular energy transfer between the photoexcited BODIPY donor and the dithienylethene acceptor moiety. The switching behavior and dynamics of the molecular dyad are monitored by steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic methods. A quenching efficiency of up to 96% in the off-state is observed and explained by a drastically accelerated decay of the boron-dipyrromethene excited state due to the efficient energy transfer despite the orthogonal arrangement of donor and acceptor. An energy transfer time orders of magnitude shorter than the lifetime of the boron-dipyrromethene in the open state is determined. PMID:27345216

  12. Post-Disaster Mental Health Among Parent–Child Dyads After a Major Earthquake in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Juth, Vanessa; Seyle, D. Conor; Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Tan, Edwin T.

    2015-01-01

    The interdependent adjustment of children and their parents following disasters has been well documented. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to provide an appropriate analytical framework for examining how family members may contribute to each other’s post-disaster mental health. Independent self-reports were collected from parent–child dyads (n=397) residing in a rural community in Indonesia that was devastated by a major earthquake. Elementary school children (M=10 years; 51 % female) and one of their parents (M=41 years; 73 % female) each reported on their disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and general distress. The APIM was used to examine mental health within dyads and moderation by gender across dyads. Children reported lower disaster exposure and fewer PTS symptoms, but similar general distress levels, as their parents. Children’s and parents’ disaster-specific PTS symptoms were the strongest predictor of their own general distress. Parents’ PTS symptoms were associated with children’s general distress (b=0.14, p<0.001), but children’s PTS symptoms were not associated with parents’ general distress (b=−0.02, p>0.05). Findings were not moderated by parents’ or children’s gender. Although children and parents may respond differently to natural disasters, they may be best understood as a dyad. APIM analyses provide new evidence suggesting a unidirectional path of influence from parents’ disaster-related symptomatology to children’s general mental health. Dyadic approaches to understanding mental health and treating symptoms of distress among disaster survivors and their families following trauma are encouraged. PMID:25851238

  13. Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. II. Recoupled pair bond dyads in carbon and sulfur difluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, Thom H. Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Xu, Lu T.

    2015-01-21

    Formation of a bond between a second ligand and a molecule with a recoupled pair bond results in a recoupled pair bond dyad. We examine the recoupled pair bond dyads in the a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2}, which are formed by the addition of a fluorine atom to the a{sup 4}Σ{sup −} states of CF and SF, both of which possess recoupled pair bonds. The two dyads are very different. In SF{sub 2}, the second FS–F bond is very strong (D{sub e} = 106.3 kcal/mol), the bond length is much shorter than that in the SF(a{sup 4}Σ{sup −}) state (1.666 Å versus 1.882 Å), and the three atoms are nearly collinear (θ{sub e} = 162.7°) with only a small barrier to linearity (0.4 kcal/mol). In CF{sub 2}, the second FC–F bond is also very strong (D{sub e} = 149.5 kcal/mol), but the bond is only slightly shorter than that in the CF(a{sup 4}Σ{sup −}) state (1.314 Å versus 1.327 Å), and the molecule is strongly bent (θ{sub e} = 119.0°) with an 80.5 kcal/mol barrier to linearity. The a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2} illustrate the fundamental differences between recoupled pair bond dyads formed from 2s and 3p lone pairs.

  14. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d) staying active, and (e) recognizing emotions and behaviors. Results of the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention protocols are also presented. Design and Methods: Caregiving dyads were randomly assigned to participate in the intervention. Participants in the treatment condition were asked to complete a series of evaluation questions after each intervention session and an overall evaluation of the program. Data were also collected from the intervention specialists who implemented the protocols. Results: Overall, the evaluation data indicated that the content and process of the intervention were viewed as highly acceptable and feasible by both participants and intervention specialists. Implications: This article highlights the merit of using a strength-based approach for working with caregiving dyads with dementia and how a single intervention protocol can be used to address the goals of both care partners. Furthermore, the intervention program was found to be highly acceptable and feasible, which is an important aspect of developing dyadic protocols. PMID:19808841

  15. Electron, Hole, Singlet, and Triplet Energy Transfer in Photoexcited Porphyrin-Naphthalenediimide Dyads.

    PubMed

    Yushchenko, Oleksandr; Hangarge, Rahul V; Mosquera-Vazquez, Sandra; Boshale, Sheshanath V; Vauthey, Eric

    2015-06-18

    The excited-state dynamics of two molecular dyads, consisting of zinc (1) and free-base (2) porphyrin connected via a peptide linker to a core-substituted naphthalenediimide (NDI) have been investigated using optical spectroscopy. These dyads exhibit rich photophysics because of the large number of electronic excited states below 3 eV. In the case of 1 in apolar solvents, excitation energy transfer from the vibrationally hot singlet excited porphyrin to the NDI takes place with a 500 fs time constant. Electronic energy ends up in the NDI-localized triplet state, which decays to the ground state on a microsecond timescale. In polar solvents, ground-state recovery is faster by 5 orders of magnitude because of the occurrence of charge separation followed by recombination. On the other hand, excitation energy transfer in 2 takes place in the opposite direction, namely from the NDI to the porphyrin, which then undergoes intersystem crossing to the triplet state, followed by triplet energy transfer back to the NDI. Therefore, four distinct local electronic excited states are consecutively populated after excitation of the NDI unit of 2, with the energy shuttling between the two ends of the dyad. PMID:25418961

  16. The role of the nurse-physician leadership dyad in implementing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    PubMed

    St Fleur, Rose; McKeever, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the nurse-physician leadership dyad incorporates the expertise of both nurses and physicians as leaders of change within health system environments. The leadership dyad model has been used traditionally in health care administrative settings to manage utilization of resources more effectively. Because the Baby-Friendly designation requires major cultural shifts in long-standing maternity care practices, an interdisciplinary approach to implementation is necessary. PMID:24939200

  17. Effects of psychosocial variables in the similarity and interdependence of physical activity levels among adolescent best friend dyads.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vítor P; Gabbard, Carl; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2016-01-01

    Given that physical activity (PA) tends to decrease with age during adolescence, addressing factors that affect change is important. This study examined the similarity and interdependence of PA as influenced by psychosocial factors among adolescent best friend dyads. A total of 660 adolescents, representing 330 best friend dyads, completed questionnaires with regard to PA, sitting time, perceived exercise benefits and barriers, physical self-perception and social support for PA. Dyads were also identified as reciprocal and non-reciprocal best friends; reciprocal means that both considered each other best friends and non-reciprocal were those in which only one considered the other a best friend. Data were analysed using a hierarchical linear model framework. Results indicated significant similarities between reciprocal best friend dyads for PA and sitting time, and for sitting time in non-reciprocal best friends (P values <.01). Psychosocial variables were associated with PA in reciprocal best friend dyads and with sitting time in reciprocal and non-reciprocal best friend dyads. Best friend gender, regular sports practice of the person, perceived exercise barriers of the best friend and best friend social support were the best predictors for PA. PMID:26238302

  18. Blue-shifted emission and enhanced quantum efficiency viaπ-bridge elongation in carbazole-carborane dyads.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojin; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tianyu; Moxey, Graeme J; Cifuentes, Marie P; Zhang, Chi; Humphrey, Mark G

    2016-06-21

    Carbazole-carborane linear dyads and di(carbazole)-carborane V-shaped dyads with phenyleneethynylene-based bridges have been synthesized. The V-shaped dyads display the expected red-shifts in the location of their UV-Vis absorption maxima on bridge-lengthening, but show unusual blue-shifts in charge-transfer (CT) emission on the same π-system lengthening. These blue-shifts can be attributed to the 2n + 3 electron count within the carborane cluster in the excited state. The linear dyads luminesce via a combination of local excited (LE) and CT emission, with a red-shift in LE emission and a blue-shift in CT emission accompanying π-bridge elongation. A quantum efficiency as high as 86% in the solution state is achieved from the hybrid LE/CT emission. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations at the excited state of these compounds have clarified the photoluminescence blue-shift and suggested a typical cluster C-C bond elongation in the V-shaped dyads. Calculations on the elongated linear dyads have suggested that the electron density is localized at the phenyleneethynylene-containing bridge. PMID:27225829

  19. Adoptive and Nonadoptive Mother–Child Behavioral Interaction: A Comparative Study at 4 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Padilla, Christina M.; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Horn, E. Parham; Bradley, Alexandra L.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparable samples of low-risk adopted and nonadopted children and mothers were observed during 3 tasks at age 4 years. Quality of mother-child interactions, child level of functioning in 4 domains, and maternal parenting satisfaction and social support were assessed. Adopted children were as competent as nonadopted children on measures of developmental functioning. Both groups of mothers expressed high satisfaction and support as parents. However, ratings of child, maternal, and dyadic behavior when interacting were all lower for adoptive dyads than for nonadoptive dyads, and adoptive dyads with boys accounted for the maternal and dyadic group differences. PMID:27134518

  20. Examining "fat talk" experimentally in a female dyad: how are women influenced by another woman's body presentation style?

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katheryn L; Martz, Denise M; Curtin, Lisa A; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-06-01

    Fat talk, the verbal dissatisfaction that women express about their bodies, was studied in a female dyad whereby participants interacted with a female confederate who either self-derogated, self-accepted, or self-aggrandized. A 2 (participant body esteem: high vs. low) x3 (confederate style of body image presentation) design was used. Results revealed that participants' public disclosure of their body image varied according to confederate's style. Consistent with a reciprocity effect, participants disclosed the lowest public body image ratings in the self-derogate condition, with moderate ratings in the self-accept condition, and highest ratings in the self-aggrandize condition. Moreover, participants with low compared to high body esteem stated lower public body image. Participants' judgments of the confederates' likeability did not vary as a function of the confederate's body presentational style. Findings support the recursive nature of the social psychology of body image such that personal body image dissatisfaction is partially influenced by fat talk social norms. PMID:18089261

  1. Maternal recasts and activity variations: a comparison of mother-child dyads involving children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Stefano; de Weck, Geneviève; Salazar Orvig, Anne; da Silva Genest, Christine; Rahmati, Somayeh

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated maternal recast and the children's responses comparing dyads made up of a mother and a child with typical language development (TD) or a child with specific language impairment (SLI). More specifically, this article deals with the influence of the type of activity being carried out on the number and types of maternal recasts. A sample of 17 French-speaking children with SLI (age 5 to 7 years) matched with 17 TD same-age peers was observed in interaction with their mother during four different activities (joint reading, symbolic play, question guessing game and clue guessing game). The results showed that group and activity had an impact on the number and type of recasts. Mothers of children with SLI offered more recasts than mothers of TD children. The former preferred phonological recasts whereas the latter preferred lexical ones. Moreover, recasts were more frequently used in joint reading than in other activities. Regarding the children's responses, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Children with SLI took up the maternal proposition more frequently after a lexical recast than after a recast of another type. The findings provide evidence for considering the features of the activities in clinical settings. PMID:23819678

  2. Maintenance factors in coercive mother-child interactions: the compliance and predictability hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Wahler, R G; Dumas, J E

    1986-01-01

    Two stimulus control processes by which some parent-child dyads occasionally escalate their aversive exchanges into progressively more coercive interactions are described. The compliance hypothesis suggests that aversive actions have instructional properties for the dyad and that parent compliance with such child instructions maintains behavior chains of increasing aversiveness. The predictability hypothesis suggests that social interactions are most likely to function as aversive stimuli in the dyad when delivered in unpredictable fashion by either party and that responses instrumental in reducing dyadic unpredictability maintain aversive behavior chains. Expectations derived from both hypotheses are evaluated in a series of correlational analyses of mother-child interactions obtained in extended baseline observations of three dyads seeking psychological help for severe interactional problems. Results provide tentative support for the predictability hypothesis and suggest important avenues of further research. PMID:3710944

  3. Echinocystic acid reduces reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Han, Jing; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Feng, Bin; Deng, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xin-Shang; Yang, Qi; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain has consistently been correlated with depression. Echinocystic acid (EA), a natural triterpone enriched in various herbs and used for medicinal purpose in many Asian countries, exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, little is known the effects of EA on the depression. In present study, we investigated the anti-depression activities in the mouse model of reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad. Reserpine (1 mg/kg subcutaneously daily for 3 days) caused significant depression-like behaviors and pain sensation. Subsequent treatment of EA (5 mg/kg intragastrically daily for 5 days) attenuated the reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad as shown by the increase of pain threshold and the behaviors in forced swimming test, tail suspension test, and open field test. Furthermore, treatment of EA reversed the decrease of biogenic amines (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) in the brain region of hippocampus, a structure involved in the formation of emotional disorders. Levels of serotonin receptor 5-HT1A were decreased and levels of 5-HT2A were increased in the reserpine-injected mice. Treatment of EA could restore the alterations of serotonin receptors. At the same time, the increase in GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, p-GluA1-Ser831, PSD-95 and CaMKII were integrated with the increase in caspase-3 and iNOS levels in the hippocampus of the reserpine-injected mice. EA significantly reversed the changes of above proteins. However, EA did not affect the levels of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors and the total levels of GluA1 and p-GluA1-Ser845. Our study provides strong evidence that EA attenuates reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad partially through regulating the biogenic amines levels and GluN2B receptors in the hippocampus. PMID:26729203

  4. [Multidisciplinary care during peripartum: mother-baby dyad in the center of the relational constellations].

