Sample records for c-coriolis interacting dyad

  1. Differential Effects of Sexual Composition and Interactional Context on Interaction Patterns in Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, B. Aubrey

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the impact of sexual composition and competitive/cooperative orientation on interaction patterns in same-sex and mixed-sex dyads. Found that the competitive or cooperative orientation of the interactants exerts a far greater impact on the communication behavior of dyads than does their sexual composition. (PD)

  2. Attachment predicting nonverbal behaviour, interaction quality and perception accuracy in romantic and stranger dyads 

    E-print Network

    Witts, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the nonverbal, interaction quality and perceptual accuracy correlates of attachment style within two interactions groups; strangers and romantic couples. Twenty eight stranger dyads and twenty eight ...

  3. Attachment : predicting non verbal behaviour, interaction quality and perception accuracy in romantic and stranger dyads 

    E-print Network

    Hope, Gary

    2006-01-01

    A variety of non-verbal behaviours were coded and rated from videotaped interactions between 28 stranger and 28 couple dyads. A composite measure of Bartholomew’s (1990, 1991) RSQ & RQ attachment scales was used to derive ...

  4. When Training with a Partner Is Inferior to Training Alone: The Importance of Dyad Type and Interaction Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Amy E.; Beier, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Dyad training, where trainees learn in pairs but ultimately perform individually, has been shown to be an effective method for training some skills. The effectiveness of this approach, however, may be tied to the type of task to be trained and the quality of the interaction in the dyad. We report two studies on the effectiveness of dyad training…

  5. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were examined and compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were positively related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother object-oriented behaviors were positively related only among European Americans. In all groups, infant and mother behaviors within each modality were mutually contingent. Culture moderated lead-lag relations: Japanese infants were more likely than their mothers to respond in object-oriented interactions, European American mothers were more likely than their infants to respond in person-oriented interactions. Japanese American dyads behaved more like European American dyads. Interaction, infant effects, and parent socialization findings are set in cultural and accultural models of transactions between young infants and their mothers. PMID:22860874

  6. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  7. MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTION IMPROVES WITH A DEVELOPMENTAL INTERVENTION FOR MOTHER-PRETERM INFANT DYADS

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F.; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M.; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant‘s biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29–34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention Control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training–Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-minute play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = .06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = .05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

  8. Patterns of Conflict Interaction in Mother-Toddler Dyads: Differences between Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Huang, Keng-Yen; Lima, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We examined the differences in conflict interaction between depressed mothers and their toddler and non-depressed dyads and whether these differences mediated the association of maternal depression with compromised child socioemotional development. Mother/child interaction was videotaped during a teaching task and during a free play task as part…

  9. Two-Photon Study on the Electronic Interactions between the First Excited Singlet States in Carotenoid?Tetrapyrrole Dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Pen-Nan; Pillai, Smitha; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Walla, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic interactions between the first excited states (S{sub 1}) of carotenoids (Car) of different conjugation lengths (8?11 double bonds) and phthalocyanines (Pc) in different Car?Pc dyad molecules were investigated by two-photon spectroscopy and compared with Car S{sub 1}?chlorophyll (Chl) interactions in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes (LHCs). The observation of Chl/Pc fluorescence after selective two-photon excitation of the Car S{sub 1} state allowed sensitive monitoring of the flow of energy between Car S{sub 1} and Pc or Chl. It is found that two-photon excitation excites to about 80% to 100% exclusively the carotenoid state Car S{sub 1} and that only a small fraction of direct tetrapyrrole two-photon excitation occurs. Amide-linked Car?Pc dyads in tetrahydrofuran demonstrate a molecular gear shift mechanism in that effective Car S{sub 1} ? Pc energy transfer is observed in a dyad with 9 double bonds in the carotenoid, whereas in similar dyads with 11 double bonds in the carotenoid, the Pc fluorescence is strongly quenched by Pc ? Car S{sub 1} energy transfer. In phenylamino-linked Car?Pc dyads in toluene extremely large electronic interactions between the Car S{sub 1} state and Pc were observed, particularly in the case of a dyad in which the carotenoid contained 10 double bonds. This observation together with previous findings in the same system provides strong evidence for excitonic Car S{sub 1}?Pc Q{sub y} interactions. Very similar results were observed with photosynthetic LHC II complexes in the past, supporting an important role of such interactions in photosynthetic down-regulation.

  10. Challenges to Bonnet Monkey (Macaca radiata) Social Groups: Mother–Infant Dyad and Infant Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Laudenslager, Mark L.; Natvig, C.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, S.M.; Blevins, M.; Corcoran, C.; Pierre, P.J.; Bennett, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The mother-infant dyad is crucial to early development in a variety of species. The complexity of social groupings in nonhuman primates makes this relationship resilient as well as susceptible to early challenges associated with environmental chaos. Quantitative behavior observations of bonnet monkey mother-infant interactions were collected from 28 mother-infant dyads between one and twelve months of age. Social groups were subjected to several prenatal and/or postnatal housing relocations within a single year resulting in two study groups. One group experienced relocations (ATYPICAL, n = 14) and the second group (TYPICAL, n = 14) was conceived and reared in the same location. Behaviors in the ethogram included mother-infant interactions and infant social interactions with other members of the group. Observations between ages of two to four months were analyzed by a mixed model analysis of variance including fixed effects of per and postnatal history (TYPICAL, ATYPICAL), age, and history by age interaction and random effects of mother and infant nested within mother. A significant effect of relocation history was noted on a number of infant behaviors. ATYPICAL infants were out of direct contact with their mother at an earlier age but remained in her proximity. Control of proximity shifted to offsrping in the ATYPICAL group compared to the TYPICAL group. Furthermore, greater social interactions between two and four months of age with other members of the social group as well as the ir mother were observed in the ATYPICAL group. It is suggested that continuous challenge associated with relocation may affect the infant at later developmental ages due to these early differences in ways that are yet unclear. PMID:20583143

  11. Face-to-Face Interactions in Unacquainted Female-Male Dyads: How Do Girls and Boys Behave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolaric, Giselle C.; Galambos, Nancy L.

    1995-01-01

    Examined adolescents' verbal and nonverbal behavior in 30 female-male dyads. All behaviors were coded. Analysis of videotaped interactions revealed more similarities between girls and boys than differences, although gender distinctions were evident in speaking time and in smiling. Results focus on developmental and contextual accounts of…

  12. van der Waals interactions are critical in Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of porphyrin-fullerene dyads.

    PubMed

    Karilainen, Topi; Cramariuc, Oana; Kuisma, Mikael; Tappura, Kirsi; Hukka, Terttu I

    2015-04-01

    The interplay between electrostatic and van der Waals (vdW) interactions in porphyrin-C60 dyads is still under debate despite its importance in influencing the structural characteristics of such complexes considered for various applications in molecular photovoltaics. In this article, we sample the conformational space of a porphyrin-C60 dyad using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations with and without empirical vdW corrections. Long-range vdW interactions, which are poorly described by the commonly used density functional theory functionals, prove to be essential for a proper dynamics of the dyad moieties. Inclusion of vdW corrections brings porphyrin and C60 close together in an orientation that is in agreement with experimental observations. The structural differences arising from the vdW corrections are shown to be significant for several properties and potentially less important for others. Additionally, our Mulliken population analysis reveals that contrary to the common belief, porphyrin is not the primary electron donating moiety for C60 . In the considered dyad, fullerene's affinity for electrons is primarily satisfied by charge transfer from the amide group of the linker. However, we show that in the absence of another suitable bound donor, C60 can withdraw electrons from porphyrin if it is sufficiently close. PMID:25639631

  13. Superabsorbing Fullerenes: Spectral and Kinetic Characterization of Photoinduced Interactions in Perylenediimide-Fullerene-C60 Dyads

    E-print Network

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    light region of C60 and its derivatives impedes attaining very high efficiencies of solar energy in Perylenediimide-Fullerene-C60 Dyads Je´ro^me Baffreau, Ste´phanie Leroy-Lhez, Pie´trick Hudhomme, Michiel M state that is formed on the nanosecond time scale with a high yield. Fullerene-C60 1 still represents

  14. Patterns of mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months among dyads with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Haabrekke, Kristin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of mother-infant interaction patterns from 3 to 12 months among three groups of mother-baby pairs recruited during pregnancy: one group from residential substance abuse treatment (n=28), a second group from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n=22), and a third group from well-baby clinics (n=30). The mother-infant interaction at 3 and 12 months was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA), which consists of maternal, child and dyadic subscales (Clark, 2006). Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze group differences and the changes in mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months. At 3 months, pairwise comparisons showed that the group with psychiatric problems had significantly more difficulties in the mother-infant interaction than the two other groups. The group with substance abuse problems was not significantly different from the two other groups. At 12 months, the mother-infant pairs in the substance abuse group showed significantly more relational disturbances than the non-clinical pairs, as well as a poorer affective quality of interaction than the dyads in the group with psychiatric problems. Analysis of change from 3 to 12 months showed that difficulties in the interaction increased among the mother-baby pairs in the substance abuse group, while improvements were displayed in the two other groups. These results underline that mother-infant pairs at double risk due to maternal substance abuse and other non-optimal factors, are in need for long-term follow up in order to prevent the development of negative interactional patterns. PMID:25459795

  15. Medical students' perception of dyad practice.

    PubMed

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Rasmussen, Maria B; Bjørck, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Amandus; Ringsted, Charlotte V

    2014-12-01

    Training in pairs (dyad practice) has been shown to improve efficiency of clinical skills training compared with single practice but little is known about students' perception of dyad practice. The aim of this study was to explore the reactions and attitudes of medical students who were instructed to work in pairs during clinical skills training. A follow-up pilot survey consisting of four open-ended questions was administered to 24 fourth-year medical students, who completed four hours of dyad practice in managing patient encounters. The responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. The students felt dyad practice improved their self-efficacy through social interaction with peers, provided useful insight through observation, and contributed with shared memory of what to do, when they forgot essential steps of the physical examination of the patient. However, some students were concerned about decreased hands-on practice and many students preferred to continue practising alone after completing the initial training. Dyad practice is well received by students during initial skills training and is associated with several benefits to learning through peer observation, feedback and cognitive support. Whether dyad training is suited for more advanced learners is a subject for future research. PMID:25073865

  16. Click made porphyrin-corrole dyad: a system for photo-induced charge separation.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Vasilis; Karikis, Kostas; Farré, Yoann; Charalambidis, Georgios; Odobel, Fabrice; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G

    2015-07-21

    The preparation of the first porphyrin-corrole dyad through click chemistry is described. The absorption, the emission and the electrochemical properties were investigated and suggested an efficient excited state interaction between the porphyrin and the corrole unit. Theoretical calculations were performed and proved that the dyad can potentially act as a molecular system for solar energy conversion schemes. PMID:26160267

  17. Preventive Intervention and Outcome with Anxiously Attached Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Alicia F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Infant-mother dyads classified as anxiously attached intervention and control or securely attached control were compared. Intervention toddlers were lower than anxious controls in avoidance, resistance, and anger, and higher in partnership with mother. Intervention mothers were higher in empathy and interactiveness. No differences between…

  18. Maternal experiences and the mother–infant dyad’s development: introducing the Interview of Mother’s Experiences (IME)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Salomonsson; Rolf Sandell

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study introduces an instrument, the Interview of Mother’s Experiences (I-ME), focusing on how the mother’s past and present experiences relate to her psychological state and interaction with the baby. Background: Questionnaires and video-taped interactions are used for assessing dyadic relationship disturbances. Validated interviews are rarer and might yield additional information. Method: Analyses were made on 86 dyads from

  19. Interactional Synchrony and the Origins of Infant-Mother Attachment: A Replication Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabella, Russell A.; Belsky, Jay

    1991-01-01

    Examined attachment relationships in infant-mother dyads. Dyads that were developing secure attachments interacted in a mutually rewarding manner. Among dyads developing insecure relationships, avoidant dyads were characterized by maternal intrusiveness, and resistant dyads by interactions in which mothers were underinvolved and inconsistent. (BC)

  20. Enhancing Training Efficiency and Effectiveness Through the Use of Dyad Training.

    PubMed

    Shea, Charles H.; Wulf, Gabriele; Whitacre, Chad

    1999-06-01

    The authors examined the effect of inserting observation practice and undirected dialog into the rest interval between practice trials on the learning of a complex task (stabilometer). Training protocols in which learners practice in pairs (dyads) result in increases in learning efficiency, but the critical issue is the effect on learning effectiveness. Three groups of participants (n = 12 in each group) practiced maintaining their balance on a stabilometer. One group practiced individually, and the other 2 groups practiced in dyads in which 1 performer practiced the task while the other observed. In the dyad-alternate condition, participants alternated between physical, observational, and dialog practice on each trial, whereas in the dyad-control condition, subjects completed all trials on 1 form of practice (either physical or observational practice) before engaging in the other form. The results indicated that the dyad-alternate group initially performed more poorly but quickly overtook the individual group, and the performance advantage of the dyad-alternate group was maintained on the delayed retention test. When the different forms of practice were performed consecutively, as in the dyad-control group, acquisition and retention performance was generally poorer than when they were alternated. Those results suggest that one can combine the benefits of physical practice, observation, and dialog between learners in an interactive way to produce an effective and efficient learning protocol. PMID:11177626

  1. Perceived HIV stigma in AIDS caregiving dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Wight; Carol S. Aneshensel; Debra A. Murphy; Dana Miller-Martinez; Kristin P. Beals

    2006-01-01

    This study examines perceived HIV stigma in AIDS caregiving dyads in the United States, assessing the measurement of and correlates of personal stigma (among care-recipients living with HIV), courtesy stigma (among caregivers), and dyadic stigma. Survey data from 135 dyads in which the caregiver is a midlife or older mother or wife, and the care-recipient is her HIV-infected adult son

  2. A Biochemical/Biophysical Assay Dyad for HTS-Compatible Triaging of Inhibitors of the HIV-1 Nef/Hck SH3 Interaction.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Sebastian; Espinola, Sheryll; Morelli, Xavier; Torbett, Bruce E; Arold, Stefan T; Engels, Ingo H

    2013-01-01

    The current treatment regimens for HIV include over 20 anti-retrovirals. However, adverse drug effects and the emergence of drug resistance necessitates the continued improvement of the existing drug classes as well as the development of novel drugs that target as yet therapeutically unexploited viral and cellular pathways. Here we demonstrate a strategy for the discovery of protein-protein interaction inhibitors of the viral pathogenicity factor HIV-1 Nef and its interaction with the host factor SH3. A combination of a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy resonance energy transfer-based assay and a label-free resonant waveguide grating-based assay was optimized for high-throughput screening formats. PMID:24396731

  3. A Biochemical/Biophysical Assay Dyad for HTS-Compatible Triaging of Inhibitors of the HIV-1 Nef/Hck SH3 Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Sebastian; Espinola, Sheryll; Morelli, Xavier; Torbett, Bruce E; Arold, Stefan T; Engels, Ingo H

    2013-01-01

    The current treatment regimens for HIV include over 20 anti-retrovirals. However, adverse drug effects and the emergence of drug resistance necessitates the continued improvement of the existing drug classes as well as the development of novel drugs that target as yet therapeutically unexploited viral and cellular pathways. Here we demonstrate a strategy for the discovery of protein-protein interaction inhibitors of the viral pathogenicity factor HIV-1 Nef and its interaction with the host factor SH3. A combination of a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy resonance energy transfer-based assay and a label-free resonant waveguide grating-based assay was optimized for high-throughput screening formats. PMID:24396731

  4. Insight and the analytic dyad.

    PubMed

    Poland, W S

    1988-07-01

    Insight reflects the unitary nature of psychic activity in contrast to the fragmentation created in abstracting categories for the purpose of study and discussion. The unique analytic clinical dyad offers a structure in which intrapsychic fragments can be actualized and integrated. As a result, the analyst's contribution is more crucially one of exploration than of revelation. Whatever the area of examination, past or present, the link to analytic immediacy offers the opportunity to make meanings meaningful, to convert known facts to psychic truths. The analyst's clinical task requires his private self-analysis as part of the collaborative exploration of how the patient's mind works. Higher level ego functioning, including acutely active remembering, is at times transiently loosened in order for the analyst to share in the clinical work of discovery. The words the analyst uses to communicate his understanding convey only approximate manifest meanings, though they structurally reveal deeper messages of importance to the patient. These verbal approximations help stimulate self-reflection in the analysand as a step in the process of gaining insight. PMID:3420211

  5. Sex-Role Orientation and Relationship Development in Same-Sex Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamke, Leanne K.; Bell, Nancy J.

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the relationship between sex-role identity, behavioral interaction, and interpersonal attraction in an initial extended encounter. Female subjects (N=82) identified as either feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated participated in same-sex dyads. Results of the combined initial and final unstructured interactions indicated greater…

  6. Gaze and Vocalization in Mother-Infant Dyads: Conversation or Coincidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alan; Elliott, Tony

    This paper reports two studies which examined sequential dependence in the dyadic interaction between mother and infant. In the first study, brief videotaped behavioral samples were collected for 24 primiparous mother-infant (M - I) dyads to examine the degree of reciprocal contingency in M - I interactions. Two coders, using a computer interfaced…

  7. Can opposites attract? Personality heterogeneity in supervisor-subordinate dyads as a predictor of subordinate outcomes.

    PubMed

    Glomb, Theresa M; Welsh, Elizabeth T

    2005-07-01

    Unlike the majority of research hypothesizing that similarity between individuals results in positive individual outcomes, this article examines whether dissimilarity results in positive outcomes. On the basis of interpersonal interaction theory, the authors hypothesized that dissimilarity in the personality dimension of control within supervisor-subordinate dyads is positively associated with the subordinate's satisfaction with the supervisor; results obtained with polynomial regression techniques were supportive. However, for 2 other outcomes, organizational citizenship behaviors and work withdrawal, neither similarity nor dissimilarity within the dyad was important; subordinate level of control was related to organizational citizenship behaviors reported by subordinates, and supervisor level of control was related to work withdrawal reported by subordinates. These findings portray the importance of examining relationship complexities beyond similarity in organizational dyad research. PMID:16060791

  8. An application of attribution principles to nonverbal behavior in romantic dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Manusov

    1990-01-01

    This article suggests ways in which attribution theories can explain the interpretation processes involved in understanding nonverbal behavior. An experiment examined attribution choices for nonverbal messages between romantic partners. Couples (N = 63) were videotaped while playing a game of “Trivial Pursuit.” During the interaction, one member of the dyad manipulated his or her nonverbal behaviors to appear positive at

  9. Social skills of older people: Conversations in same? and mixed?age dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dixie D. Vandeputte; Susan Kemper; Mary Lee Hummert; Karen A. Kemtes; Jaye Shaner; Chris Segrin

    1999-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a relation between lack of social skills and loneliness in young adults. This framework was extended to study older adults’ social skills in two experiments examining conversational interactions among older, young, and mixed?age dyads. The conversations were coded for social skill using partner attention statements as the measure of social skill. Partner attention statements includes partner

  10. An Attempt To Design Synchronous Collaborative Learning Environments for Peer Dyads on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fong-Lok; Liang, Steven; Chan, Tak-Wai

    1999-01-01

    Describes the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of three synchronous distributed learning prototype systems: Co-Working System, Working Along System, and Hybrid System. Each supports a particular style of interaction, referred to a socio-activity learning model, between members of student dyads (pairs). All systems were…

  11. Antecedents of Toddler Aggression: Dysfunctional Parenting in Mother-Toddler Dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara Del Vecchio; Susan G. O'Leary

    2006-01-01

    Aggression is stable as early as 2 years of age and predicts many negative adult out- comes. Although longitudinal predictors of child aggression have been identified, in- formation is lacking regarding the proximal precursors of toddlers' aggression. Dur- ing a 30-min interaction, 54 mother-toddler dyads were observed. Toddlers were categorized as aggressive or nonaggressive based on whether they exhibited aggres-

  12. Research on the Parent–Adolescent Dyad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen M. Gavazzi

    \\u000a Historically, empirical attempts to understand families with adolescents have paid great attention to the activities of parents,\\u000a especially in terms of what they are doing to socialize their offspring to become productive members of society. As a natural\\u000a extension, then, the parent–adolescent dyad becomes the smallest unit of analysis that can be used in the study of families\\u000a with adolescents.

  13. Photoinduced electron transfer in a porphyrin dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L.; Leggett, L.; Lin, S.; DeGraziano, J.M.; Hermant, R.M.; Nicodem, D.; Craig, P.; Seely, G.R.; Nieman, R.A. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States))

    1993-07-29

    A prophyrin dyad designed to facilitate vectorial interporphyrin electron transfer has been synthesized and studied using steady-state and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopies. The dyad features a zinc tetraaylporphyrin bearing electron-donating substituents linked by an amide bond to a free base porphyrin carrying electron-withdrawing groups. Excitation of the zinc porphyrin moiety in dichloromethane solution is followed by singlet energy transfer to the free base and concurrent electron transfer to the same moiety to yield a charge-separated state. The free base first excited singlet state decays by accepting an electron from the zinc porphyrin to form the same charge-separated state. Similar results are observed in butyronitrile. Transient absorption studies in butyronitrile verify the formation of a short-lived (8 ps) charge-separated state from the porphyrin first excited singlet states. The results support the suggestion that fluorescence quenching in related porphyrin dyads and carotenoid--diporphyrin triads is due to photoinduced electron transfer, rather than some other decay process. 17 refs., 8 refs.

  14. An Interaction Analysis of Self-Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Brenda Robinson

    This study explored whether an interaction analysis of ongoing communication can be useful in describing the process of self-disclosure. Eight women were assigned to dyads: two acquaintance dyads (subjects were acquainted through a small class in communication and had known each other for two months), and two friendship dyads (subjects had been…

  15. A Comparison of Deception Behavior in Dyad and Triadic Group Decision Making in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Zhou; Dongsong Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Deception can be detrimental to individual and organizational decision mak- ing. Existing research on behavioral cues to deception has focused mainly on monologue and dyadic interaction. No studies have empirically examined the impact of group size on behavioral cues to deception. This study is the first attempt to investigate whether deceivers behave differently in dyads and triadic groups in synchronous

  16. Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents' Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12-16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison…

  17. Ultrafast spectroscopic investigation of a fullerene poly(3-hexylthiophene) dyad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie Banerji; Jason Seifter; Mingfeng Wang; Eric Vauthey; Fred Wudl; Alan J. Heeger

    2011-01-01

    We present the femtosecond spectroscopic investigation of a covalently linked dyad, PCB-P3HT, formed by a segment of the conjugated polymer P3HT (regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene)) that is end capped with the fullerene derivative PCB ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid ester), adapted from PCBM. The fluorescence of the P3HT segment in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution is reduced by 64% in the dyad compared to a control compound

  18. Subcortical representation of musical dyads: individual differences and neural generators.

    PubMed

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    When two notes are played simultaneously they form a musical dyad. The sensation of pleasantness, or "consonance", of a dyad is likely driven by the harmonic relation of the frequency components of the combined spectrum of the two notes. Previous work has demonstrated a relation between individual preference for consonant over dissonant dyads, and the strength of neural temporal coding of the harmonicity of consonant relative to dissonant dyads as measured using the electrophysiological "frequency-following response" (FFR). However, this work also demonstrated that both these variables correlate strongly with musical experience. The current study was designed to determine whether the relation between consonance preference and neural temporal coding is maintained when controlling for musical experience. The results demonstrate that strength of neural coding of harmonicity is predictive of individual preference for consonance even for non-musicians. An additional purpose of the current study was to assess the cochlear generation site of the FFR to low-frequency dyads. By comparing the reduction in FFR strength when high-pass masking noise was added to the output of a model of the auditory periphery, the results provide evidence for the FFR to low-frequency dyads resulting in part from basal cochlear generators. PMID:25636498

  19. Altercentric Intrusions from Multiple Perspectives: Beyond Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Francesca; Cavallo, Andrea; Furlanetto, Tiziano; Becchio, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that in dyadic contexts observers rapidly and involuntarily process the visual perspective of others and cannot easily resist interference from their viewpoint. To investigate whether spontaneous perspective taking extends beyond dyads, we employed a novel visual perspective task that required participants to select between multiple competing perspectives. Participants were asked to judge their own perspective or the visual perspective of one or two avatars who either looked at the same objects or looked at different objects. Results indicate that when a single avatar was present in the room, participants processed the irrelevant perspective even when it interfered with participants’ explicit judgments about the relevant perspective. A similar interference effect was observed when two avatars looked at the same discs, but not when they looked at different discs. Indeed, when the two avatars looked at different discs, the interference from the irrelevant perspective was significantly reduced. This is the first evidence that the number and orientation of agents modulate spontaneous perspective taking in non-dyadic contexts: observers may efficiently compute another’s perspective, but in presence of more individuals holding discrepant perspectives, they may not spontaneously track multiple viewpoints. These findings are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that perspective calculation occurs in an effortless and automatic manner. PMID:25436911

  20. Collaborative learning using nursing student dyads in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Austria, Mary Jean; Baraki, Katie; Doig, Alexa K

    2013-01-01

    Formal pairing of student nurses to work collaboratively on one patient assignment is a strategy for improving the quality and efficiency of clinical instruction while better utilizing the limited resources at clinical agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the student nurse and patient experiences of collaborative learning when peer dyads are used in clinical nursing education. Interviews were conducted with 11 students and 9 patients. Students described the process of collaborative learning as information sharing, cross-checking when making clinical decisions, and group processing when assessing the outcomes of nursing interventions. Positive outcomes reported by students and patients included reduced student anxiety, increased confidence and task efficiency. Students' primary concern was reduced opportunity to perform hands-on skills which had to be negotiated within each dyad. Meeting the present and future challenges of educating nurses will require innovative models of clinical instruction such as collaborative learning using student peer dyads. PMID:23652587

  1. Cooperation beyond the dyad: on simple models and a complex society

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Players in Axelrod and Hamilton's model of cooperation were not only in a Prisoner's Dilemma, but by definition, they were also trapped in a dyad. But animals are rarely so restricted and even the option to interact with third parties allows individuals to escape from the Prisoner's Dilemma into a much more interesting and varied world of cooperation, from the apparently rare ‘parcelling’ to the widespread phenomenon of market effects. Our understanding of by-product mutualism, pseudo-reciprocity and the snowdrift game is also enriched by thinking ‘beyond the dyad’. The concepts of by-product mutualism and pseudo-reciprocity force us to think again about our basic definitions of cooperative behaviour (behaviour by a single individual) and cooperation (the outcome of an interaction between two or more individuals). Reciprocity is surprisingly rare outside of humans, even among large-brained ‘intelligent’ birds and mammals. Are humans unique in having extensive cooperative interactions among non-kin and an integrated cognitive system for mediating reciprocity? Perhaps, but our best chance for finding a similar phenomenon may be in delphinids, which also live in large societies with extensive cooperative interactions among non-relatives. A system of nested male alliances in bottlenose dolphins illustrates the potential and difficulties of finding a complex system of cooperation close to our own. PMID:20679112

  2. The Opioid dependent mother and newborn dyad: non-pharmacologic care

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Martha; Jansson, Lauren M.

    2009-01-01

    Opioid dependent pregnant and post-partum women and their infants are a complex and vulnerable population requiring individualized, comprehensive and multidisciplinary treatment. Though methadone maintenance in the setting of comprehensive service provision during pregnancy significantly improves pregnancy outcomes for opioid dependent women, its use has implications for the infant, most notably the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). NAS is comprised of physiologic signs and behaviors that indicate a dysfunctional regulation of the central and autonomic nervous systems, and is variable in its expression in affected infants. The disorganized rather than adaptive behaviors displayed by each infant undergoing the effects of in-utero opioid exposure may impair basic functions such as feeding, sleeping, and the ability to be alert and communicate clear cues to caregivers. Understanding and responding to neurobehavioral dysfunction of the newborn may help to promote the infant’s self-organization and self-regulating abilities. However, the substance abusing mother’s physical and psychological wellbeing may be debilitated in the perinatal period, and her ability to recognize and respond to the newborn’s cues may be limited. A multi-tiered comprehensive assessment and intervention of the methadone-maintained mother, her child, and the mother/infant dyad can improve early maternal nurturing interactions, a crucial component of early infant development, particularly in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to review the contribution of maternal opioid dependency to the difficulties experienced by the mother-infant dyad and their treatment providers in the postnatal period, and the non-pharmacological treatment of the infants with suggestions for practical measures with emphasis on the treatment of the mother and baby as an interactional dyad. PMID:19727440

  3. A Method and Metric for Assessing Similarity among Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Jennifer; Polisar, Donna

    1987-01-01

    Reviews problems in defining and measuring similarity with dyadic data. Proposes an alternative method of planned comparisons between related and random dyads. Illustrates the method with use of sociopolitical attitude data from three-generation families. Results showed greater and less intergenerational attitude similarity in certain domains than…

  4. Emotional availability in the mother-infant dyad as related to the quality of infant-mother attachment relationship.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Y; Aviezer, O; Gini, M; Sagi, A; Koren-Karie, N

    2000-09-01

    Dyadic emotional availability and infant-mother attachment relationship were examined in 687 Israeli dyads. Concurrent assessments used the Strange Situation procedure (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978) for evaluating infants' attachment relationship, and the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, Robinson, & Emde, 1993) for evaluating the quality of mother-child interaction. It was found that higher scores on the Emotional Availability Scales were associated with infant attachment security. In addition, it was found that the Emotional Availability Scales discriminated between insecure-ambivalent and secure attachment classification, but were not informative about unique characteristics of emotional availability in dyads with avoidant and disorganized infants. Our findings contribute to the cross-cultural validation of Emotional Availability Scales against infants' attachment security. PMID:11707908

  5. Molecular mechanical devices based on quinone-pyrrole and quinone-indole dyads: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Kacprzak, Sylwia; Kaupp, Martin

    2006-04-20

    A set of intramolecularly connected dyads consisting of a quinone unit and a pyrrole or indole moiety have been designed and evaluated in quantum-chemical calculations. It is shown computationally for several systems, depending on the length and attachment points of the interconnecting chains, that a reduction of the quinone to the semiquinone radical anion or quinolate dianion state leads to a reversible intramolecular reorientation from a pi-stacked to a T-stacked arrangement. In the rearranged structures, a hydrogen bond from the pyrrole or indole N-H function to the semiquinone or quinolate pi-system is created upon reduction. In some systems, hydrogen bonds to the semiquinone or quinolate oxygen atoms are partly feasible and will be preferred over T-stacking. The choice of systems has been based on recent computational observations related to photosystem I. Systems with pyrrole or indole units should provide a better basis for the envisioned molecular motor than recently proposed quinone-benzene dyads. The intramolecular interactions modify the quinone redox potentials. Electronic g-tensors have been computed for the semiquinone states. These reflect characteristically the presence and nature of hydrogen bonds to the semiquinone and represent suitable electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic probes for the preferred structures. Intramolecular proton transfer is possible in the dianionic state. PMID:16610919

  6. Erotized Transference in the Male Patient–Female Therapist Dyad

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Martha B.

    2001-01-01

    Little has been published regarding male patients' erotic transferences to female therapists. It has been suggested that male patients do not develop full erotic transferences and rarely experience erotized transferences. The author presents a case report documenting erotization in a male patient–female therapist dyad and reviews current theories on the etiology, therapeutic significance, and treatment strategies indicated for such a transference. PMID:11121005

  7. Mentor functions in NCAA women's soccer coaching dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen M. Narcotta; Jeffrey C. Petersen; Scott R. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Team performance in sport is not limited to the players, but extends to the coaching staff and their relationships. This study aims to identify mentoring functions reported by NCAA Division I assistant women's soccer coaches within a head coach-assistant coach dyad and examine gender impact on these functions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Mentor Role Instrument questionnaire, completed by 39.7

  8. Corporal punishment and communication in father?son dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey W. Kassing; Kevin J. Pearce; Dominic A. Infante

    2000-01-01

    This study was based on a communication?oriented perspective of corporal punishment of children. The perspective posits that physically aggressive influence tactics would be associated with aggressive communication and a set of communication outcomes. The perceptions of 74 father?son dyads were solicited to test these relationships. Results indicated that when there was lower argumentativeness and higher verbal aggressiveness in father?son communication

  9. Energy and photoinduced electron transfer in porphyrin-fullerene dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Kuciauskas, D.; Lin, S.; Seely, G.R.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Drovetskaya, T.; Reed, C.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Boyd, P.D.W. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)] [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)

    1996-09-26

    Time-resolved fluorescence and absorption techniques have been used to investigate energy and photoinduced electron transfer in a covalently linked free-base porphyrin-fullerene dyad and its zinc analogue. In toluene, the porphyrin first excited singlet states decay in about 20 ps by singlet-singlet energy transfer to the fullerene. The fullerene first excited singlet state is not quenched and undergoes intersystem crossing to the triplet, which exists in equilibrium with the porphyrin triplet state. In benzonitrile, photoinduced electron transfer from the porphyrin first excited singlet state to the fullerene competes with energy transfer. The fullerene excited singlet state is also quenched by electron transfer from the porphyrin. Overall, the charge-separated state is produced with a quantum yield approaching unity. This state lives for 290 ps in the free-base dyad and 50 ps in the zinc analog. These long lifetimes suggest that such dyads may be useful as components of more complex light-harvesting systems. 32 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads.

    PubMed

    Wolframm, Inga A; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J

    2013-02-01

    The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe patterns of motor coordination between horse and rider across the equine gaits of walk, rising trot, sitting trot and canter. Eighteen female (N=18; mean age±SD: 37.57±13.04) Dutch horse-rider combinations were recruited to participate in the study. Horse-rider coordination was recorded using two tri-axial wireless accelerometers during a standard ridden protocol. Multiple measures of horse-rider coordination were calculated to investigate the relationship between the horse and rider, while the unpredictability of the acceleration-time series of the horse and rider during task performance were determined separately by means of approximate entropy analysis. The kinematic variables of horse-rider correlation, mean relative phase, mean standard deviation of the relative phase, approximate entropy rider, approximate entropy horse and spectral edge frequency at 95% of the power in the 0-10 Hz frequency band were examined using multiple correlational analyses and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Findings showed significantly different coordination dynamics between equine gaits, with the gait of canter allowing for the highest levels of horse-rider synchronicity. It may be concluded that accelerometers are a valuable tool to map distinct coordination patterns of horse-rider combinations. PMID:23290116

  11. Self-assembled monolayers of C60-triphenylamine dyads as photo-switched interfacial layers for potential application in photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mahsa; Rivera-Nazario, Danisha M; Echegoyen, Luis A

    2014-03-12

    C60-Triphenylamine dyads were synthesized for incorporation as photoswitched interfacial layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of these dyads on gold (through S-Au and C60-Au interactions) were prepared through one or two adsorption processes, and their packing densities were fully characterized. Analysis using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicated that all SAMs exhibit dense coverage on the gold surfaces. Electrochemical desorption in KOH confirmed that the cis-1 dyad is anchored to the gold surface through its thiol group. Impedance measurements in the absence and presence of UV irradiation were performed to observe the photoswitched properties of these surface confined dyads. Upon UV light exposure of the SAMs, the charge-transfer resistance decreased when Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) was used as the probe redox couple and increased with Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+), confirming the generation of positive charges on the surface upon UV irradiation. PMID:24524362

  12. Beyond the ‘dyad’: a qualitative re-evaluation of the changing clinical consultation

    PubMed Central

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Roberts, Celia; Li, Shuangyu; Weber, Orest; Singy, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics of consultations that do not conform to the traditionally understood communication ‘dyad’, in order to highlight implications for medical education and develop a reflective ‘toolkit’ for use by medical practitioners and educators in the analysis of consultations. Design A series of interdisciplinary research workshops spanning 12?months explored the social impact of globalisation and computerisation on the clinical consultation, focusing specifically on contemporary challenges to the clinician–patient dyad. Researchers presented detailed case studies of consultations, taken from their recent research projects. Drawing on concepts from applied sociolinguistics, further analysis of selected case studies prompted the identification of key emergent themes. Setting University departments in the UK and Switzerland. Participants Six researchers with backgrounds in medicine, applied linguistics, sociolinguistics and medical education. One workshop was also attended by PhD students conducting research on healthcare interactions. Results The contemporary consultation is characterised by a multiplicity of voices. Incorporation of additional voices in the consultation creates new forms of order (and disorder) in the interaction. The roles ‘clinician’ and ‘patient’ are blurred as they become increasingly distributed between different participants. These new consultation arrangements make new demands on clinicians, which lie beyond the scope of most educational programmes for clinical communication. Conclusions The consultation is changing. Traditional consultation models that assume a ‘dyadic’ consultation do not adequately incorporate the realities of many contemporary consultations. A paradox emerges between the need to manage consultations in a ‘super-diverse’ multilingual society, while also attending to increasing requirements for standardised protocol-driven approaches to care prompted by computer use. The tension between standardisation and flexibility requires addressing in educational contexts. Drawing on concepts from applied sociolinguistics and the findings of these research observations, the authors offer a reflective ‘toolkit’ of questions to ask of the consultation in the context of enquiry-based learning. PMID:25270858

  13. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad

    PubMed Central

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143?cm?1 are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97?cm?1 and 147?cm?1 which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene. PMID:25797419

  14. Enhancing Motor Learning through Dyad Practice: Contributions of Observation and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granados, Carolina; Wulf, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that practice in dyads, as compared to individual practice, can enhance motor learning and increase the efficiency of practice (as two participants can be trained at the same time; Shea, Wulf, & Whitacre, 1999). The dyad practice protocol used by Shea et al. included both observation and dialogue between partners. Thus, it was…

  15. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Dyads for Estimating Global Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Patel, Ronak; Crawford, John R

    2014-09-29

    All possible two-subtest combinations of the core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) subtests were evaluated as possible viable short forms for estimating full-scale IQ (FSIQ). Validity of the dyads was evaluated relative to FSIQ in a large clinical sample (N = 482) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Sample validity measures included correlations, mean discrepancies, and levels of agreement between dyad estimates and FSIQ scores. In addition, reliability and validity coefficients were derived from WAIS-IV standardization data. The Coding + Information dyad had the strongest combination of reliability and validity data. However, several other dyads yielded comparable psychometric performance, albeit with some variability in their particular strengths. We also observed heterogeneity between validity coefficients from the clinical and standardization-based estimates for several dyads. Thus, readers are encouraged to also consider the individual psychometric attributes, their clinical or research goals, and client or sample characteristics when selecting among the dyadic short forms. PMID:25271008

  16. Proximity-to-goal as a constraint on patterns of behaviour in attacker-defender dyads in team games.

    PubMed

    Headrick, Jonathon; Davids, Keith; Renshaw, Ian; Araújo, Duarte; Passos, Pedro; Fernandes, Orlando

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether spatiotemporal interactions between footballers and the ball in 1 vs. 1 sub-phases are influenced by their proximity to the goal area. Twelve participants (age 15.3 ± 0.5 years) performed as attackers and defenders in 1 vs. 1 dyads across three field positions: (a) attacking the goal, (b) in midfield, and (c) advancing away from the goal area. In each position, the dribbler was required to move beyond an immediate defender with the ball towards the opposition goal. Interactions of attacker-defender dyads were filmed with player and ball displacement trajectories digitized using manual tracking software. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences in mean defender-to-ball distance after this value had stabilized. Maximum attacker-to-ball distance was also compared as a function of proximity-to-goal. Significant differences were observed for defender-to-ball distance between locations (a) and (c) at the moment when the defender-to-ball distance had stabilized (a: 1.69 ± 0.64 m; c: 1.15 ± 0.59 m; P < 0.05). Findings indicate that proximity-to-goal influenced the performance of players, particularly when attacking or advancing away from goal areas, providing implications for training design in football. In this study, the task constraints of football revealed subtly different player interactions than observed in previous studies of dyadic systems in basketball and rugby union. PMID:22176036

  17. Enhancing early attachment: Design and pilot study of an intervention for primary health care dyads.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Francisca Figueroa; Vergara, Victoria Binda; Santelices, María Pía

    2012-11-16

    The attachment style of an infant with his caregiver can greatly influence his future development. Many interventions have been proposed to enhance early secure attachment styles, but few have characteristics that make them suitable for primary health care. The objective of the study wasto design a complex intervention for promoting secure attachment in dyads detected in Primary Health Care with altered patterns of attachment styles. The methodology proposed by the UK Medical Research Council was used: (1) theoretical phase: literature review; (2) modelling phase: the main components of the intervention were defined through qualitative research; and (3) exploration phase: pilot study of the preliminary intervention. The attachment style of the dyads was evaluated using the Massie-Campbell scale prior to and four months after the pilot intervention. The preliminary intervention was designed: a group workshop (five to seven dyads, with children aged between 6 and 12 months and two health care professional monitors) structured around various activities that specifically dealt with the skills associated with parental sensitivity and addressed relevant issues to child rearing. The intervention was then tested in a pilot study of 11 dyads in two primary health care centres. The analysis was done with nine dyads (two were lost in the second evaluation), and showed an improvement of 33 per cent in the secure attachment style in the dyads (not statistically significant). An original intervention is designed and proposed for dyads who have early indicators of altered styles of attachment in primary health care. PMID:23162050

  18. Theoretical study on a corrole-azafullerene dyad: Electronic structure, spectra and photoinduced electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsalakis, Ioannis D.; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula

    2014-08-01

    Density Functional Theory and Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory calculations have been carried out on a recently synthesized amino-corrole and a corrole-azafullerene dyad which exhibits photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Good agreement of the theoretical results with experiment is obtained regarding the absorption and emission spectra of the corrole, the absorption spectra of the corrole-azafullerene dyad and the transient anionic and cationic radicals of azafullerene and corrole respectively. Application of Mulliken's theory for charge-transfer states yields the excitation energy of the charge-separated state of the dyad very close to the S1 excitation of amino-corrole, consistent with a PET process.

  19. Angular relationships regulate coordination tendencies of performers in attacker-defender dyads in team sports.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Pedro T; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Davids, Keith; Esteves, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the continuous interpersonal interactions of performers in dyadic systems in team sports, as a function of changing information constraints. As a task vehicle, we investigated how attackers attained success in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball by exploring angular relations with immediate opponents and the basket. We hypothesized that angular relations would convey information for the attackers to dribble past defenders. Four basketball players performed as an attacker and defender in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball, in which the co-positioning and orientation of participants relative to the basket was manipulated. After video recording performance behaviors, we digitized participant movement displacement trajectories and categorized trials as successful or unsuccessful (from the attackers' viewpoint). Results revealed that, to successfully dribble past a defender, attackers tended to explore the left hand side of the space by defenders by increasing their angular velocity and decreasing their angular variability, especially in the center of the court. Interpersonal interactions and goal-achievement in attacker-defender dyads appear to have been constrained by the angular relations sustained between participants relative to the scoring target. Results revealed the functionality of exploratory behaviors of participants attempting re-align spatial relations with an opponent in 1v1 sub-phases of team games. PMID:25625811

  20. Corrective Feedback via Instant Messenger Learning Activities in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS Dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUSANA SOTILLO

    This exploratory study examines corrective feedback in native speaker-nonna- tive speaker (NS-NNS) and NNS-NNS dyads while participants were engaged in communicative and problem-solving activities via Yahoo! Instant Messenger (YIM). As \\

  1. Role of the His-Asp Catalytic Dyad of Ribonuclease A David J. Quirk

    E-print Network

    Raines, Ronald T.

    in the active sites of many proteases, lipases, and ribonucleases. We have used a variety ofmethods to probe the role of the catalytic dyad of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A). In RNase A, His119 and Asp121

  2. Photoinduced electron transfer within a novel synthesized short-chain dyad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudeshna Bhattacharya; Munmun Bardhan; Avijit Kumar De; Asish de; Tapan Ganguly

    2010-01-01

    The investigations were made by using electrochemical, steady state and time resolved spectroscopic (time correlated single photon counting and laser flash photolysis) techniques on a novel synthesized dyad, 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-naphthalen-1-yl)-propenone (MNCA) where the donor 1-methoxy-naphthalene (MNT) is connected with the acceptor p-chloroacetophenone (PCA) by an unsaturated olefinic bond. This dyad possesses mainly extended (E-type) conformation both in the ground and excited

  3. Dansyl-anthracene dyads for ratiometric fluorescence recognition of Cu2+.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kuljit; Kumar, Subodh

    2011-03-21

    Dansyl-anthracene dyads 1 and 2 in CH(3)CN-H(2)O (7:3) selectively recognize Cu(2+) ions amongst alkali, alkaline earth and other heavy metal ions using both absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy. In absorbance, the addition of Cu(2+) to the solution of dyads 1 or 2 results in appearance of broad absorption band from 200 nm to 725 nm for dyad 1 and from 200 nm to 520 nm for dyad 2. This is associated with color change from colorless to blue (for 1) and fluorescent green (for 2). This bathochromic shift of the spectrum could be assigned to internal charge transfer from sulfonamide nitrogen to anthracene moiety. In fluorescence, under similar conditions dyads 1 and 2 on addition of Cu(2+) selectively quench fluorescence due to dansyl moiety between 520-570 nm (for 1)/555-650 nm (for 2) with simultaneous fluorescence enhancement at 470 nm and 505 nm for dyads 1 and 2, respectively. Hence these dyads provide opportunity for ratiometric analysis of 1-50 ?M Cu(2+). The other metal ions viz. Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Hg(2+), Ag(+), Pb(2+), Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+) do not interfere in the estimation of Cu(2+) except Cr(3+) in case of dyad 1. The coordination of dimethylamino group of dansyl unit with Cu(2+) causes quenching of fluorescence due to dansyl moiety between 520-600 nm and also restricts the photoinduced electron transfer from dimethylamino to anthracene moiety to release fluorescence between 450-510 nm. This simultaneous quenching and release of fluorescence respectively due to dansyl and anthracene moieties emulates into Cu(2+) induced ratiometric change. PMID:21286643

  4. [Adolescent parenting – developmental risks for the mother-child dyad].

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2013-11-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are exposed to multiple psychosocial risk factors and represent a high-risk group for adverse developmental outcomes. It is not the mother's young age alone which contributes to the developmental risk of the mother-child dyad. Rather, both the combination of risks, such as poverty, domestic violence, dysfunctional family relationships, or a psychiatric disorder, all of which predispose to adolescent pregnancy, as well as the strains of parenthood during the mother's own developmental stage add to the psychosocial risks of children of teenage mothers. Early motherhood can lead to lower levels of education and a lower socioeconomic status. In addition, there is a higher risk for psychopathology in both the teenage mother and her child. This article provides an overview of the current research findings regarding adolescent parenting and its associated risks. Risk factors leading to early motherhood are reviewed and associated with differences in parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children. This article will conclude with a short overview on intervention programs for adolescent mothers and their children. Further research is needed to develop age-appropriate support programs for adolescent mothers and their children to cope with the complexity of risks and improve their developmental trajectories. PMID:24240497

  5. Role of the bridge in photoinduced electron transfer in porphyrin-fullerene dyads.

    PubMed

    Pelado, Beatriz; Abou-Chahine, Fawzi; Calbo, Joaquín; Caballero, Rubén; de la Cruz, Pilar; Junquera-Hernández, José M; Ortí, Enrique; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Langa, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    The role of ?-conjugated molecular bridges in through-space and through-bond electron transfer is studied by comparing two porphyrin-fullerene donor-acceptor (D-A) dyads. One dyad, ZnP-Ph-C60 (ZnP = zinc porphyrin), incorporates a phenyl bridge between D and A and behaves very similarly to analogous dyads studied previously. The second dyad, ZnP-EDOTV-C60, introduces an additional 3,4-ethylenedioxythienylvinylene (EDOTV) unit into the conjugated bridge, which increases the distance between D and A, but, at the same time, provides increased electronic communication between them. Two essential outcomes that result from the introduction of the EDOTV unit in the bridge are as follows: 1)?faster charge recombination, which indicates enhanced electronic coupling between the charge-separated and ground electronic states; and 2)?the disappearance of the intramolecular exciplex, which mediates photoinduced charge separation in the ZnP-Ph-C60 dyad. The latter can be interpreted as a gradual decrease in electronic coupling between locally excited singlet states of D and A when introducing the EDOTV unit into the D-A bridge. PMID:25737468

  6. Fast Triplet Formation via Singlet Exciton Fission in a Covalent Perylenediimide-?-apocarotene Dyad Aggregate.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Catherine M; Brown, Kristen E; Horwitz, Noah E; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    A covalent dyad was synthesized in which perylene-3,4,:9:10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) is linked to ?-apocarotene (Car) using a biphenyl spacer. The dyad is monomeric in toluene and forms a solution aggregate in methylcyclohexane (MCH). Using femtosecond transient absorption (fsTA) spectroscopy, the monomeric dyad and its aggregates were studied both in solution and in thin films. In toluene, photoexcitation at 530 nm preferentially excites PDI, and the dyad undergoes charge separation in ? = 1.7 ps and recombination in ? = 1.6 ns. In MCH and in thin solid films, 530 nm excitation of the PDI-Car aggregate also results in charge transfer that competes with energy transfer from (1)*PDI to Car and with an additional process, rapid Car triplet formation in <50 ps. Car triplet formation is only observed in the aggregated PDI-Car dyad and is attributed to singlet exciton fission (SF) within the aggregated PDI, followed by rapid triplet energy transfer from (3)*PDI to the carotenoid. SF from ?-apocarotene aggregation is ruled out by direct excitation of Car films at 414 nm, where no triplet formation is observed. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on aggregated PDI-Car show the formation of (3)*Car with a spin-polarization pattern that rules out radical-pair intersystem crossing as the mechanism of triplet formation as well. PMID:25961130

  7. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2011-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. We propose and test a tridimensional model among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared with Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S. immigrant dyads (473 dyads, M adolescent age = 14 years). Jamaican immigrants evidence tridimensional acculturation, orienting toward Jamaican, African American, and European American cultures. Integration is favored (70%), particularly tricultural integration; moreover, Jamaican and other Black U.S. immigrants are more oriented toward African American than European American culture. Jamaican immigrant youth adapt at least as well as non-immigrant Jamaican and U.S. peers, although assimilated adolescents, particularly first generation, have worse sociocultural adaptation than integrated and separated adolescents. PMID:22966917

  8. A research on the thermal strength of dyad gas oven briquette

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Dongyao; Huang Zhongcheng; Wang Peilan [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1998-12-31

    Thermal strength characteristic curve of the dyad gas oven briquette during carbonization is introduced in this paper. The cohesiveness of the raw coal exercises a strong influence on the briquette thermal compressive strength during carbonization. The briquette is to be made from coking coal, and if the briquette is produced through the usual technique, will drop down and is not suitable for dyad gasoven. Also if a briquette rends to pieces during carbonization or removal from the coke oven, the briquette is not suitable for dyad gas oven. Some techniques to eliminate the cohesiveness of the raw coal and to preserve the briquette from rending to pieces is described in this paper. The methods decreasing the cohesiveness of briquette increase the porosity of the briquette and add powdery coke through a special briquetting technique.

  9. Six Principles for Developmental Communication: Silent-Film Montage and Adult-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the model of the adult-infant dyad developing interaction, and then language, in the infant, is a better model than adult language for the analysis of some communication-like systems. When applied to silent film, the adult-infant dyad leads to the extraction of six principles of visually based developmental communication. (25…

  10. Reciprocal Utterances during Interactions between Deaf Toddlers and Their Hearing Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey-Sargeant, Christa L.; Brown, P. Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This study compared reciprocal utterances of six hearing mother-hearing toddler dyads and six hearing mother-deaf toddler dyads. Child participants were matched by language stage based on Brown's stages of morphological development and were aged between 25 and 45 months. Child participants were observed interacting with their mothers during…

  11. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  12. The Effects of Animations on Verbal Interaction in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangin, M.; Dillenbourg, P.; Rebetez, Cyril; Betrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaelle

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interaction patterns of learners studying in pairs who were provided with multimedia learning material. In a previous article, we reported that learning scores were higher for dyads of an "animations" condition than for dyads of a "static pictures" condition. Results also showed that offering a persistent display of one…

  13. Protein Geometry and Placement in the Cardiac Dyad Influence Macroscopic Properties of Calcium-Induced Calcium Release

    E-print Network

    Sun, Sean

    Protein Geometry and Placement in the Cardiac Dyad Influence Macroscopic Properties of Calcium-Induced Calcium Release Antti J. Tanskanen,*yz Joseph L. Greenstein,*yz Alex Chen,*yz Sean X. Sun,y§ and Raimond L of calcium (Ca21 ) ions in the dyad have often been described by assigning continuously valued Ca21

  14. Counselling Australian baby boomers: examining the loss and grief issues facing aging distance-separated sibling dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myra Frances Taylor; Nadia Clark; Elaine Newton

    2008-01-01

    It has long been recognised that mature-aged sibling dyads provide each other with emotional support. What has yet to be determined is whether this support function is maintained within the baby boomer generational cohort of sibling dyads who through economic relocation\\/migration have become separated by distance. As such, this paper highlights the need for research to be conducted into the

  15. Effects of Dyad Reading Instruction on the Reading Achievement of Hispanic Third-Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almaguer, Isela

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a cooperative peer-assisted reading strategy, dyad reading instruction, on the reading achievement of Hispanic third-grade English language learners (ELLs). Specifically, dyad reading is unison reading of a "lead reader," who reads well, and an "assisted reader," who does not read well, simultaneously reading…

  16. Psychological adaptation to life-threatening injury in dyads: the role of dysfunctional disclosure of trauma

    PubMed Central

    Pielmaier, Laura; Maercker, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background Certain modes of trauma disclosure have been found to be associated with more severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in different trauma populations: the reluctance to disclose trauma-related thoughts and feelings, a strong urge to talk about it, and physical as well as emotional reactions during disclosure. Although social-contextual influences gain more and more interest in trauma research, no study has yet investigated these “dysfunctional disclosure tendencies” and their association with PTS from an interpersonal perspective. Objective (1) To replicate previous findings on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies in patients with life-threatening injury and their significant others and (2) to study interpersonal associations between dysfunctional disclosure style and PTS at a dyadic level. Method PTS symptom severity and self-reports on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies were assessed in N=70 dyads comprising one individual with severe traumatic brain injury and a significant other (“proxy”) 3 months after injury. Results Regression analyses predicting PTS symptom severity revealed dysfunctional disclosure tendencies to have incremental validity above and beyond sex, age, and trauma severity within the individual (both patient and proxy), with moderate effect sizes. The interaction between patient's and proxy's disclosure style explained additional portions of the variance in patients’ PTS symptom severity. Conclusions Findings suggest that dysfunctional disclosure tendencies are related to poorer psychological adaptation to severe traumatic brain injury. This intrapersonal association may be exacerbated by dysfunctional disclosure tendencies on the part of a significant other. Although the results require replication in other trauma samples without brain injury to further generalize the findings beyond the observed population, the study contributes to the expanding literature on the crucial role of interpersonal relationships in trauma recovery. PMID:22893822

  17. Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial Relationships, Communication, and Opportunities

    E-print Network

    Maestripieri, Dario

    Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial This study investigated mother infant interactions in lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla conducive to infant social learning. Eleven gorilla mother infant dyads were focally observed in weekly 1-hr

  18. Self-Assembly of an Amphiphilic ?-Conjugated Dyad into Fibers: Ultrafast and Ultrasensitive Humidity Sensor.

    PubMed

    Squillaci, Marco A; Ferlauto, Laura; Zagranyarski, Yulian; Milita, Silvia; Müllen, Klaus; Samorì, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The self-assembly of an amphiphilic monomolecular electron acceptor-donor dyad into electroactive ?-? stacked fibrillar structures can be triggered by irradiation with visible light. These fibers, exposing hydrophilic ethylene glycol in their external shell, show unique characteristics as resistive humidity sensors that exhibit high sensitivity and ultrafast response. PMID:25873005

  19. Let the Force Be with Us: Dyads Exploit Haptic Coupling for Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Knoblich, Guenther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    People often perform actions that involve a direct physical coupling with another person, such as when moving furniture together. Here, we examined how people successfully coordinate such actions with others. We tested the hypothesis that dyads amplify their forces to create haptic information to coordinate. Participants moved a pole (resembling a…

  20. Self in Context: Autonomy and Relatedness in Japanese and U.S. Mother-Preschooler Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Cole, Pamela M.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Mizuta, Ichiro

    2002-01-01

    This study examined cultural differences and similarities in socialization during free play and a waiting task among Japanese mothers and their preschoolers temporarily residing in the United States and U.S. mothers and their preschoolers. Findings suggest an emphasis on autonomy among U.S. dyads and an emphasis on relatedness among Japanese…

  1. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  2. Similarity of Bacterial Populations in Saliva from African-American Mother-Child Dyads?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihong; Ismail, Amid I.; Ge, Yao; Tellez, Marisol; Sohn, Woosung

    2007-01-01

    Using PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of oral bacterial samples in 20 mother-child dyads, this study demonstrated a high degree of similarity of bacterial compositions between the mothers and their children; the two may share as much as 94% of their oral bacterial spectra, including cariogenic species. PMID:17634300

  3. Counseling Supervisors' Assessment of Race, Racial Identity, and Working Alliance in Supervisory Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Christine Suniti; Davis, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of race, racial identity attitudes and working alliance in counseling supervision using data obtained from supervisors in supervisory dyads. Results revealed the strongest working alliance for supervisor-supervisee pairs with high racial identity development and the weakest working alliance for pairs with low…

  4. Intramolecular charge shift following bimolecular reductive quenching of a rhodium(III) polypyridine-diquat dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Indelli, M.T.; Polo, E.; Bignozzi, C.A.; Scandola, F. (Centro di Fotochimica Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ferrara (Italy))

    1991-05-16

    The Rh(NN){sub 3}{sup 3+}-DQ{sup 2+} dyad, which contains a Rh(III) polypyridine moiety (Rh(NN){sub 3}{sup 3+}) and a N,N{prime}-bridged diquaternarized 4,4{prime}-dimethyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine (DQ{sup 2+}) as covalently linked components, has been synthesized and used in the study of intramolecular electron transfer. The study, performed by laser flash photolysis, makes use of a relatively unconventional reaction scheme. First, bimolecular electron-transfer quenching of the Rh(NN){sub 3}{sup 2+}-localized excited state of the dyad (using 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene as external reductant) is used to generate the reduced dyad in the thermodynamically unfavored Rh(NN){sub 3}{sup 2+}-DQ{sup 2+} form. Then, this species is observed to relax by a fast (k = (3 {plus minus} 1) {times} 10{sup 7} s{sup {minus}1}) intercomponent charge-shift process to the stable ({Delta}G{degree}, ca. 0.2 eV) Rh(NN){sub 3}{sup 3+}-DQ{sup +} form. A slower bimolecular back-electron-transfer reaction with the radical cation of the external quencher (k = 3.3 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}) finally brings back the dyad to its original oxidation state.

  5. Diiodobodipy-styrylbodipy Dyads: Preparation and Study of the Intersystem Crossing and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijia; Xie, Yun; Xu, Kejing; Zhao, Jianzhang; Glusac, Ksenija D

    2015-07-01

    2,6-Diiodobodipy-styrylbodipy dyads were prepared to study the competing intersystem crossing (ISC) and the fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET), and its effect on the photophysical property of the dyads. In the dyads, 2,6-diiodobodipy moiety was used as singlet energy donor and the spin converter for triplet state formation, whereas the styrylbodipy was used as singlet and triplet energy acceptors, thus the competition between the ISC and FRET processes is established. The photophysical properties were studied with steady-state UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, electrochemical characterization, and femto/nanosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopies. FRET was confirmed with steady state fluorescence quenching and fluorescence excitation spectra and ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (kFRET = 5.0 × 10(10) s(-1)). The singlet oxygen quantum yield (?? = 0.19) of the dyad was reduced as compared with that of the reference spin converter (2,6-diiodobodipy, ?? = 0.85), thus the ISC was substantially inhibited by FRET. Photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer (ET) was studied by electrochemical data and fluorescence quenching. Intermolecular triplet energy transfer was studied with nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy as an efficient (?TTET = 92%) and fast process (kTTET = 5.2 × 10(4) s(-1)). These results are useful for designing organic triplet photosensitizers and for the study of the photophysical properties. PMID:26039145

  6. Corrective Feedback via Instant Messenger Learning Activities in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotillo, Susana

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examines corrective feedback in native speaker-nonnative speaker (NS-NNS) and NNS-NNS dyads while participants were engaged in communicative and problem-solving activities via "Yahoo! Instant Messenger" (YIM). As "negotiation of meaning" studies of the 1990s have shown, linguistic items which learners negotiate in…

  7. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Program on the Elaborations of Students Working in Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krol, Karen; Janssen, Jeroen; Veenman, Simon; van der Linden, Jos

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a school improvement program on cooperative learning (CL) with respect to the elaborations of 6th grade students working in mixed ability and mixed sex dyads on 2 cooperative tasks were examined. A post test only design with a control group was used to investigate the provision and receipt of elaborations within the…

  8. Couple Coping and Adjustment to Multiple Sclerosis in Care Receiver-Carer Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    1998-01-01

    The utility of "coping congruency" and "average level of couple coping" in explaining adjustment to multiple sclerosis was examined. Interview and questionnaire data was collected for 45 dyads with a 12-month follow-up. Predictors include Time 1 illness, caregiving, and coping variables. Findings support both concepts for explaining collective and…

  9. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

  10. Protein Geometry and Placement in the Cardiac Dyad Influence Macroscopic Properties of Calcium-Induced Calcium Release

    PubMed Central

    Tanskanen, Antti J.; Greenstein, Joseph L.; Chen, Alex; Sun, Sean X.; Winslow, Raimond L.