    PubMed

    Girard, E; Ortiz, N; Alberque, C; Almeida Heymans, A; Epiney, M; Canuto, A; Weber, K

    2013-02-13

    Pregnancy and new motherhood may be crisis and vulnerability periods and therefore increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. Liaison psychiatry plays a major role in the first psychiatric evaluation of mothers in order to specify a diagnosis and to initiate a treatment when necessary. This article describes the care of mothers suffering from peripartum psychiatric disorders by the liaison psychiatry in the maternity ward, an outpatient practice, as well as an in-patient care unit where mother and baby can stay together. The multidisciplinary approach and its constellation around the mother-baby dyad are detailed and two clinical cases are reported. PMID:23477067

  5. Probing the Dipolar Coupling in a Heterospin Endohedral Fullerene-Phthalocyanine Dyad.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shen; Yamamoto, Masanori; Briggs, G Andrew D; Imahori, Hiroshi; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos

    2016-02-01

    Paramagnetic endohedral fullerenes and phthalocyanine (Pc) complexes are promising building blocks for molecular quantum information processing, for which tunable dipolar coupling is required. We have linked these two spin qubit candidates together and characterized the resulting electron paramagnetic resonance properties, including the spin dipolar coupling between the fullerene spin and the copper spin. Having interpreted the distance-dependent coupling strength quantitatively and further discussed the antiferromagnetic aggregation effect of the CuPc moieties, we demonstrate two ways of tuning the dipolar coupling in such dyad systems: changing the spacer group and adjusting the solution concentration. PMID:26745202

  6. Autoregulation of fos: the dyad symmetry element as the major target of repression.

    PubMed Central

    König, H; Ponta, H; Rahmsdorf, U; Büscher, M; Schönthal, A; Rahmsdorf, H J; Herrlich, P

    1989-01-01

    Fos and Jun co-operatively repress the fos promoter. Removal of all putative Fos/Jun binding sites from the fos promoter neither obliterates the repression by Fos/Jun in transient cotransfection experiments in NIH3T3 cells nor the turn-off kinetics of serum-induced fos expression in stably transfected NIH3T3 cells. The dyad symmetry element (DSE) suffices to subject a promoter to this type of repression. However, one of the putative Fos/Jun binding sites (-292 to -299 and thus located immediately adjacent to the DSE), determines the very low level of basal expression. Images PMID:2511006

  7. Detecting dyads of related individuals in large collections of DNA-profiles by controlling the false discovery rate.

    PubMed

    Skaug, H J; Bérubé, M; Palsbøll, P J

    2010-07-01

    The search for pairs (dyads) of related individuals in large databases of DNA-profiles has become an increasingly important inference tool in ecology. However, the many, partly dependent, pairwise comparisons introduce statistical issues. We show that the false discovery rate (FDR) procedure is well suited to control for the proportion of false positives, i.e. dyads consisting of unrelated individuals, which under normal circumstances would have been labelled as related individuals. We verify the behaviour of the standard FDR procedure by simulation, demonstrating that the FDR procedure works satisfactory in spite of the many dependent pairwise comparisons involved in an exhaustive database screening. A computer program that implements this method is available online. In addition, we propose to implement a second stage in the procedure, in which additional independent genetic markers are used to identify the false positives. We demonstrate the application of the approach in an analysis of a DNA database consisting of 3300 individual minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) each typed at ten microsatellite loci. Applying the standard procedure with an FDR of 50% led to the identification of 74 putative dyads of 1st- or 2nd-order relatives. However, introducing the second step, which involved additional genotypes at 15 microsatellite loci, revealed that only 21 of the putative dyads can be claimed with high certainty to be true dyads. PMID:21565074

  8. [Interpersonal relation pattern in families with a bulimic member- interaction analysis].

    PubMed

    Stasch, M; Reich, G

    2000-03-01

    Basic hypotheses concerning the interaction in families of bulimic patients are tested. Family therapy sessions of 20 female patients of an outpatient therapy unit for eating-disorders were coded with a micro-analytic instrument (Göttinger Familieninteraktions-Skalen) and analysed. The siblings relationships were systematically included in the study. The parental dyad turned out to be significantly more conflictual than the other dyads were. In the relationship between the patient and the parents a relatively stable pattern of interactional behaviour was found. The relationship between mother and bulimic daughter was more conflictual than that between father and daughter. The father-sibling-dyad was not significantly more conflictual than the father-patient-dyad. Especially the impact of sibling relationships on the family interaction of bulimic patients needs further elucidation. PMID:10771579

  9. An ionic charge-transfer dyad prepared cost-effectively from a tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate anion and a TMPyP cation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li-Jun; Huo, Peng; Li, Yan-Hong; Hou, Jin-Le; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie

    2016-01-28

    Great progress has been made in combining a TTF moiety with a porphyrin unit by covalent bonds, but only a few examples were reported in which TTF and porphyrin assembled by noncovalent interactions. In contrast to the energy- and time-consuming synthetic procedures for the covalent system, the assembly of a non-covalent ionic system would be a cost-effective way to construct donor-acceptor ensembles. Herein a new type of ionic TTF-porphyrin dyad is obtained. A methylated tetra(4-pyridyl) porphyrin (5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin, TMPyP) is selected as the cation, and TTF-bicarboxylate (L(1)) or TTF-tetracarboxylate (L(2)) is used as the anion. Crystal structures of two TTF-TMPyP ionic D-A compounds, TMPyP-(HL(1))4·3H2O (1) and TMPyP-(H2L(2))2·5H2O (2), were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The strong ionic interaction enhances the charge-transfer between the regular mixed-stacking donors and acceptors, which are investigated comprehensively by spectral, electrochemical and theoretical studies. The variation in properties between L(1) and L(2) is of great advantage to understand the influence factors for charge-transfer. The charge-transfer properties can be modulated not only by the nature of the donor or the acceptor, but also the cation-anion ratio in the salt, which shows great flexibility of the D-A ionic dyad in the design and preparation of new charge-transfer systems. PMID:26732050

  10. Dyads of father and son suicide separated by time and circumstances.

    PubMed

    Carson, Henry J

    2010-03-01

    We encountered 2 dyadic suicides among fathers and sons. In the first dyad, the father was a 64-year-old man with complications of heart surgery. He committed suicide with a shotgun. The decedent's son was a 38-year-old man. Five years after his father's death, the son had an argument with his wife. That morning, he drove to the house where his father had lived and inflicted a handgun wound to his head. In the second dyad, the son was a 22-year-old man whose girlfriend left him. He inflicted a shotgun injury to the head. His blood alcohol level was 294 mg/dL. The father of this decedent was a 43-year-old man who 1 year later was despondent after a fight with his girlfriend. He was found dead at home with a single handgun wound to the chest. His blood alcohol level was 173 mg/dL. All 4 suicides appear to have been premeditated and all 4 men used guns. Suicide in a family tends to cause depression and complicate bereavement in survivors more than other types of death. Copycat suicide is well-documented in high-profile cases. The effect of father-son relationships is likely closer and more influential than celebrity suicides. PMID:19935393

  11. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    PubMed

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies. PMID:27272990

  12. A Framework for Incorporating Dyads in Models of HIV-Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hops, Hyman; Redding, Colleen A.; Reis, Harry T.; Rothman, Alexander J.; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2014-01-01

    Although HIV is contracted by individuals, it is typically transmitted in dyads. Most efforts to promote safer sex practices, however, focus exclusively on individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework that specifies how models of dyadic processes and relationships can inform models of HIV-prevention. At the center of the framework is the proposition that safer sex between two people requires a dyadic capacity for successful coordination. According to this framework, relational, individual, and structural variables that affect the enactment of safer sex do so through their direct and indirect effects on that dyadic capacity. This dyadic perspective does not require an ongoing relationship between two individuals; rather, it offers a way of distinguishing between dyads along a continuum from anonymous strangers (with minimal coordination of behavior) to long-term partners (with much greater coordination). Acknowledging the dyadic context of HIV-prevention offers new targets for interventions and suggests new approaches to tailoring interventions to specific populations. PMID:20838872

  13. Discrepant Perspectives on Conflict Situations Among Urban Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    PubMed

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R; Jones, Vanya C; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-03-01

    Parents influence urban youths' violence-related behaviors. To provide effective guidance, parents should understand how youth perceive conflict, yet little empirical research has been conducted regarding parent and youth perceptions of conflict. The aims of this article are to (a) report on the nature of discrepancies in attribution of fault, (b) present qualitative data about the varying rationales for fault attribution, and (c) use quantitative data to identify correlates of discrepancy including report of attitudes toward violence, parental communication, and parents' messages about retaliatory violence. Interviews were conducted with 101 parent/adolescent dyads. The study population consisted of African American female caretakers (n = 92; that is, mothers, grandmothers, aunts) and fathers (n = 9) and their early adolescents (mean age = 13.6). A total of 53 dyads were discrepant in identifying instigators in one or both videos. When discrepancy was present, the parent was more likely to identify the actor who reacted to the situation as at fault. In the logistic regression models, parental attitudes about retaliatory violence were a significant correlate of discrepancy, such that as parent attitudes supporting retaliatory violence increased, the odds of discrepancy decreased. The results suggest that parents and adolescents do not always view conflict situations similarly, which may inhibit effective parent-child communication, parental advice, and discipline. Individuals developing and implementing family-based violence prevention interventions need to be cognizant of the complexity of fault attribution and design strategies to promote conversations around attribution of fault and effective conflict management. PMID:25535252

  14. Broadband Two-Photon Absorption Characteristics of Highly Photostable Fluorenyl-Dicyanoethylenylated [60]Fullerene Dyads.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seaho; Wang, Min; Ji, Wei; Tan, Loon-Seng; Cooper, Thomas; Chiang, Long Y

    2016-01-01

    We synthesized four C60-(light-harvesting antenna) dyads C60 (>CPAF-Cn) (n = 4, 9, 12, or 18) 1-Cn for the investigation of their broadband nonlinear absorption effect. Since we have previously demonstrated their high function as two-photon absorption (2PA) materials at 1000 nm, a different 2PA wavelength of 780 nm was applied in the study. The combined data taken at two different wavelength ranges substantiated the broadband characteristics of 1-Cn. We proposed that the observed broadband absorptions may be attributed by a partial π-conjugation between the C60 > cage and CPAF-Cn moieties, via endinitrile tautomeric resonance, giving a resonance state with enhanced molecular conjugation. This transient state could increase its 2PA and excited-state absorption at 800 nm. In addition, a trend of concentration-dependent 2PA cross-section (σ₂ ) and excited-state absorption magnitude was detected showing a higher σ value at a lower concentration that was correlated to increasing molecular separation with less aggregation for dyads C60(>CPAF-C18) and C60(>CPAF-C₉), as better 2PA and excited-state absorbers. PMID:27187350

  15. BODIPY functionalized o-carborane dyads for low-energy photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guo Fan; Cho, Yang-Jin; Wee, Kyung-Ryang; Hong, Seong Ahn; Suh, Il-Hwan; Son, Ho-Jin; Lee, Jong-Dae; Han, Won-Sik; Cho, Dae Won; Kang, Sang Ook

    2015-02-14

    A new type of organic dyad that can induce low-energy photosensitization has been developed; electron donor and electron acceptor units are boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) and ortho-carborane (o-Cb), respectively. The new dyads consist of a V-shaped BODIPY-(o-Cb)-BODIPY molecular array in which two BODIPY units are substituted onto two adjacent carbon atoms of the central o-Cb. In the presence of the o-Cb unit, as an electron acceptor, significant fluorescence quenching was observed which indicated that photoinduced electron transfer (PET) had occurred from the end-on BODIPY units to the central o-Cb with PET efficiencies of 63-71%. As a result, the corresponding cationic and anionic species that are responsible for the charge transfer state were detected by the serial spectroelectrochemical studies: cationic BODIPY radicals at 400 nm at the applied voltage of 1.44 V and broad absorption bands of anionic o-Cb radicals in the range of 250-490 nm at -1.84 V. Transient absorption studies further confirmed the BODIPY radical anion at 540 nm and the o-Cb radical anion at 350-475 nm with a structureless broad band. PMID:25482506

  16. Superior–subordinate dyads: Dependence of leader effectiveness on mutual reinforcement contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ram K.; Mawhinney, T. C.

    1991-01-01

    Task contingencies were modeled from bureaucratic organizations in which vague job descriptions provide incomplete contingency specifications. Response rates within dyads were examined using two nonsocial, two social, and two control contingencies. In the first social contingency, responses by the superior produced monetary reinforcement for a subordinate while the superior received no reinforcement from his subordinate. A second social contingency was identical to the first except that the subordinate's rate of responding determined the rate of reinforcement delivered to his superior. Within this contingency, mutual reinforcement occurred whenever rates of superior and subordinate responding were correlated. Two control contingencies were identical to the second social contingency except that either the superior or the subordinate received a rate of response-independent reinforcement virtually identical to the rate received during the second social contingency. Leadership, in this context, was the difference between rates of subordinate responding produced by a nonsocial contingency and rates produced by each of the two social contingencies. The two nonsocial contingencies supported almost no responding among subjects. The first social contingency produced minimal levels of leadership within every dyad. The second social contingency produced high levels of leadership. Response-independent reinforcement generally reduced or eliminated responding. PMID:16812640

  17. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and daughters such that mothers reported later expectations for the timing of behavioral autonomy than did daughters. Follow-up analyses indicated that findings appeared to be driven by maternal nativity, with dyads comprised of Mexico-born mothers reporting the latest age expectations for behavioral autonomy when compared with dyads comprised of U.S.-born mothers. Findings underscore the need to examine normative development among Latino adolescents and their families with a specific focus on how sociocultural characteristics can contribute to within-family differences. PMID:22093152

  18. Fluorescent photoswitching of a naphthopyran-benzimidazole dyad with high-degree fluorescent modulation within poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuangqing; Si, Yanling; Tong, Cuiyan; Wang, Guang; Qi, Bin; Yang, Guochun

    2013-06-01

    A naphthopyran-bridge-benzimidazole dyad which exhibits both fluorescence and photochromism was synthesized and its fluorescence photoswitching was investigated. Irradiation with UV light induces the isomerization of the naphthopyran component to the corresponding merocyanine. The fluorescence of the dyad was switched reversibly between on and off upon UV irradiation and thermal bleaching of the naphthopyran. Using ultraviolet illumination a pattern was created on a polymethylmethacrylate doped film with the dyad. Thus either a non-destructive photoswitch or an image recording system becomes available. The measurement of redox potentials by cyclic voltammetry combined with electronic spectra and a molecular energy diagram of the individual naphthopyran and benzimidazole demonstrated that the transformation of naphthopyran induced energy and electron transfer from the fluorescent benzimidazole to the photochromic naphthopyran, a feature which was also supported by our DFT calculations.

  19. High-resolution spectroscopy and analysis of the ν1/ν3 stretching dyad of osmium tetroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louviot, M.; Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Roy, P.; Balcon, D.

    2012-01-01

    OsO4 is a heavy tetrahedral molecule that may constitute a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations. Its favorable spin statistics (due to the zero nuclear spin of oxygen atoms) is such that only A1 and A2 rovibrational levels are allowed, leading to a dense, but quite easily resolved spectrum. Most lines are single ones, instead of complex line clusters as in the case of other heavy spherical-tops like SF6, for instance. It is thus possible to fully assign and fit the spectrum and to obtain precise experimental effective molecular parameters. The strong ν3 stretching fundamental has been studied a long time ago as an isolated band [McDowell RS, Radziemski LJ, Flicker H, Galbraith HW, Kennedy RC, Nereson NG, et al. Journal of Chemical Physics 1978;88:1513-21; Bobin B, Valentin A, Henry L. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 1987;122:229-41]. We reinvestigate here this region and perform new assignments and effective Hamiltonian parameter fits for the four main isotopologues (192OsO4, 190OsO4, 189OsO4, 188OsO4), by considering the ν1/ν3 stretching dyad. A new experimental spectrum has been recorded at room temperature, thanks to a Bruker IFS 125 HR interferometer and using a natural abundance OsO4 sample. Assignments and analyses were performed thanks to the SPVIEW and XTDS softwares, respectively [Wenger Ch, Boudon V, Rotger M, Sanzharov M, Champion J-P. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 2008;251:102-13]. We provide precise effective Hamiltonian parameters, including band centers and Coriolis interaction parameters. We discuss isotopic shifts and estimate the band centers for the three minor isotopologues (187OsO4, 186OsO4, 184OsO4). The Q branches of the first two of them are clearly identified in the experimental spectrum.

  20. Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Dyads: Short-Term Stability and Continuity from Variable-Centered and Person-Centered Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a prominent index of socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Can basic psychometric properties of EA be looked at from both variable (scale) and person (cluster) points of view in individuals and in dyads? Is EA stable and continuous over a short period of time? This methodological study shows significant…

  1. Molecular simulations for the conformational assessment of a porphyrin-fullerene dyad in different environments.

    PubMed

    Tappura, Kirsi; Cramariuc, Oana; Hukka, Terttu I; Rantala, Tapio T

    2005-09-01

    Conformational space of a porphyrin-fullerene dyad with the donor and acceptor connected by a relatively flexible linker is studied by molecular dynamics simulations in both non-polar and polar solvents, as well as in vacuum. The most probable conformations obtained from the vacuum MD simulations were optimized with semi-empirical (SE) and density functional theory (DFT) methods and the extent of the structural changes is assessed. The computational results indicate the co-existence of different conformers in both polar and nonpolar solvents showing agreement with experimental results. The most probable vacuum conformations at 300 K are similar to the ones at 0 K, while the structures most often observed in the solvents show less compact conformations. Optimization with SE and DFT calculations leads to structures, which represent relatively well the folded conformations in solvent, which validates the electronic structure calculations relevant to describing photoinduced electron-transfer in H2P-O34-C60. PMID:16240023

  2. Preen secretions encode information on MHC similarity in certain sex-dyads in a monogamous seabird

    PubMed Central

    Leclaire, Sarah; van Dongen, Wouter F. D.; Voccia, Steeve; Merkling, Thomas; Ducamp, Christine; Hatch, Scott A.; Blanchard, Pierrick; Danchin, Étienne; Wagner, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are known to select mates to maximize the genetic diversity of their offspring in order to achieve immunity against a broader range of pathogens. Although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), it remains unknown whether they can use olfactory cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners. Here we combined gas chromatography data with genetic similarity indices based on MHC to test whether similarity in preen secretion chemicals correlated with MHC relatedness in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a species that preferentially mates with genetically dissimilar partners. We found that similarity in preen secretion chemicals was positively correlated with MHC relatedness in male-male and male-female dyads. This study provides the first evidence that preen secretion chemicals can encode information on MHC relatedness and suggests that odor-based mechanisms of MHC-related mate choice may occur in birds. PMID:25370306

  3. Photocontrolled Reversible Luminescent Lanthanide Molecular Switch Based on a Diarylethene-Europium Dyad.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong-Bo; Hu, Guo-Fei; Zhang, Zhan-Hui; Gao, Liang; Gao, Xingfa; Wu, Hai-Chen

    2016-08-15

    A new europium complex coordinated between a Eu(III) ion and an unsymmetrical diarylperfluorocyclopentene yields a light-controlled diarylethene-europium dyad, DAE@TpyEu(tta)3, whose photophysical properties can be reversibly switched by optical stimuli. When DAE@TpyEu(tta)3 is exposed to 365 nm UV light, an efficient intramolecular photochromic fluorescence resonance energy transfer (pc-FRET) occurs between the emission of the Eu(3+) donor (D) and the absorption of the diarylethene acceptor (A) in closed-form DAE@TpyEu(tta)3 accompanied by luminescence quenching. However, the pc-FRET process could be effectively inhibited by visible light (λ > 600 nm) irradiation, and the lanthanide emission of DAE@TpyEu(tta)3 is rapidly recovered. Furthermore, this luminescent lanthanide molecular switch could serve as a highly reliable and sensitive "turn on" fluorescent marker in living cells irradiated by red light without any optical interference. PMID:27447742

  4. Proton-coupled self-assembly of a porphyrin-naphthalenediimide dyad.

    PubMed

    Tu, Siyu; Kim, Se Hye; Joseph, Jojo; Modarelli, David A; Parquette, Jon R

    2013-06-01

    The construction of an n-p heterojunction through the self-assembly of a dyad based on tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and 1,4,5,8-naphthalenedimide (NDI) (1) is described. Proton transfer from the lysine head group of 1 to the porphyrin ring occurs concomitantly with self-assembly into 1D nanorods in CHCl3. TEM and AFM studies showed that the nanorods are formed by the lateral and vertical fusion of multilameller vesicles into networks and hollow ribbons, respectively. These intermediate structures transitioned to nanorods over the course of 4-6 days. Time-resolved spectroscopy revealed that photoinduced charge separation occurs with rate constants that depend on the nature of the aggregation. PMID:23564748

  5. Contaminated and uncontaminated feeding influence perceived intimacy in mixed-sex dyads.

    PubMed

    Alley, Thomas R

    2012-06-01

    It was expected that viewers watching adult mixed-sex pairs dining together will give higher ratings of the perceived intimacy and involvement of the pair if feeding is displayed while eating, especially if the feeding involves contaminated (i.e., with potential germ transfer) foods. Our hypotheses were tested using a design in which participants viewed five videotapes in varying order. Each video showed different mixed-sex pairs of actors sharing meal and included a distinct form of food sharing or none. These were shown to 50 small groups of young adults in quasi-random sequences to control for order effects. Immediately after each video, viewers were asked about the attractiveness, attraction and intimacy in the dyad they had just observed. As predicted, videos featuring contaminated feeding consistently produced higher ratings on involvement and attraction than those showing uncontaminated feeding which, in turn, mostly produced higher ratings on involvement and attraction than those showing no feeding behaviors. PMID:22387714

  6. Social Decision Schemes of the Same Dyads and Tetrads on Two Different Disjunctive Tasks. Educational Reports Umea, No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerbladh, Thor

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to test several social decision schemes to obtain plausible explanations of different group processes in solving different disjunctive tasks; and (2) to study both dyads and tetrads solving a eureka and a non-eureka disjunctive task. Social decision schemes theory assumes that a group decision is a joint…

  7. The Role of Maternal Factors in Sibling Relationship Quality: A Multilevel Study of Multiple Dyads per Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and…

  8. Perceptions of Asthma Quality of Life in Children and Parent Dyads in Two Rural Counties in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Susan; McCrone, Susan; Shapiro, April L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines perceived quality of life (QOL) in a convenience sample of children (aged 7-11) with asthma and their parents from two schools in rural West Virginia. Forty-nine child-parent dyads representing 25 males and 24 females completed the study. The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module was utilized to separately measure child and parent…

  9. Short-Term Reliability and Continuity of Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Dyads across Contexts of Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Gini, Motti; Putnick, Diane L.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Painter, Kathleen M.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2006-01-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a prominent index of socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Is EA affected by context? In this methodological study, 34 mothers and their 2-year-olds were observed in 2 different settings (home vs. laboratory) 1 week apart. Significant cross-context reliability and continuity in EA as measured with the…

  10. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and…

  11. Energy transfer in aminonaphthalimide-boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyads upon one- and two-photon excitation: applications for cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Collado, Daniel; Remón, Patricia; Vida, Yolanda; Najera, Francisco; Sen, Pratik; Pischel, Uwe; Perez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel

    2014-03-01

    Aminonaphthalimide-BODIPY energy transfer cassettes were found to show very fast (kEET ≈ 10(10)-10(11) s(-1) and efficient BODIPY fluorescence sensitization. This was observed upon one- and two-photon excitation, which extends the application range of the investigated bichromophoric dyads in terms of accessible excitation wavelengths. In comparison with the direct excitation of the BODIPY chromophore, the two-photon absorption cross-section δ of the dyads is significantly incremented by the presence of the aminonaphthalimide donor [δ ≈ 10 GM for the BODIPY versus 19-26 GM in the dyad at λ(exc)=840 nm; 1 GM (Goeppert-Mayer unit)=10(-50) cm(4) smolecule(-1) photon-(1)]. The electronic decoupling of the donor and acceptor, which is a precondition for the energy transfercassette concept, was demonstrated by time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The applicability of the new probes in the one- and twophoton excitation mode was demonstrated in a proof-of-principle approach in the fluorescence imaging of HeLa cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the merging of multiphoton excitation with the energy transfer cassette concept for a BODIPY-containing dyad. PMID:24730057

  12. Resemblance of dietary intakes of snacks, sweets, fruit, and vegetables among mother-child dyads from low income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in low-income mother–child dyads. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from Head Start centers in Houston, Texas, and Birmingham, Alabama. Twenty-four-hour dietary ...