    2007-01-01

    In cardiac ventricular myocytes, events crucial to excitation-contraction coupling take place in spatially restricted microdomains known as dyads. The movement and dynamics of calcium (Ca2+) ions in the dyad have often been described by assigning continuously valued Ca2+ concentrations to one or more dyadic compartments. However, even at its peak, the estimated number of free Ca2+ ions present in a single dyad is small (?10–100 ions). This in turn suggests that modeling dyadic calcium dynamics using laws of mass action may be inappropriate. In this study, we develop a model of stochastic molecular signaling between L-type Ca2+ channels (LCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) that describes: a), known features of dyad geometry, including the space-filling properties of key dyadic proteins; and b), movement of individual Ca2+ ions within the dyad, as driven by electrodiffusion. The model enables investigation of how local Ca2+ signaling is influenced by dyad structure, including the configuration of key proteins within the dyad, the location of Ca2+ binding sites, and membrane surface charges. Using this model, we demonstrate that LCC-RyR2 signaling is influenced by both the stochastic dynamics of Ca2+ ions in the dyad as well as the shape and relative positioning of dyad proteins. Results suggest the hypothesis that the relative placement and shape of the RyR2 proteins helps to “funnel” Ca2+ ions to RyR2 binding sites, thus increasing excitation-contraction coupling gain. PMID:17325016

  11. Rough-and-Tumble Play and the Regulation of Aggression: An Observational Study of Father–Child Play Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Flanders, Joseph L.; Leo, Vanessa; Paquette, Daniel; Pihl, Robert O.; Séguin, Jean R.

    2012-01-01

    Rough-and-tumble play (RTP) is a common form of play between fathers and children. It has been suggested that RTP can contribute to the development of selfregulation. This study addressed the hypothesis that the frequency of father–child RTP is related to the frequency of physically aggressive behavior in early childhood. This relationship was expected to be moderated by the dominance relationship between father and son during play. Eighty-five children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were videotaped during a free-play session with their fathers in their homes and questionnaire data was collected about father–child RTP frequency during the past year. The play dyads were rated for the degree to which the father dominated play interactions. A significant statistical interaction revealed that RTP frequency was associated with higher levels of physical aggression in children whose fathers were less dominant. These results indicate that RTP is indeed related to physical aggression, though this relationship is moderated by the degree to which the father is a dominant playmate. PMID:19431190

  12. The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

  13. On the photo-induced charge-carrier generation within monolayers of self-assembled organic donor-acceptor dyads.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Franz; Linares, Mathieu; de Vet, Christiaan; Leclère, Philippe; Demadrille, Renaud; Grévin, Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    By means of STM and nc-AFM the self-assembly of a new donor-acceptor (DA) dyad molecule on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is identified and compared to molecular simulations. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements clearly show the photovoltaic activity of this model system under illumination. The optoelectronic properties and the local morphology of the DA dyad assembly are simultaneously probed by KPFM down to the level of one molecular monolayers. PMID:25123291

  14. Space–time coordination dynamics in basketball: Part 1. Intra- and inter-couplings among player dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Bourbousson; Carole Sève; Tim McGarry

    2010-01-01

    We examined space–time patterns of basketball players during competition by analysing movement data obtained from six game sequences. Strong in-phase relations in the longitudinal (basket-to-basket) direction were observed for all playing dyads, especially player–opponent dyads matched for playing position, indicating that these movements were very constrained by the game demands. Similar findings for in-phase relations were observed for the most

  15. Probing electronic communication for efficient light-harvesting functionality: dyads containing a common perylene and a porphyrin, chlorin, or bacteriochlorin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eunkyung; Wang, Jieqi; Diers, James R; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Kirmaier, Christine; Bocian, David F; Lindsey, Jonathan S; Holten, Dewey

    2014-02-13

    The synthesis, photophysical, redox, and molecular-orbital characteristics of three perylene-tetrapyrrole dyads were investigated to probe the efficacy of the arrays for use as light-harvesting constituents. Each dyad contains a common perylene-monoimide that is linked at the N-imide position via an arylethynyl group to the meso-position of the tetrapyrrole. The tetrapyrroles include a porphyrin, chlorin, and bacteriochlorin, which have zero, one, and two reduced pyrrole rings, respectively. The increased pyrrole-ring reduction results in a progressive red shift and intensification of the lowest-energy absorption band, as exemplified by benchmark monomers. The arylethyne linkage affords moderate perylene-tetrapyrrole electronic coupling in the dyads as evidenced by the optical, molecular-orbital, and redox properties of the components of the dyads versus the constituent parts. All three dyads in nonpolar solvents exhibit relatively fast (subpicosecond) energy transfer from the perylene to the tetrapyrrole. Competing charge-transfer processes are also absent in nonpolar solvents, but become active for both the chlorin and bacteriochlorin-containing dyads in polar solvents. Calculations of energy-transfer rates via the Förster, through-space mechanism reveal that these rates are, on average, 3-fold slower than the observed rates. Thus, the Dexter through-bond mechanism contributes more substantially than the through-space mechanism to energy transfer in the dyads. The electronic communication between the perylene and tetrapyrrole falls in a regime intermediate between those operative in other classes of perylene-tetrapyrrole dyads that have previously been studied. PMID:24484243

  16. An organic spin crossover material in water from a covalently linked radical dyad.

    PubMed

    Geraskina, Margarita R; Buck, Alexander T; Winter, Arthur H

    2014-08-15

    A covalently linked viologen radical cation dyad acts as a reversible thermomagnetic switch in water. Cycling between diamagnetic and paramagnetic forms by heating and cooling is accompanied by changes in optical and magnetic properties with high radical fidelity. Thermomagnetic switches in water may eventually find use as novel biological thermometers and in temperature-responsive organic materials where the changes in properties originate from a change in electronic spin configuration rather than a change in structure. PMID:25068840

  17. Custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads: Pathways among marital distress, grandparent dysphoria, parenting practice, and grandchild adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2009-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on grandchildren's adjustment difficulties were mediated by dysfunctional parenting. The effects of family-related contextual forces on grandchildren's adjustment were also indirect through direct effects on grandparents’ psychological and marital distress. PMID:20454600

  18. Space-time coordination dynamics in basketball: Part 1. Intra- and inter-couplings among player dyads.

    PubMed

    Bourbousson, Jérôme; Sève, Carole; McGarry, Tim

    2010-02-01

    We examined space-time patterns of basketball players during competition by analysing movement data obtained from six game sequences. Strong in-phase relations in the longitudinal (basket-to-basket) direction were observed for all playing dyads, especially player-opponent dyads matched for playing position, indicating that these movements were very constrained by the game demands. Similar findings for in-phase relations were observed for the most part in the lateral direction, the main exception being dyads comprising the two wing players from the same team. These dyads instead demonstrated strong attractions to anti-phase, a consequence perhaps of seeking to increase and decrease team width in tandem. Single instances from select dyads and game sequences demonstrated further evidence of phase stabilities and phase transitions on some occasions. Together, these findings demonstrate that space-time movement patterns of playing dyads in basketball, while unique, nonetheless conform to a uniform description in keeping with universal principles of dynamical self-organizing systems as hypothesized. PMID:20131146

  19. Electron, Hole, Singlet, and Triplet Energy Transfer in Photoexcited Porphyrin-Naphthalenediimide Dyads.

    PubMed

    Yushchenko, Oleksandr; Hangarge, Rahul V; Mosquera-Vazquez, Sandra; Boshale, Sheshanath V; Vauthey, Eric

    2015-06-18

    The excited-state dynamics of two molecular dyads, consisting of zinc (1) and free-base (2) porphyrin connected via a peptide linker to a core-substituted naphthalenediimide (NDI) have been investigated using optical spectroscopy. These dyads exhibit rich photophysics because of the large number of electronic excited states below 3 eV. In the case of 1 in apolar solvents, excitation energy transfer from the vibrationally hot singlet excited porphyrin to the NDI takes place with a 500 fs time constant. Electronic energy ends up in the NDI-localized triplet state, which decays to the ground state on a microsecond timescale. In polar solvents, ground-state recovery is faster by 5 orders of magnitude because of the occurrence of charge separation followed by recombination. On the other hand, excitation energy transfer in 2 takes place in the opposite direction, namely from the NDI to the porphyrin, which then undergoes intersystem crossing to the triplet state, followed by triplet energy transfer back to the NDI. Therefore, four distinct local electronic excited states are consecutively populated after excitation of the NDI unit of 2, with the energy shuttling between the two ends of the dyad. PMID:25418961

  20. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose:?The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d) staying active, and (e) recognizing emotions and behaviors. Results of the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention protocols are also presented.?Design and Methods:?Caregiving dyads were randomly assigned to participate in the intervention. Participants in the treatment condition were asked to complete a series of evaluation questions after each intervention session and an overall evaluation of the program. Data were also collected from the intervention specialists who implemented the protocols.?Results:?Overall, the evaluation data indicated that the content and process of the intervention were viewed as highly acceptable and feasible by both participants and intervention specialists.?Implications:?This article highlights the merit of using a strength-based approach for working with caregiving dyads with dementia and how a single intervention protocol can be used to address the goals of both care partners. Furthermore, the intervention program was found to be highly acceptable and feasible, which is an important aspect of developing dyadic protocols. PMID:19808841

  1. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    PubMed

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. PMID:24463037

  2. DiiodoBodipy-perylenebisimide dyad/triad: preparation and study of the intramolecular and intermolecular electron/energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Zafar; Xu, Kejing; Küçüköz, Betül; Cui, Xiaoneng; Zhao, Jianzhang; Wang, Zhijia; Karatay, Ahmet; Yaglioglu, Halime Gul; Hayvali, Mustafa; Elmali, Ayhan

    2015-03-20

    2,6-diiodoBodipy-perylenebisimide (PBI) dyad and triad were prepared, with the iodoBodipy moiety as the singlet/triplet energy donor and the PBI moiety as the singlet/triplet energy acceptor. IodoBodipy undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC), but PBI is devoid of ISC, and a competition of intramolecular resonance energy transfer (RET) with ISC of the diiodoBodipy moiety is established. The photophysical properties of the compounds were studied with steady-state and femtosecond/nanosecond transient absorption and emission spectroscopy. RET and photoinduced electron transfer (PET) were confirmed. The production of the triplet state is high for the iodinated dyad and the triad (singlet oxygen quantum yield ?? = 80%). The Gibbs free energy changes of the electron transfer (?GCS) and the energy level of the charge transfer state (CTS) were analyzed. With nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we confirmed that the triplet state is localized on the PBI moiety in the iodinated dyad and the triad. An exceptionally long lived triplet excited state was observed (?T = 150 ?s) for PBI. With the uniodinated reference dyad and triad, we demonstrated that the triplet state localized on the PBI moiety in the iodinated dyad and triad is not produced by charge recombination. These information are useful for the design and study of the fundamental photochemistry of multichromophore organic triplet photosensitizers. PMID:25710451

  3. Switching of the triplet excited state of rhodamine/naphthaleneimide dyads: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoneng; Zhao, Jianzhang; Lou, Zhangrong; Li, Shujing; Wu, Huijian; Han, Ke-Li

    2015-01-01

    Rhodamine-bromonaphthaleneimide (RB-NI) and rhodamine-bromonaphthalenediimide (RB-NDI) dyads were prepared for switching of the triplet excited states. Bromo-NI or bromo-NDI parts in the dyads are the spin converters, i.e., the triplet state producing modules, whereas the RB unit is the acid-activatable electron donor/energy acceptor. NI and NDI absorb at 359 and 541 nm, and the T1 state energy levels are 2.25 and 1.64 eV, respectively. RB undertakes the reversible spirolactam (RB-c) ? opened amide (RB-o) transformation. RB-c shows no visible light absorption, and the triplet-state energy level is ET1 = 3.36 eV. Conversely RB-o shows strong absorption at 557 nm, and ET1 is 1.73 eV. Thus, the acid-activated fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET) competes with the ISC of NI or NDI. No triplet state was observed for the dyads with nanosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. Upon addition of acid, strong fluorescence and long-living triplet excited states were observed. Thus, the producing of triplet state is acid-activatable. The triplet state of RB-NI is localized on RB-o part, whereas in RB-NDI the triplet state is delocalized on both the NDI and RB-o units. The ISC of spin converter was not outcompeted by RET. These studies are useful for switching of triplet excited state. PMID:25436874

  4. Fast transient absorption spectroscopy of the early events in photoexcited chiral benzophenone naphthalene dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Ruiz, Raul; Groeneveld, Michiel; van Stokkum, Ivo H. M.; Tormos, Rosa; Williams, René M.; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2006-09-01

    Photoinduced intra-molecular energy transfer in two ketoprofen(KP)-naproxol(NPX) diastereomers proceeds via two pathways. Very fast singlet-triplet energy transfer ( k = 1.2 × 10 11 s -1) from KP to NPX occurs for a small percentage (6%) and the major pathway is triplet-triplet energy transfer ( k ˜ 3 × 10 9 s -1). This was shown with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and global and target analysis. Whereas the NPX triplet decay is strongly stereospecific (ratio of 1.6), the NPX triplet state formation for both dyads is very similar (ratio of 1 for the fast process and 1.2 for the slower process).

  5. "My sister tried to kill me": enactment and foreclosure in a mixed-race dyad.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    How is treatment complicated when both patient and therapist bring into the room multiracial identities that stand in contrast to their visible race or ethnicity? Using relational psychoanalysis's concepts of dissociation, enactment, and relational trauma, this article examines the way multiple racial realities, beyond the more familiar black/white binary, can coexist in the consulting room. The implications and potential pitfalls of a cross-cultural dyad, in which each participant carries a mixed-race identity, are considered through a clinical vignette. PMID:26039230

  6. Estimating time-varying RSA to examine psychophysiological linkage of marital dyads.

    PubMed

    Gates, Kathleen M; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Sandsten, Maria; Blandon, Alysia Y

    2015-08-01

    One of the primary tenets of polyvagal theory dictates that parasympathetic influence on heart rate, often estimated by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), shifts rapidly in response to changing environmental demands. The current standard analytic approach of aggregating RSA estimates across time to arrive at one value fails to capture this dynamic property within individuals. By utilizing recent methodological developments that enable precise RSA estimates at smaller time intervals, we demonstrate the utility of computing time-varying RSA for assessing psychophysiological linkage (or synchrony) in husband-wife dyads using time-locked data collected in a naturalistic setting. PMID:25851933

  7. Fluorescent photoswitching of a naphthopyran-benzimidazole dyad with high-degree fluorescent modulation within poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuangqing; Si, Yanling; Tong, Cuiyan; Wang, Guang; Qi, Bin; Yang, Guochun

    2013-06-01

    A naphthopyran-bridge-benzimidazole dyad which exhibits both fluorescence and photochromism was synthesized and its fluorescence photoswitching was investigated. Irradiation with UV light induces the isomerization of the naphthopyran component to the corresponding merocyanine. The fluorescence of the dyad was switched reversibly between on and off upon UV irradiation and thermal bleaching of the naphthopyran. Using ultraviolet illumination a pattern was created on a polymethylmethacrylate doped film with the dyad. Thus either a non-destructive photoswitch or an image recording system becomes available. The measurement of redox potentials by cyclic voltammetry combined with electronic spectra and a molecular energy diagram of the individual naphthopyran and benzimidazole demonstrated that the transformation of naphthopyran induced energy and electron transfer from the fluorescent benzimidazole to the photochromic naphthopyran, a feature which was also supported by our DFT calculations.

  8. Longitudinal effects of health-harming and health-protective behaviors within adolescent romantic dyads.

    PubMed

    Aalsma, Matthew C; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Azzouz, Faouzi; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2012-05-01

    Most models exploring adolescent health behavior have focused on individual influences to understand behavior change. The goal of the current study was to assess the role of adolescent romantic partners on the expression of health behavior. Our sample utilized two waves of data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which included 80 romantic dyads (160 individuals). A longitudinal multilevel analysis was conducted. We assessed individual and romantic partner health-harming behaviors (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, smoking, and marijuana use), health-protective behaviors (i.e., physical activity, physical inactivity, sleep patterns, seatbelt use, and contraception motivations), as well as the role of gender and age. Participants average age was 16 years at baseline. We found evidence for partner similarity and partner influence with the majority of health-harming behaviors. Specifically, partner influence was evident for smoking and alcohol use with partner influence approaching significance for marijuana use. We found limited evidence for partner similarity and partner influence for health-protective behaviors. The importance of assessing romantic dyads was evident in these data. Interventions focusing on health-harming behavior for adolescent populations are important public health goals. It is recommended that future intervention efforts with adolescent health-harming behaviors should target not only peers, but also consider the role of romantic partners. PMID:22424832

  9. Mother-Daughter Dyad Recruitment and Cancer Intervention Challenges in an African American Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ports, Katie; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn

    2014-01-01

    Developing an effective youth-based health messaging intervention for African American women, who remain disparately impacted by cancer, presents unique challenges. This paper reports on the challenges with recruiting familial dyads from predominantly low-income, African American neighborhoods, as well as the challenges associated with designing and implementing an upward-directed cancer screening intervention. We developed and pilot tested an educational workshop that provided adolescents with cancer screening information to share with their mother or female relative. Data from follow-up interviews and focus groups, as well as observation records regarding implementation obstacles highlight important lessons learned. The use of familial dyads as well as issues of access posed challenges for recruitment and follow-up. Workshop-related challenges stemmed from the approach, content and length. Finally, personal and environmental factors presented barriers to adolescent message delivery and adult follow-through. By identifying these challenges, we hope to influence and enable the future development of effective adolescent-initiated health messaging interventions. PMID:25489496

  10. Longitudinal Effects of Health-Harming and Health-Protective Behaviors within Adolescent Romantic Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Carpentier, Melissa; Azzouz, Faouzi; Fortenberry, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Most models exploring adolescent health behavior have focused on individual influences to understand behavior change. The goal of the current study was to assess the role of adolescent romantic partners on the expression of health behavior. Our sample utilized two waves of data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994, 1996), which included 80 romantic dyads (160 individuals). A longitudinal multilevel analysis was conducted. We assessed individual and romantic partner health-harming behaviors (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, smoking, and marijuana use), health-protective behaviors (i.e., physical activity, physical inactivity, sleep patterns, seatbelt use, and contraception motivations), as well as the role of gender and age. Participants average age was 16 years at baseline. We found evidence for partner similarity and partner influence with the majority of health-harming behaviors. Specifically, partner influence was evident for smoking and alcohol use with partner influence approaching significance for marijuana use. We found limited evidence for partner similarity and partner influence for health-protective behaviors. The importance of assessing romantic dyads was evident in these data. Interventions focusing on health-harming behavior for adolescent populations are important public health goals. It is recommended that future intervention efforts with adolescent health-harming behaviors should target not only peers, but also consider the role of romantic partners. PMID:22424832

  11. A Framework for Incorporating Dyads in Models of HIV-Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hops, Hyman; Redding, Colleen A.; Reis, Harry T.; Rothman, Alexander J.; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2014-01-01

    Although HIV is contracted by individuals, it is typically transmitted in dyads. Most efforts to promote safer sex practices, however, focus exclusively on individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework that specifies how models of dyadic processes and relationships can inform models of HIV-prevention. At the center of the framework is the proposition that safer sex between two people requires a dyadic capacity for successful coordination. According to this framework, relational, individual, and structural variables that affect the enactment of safer sex do so through their direct and indirect effects on that dyadic capacity. This dyadic perspective does not require an ongoing relationship between two individuals; rather, it offers a way of distinguishing between dyads along a continuum from anonymous strangers (with minimal coordination of behavior) to long-term partners (with much greater coordination). Acknowledging the dyadic context of HIV-prevention offers new targets for interventions and suggests new approaches to tailoring interventions to specific populations. PMID:20838872

  12. Boys withdraw more in one-on-one interactions, whereas girls withdraw more in groups.

    PubMed

    Benenson, Joyce F; Heath, Anna

    2006-03-01

    Past research predicts that males will be more likely to withdraw in one-on-one interactions versus groups, whereas females will be more likely to withdraw in groups than in one-on-one interactions. Ninety-eight 10-year-old children engaged in a word generation task either in same-sex dyads or in groups. Boys completed significantly more words in groups than in dyads, whereas girls' performance was similar in the 2 social structures. Confirming the hypothesis, analyses of the dynamics of dyads and groups using time spent writing as a measure of effort demonstrated that boys withdrew more than girls in dyads, whereas girls withdrew more than boys in groups. Furthermore, in groups, girls were more likely than boys to focus on one individual. Causal explanations for sex differences in preferences for differing social structures are proposed. PMID:16569166

  13. Ultrafast time resolved spectroscopic studies on the generation of the ketyl-sugar biradical by intramolecular hydrogen abstraction among ketoprofen and purine nucleoside dyads.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-De; Dang, Li; Liu, Mingyue; Du, Lili; Zheng, Xuming; Phillips, David Lee

    2015-04-01

    Intramolecular hydrogen abstraction reactions among ketoprofen (KP) and purine nucleoside dyads have been proposed to form ketyl-sugar biradical intermediates in acetonitrile. Femtosecond transient absorption studies on KP and purine nucleoside dyads reveal that the triplet state of the KP moiety of the dyads with cisoid structure decay faster (due to an intramolecular hydrogen abstraction reaction to produce a ketyl-sugar biradical intermediate) than the triplet state of the KP moiety of the dyads with transoid structure detected in acetonitrile solvent. For the cisoid 5-KP-dG dyad, the triplet state of the KP moiety decays too fast to be observed by ns-TR(3); only the ketyl-sugar biradical intermediates are detected by ns-TR(3) in acetonitrile. For the cisoid 5-KP-dA dyad, the triplet states of the KP moiety could be observed at early nanosecond delay times, and then it quickly undergoes intramolecular hydrogen abstraction to produce a ketyl-sugar biradical intermediate. For the cisoid 5-KPGly-dA and transoid 3-KP-dA dyads, the triplet state of the KP moiety had a longer lifetime due to the long distance chain between the KP moiety and the purine nucleoside (5-KPGly-dA) and the transoid structure (3-KP-dA). The experimental and computational results suggest that the ketyl-sugar biradical intermediate is generated with a higher efficiency for the cisoid dyad. However, the transoid dyad exhibits similar photochemistry behavior as the KP molecule, and no ketyl-sugar biradical intermediate was observed in the ns-TR(3) experiments for the transoid 3-KP-dA dyad. PMID:25734665

  14. The effects of cued interaction and ability grouping during cooperative computer-based science instruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory P. Sherman; James D. Klein

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of verbal interaction cues and ability grouping within a cooperative learning computer-based program. We blocked 231 eighth graders in a required science class by ability and randomly assigned them to homogeneous lower-ability, homogeneous higher-ability, or heterogeneous mixed-ability dyads. Each dyad was randomly assigned to a computer program that either did

  15. A Conserved Tyrosyl–Glutamyl Catalytic Dyad in Evolutionarily Linked Enzymes: Carbapenam Synthetase and ?-Lactam Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Raber, Mary L.; Arnett, Samantha O.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    ?-Lactam-synthesizing enzymes carbapenam synthetase (CPS) and ?-lactam synthetase (?-LS) are evolutionarily linked to a common ancestor, asparagine synthetase B (AS-B). These three relatives catalyze substrate acyl-adenylation and nucleophilic acyl substitution by either an external (AS-B) or internal (CPS, ?-LS) nitrogen source. Unlike AS-B, crystal structures of CPS and ?-LS revealed a putative Tyr-Glu dyad (CPS, Y345/E380; ?-LS, Y348/E382) proposed to deprotonate the respective internal nucleophile. CPS and ?-LS site-directed mutagenesis (Y345/8A, Y345/8F, E380/2D, E380/2Q, E380A) resulted in the reduction of their catalytic efficiency, with Y345A, E380A, and E382Q producing undetectable amounts of ?-lactam product. However, [32P]PPi–ATP exchange assays demonstrated Y345A and E380A undergo the first half-reaction, with the remaining active mutants showing decreased forward commitment to ?-lactam cyclization. pH–rate profiles of CPS and ?-LS supported the importance of a Tyr-Glu dyad in ?-lactam formation and suggested its reverse protonation in ?-LS. The kinetics of CPS double-site mutants reinforced the synergism of Tyr-Glu in catalysis. Furthermore, significant solvent isotope effects on kcat (Dkcat) for Y345F (1.9) and Y348F (1.7) maintained the assignment of Y345/8 in proton transfer. A proton inventory on Y348F determined its D(kcat/Km) = 0.2 to arise from multiple reactant-state fractionation factors, presumably from water molecule(s) replacing the missing Tyr hydroxyl. The role of a CPS and ?-LS Tyr-Glu catalytic dyad was solidified by a significant decrease in mutant kcat viscosity dependence with respect to the wild-type enzymes. The evolutionary relation and potential for engineered biosynthesis were demonstrated by ?-LS acting as a carbapenam synthetase. PMID:19371088

  16. Resemblance of dietary intakes of snacks, sweets, fruit, and vegetables among mother-child dyads from low income families.

    PubMed

    Wroten, Kathryn C; O'Neil, Carol E; Stuff, Janice E; Liu, Yan; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in low-income mother-child dyads. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from Head Start centers in Houston, Texas and Birmingham, Alabama. Twenty four hour dietary recalls for one weekend day were collected from mother (mean 31.8 yrs [range: 20.1-72.4 yrs])-child (mean 4.4 yrs [range 2.8-5.8 yrs]) dyads (N=650). Means±SD were calculated for intake of food categories and energy. Pearson's partial correlation coefficients were used to detect associations between the intakes of the dyads. Main outcome measures were the correlations between the intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in the mother-child dyads. Partial correlations showed that children's intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy were all correlated with the mother's intake of these foods/energy (all p<0.001). Children's intake of fruit was correlated with the mother's intake of vegetables (p<0.001); children's energy intake was correlated with mother's intake of sweets, fruit, and vegetables (all p<0.001). It is important that food and nutrition professionals provide the guidance needed that encourages intake of nutrient-dense snacks and fruit and vegetables in mothers so they can model healthier food consumption behaviors for their children. PMID:22634195

  17. A New Saccharides and Nnucleosides Sensor Based on Tetrathiafulvalene-anthracene Dyad with Two Boronic Acid Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Deqing; Zhu, Daoben

    2006-01-01

    A new saccharides sensor based on the TTF-anthracene dyad with two boronic acid (2) groups was designed and synthesized. This new saccharides sensor shows selectivity towards D-glucose while its analogue with one boronic acid group (1) was reported to bind D-Fructose selectively. Moreover, reaction of compound 2 with uridine induced even larger fluorescence enhancement under the same condition.

  18. Representational Tools in Computer-Supported Collaborative Argumentation-Based Learning: How Dyads Work with Constructed and Inspected Argumentative Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Amelsvoort, Marije; Andriessen, Jerry; Kanselaar, Gellof

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the conditions under which diagrammatic representations support collaborative argumentation-based learning in a computer environment. Thirty dyads of 15- to 18-year-old students participated in a writing task consisting of 3 phases. Students prepared by constructing a representation (text or diagram) individually. Then…

  19. Resemblance of dietary intakes of snacks, sweets, fruit, and vegetables among mother-child dyads from low income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in low-income mother–child dyads. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from Head Start centers in Houston, Texas, and Birmingham, Alabama. Twenty-four-hour dietary ...