  13. CenteringParenting: an innovative dyad model for group mother-infant care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Joanna; Rising, Sharon Schindler

    2013-01-01

    CenteringParenting is a group model that brings a cohort of 6 to 7 mothers and infants together for care during the first year of life. During 9 group sessions the clinician provides well-baby care and also attends to the health, development, and safety issues of the mother. Ideally, CenteringParenting provides continuity of care for a cohort of women who have received care in CenteringPregnancy, group prenatal care that is 10 sessions throughout the entire pregnancy and that leads to community building, better health outcomes, and increased satisfaction with prenatal care. The postpartum year affects the entire family, but especially the mother, who is redefining herself and her own personal goals. Issues of weight/body image, breastfeeding, depression, contraception, and relationship issues all may surface. In traditional care, health resources for support and intervention are frequently lacking or unavailable. Women's health clinicians also note the loss of contact with women they have followed during the prenatal period, often not seeing a woman again until she returns for another pregnancy. CenteringParenting recognizes that the health of the mother is tied to the health of the infant and that assessment and interventions are more appropriate and efficient when done in a dyad context. Facilitative leadership, rather than didactic education, encourages women to fully engage in their care, to raise issues of importance to them, and to discuss concerns within an atmosphere that allows for the surfacing of culturally appropriate values and beliefs. Implementing the model calls for system changes that are often significant. It also requires the building of a substantial team relationship among care providers. This overview describes the CenteringParenting mother-infant dyad care model with special focus on the mother and reviews the perspectives and experiences of staff from several practice sites. PMID:24406037

  14. Cocaine Self-Administration in Social Dyads Using Custom-Built Operant Conditioning Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Ryan T.; Strickland, Justin C.; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditionally, the analysis of intravenous drug self-administration is limited to conditions in which subjects are tested in isolation. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because drug use in humans often occurs in the presence of others. Newmethod We used custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed social dyads visual, olfactory, auditory, and limited tactile contact while concurrently self-administering cocaine. Male rats were trained to respond according to a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement (with a limited hold) in order to determine if patterns of cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration became more similar over time in social pairs. Cocaine self-administration was tested across five days according to a 10-min fixed interval schedule (with a 5-min limited hold). Quarter-life values (time at which 25% of responses were emitted per interval) were analyzed using intraclass correlations. Results The total number of reinforcers obtained did not vary across the five days of testing; however, quarter-life values became progressively more similar between individuals within the social dyads. Comparison with existing methods Standard operant conditioning chambers are unable to assess responding in multiple animals due to their small size, the need to prevent subjects from responding on the lever of their partner, and the need to prevent infusion lines from entangling. By using custom-built social operant conditioning chambers, we assessed the effects of social contact on cocaine self-administration. Conclusion Social operant conditioning chambers can be used as a preclinical method to examine social influences on drug self-administration under conditions that approximate human substance use. PMID:25109902

  15. Synchrony in Mother-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Rex H.

    1979-01-01

    A measure of mother-infant synchrony was developed and used to compare the interactions of mothers with pre-term and mothers with full-term infants. Each mother-infant dyad was observed during a standard bottle feeding session on three separate occasions: once prior to discharge and at one and three months after discharge. (JMB)

  16. Ultrafast Photoinduced Electron Transfer and Charge Stabilization in Donor-Acceptor Dyads Capable of Harvesting Near-Infrared Light.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Venugopal; Gobeze, Habtom B; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-08-01

    To harvest energy from the near-infrared (near-IR) and infrared (IR) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, which constitutes nearly 70 % of the solar radiation, there is a great demand for near-IR and IR light-absorbing sensitizers that are capable of undergoing ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer when connected to a suitable electron acceptor. Towards achieving this goal, in the present study, we report multistep syntheses of dyads derived from structurally modified BF2-chelated azadipyrromethene (ADP; to extend absorption and emission into the near-IR region) and fullerene as electron-donor and electron-acceptor entities, respectively. The newly synthesized dyads were fully characterized based on optical absorbance, fluorescence, geometry optimization, and electrochemical studies. The established energy level diagram revealed the possibility of electron transfer either from the singlet excited near-IR sensitizer or singlet excited fullerene. Femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption studies were performed to gather evidence of excited state electron transfer and to evaluate the kinetics of charge separation and charge recombination processes. These studies revealed the occurrence of ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer leading to charge stabilization in the dyads, and populating the triplet states of ADP, benzanulated-ADP and benzanulated thiophene-ADP in the respective dyads, and triplet state of C60 in the case of BF2 -chelated dipyrromethene derived dyad during charge recombination. The present findings reveal that these sensitizers are suitable for harvesting light energy from the near-IR region of the solar spectrum and for building fast-responding optoelectronic devices operating under near-IR radiation input. PMID:26130432

  17. GADEM: a genetic algorithm guided formation of spaced dyads coupled with an EM algorithm for motif discovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Leping

    2009-02-01

    Genome-wide analyses of protein binding sites generate large amounts of data; a ChIP dataset might contain 10,000 sites. Unbiased motif discovery in such datasets is not generally feasible using current methods that employ probabilistic models. We propose an efficient method, GADEM, which combines spaced dyads and an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Candidate words (four to six nucleotides) for constructing spaced dyads are prioritized by their degree of overrepresentation in the input sequence data. Spaced dyads are converted into starting position weight matrices (PWMs). GADEM then employs a genetic algorithm (GA), with an embedded EM algorithm to improve starting PWMs, to guide the evolution of a population of spaced dyads toward one whose entropy scores are more statistically significant. Spaced dyads whose entropy scores reach a pre-specified significance threshold are declared motifs. GADEM performed comparably with MEME on 500 sets of simulated "ChIP" sequences with embedded known P53 binding sites. The major advantage of GADEM is its computational efficiency on large ChIP datasets compared to competitors. We applied GADEM to six genome-wide ChIP datasets. Approximately, 15 to 30 motifs of various lengths were identified in each dataset. Remarkably, without any prior motif information, the expected known motif (e.g., P53 in P53 data) was identified every time. GADEM discovered motifs of various lengths (6-40 bp) and characteristics in these datasets containing from 0.5 to >13 million nucleotides with run times of 5 to 96 h. GADEM can be viewed as an extension of the well-known MEME algorithm and is an efficient tool for de novo motif discovery in large-scale genome-wide data. The GADEM software is available at (www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/software/GADEM/). PMID:19193149

  18. Mother-Infant Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction as Predictor of Attachment: Nonlinear Dynamic Analyses.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, M Angeles; Pons-Salvador, Gemma; Trenado, Rosa M; Sierra, Purificacion

    2016-10-01

    This longitudinal study examined flexibility in early mother-infant interaction at the age of approximately 6 months (N=30) and whether flexibility indices predicted (in) secure child attachment at 15 months. Dyadic flexibility was measured using dynamic systems-based modelling of patterns during mother-child free play in terms of NDS variables derived from SSG: the propensity to change states (dynamic flexibility), number of states visited (diversity) and predictability (dispersion). Results showed significant discriminant functions on the attachment type groups, A, B & C, for the total grid, which included verbal and non-verbal, and for the reciprocal verbal region. Specifically, the prediction outcomes seem to work better in total grid for A-dyads and in the reciprocal verbal region for B and C-dyads. Diversity emerged as the most relevant index in dyadic flexibility: A-dyads showed the least diversity, distinguished them from B-dyads in the verbal regions, (both the reciprocal and non-reciprocal, 'child verbal-mother non-verbal' one), and, from C-dyads in the reciprocal non-verbal region. A-dyads showed remarkably low activity in the regions involving child verbal behavior, showing that children who became avoidant attached at 15 months of age, were mostly silent at approximately 6 months, when they interacted with their mothers. Findings in this study contribute to advancing conceptually informed measurement of dyadic interaction to provide a new perspective on maternal sensitivity and early markers of child insecure/secure attachment. PMID:27550705

  19. Time Resolved Spectroscopic Studies on a Novel Synthesized Photo-Switchable Organic Dyad and Its Nanocomposite Form in Order to Develop Light Energy Conversion Devices.

    PubMed

    Dutta Pal, Gopa; Paul, Abhijit; Yadav, Somnath; Bardhan, Munmun; De, Asish; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Jana, Aindrila; Ganguly, Tapan

    2015-08-01

    UV-vis absorption, steady state and time resolved spectroscopic investigations in pico and nanosecond time domain were made in the different environments on a novel synthesized dyad, 3-(2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (MNTMA) in its pristine form and when combined with gold (Au) nanoparticles i.e., in its nanocomposite structure. Both steady state and time resolved measurements coupled with the DFT calculations performed by using Gaussian 03 suit of software operated in the linux operating system show that though the dyad exhibits mainly the folded conformation in the ground state but on photoexcitation the nanocomposite form of dyad prefers to be in elongated structure in the excited state indicating its photoswitchable nature. Due to the predominancy of elongated isomeric form of the dyad in the excited state in presence of Au Nps, it appears that the dyad MNTMA may behave as a good light energy converter specially in its nanocomposite form. As larger charge separation rate (kcs ~ 4 x 10(8) s-1) is found relative to the rate associated with the energy wasting charge recombination processes (kcR ~ 3 x 10(5) s-1) in the nanocomposite form of the dyad, it demonstrates the suitability of constructing the efficient light energy conversion devices with Au-dyad hybrid nanomaterials. PMID:26369151

  20. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the…

  1. The Influence of Proxemic Variables on Dyadic Interaction Between Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael; Keys, Christopher

    This study addresses three issues: (1) the influence of proxemic variables (distance, furniture presence) on dyadic interaction; (2) the consistency between measures of self-disclosure; and (3) the applicability of reciprocity and distance-equilibrium views of dyadic interaction. Dyads of male college students were randomly assigned to one of four…

  2. The Effects of Ecological Variables on Parent-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Michael E.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a series of studies on the effects of "ecological variables" on mother-father-sibling-infant interactions. Under consideration were: (1) the effects of stress on the parental preferences of young infants; (2) the effects of the presence of one parent on the interactions within the other parent-infant dyad; (3)…

  3. The influence of π-conjugation on competitive pathways: charge transfer or electron transfer in new D-π-A and D-π-Si-π-A dyads.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yang-Jin; Lee, Ah-Rang; Kim, So-Yoen; Cho, Minji; Han, Won-Sik; Son, Ho-Jin; Cho, Dae Won; Kang, Sang Ook

    2016-08-17

    In order to elucidate the influence of π-conjugation on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and intramolecular charge transfer processes, donor-π-acceptor dyads (D-π-A (1) and D-π-Si-π-A (2)) were newly synthesized. In these dyads, carbazole and triazine moieties acted as the electron donor and acceptor, respectively. The fluorescence of dyad 1 red-shifted as the solvent polarity was increased. The electron charge distribution of the excited state of dyad 1 was delocalized in the acceptor moiety, forming the charge transfer D(δ+)-π-A(δ-) dyad in the excited state. In the excited state of dyad 1, the π-conjugation acted as the linker for charge transfer between the donor and acceptor moieties. A large dipole moment change (Δμ = 45.6 D) between the ground and excited states was determined using the Lippert-Mataga plot. Furthermore, the fluorescence of dyad 1 was observed upon two-photon excitation. In contrast, dyad 2, in which the π-conjugation is disconnected by a Si-atom in the linker, displayed weak dual-emission: a short-wavelength emission at around 350 nm arising from the monomeric species and a long-wavelength one assigned to the emission from an intramolecular exciplex between the donor and acceptor moieties. The weak emission of dyad 2 indicates that the D(+)˙-π-Si-π-A(-)˙ species was generated through a PET process in the excited state. The cationic radical species of the carbazole and the anionic radical species of the triazine, which show transient absorption (TA) bands at around 780 and 530 nm, respectively, were characterized using the femtosecond TA method. PMID:27485173

  4. Evidence for stroke family caregiver and dyad interventions: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Bakas, Tamilyn; Clark, Patricia C; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; King, Rosemarie B; Lutz, Barbara J; Miller, Elaine L

    2014-09-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of severe, long-term disability. Most stroke survivors are cared for in the home by a family caregiver. Caregiver stress is a leading cause of stroke survivor institutionalization, which results in significant costs to the healthcare system. Stroke family caregiver and dyad intervention studies have reported a variety of outcomes. A critical analysis of 17 caregiver intervention studies and 15 caregiver/stroke survivor dyad intervention studies was conducted to provide evidence-based recommendations for the implementation and future design of stroke family caregiver and dyad interventions. PMID:25034718

  5. A Parent-Child Dyad Approach to the Assessment of Health Status and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Wendy J.; Boydell, Katherine; Dell, Sharon; Feldman, Brian M.; Marshall, Deborah; Willan, Andrew; Wright, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of health state and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) are limited by a child’s age and cognitive ability. Parent-proxy reports are known to differ from children’s reports. Simultaneous assessment using a parent-child dyad is an alternative approach. Objective Our objective was to assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a parent-child dyad approach to utility and HR-QOL assessment of paediatric asthma health states. Methods The setting was specialist care in a hospital-based asthma clinic. Participants were 91 girls and boys with asthma aged 8 to 17 years and 91 parents. The intervention employed was parent-child dyad administration of the Health Utilities Index (HUI) 2 and 3, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Core and Asthma modules, and the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Questionnaires were administered by interview to children and parents separately and then together as a dyad to assess the child’s health state. The dyad interview was repeated at the next clinic visit. Dyad-child agreement was measured by intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient; Spearman correlations were used to assess convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 28 children who remained clinically stable between visits with a two-way ICC coefficient. Responsiveness to change from baseline was assessed with Spearman coefficients in 30 children who demonstrated clinical change between visits. Results There was no significant agreement between parent and child for the HUI2 or HUI3 whereas agreement between dyad and child was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36, 0.69) for the HUI2 and 0.74 (95% CI 0.61, 0.82) for the HUI3 overall. With respect to dyad performance characteristics, both HUI2 and HUI3 overall scores demonstrated moderate convergent validity with the generic PedsQL™ Core domains (range r = 0.30–0.52; p < 0.01). Dyad HUI2 attributes demonstrated moderate convergent

  6. Development of Unsymmetrical Dyads As Potent Noncarbohydrate-Based Inhibitors against Human β-N-Acetyl-d-hexosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Chen, Qi; Liu, Tian; Xu, Lin; Yang, Qing; Qian, Xuhong

    2013-06-13

    Human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase has gained much attention due to its roles in several pathological processes and been considered as potential targets for disease therapy. A novel and efficient skeleton, which was an unsymmetrical dyad containing naphthalimide and methoxyphenyl moieties with an alkylamine spacer linkage as a noncarbohydrate-based inhibitor, was synthesized, and the activities were valuated against human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase. The most potent inhibitor exhibits high inhibitory activity with K i values of 0.63 μM. The straightforward synthetic manners of these unsymmetrical dyads and understanding of the binding model could be advantageous for further structure optimization and development of new therapeutic agents for Hex-related diseases. PMID:24900704

  7. Driving force dependence of charge separation and recombination processes in dyads of nucleotides and strongly electron-donating oligothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Hsun; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Ishikawa, Mayuka; Majima, Tetsuro

    2014-10-23

    Charge transfer in DNA has attracted great attention of scientists because of its importance in biological processes. However, our knowledge on excess-electron transfer in DNA still remains limited in comparison to numerous studies of hole transfer in DNA. To clarify the dynamics of excess-electron transfer in DNA by photochemical techniques, new electron-donating photosensitizers should be developed. Herein, a terthiophene and two 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene oligomers were used as photosensitizers in dyads including natural nucleobases as electron acceptors. The charge separation and recombination processes in the dyads were investigated by femtosecond laser flash photolysis, and the driving force dependence of these rate constants was discussed on the basis of the Marcus theory. From this study, the conformation effect on charge recombination process was found. We expect that 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene oligomers are useful in investigation of excess-electron-transfer dynamics in DNA. PMID:25265410

  8. Ruthenium phthalocyanine-bipyridyl dyads as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells: dye coverage versus molecular efficiency.

    PubMed

    Rawling, Tristan; Austin, Christine; Buchholz, Florian; Colbran, Stephen B; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2009-04-01

    The application of ruthenium phthalocyanine complexes as sensitizing dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is explored. Four monomeric complexes are reported which vary in peripheral substitution and axial ligand anchoring groups. Sensitizing dyes containing two ruthenium centers are also presented. These dyads, which contain ruthenium phthalocyanine and bipyridyl chromophores, were prepared using a protection/deprotection strategy that allows for convenient purification. DSCs fabricated using the phthalocyanine complexes and dyads were less efficient than those incorporating a standard DSC dye. However, on the basis of the number of molecules bound to the TiO(2) electrode surfaces, several of the new complexes were more efficient at photocurrent generation. The results highlight the importance of molecular size, and thus the dye coverage of the electrode surface in the design of new sensitizing dyes. PMID:19278209

  9. Development of Unsymmetrical Dyads As Potent Noncarbohydrate-Based Inhibitors against Human β-N-Acetyl-d-hexosaminidase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase has gained much attention due to its roles in several pathological processes and been considered as potential targets for disease therapy. A novel and efficient skeleton, which was an unsymmetrical dyad containing naphthalimide and methoxyphenyl moieties with an alkylamine spacer linkage as a noncarbohydrate-based inhibitor, was synthesized, and the activities were valuated against human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase. The most potent inhibitor exhibits high inhibitory activity with Ki values of 0.63 μM. The straightforward synthetic manners of these unsymmetrical dyads and understanding of the binding model could be advantageous for further structure optimization and development of new therapeutic agents for Hex-related diseases. PMID:24900704

  10. Feeding demand conditions and plasma cortisol in socially-housed squirrel monkey mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Champoux, M; Hwang, L; Lang, O; Levine, S

    2001-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that experimentally altering the accessibility and availability of food can have profound impact on behavior and adrenocortical activity in nonhuman primate species. In this study, groups of mother-infant squirrel monkey dyads were housed in either high demand (HFD: 120% normal daily food intake provided), low demand (LFD: 600% normal daily food intake provided) or variable demand (VFD: alternating two-week blocks of low demand and high demand) conditions for 12 weeks. During the 12-week experimental foraging phase, animals in the HFD group exhibited prolonged and consistent cortisol elevations. The cortisol levels in the VFD group reflected the ambient demand condition, with higher levels exhibited during the high demand phases of the study, and lower values when the low demand condition was in effect. Overall, mothers were more affected by the experimental manipulation than were infants. The experimental condition did not affect the infants' response to a 24-h separation from their mothers. A suppression of cortisol levels, particularly in the HFD group, was observed upon resumption of ad-libitum feeding. PMID:11337131

  11. Novel aluminum-BODIPY dyads: intriguing dual-emission via photoinduced energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Changho; Jeong, Jisu; Lee, Ji Hye; Choi, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Hyonseok; Bae, Gyun-Tack; Lee, Kang Mun; Park, Myung Hwan

    2016-04-01

    Three novel BODIPY-based heterodinuclear complexes, [salen(3,5-(t)Bu)2Al-(OC6H4-BODIPY)] (6), [salen(3,5-(t)Bu)2Al-(OC6F2H2-BODIPY)] (7), and [(mq)2Al-(OC6H4-BODIPY)] (8) (salen = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine, BODIPY = 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene, and mq = methyl-8-quinolinolato) were prepared and characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The specific structures of 6-8 were also determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. In particular, the salen-based heterodinuclear complexes 6 and 7 exhibited higher thermal stability (Td5 = 309 and 306 °C, respectively) than that of the closely related mononuclear aluminum or BODIPY compounds, except for 8. The UV/vis absorption and PL spectra for 6 and 7 indicated a significant photoinduced energy transfer from the aluminum-salen moiety to the BODIPY group in an intramolecular manner. Theoretical calculations revealed independent transition states of the aluminum-salen moiety or the BODIPY group in the Al(III)-BODIPY dyads, further supporting these experimental results. PMID:26937761

  12. Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

  13. Identity styles and conflict resolution styles: associations in mother-adolescent dyads.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad. Questionnaires about conflict frequency and resolution were completed by 796 adolescents (66% female, mostly Caucasian) and their mothers. Adolescents also completed a measure on identity styles. Each identity style was hypothesized to relate to a specific conflict resolution behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the information-oriented identity style was positively associated with positive problem solving and negatively with conflict engagement and withdrawal, the normative style was positively associated with compliance, and, finally, the diffuse-avoidant style was positively associated with withdrawal and conflict engagement and negatively with positive problem solving. Our results demonstrated that the way in which adolescents tackle identity-relevant issues is related to the way in which they deal with conflicts with their mothers. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:21104306

  14. C{sub 60}-dyad aggregates: Self-organized structures in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Guskova, O. A. E-mail: s.raovaranasi@uq.edu.au; Varanasi, S. R. E-mail: s.raovaranasi@uq.edu.au; Sommer, J.-U.

    2014-10-14

    Extensive full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-organization of C{sub 60}-fullerene dyad molecules in water, namely phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester and fulleropyrrolidines, which have two elements of ordering, the hydrophobic fullerene cage and the hydrophilic/ionic group. While pristine fullerene or phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester forms spherical droplets in order to minimize the surface tension, the amphiphilic nature of charged solute molecules leads to the formation of supramolecular assemblies having cylindrical shape driven by charge repulsion between the ionic groups located on the surface of the aggregates. We show that formation of non-spherical micelles is the geometrical consequence if the fullerene derivatives are considered as surfactants where the ionized groups are only hydrophilic unit. The agglomeration behavior of fullerenes is evaluated by determining sizes of the clusters, solvent accessible surface areas, and shape parameters. By changing the size of the counterions from chloride over iodide to perchlorate we find a thickening of the cylinder-like structures which can be explained by stronger condensation of larger ions and thus partial screening of the charge repulsion on the cluster surface. The reason for the size dependence of counterion condensation is the formation of a stronger hydration shell in case of small ions which in turn are repelled from the fullerene aggregates. Simulations are also in good agreement with the experimentally observed morphologies of decorated C{sub 60}-nanoparticles.

  15. Histone H3 phosphorylation near the nucleosome dyad alters chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    North, Justin A.; Šimon, Marek; Ferdinand, Michelle B.; Shoffner, Matthew A.; Picking, Jonathan W.; Howard, Cecil J.; Mooney, Alex M.; van Noort, John; Poirier, Michael G.; Ottesen, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosomes contain ∼146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone protein octamer that controls DNA accessibility to transcription and repair complexes. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of histone proteins regulates nucleosome function. To date, only modest changes in nucleosome structure have been directly attributed to histone PTMs. Histone residue H3(T118) is located near the nucleosome dyad and can be phosphorylated. This PTM destabilizes nucleosomes and is implicated in the regulation of transcription and repair. Here, we report gel electrophoretic mobility, sucrose gradient sedimentation, thermal disassembly, micrococcal nuclease digestion and atomic force microscopy measurements of two DNA–histone complexes that are structurally distinct from nucleosomes. We find that H3(T118ph) facilitates the formation of a nucleosome duplex with two DNA molecules wrapped around two histone octamers, and an altosome complex that contains one DNA molecule wrapped around two histone octamers. The nucleosome duplex complex forms within short ∼150 bp DNA molecules, whereas altosomes require at least ∼250 bp of DNA and form repeatedly along 3000 bp DNA molecules. These results are the first report of a histone PTM significantly altering the nucleosome structure. PMID:24561803

  16. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis LipB enzyme functions as a cysteine/lysine dyad acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingjun; Zhao, Xin; Eddine, Ali Nasser; Geerlof, Arie; Li, Xinping; Cronan, John E.; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Lipoic acid is essential for the activation of a number of protein complexes involved in key metabolic processes. Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on a pathway in which the lipoate attachment group is synthesized from an endogenously produced octanoic acid moiety. In patients with multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, expression of one gene from this pathway, lipB, encoding for octanoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-protein acyltransferase is considerably up-regulated, thus making it a potential target in the search for novel antiinfectives against tuberculosis. Here we present the crystal structure of the M. tuberculosis LipB protein at atomic resolution, showing an unexpected thioether-linked active-site complex with decanoic acid. We provide evidence that the transferase functions as a cysteine/lysine dyad acyltransferase, in which two invariant residues (Lys-142 and Cys-176) are likely to function as acid/base catalysts. Analysis by MS reveals that the LipB catalytic reaction proceeds by means of an internal thioesteracyl intermediate. Structural comparison of LipB with lipoate protein ligase A indicates that, despite conserved structural and sequence active-site features in the two enzymes, 4′-phosphopantetheine-bound octanoic acid recognition is a specific property of LipB. PMID:16735476

  17. C60-dyad aggregates: Self-organized structures in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskova, O. A.; Varanasi, S. R.; Sommer, J.-U.

    2014-10-01

    Extensive full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-organization of C60-fullerene dyad molecules in water, namely phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and fulleropyrrolidines, which have two elements of ordering, the hydrophobic fullerene cage and the hydrophilic/ionic group. While pristine fullerene or phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester forms spherical droplets in order to minimize the surface tension, the amphiphilic nature of charged solute molecules leads to the formation of supramolecular assemblies having cylindrical shape driven by charge repulsion between the ionic groups located on the surface of the aggregates. We show that formation of non-spherical micelles is the geometrical consequence if the fullerene derivatives are considered as surfactants where the ionized groups are only hydrophilic unit. The agglomeration behavior of fullerenes is evaluated by determining sizes of the clusters, solvent accessible surface areas, and shape parameters. By changing the size of the counterions from chloride over iodide to perchlorate we find a thickening of the cylinder-like structures which can be explained by stronger condensation of larger ions and thus partial screening of the charge repulsion on the cluster surface. The reason for the size dependence of counterion condensation is the formation of a stronger hydration shell in case of small ions which in turn are repelled from the fullerene aggregates. Simulations are also in good agreement with the experimentally observed morphologies of decorated C60-nanoparticles.