  20. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and…

  1. The Role of Maternal Factors in Sibling Relationship Quality: A Multilevel Study of Multiple Dyads per Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and…

  2. Neutrality in the field: alpha-function and the dreaming dyad in psychoanalytic process.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Henry P

    2013-07-01

    Analysts have interpreted the concept of neutrality in a variety of ways, beginning with Strachey's use of that word to translate Freud's (1915) term, Indifferenz. In this paper, neutrality is linked to Freud's notions of free association and evenly suspended attention. A history of psychoanalytic attempts to clarify the concept are presented, with special attention to issues of ambiguity and the patient's role in the determination of neutrality. Neutrality is further elaborated in relation to the bipersonal field as described by the Barangers and contemporary field theorists. Understood in terms of the field, neutrality becomes a transpersonal concept, here conceived in terms of alpha-function and a dreaming dyad. Two clinical examples cast in the light of a Bionian perspective are discussed to suggest an alternative understanding of analytic impasses and their relation to alpha-function and neutrality. PMID:23824648

  3. Free energy dependence of photoinduced charge separation rates in porphyrin dyads

    SciTech Connect

    DeGraziano, J.M.; Liddell, P.A.; Leggett, L.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States))

    1994-02-17

    A series of covalently linked porphyrin dyads in which the thermodynamic driving force for interporphyrin photoinduced charge separation spans a range of 1.13 eV has been prepared. Time-resolved fluorescence studies have yielded 22 rate constants for photoinduced electron transfer in dichloromethane solution ranging from 4.1 [times] 10[sup 7] to 5.0 [times] 10[sup 11] s[sup [minus]1]. The data are consistent with the theoretical treatments of Marcus and Levich, although there is no evidence for inverted behavior. In the normal region, electron transfer between free base porphyrin moieties is about 4 times faster than transfer involving a zinc porphyrin and having the same thermodynamic driving force, based on electrochemical measurements. Photoinduced electron transfer to an excited singlet state and electron transfer from an excited singlet state have the same dependence upon free energy change. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Interdependent Psychological Quality of Life in Dyads Adjusting to Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Segrin, Chris; Badger, Terry A.; Harrington, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prostate cancer negatively influences quality of life (QOL) in survivors and the people with whom they are close. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the degree of dyadic interdependence in psychological QOL in dyads adjusting to prostate cancer and its treatment. Method Participants were 70 prostate cancer survivors and their partners, most of whom were spouses. Assessments of psychological QOL (i.e., depression, anxiety, fatigue, and positive affect) were made at three points in time, each separated by 8 weeks. Results Survivors’ prostate specific function was associated with both their own and their partners’ psychological QOL. There was evidence of longitudinal dyadic interdependence for psychological QOL, particularly from partners to survivors between the T2 and T3 assessments. Conclusions Prostate cancer survivors’ psychological QOL is affected substantially by their partners’ psychological QOL, consistent with theories of emotional contagion. PMID:21895374

  5. Preen secretions encode information on MHC similarity in certain sex-dyads in a monogamous seabird.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, Sarah; van Dongen, Wouter F D; Voccia, Steeve; Merkling, Thomas; Ducamp, Christine; Hatch, Scott A; Blanchard, Pierrick; Danchin, Etienne; Wagner, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Animals are known to select mates to maximize the genetic diversity of their offspring in order to achieve immunity against a broader range of pathogens. Although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), it remains unknown whether they can use olfactory cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners. Here we combined gas chromatography data with genetic similarity indices based on MHC to test whether similarity in preen secretion chemicals correlated with MHC relatedness in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a species that preferentially mates with genetically dissimilar partners. We found that similarity in preen secretion chemicals was positively correlated with MHC relatedness in male-male and male-female dyads. This study provides the first evidence that preen secretion chemicals can encode information on MHC relatedness and suggests that odor-based mechanisms of MHC-related mate choice may occur in birds. PMID:25370306

  6. Time-resolved fluorescence study of exciplex formation in diastereomeric naproxen-pyrrolidine dyads.

    PubMed

    Khramtsova, Ekaterina A; Plyusnin, Viktor F; Magin, Ilya M; Kruppa, Alexander I; Polyakov, Nikolay E; Leshina, Tatyana V; Nuin, Edurne; Marin, M Luisa; Miranda, Miguel A

    2013-12-19

    The influence of chirality on the elementary processes triggered by excitation of the (S,S)- and (R,S)- diastereoisomers of naproxen-pyrrolidine (NPX-Pyr) dyads has been studied by time-resolved fluorescence in acetonitrile-benzene mixtures. In these systems, the quenching of the (1)NPX*-Pyr singlet excited state occurs through electron transfer and exciplex formation. Fluorescence lifetimes and quantum yields revealed a significant difference (around 20%) between the (S,S)- and (R,S)- diastereomers. In addition, the quantum yields of exciplexes differed by a factor of 2 regardless of solvent polarity. This allows us to suggest a similar influence of the chiral centers on the local charge transfer resulting in exciplex and full charge separation that leads to ion-biradicals. A simplified scheme is proposed to estimate a set of rate constant values (k1-k5) for the elementary stages in each solvent system. PMID:24294968

  7. The broader autism phenotype and friendships in non-clinical dyads.

    PubMed

    Wainer, Allison L; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-10-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and friendship similarity was evaluated, and the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to test how both friends' BAP characteristics jointly and uniquely contribute to the experiences of friendships. Results suggest self-informant agreement about the BAP, friendship closeness, quality, and conflict. Actor effects were observed for the BAP and friendship values, quality, conflict, and loneliness. Findings suggest that the BAP relates in meaningful ways to self-perceptions of friendship variables in the general population. PMID:23430176

  8. Ultrafast Photoinduced Electron Transfer and Charge Stabilization in Donor-Acceptor Dyads Capable of Harvesting Near-Infrared Light.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Venugopal; Gobeze, Habtom B; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-08-01

    To harvest energy from the near-infrared (near-IR) and infrared (IR) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, which constitutes nearly 70?% of the solar radiation, there is a great demand for near-IR and IR light-absorbing sensitizers that are capable of undergoing ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer when connected to a suitable electron acceptor. Towards achieving this goal, in the present study, we report multistep syntheses of dyads derived from structurally modified BF2 -chelated azadipyrromethene (ADP; to extend absorption and emission into the near-IR region) and fullerene as electron-donor and electron-acceptor entities, respectively. The newly synthesized dyads were fully characterized based on optical absorbance, fluorescence, geometry optimization, and electrochemical studies. The established energy level diagram revealed the possibility of electron transfer either from the singlet excited near-IR sensitizer or singlet excited fullerene. Femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption studies were performed to gather evidence of excited state electron transfer and to evaluate the kinetics of charge separation and charge recombination processes. These studies revealed the occurrence of ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer leading to charge stabilization in the dyads, and populating the triplet states of ADP, benzanulated-ADP and benzanulated thiophene-ADP in the respective dyads, and triplet state of C60 in the case of BF2 -chelated dipyrromethene derived dyad during charge recombination. The present findings reveal that these sensitizers are suitable for harvesting light energy from the near-IR region of the solar spectrum and for building fast-responding optoelectronic devices operating under near-IR radiation input. PMID:26130432

  9. Analyzing Sequential Interaction Data: Two Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackman, Daniel B.; Miller, Sherod

    Systems descriptions vary in two essential ways. First, they vary in terms of the kinds of behaviors used in describing the system. Second, they vary in terms of the way the data are handled. The analysis of interaction patterns in dyads, groups, and larger systems has been difficult to describe. In this paper, an attempt is made to present a…

  10. Big Five predictors of behavior and perceptions in initial dyadic interactions: personality similarity helps extraverts and introverts, but hurts "disagreeables".

    PubMed

    Cuperman, Ronen; Ickes, William

    2009-10-01

    The authors used the unstructured dyadic interaction paradigm to examine the effects of gender and the Big Five personality traits on dyad members' behaviors and perceptions in 87 initial, unstructured interactions. Most of the significant Big Five effects (84%) were associated with the traits of Extraversion and Agreeableness. There were several significant actor and partner effects for both of these traits. However, the most interesting and novel effects took the form of significant Actor x Partner interactions. Personality similarity resulted in relatively good initial interactions for dyads composed of 2 extraverts or 2 introverts, when compared with dissimilar (extravert-introvert) pairs. However, personality similarity resulted in uniquely poor initial interactions for dyads composed of 2 "disagreeables." In summary, the Big Five traits predict behavior and perceptions in initial dyadic interactions, not just in the form of actor and partner "main effects" but also in the form of Actor x Partner interactions. PMID:19785485

  11. Application of Dyadic Data Analysis in Pediatric Psychology: Cystic Fibrosis Health-Related Quality of Life and Anxiety in Child–Caregiver Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Schatschneider, Christopher; McGinnity, Kelly; Modi, Avani C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective?To demonstrate the use of the actor–partner interdependence model (APIM) of dyadic relationships in a sample of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and their caregivers.?Methods?Multilevel modeling evaluated relations between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and anxiety in 29 child–caregiver dyads. The following effects were evaluated: actor and partner, and the respondent (i.e., child or caregiver)?× HRQOL interaction.?Results?This study demonstrated a practical application of the APIM. Significant actor effects were found (i.e., lower child HRQOL was associated with increased child anxiety, caregiver anxiety increased as caregiver perceptions of their child's HRQOL decreased), but not partner effects. The significant interaction indicated that the effects were different for children and caregivers.?Conclusions?The APIM has the potential to increase pediatric researchers’ understanding of how social relationships and environments impact health outcomes. Future research should consider using dyadic data analysis when youth and caregiver data are available. PMID:22523403

  12. High-potential perfluorinated phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads for generation of high-energy charge-separated states: formation and photoinduced electron-transfer studies.

    PubMed

    Das, Sushanta K; Mahler, Andrew; Wilson, Angela K; D'Souza, Francis

    2014-08-25

    High oxidation potential perfluorinated zinc phthalocyanines (ZnF(n)Pcs) are synthesised and their spectroscopic, redox, and light-induced electron-transfer properties investigated systematically by forming donor-acceptor dyads through metal-ligand axial coordination of fullerene (C60) derivatives. Absorption and fluorescence spectral studies reveal efficient binding of the pyridine- (Py) and phenylimidazole-functionalised fullerene (C60Im) derivatives to the zinc centre of the F(n)Pcs. The determined binding constants, K, in o-dichlorobenzene for the 1:1 complexes are in the order of 10(4) to 10(5) M(-1); nearly an order of magnitude higher than that observed for the dyad formed from zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) lacking fluorine substituents. The geometry and electronic structure of the dyads are determined by using the B3LYP/6-31G* method. The HOMO and LUMO levels are located on the Pc and C60 entities, respectively; this suggests the formation of ZnF(n)Pc(.+)-C60Im(.-) and ZnF(n)Pc(.+)-C60Py(.-) (n=0, 8 or 16) intra-supramolecular charge-separated states during electron transfer. Electrochemical studies on the ZnPc-C60 dyads enable accurate determination of their oxidation and reduction potentials and the energy of the charge-separated states. The energy of the charge-separated state for dyads composed of ZnF(n)Pc is higher than that of normal ZnPc-C60 dyads and reveals their significance in harvesting higher amounts of light energy. Evidence for charge separation in the dyads is secured from femtosecond transient absorption studies in nonpolar toluene. Kinetic evaluation of the cation and anion radical ion peaks reveals ultrafast charge separation and charge recombination in dyads composed of perfluorinated phthalocyanine and fullerene; this implies their significance in solar-energy harvesting and optoelectronic device building applications. PMID:24850373

  13. Concordance in perceived partner types and unprotected sex among couples of adolescents and young adults: analysis of reciprocally nominated heterosexual dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiyo Yamazaki; Donna Strobino; Jonathan Ellen

    2009-01-01

    ObjectivesThe objectives of this study were to examine the reciprocity of adolescents' heterosexual relationships, the concordance in perceived partner types reported by partners among reciprocal dyads, and the association between dyad-level unprotected sex and relationship types.Settings and MethodsData were obtained from the Bayview Network Study (San Francisco, California, USA), designed to examine the prevalence of STI risk behaviours and transmission

  14. Mealtime Television Viewing and Dietary Quality in Low-Income African American and Caucasian Mother–Toddler Dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mildred A. Horodynski; Manfred Stommel; Holly E. Brophy-Herb; Lorraine Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and\\u000a to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers’ and toddlers’ food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey\\u000a design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother–toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early\\u000a Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler–Parent

  15. Turkish Mothers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Styles of Interactions with Their Children with Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.

    2009-01-01

    Turkish mothers' self-efficacy beliefs and their interactional behaviors with their children with language delays are described and explored. Participants included 19 mother-child dyads. Mothers' interaction with their children with language delays was videotaped for 30 minutes in a free-play context. Regarding mothers' interactional behaviors,…

  16. Communicating with residents with Alzheimer's Dementia: A study of nurse\\/resident interactive behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandy Carlisle Burgener

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between behaviors of nursing staff and resident responses in interactions in long-term care settings, specifically residents diagnosed with Alzheimer's Dementia. Observation of interactions within two situations, dressing the resident and an interpersonal contact, yielded a total of 239 interactions with each unique nurse\\/resident dyad appearing once in each situation. Ratings for both resident and nurse

  17. A Culturally Appropriate Intervention To Improve Health Behaviors in Hispanic Mother–Child Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Philip R.; Kennedy, Christine; Gahagan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity interventions targeting Hispanic preschool children are still nascent, and few are culturally appropriate. We evaluated the feasibility of a culturally relevant 9-month intervention program to improve health behaviors in low-income Mexican mothers with 3- to 5-year-old children. Methods A community engagement approach was used to culturally and linguistically tailor an intervention program that was pilot tested with 33 mother–child dyads enrolled from a large California urban health center. A one-group, pretest–posttest design assessed changes in children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), mothers' pedometer steps, and BMI. Data were collected at baseline, postintervention and at 6 months postintervention. Results At postintervention, SSB consumption had significantly decreased for soda and other sugary drinks with a modest reduction for 100% juice. Consumption of water had significantly increased, whereas milk had an increased trend. Maternal step counts significantly increased for weekdays by 69% and weekend days by 49%. Overall, maternal BMI decreased while children's BMI% remained stable. At 6 months postintervention, children's soda and juice consumption reverted toward baseline levels, as did maternal step counts, but children's consumption of sugary drinks remained lower, while water and milk remained higher. Conclusions Findings suggest that a culturally relevant intervention was feasible for improving target health behaviors in a low-income Mexican community. Future work should assess an enhanced intervention including a maintenance phase for long-term adherence to health behavior changes and influence on maternal and child BMI. PMID:23514697

  18. Measuring Cumulative Exposure to Oxygen with a Diphenylphosphine-Alkyl Naphthaleneimide Luminescence Turn-On Dyad.

    PubMed

    Shritz, Rozalia; Shapira, Reut; Borzin, Elena; Tumanskii, Boris; Reichstein, Werner; Meichner, Christoph; Schwaiger, Florian; Reichstein, Paul M; Kreyenschmidt, Judith; Haarer, Dietrich; Kador, Lothar; Eichen, Yoav

    2015-08-01

    2-(2-Diphenylphosphanylethyl)benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione is a poorly luminescent, photoinduced-electron-transfer (PET) dyad, NI-(Ph)2 P:, in which the luminescence of its naphthaleneimide (NI) part is quenched by the lone-pair electrons of the phosphorus atom of the (Ph)2 P: group. Photoinduced oxidation of (Ph)2 P: to (Ph)2 P?O by molecular oxygen regenerates the luminescence of the NI group, because the oxidized form (Ph)2 P?O does not serve as a quencher to the NI system. The oxidation of (Ph)2 P: is thermally inaccessible. The NI-(Ph)2 P: system was applied to monitoring the cumulative exposure of oxidation-sensitive goods to molecular oxygen. The major advantage of this new PET system is that it reacts with oxygen only via the photoinduced channel, which offers the flexibility of monitoring the cumulative exposure to oxygen in different time periods, simply by varying the sampling frequency. Electronic-energy calculations and optical spectroscopic data revealed that the luminescence turn-on upon reaction with molecular oxygen relies on a PET mechanism. PMID:26140629

  19. Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

  20. C60-dyad aggregates: Self-organized structures in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskova, O. A.; Varanasi, S. R.; Sommer, J.-U.

    2014-10-01

    Extensive full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-organization of C60-fullerene dyad molecules in water, namely phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and fulleropyrrolidines, which have two elements of ordering, the hydrophobic fullerene cage and the hydrophilic/ionic group. While pristine fullerene or phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester forms spherical droplets in order to minimize the surface tension, the amphiphilic nature of charged solute molecules leads to the formation of supramolecular assemblies having cylindrical shape driven by charge repulsion between the ionic groups located on the surface of the aggregates. We show that formation of non-spherical micelles is the geometrical consequence if the fullerene derivatives are considered as surfactants where the ionized groups are only hydrophilic unit. The agglomeration behavior of fullerenes is evaluated by determining sizes of the clusters, solvent accessible surface areas, and shape parameters. By changing the size of the counterions from chloride over iodide to perchlorate we find a thickening of the cylinder-like structures which can be explained by stronger condensation of larger ions and thus partial screening of the charge repulsion on the cluster surface. The reason for the size dependence of counterion condensation is the formation of a stronger hydration shell in case of small ions which in turn are repelled from the fullerene aggregates. Simulations are also in good agreement with the experimentally observed morphologies of decorated C60-nanoparticles.

  1. Structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad monolayer on the water surface and solid substrate

    SciTech Connect

    D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail: klechvv@ns.crys.ras.ru; Tereshchenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere Technological University (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15

    Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad TBD6a were formed on the surface of a water subphase and then transported on a solid substrate by the Langmuir-Schaefer method. A simulation was performed for the structure of a single molecule and for a molecular monolayer, according to the area per molecule in the monolayer formed, which was calculated based on an analysis of the {pi}-A isotherm. A unit cell was chosen for the proposed molecular packing (a = 1.54 nm, b = 1.50 nm, c = 1.75 nm, {alpha} = 80.0 Degree-Sign , {beta} = 90.0 Degree-Sign , and {gamma} = 90.0 Degree-Sign ), and the atomic coordinates were calculated. A comparison of the interplanar spacings and diffraction peak intensities in the experimental and calculated (for the unit cell proposed) diffraction patterns indicates that a platelike texture is formed in the monolayer and that the crystal structure of the domains corresponds to the model chosen.

  2. Role of the coordination center in photocurrent behavior of a tetrathiafulvalene and metal complex dyad.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Gang; Ji, Shu-Fang; Huo, Peng; Yin, Jing-Xue; Huang, Yu-De; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie

    2014-03-17

    Small organic molecule-based compounds are considered to be promising materials in photoelectronics and high-performance optoelectronic devices. However, photoelectron conversion research based on functional organic molecule and metal complex dyads is very scarce. We design and prepare a series of compounds containing a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) moiety substituted with pyridylmethylamide groups of formulas [Ni(acac)2L]·2CH3OH (1), [Cu2I2L2]·THF·2CH3CN (2), and [MnCl2L2]n·2nCH3CH2OH (3) (L = 4,5-bis(3-pyridylmethylamide)-4',5'-bimethylthio-tetrathiafulvalene, acac = acetylacetone) to study the role of the coordination center in photocurrent behavior. Complex 1 is a mononuclear species, and complex 2 is a dimeric species. Complex 3 is a two-dimensional (2-D) coordination polymer. Spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of these complexes indicate that they are electrochemically active materials. The tetrathiafulvalene ligand L is a photoelectron donor in the presence of electron acceptor methylviologen. The effect of metal coordination centers on photocurrent response behavior is examined. The redox-active metal coordination centers should play an important role in improvement of the photocurrent response property. The different morphologies of the electrode films reflect the dimensions in molecular structures of the coordination compounds. PMID:24592888

  3. Alkyl- and aryl-substituted corroles. 5. Synthesis, physicochemical properties, and X-ray structural characterization of copper biscorroles and porphyrin-corrole dyads.

    PubMed

    Guilard, Roger; Gros, Claude P; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Espinosa, Enrique; Jérôme, François; Tabard, Alain; Latour, Jean-Marc; Shao, Jianguo; Ou, Zhongping; Kadish, Karl M

    2004-11-15

    The synthesis and characterization of cofacial copper biscorroles and porphyrin-corroles linked by a biphenylenyl or anthracenyl spacer are described. The investigated compounds are represented as (BCA)Cu(2) and (BCB)Cu(2) in the case of the biscorrole (BC) derivatives and (PCA)Cu(2) and (PCB)Cu(2) in the case of porphyrin (P)-corrole (C) dyads, where A and B represent the anthracenyl and biphenylenyl bridges, respectively. A related monomeric corrole (Me(4)Ph(5)Cor)Cu and monomeric porphyrin (Me(2)Et(6)PhP)Cu that comprise the two halves of the porphyrin-corrole dyads were also studied. Electron spin resonance (ESR), (1)H NMR, and magnetic measurements data demonstrate that the copper corrole macrocycle, when linked to another copper corrole or copper(II) porphyrin, can be considered to be a Cu(III) complex in equilibrium with a Cu(II) radical species, copper(III) corrole being the main oxidation state of the corrole species at all temperatures. The cofacial orientation of (BCB)Cu(2), (BCA)Cu(2), and (PCB)Cu(2) was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Structural data: (BCB)Cu(2)(C(110)H(82)N(8)Cu(2).3CDCl(3)), triclinic, space group P, a = 10.2550(2) A, b = 16.3890(3) A, c = 29.7910(8) A, alpha = 74.792(1) degrees , beta = 81.681(1) degrees , gamma = 72.504(2) degrees , Z = 2; (BCA)Cu(2)(C(112)H(84)N(8)Cu(2).C(7)H(8).1.5H(2)O), monoclinic, space group P 2(1)/c, a = 16.0870(4) A, b = 35.109(2) A, c = 19.1390(8) A, beta = 95.183(3) degrees , Z = 4; (PCB)Cu(2)(C(89)H(71)N(8)Cu(2).CHCl(3)), monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n, a = 16.7071(3) A, b = 10.6719(2) A, c = 40.8555(8) A, beta = 100.870(1) degrees , Z = 4. The two cofacial biscorroles, (BCA)Cu(2) and (BCB)Cu(2), both show three electrooxidations under the same solution conditions. The reduction of (BCA)Cu(2) involves a reversible electron addition to each macrocycle at the same potential of E(1/2) = -0.20 V although (BCB)Cu(2) is reversibly reduced in two steps to give first [(BCB)Cu(2)](-) and then [(BCB)Cu(2)](2)(-), each of which was characterized by ESR spectroscopy as containing a Cu(II) center. These latter electrode reactions occur at E(1/2) = -0.36 and -0.51 V versus a saturated calomel reference electrode. The half-reduced and fully reduced (BCB)Cu(2) show similar Cu(II) ESR spectra, and no evidence of a triplet signal is observed. The two well-separated reductions of (BCB)Cu(2) to give [(BCB)Cu(2)](2)(-) can be attributed to a stronger pi-pi interaction between the two macrocycles of this dimer as compared to those of (BCA)Cu(2). The copper porphyrin-corrole dyads, (PCA)Cu(2) and (PCB)Cu(2), show five reversible oxidations and two reversible reductions, and these potentials are compared with corresponding values for electrochemical reactions of the porphyrin and corrole monomers under the same solution conditions. PMID:15530095

  4. Deaf and hearing mothers' interactions with normally hearing infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Jones, E G

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the interactions between Deaf mothers and their normally hearing infants and toddlers with the interactions between hearing mothers and their normally hearing infants and toddlers. The Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS), modified to credit Deaf mothers and their children for both spoken and signed communications, was used to assess mother-child interactions. There were no statistically significant differences in scores on the NCATS Parent subscales, NCATS Child subscales, or in total NCATS scores of the Deaf mother/child dyads compared with the hearing mother/child dyads. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:8867221

  5. The Association between Parental Interaction Style and Children's Joint Engagement in Families with Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Elder, Lauren; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between parental interaction style (responsive vs directive) and child-initiated joint engagement within caregiver-child interactions with toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Method: Videotaped interactions of 85 toddler-caregiver dyads were coded for child engagement and both parental…

  6. Predictability of Observed Mother-Child Interaction from Preschool to Middle Childhood in a High-Risk Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinfield, Nancy S.; Ogawa, John R.; Egeland, Byron

    2002-01-01

    Examined predictability of observed parent-child interaction from preschool to middle childhood among 283 mother-child dyads who were welfare recipients enrolled in a job training program. Found that interaction in middle childhood could be predicted from observed interaction 4 years earlier. Families with greater risk factors tended to show more…

  7. Instructional Interactions of Students with Cognitive Disabilities: Sequential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ockjean; Hupp, Susan C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied instructional interactions through semi-structured observation of 13 student- teacher dyads involving elementary students with cognitive disabilities. Special educators' use of directions and responses of differing modes and types was analyzed. Student task-engagement behaviors (i.e., active engage, disruptive, passive on-task,…

  8. Adolescents' Interactions with a Best Friend: Associations with Attachment Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Barbara L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.; Oldenburg, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested whether adolescents' attachment style is related to friendship interactions and perceptions of friendship quality. Attachment pairings were contrasted to examine whether dyad members' security of attachment or their models of others was more related to friendship. A total of 44 pairs of same-sex adolescent friends were videotaped…

  9. "Songese": Maternal Structuring of Musical Interaction with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal structure of mother-infant interactions with songs, with particular attention to two aspects: 1) the singing of the mothers to their infants, and 2) the non-verbal behaviours mothers and infants produce in synchrony with the musical beat. Four mother-infant dyads were video-recorded when the…

  10. Assessing whether measurement invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across child-parent dyad depends on the child gender: a multiple group confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children's and parents' perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant items across girl-parent dyad were mostly detected in the psychological well-being and the social support and peers domains. Moreover, the boys and their parents differed mainly in the autonomy and parent relation domain. Detecting different non-invariant items across the girl-parent dyad compared to the boy-parent dyad underlines the importance of taking the child's gender into account when assessing measurement invariance between children and their parents and consequently deciding about children's physical, psychological or social well-being from the parents' viewpoint. PMID:25169000

  11. Self-Assembled Architectures with Segregated Donor and Acceptor Units of a Dyad Based on a Monopyrrolo-Annulated TTF-PTM Radical.

    PubMed

    Souto, Manuel; Solano, Marta V; Jensen, Morten; Bendixen, Dan; Delchiaro, Francesca; Girlando, Alberto; Painelli, Anna; Jeppesen, Jan O; Rovira, Concepció; Ratera, Imma; Veciana, Jaume

    2015-06-01

    An electron donor-acceptor dyad based on a polychlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical subunit linked to a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit through a ?-conjugated N-phenyl-pyrrole-vinylene bridge has been synthesized and characterized. The intramolecular electron transfer process and magnetic properties of the radical dyad have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, UV/Vis spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, and ESR spectroscopy in solution and in the solid state. The self-assembling abilities of the radical dyad and of its protonated non-radical analogue have been investigated by X-ray crystallographic analysis, which revealed that the radical dyad produced a supramolecular architecture with segregated donor and acceptor units in which the TTF subunits were arranged in 1D herringbone-type stacks. Analysis of the X-ray data at different temperatures suggests that the two inequivalent molecules that form the asymmetric unit of the crystal of the radical dyad evolve into an opposite degree of electronic delocalization as the temperature decreases. PMID:25933417

  12. Covalent dyads of porphyrin-fullerene and perylene-fullerene for organic photovoltaics: Spectroscopic and photocurrent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, Danuta; Lewandowska, Kornelia

    2011-07-01

    Supermolecular complexes of zinc porphyrin or perylenediimide as covalent dyads with fullerene (C 60) in chloroform and as Langmuir-Blodgett layers on an Au substrate were studied. In our studies we have used following spectroscopic methods: electronic absorption, fluorescence and electron spin resonance in solution. Also infrared absorption spectra in a KBr pellet and reflectance-absorption in Langmuir-Blodgett layers were monitored. Photocurrent generation in a photoelectrochemical cell was also studied. The redistribution of charge both upon porphyrin linkage to C 60 and when the systems are deposited on the Au substrate was shown. Photocurrent examinations show a great influence of the fullerene presence on photoresponse of the systems.

  13. Effects of Parental Interaction on Infant Vocalization Rate, Variability and Vocal Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Beau; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Messinger, Daniel; Bene, Edina; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Lee, Chia-Chang; Lambert, Brittany; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Examination of infant vocalization patterns across interactive and noninteractive contexts may facilitate better understanding of early communication development. In the current study, with 24 infant-parent dyads, infant volubility increased significantly when parent interaction ceased (presenting a "still face," or SF) after a period of…

  14. Unresolved States of Mind, Disorganized Attachment Relationships, and Disrupted Interactions of Adolescent Mothers and their Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Sheri; Moran, Greg; Pederson, David R.