  18. Ultrafast Electronic Energy Transfer Beyond the Weak Coupling Limit in a Proximal but Orthogonal Molecular Dyad.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Gordon J; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Benniston, Andrew C; Harriman, Anthony; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2015-12-24

    Electronic energy transfer (EET) from a donor to an acceptor is an important mechanism that controls the light harvesting efficiency in a wide variety of systems, including artificial and natural photosynthesis and contemporary photovoltaic technologies. The detailed mechanism of EET at short distances or large angles between the donor and acceptor is poorly understood. Here the influence of the orientation between the donor and acceptor on EET is explored using a molecule with two nearly perpendicular chromophores. Very fast EET with a time constant of 120 fs is observed, which is at least 40 times faster than the time predicted by Coulombic coupling calculations. Depolarization of the emission signal indicates that the transition dipole rotates through ca. 64°, indicating the near orthogonal nature of the EET event. The rate of EET is found to be similar to structural relaxation rates in the photoexcited oligothiophene donor alone, which suggests that this initial relaxation brings the dyad to a conical intersection where the excitation jumps to the acceptor. PMID:26617059

  19. Structural and Kinetic Analysis of Bacillus subtilis N-Acetylglucosaminidase Reveals a Unique Asp-His Dyad Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Litzinger, Silke; Fischer, Stefanie; Polzer, Patrick; Diederichs, Kay; Welte, Wolfram; Mayer, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional structures of NagZ of Bacillus subtilis, the first structures of a two-domain β-N-acetylglucosaminidase of family 3 of glycosidases, were determined with and without the transition state mimicking inhibitor PUGNAc bound to the active site, at 1.84- and 1.40-Å resolution, respectively. The structures together with kinetic analyses of mutants revealed an Asp-His dyad involved in catalysis: His234 of BsNagZ acts as general acid/base catalyst and is hydrogen bonded by Asp232 for proper function. Replacement of both His234 and Asp232 with glycine reduced the rate of hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate 4′-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminide 1900- and 4500-fold, respectively, and rendered activity pH-independent in the alkaline range consistent with a role of these residues in acid/base catalysis. N-Acetylglucosaminyl enzyme intermediate accumulated in the H234G mutant and β-azide product was formed in the presence of sodium azide in both mutants. The Asp-His dyad is conserved within β-N-acetylglucosaminidases but otherwise absent in β-glycosidases of family 3, which instead carry a “classical” glutamate acid/base catalyst. The acid/base glutamate of Hordeum vulgare exoglucanase (Exo1) superimposes with His234 of the dyad of BsNagZ and, in contrast to the latter, protrudes from a second domain of the enzyme into the active site. This is the first report of an Asp-His catalytic dyad involved in hydrolysis of glycosides resembling in function the Asp-His-Ser triad of serine proteases. Our findings will facilitate the development of mechanism-based inhibitors that selectively target family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidases, which are involved in bacterial cell wall turnover, spore germination, and induction of β-lactamase. PMID:20826810

  20. Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. PMID:23682698

  1. Electronic structure and charge transfer excitation energies of three endohedral fullerene- ZnTPP/ZnPc dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerikheirabadi, Fatemeh; Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra; Baruah, Tunna

    2015-03-01

    Organic donor-acceptor (D-A) moieties make up the main component of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). It has been proved that the open circuit voltage of these devices which is a parameter in efficiency determination, is directly related to the charge transfer excited states of the D-A pairs. Fullerenes having lots of interesting acceptor properties and porphyrins as well as phthalocyanines possessing intriguing donor characteristics, are shown to be promising nominees. In this work, we computationally analyze three donor-acceptor dyads of Zn-tetraphenyl porphyrin and Zn-phthalocyanine with novel endohedral fullerenes: Sc3N@C80_ZnTPP, Y3N@C80_ZnTPPandSc3N@C80_ZnPc.TheSc3N@C80_and Y3N@C80 belong to a particular class of fullerenes called trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes where the trimellatic nitrides form the endohedral units. Density functional theory, as implemented in NRLMOL code, is used to study the electronic structure and the related properties of these D-A complexes. The charge transfer excitation energies are calculated using the perturbative delta self-consistent field method recently developed in our group. We find that the CT excitation energies are larger for endohedral fullerene based dyads compared to similar C60 based dyads.

  2. Perceptions of Asthma Quality of Life in Children and Parent Dyads in Two Rural Counties in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Susan; McCrone, Susan; Shapiro, April L

    2016-08-01

    This study examines perceived quality of life (QOL) in a convenience sample of children (aged 7-11) with asthma and their parents from two schools in rural West Virginia. Forty-nine child-parent dyads representing 25 males and 24 females completed the study. The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module was utilized to separately measure child and parent perceptions of various dimensions of pediatric, asthma-specific, health-related QOL. Dimensions of the tool were scored separately and included symptoms, treatment, worry, and communication. The mean module dimension scores for children ranged from 63.27 to 80.47 and for parents, the range was from 61.26 to 79.79, with higher scores indicating higher QOL. Parents of male children perceived their son's QOL to be higher than that of female children in the symptoms and treatment dimensions. Strong relationships occurred between the child's worry and the other three dimensions as well as between the symptoms and the treatment dimensions. For the dyads, the only significant relationship was between the child and the adult treatment dimensions. With the well-documented burden of asthma in school-aged populations, information regarding the QOL of child and parent dyads will enhance school nurses' ability to improve health and educational outcomes in schools. PMID:26471054

  3. Visual Behavior in a Nonfocused Dyadic Interaction as a Function of Sex and Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Larry M.; Schneider, Frank W.

    The visual interaction of two strangers in a nonfocused situation (waiting room) was investigated. Amount of visual interaction decreased across time and with the increasing proximity of the interactants. Neither the sex composition of the dyad nor the sex of the looker was a significant source of variance. However, females received more glances…

  4. Turkish Mothers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Styles of Interactions with Their Children with Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.

    2009-01-01

    Turkish mothers' self-efficacy beliefs and their interactional behaviors with their children with language delays are described and explored. Participants included 19 mother-child dyads. Mothers' interaction with their children with language delays was videotaped for 30 minutes in a free-play context. Regarding mothers' interactional behaviors,…

  5. Contrasting intermolecular and intramolecular exciplex formation of a 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Mitsutaka; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Hisaji; Tamaki, Akihiro; Takeda, Motonori; Mizuno, Kazuhiko

    2010-05-01

    An intramolecular exciplex is formed upon excitation of the cyclohexane solution of the 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad, but little if any intramolecular CT complex exists in the ground state of this substance in solution. In contrast, in the crystalline state, the dyad forms an intermolecular mixed-stack CT complex in the ground state and an intermolecular exciplex when it is photoexcited. PMID:20353197

  6. Light-driven generation of hydrogen: New chromophore dyads for increased activity based on Bodipy dye and Pt(diimine)(dithiolate) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bo; Sabatini, Randy P.; Fu, Wen-Fu; Eum, Min-Sik; Brennessel, William W.; Wang, Lidong; McCamant, David W.; Eisenberg, Richard

    2015-01-01

    New dyads consisting of a strongly absorbing Bodipy (dipyrromethene-BF2) dye and a platinum diimine dithiolate (PtN2S2) charge transfer (CT) chromophore have been synthesized and studied in the context of the light-driven generation of H2 from aqueous protons. In these dyads, the Bodipy dye is bonded directly to the benzenedithiolate ligand of the PtN2S2 CT chromophore. Each of the new dyads contains either a bipyridine (bpy) or phenanthroline (phen) diimine with an attached functional group that is used for binding directly to TiO2 nanoparticles, allowing rapid electron photoinjection into the semiconductor. The absorption spectra and cyclic voltammograms of the dyads show that the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the dyads are the sum of the individual chromophores (Bodipy and the PtN2S2 moieties), indicating little electronic coupling between them. Connection to TiO2 nanoparticles is carried out by sonication leading to in situ attachment to TiO2 without prior hydrolysis of the ester linking groups to acids. For H2 generation studies, the TiO2 particles are platinized (Pt-TiO2) so that the light absorber (the dyad), the electron conduit (TiO2), and the catalyst (attached colloidal Pt) are fully integrated. It is found that upon 530 nm irradiation in a H2O solution (pH 4) with ascorbic acid as an electron donor, the dyad linked to Pt-TiO2 via a phosphonate or carboxylate attachment shows excellent light-driven H2 production with substantial longevity, in which one particular dyad [4(bpyP)] exhibits the highest activity, generating ∼40,000 turnover numbers of H2 over 12 d (with respect to dye). PMID:26116625

  7. High-potential perfluorinated phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads for generation of high-energy charge-separated states: formation and photoinduced electron-transfer studies.

    PubMed

    Das, Sushanta K; Mahler, Andrew; Wilson, Angela K; D'Souza, Francis

    2014-08-25

    High oxidation potential perfluorinated zinc phthalocyanines (ZnF(n)Pcs) are synthesised and their spectroscopic, redox, and light-induced electron-transfer properties investigated systematically by forming donor-acceptor dyads through metal-ligand axial coordination of fullerene (C60) derivatives. Absorption and fluorescence spectral studies reveal efficient binding of the pyridine- (Py) and phenylimidazole-functionalised fullerene (C60Im) derivatives to the zinc centre of the F(n)Pcs. The determined binding constants, K, in o-dichlorobenzene for the 1:1 complexes are in the order of 10(4) to 10(5) M(-1); nearly an order of magnitude higher than that observed for the dyad formed from zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) lacking fluorine substituents. The geometry and electronic structure of the dyads are determined by using the B3LYP/6-31G* method. The HOMO and LUMO levels are located on the Pc and C60 entities, respectively; this suggests the formation of ZnF(n)Pc(.+)-C60Im(.-) and ZnF(n)Pc(.+)-C60Py(.-) (n=0, 8 or 16) intra-supramolecular charge-separated states during electron transfer. Electrochemical studies on the ZnPc-C60 dyads enable accurate determination of their oxidation and reduction potentials and the energy of the charge-separated states. The energy of the charge-separated state for dyads composed of ZnF(n)Pc is higher than that of normal ZnPc-C60 dyads and reveals their significance in harvesting higher amounts of light energy. Evidence for charge separation in the dyads is secured from femtosecond transient absorption studies in nonpolar toluene. Kinetic evaluation of the cation and anion radical ion peaks reveals ultrafast charge separation and charge recombination in dyads composed of perfluorinated phthalocyanine and fullerene; this implies their significance in solar-energy harvesting and optoelectronic device building applications. PMID:24850373

  8. A cross-cultural comparison of tonal synchrony and pitch imitation in the vocal dialogs of Belgian Flemish-speaking and Mexican Spanish-speaking mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Loots, Gerrit; Gillisjans, Lobcke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Quintana, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural comparison of the vocal pitch patterns of 15 Mexican Spanish-speaking and 15 Belgian Flemish-speaking dyads, recorded during 5min of free-play in a laboratory setting. Both cultures have a tradition of dyadic face-to-face interaction but differ in language origins (i.e., Romanic versus Germanic). In total, 374 Mexican and 558 Flemish vocal exchanges were identified, analyzed and compared for their incidence of tonal synchrony (harmonic/pentatonic series), non-tonal synchrony (with/without imitations) and pitch and/or interval imitations. The main findings revealed that dyads in both cultures rely on tonal synchrony using similar pitch ratios and timing patterns. However, there were significant differences in the infants' vocal pitch imitation behavior. Additional video-analyzes on the contingency patterns involved in pitch imitation showed a cross-cultural difference in the maternal selective reinforcement of pitch imitation. The results are interpreted with regard to linguistic, developmental and cultural aspects and the 'musilanguage' model. PMID:26021806

  9. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M.; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and ‘fun task’ conditions. We focused on the link between interactants’ affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants’ personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants’ body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation. PMID:25505435

  10. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed. PMID:23794074

  11. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Stephen S. H.; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J.; Kelvin, Alyson A.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus

  12. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Stéphane G; Banner, David; Huang, Stephen S H; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J; Kelvin, Alyson A

    2015-10-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus

  13. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  14. "Songese": Maternal Structuring of Musical Interaction with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal structure of mother-infant interactions with songs, with particular attention to two aspects: 1) the singing of the mothers to their infants, and 2) the non-verbal behaviours mothers and infants produce in synchrony with the musical beat. Four mother-infant dyads were video-recorded when the…

  15. Modeling Heterogeneity in Social Interaction Processes Using Multilevel Survival Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Snyder, James

    2006-01-01

    More than 15 years ago, survival or hazard regression analyses were introduced to psychology (W. Gardner & W. A. Griffin, 1989; W. A. Griffin & W. Gardner, 1989) as powerful methodological tools for studying real time social interaction processes among dyads. Almost no additional published applications have appeared, although such data are…

  16. Eye Contact in Children's Social Interactions: What Is Normal Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Angela; Semple, Randye J.; Beale, Ivan; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.