    2006-01-01

    The links between unresolved maternal attachment status, disrupted maternal interaction in play situations, and disorganized attachment relationships were examined in a study of 82 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal interactive behavior was measured using the Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification coding…

  15. Origins of Infant-Mother Attachment: An Examination of Interactional Synchrony during the Infant's First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabella, Russell A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that development of secure attachments is predictable from synchronous, and insecure attachments from asynchronous interactions across the first year. Findings from 30 dyads (10 secure, 10 avoidant, 10 resistant) supported the hypothesis at one and three months, with synchronous interaction observed at significantly,…

  16. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk factor for childhood obesity. Further research is needed to help understand the larger socio-cultural context and its influence on feeding dynamics among immigrant families and families of lower incomes. How parents establish a certain feeding style in their home country compared to when they move to the US “obesogenic” environment, should also be explored. PMID:22642962

  17. HIV seroadaptation among individuals, within sexual dyads, and by sexual episodes, men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2008

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Willi; Chen, Yea-Hung; Raymond, H Fisher; Nyugen, Binh; Colfax, Grant; Mehrtens, Jason; Robertson, Tyler; Stall, Ron; Levine, Deb; Truong, Hong-Ha M

    2011-01-01

    “Seroadaptation” comprises sexual behaviors to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission based on knowing one’s own and one’s sexual partners’ serostatus. We measured the prevalence of seroadaptive behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited through time-location sampling (TLS) across three perspectives: by individuals (N=1,207 MSM), among sexual dyads (N=3,746 partnerships), and for sexual episodes (N=63,789 episodes) in the preceding six months. Seroadaptation was more common than 100% condom use when considering the consistent behavioral pattern of individuals (adopted by 39.1% vs. 25.0% of men, respectively). Among sexual dyads 100% condom use was more common than seroadaptation (33.1% vs. 26.4%, respectively). Considering episodes of sex, not having anal intercourse (65.0%) and condom use (16.0%) were the most common risk reduction behaviors. Sex of highest acquisition and transmission risks (unprotected anal intercourse with a HIV serodiscordant or unknown status partner in the riskier position) occurred in only 1.6% of sexual episodes. In aggregate, MSM achieve a high level of sexual harm reduction through multiple strategies. Detailed measures of seroadaptive behaviors are needed to effectively target HIV risk and gauge the potential of serosorting and related sexual harm reduction strategies on the HIV epidemic. PMID:21347888

  18. Computational Insights into Substrate and Site Specificities, Catalytic Mechanism, and Protonation States of the Catalytic Asp Dyad of ?-Secretase

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Arghya; Prabhakar, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    In this review, information regarding substrate and site specificities, catalytic mechanism, and protonation states of the catalytic Asp dyad of ?-secretase (BACE1) derived from computational studies has been discussed. BACE1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the generation of Alzheimer amyloid beta peptide through the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Due to its biological functioning, this enzyme has been considered as one of the most important targets for finding the cure for Alzheimer's disease. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggested that structural differences in the key regions (inserts A, D, and F and the 10s loop) of the enzyme are responsible for the observed difference in its activities towards the WT- and SW-substrates. The modifications in the flap, third strand, and insert F regions were found to be involved in the alteration in the site specificity of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol bound form of BACE1. Our QM and QM/MM calculations suggested that BACE1 hydrolyzed the SW-substrate more efficiently than the WT-substrate and that cleavage of the peptide bond occurred in the rate-determining step. The results from molecular docking studies showed that the information concerning a single protonation state of the Asp dyad is not enough to run an in silico screening campaign. PMID:25309776

  19. Hair cortisol concentrations in higher- and lower-stress mother-daughter dyads: A pilot study of associations and moderators.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Sarah J; Russell, Evan; Kryski, Katie R; Sheikh, Haroon I; Singh, Shiva M; Koren, Gideon; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are receiving increased attention as a novel biomarker of psychophysiological responses to chronic stress, with potential relevance for psychopathology risk research. We examined the validity of HCC as a marker of psychosocial stress in mother (Mage ?=?37.87 years)-daughter (Mage ?=?7.62 years) dyads characterized by higher (n?=?30) or lower (n?=?30) maternal chronic stress. Additionally, we examined whether early care moderated similarity of HCC levels within dyads. Higher-stress mothers had significantly lower HCC compared to lower-stress mothers, consistent with other research showing that chronic stress leads to blunted HPA axis activity over time. Further, HCC in daughters were significantly and positively associated with previously assessed salivary cortisol stress reactivity. Finally, mother-daughter HCC associations were significantly moderated by negative parenting styles, such that associations became stronger as quality of parenting decreased. Findings overall indicate that HCC may be a useful marker of cortisol responses to chronic stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 57: 519-534, 2015. PMID:25820649

  20. Parent-Adolescent Dyads: Association of Parental Autonomy Support and Parent-Adolescent Shared Diabetes Care Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Kathleen M.; Dashiff, Carol J.; Stump, Timothy E.; Weaver, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Parent-adolescent shared responsibility for diabetes care is advocated by experts to achieve beneficial diabetes and psychosocial outcomes for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Parental autonomy support may be a way to facilitate this sharing. In this dyadic study, we examined parental diabetes-specific autonomy support experienced by adolescents with Type 1 diabetes and their parents (N = 89 dyads), and its association with their experience of shared diabetes care responsibility. Methods Path analysis was used to test an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) for parental autonomy support effects on shared responsibility. This was a secondary analysis of data from 89 parent-early/mid-adolescent dyads. Results Actor effects were identified. Parents’ and adolescents’ perceptions of parental autonomy support were associated with their respective reports of shared diabetes care responsibility. One partner effect was identified. Adolescents’ reports of parental autonomy support was associated with parents’ reports of shared responsibility. Parents and adolescents held similar views of autonomy support but discrepant views of shared responsibility. Older adolescents perceived less parental autonomy support. Conclusion Increasing parental autonomy support may facilitate parent-adolescent sharing of diabetes care responsibility. Adolescent and parent perceptions influence each other and need to be considered when working with them to strengthen parental autonomy support. PMID:22380684

  1. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants during Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on Their Language Development as Toddlers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ("media verbal interactions") might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads

  2. Six-Week Postpartum Maternal Self-Criticism and Dependency and 4-Month Mother-Infant Self- and Interactive Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were…

  3. Models of dyadic social interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Dale; Gonzalez, Richard

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the logic of research designs for dyadic interaction and present statistical models with parameters that are tied to psychologically relevant constructs. Building on Karl Pearson's classic nineteenth-century statistical analysis of within-organism similarity, we describe several approaches to indexing dyadic interdependence and provide graphical methods for visualizing dyadic data. We also describe several statistical and conceptual solutions to the 'levels of analytic' problem in analysing dyadic data. These analytic strategies allow the researcher to examine and measure psychological questions of interdependence and social influence. We provide illustrative data from casually interacting and romantic dyads. PMID:12689382

  4. PAPER www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Charge separation and energy transfer in a carotenoC60 dyad: photoinduced

    E-print Network

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    transfer in a caroteno­C60 dyad: photoinduced electron transfer from the carotenoid excited states Rudi a carotenoid pigment linked to a fullerene derivative (C­C60) in which the carotenoid acts both as an antenna·+ ­C60 ·- . The charge-separated state is also formed from the excited fullerene following energy

  5. An Approach to the Modeling of Long-Range Stability in Marital Dyads: The Use of Computer Simulation Methodology. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Martin W.; And Others

    Researchers are now attempting to improve techniques for studying stable behavior patterns in family systems over long periods of time, e.g., the marital dyad across several levels of function and dysfunction covering time periods of months to years. One approach to improving this research design is based on the assumptions that longitudinal…

  6. Effects of Electroacupuncture with Dominant Frequency at SP 6 and ST 36 Based on Meridian Theory on Pain-Depression Dyad in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuan-yuan; He, Xiao-fen; Zhao, Xiao-yun; Shao, Xiao-mei; Du, Jun-ying; Fang, Jian-qiao

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic investigations reveal an intimate interrelationship between pain and depression. The effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on pain or depression has been demonstrated individually, but its effect on pain-depression dyad is unknown. Our study aimed to screen a dominant EA frequency on pain-depression dyad and determine the validity of acupoint selection based on meridian theory. The pain-depression dyad rat model was induced by reserpine and treated using EA with different frequencies at identical acupoints to extract a dominant frequency and then administrated dominant-frequency EA at different acupoints in the above models. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL), emotional behavior of elevated zero maze (EZM) test, and open field (OF) test were conducted. We found that 100?Hz EA at Zusanli (ST 36) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) (classical acupoints for spleen-deficiency syndrome) were the most effective in improving PWL, travelling distance in the EZM, and maximum velocity in OF compared to EA with other frequencies; ST 36 and SP 6 were proved more effective than other acupoints beyond the meridian theory and nonacupoints under the same administration of EA. Therefore, we concluded that 100?Hz is the dominant frequency for treating the pain-depression dyad with EA, and acupoints on spleen and stomach meridians are preferable choices. PMID:25821498

  7. His,,,Asp Catalytic Dyad of Ribonuclease A: Structure and Function of the Wild-Type, D121N, and D121A Enzymes

    E-print Network

    Raines, Ronald T.

    -barrier hydrogen bond. In bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A), the His,,,Asp dyad is composed of His119, the triad has also been found in several lipases (5, 6), Fusarium solani cutinase (7), and the Sindbis virus core protein (8). Replacing the aspartate residue in the catalytic triad of human lipoprotein lipase

  8. Latina Mother–Daughter Dyads: Relations Between Attachment and Sexual Behavior Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Frank R.; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and nonsubstance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mother’s substance abuse all influenced the daughter’s sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed. PMID:19399605

  9. Photoconductive and supramolecularly engineered organic field-effect transistors based on fibres from donor-acceptor dyads.

    PubMed

    Treier, Matthias; Liscio, Andrea; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M; Kastler, Marcel; Müllen, Klaus; Palermo, Vincenzo; Samorì, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    We report on the formation of photoconductive self-assembled fibres by solvent induced precipitation of a HBC-PMI donor-acceptor dyad. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy revealed that upon illumination with white light the surface potential of the fibres shifted to negative values due to a build-up of negative charge. When integrated in a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration, the devices can be turned 'on' much more efficiently using light than conventional bias triggered field-effect, suggesting that these structures could be used for the fabrication of light sensing devices. Such a double gating represents an important step towards bi-functional organic FETs, in which the current through the junction can be modulated both optically (by photoexcitation) and electrically (by gate control). PMID:22293776

  10. Presence and Quality of Touch Influence Coregulation in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Amanda J.; Posada, German E.; Goldyn, Danielle T.

    2006-01-01

    The first major goal of this study was to determine whether touch would enhance mother-infant coregulation in ordinary, nonstressful face-to-face interactions. In an experimental manipulation of presence versus absence of touch in face-to-face interactions between 79 mothers and their 3.5-month-old infants, results indicated that when touch is…

  11. Predictors of calcium intake at dinner meals of ethnically diverse mother-child dyads from families with limited incomes.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Nicklas, Theresa A; Franklin, Frank; Liu, Yan

    2009-10-01

    Diets adequate in calcium and other key nutrients early in life are critical for optimal growth. This study's objective was to determine associations between beverage and dairy food intakes of mothers and their young children and food/beverage contributions to calcium at dinner meals from ethnically diverse families with limited incomes. This was a secondary analysis of dietary data on mother-child dyads from a cross-sectional study. The sample was 465 children (4.4+/-0.6 years) and their mothers, 41% African American, 34% Hispanic, and 21% white. Dietary and anthropometric data were collected in 52 Head Start centers in Alabama and Texas during 1 year starting fall 2004. Associations between mother-child intakes were examined by race/ethnicity using correlations. Calcium intake from dinners was predicted (stepwise regression) from four beverage categories-milk, sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juices, and non-energy-containing beverages plus water-and from cheese and dairy desserts. Overall, the mother's dinnertime intake of milk did not predict that of her child. Mother-child intakes of cheese, dairy desserts, and sweetened beverages correlated more strongly than did milk. All the beverages and dairy groups demonstrated moderate correlations for dyads with those for cheese (r=0.56), dairy desserts (r=0.39), fruit juice (r=0.36), and sweetened beverages (r=0.31) higher than that for milk overall (r=0.29, P<0.01). Milk and cheese predicted the most variance in calcium intake for both mothers and children overall (R(2)=0.82), and for all race-ethnic groups, except African-American children, where the contribution from cheese predominated. Food and nutrition professionals should encourage replacing sweet beverages at dinner with low-fat milk or calcium-fortified beverages to improve the nutrient density of meals. PMID:19782174

  12. A semiempirical study for the ground and excited states of free-base and zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parusel, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    The ground and excited states of a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad in both its free-base and zinc forms (D. Kuciauskas et al., J. Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 15926) have been investigated by semiempirical methods. The excited-state properties are discussed by investigation of the character of the molecular orbitals. All frontier MOs are mainly localized on either the donor or the acceptor subunit. Thus, the absorption spectra of both systems are best described as the sum of the spectra of the single components. The experimentally observed spectra are well reproduced by the theoretical computations. Both molecules undergo efficient electron transfer in polar but not in apolar solvents. This experimental finding is explained theoretically by explicitly considering solvent effects. The tenth excited state in the gas phase is of charge-separated character where an electron is transferred from the porphyrin donor to the fullerene acceptor subunit. This state is stabilized in energy in polar solvents due to its large formal dipole moment. The stabilization energy for an apolar environment such as benzene is not sufficient to lower this state to become the first excited singlet state. Thus, no electron transfer is observed, in agreement with experiment. In a polar environment such as acetonitrile, the charge-separated state becomes the S, state and electron transfer takes place, as observed experimentally. The flexible single bond connecting both the donor and acceptor subunits allows free rotation by ca. +/- 30 degrees about the optimized ground-state conformation. For the charge-separated state this optimized geometry has a maximum dipole moment. The geometry of the charge-separated state thus does not change relatively to the ground-state conformation. The electron-donating properties of porphyrin are enhanced in the zinc derivative due to a reduced porphyrin HOMO-LUMO energy gap. This yields a lower energy for the charge-separated state compared to the free-base dyad.

  13. Gender roles, computer attitudes, and dyadic computer interaction performance in college students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Winkle Williams; Shirley M. Ogletree; William Woodburn; Paul Raffeld

    1993-01-01

    Females tend to score lower than males on measures of computer aptitude and attitudes. This study examined the potential effects of several mediating factors, sex of experimenter, sex of experimental partner, sex typing (Bem Sex Role Inventory score), and level of past experience, on a computer interaction task involving a dyad. College students, drawn from a primarily white college population,

  14. Examining the Effects of Gender and Genre on Interactions in Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jim; Anderson, Ann; Lynch, Jacqueline; Shapiro, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fathers and mothers read differently to their four-year-old sons and daughters and to examine the effect of genre on the interactions that occurred in parent-child, shared book reading. Twenty-five dyads shared two narrative texts and two non-narrative texts. Results indicated that overall,…

  15. Playing with Technology: Mother-Toddler Interaction Scores Lower during Play with Electronic Toys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Michaela B.; Shapka, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To investigate play with electronic toys (battery-operated or digital), 25 mother-toddler (16-24 months old) dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with sets of age-appropriate electronic and non-electronic toys for approximately 10 min each. Parent-child interactions were coded from recorded segments of both of the play conditions using the…

  16. Stability of Maternal Discipline Practices and the Quality of Mother-Child Interaction during Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother-child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother-toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e.,…

  17. Parent-Child Relationships during Middle Childhood: Gender Differences in Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Beth A.; Zboyan, Holly A.

    This study examined gender differences in interactional style between parents and children, focusing on gender socialization and emotional expression. The subjects were 38 mother-child and father-child dyads from intact families, of which about 75 percent were Caucasian; 15 percent, Hispanic; and 10 percent, African American or Asian. Parents…

  18. Gravitating toward Science: Parent-Child Interactions at a Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szechter, Lisa E.; Carey, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the nature of parent-child conversations at an informal science education center housed in an active gravitational-wave observatory. Each of 20 parent-child dyads explored an interactive exhibit hall privately, without the distraction of other visitors. Parents employed a variety of strategies to support their children's…

  19. Interactions Between Mothers and Children: Impacts of Maternal and Child Anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phoebe S. Moore; Shannon E. Whaley; Marian Sigman

    2004-01-01

    This study, an expansion of an earlier study of parenting behaviors of anxious mothers, examined the relationship of both mother and child anxiety disorders to mother behavior in parent-child interactions. Participants were 68 mother-child dyads with children ranging in age from 7 to 15 years. Mothers and children completed diagnostic evaluations and engaged in conversational tasks; behaviors were rated by

  20. Child-Directed Interaction: Prediction of Change in Impaired Mother–Child Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle D. Harwood; Sheila M. Eyberg

    2006-01-01

    The first phase of parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT), called child-directed interaction, teaches parents to use positive and differential social attention to improve the parent–child relationship. This study examined predictors of change in mother and child functioning during the child-directed interaction for 100 mother–child dyads. The children were 3–6-years-old and diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder. After establishing that significant improvements occurred

  1. Interaction Interaction

    E-print Network

    Hehner, Eric C.R.

    Interaction 1/54 #12;Interaction shared variables 2/54 #12;Interaction shared variables can be read and written by any process (most interaction) 3/54 #12;Interaction shared variables can be read and written by any process (most interaction) difficult to implement 4/54 #12;Interaction shared variables can

  2. Meeting your match: how attractiveness similarity affects approach behavior in mixed-sex dyads.

    PubMed

    van Straaten, Ischa; Engels, Rutger C M E; Finkenauer, Catrin; Holland, Rob W

    2009-06-01

    This experimental study investigated approach behavior toward opposite-sex others of similar versus dissimilar physical attractiveness. Furthermore, it tested the moderating effects of sex. Single participants interacted with confederates of high and low attractiveness. Observers rated their behavior in terms of relational investment (i.e., behavioral efforts related to the improvement of interaction fluency, communication of positive interpersonal affect, and positive self-presentation). As expected, men displayed more relational investment behavior if their own physical attractiveness was similar to that of the confederate. For women, no effects of attractiveness similarity on relational investment behavior were found. Results are discussed in the light of positive assortative mating, preferences for physically attractive mates, and sex differences in attraction-related interpersonal behaviors. PMID:19336540

  3. Predictors of parenting stress trajectories in premature infant-mother dyads.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Maria; Poehlmann, Julie; Bolt, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined predictors of parenting stress trajectories over time in a sample of 125 mothers and their preterm infants. Infant (multiple birth, gestational age, days hospitalized, and neonatal health risks) and maternal (socioeconomic, education, depressive symptoms, social support, and quality of interaction during infant feeding) characteristics were collected just prior to infant hospital discharge. Parenting stress and maternal interaction quality during play were measured at 4, 24, and 36 months corrected age. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze infant and maternal characteristics as predictors of parenting stress scores and change over time. Results indicated significant variability across individuals in parenting stress at 4 months and in change trajectories. Mothers of multiples and infants with more medical risks and shorter hospitalization, and mothers with lower education and more depressive symptoms, reported more parenting stress at 4 months of age. Parenting stress decreased over time for mothers of multiples and for mothers with lower education more than for mothers of singletons or for mothers with higher educational levels. Changes in parenting stress scores over time were negatively associated with maternal behaviors during mother-infant interactions. Results are interpreted for their implications for preventive interventions. PMID:24188086

  4. Sensors: Self-Assembly of an Amphiphilic ?-Conjugated Dyad into Fibers: Ultrafast and Ultrasensitive Humidity Sensor (Adv. Mater. 20/2015).

    PubMed

    Squillaci, Marco A; Ferlauto, Laura; Zagranyarski, Yulian; Milita, Silvia; Müllen, Klaus; Samorì, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    A supramolecular hygrometer: a novel strategy to grow ordered supramolecular fibers out of amphiphilic donor-acceptor conjugated molecular dyads is exploited by P. Samorì and co-workers on page 3170 to construct 1D structures. These structures can be integrated as active components in microsized resistive humidity sensors that show unique characteristics, such as response speed and sensitivity, over a wide range of humidity. PMID:25994776

  5. His···Asp Catalytic Dyad of Ribonuclease A:  Conformational Stability of the Wild-Type, D121N, D121A, and H119A Enzymes †

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Quirk; James E. Thompson; Ronald T. Raines

    1998-01-01

    Residue His119 acts as an acid\\/base during the cleavage\\/hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A). In the native enzyme, His119 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp121. This His‚‚‚Asp dyad is conserved in all homologous pancreatic ribonucleases of known sequence. Yet, replacing Asp121 with an asparagine or alanine residue does not have a substantial effect on either structure

  6. His ... Asp Catalytic Dyad of Ribonuclease A: Histidine p K a Values in the Wild-Type, D121N, and D121A Enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Quirk; Ronald T. Raines

    1999-01-01

    Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) has a conserved His ... Asp catalytic dyad in its active site. Structural analyses had indicated that Asp121 forms a hydrogen bond with His119, which serves as an acid during catalysis of RNA cleavage. The enzyme contains three other histidine residues including His12, which is also in the active site. Here, 1H-NMR spectra of

  7. Emotional Relationships in Mothers and Infants: Culture-Common and Community-Specific Characteristics of Dyads from Rural and Metropolitan Settings in Argentina, Italy, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; de Galperín, Celia Zingman; Gini, Motti; Tichovolsky, Marianne Heslington

    2010-01-01

    This study uses country and regional contrasts to examine culture-common and community-specific variation in mother-infant emotional relationships. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American mothers and their daughters and sons, living in rural and metropolitan settings, were observed at home at infant age 5 months. Both variable- and person-centered perspectives of dyadic emotional relationships were analyzed. Supporting the notion that adequate emotional relationships are a critical and culture-common characteristic of human infant development, across all samples most dyads scored in the adaptive range in terms of emotional relationships. Giving evidence of community-specific characteristics, Italian mothers were more sensitive, and Italian infants more responsive, than Argentine and U.S. mothers and infants; in addition, rural mothers were more intrusive than metropolitan mothers, and rural dyads more likely than expected to be classified as mid-range in emotional relationships and less likely to be classified as high in emotional relationships. Adaptive emotional relationships appear to be a culture-common characteristic of mother-infant dyads near the beginning of life, but this relational construct is moderated by community-specific (country and regional) context. PMID:22247569

  8. The Ugi four-component reaction as a concise modular synthetic tool for photo-induced electron transfer donor-anthraquinone dyads

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Sarah; Makhloufi, Gamall; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Summary Phenothiazinyl and carbazolyl-donor moieties can be covalently coupled to an anthraquinone acceptor unit through an Ugi four-component reaction in a rapid, highly convergent fashion and with moderate to good yields. These novel donor–acceptor dyads are electronically decoupled in the electronic ground state according to UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. However, in the excited state the inherent donor luminescence is efficiently quenched. Previously performed femtosecond spectroscopic measurements account for a rapid exergonic depopulation of the excited singlet states into a charge-separated state. Calculations of the Gibbs energy of photo-induced electron transfer from readily available UV–vis spectroscopic and cyclovoltammetric data applying the Weller approximation enables a quick evaluation of these novel donor–acceptor dyads. In addition, the X-ray structure of a phenothiazinyl–anthraquinone dyad supports short donor–acceptor distances by an intramolecular ?-stacking conformation, an important assumption also implied in the calculations of the Gibbs energies according to the Weller approximation. PMID:24991251

  9. A network analysis of relationship dynamics in sexual dyads as correlates of HIV risk misperceptions among high-risk MSM

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Williams, Mark L; Ross, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Relationship dynamics influence the perception of HIV risk in sexual dyads. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of relational dynamics on knowledge or perception of a partner's HIV status in a sample of most at-risk men who have sex with men (MSM): drug-using male sex workers. The study identified relationship dimensions and examined their association with misperceptions about a particular partner's HIV status. Methods The analytical sample for the study consisted of 168 sexual partnerships of 116 male sex workers and their associates. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify dimensions of the interpersonal relationships in sexual partnerships that were then regressed on ‘risky misperceptions’ (misperceiving HIV negative when partner's self-report was positive or unknown). Results Six relationship dimensions of intimate, commitment, socialising, financial, trust and honesty were extracted. Commitment was found to be protective against misperception (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.45), while trust was not (AOR=2.78). Other factors also were found to be associated with misperception. HIV-negative MSM (AOR=7.69) and partners who were both self-identified as gay (AOR=3.57) were associated with misperception, while encounters identified as sex work (AOR=0.29), in which both partners were Caucasian (AOR=0.16), and involved with an older partner (AOR=0.90) were protective. Conclusions Couple-based HIV intervention efforts among MSM should consider that less trust and more commitment are protective factors in sexual partnerships. PMID:25305211

  10. A triazine di(carboxy)porphyrin dyad versus a triazine di(carboxy)porphyrin triad for sensitizers in DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Zervaki, G E; Tsaka, Vasilitsa; Vatikioti, Alexandra; Georgakaki, Irene; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Sharma, G D; Coutsolelos, A G

    2015-07-21

    Two porphyrin-chromophores, i.e. triad PorZn-(PorCOOH)2-(piper)2 () and dyad (PorZn)2-NMe2 (), have been synthesized and their photophysical and electrochemical properties have been investigated. The optical properties together with the appropriate electronic energy levels, i.e. the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, revealed that both porphyrin assemblies can function as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The and -based DSSCs have been prepared and studied using 20 mM CDCA as coadsorbent and were found to exhibit an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.88% and 4.56%, respectively (under an illumination intensity of 100 mW cm(-2) with TiO2 films of 12 ?m). The higher PCE of the -sensitized DSSC, as revealed from the current-voltage characteristic under illumination and the incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectra of the two DSSCs, is mainly attributed to its enhanced short circuit current (Jsc), although both the open circuit voltage (Voc) and the fill factor are improved too. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) demonstrated a shorter electron transport time, longer electron lifetime and higher charge recombination resistance for the DSSC sensitized with the dye as well as a larger dye loading onto the TiO2 surface. PMID:26134439

  11. Highly efficient and selective photocatalytic oxidation of sulfide by a chromophore-catalyst dyad of ruthenium-based complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-Ting; Li, Fu-Min; Zhao, Wei-Liang; Tian, Yong-Hua; Chen, Yong; Cai, Rong; Fu, Wen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Electronic coupling across a bridging ligand between a chromophore and a catalyst center has an important influence on biological and synthetic photocatalytic processes. Structural and associated electronic modifications of ligands may improve the efficiency of photocatalytic transformations of organic substrates. Two ruthenium-based supramolecular assemblies based on a chromophore-catalyst dyad containing a Ru-aqua complex and its chloro form as the catalytic components were synthesized and structurally characterized, and their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties were investigated. Under visible light irradiation and in the presence of [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 as a sacrificial electron acceptor, both complexes exhibited good photocatalytic activity toward oxidation of sulfide into the corresponding sulfoxide with high efficiency and >99% product selectivity in neutral aqueous solution. The Ru-aqua complex assembly was more efficient than the chloro complex. Isotopic labeling experiments using (18)O-labeled water demonstrated the oxygen atom transfer from the water to the organic substrate, likely through the formation of an active intermediate, Ru(IV)?O. PMID:25526316

  12. Examining Peer Acceptance in Verbal and Non-Verbal Interaction during Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Implications for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of peer acceptance in a study investigating the interactions of pairs of disabled and non-disabled pupils working together on computer-based tasks in mainstream primary schools in Cyprus. Twenty dyads of pupils were observed and videotaped while working together at the computer. Data analyses were based on the…

  13. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Delivered to At-Risk Families in the Home Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Rachel; Self-Brown, Shannon; Valente, Jessica R.; Dorsey, Shannon; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Bertuglia-Haley, Michelle; Prieto, Metta

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted for 83 parent-child dyads who participated in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) delivered in-home by community agency therapists. Data included self-report measures and therapist observations at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated significant positive changes in child/parent behavior and parent attitudes…

  14. Comparing the Quality of Third, Fourth, and Fifth Graders' Social Interactions and Cognitive Strategy Use during Structured Online Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coiro, Julie; Sekeres, Diane Carver; Castek, Jill; Guzniczak, Lizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the social and cognitive interaction patterns of third, fourth, and fifth graders as they collaboratively read on the Internet and responded to an inquiry prompt. Data analysis revealed patterns of cognitive strategy use that intersected with social forms and functions of dialogue. Dyads that exhibited higher levels of…

  15. High Achieving Students' Interactions and Performance on Complex Mathematical Tasks as a Function of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Pairings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Karns, Kathy

    1998-01-01

    Interactions and performances of 10 high-achieving third- and fourth-grade students on complex mathematics tasks were studied as a function of paring with other high-achieving (homogeneous) or low-achieving (heterogeneous pairing) students. Homogeneous dyads operate more collaboratively, generate more cognitive conflict, and create better quality…

  16. The Relation of Interactions and Story Quality among Mexican American and Anglo American Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.

    1997-01-01

    A study that videotaped 12 Mexican-American and 12 Anglo-American junior high school students with learning disabilities while they wrote stories in ethnically heterogeneous and homogeneous dyads, found students were skilled in maintaining positive and assertive reciprocal interactions whether they were paired with partners of the same or…

  17. Sensitivity in Interactions between Hearing Mothers and their Toddlers with Hearing Loss: The Effect of Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakar, Zaharah Abu; Brown, P. Margaret; Remine, Maria D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of cochlear implantation and age at implantation on maternal interactional sensitivity. Three groups of dyads were studied at two points over 1 year. The hearing aid (HA) group wore hearing aids throughout the study, the early cochlear implanted (ECI) group were implanted prior to 22 months of age, and…

  18. Examining the Role of Communication on Sibling Relationship Quality and Interaction for Sibling Pairs with and without a Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent…

  19. Synchrony, complexity and directiveness in mothers' interactions with infants pre- and post-cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Mary K; Bergeson, Tonya R; Morris, Kourtney J

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated effects of profound hearing loss on mother-infant interactions before and after cochlear implantation with a focus on maternal synchrony, complexity, and directiveness. Participants included two groups of mother-infant dyads: 9 dyads of mothers and infants with normal hearing; and 9 dyads of hearing mothers and infants with profound hearing loss. Dyads were observed at two time points: Time 1, scheduled to occur before cochlear implantation for infants with profound hearing loss (mean age=13.6 months); and Time 2 (mean age=23.3 months), scheduled to occur approximately six months after cochlear implantation. Hearing infants were age-matched to infants with hearing loss at both time points. Dependent variables included the proportion of maternal utterances that overlapped infant vocalizations, maternal mean length of utterance, infant word use, and combined maternal directives and prohibitions. Results showed mothers' utterances overlapped the vocalizations of infants with hearing loss more often before cochlear implantation than after, mothers used less complex utterances with infants with cochlear implants compared to hearing peers (Time 2), and mothers of infants with profound hearing loss used frequent directives and prohibitions both before and after cochlear implantation. Together, mothers and infants adapted relatively quickly to infants' access to cochlear implants, showing improved interactional synchrony, increased infant word use, and levels of maternal language complexity compatible with infants' word use, all within seven months of cochlear implant activation. PMID:24793733

  20. Involving family members in the implementation and evaluation of technologies for dementia: a dyad case study.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Amanda; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of individuals worldwide are affected by dementia and it is important to examine nonpharmacological care approaches. A dyadic case study of a 6-month evaluation of a technology designed to engage individuals with dementia in activities in a memory care unit is presented. Findings show one caretaker of an individual with dementia (i.e., her mother) used the computer in a manner consistent with her usual style of interaction and supportive care; she continued to maintain awareness of her mother's activity preferences and cultivated her mother's quality of life by using the provided technology. These findings demonstrate a use for technology to support activities of older adults with dementia while engaging family and provide future directions for technology design and research in this population. PMID:25800405

  1. Analysis of DNA methylation acquisition at the imprinted Dlk1 locus reveals asymmetry at CpG dyads

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Differential distribution of DNA methylation on the parental alleles of imprinted genes distinguishes the alleles from each other and dictates their parent of origin-specific expression patterns. While differential DNA methylation at primary imprinting control regions is inherited via the gametes, additional allele-specific DNA methylation is acquired at secondary sites during embryonic development and plays a role in the maintenance of genomic imprinting. The precise mechanisms by which this somatic DNA methylation is established at secondary sites are not well defined and may vary as methylation acquisition at these sites occurs at different times for genes in different imprinting clusters. Results In this study, we show that there is also variability in the timing of somatic DNA methylation acquisition at multiple sites within a single imprinting cluster. Paternal allele-specific DNA methylation is initially acquired at similar stages of post-implantation development at the linked Dlk1 and Gtl2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). In contrast, unlike the Gtl2-DMR, the maternal Dlk1-DMR acquires DNA methylation in adult tissues. Conclusions These data suggest that the acquisition of DNA methylation across the Dlk1/Gtl2 imprinting cluster is variable. We further found that the Dlk1 differentially methylated region displays low DNA methylation fidelity, as evidenced by the presence of hemimethylation at approximately one-third of the methylated CpG dyads. We hypothesize that the maintenance of DNA methylation may be less efficient at secondary differentially methylated sites than at primary imprinting control regions. PMID:24904690

  2. Mutation analysis of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase: Does the structurally conserved glutamine amidotransferase triad act as a functional dyad?

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Emily J.; Powers-Lee, Susan G.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved triad glutamine amidotransferase (GAT) domains catalyze the cleavage of glutamine to yield ammonia and sequester the ammonia in a tunnel until delivery to a variety of acceptor substrates in synthetase domains of variable structure. Whereas a conserved hydrolytic triad (Cys/His/Glu) is observed in the solved GAT structures, the specificity pocket for glutamine is not apparent, presumably because its formation is dependent on the conformational change that couples acceptor availability to a greatly increased rate of glutamine cleavage. In Escherichia coli carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (eCPS), one of the best characterized triad GAT members, the Cys269 and His353 triad residues are essential for glutamine hydrolysis, whereas Glu355 is not critical for eCPS activity. To further define the glutamine-binding pocket and possibly identify an alternative member of the catalytic triad that is situated for this role in the coupled conformation, we have analyzed mutations at Gln310, Asn311, Asp334, and Gln351, four conserved, but not yet analyzed residues that might potentially function as the third triad member. Alanine substitution of Gln351, Asn311, and Gln310 yielded respective Km increases of 145, 27, and 15, suggesting that Gln351 plays a key role in glutamine binding in the coupled conformation, and that Asn311 and Gln310 make less significant contributions. None of the mutant k cat values varied significantly from those for wild-type eCPS. Combined with previously reported data on other conserved eCPS residues, these results strongly suggest that Cys269 and His353 function as a catalytic dyad in the GAT site of eCPS. PMID:18458150

  3. Boys Withdraw More in One-on-One Interactions, Whereas Girls Withdraw More in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Heath, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Past research predicts that males will be more likely to withdraw in one-on-one interactions versus groups, whereas females will be more likely to withdraw in groups than in one-on-one interactions. Ninety-eight 10-year-old children engaged in a word generation task either in same-sex dyads or in groups. Boys completed significantly more words in…

  4. Communication: Charge-transfer rate constants in zinc-porphyrin-porphyrin-derived dyads: A Fermi golden rule first-principles-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, Arun K.; Dunietz, Barry D., E-mail: bdunietz@kent.edu [Department of Chemistry, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States)

    2014-09-28

    We investigate photoinduced charge transfer (CT) processes within dyads consisting of porphyrin derivatives in which one ring ligates a Zn metal center and where the rings vary by their degree of conjugation. Using a first-principles approach, we show that molecular-scale means can tune CT rates through stabilization affected by the polar environment. Such means of CT tuning are important for achieving high efficiency optoelectronic applications using organic semiconducting materials. Our fully quantum mechanical scheme is necessary for reliably modeling the CT process across different regimes, in contrast to the pervading semi-classical Marcus picture that grossly underestimates transfer in the far-inverted regime.

  5. Rolling cycle amplification based single-color quantum dots-ruthenium complex assembling dyads for homogeneous and highly selective detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Su, Chen; Liu, Yufei; Ye, Tai; Xiang, Xia; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a new, label-free, homogeneous, highly sensitive, and selective fluorescent biosensor for DNA detection is developed by using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) based single-color quantum dots-ruthenium complex (QDs-Ru) assembling dyads. This strategy includes three steps: (1) the target DNA initiates RCA reaction and generates linear RCA products; (2) the complementary DNA hybridizes with the RCA products to form long double-strand DNA (dsDNA); (3) [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) (dppx=7,8-dimethyldipyrido [3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenanthroline) intercalates into the long dsDNA with strong fluorescence emission. Due to its strong binding propensity with the long dsDNA, [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) is removed from the surface of the QDs, resulting in restoring the fluorescence of the QDs, which has been quenched by [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) through a photoinduced electron transfer process and is overlaid with the fluorescence of dsDNA bonded Ru(II) polypyridyl complex (Ru-dsDNA). Thus, high fluorescence intensity is observed, and is related to the concentration of target. This sensor exhibits not only high sensitivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) ssDNA with a low detection limit (0.5 pM), but also excellent selectivity in the complex matrix. Moreover, this strategy applies QDs-Ru assembling dyads to the detection of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) without any functionalization and separation techniques. PMID:25467495

  6. Generation of Phosphorescent Triplet States via Photoinduced Electron Transfer: Energy and Electron Transfer Dynamics in Pt Porphyrin-Rhodamine B Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.

    2012-01-01

    Control over generation and dynamics of excited electronic states is fundamental to their utilization in all areas of technology. We present the first example of multichromophoric systems in which emissive triplet states are generated via a pathway involving photoinduced electron transfer (ET), as opposed to local intrachromophoric processes. In model dyads, PtP-Phn-pRhB+ (1-3, n=1-3), comprising platinum(II) meso-tetraarylporphyrin (PtP) and rhodamine B piperazine derivative (pRhB+), linked by oligo-p-phenylene bridges (Phn), upon selective excitation of pRhB+ at a frequency below that of the lowest allowed transition of PtP, room-temperature T1?S0 phosphorescence of PtP was observed. The pathway leading to the emissive PtP triplet state includes excitation of pRhB+, ET with formation of the singlet radical pair, intersystem crossing within that pair and subsequent radical recombination. Due to the close proximity of the triplet energy levels of PtP and pRhB+, reversible triplet-triplet (TT) energy transfer between these states was observed in dyads 1 and 2. As a result, the phosphorescence of PtP was extended in time by the long decay of the pRhB+ triplet. Observation of ET and TT in the same series of molecules enabled direct comparison of the distance attenuation factors ? between these two closely related processes. PMID:22400988

  7. Interactions During Feeding with Mothers and Their Infants with Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Schmiege, Sarah J.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Fehringer, Karen; Workman, Rachel; Marcheggianni-Howard, Cassandra; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To examine whether maternal–child interaction during feedings was suboptimal in dyads in which the infant had gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to compare massage therapy to a nonmassage therapy sham treatment in improving the mother–child interaction in these dyads. Design: In this randomized, controlled pilot study, infants received massage therapy (n=18) or a nonmassage touch/holding sham treatment (n=18). Mothers, data collectors, and the investigator who scored the feeding observations were blinded to group assignment. Settings/Location: Dyads were recruited from pediatric care providers in the Denver metropolitan area and online advertisements at the University of Colorado. Treatments were given in the home of the dyad. Participants: Healthy infants, born at 38–42 weeks gestational age, were 5–10 weeks of age at enrollment; had a score of at least 16 on the Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire-Revised; and were diagnosed with GERD by their pediatric provider. Mothers were English speaking and at least 18 years of age. Interventions: Treatments were given for 30 minutes twice weekly for 6 weeks. A certified infant massage therapist administered massage, and a registered nurse or physical therapist experienced with infants administered the control treatment. Outcome Measures: Maternal and infant scores on the Nursing Child Assessment of Feeding Scale (NCAFS). Results: NCAFS scores were significantly lower than national norms. Small to moderately sized effects showing improvement in the massage group relative to the nonmassage group were seen for Sensitivity to Cues, Social-Emotional Growth Fostering, Cognitive Growth Fostering, and Clarity of Cues (Cohen d) and ranged from 0.24 to 0.56. Conclusions: Mothers and infants with GERD experience significantly worse interactions than those without GERD. Massage given twice weekly by a professional trended toward improved interaction during feeding. Daily maternal administration of massage may have a positive effect on the relationship. PMID:24742255

  8. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperín, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed. PMID:20824179

  9. Fruits and vegetables as a healthier snack throughout the day among families with older children: findings from a survey of parent-child dyads.

    PubMed

    Smith, Teresa M; Pinard, Courtney A; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Wethington, Holly; Blanck, Heidi M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2015-04-01

    Most U.S. youth fail to eat the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (FV) however many consume too many calories as added sugars and solid fats, often as snacks. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with serving FV as snacks and with meals using parent-child dyads. A cross-sectional sample of U.S. children aged 9 to 18, and their caregiver/parent (n=1522) were part of a Consumer Panel of households for the 2008 YouthStyles mail survey. Chi-square test of independence and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations between serving patterns of FV as snacks with variations in serving patterns, and covariates including dietary habits. Most parents (72%) reported serving FV at meals and as snacks. Fruit was most frequently served as a snack during the day (52%) and vegetables were most frequently served as a snack during the day (22%) but rarely in the morning. Significant differences in child FV intake existed among FV as a snack serving patterns by parents. Compared to children whose parents served FV only at meals, children whose parents reported serving FV as snacks in addition to meals were significantly more likely to have consumed FV the day before (using a previous day screener), P<0.05. Contributing to the growing collection of literature describing parent-child dyad dietary behaviors, these findings suggest promoting FV access and intake throughout the day, not only at meals, by including serving as snacks, may increase FV intake among older children and adolescents. PMID:25706949

  10. Mother–Infant Person- and Object-Directed Interactions in Latino Immigrant Families: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother–infant person-and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother–infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother–infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers and infants engaged in person-directed behaviors longer than Latino immigrant or European American mothers and infants. Mother and infant person-directed behaviors were positively related; mother and infant object-related behaviors were related for some cultural groups but not others. Nearly all mother and infant behaviors were mutually contingent. Mothers were more responsive to infants’ behaviors than infants were to mothers. Some cultural differences in responsiveness emerged. Immigrant status has a differentiated role in mother–infant interactions. PMID:23275761

  11. Parent-child interaction during feeding or joint eating in parents of different weights.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Verena; Bergmann, Sarah; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigates parent-child interaction during feeding or during joint eating, and aimed to explore differences in feeding interactions between mothers and fathers, as well as between overweight, obese and not overweight parents. 148 mothers and 148 fathers with children aged between 7 and 47months were observed during feeding of or joint eating with their child in the laboratory. The videotaped mother-child and father-child dyads were coded using the Chatoor Feeding Scale. This scale consists of 5 subscales: Dyadic Reciprocity, Dyadic Conflict, Talk and Distraction during Feeding, Struggle for Control, and Non-Contingency. Compared to mothers, fathers showed higher readings on the Talk and Distraction scale; in all other subscales no differences were found. The comparison between overweight, obese and not overweight mother-child dyads revealed no significant differences. Differences in father-child dyads between overweight, obese and not overweight fathers were identified in the subscale Struggle for Control: overweight fathers were marked by a higher amount of Struggle for Control than obese and not overweight fathers. Taken together, differences found in the present observational study are small to moderate, and thus the current results support extant literature demonstrating that there are no differences in feeding behaviour between mothers and fathers or between obese and non-obese parents. PMID:26051882

  12. Mother-toddler interaction and the development of self-regulation in a limit-setting context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. LeCuyer-Maus; Gail M. Houck

    2002-01-01

    The Prohibition Coding Scheme was used to longitudinally assess observations of maternal and toddler limit-setting interactions at 12, 24, and 36 months. The final sample consisted of 126 mother-toddler dyads. Toddler behavior in a limit-setting context exemplified progressing skill in self-regulation from 12 to 36 months. Specifically, toddlers exhibited less persistence, increasing autonomy, and increasing ability to inhibit their behavior,

  13. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context. PMID:25175679

  14. Determination of preferential molecular orientation in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seregin, A. Yu.; D'yakova, Yu. A.; Yakunin, S. N.; Makhotkin, I. A.; Alekseev, A. S.; Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Tereschenko, E. Yu.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H.; Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-11-01

    Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad molecules with zinc atoms incorporated into the porphyrin ring (ZnDHD6ee) on the surface of aqueous subphase and on Si substrates have been investigated by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry. The experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions and on synchrotron radiation sources (KMC-2 station of BESSY II (Berlin) and Langmuir station at the National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute"). Depth distributions of Zn atoms and electron density in the monolayer film are calculated. On the basis of the analysis of these distributions, it is concluded that ZnDHD6ee dyad molecules in monolayers have preferential orientation. The data obtained indicate that the molecules in monolayer film retain their orientation when the monolayer is transferred from a liquid subphase surface onto a solid substrate.

  15. Determination of preferential molecular orientation in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Seregin, A. Yu., E-mail: seregin@gmail.com; D'yakova, Yu. A.; Yakunin, S. N.; Makhotkin, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Tereschenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad molecules with zinc atoms incorporated into the porphyrin ring (ZnDHD6ee) on the surface of aqueous subphase and on Si substrates have been investigated by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry. The experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions and on synchrotron radiation sources (KMC-2 station of BESSY II (Berlin) and Langmuir station at the National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute'). Depth distributions of Zn atoms and electron density in the monolayer film are calculated. On the basis of the analysis of these distributions, it is concluded that ZnDHD6ee dyad molecules in monolayers have preferential orientation. The data obtained indicate that the molecules in monolayer film retain their orientation when the monolayer is transferred from a liquid subphase surface onto a solid substrate.

  16. Fullerene C60-perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) light-harvesting dyads: Spacer-length and bay-substituent effects on intramolecular singlet and triplet energy transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Baffreau; Stéphanie Leroy-Lhez; V. A. Nguyên; Piétrick Hudhomme

    2008-01-01

    Novel covalent fullerene C-60-perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (C-60-PDI) dyads (1-4) were synthesized and characterized. Their electrochemical and photophysical properties were investigated. Electrochemical studies show that the reduction potential of PDI can be tuned relative to C-60 by molecular engineering through altering the substituents on the PDI bay region. It was demonstrated using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy that a quantitative, photoinduced energy transfer takes

  17. Study of structural order in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, Andrei S.; Orekhov, Anton S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gainutdinov, R. V.; Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail: klechvv@ns.crys.ras.ru; Tereschenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers formed on the surface of aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough and transferred onto solid substrates has been studied. The data obtained are interpreted using simulation of the structure of isolated molecules and their packing in monolayer and modeling of diffraction patterns from molecular aggregates having different sizes and degrees of order. Experiments on the formation of condensed ZnDHD6ee monolayers are described. The structure of these monolayers on a water surface is analyzed using {pi}-A isotherms. The structure of the monolayers transferred onto solid substrates is investigated by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The unit-cell parameters of two-dimensional domains, which are characteristic of molecular packing in monolayers and deposited films, are determined. Domains are found to be organized into a texture (the molecular axes are oriented by the [001] direction perpendicular to the substrate). The monolayers contain a limited number of small 3D domains.

  18. Molecular motions of [Beta]-carotene and a carotenoporphyrin dyad in solution. A carbon-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation time study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Swindle, S.L.; Smith, S.K.; Nieman, R.A.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States))

    1995-03-09

    Analysis of [sup 13]C NMR spin-lattice relaxation times (T[sub 1]) yields information concerning both overall tumbling of molecules in solution and internal rotations about single bonds. Relaxation time and nuclear Overhauser effect data have been obtained for [Beta]-carotene and two related molecules, squalane and squalene, for zinc meso-tetraphenylporphyrin, and for a dyad consisting of a porphyrin covalently linked to a carotenoid polyene through a trimethylene bridge. Squalane and squalene, which lack conjugated double bonds, behave essentially as limp string, with internal rotations at least as rapid as overall isotropic tumbling motions. In contrast, [Beta]-carotene reorients as a rigid rod, with internal motions which are too slow to affect relaxation times. Modeling it as an anisotropic rotor yields a rotational diffusion coefficient for motion about the major axis which is 14 times larger than that for rotation about axes perpendicular to that axis. The porphyrin reorients more nearly isotropically and features internal librational motions about the single bonds to the phenyl groups. The relaxation time data for the carotenoporphyrin are consistent with internal motions similar to those of a medieval military flail. 31 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Hand Gestures of Visually Impaired and Sighted Interactants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkey, William F.; Asamoto, Paula; Tokunaga, Christine; Haraguchi, Gail; McFaddon-Robar, Tammy

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the types of gestures used, the frequency of the gestures, and the total time engaged in gestural communication by 11 visually impaired-sighted dyads; 12 sighted dyads; and 8 visually impaired dyads. Adults with visual impairments used more adapters and used gestures, emblems, and illustrators less often. (Contains…

  20. Training Partnership Dyads for Community-Based Participatory Research: Strategies and Lessons Learned From the Community Engaged Scholars Program

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus–community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution’s Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

  1. Social coordination in toddler's word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen

    2008-06-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.

  2. Social coordination in toddler’s word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen

    2010-01-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants’ body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M = 18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner’s hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child’s learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed. PMID:20953274

  3. Direct observation of hole shift and characterization of spin states in radical ion pairs generated from photoinduced electron transfer of (phenothiazine)(n)-anthraquinone (n = 1, 3) dyads.

    PubMed

    Karimata, Ayumu; Suzuki, Shuichi; Kozaki, Masatoshi; Kimoto, Kenshi; Nozaki, Koichi; Matsushita, Hironori; Ikeda, Noriaki; Akiyama, Kimio; Kosumi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Hideki; Okada, Keiji

    2014-11-26

    Photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer of dyad PTZ3-PTZ2-PTZ1-B-AQ consisting of phenothiazine trimer (PTZ3-PTZ2-PTZ1), bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (B), and anthraquinone (AQ) was investigated. After excitation (?20 ps) of the AQ moiety in THF, a metastable radical ion pair (RIP) PTZ3-PTZ2-PTZ1(+)-B-AQ(-) appeared at ?620 nm. From 500 ps to 6 ns the spectrum changed to a new absorption (?950 nm), which was assigned to the hole-shifted stable RIP state PTZ3-PTZ2(+)-PTZ1-B-AQ(-). The time constant of the hole-shift process was determined to be 6.0 ns. The hole-shifted RIP state had a lifetime (?) of 250 ns and was characterized by spin-polarized signals as a spin-correlated radical pair (SCRP) by means of time-resolved ESR. These results were compared with those for the phenothiazine monomer analog PTZ-B-AQ, which also produced the RIP state PTZ(+)-B-AQ(-) with ? = 1.9 ?s. Time-resolved ESR showed an all emission signal pattern showing the triplet mechanism of PTZ-B-(3)AQ* ? (3)[PTZ(+)-B-AQ(-)]. The origin of the difference in the lifetimes between the trimer and the monomer RIP states was discussed from various points of view, including free energy difference in the RIP states, reorganization energy difference in the charge recombination process, and the spin-state difference. Of these, the spin-state difference effect provided the most reasonable explanation. PMID:25347200

  4. Sensitisation of Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-based luminescence by Ir(III) units in Ir/lanthanide dyads: evidence for parallel energy-transfer and electron-transfer based mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Daniel; Cankut, Ahmet J; Ali, Noorshida Mohd; Stephenson, Andrew; Spall, Steven J P; Parker, Simon C; Weinstein, Julia A; Ward, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    A series of blue-luminescent Ir(III) complexes with a pendant binding site for lanthanide(III) ions has been synthesized and used to prepare Ir(III)/Ln(III) dyads (Ln = Eu, Tb, Gd). Photophysical studies were used to establish mechanisms of Ir?Ln (Ln = Tb, Eu) energy-transfer. In the Ir/Gd dyads, where direct Ir?Gd energy-transfer is not possible, significant quenching of Ir-based luminescence nonetheless occurred; this can be ascribed to photoinduced electron-transfer from the photo-excited Ir unit (*Ir, (3)MLCT/(3)LC excited state) to the pendant pyrazolyl-pyridine site which becomes a good electron-acceptor when coordinated to an electropositive Gd(III) centre. This electron transfer quenches the Ir-based luminescence, leading to formation of a charge-separated {Ir(4+)}?-(pyrazolyl-pyridine)?(-) state, which is short-lived possibly due to fast back electron-transfer (<20 ns). In the Ir/Tb and Ir/Eu dyads this electron-transfer pathway is again operative and leads to sensitisation of Eu-based and Tb-based emission using the energy liberated from the back electron-transfer process. In addition direct Dexter-type Ir?Ln (Ln = Tb, Eu) energy-transfer occurs on a similar timescale, meaning that there are two parallel mechanisms by which excitation energy can be transferred from *Ir to the Eu/Tb centre. Time-resolved luminescence measurements on the sensitised Eu-based emission showed both fast and slow rise-time components, associated with the PET-based and Dexter-based energy-transfer mechanisms respectively. In the Ir/Tb dyads, the Ir?Tb energy-transfer is only just thermodynamically favourable, leading to rapid Tb?Ir thermally-activated back energy-transfer and non-radiative deactivation to an extent that depends on the precise energy gap between the *Ir and Tb-based (5)D4 states. Thus, the sensitised Tb(iii)-based emission is weak and unusually short-lived due to back energy transfer, but nonetheless represents rare examples of Tb(III) sensitisation by a energy donor that could be excited using visible light as opposed to the usually required UV excitation. PMID:24608523

  5. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Karen A; Katz, Albert N; Leith, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 196-216, 1982) can be found in interactive language. Of the eight tokens examined only three were found to differ in the hypothesized direction, and these only in male-male dyads. In the second study, we trained a male and a female confederate to use either male or female gendered tokens found to be reliable in Study One in their chats with participants. Our design permits disentangling of effects due to knowledge of the gender of the interlocutors and use of specific language tokens. We find that use of language tokens by the confederate promoted use of the same token by their interlocutor, regardless of knowledge of the confederate's gender. Moreover use of tokens consistent or inconsistent with visible gender influenced how the interlocutor perceived the confederate. Taken together these data are inconsistent with either the notion that gendered language is context independent (as suggested in the gender-as-culture hypothesis) or the notion that gendered language only emerges when gender is made salient, as would, in these studies, occur in mixed-gendered groups. PMID:24664126

  6. The Social Interactive Behaviour of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Mothers: Is There an Effect of Familiarity of the Interaction Partner?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meirsschaut, Mieke; Roeyers, Herbert; Warreyn, Petra

    2011-01-01

    In this study the social behaviour of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their mothers is compared within two different dyads: a dyad consisting of a mother and her own child and a dyad consisting of a mother and an unfamiliar child. Mothers did not change the frequency of their social initiatives and responsiveness with an…

  7. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-04-21

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender's and receiver's temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions. PMID:25848050

  8. Instructional interactions of students with cognitive disabilities: sequential analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ockjean; Hupp, Susan C

    2007-03-01

    We studied instructional interactions through semi-structured observation of 13 student- teacher dyads involving elementary students with cognitive disabilities. Special educators' use of directions and responses of differing modes and types was analyzed. Student task-engagement behaviors (i.e., active engage, disruptive, passive on-task, off-task) provided a context for understanding differences in teacher styles. Results indicate that teacher directions were followed by student active engagement; and teacher responses, by student passive task-orientation. This higher quality feedback from students, together with outerdirectedness of students with cognitive disabilities, is postulated as a mechanism that maintains a high level of teacher directiveness. Sequential relationship patterns changed as student engagement levels varied, suggesting a child-driven model of teacher-child instructional interactions. PMID:17295557

  9. Compulsory citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of organizational identification and perceived interactional justice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Chen, Hsiu-Kuei

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of interactional justice in influencing the mediation. Using a time-lagged research design, the authors collected two waves of data from 388 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 67 teams to test the moderated mediation model. Results revealed that CCB negatively influenced OCB via impairing organizational identification. Moreover, interactional justice moderated the strength of the indirect effect of CCB on OCB (through organizational identification), such that the mediated relationship was stronger under low interactional justice than under high interactional justice. PMID:24684078

  10. The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria--III. Mother-child interactions, family conflicts and maternal psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Barkley, R A; Fischer, M; Edelbrock, C; Smallish, L

    1991-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a prospective, 8-year follow-up study of 100 hyperactive and 60 normal children followed from childhood into adolescence. Ratings of child behavior problems and family conflicts as well as direct observations of mother-child interactions were taken in childhood and again at adolescent follow-up. At outcome, hyperactives continued to have more conduct and learning problems and to be more hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive than controls. Hyperactives were also rated by their mothers as having more numerous and intense family conflicts than the normal controls, although the adolescents in both groups did not differ in their own ratings of these conflicts. Observations of mother-adolescent interactions at outcome found the hyperactive dyads displaying more negative and controlling behaviors and less positive and facilitating behaviors towards each other than in the normal dyads. These interaction patterns were significantly related to similar patterns in mother-child interactions observed 8 years earlier. Mothers of hyperactives also reported more personal psychological distress than normal mothers at outcome. Further analyses of subgroups of hyperactives at outcome, formed on the presence or absence of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), indicated that the presence of ODD accounted for most of the differences between hyperactives and normals on the interaction measures, ratings of home conflicts, and ratings of maternal psychological distress. Results suggest that the development and maintenance of ODD into adolescence in hyperactive children is strongly associated with aggression and negative parent-child interactions in childhood. PMID:2033106

  11. Establishment of Joint Attention in Dyads Involving Hearing Mothers of Deaf and Hearing Children, and Its Relation to Adaptive Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence points to joint attention as a mediating variable in children's adaptive behavior. Joint attention in interactions between hearing mothers and congenitally deaf (n = 27) and hearing (n = 29) children, ages 18-36 months, was examined. All deaf children had severe to profound hearing loss. Mother-child interactions were coded for…

  12. The Origins of 12-Month Attachment: A Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    A detailed microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of essential communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1s time base; mother and infant facial-visual “engagement” variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual’s behavior that were correlated with the partner’s previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother, yielded comparable numbers of findings. Rather than the more usual hypothesis that more contingency is “better,” we partially supported our hypothesis that 12-month insecurity is associated with both higher and lower 4-month self- and interactive contingency values than secure, as a function of mother vs. infant and communication modality. Thus, in the origins of attachment security, more contingency is not necessarily better. A remarkable degree of differentiation was identified in the 4-month patterns of “future” C and D infants, classified as resistant and disorganized, respectively, at 12 months. Only future D infants were emotionally distressed, with simultaneous positive and negative discrepant affect; only their mothers showed difficulty in sharing infant affect, particularly distress, and lowered their contingent coordination with infant facial-visual engagement. This lowered contingent coordination makes it more difficult for infants to come to expect that their emotional/attentional states can influence mothers to coordinate with them and thus compromises the infant’s sense of interactive efficacy. Only future C dyads showed the spatial approach/avoid pattern of “chase and dodge;” only mothers of future D infants showed the spatial intrusion pattern of “looming” into the infant’s face. Both future C and D dyads showed patterns of touch dysregulation. Future C infants inhibited their emotional coordination with mothers’ less affectionate touch, as if tuning it out. Future D dyads showed a dyadic touch dysregulation, in which mothers lowered their coordination with infant touch, while infants had a lowered ability to use their own touch. Both mothers of future C and D infants disturbed the stability of the spatial “frame” of the encounter by transitioning among upward, forward and loom orientations in less predictable ways than mothers of future B infants. Only mothers of future D infants disturbed the attentional “frame” as

  13. Capturing the Temporal Sequence of Interaction in Young Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Fiona; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We explored whether young children exhibit subtypes of behavioral sequences during sibling interaction. Ten-minute, free-play observations of over 300 sibling dyads were coded for positivity, negativity and disengagement. The data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling (GMM). Younger (18-month-old) children’s temporal behavioral sequences showed a harmonious (53%) and a casual (47%) class. Older (approximately four-year-old) children’s behavior was more differentiated revealing a harmonious (25%), a deteriorating (31%), a recovery (22%) and a casual (22%) class. A more positive maternal affective climate was associated with more positive patterns. Siblings’ sequential behavioral patterns tended to be complementary rather than reciprocal in nature. The study illustrates a novel use of GMM and makes a theoretical contribution by showing that young children exhibit distinct types of temporal behavioral sequences that are related to parenting processes. PMID:25996957

  14. Capturing the temporal sequence of interaction in young siblings.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Michal; Lyons-Amos, Mark; Leckie, George; Steele, Fiona; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We explored whether young children exhibit subtypes of behavioral sequences during sibling interaction. Ten-minute, free-play observations of over 300 sibling dyads were coded for positivity, negativity and disengagement. The data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling (GMM). Younger (18-month-old) children's temporal behavioral sequences showed a harmonious (53%) and a casual (47%) class. Older (approximately four-year-old) children's behavior was more differentiated revealing a harmonious (25%), a deteriorating (31%), a recovery (22%) and a casual (22%) class. A more positive maternal affective climate was associated with more positive patterns. Siblings' sequential behavioral patterns tended to be complementary rather than reciprocal in nature. The study illustrates a novel use of GMM and makes a theoretical contribution by showing that young children exhibit distinct types of temporal behavioral sequences that are related to parenting processes. PMID:25996957

  15. Mechanisms of contextual risk for adolescent self-injury: invalidation and conflict escalation in mother-child interactions.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Sheila E; Baucom, Brian R; McCauley, Elizabeth; Potapova, Natalia V; Fitelson, Martha; Barth, Heather; Smith, Cindy J; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2013-01-01

    According to developmental theories of self-injury, both child characteristics and environmental contexts shape and maintain problematic behaviors. Although progress has been made toward identifying biological vulnerabilities to self-injury, mechanisms underlying psychosocial risk have received less attention. In the present study, we compared self-injuring adolescents (n = 17) with typical controls (n = 20) during a mother-child conflict discussion. Dyadic interactions were coded using both global and microanalytic systems, allowing for a highly detailed characterization of mother-child interactions. We also assessed resting state psychophysiological regulation, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Global coding revealed that maternal invalidation was associated with adolescent anger. Furthermore, maternal invalidation and coerciveness were both related to adolescent opposition/defiance. Results from the microanalytic system indicated that self-injuring dyads were more likely to escalate conflict, suggesting a potential mechanism through which emotion dysregulation is shaped and maintained over time. Finally, mother and teen aversiveness interacted to predict adolescent resting RSA. Low-aversive teens with highly aversive mothers had the highest RSA, whereas teens in high-high dyads showed the lowest RSA. These findings are consistent with theories that emotion invalidation and conflict escalation are possible contextual risk factors for self-injury. PMID:23581508

  16. Assessing the feeding/eating interaction as a context for the development of social competence in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Spegman, Adele Mattinat; Houck, Gail M

    2005-01-01

    Social competence likely develops through the reciprocal nature of mother-child interactions. Interactions around food provide the young child with consistent and predictable social experiences with the mother, which may establish templates for interactive patterns with others. The Toddler Snack Scale (TSS) assesses the pattern of toddler social behaviors in relation to maternal behaviors during an eating episode. Scale reliability was examined with a sample of 126 dyads at the child's ages of 12, 24, and 36 months. Significant associations were found between TSS classifications and concurrent measures assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS), the Control-Autonomy Balance Scale (CABS), and the Adaptive Social Behavioral Inventory (ASBI). Child temperament contributed to child expressions of social competence, but not to the assignment of maternal or child interaction styles. The scale identifies salient areas for parent-child assessment and intervention throughout infancy and toddlerhood. PMID:16356895

  17. Enhancing building, conversation, and learning through caregiver-child interactions in a children's museum.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Nora; Haden, Catherine A; Wilkerson, Erin

    2010-03-01

    The authors adapted an experimental design to examine effects of instruction prior to entry into a children's museum exhibit on caregiver-child interactions and children's learning. One hundred twenty-one children (mean age = 6.6 years) and their caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 conditions that varied according to what, if any, preexhibit instruction the dyads received: (a) building and conversation instruction, (b) building instruction only, (c) conversation instruction only, (d) presentation of models of buildings and conversations without instruction, or (e) no instruction or control. Building instruction included information about triangular cross-bracing. Conversation instruction emphasized the use of elaborative wh-questions and associations. When observed in the exhibit, dyads in the groups that received building instruction included more triangles in their structures than those in the other groups. Caregivers provided with conversation instruction asked more wh-questions, made more associations, and engaged in more caregiver-child joint talk compared with those who received building instruction alone. Type of instruction was further linked to differences across conditions in the engineering content of talk, performance during immediate assessments of learning, and children's memory following 1-day and 2-week delays. PMID:20210509

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Ru(II) Tris(1,1O-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads Incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium Cation or N-Benzyl-N'-methyl-viologen. Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Optical Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monen M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2004-01-01

    The title compounds (1 and 2, above) were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions of appropriate Ru(1I) complexes with the electron a cceptors. Characterization was conducted in solution and in frozen ma trices. Finally, the title compounds were evaluated as dopants of sol-gel materials. It was found that the intramolecular quenching efficie ncy of 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridinium cation in solution depends on the solvent: photoluminescence is quenched completely in CH,CN, but not i n methanol or ethanol. On the other hand, intramolecular emission que nching by 4-benzyl-N-methyl viologen is complete in all solvents. The difference between the two quenchers is traced electrochemically to t he solvation of the 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridiniums by alcohol. In froze n matrices or adsorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both Ru(I1) complex/electron acceptor dyads of this study are photoluminescent, and the absence of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigi dity. When doped aerogels are cooled at 77 K, the emission intensity increases by approximately 4x, and the spectra shift to the blue, analogous to what is observed with Ru(I1) complexes in solutions undergoi ng fluid-to-rigid transition. However, in contrast to frozen solution s, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at low tempe ratures are still accessible to gas-phase quenchers diffusing through the mesopores, leading to more sensitive platforms for sensors than o ther room-temperature configurations. Thus the photoluminescence of o ur Ru(I1) complex dyads adsorbed on aerogel is quenchable by O2 both at room temperature and at 77 K. Furthermore, it was also found that O 2 modulates the photoluminescence of aerogels doped with 4-benzoyl -N -methylpyridinium-based dyads over a wider dynamic range compared wi th aerogels doped with either our vislogen-based dyads or with Ru(I1) tris(1,lO-phenanthroline) itself.