    2000-01-01

    A study of 31 typical children aged 5-10 engaged in child-to-child social interactions, found joint attention was positively related to age and activity, eye gaze was low relative to joint attention and object engagement, and eye gaze was significantly less than what has been reported for adult-child and adult-adult dyads. (Contains references.)…

  17. Adolescents' Interactions with a Best Friend: Associations with Attachment Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Barbara L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.; Oldenburg, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested whether adolescents' attachment style is related to friendship interactions and perceptions of friendship quality. Attachment pairings were contrasted to examine whether dyad members' security of attachment or their models of others was more related to friendship. A total of 44 pairs of same-sex adolescent friends were videotaped…

  18. Parent-Child Interaction and Children's Number Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xin; Huang, Jin; Wang, Zhengke; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Zhenguo; Yang, Lei; Yang, Zhengzheng

    2006-01-01

    Two groups of Chinese four-year-olds and their parents' interaction in joint activities were analyzed and compared. The children in Group 1 were high scorers in written number skills and the children in Group 2 were low scorers. Eighty-five dyads participated in four separate 15-minute joint activities such as book reading, mathematical work…

  19. The Association between Parental Interaction Style and Children's Joint Engagement in Families with Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Elder, Lauren; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between parental interaction style (responsive vs directive) and child-initiated joint engagement within caregiver-child interactions with toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Method: Videotaped interactions of 85 toddler-caregiver dyads were coded for child engagement and both parental…

  20. Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

  1. Coping with a newly diagnosed high-grade glioma: patient-caregiver dyad effects on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Baumstarck, K; Leroy, T; Hamidou, Z; Tabouret, E; Farina, P; Barrié, M; Campello, C; Petrirena, G; Chinot, O; Auquier, P

    2016-08-01

    Patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG) and their caregivers have to confront a very aggressive disease that produces major lifestyle disruptions. There is an interest in studying the ability of patients and their caregivers to cope with the difficulties that affect quality of life (QoL). We examine, in a sample of patient-caregiver dyads in the specific context of newly diagnosed cases of HGG, whether the QoL of patients and caregivers is influenced by the coping processes they and their relatives use from a specific actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). This cross-sectional study involved 42 dyads with patients having recent diagnoses of HGG and assessed in the time-frame between diagnosis and treatment initiation. The self-reported data included QoL (Patient-Generated Index, EORTC QLQ-C30, and CareGiver Oncology QoL), emotional status, and coping strategies (BriefCope). The APIM was used to test the dyadic effects of coping strategies on QoL. Coping strategies, such as social support, avoidance, and problem solving, exhibited evidence of either an actor effect (degree to which the individual's coping strategies are associated with their own QoL) or partner effect (degree to which the individual's coping strategies are associated with the QoL of the other member of the dyad) for patients or caregivers. For positive-thinking coping strategies, actor and partner effect were not observed. This study emphasizes that the QoL for patients and their caregivers was directly related to the coping strategies they used. This finding suggests that targeted interventions should be offered to help patients and their relatives to implement more effective coping strategies. PMID:27300523

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Innovative Postpartum Care Model for Mother-Baby Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, Corinne; Dunn, Sandra; Pound, Catherine; Sourial, Nadia; Yasseen, Abdool S.; Millar, David; Rennicks White, Ruth; Walker, Mark; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    mother-baby dyads. This model of care may be more beneficial in a population that is not already predisposed to breastfeed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02043119 PMID:26871448

  3. Covalent dyads of porphyrin-fullerene and perylene-fullerene for organic photovoltaics: Spectroscopic and photocurrent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, Danuta; Lewandowska, Kornelia

    2011-07-01

    Supermolecular complexes of zinc porphyrin or perylenediimide as covalent dyads with fullerene (C 60) in chloroform and as Langmuir-Blodgett layers on an Au substrate were studied. In our studies we have used following spectroscopic methods: electronic absorption, fluorescence and electron spin resonance in solution. Also infrared absorption spectra in a KBr pellet and reflectance-absorption in Langmuir-Blodgett layers were monitored. Photocurrent generation in a photoelectrochemical cell was also studied. The redistribution of charge both upon porphyrin linkage to C 60 and when the systems are deposited on the Au substrate was shown. Photocurrent examinations show a great influence of the fullerene presence on photoresponse of the systems.

  4. Slow and fast singlet energy transfers in BODIPY-gallium(III)corrole dyads linked by flexible chains.

    PubMed

    Brizet, Bertrand; Desbois, Nicolas; Bonnot, Antoine; Langlois, Adam; Dubois, Adrien; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Gros, Claude P; Goze, Christine; Denat, Franck; Harvey, Pierre D

    2014-04-01

    Red (no styryl), green (monostyryl), and blue (distyryl) BODIPY-gallium(III) (BODIPY = boron-dipyrromethene) corrole dyads have been prepared in high yields using click chemistry, and their photophysical properties are reported. An original and efficient control of the direction of the singlet energy transfers is reported, going either from BODIPY to the gallium-corrole units or from gallium-corroles to BODIPY, depending upon the nature of the substitution on BODIPY. In one case (green), both directions are possible. The mechanism for the energy transfers is interpreted by means of through-space Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). PMID:24661249

  5. Assessing whether measurement invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across child-parent dyad depends on the child gender: a multiple group confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children's and parents' perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant items across girl-parent dyad were mostly detected in the psychological well-being and the social support and peers domains. Moreover, the boys and their parents differed mainly in the autonomy and parent relation domain. Detecting different non-invariant items across the girl-parent dyad compared to the boy-parent dyad underlines the importance of taking the child's gender into account when assessing measurement invariance between children and their parents and consequently deciding about children's physical, psychological or social well-being from the parents' viewpoint. PMID:25169000

  6. Assessing Whether Measurement Invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across Child-Parent Dyad Depends on the Child Gender: A Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children’s and parents’ perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant items across girl-parent dyad were mostly detected in the psychological well-being and the social support and peers domains. Moreover, the boys and their parents differed mainly in the autonomy and parent relation domain. Detecting different non-invariant items across the girl-parent dyad compared to the boy-parent dyad underlines the importance of taking the child’s gender into account when assessing measurement invariance between children and their parents and consequently deciding about children’s physical, psychological or social well-being from the parents’ viewpoint. PMID:25169000

  7. Properties of noncovalent tetraphenylporphine···C60 dyads as studied by different long-range and dispersion-corrected DFT functionals.

    PubMed

    Amelines-Sarria, Oscar; Basiuk, Vladimir A; Duarte-Alaniz, Víctor; Rivera, Margarita

    2015-11-01

    The noncovalent dyad of tetraphenylporphine and C60 fullerene (H2TPP···C60) and the tetraphenylporphine dimer (H2TPP···H2TPP) were studied by density functional theory (DFT), using functionals that incorporate empirical dispersion correction (DFT-D), functionals that use a long-range correction (LC) scheme, a hybrid functional (B3LYP) and a highly parametrized empirical exchange-correlation functional (M05-2X). The results were compared to X-ray structures and interaction energies reported in previous experimental and theoretical studies. It was found that B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals fail to reproduce the X-ray structures and binding energies of the TPP···C60 system. DFT-D functionals overestimated the π···π energy interactions for both systems, however, the optimized structures agree well with those observed experimentally. The LC-BLYP functional predicts geometries similar to X-ray structures; nevertheless, due to the lack of correction in the dispersion energy, the predicted energies for both model systems are low. On the other hand, the M05-2X functional exhibited the best performance. Both the structures and binding energies calculated with M05-2X are consistent with experimental and theoretical evidence reported by other authors, as well as with our experimental results obtained by means of atomic force microscopy on H2TPP thin films grown on the HOPG/C60 substrate by physical vapor deposition. PMID:26422808

  8. Non-Native Speaker Interaction Management Strategies in a Network-Based Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the dyad-based communication of two groups of non-native speakers (NNSs) of English involved in real time interaction in a type of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool known as a MOO. The object of this semester long study was to examine the ways in which the subjects managed their L2 interaction during…

  9. The Effects of Televised Advertising on Mother-Child Interactions at the Grocery Store.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron; Atkin, Charles K.

    One hundred mother/child dyads were involved in a study to provide empirical evidence on parent/child interaction in grocery stores and on the contributions of Saturday morning television commercials to those interactions and to the purchase of candy and cereals. Data were collected in 15 supermarkets in two midwestern cities. First, the…

  10. Unresolved States of Mind, Disorganized Attachment Relationships, and Disrupted Interactions of Adolescent Mothers and their Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Sheri; Moran, Greg; Pederson, David R.

    2006-01-01

    The links between unresolved maternal attachment status, disrupted maternal interaction in play situations, and disorganized attachment relationships were examined in a study of 82 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal interactive behavior was measured using the Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification coding…

  11. Mutuality in Mother-Child Interactions in an Antillean Intervention Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boomstra, Nienke W.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study on mutuality in mother-child interaction during reading and playing sessions. Within mother-child interaction, mutuality is seen as important in language acquisition. The study was executed within a group of Netherlands Antillean mother-child dyads who participated in an intervention programme. Mutuality was…

  12. Photophysical properties of new bis-perylene dyads for potential upconversion use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Marcos R.; Steer, Ronald P.; Rüther, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Two new bis-perylenes, BPC with a meta-disubstituted benzene linker, and BPD with a p,p‧-disubstituted biphenyl linker, have been synthesized and their photophysical parameters measured. Their singlet and triplet energies decrease incrementally in the order perylene, BPC, BPD, making them ideally matched with C60 for triplet-triplet energy transfer in sensitized photon upconversion schemes. Following photosensitization by triplet C60, BPC exhibits strong fluorescence upconversion by triplet-triplet annihilation, indicating that these bis-perylene dyads (and the multimers that can be constructed from them) will be interesting candidates for use in organic devices such as bulk-heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells employing non-coherent photon upconversion. Excitation of C60 at 532 nm will produce its long-lived lowest triplet state with near unit quantum efficiency under the conditions of this experiment [33]. The thermal energy loss usually associated with triplet-triplet energy transfer, Eq. (2), is minimal in this system as the triplet energies of the donor and acceptor are nearly identical at ca. 1.5 eV. In the absence of self-quenching of the fluorescing singlet state, increasing the relative concentrations of acceptor to donor can raise the overall efficiency of the sensitization process to nearly 100%, even if their triplet energies are the same, due to entropic assistance [34]. This was confirmed by measuring the upconversion intensity as a function of dyad concentration at constant absorbed power (Supplementary Information), and by transient absorption measurements of C60 (T1) at 740 nm (Supplementary Information). The latter show that C60(T1) decays with a lifetime on the order of 400 ns for equimolar C60 + BPC concentrations, i.e. at a rate at least 100 times faster (due to quenching by energy transfer) than it would decay in the absence of the BPC triplet energy acceptor. Note also that the dimers with their slightly lower triplet energies are

  13. Reciprocal Peer Learning with Task Cards: Analysis of Behaviour and Verbal Interactions in Structured and Unstructured Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iserbyt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is a part of a larger research project where the effect of instructional guidance in terms of role definition and role switching was investigated on students' learning of Basic Life Support (BLS) during a 20-minute reciprocal learning episode with task cards. BLS is a lifesaving skill consisting of nine sub skills to be…

  14. Design and Synthesis of Aviram-Ratner-Type Dyads and Rectification Studies in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) Films.

    PubMed

    Jayamurugan, Govindasamy; Gowri, Vijayendran; Hernández, David; Martin, Santiago; González-Orive, Alejandro; Dengiz, Cagatay; Dumele, Oliver; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Gisselbrecht, Jean-Paul; Boudon, Corinne; Schweizer, W Bernd; Breiten, Benjamin; Finke, Aaron D; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bernet, Bruno; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Cea, Pilar; Diederich, François

    2016-07-18

    The design and synthesis of Aviram-Ratner-type molecular rectifiers, featuring an anilino-substituted extended tetracyanoquinodimethane (exTCNQ) acceptor, covalently linked by the σ-spacer bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO) to a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donor moiety, are described. The rigid BCO spacer keeps the TTF donor and exTCNQ acceptor moieties apart, as demonstrated by X-ray analysis. The photophysical properties of the TTF-BCO-exTCNQ dyads were investigated by UV/Vis and EPR spectroscopy, electrochemical studies, and theoretical calculations. Langmuir-Blodgett films were prepared and used in the fabrication and electrical studies of junction devices. One dyad showed the asymmetric current-voltage (I-V) curve characteristic for rectification, unlike control compounds containing the TTF unit but not the exTCNQ moiety or comprising the exTCNQ acceptor moiety but lacking the donor TTF part, which both gave symmetric I-V curves. The direction of the observed rectification indicated that the preferred electron current flows from the exTCNQ acceptor to the TTF donor. PMID:27363287

  15. Quantitative analysis of intramolecular exciplex and electron transfer in a double-linked zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyad.