  19. Tactile Contact by Deaf and Hearing Mothers During Face-to-Face Interactions With Their Infants.

    PubMed

    Koester, L S; Brooks, L; Traci, M A

    2000-01-01

    Tactile contact with an infant plays an important role (though one largely overlooked by researchers until recently) in the development of synchronous interactive dialogues between caregiver and child. Dyads in which one or both partners are deaf present a unique opportunity to examine the use of touch as a means of optimizing or enhancing communication when the number of available sensory channels is restricted. Touch in these dyads may play an important role in eliciting visual attention, in alerting the infant that signed communication is forthcoming, in assisting the infant to achieve emotional regulation, or in simply maintaining contact even when the deaf child has looked away from the partner. The data presented here represent one attempt to investigate the role of touch in relation to deaf infants and deaf parents, for whom it may play a particularly salient role. Both deaf and hearing mothers were observed in videotaped face-to-face interactions with their infants (also either deaf or hearing); maternal behavior was coded for each event during which mothers initiated tactile contact with the infant and was classified according to intensity, location on the infant's body, and type of touch (e.g., active vs. passive). Results of this study indicate that deaf mothers may be especially responsive to the tactile needs of their deaf infants, as shown by qualitative differences in their behavioral interactions with 6- and 9-month-olds. However, hearing mothers with deaf infants also appear to be incorporating more active forms of touch in their interactions, although they tend to rely on longer durations of tactile contact than do the deaf mothers. PMID:15454508

  20. Tunable one-, two-, and three-dimensional self-assemblies from an acceptor-donor fullerene-N,N-dimethylaminoazobenzene dyad: interfacial geometry and temporal evolution.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Senthil; Patnaik, Archita

    2011-09-01

    Controllable fabrication of spontaneously ordered and varied geometry fullerene C(60) based molecular architecture was achieved upon hierarchical self-assembly of the fullerene-N,N-dimethylaminoazobenzene acceptor-donor hybrid (DPNME). Simple preparation techniques, such as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB), solution-cast, and immersion at the liquid-air and solid-air interfaces, were used without templates as a function of DPNME concentration, media pH, time, and supporting substrate characteristics. The resulting structures depending upon the preparation methods were investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and molecular modeling, which revealed a delicate role of intermolecular donor-acceptor, ?-?, and van der Waals interactions between the electron deficient fullerene core and the N,N-dimethylaminoazobenzene electron donor under neutral conditions. Upon protonation, the electrostatics associated with the charged DPNME moiety and the dominant intermolecular fullerene-fullerene interactions guided the self-assembly process. Increased time scales led the molecular subunits to grow by maximizing the most favored orientations and yielded one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) structures in neutral and acidic conditions, respectively, which upon solvent evaporation formed the final multipods or stacked squares upon oriented attachment. For the protonated DPNME, 2D lamellar sheets formed from the bilayers gained cohesive energy, forming ultimately rectangular sheets. Interestingly, the Si(100) supported multilayer DPNME Langmuir films as a function of surface pressure and pH yielded a uniform and directional structure pattern in comparison with the geometry obtained from drop casting methods. This controllable structure architecture of the fullerene-azobenzene hybrid opens up a new alley in fullerene C(60) based self-assembly. PMID:21766824

  1. Physiological and cognitive consequences of suppressing and expressing emotion in dyadic interactions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brett J; Overall, Nickola C; Jamieson, Jeremy P

    2014-10-01

    Engaging in emotional suppression typically has negative consequences. However, relatively little is known about response-focused emotion regulation processes in dyadic interactions. We hypothesized that interacting with suppressive partners would be more threatening than interacting with expressive partners. To test predictions, two participants independently watched a negatively-valenced video and then discussed their emotional responses. One participant (the regulator) was assigned to express/suppress affective signals during the interaction. Their partner was given no special instructions prior to the interaction. Engaging in suppression versus expression elicited physiological responses consistent with threat-sympathetic arousal and increased vasoconstriction-in anticipation of and during dyadic interactions. Partners of emotional suppressors also exhibited more threat responses during the interaction, but not before, compared to partners of emotional expressors. Partner and interaction appraisals mirrored physiological findings. Emotional suppressors found the task more uncomfortable and intense while their partners reported them as being poor communicators. This work broadens our understanding of connections between emotion regulation, physiological responses, and cognitive processes in dyads. PMID:25109434

  2. d?f Energy Transfer in Ir(III)/Eu(III) Dyads: Use of a Naphthyl Spacer as a Spatial and Energetic “Stepping Stone”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A series of luminescent complexes based on {Ir(phpy)2} (phpy = cyclometallating anion of 2-phenylpyridine) or {Ir(F2phpy)2} [F2phpy = cyclometallating anion of 2-(2?,4?-difluorophenyl)pyridine] units, with an additional 3-(2-pyridyl)-pyrazole (pypz) ligand, have been prepared; fluorination of the phenylpyridine ligands results in a blue-shift of the usual 3MLCT/3LC luminescence of the Ir unit from 477 to 455 nm. These complexes have pendant from the coordinated pyrazolyl ring an additional chelating 3-(2-pyridyl)-pyrazole unit, separated via a flexible chain containing a naphthalene-1,4-diyl or naphthalene-1,5-diyl spacer. Crystal structures show that the flexibility of the pendant chain allows the naphthyl group to lie close to the Ir core and participate in a ?-stacking interaction with a coordinated phpy or F2phpy ligand. Luminescence spectra show that, whereas the {Ir(phpy)2(pypz)} complexes show typical Ir-based emission—albeit with lengthened lifetimes because of interaction with the stacked naphthyl group—the {Ir(F2phpy)2(pypz)} complexes are nearly quenched. This is because the higher energy of the Ir-based 3MLCT/3LC excited state can now be quenched by the adjacent naphthyl group to form a long-lived naphthyl-centered triplet (3nap) state which is detectable by transient absorption. Coordination of an {Eu(hfac)3} unit (hfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-pentane-2,4-dionate) to the pendant pypz binding site affords Ir–naphthyl–Eu triads. For the triads containing a {Ir(phpy)2} core, the unavailability of the 3nap state (not populated by the Ir-based excited state which is too low in energy) means that direct Ir?Eu energy-transfer occurs in the same way as in other flexible Ir/Eu complexes. However for the triads based on the{Ir(F2phpy)2} core, the initial Ir?3nap energy-transfer step is followed by a second, slower, 3nap?Eu energy-transfer step: transient absorption measurements clearly show the 3nap state being sensitized by the Ir center (synchronous Ir-based decay and 3nap rise-time) and then transferring its energy to the Eu center (synchronous 3nap decay and Eu-based emission rise time). Thus the 3nap state, which is energetically intermediate in the {Ir(F2phpy)2}–naphthyl–Eu systems, can act as a “stepping stone” for two-step d?f energy-transfer. PMID:24007190

  3. Development of the Brief Romantic Relationship Interaction Coding Scheme (BRRICS)

    PubMed Central

    Humbad, Mikhila N.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Although observational studies of romantic relationships are common, many existing coding schemes require considerable amounts of time and resources to implement. The current study presents a new coding scheme, the Brief Romantic Relationship Interaction Coding Scheme (BRRICS), designed to assess various aspects of romantic relationship both quickly and efficiently. The BRRICS consists of four individual coding dimensions assessing positive and negative affect in each member of the dyad, as well as four codes assessing specific components of the dyadic interaction (i.e., positive reciprocity, demand-withdraw pattern, negative reciprocity, and overall satisfaction). Concurrent associations with measures of marital adjustment and conflict were evaluated in a sample of 118 married couples participating in the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Couples were asked to discuss common conflicts in their marriage while being videotaped. Undergraduate coders used the BRRICS to rate these interactions. The BRRICS scales were correlated in expected directions with self-reports of marital adjustment, as well as children’s perception of the severity and frequency of marital conflict. Based on these results, the BRRICS may be an efficient tool for researchers with large samples of observational data who are interested in coding global aspects of the relationship but do not have the resources to use labor intensive schemes. PMID:21875192

  4. Contingent interaction during work and play tasks for mothers with multiple sclerosis and their daughters.

    PubMed

    Crist, P

    1993-02-01

    Occupational therapy has focused on activity as a catalyst for understanding human roles and interactions, regardless of whether disability or chronic illness is present. Parenting is an important interactional activity accompanied by specific role expectations. This investigation examined the interaction patterns of mothers with multiple sclerosis and their daughters. Thirty-one mothers with multiple sclerosis and their daughters aged 8 to 12 years were compared with 34 mothers without disabilities and their daughters aged 8 to 12 years. Videotaped mother-daughter interactions during a work task and a play task were scored by two raters for 11 different behaviors. These behaviors were collapsed into three behavioral composites--receptiveness, directiveness, and dissuasiveness--for statistical analysis. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the two groups on the behavioral composites for either mothers or their daughters. The two tasks stimulated a different pattern of mother-daughter interactions. For both members of the dyad, interactions during the work task were more directive and less dissuasive than those in the play task. The clinical implication of this finding indicates the importance of understanding the influence of the task selected when observing interaction. Because of recent social and legal changes, understanding parenting and chronic illness is critical. PMID:8470741

  5. Examining the role of communication on sibling relationship quality and interaction for sibling pairs with and without a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashlyn L; Romski, Maryann; Sevcik, Rose A

    2013-09-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent communicators and their siblings did not differ in terms of syntactic complexity but typically developing siblings dominated the interaction and exhibited greater lexical diversity regardless of communication status. Communication status did not impact the warmth/closeness, rivalry, or conflict in the sibling relationship, but siblings of independent communicators engaged in the greatest amount of helping and managing behaviors. These results represent a first step in understanding the role of communication skills in the sibling relationship for families of children with disabilities. PMID:24245732

  6. Interactive Calendar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritterskamp, Pegge; Singleton, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of an interactive calendar that incorporates reading and writing in its use. Discusses a typical lesson, managing the interactive calendar, changes throughout the year, extensions and variations of the interactive calendar, and benefits of using the interactive calendar. Urges every primary teacher to learn about interactive

  7. Conversational interactions of mothers and their preschool children who had been born preterm.

    PubMed

    Donahue, M L; Pearl, R

    1995-10-01

    This study examined the conversational interactions of mothers and their 4.5-year-old children, who had been born preterm, during a social problem-solving task asking each dyad to agree on the choice of a snack. Relative to comparison mothers, mothers of preterm children seemed to approach the task as a vocabulary lesson; they produced less complex sentences and were more likely to name the snacks and to test their children's knowledge of snack names. Comparison mothers were more likely to focus on the social negotiation aspect of the task, by offering more opinions and reasons. Discussed is whether the conversational strategies of mothers of preterm children reflect appropriate "fine-tuning" or a lag in adjusting to their children's emerging language skills because of a lingering "prematurity stereotype." PMID:8558880

  8. TRANSITION FROM ADVERSARIAL TO COOPERATIVE STRATEGIC INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-08-01

    This note extends the game theoretic analysis of strategic conflicts begun in earlier Seminars on Planetary Emergencies to interactions with and without defenses between two or more adversaries with more realistic target structures. It reviews the essentials of game theory as applied to the analysis of strategic decisions, the application of first and second strike costs as payoffs, and solution optimization, which resolves several inconsistencies seen with earlier metrics. The stability of the current bilateral offensive configuration is shown to be high and insensitive to deep reductions in offensive forces, the deployment of limited defenses, and the exchange of significant offensive forces for defenses. The transition from adversarial to cooperative interaction is represented by the progressive reduction of the parameters representing each side's preference for damaging or deterring the other, which monotonically improves stability. Estimates of strike incentives in bilateral and trilateral configurations are reduced by the inclusion of high value targets in both sides' force allocations, which dominates the details of offensive and defensive forces. The shift to high value targets stabilizes trilateral offensive configurations, a result that differs with that from analyses based on military costs only. When defenses are included, they lead to a balance between a large defended side and small undefended side that resembles the balance between two large sides. Including the large side's preference for defense of high value targets in the analyses reduces its strike incentives and thus the small side's incentive to preempt. However, it also removes the large sides' ability to deter, so the stability of multi-polar configurations continues to be controlled by the least stable dyad, which places constraints on the size of defenses that can be deployed stably that could be more stringent than those from the bilateral balance.

  9. Photoinduced processes in dyads and triads containing a ruthenium(II)-bis(terpyridine) photosensitizer covalently linked to electron donor and acceptor groups. [Ru(ttp) sub 2 sup 2+ where ttp=4 prime -p-tolyl-2,2 prime :6 prime ,2 double prime -terpyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, J.P.; Guillerez, S.; Sauvage, J.P. (Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)); Barigelletti, F.; Flamigni, L. (Inst. FRAE-CNR, Bologna (Italy)); De Cola, L.; Balzani, V. (Univ. di Bologna (Italy))

    1991-10-30

    Five supramolecular systems containing the Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+} photosensitizer (P) covalently linked to an electron acceptor (A), MV{sup 2+}, and/or an electron donor (D), PTZ or DPAA, have been synthesized; ttp is 4{prime}-p-tolyl-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double prime}-terpyridine, MV{sup 2+} is methyl viologen, PTZ is phenotiazine, and DPAA is di-p-anisylamine. In the D-P-A triads the electron donor and acceptor groups are linked in opposite positions with respect to the photosensitizer. The spectroscopic properties (room-temperature absorption spectra, emission spectra and lifetimes in the 90-200 K temperature range, and transient absorption spectra and lifetimes at 150 K) and the (room-temperature) electrochemical behavior of the supramolecular systems and of their components have been investigated. At 90 K, where the solvent is frozen, no quenching of the photosensitizer luminescence is observed for all the supramolecular systems. At 150 K, where the solvent is fluid, the results obtained were as follows. In the PTZ-Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+} dyad, neither quenching of the photosensitizer luminescence nor formation of oxidized donor are observed. In the DPAA-Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+} dyad, luminescence quenching and transient formation of the oxidized donor take place. For the Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+}-MV{sup 2+} dyad, transient formation of the reduced acceptor is observed, but the lifetime of the photosensitizer luminescence increases, indicating that charge recombination leads back to the excited photosensitizer. The PTZ-Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+}-MV{sup 2+} triad behaves as the Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+}-MV{sup 2+} dyad. For the DPAA-Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+}-MV{sup 2+} triad, strong luminescence quenching is observed, and transient absorption spectroscopy shows that charge separation is followed by a very fast charge recombination reaction ({tau}<100 ns). Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the photoinduced electron-transfer processes are discussed.

  10. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants During Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on their Language Development as Toddlers?

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure (‘media verbal interactions’) might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother–infant dyads participating in a longitudinal study, media exposure and media verbal interactions were assessed using 24-hour recall diaries. Additionally, general level of cognitive stimulation in the home [StimQ] was assessed at 6 months and language development [Preschool Language Scale-4] was assessed at 14 months. Results suggest that media verbal interactions play a role in the language development of infants from low-income, immigrant families. Evidence showed that media verbal interactions moderated adverse impacts of media exposure found on 14-month language development, with adverse associations found only in the absence the these interactions. Findings also suggest that media verbal interactions may have some direct positive impacts on language development, in that media verbal interactions during the co-viewing of media with educational content (but not other content) were predictive of 14-month language independently of overall level of cognitive stimulation in the home. PMID:21593996

  11. Dyads, a generalisation of monads Maarten Fokkinga

    E-print Network

    Fokkinga, Maarten M.

    standard notation: A, B, . . . denote categories, a, b, . . . objects, f, g, . . . arrows, F, G is denoted in diagrammatic order: f ; g is normally written g f . Example. Let L be the list functor: La is the set of lists over a , and for f: a b we have Lf: La Lb as the well-known f -map. Given list

  12. Dyads, a generalisation of monads Maarten Fokkinga

    E-print Network

    Fokkinga, Maarten M.

    standard notation: A;B; : : : denote categories, a; b; : : : objects, f; g; : : : arrows, F; G is denoted in diagrammatic order: f ; g is normally written g ffi f . Example. Let L be the list functor: La is the set of lists over a , and for f : a ! b we have Lf : La ! Lb as the well­known f ­map. Given list

  13. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning. PMID:21874515

  14. Nutritional management of the breastfeeding dyad.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Christina J; Wagner, Carol L

    2013-02-01

    Milk is successfully produced by mothers regardless of their nutritional status. Nevertheless, the concentrations of some nutrients, specifically vitamins A, D, B1, B2, B3, B6, and B12, fatty acids, and iodine, in human milk depend on or are influenced by maternal diet. A healthy and varied diet during lactation ensures adequate maternal nutrition and optimal concentration of some nutrients in human milk. Exclusive breastfeeding meets the nutritional needs of infants for 6 months of life with the exception of vitamins D and K, which should be given to breastfed infants as supplements. PMID:23178069

  15. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  16. Dynamic Dyads: Sharing and Creating Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sophie T.; Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    In today's competitive market, it is essential to maximize employees' efficiency through job structure and knowledge exchange. This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of sharing and creating knowledge in teams of two. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with four dyadic teams. Data analysis revealed four major themes…

  17. Evaluations of Physical Aggression Among Intimate Dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ILEANA ARIAS; PATTI JOHNSON

    1989-01-01

    This investigation examined subjective evaluations of spousal aggression as a function of sex of the aggressor, severity of the violence, and sex of the respondent. Male and female respondents evaluated male violence and female violence equally. Forms of violence implying greater physical harm were evaluated more negatively, and all forms of violence were evaluated more negatively when the male was

  18. Manipulation of Non-verbal Interaction Style and Demographic Embodiment to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2005-02-01

    For years, people have sought more natural means of communicating with their computers. Many have suggested that interaction with a computer should be as easy as interacting with other people, taking advantage of the multimodal nature of human communication. While users should, in theory, gravitate to such anthropomorphic embodiments, quite the contrary has been experienced; users generally have been dissatisfied and abandoned their use. This suggests a disconnect between the factors that make human-human communication engaging and those used by designers to support human-agent interaction. This paper discusses a set of empirical studies that attempted to replicate human-human nonverbal behavior. The focus revolved around the behaviors that portrayed a credible façade, helping the embodied conversational agent (ECA) to form a successful cooperative dyad with the user. Based on a review of the nonverbal literature, a framework was created that identified trustworthy and credible nonverbal behaviors across five areas and formed design guidelines for character interaction. The design suggestions for those areas emanating from the facial region (facial expression, eye contact and paralanguage) were experimentally supported but there was no concordant increase in perceived trust when bodily regions (posture and gesture) were added. In addition, in examining the importance of demographic elements in the embodiment, it was found that users prefer to interact with characters that match their ethnicity and are young looking. There was no significant preference for gender. The implications of these results, as well as other interesting consequences are discussed.

  19. Understanding Interaction

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    the interactions · Unconstrained speech recognition · Non-verbal communication · Attention · Social cues · Understanding dialogues · Individual and group behaviour · Multimodal signals, multiparty communication #12;AMIUnderstanding Multiparty Interaction Challenges from Instrumented Meeting Rooms Steve Renals

  20. Why Synchrony Matters during Mother-Child Interactions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Avril, Marie; Achard, Catherine; Chetouani, Mohamed; Missonnier, Sylvain; Cohen, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of mother-child interactions is a core issue of early child development and psychopathology. This paper focuses on the concept of “synchrony” and examines (1) how synchrony in mother-child interaction is defined and operationalized; (2) the contribution that the concept of synchrony has brought to understanding the nature of mother-child interactions. Method Between 1977 and 2013, we searched several databases using the following key-words: « synchrony » « interaction » and « mother-child ». We focused on studies examining parent-child interactions among children aged 2 months to 5 years. From the 63 relevant studies, we extracted study description variables (authors, year, design, number of subjects, age); assessment conditions and modalities; and main findings. Results The most common terms referring to synchrony were mutuality, reciprocity, rhythmicity, harmonious interaction, turn-taking and shared affect; all terms were used to characterize the mother-child dyad. As a consequence, we propose defining synchrony as a dynamic and reciprocal adaptation of the temporal structure of behaviors and shared affect between interactive partners. Three main types of assessment methods for studying synchrony emerged: (1) global interaction scales with dyadic items; (2) specific synchrony scales; and (3) micro-coded time-series analyses. It appears that synchrony should be regarded as a social signal per se as it has been shown to be valid in both normal and pathological populations. Better mother-child synchrony is associated with familiarity (vs. unknown partner), a healthy mother (vs. pathological mother), typical development (vs. psychopathological development), and a more positive child outcomes. Discussion Synchrony is a key feature of mother-infant interactions. Adopting an objective approach in studying synchrony is not a simple task given available assessment tools and due to its temporality and multimodal expression. We propose an integrative approach combining clinical observation and engineering techniques to improve the quality of synchrony analysis. PMID:25469637

  1. Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tong Logan, Angela; Silverman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    One of the most clinically significant complications related to the use of pharmacotherapy is the potential for drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. The gastrointestinal system plays a large role in the pharmacokinetic profile of most medications, and many medications utilized in gastroenterology have clinically significant drug interactions. This review will discuss the impact of alterations of intestinal pH, interactions mediated by phase I hepatic metabolism enzymes and P-glycoprotein, the impact of liver disease on drug metabolism, and interactions seen with commonly utilized gastrointestinal medications. PMID:22933873

  2. Declarative Interaction through Interactive Planners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conn V. Copas; Ernest A. Edmonds

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in planning has enabled this technique to be applied to some sig- nificant real-world problems, including the construction of intelligent user inter- faces. Previous research in interactive planners has emphasised their dynamism and maintenance advantages. This paper adopts a user-interaction perspective, and ex- plores the theme that a paradigm shift in human-computer interaction is now a prospect: away

  3. Interactive cartography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pang

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a software program that allows users to interactively create different map projections. The system allows users to view a representation of the Earth simultaneously as a sphere and as a projection with the ability to interact with both images. Map projections are created by projecting the sphere onto one of three developable surfaces. The choices are a

  4. Imagined Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeycutt, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Social scientists have been studying imagined interactions since the mid-1980s and have measured numerous physiological correlates (Honeycutt, 2010). In this commentary I assess the research reported in Crisp and Turner (May-June 2009) and highlight the underlying mechanisms of imagined interactions that have empirically been laid out across…

  5. Perceiving nonverbal behavior: neural correlates of processing movement fluency and contingency in dyadic interactions.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Alexandra L; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Santos, Natacha S; Tepest, Ralf; Bente, Gary; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that nonverbal dyadic social interactions are abundant in the environment, the neural mechanisms underlying their processing are not yet fully understood. Research in the field of social neuroscience has suggested that two neural networks appear to be involved in social understanding: (1) the action observation network (AON) and (2) the social neural network (SNN). The aim of this study was to determine the differential contributions of the AON and the SNN to the processing of nonverbal behavior as observed in dyadic social interactions. To this end, we used short computer animation sequences displaying dyadic social interactions between two virtual characters and systematically manipulated two key features of movement activity, which are known to influence the perception of meaning in nonverbal stimuli: (1) movement fluency and (2) contingency of movement patterns. A group of 21 male participants rated the "naturalness" of the observed scenes on a four-point scale while undergoing fMRI. Behavioral results showed that both fluency and contingency significantly influenced the "naturalness" experience of the presented animations. Neurally, the AON was preferentially engaged when processing contingent movement patterns, but did not discriminate between different degrees of movement fluency. In contrast, regions of the SNN were engaged more strongly when observing dyads with disturbed movement fluency. In conclusion, while the AON is involved in the general processing of contingent social actions, irrespective of their kinematic properties, the SNN is preferentially recruited when atypical kinematic properties prompt inferences about the agents' intentions. PMID:23813661

  6. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange.

    PubMed

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P Read; Dayan, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent's preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner's appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner's model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference. PMID:26053429

  7. Tonal synchrony in mother-infant interaction based on harmonic and pentatonic series.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Vanfleteren, Pol; Loots, Gerrit; Deschuyffeleer, Sara; Vinck, Bart; Jacquet, Wolfgang; Verhelst, Werner

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the occurrence of 'tonal synchrony' as a new dimension of early mother-infant interaction synchrony. The findings are based on a tonal and temporal analysis of vocal interactions between 15 mothers and their 3-month-old infants during 5 min of free-play in a laboratory setting. In total, 558 vocal exchanges were identified and analysed, of which 84% reflected harmonic or pentatonic series. Another 10% of the exchanges contained absolute and/or relative pitch and/or interval imitations. The total durations of dyads being in tonal synchrony were normally distributed (M=3.71, SD=2.44). Vocalisations based on harmonic series appeared organised around the major triad, containing significantly more simple frequency ratios (octave, fifth and third) than complex ones (non-major triad tones). Tonal synchrony and its characteristics are discussed in relation to infant-directed speech, communicative musicality, pre-reflective communication and its impact on the quality of early mother-infant interaction and child's development. PMID:20478620

  8. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P. Read; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent’s preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner’s appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner’s model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference. PMID:26053429

  9. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  10. The impact of prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and maternal mood on mother-infant interactions at 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Mayes, Linda C; Grunau, Ruth E; Brain, Ursula; Oberlander, Tim F

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to maternal depression increases risks for altered mother-infant interactions. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants are increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal maternal illness. The impact of SRIs on early mother-infant interactions was unknown. Three-month-old infants of 32 depressed mothers treated with SRI medications during pregnancy and 43 non-medicated mothers were studied. Using an established face-to-face mother-infant interaction paradigm, dyad interactions were studied with and without a toy. Videotaped sessions yielded 4 measures: maternal sensitivity, dyadic organization, infant readiness to interact, and maternal interruptive behaviors. Even with prenatal SRI treatment, depressed mothers interrupted their infants more during toy play. In the absence of prenatal SRI treatment, maternal postnatal depression adversely influenced infant behavior. Higher levels of maternal depression symptoms at 3 months predicted poorer infant readiness to interact during the toy session. Conversely, in the SRI-exposed group, higher prenatal depression scores predicted greater infant readiness to interact at 3 months. Increased infant readiness with SRI exposure suggests a "fetal programming effect" whereby prenatal maternal mood disturbances shaped a future response to a postnatal depressed maternal environment. PMID:23728194

  11. Nasobronchial interaction.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Çatli, Tolgahan; Dikici, O?uzhan

    2015-06-16

    Upper and lower airways can be considered as a unified morphofunctional unit. In this paper, nasobronchial interactions are evaluated based on literature.To discuss nasobronchial interactions, literature review from PubMed since 1982 is evaluated. Data base was including the terms "nasobronchial interaction, nasal and bronchial". Asthma and rhinosinusitis may be associated with environmental factors and immunological predisposition. Treatment of rhinosinusitis may decrease asthma exacerbations. It was concluded that "one airway, one disease"-concept may be accepted when considering naso-bronchial interaction. Asthma treatment should also mean treating the nose as good as treating patients with nasal symptoms. To reach the succesful results ?t should be associated with evaluation of lung functions. PMID:26090369

  12. Interactive Maps

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index Interactive Maps Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human

  13. Nasobronchial interaction

    PubMed Central

    Cingi, Cemal; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Çatli, Tolgahan; Dikici, O?uzhan

    2015-01-01

    Upper and lower airways can be considered as a unified morphofunctional unit. In this paper, nasobronchial interactions are evaluated based on literature.To discuss nasobronchial interactions, literature review from PubMed since 1982 is evaluated. Data base was including the terms “nasobronchial interaction, nasal and bronchial”. Asthma and rhinosinusitis may be associated with environmental factors and immunological predisposition. Treatment of rhinosinusitis may decrease asthma exacerbations. It was concluded that “one airway, one disease”-concept may be accepted when considering naso-bronchial interaction. Asthma treatment should also mean treating the nose as good as treating patients with nasal symptoms. To reach the succesful results ?t should be associated with evaluation of lung functions.

  14. Genetic and biochemical analysis of PadR-padC promoter interactions during the phenolic acid stress response in Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Chi; Tran, Ngoc Phuong; Cavin, Jean-François

    2011-08-01

    Bacillus subtilis 168 is resistant to phenolic acids by expression of an inducible enzyme, the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PadC), that decarboxylates these acids into less toxic vinyl derivatives. In the phenolic acid stress response (PASR), the repressor of padC, PadR, is inactivated by these acids. Inactivation of PadR is followed by a strong expression of padC. To elucidate the functional interaction between PadR and the padC promoter, we performed (i) footprinting assays to identify the region protected by PadR, (ii) electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) with a modified padC promoter protected region to determine the interacting sequences, and (iii) random mutagenesis of padR to identify amino acid residues essential for the function of PadR. We identified an important consensus dyad sequence called IR1-2 (ATGT-8N-ACAT) overlapping a second dyad element (GTGT-8N-ACAT) that we named dIR1-2bis. The entire dIR1-2bis/IR1-2 sequence permits binding of two PadR dimers in EMSAs, which may be observed for bacteria grown under noninduced conditions where the padC promoter is completely repressed. Three groups of modified PadRs giving a PASR phenotype were characterized in vivo. The DNA sequences of certain mutant padR alleles indicate that important residues are all located in the region containing the coiled-coil leucine zipper domain that is involved in dimerization. These substitutions reduce the affinity of PadR binding to the padC promoter. Of particular interest are residue L128, located at the center of the putative coiled-coil leucine zipper domain, and residue E97, which is conserved among all PadRs. PMID:21685295

  15. Strong Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.

    2009-09-29

    We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

  16. Hadronic Interactions

    E-print Network

    Takeshi Yamazaki

    2015-03-30

    Understanding hadronic interactions is crucial for investigating the properties of unstable hadrons, since measuring physical quantities for unstable hadrons including the resonance mass and decay width requires simultaneous calculations of final scattering states. Recent studies of hadronic scatterings and decays are reviewed from this point of view. The nuceon-nucleon and multi-nucleon interactions are very important to understand the formation of nucleus from the first principle of QCD. These interactions have been studied mainly by two methods, due originally to L\\"uscher and to HALQCD. The results obtained from the two methods are compared in three channels, $I=2$ two-pion, H-dibaryon, and two-nucleon channels. So far the results from the two methods for the two-nucleon channels are different even at the level of the presence or absence of bound states. We then discuss possible uncertainties in each method. Recent results on the binding energy for helium nuclei are also reviewed.