    PubMed

    Al-Subi, Ali Hanoon; Niemi, Marja; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2012-10-01

    Photoinduced charge transfer in a double-linked zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyad is studied. When the dyad is excited at the absorption band of the charge-transfer complex (780 nm), an intramolecular exciplex is formed, followed by the complete charge separated (CCS) state. By analyzing the results obtained from time-resolved transient absorption and emission decay measurements in a range of solvents with different polarities, we derived a dependence between the observable lifetimes and internal parameters controlling the reaction rate constants based on the semiquantum Marcus electron-transfer theory. The critical value of the solvent polarity was found to be ε(r) ≈ 6.5: in solvents with higher dielectric constants, the energy of the CCS state is lower than that of the exciplex and the relaxation takes place via the CCS state predominantly, whereas in solvents with lower polarities the energy of the CCS state is higher and the exciplex relaxes directly to the ground state. In solvents with moderate polarities the exciplex and the CCS state are in equilibrium and cannot be separated spectroscopically. The degree of the charge shift in the exciplex relative to that in the CCS state was estimated to be 0.55 ± 0.02. The electronic coupling matrix elements for the charge recombination process and for the direct relaxation of the exciplex to the ground state were found to be 0.012 ± 0.001 and 0.245 ± 0.022 eV, respectively. PMID:22958061

  16. High-resolution noncontact AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy investigations of self-assembled photovoltaic donor–acceptor dyads

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Pierre-Olivier; Biniek, Laure; Brinkmann, Martin; Leclerc, Nicolas; Zaborova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Summary Self-assembled donor–acceptor dyads are used as model nanostructured heterojunctions for local investigations by noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). With the aim to probe the photo-induced charge carrier generation, thin films deposited on transparent indium tin oxide substrates are investigated in dark conditions and upon illumination. The topographic and contact potential difference (CPD) images taken under dark conditions are analysed in view of the results of complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. After in situ annealing, it is shown that the dyads with longer donor blocks essentially lead to standing acceptor–donor lamellae, where the acceptor and donor groups are π-stacked in an edge-on configuration. The existence of strong CPD and surface photo-voltage (SPV) contrasts shows that structural variations occur within the bulk of the edge-on stacks. SPV images with a very high lateral resolution are achieved, which allows for the resolution of local photo-charging contrasts at the scale of single edge-on lamella. This work paves the way for local investigations of the optoelectronic properties of donor–acceptor supramolecular architectures down to the elementary building block level. PMID:27335768

  17. Effects of big-five personality traits on the quality of relationship and satisfaction in Chinese coach-athlete dyads.

    PubMed

    Yang, S X; Jowett, S; Chan, D K C

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach-athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach-athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach-athlete dyad. PMID:25367655

  18. Hair cortisol concentrations in higher- and lower-stress mother-daughter dyads: A pilot study of associations and moderators.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Sarah J; Russell, Evan; Kryski, Katie R; Sheikh, Haroon I; Singh, Shiva M; Koren, Gideon; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are receiving increased attention as a novel biomarker of psychophysiological responses to chronic stress, with potential relevance for psychopathology risk research. We examined the validity of HCC as a marker of psychosocial stress in mother (M(age)  = 37.87 years)-daughter (M(age)  = 7.62 years) dyads characterized by higher (n = 30) or lower (n = 30) maternal chronic stress. Additionally, we examined whether early care moderated similarity of HCC levels within dyads. Higher-stress mothers had significantly lower HCC compared to lower-stress mothers, consistent with other research showing that chronic stress leads to blunted HPA axis activity over time. Further, HCC in daughters were significantly and positively associated with previously assessed salivary cortisol stress reactivity. Finally, mother-daughter HCC associations were significantly moderated by negative parenting styles, such that associations became stronger as quality of parenting decreased. Findings overall indicate that HCC may be a useful marker of cortisol responses to chronic stress. PMID:25820649

  19. High-resolution noncontact AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy investigations of self-assembled photovoltaic donor-acceptor dyads.

    PubMed

    Grévin, Benjamin; Schwartz, Pierre-Olivier; Biniek, Laure; Brinkmann, Martin; Leclerc, Nicolas; Zaborova, Elena; Méry, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled donor-acceptor dyads are used as model nanostructured heterojunctions for local investigations by noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). With the aim to probe the photo-induced charge carrier generation, thin films deposited on transparent indium tin oxide substrates are investigated in dark conditions and upon illumination. The topographic and contact potential difference (CPD) images taken under dark conditions are analysed in view of the results of complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. After in situ annealing, it is shown that the dyads with longer donor blocks essentially lead to standing acceptor-donor lamellae, where the acceptor and donor groups are π-stacked in an edge-on configuration. The existence of strong CPD and surface photo-voltage (SPV) contrasts shows that structural variations occur within the bulk of the edge-on stacks. SPV images with a very high lateral resolution are achieved, which allows for the resolution of local photo-charging contrasts at the scale of single edge-on lamella. This work paves the way for local investigations of the optoelectronic properties of donor-acceptor supramolecular architectures down to the elementary building block level. PMID:27335768

  20. HIV seroadaptation among individuals, within sexual dyads, and by sexual episodes, men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2008

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Willi; Chen, Yea-Hung; Raymond, H Fisher; Nyugen, Binh; Colfax, Grant; Mehrtens, Jason; Robertson, Tyler; Stall, Ron; Levine, Deb; Truong, Hong-Ha M

    2011-01-01

    “Seroadaptation” comprises sexual behaviors to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission based on knowing one’s own and one’s sexual partners’ serostatus. We measured the prevalence of seroadaptive behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited through time-location sampling (TLS) across three perspectives: by individuals (N=1,207 MSM), among sexual dyads (N=3,746 partnerships), and for sexual episodes (N=63,789 episodes) in the preceding six months. Seroadaptation was more common than 100% condom use when considering the consistent behavioral pattern of individuals (adopted by 39.1% vs. 25.0% of men, respectively). Among sexual dyads 100% condom use was more common than seroadaptation (33.1% vs. 26.4%, respectively). Considering episodes of sex, not having anal intercourse (65.0%) and condom use (16.0%) were the most common risk reduction behaviors. Sex of highest acquisition and transmission risks (unprotected anal intercourse with a HIV serodiscordant or unknown status partner in the riskier position) occurred in only 1.6% of sexual episodes. In aggregate, MSM achieve a high level of sexual harm reduction through multiple strategies. Detailed measures of seroadaptive behaviors are needed to effectively target HIV risk and gauge the potential of serosorting and related sexual harm reduction strategies on the HIV epidemic. PMID:21347888

  1. Dyads Affected by Chronic Heart Failure: A Randomized Study Evaluating Effects of Education and Psychosocial Support to Patients With Heart Failure and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    ÅGREN, SUSANNA; EVANGELISTA, LORRAINE S.; HJELM, CARINA; STRÖMBERG, ANNA

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) causes great suffering for both patients and their partners. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an integrated dyad care program with education and psychosocial support to patients with CHF and their partners during a postdischarge period after acute deterioration of CHF. Methods One hundred fifty-five patient-caregiver dyads were randomized to usual care (n = 71) or a psychoeducation intervention (n = 84) delivered in 3 modules through nurse-led face-to-face counseling, computer-based education, and other written teaching materials to assist dyads to develop problem-solving skills. Follow-up assessments were completed after 3 and 12 months to assess perceived control, perceived health, depressive symptoms, self-care, and caregiver burden. Results Baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of dyads in the experimental and control groups were similar at baseline. Significant differences were observed in patients’ perceived control over the cardiac condition after 3 (P < .05) but not after 12 months, and no effect was seen for the caregivers. No group differences were observed over time in dyads’ health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms, patients’ self-care behaviors, and partners’ experiences of caregiver burden. Conclusions Integrated dyad care focusing on skill-building and problem-solving education and psychosocial support was effective in initially enhancing patients’ levels of perceived control. More frequent professional contact and ongoing skills training may be necessary to have a higher impact on dyad outcomes and warrants further research. PMID:22555264

  2. Autism spectrum disorder: does neuroimaging support the DSM-5 proposal for a symptom dyad? A systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-07-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with 'autism spectrum disorder' (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported abnormal function and structure of fronto-temporal and limbic networks with social and pragmatic language deficits, of temporo-parieto-occipital networks with syntactic-semantic language deficits, and of fronto-striato-cerebellar networks with repetitive behaviors and restricted interests in ASD patients. Therefore, this review partially supports the DSM-5 proposal for the ASD dyad. PMID:21932156

  3. Presence and Quality of Touch Influence Coregulation in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Amanda J.; Posada, German E.; Goldyn, Danielle T.

    2006-01-01

    The first major goal of this study was to determine whether touch would enhance mother-infant coregulation in ordinary, nonstressful face-to-face interactions. In an experimental manipulation of presence versus absence of touch in face-to-face interactions between 79 mothers and their 3.5-month-old infants, results indicated that when touch is…

  4. Dyads at Risk: Methadone-Maintained Women and Their Four-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeremy, Rita Jeruchimowicz; Bernstein, Victor J.

    1984-01-01

    Compares 17 methadone-exposed and 23 control four-month-old infants in interactions with their mothers. Results indicate that methadone is only one of several risk factors affecting interaction. Mothers rated poor in communication have poor psychosocial and psychological resources, and infants rated poor in communication showed problematic motor…

  5. The social interactive behaviour of young children with autism spectrum disorder and their mothers: is there an effect of familiarity of the interaction partner?

    PubMed

    Meirsschaut, Mieke; Roeyers, Herbert; Warreyn, Petra

    2011-01-01

    In this study the social behaviour of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their mothers is compared within two different dyads: a dyad consisting of a mother and her own child and a dyad consisting of a mother and an unfamiliar child. Mothers did not change the frequency of their social initiatives and responsiveness with an unfamiliar child, but they became less directive than with their own child. Children with ASD did not show significantly better social behaviour with their own mother than with an unfamiliar mother. The results suggest that the social behaviour of a child with autism is not significantly enhanced by the familiarity of the social partner, but rather by the partner's autism-adapted interaction style. Clinical implications of these findings have been discussed. PMID:20923889

  6. Six-Week Postpartum Maternal Self-Criticism and Dependency and 4-Month Mother-Infant Self- and Interactive Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were…

  7. Aggressive Behaviors in Social Interaction and Developmental Adaptation: A Narrative Analysis of Interpersonal Conflicts during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hongling; Swift, Dylan J.; Cairns, Beverley D.; Cairns, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated interactional properties and developmental functions of the following four types of aggressive behaviors in adolescents: social aggression, direct relational aggression, physical aggression, and verbal aggression. Found that the majority of conflict interactions involved more than a dyad, and that social aggression was an initiating…

  8. Attachment security and HPA axis reactivity to positive and challenging emotional situations in child-mother dyads in naturalistic settings.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela; Oliveira, Tania F; Oliveira, Rui F

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated adrenocortical activity in response to different challenging and positive affect emotional contexts in child-mother dyads, as function of attachment security (children's secure base behaviors and mothers' attachment representations). Fifty-one children ranging in age from 18 to 26 months and their mothers participated in this study. Secure children showed significant increases in their cortisol levels after fear episodes and significant decreases, after positive affect ones. No significant changes were found for frustration/anger episodes. Insecure children did not show significant differences in cortisol levels in any of the episodes, which suggests that insecure attachment may be related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in response to challenging and positive contexts. Mothers of insecure children showed significantly higher cortisol concentrations in pre- and post-session samples, than mothers of secure children. Mothers' personal attachment representations influenced their own cortisol responses, as well as their children's (in a marginal significant way). PMID:22487942

  9. Latina Mother–Daughter Dyads: Relations Between Attachment and Sexual Behavior Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Frank R.; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and nonsubstance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mother’s substance abuse all influenced the daughter’s sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed. PMID:19399605

  10. Coumarin-Spiropyran Dyad with a Hydrogenated Pyran Moiety for Rapid, Selective, and Sensitive Fluorometric Detection of Cyanide Anion.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Hayashi, Naoto; Hirai, Takayuki

    2016-07-01

    We synthesized a coumarin-spiropyran dyad with a hydrogenated pyran moiety (2), behaving as an off-on type fluorescent receptor for rapid, selective, and sensitive detection of cyanide anion (CN(-)) in aqueous media. The receptor itself shows almost no fluorescence with a quantum yield < 0.01, due to the delocalization of π-electrons over the molecule. Selective nucleophilic addition of CN(-) to the spirocarbon of the molecule rapidly promotes spirocycle opening within only 3 min. This leads to localization of π-electrons on the coumarin moiety and exhibits strong light-blue fluorescence at 459 nm with very high quantum yield (0.52). As a result of this, the receptor facilitates rapid, selective, and sensitive fluorometric detection of CN(-) as low as 1.0 μM. PMID:27268123