  17. DNA Interactive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-05

    DNA Interactive is an educational site celebrating the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick. The web site features interactive modules about the history of DNA science; discovering and reading the DNA code; manipulating the code to create tailored molecules; studying the human genome; applications of DNA research; and a chronicle of the eugenics movement. These modules feature rare video interviews with scientists, 3D animations, and narrative text to present and explain DNA science. Other materials include a teacher's guide with downloadable, printable lessons, an online teaching community, and information on further resources.

  18. Too Many Motives? The Interactive Effects of Multiple Motives on Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Riki; Bolino, Mark C; Lin, Cheng-Chen

    2014-09-01

    Prior research indicates that employees engage in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) because of prosocial values, organizational concern, and impression management motives. Building upon and extending prior research, we investigate all 3 OCB motives by developing a categorization scheme to differentiate their distinctiveness and by building a contextualized argument regarding their interactive effects on OCB in a more collectivistic culture. In a sample of 379 Chinese employee-supervisor dyads from Taiwan, we found that the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was strengthened by organizational concern motives; likewise, the relationship between organizational concern and OCBs directed at the organization was strengthened by prosocial values motives. However, in contrast to prior research (Grant & Mayer, 2009), the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was weakened by impression management motives. A 3-way interaction between all 3 motives further suggests that, in Asian cultures, impression management motives may undermine the positive effects of prosocial values and organizational concern motives on OCBs directed at individuals but not OCBs directed at the organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25198096

  19. Source and destination memory in face-to-face interaction: A multinomial modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nele M; Schult, Janette C; Steffens, Melanie C

    2015-06-01

    Arguing that people are often in doubt concerning to whom they have presented what information, Gopie and MacLeod (2009) introduced a new memory component, destination memory: remembering the destination of output information (i.e., "Who did you tell this to?"). They investigated source (i.e., "Who told you that?") versus destination memory in computer-based imagined interactions. The present study investigated destination memory in real interaction situations. In 2 experiments with mixed-gender (N = 53) versus same-gender (N = 89) groups, source and destination memory were manipulated by creating a setup similar to speed dating. In dyads, participants completed phrase fragments with personal information, taking turns. At recognition, participants decided whether fragments were new or old and, if old, whether they were listened to or spoken and which depicted person was the source or the destination of the information. A multinomial model was used for analyses. Source memory significantly exceeded destination memory, whereas information itself was better remembered in the destination than in the source condition. These findings corroborate the trade-off hypothesis: Context is better remembered in input than in output events, but information itself is better remembered in output than in input events. We discuss the implications of these findings for real-world conversation situations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25893444

  20. Maternal cocaine use and mother-infant interactions: Direct and moderated associations

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Coles, Claire D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between prenatal cocaine exposure and quality of mother-infant play interactions at 13 months of infant ages. We investigated whether maternal psychological distress and infant reactivity mediated or moderated this association. Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocaine exposed) mother-infant dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher negative affect and lower sensitivity toward their infant during play interactions at 13 months, and that their infants were less responsive toward them. Contrary to hypothesis, this association was not mediated by maternal psychological distress or by infant reactivity. However, results for both the cocaine and non-cocaine exposed infants were supportive of a transactional model where lower maternal sensitivity at 1 month was predictive of higher infant reactivity at 7 months, which in turn was predictive of lower maternal warmth/sensitivity at 13 months, controlling for potential stability in maternal behavior. Results also indicated that as hypothesized, infant reactivity moderated the association between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and maternal warmth/sensitivity at 13 months of age. Cocaine using mothers who experienced their infants as being more reactive in early infancy were less warm/sensitive toward them in later infancy. Results have implications for parenting interventions that may be targeted toward improving maternal sensitivity among cocaine using mothers with more reactive infants. PMID:21256426

  1. Interactive Andragogy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Gitterman

    2004-01-01

    The subject of the paper is andragogy. In social work education (as in all education), complex issues emerge regarding the nature of learning and teaching. One pervasive and persisting issue is the relation between subject matter, i.e., what is to be taught, and teaching methodology, i.e., how it is to be taught. The paper discusses and illustrates interactive teaching principles,

  2. INTERACTIVE IMMUNITY

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    European Federation of Immunological Societies, EFIS

    2012-07-19

    The resource is an interactive on-line book based upon the book “Your Amazing Immune System” which brings students to an exploration on how our immune system protects our body from infectious diseases. In addition, it gives students background on autoimmune diseases, immune reactions, and how immunology can be used in fighting cancer.

  3. Environmental Interactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, students create a "web" to identify and demonstrate the interactions among the living and non-living parts of an environment. This information allows students to better understand what an environment is and to also consider how engineers use teamwork to solve problems.

  4. Pressure Interactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    This page allows you to change the state variables in the two ensembles and observe the interactions between the state variables. The piston mass is 50x the particles mass. This large piston mass produces a slow mechanical oscillation about the equal-pressure equilibrium point whenever a disequilibrium is created.

  5. Networked Interactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafaeli, Sheizaf; Sudweeks, Fay

    1997-01-01

    Proposes that a useful perspective for studying group computer-mediated communication is the theoretical construct of interactivity. Examines a representative snapshot of communication among the very large groups populating the networks. Finds that conversations are less confrontational than popularly believed: conversations are more helpful and…

  6. Interactive Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jean K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents guiding principles for developing interactive lessons for the World Wide Web. Describes "Amazing Space: Education Online from the Hubble Space Telescope", a program where students study spectacular Hubble Space Telescope images of stars and star-forming regions to learn about the life cycle of stars and the creation of atoms. (JRH)

  7. Dinosaur Interaction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rick Crosslin

    2004-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore why animals, specifically dinosaurs, live in families. Learners examine Dinosphere scenes (drawing of dinosaurs in groups) and sort the scenes by reasons the animals are living in groups. Then, learners glue together geometric shapes to create dinosaurs interacting in groups and families. This activity is featured on page 26 of the "Dinosphere" unit of study for K-2 learners.

  8. Interacting Compasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, Hector G.; Betancourt, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The use of multiple compasses to map and visualize magnetic fields is well-known. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the compasses aligning them along the lines of force. Some science museums show the field of a magnet using a table with many compasses in a closely packed arrangement. However, the very interesting interactions that occur…

  9. Observing social signals in scaffolding interactions: how to detect when a helping intention risks falling short.

    PubMed

    Leone, Giovanna

    2012-10-01

    In face-to-face interactions, some social signals are aimed at regulating scaffolding processes, by which more knowledgeable people try to help less knowledgeable ones, to enable them to learn new concepts or skills (Vygotsky 1978). Observing face-to-face scaffolding interactions might not only allow us to grasp a large variety of these highly interesting social signals but may also be useful for the sake of scaffolding processes themselves. It often happens, in fact, that the empowering intentions implicit in these processes end up falling short, if the social signals regulating this specific kind of face-to-face interaction are misunderstood. Interestingly, many of these misunderstood aspects are related to the recipient's role. Indeed, attention is usually focused on the behavior of those imparting the knowledge, while skills already mastered by the learners, as well as their feedback, tend not to be taken as much into account. For the purpose of exploring the often very subtly nuanced social signals regulating on-going scaffolding processes in real-life interactions, an example of a methodological tool is presented: one already used to observe the interactions of dyads of Italian primary school teachers and their pupils, and mothers and their children. The article leads to two main conclusions: that the results of instances of scaffolding may be predicted as to their success or otherwise simply by telescoping crucial social signals during the scaffolding's initial phases, and that when helpers disregard these signals the effects of their actions may be detrimental or even humiliating for the receivers, notwithstanding the helper's intentions. PMID:22009169

  10. An Observational Study of Mother\\/Child and Father\\/Child Interactions in Story Reading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith I. Schwartz

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of how mothers and fathers differ in reading aloud with children between 13 and 46 months of age. Twenty-seven mother\\/child dyads and 36 father\\/child dyads were observed on three consecutive weeks by trained observers who used a modified version of descriptors of read-aloud behaviors developed by Whitehurst, Arnold, Epstein, Angell, Smith, and Fischel in

  11. Interactives: Garbage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    With a heading that includes the phrase "How can my community reduce waste?", this educational site provided by the Annenberg Media group is one that's hard to ignore. This resource is one of their "Interactives", and educators can use these various tools to help students learn "how to improve next year's environmental record." Educators and students can choose between one of five topical areas, all of which include various interactive components and activities. These sections cover solid waste, hazardous waste, sewage, global efforts to reduce solid waste, and links to related resources. Along the way, users will get the opportunity to test their knowledge about hazardous waste in their home, and they can even step up to try their hand at shrinking a landfill.

  12. Argentophilic interactions.

    PubMed

    Schmidbaur, Hubert; Schier, Annette

    2015-01-12

    The decade 1990-2000 saw a growing interest in aurophilic interactions in gold chemistry. These interactions were found to influence significantly a variety of structural and other physical characteristics of gold(I) compounds. The attention paid to this unusual and counterintuitive type of intra- and intermolecular bonding between seemingly closed-shell metal centers has rapidly been extended to also include silver chemistry. Hundreds of experimental and computational studies have since been dedicated to the argentophilicity phenomenon. The results of this development are reviewed herein focusing on molecular systems where two or more silver(I) centers are in close contact leading to specific structural characteristics and a variety of novel physical properties. These include strongly modified ligand-to-metal charge-transfer processes observed in absorption and emission spectroscopy, but also colossal positive and negative thermal expansion on the one hand and unprecedented negative linear compressibility of crystal parameters on the other. PMID:25393553

  13. Organism Interactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Marsh

    2008-09-16

    Complete both parts in the assignment below. At the conclusion of this assignment, you will go to our class testing site on nutips and take a short quiz called \\"Organism Interactions.\\" Objectives: In this activity: 1. Students will define symbiosis and distinguish the type of symbiotic relationship that is occurring; mutualism, commensalism, or parasitism. 2. Students will distinguish competition from symbiosis. Part I. Link to the following website and read the information provided on Symbiosis. As you are reading you ...

  14. Dyadic Coregulation and Deviant Talk in Adolescent Friendships: Interaction Patterns Associated With Problematic Substance Use in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Piehler, Timothy F.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention synchrony). Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, deviant content in adolescent interactions at age 16–17 years was strongly predictive of problematic use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana at ages 22 and 23. Although dyadic coregulation was not directly predictive of early adulthood substance use, it did moderate the impact of deviant talk within the dyad on future alcohol and marijuana use. For these substances, high levels of dyadic coregulation increased the risk associated with high levels of deviant talk for problematic use in early adulthood. Results held when comparing across genders and across ethnic groups. The results suggest that these interpersonal dynamics are associated with developmental trajectories of risk for or resilience to peer influence processes. PMID:24188039

  15. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to understandings of normative language development for non-Western, non middle-class children in multilingual contexts. PMID:25972828

  16. Interactive Physlets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-02-10

    What, you may ask, is a physlet? It is a portmanteau combining the words "physics" and "applet" which can be used "to demonstrate a concept in physics through animation or interaction." Physlets are handy tools, especially for visual learners. These physlets were created by scholars at the Grenfell Campus of Memorial University in Corner Brook, Newfoundland. Designed to be used in several different introductory physics courses, the physlets cover a range of topics, including friction, conservation of energy, projectile motion, magnetism, and simple harmonic motion. Visitors will find that they can play each physlet, pause it along the way, or skip ahead to the next one as they see fit.

  17. Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

  18. Asymmetric Partner Pronoun Use and Demand-Withdraw Interaction in Couples Coping with Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Rentscher, Kelly E.; Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda; Mehl, Matthias R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research links first-person plural pronoun use (we-talk) by individual romantic partners to adaptive relationship functioning and individual health outcomes. To examine a possible boundary condition of adaptive we-talk in couples coping with health problems, we correlated asymmetric couple-level we/I-ratios (more we-talk relative to I-talk by the spouse than the patient) with a concurrent pattern of directional demand-withdraw (D-W) interaction in which the spouse demands change while the patient withdraws. Couples in which a partner who abused alcohol (n = 65), smoked cigarettes despite having heart or lung disease (n = 24), or had congestive heart failure (n = 58) discussed a health-related disagreement during a video-recorded interaction task. Transcripts of these conversations provided measures of pronoun use for each partner, and trained observers coded D-W patterns from the recordings. As expected, partner asymmetry in we/I-ratio scores predicted directional demand-withdraw, such that spouses who used more we-talk (relative to I-talk) than patients tended to assume the demand role in concurrent D-W interaction. Asymmetric I-talk rather than we-talk accounted for this association, and asymmetric you-talk contributed independently as well. In contrast to previous studies of we-talk by individual partners, the present results identify dyad-level pronoun patterns that clearly do not mark beneficent processes: asymmetric partner we/I-ratios and you-talk reflect problematic demand-withdraw interaction. PMID:24098961

  19. Cosmic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    An image based on data taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope reveals a triplet of galaxies intertwined in a cosmic dance. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The three galaxies, catalogued as NGC 7173 (top), 7174 (bottom right) and 7176 (bottom left), are located 106 million light-years away towards the constellation of Piscis Austrinus (the 'Southern Fish'). NGC 7173 and 7176 are elliptical galaxies, while NGC 7174 is a spiral galaxy with quite disturbed dust lanes and a long, twisted tail. This seems to indicate that the two bottom galaxies - whose combined shape bears some resemblance to that of a sleeping baby - are currently interacting, with NGC 7176 providing fresh material to NGC 7174. Matter present in great quantity around the triplet's members also points to the fact that NGC 7176 and NGC 7173 have interacted in the past. Astronomers have suggested that the three galaxies will finally merge into a giant 'island universe', tens to hundreds of times as massive as our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02b/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The triplet is part of a so-called 'Compact Group', as compiled by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the early 1980s. The group, which is the 90th entry in the catalogue and is therefore known as HCG 90, actually contains four major members. One of them - NGC 7192 - lies above the trio, outside of this image, and is another peculiar spiral galaxy. Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of typically four to ten galaxies in close proximity to one another. Another striking example is Robert's Quartet. Compact groups are excellent laboratories for the study of galaxy interactions and their effects, in particular the formation of stars. As the striking image reveals, there are many other galaxies in the field. Some are distant ones, while others seem to be part of the family. Studies made with other telescopes have indeed revealed that the HCG 90 group contains 16 members, most of them much smaller in size than the four members with an entry in the NGC catalogue.

  20. Interactive Lectures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-26

    The Science & Education Research Center (SERC) at Carleton College provides access to high-quality teaching materials for those in the earth sciences. This particular resource offers materials designed to help teachers involve students in large and small lecture-based classes. The materials here were originally created for the Starting Point: Introductory Geology site for geology teachers and the contributing partners came from the College of William and Mary, the University of Kentucky, and several others. The site delves into its teaching philosophy in the section titled How to Give Interactive Lectures. The Examples area provides over 30 specific examples of activities (such as geologic puzzles) that can be used to create a highly engaging classroom experience.

  1. Altair interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Jennifer; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; Smith, Malcolm

    2004-09-01

    Altair, ALTitude-conjugated Adaptive optics for InfraRed at Gemini North, was commissioned last October and is one of Canada"s major contributions to the Gemini Project, a seven-nation consortium that built identical 8m telescopes in Hawaii (Gemini North) and Chile (Gemini South). Altair coordinates and transfers data and status to both local and external subsystems at very high speeds. External Gemini subsystems include the Telescope Control System (TCS), Acquisition and Guiding (A&G), Observatory Control System (OCS), Gemini Interlock System (GIS), Time Server, Data Handling System (DHS), and Status and Alarm Database. This paper focuses on a few select sequences such as closing the control loop and delivering a corrected image, collecting statistics, and display data to highlight the complexity of the interactions within Altair.

  2. "Badminton Player-Coach" Interactions between Failing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascret, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical education teachers often use the player-coach dyad in individual opposition sports so that students can obtain information on their actions and then better regulate them. This type of work also develops methodological and social skills. However, the task of observing a partner often poses problems for failing students, who…

  3. Dyadic Interaction Profiles in Infancy and Preschool Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxon, Terrill F.; Colombo, John; Robinson, Eric L.; Frick, Janet E.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the results of a two-year longitudinal study of mother-infant dyads (N=23) observed during a free-play session when infants were six and eight months of age. Children were assessed for language and intellectual outcomes during the second and third years of life. This information may help school professionals design effective strategies…

  4. Interactive instruction on population interactions.

    PubMed

    Hogeweg, P; Hesper, B

    1978-01-01

    A tool for teaching and investigating population simulation models, entitled TRICLE (Program for tridimensional representation of trajectories and isoclines) is presented. It can handle deterministic models in terms of differential and difference equations and stochastic models in terms of difference equations. TRICLE works with up to 10 coupled equations, illustrates the structure of the interactions, and incorporates default parameter values and a representation to show dissimilarity of the parameters. Population models are used to demonstrate use of the system; they are not the only use of the TRICLE system. This system provides a graphic presentation of models as static and dynamic states. It relies on the complex pattern recognition of human beings to sense errors in the model of the data. PMID:729362

  5. Interactive Foundations of Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Wegner

    1998-01-01

    The claim that interactive systems have richer behavior than algorithms is surprisingly easy to prove. Turing machines cannot model interaction machines (which extend Turing machines with interactive input\\/output) because interaction is not expressible by a finite initial input string. Interaction machines extend the Chomsky hierarchy, are modeled by interaction grammars, and precisely capture fuzzy concepts like open systems and empirical

  6. Guggenheim: Interact

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Interacting with the Guggenheim museums' collections is a great experience, and if you can't make it to one of their physical locations, this is the next best thing. The site is replete with creative assemblages of video ("YouTube Play"), blogs ("The Take"), and electronic newsletter options. Visitors shouldn't miss the "Voices from the Archives" area. Here they can listen to recent podcasts and as well as events from the past, including a conversation with Kandinsky scholar Rose-Carol Washton Long from 1964. Perhaps the most interesting part of the site is the "Declarations" section. Here, the Guggenheim has invited a "wide range of artists, scholars, activists, businesspeople, and government leaders to contribute concise remarks on related topical themes." One of the recent queries was "How is the idea of progress part of your practice?", and the responses are quite revealing. Finally, visitors can also make their way through their scrolling Twitter feed, and they are also encouraged to use the social media connections on the site to stay up-to-date.

  7. The relationship development assessment - research version: preliminary validation of a clinical tool and coding schemes to measure parent-child interaction in autism.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Fionnuala; Guerin, Suzanne; Hobson, Jessica A; Gutstein, Steven E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this project was to replicate and extend findings from two recent studies on parent-child relatedness in autism (Beurkens, Hobson, & Hobson, 2013; Hobson, Tarver, Beurkens, & Hobson, 2013, under review) by adapting an observational assessment and coding schemes of parent-child relatedness for the clinical context and examining their validity and reliability. The coding schemes focussed on three aspects of relatedness: joint attentional focus (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), the capacity to co-regulate an interaction and the capacity to share emotional experiences. The participants were 40 children (20 with autism, 20 without autism) aged 6-14, and their parents. Parent-child dyads took part in the observational assessment and were coded on these schemes. Comparisons were made with standardised measures of autism severity (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2001; Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS: Constantino & Gruber, 2005), relationship quality (Parent Child Relationship Inventory, PCRI: Gerard, 1994) and quality of parent-child interaction (Dyadic Coding Scales, DCS: Humber & Moss, 2005). Inter-rater reliability was very good and, as predicted, codes both diverged from the measure of parent-child relationship and converged with a separate measure of parent-child interaction quality. A detailed profile review revealed nuanced areas of group and individual differences which may be specific to verbally-able school-age children. The results support the utility of the Relationship Development Assessment - Research Version for clinical practice. PMID:24366957

  8. Interactive portraiture : designing intimate interactive experiences

    E-print Network

    Zuckerman, Orit

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I present a set of interactive portrait experiences that strive to create an intimate connection between the viewer and the portrayed subject; an emotional experience, one of personal reflection. My interactive ...

  9. Interactions Between Computational Verbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Yang

    2008-01-01

    Different types of interactions between computa- tional verbs are studied in a general context. The interactions can be categorized by their strengthes and directions as well as the configurations of interactions. Two interaction types; namely, coupling and parameter modulation are studied. The identical synchronization and generalized synchronization between com- putational verbs and their linguistic implications are investigated. The merge and

  10. Impact of relational differences on supervisor\\/subordinate dyad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth W. Green Jr.; Dwayne Whitten; Bobby Medlin

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Prior research indicates that workplace diversity negatively impacts the job satisfaction and organizational commitment levels of minority workers. This study investigates the impact of age and gender diversity between human resources (HR) professionals and their supervisors on the satisfaction and commitment levels of the professionals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data from 279 HR professionals employed by large US manufacturers were

  11. Prevalence of Counselor Self-Reference in the Therapeutic Dyad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine G.; McCarthy, Patricia R.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 91 counselors to assess frequency of use of self-referent statements (positive and negative self-disclosure and self-involving responses) in individual counseling. Counselors reported using significantly greater frequency of positive versus negative self-reference. Found no significant differences resulting from counselor gender or level…

  12. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  13. Evidence for Catalytic CysteineHistidine Dyad in Chalcone Synthase

    E-print Network

    Suh, Dae-Yeon

    H-independent in the range of pH 5.8 to 7.8; however, its inhibitory effect on CHS-C164S increased as pH increased from 6- boxylase activity of wild-type enzymes and STS-C60S, whereas this priming effect was not observed with C164- ture is similar to those of other condensing enzymes including E. coli KS II (Fab F), E. coli KS III

  14. Differences in retail store images within husband-wife dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Albaum; Del I. Hawkins; John P. Dickson

    1979-01-01

    Aggregate measures of purchasing influence generally produce similar results whether husbands or wives serve as the respondents.\\u000a However, this study indicates that wives should not be used as surrogates for husbands in studies measuring retail store images.\\u000a The findings of this study indicate that developing marketing strategies based on the images held by wives may not be successful\\u000a in dealing

  15. Exploring Cross-Race Dyad Partnerships in Learning To Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, R. Patrick

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of pairing minority and nonminority student teachers in field-based practicums. Overall, the partnerships broke down racial barriers, tackled sensitive racial/cultural issues, promoted awareness in cross-race domains, and laid foundations for long-term social and professional relationships. Findings uncovered an institutional…

  16. Effective Leadership in Superior-Subordinate Dyads: Theory and Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes and experimentally demonstrates the main tenets of an operant theory of leadership. Leadership is characterized in the current paper as involving problem solving operant behavior (Cerutti, 1989; Skinner, 1969) in a social context (Skinner, 1953). The theory was assessed under two experimental analogs modeled from generic…

  17. Determinants of Continuity in Conventional Industrial Channel Dyads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin Anderson; Barton Weitz

    1989-01-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the question of how to build stable, long-term relationships between manufacturers and members of conventional channels. This descriptive field study concerns a basic requirement for building long-term relationships, which is the expectation by a marketing intermediary that the relationship will last. Hypotheses about the continuity of relationships are developed from the literature on

  18. Communication in the salesperson\\/customer dyad: an empirical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Gillis; Leyland Pitt; Matthew J. Robson; Pierre Berthon

    1998-01-01

    The “Sales Orientation-Customer Orientation (SOCO)” scale, is a popular and insightful measure used for determining the degree to which salespeople have a long-term-oriented, customer-focused selling approach. Endeavours to investigate applicability of the SOCO scale in the context of the pharmaceutical industry’s salesperson-general practitioner relationship. Found that the SOCO scale possesses reliability. Furthermore, discovers a significant rift between a salesperson’s perception

  19. REDUCING PSYCHOTHERAPY DROPOUTS: MAXIMIZING PERSPECTIVE CONVERGENCE IN THE PSYCHOTHERAPY DYAD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brendali F. Reis; Lillian G. Brown

    1999-01-01

    Premature termination of psychotherapy is a pervasive problem—30 to 60% of psychotherapy clients drop out of treatment before its completion. This review summarizes 3 decades of research on the topic. Client, therapist, and administrative variables have been extensively investigated. Because of a variety of methodological problems, this literature is highly contradictory, and results are difficult to reconcile, with only socioeconomic

  20. Interactive Software Technology 1/24 Interactive Software Technology

    E-print Network

    Wegner, Peter

    Interactive Software Technology 1/24 Interactive Software Technology Peter Wegner, Brown University Paradigms 2. Models of Interaction 3. Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, and Open Systems 4. Object­oriented Design: Sequential Interaction 5. Multiple Interface Models: Concurrent Interaction 6

  1. Sepup Seasons Interactive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Regents of the University of California

    An interactive that illustrates the relationships between the axial tilt of the Earth, latitude, and temperature. Several data sets (including temperature, Sun-Earth distance, daylight hours) can be collected using this interactive.

  2. Cardiovascular Interactions CVI Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Carl F. Rothe (Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology)

    2005-06-22

    The Cardiovascular Interactions Project is an electronic active learning tool that demonstrates the complex and intricate interactions between the functions of the heart and peripheral circulation to provide an adequate cardiac output during various stresses.

  3. Computerized Interactive Harness Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized interactive harness engineering program inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically data-base system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records.

  4. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  5. The Cation-? Interaction

    PubMed Central

    DOUGHERTY, DENNIS A.

    2014-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The chemistry community now recognizes the cation-? interaction as a major force for molecular recognition, joining the hydrophobic effect, the hydrogen bond, and the ion pair in determining macromolecular structure and drug-receptor interactions. This Account provides the author’s perspective on the intellectual origins and fundamental nature of the cation-? interaction. Early studies on cyclophanes established that water-soluble, cationic molecules would forgo aqueous solvation to enter a hydrophobic cavity if that cavity was lined with ? systems. Important gas phase studies established the fundamental nature of the cation-? interaction. The strength of the cation-? interaction – Li+ binds to benzene with 38 kcal/mol of binding energy; NH4+ with 19 kcal/mol– distinguishes it from the weaker polar-? interactions observed in the benzene dimer or water-benzene complexes. In addition to the substantial intrinsic strength of the cation-? interaction in gas phase studies, the cation-? interaction remains energetically significant in aqueous media and under biological conditions. Many studies have shown that cation-? interactions can enhance binding energies by 2 – 5 kcal/mol, making them competitive with hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in drug-receptor and protein-protein interactions. As with other noncovalent interactions involving aromatic systems, the cation-? interaction includes a substantial electrostatic component. The six (four) C??–H?+ bond dipoles of a molecule like benzene (ethylene) combine to produce a region of negative electrostatic potential on the face of the ? system. Simple electrostatics facilitate a natural attraction of cations to the surface. The trend for (gas phase) binding energies is Li+>Na+>K+>Rb+: as the ion gets larger the charge is dispersed over a larger sphere and binding interactions weaken, a classical electrostatic effect. On other hand, polarizability does not define these interactions. Cyclohexane is more polarizable than benzene, but a decidedly poorer cation binder. Many studies have documented cation-? interactions in protein structures, where Lys or Arg side chains interact with Phe, Tyr, or Trp. In addition, countless studies have established the importance of cation-? interaction in a range of biological processes. Our work has focused on molecular neurobiology, and we have shown that neurotransmitters generally use a cation-? interaction to bind to their receptors. We have also shown that many drug-receptor interactions involve cation-? interactions. A cation-? interaction plays a critical role in the binding of nicotine to ACh receptors in the brain, an especially significant case. Other researchers have established important cation-? interactions in the recognition of the “histone code,” in terpene biosynthesis, in chemical catalysis, and in many other systems. PMID:23214924

  6. Characterizing interactive externalizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Tweedie

    1997-01-01

    This paper seeks to characterize the space of techniques that exist for interactive externalisations (visualizations). A selection of visualizations are classified with respect to: the types of data represented, the nature of the visible feedback displayed and the forms of interactivity used. Such characterization provides a method for evaluating potential designs and comparing different tools. KEVWORDS Visualization, Interactive Graphics, Taxonomy

  7. Solar array: Plasma interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Purvis

    1984-01-01

    Interactions between space systems and their orbital particle and field environments have significant impact on the system's operation and life. Interactions such as radiation damage and aerodynamic drag are considered in designing space systems. There are, however, a number of orbital environmental interactions which become important design considerations only for large or high power systems. Their impact is assessed to

  8. GIDEP Representative interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jojola

    1984-01-01

    GIDEP Representatives interact within their own company to provide data and information to employees and GIDEP activity reports to management. Through this interaction, the objectives of GIDEP are served and the benefits of GIDEP membership are realized. Interaction with GIDEP Representatives of other companies and government agencies can further expand the usefulness of GIDEP and reduce operating costs. One way

  9. Global Interaction in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Audrey Grace

    2010-01-01

    Based on a virtual conference, Glide'08 (Global Interaction in Design Education), that brought international design scholars together online, this special issue expands on the topics of cross-cultural communication and design and the technological affordances that support such interaction. The author discusses the need for global interaction in…

  10. Interactive graph layout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyson R. Henry; Scott E. Hudson

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology for viewing large graphs. The basic concept is to allow the user to interactively navigate through large graphs learning about them in appropriately small and concise pieces. An architecture is present to support graph exploration. It contains methods for building custom layout algorithms hierarchically, interactively decomposing large graphs, and creating interactive parameterized layout algorithms.

  11. Hydrodynamic particle interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Brent Daniel; Michael K. Rivera; Robert E. Ecke

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of particles at moderate Reynolds numbers has many important commercial and industrial applications ranging from fluidized beds, to bioreactors, to the dispersion of pollutants. Underlying the gross characteristics of such systems is a set of complex hydrodynamic interactions that is poorly understood. These interactions may be either attractive or repulsive depending on the angular and radial configuration of

  12. Diffractive Interaction of Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Iván; Siddikov, M.

    2013-06-01

    Interactions of high-energy neutrinos expose hadronic properties, in particular, contain a strong diffractive channel. The Adler relation (AR) between soft interactions of neutrinos and pions, might look as a manifestation of pion dominance. However, neutrinos cannot fluctuate to pions because of conservation of the lepton current, and interact via much heavier hadronic components. This fact leads to nontrivial relations between interactions of different hadronic species, in particular, it links diagonal and off-diagonal diffractive interactions of pions. Absorptive corrections break these relations making the AR impossible to hold universally, for any target and at any energy.

  13. Dipole Interactions In Nanosystems

    E-print Network

    Philip B. Allen

    2003-09-16

    The dipole-dipole interaction influences nanoscopic matter by fixing the patterns of permanent, displacive, and induced dipole moments, subject to constraints of molecular size and other short range interactions. Prediction of these arrangements is a challenging problem. The eigenvector of maximum eigenvalue of the dipole-dipole interaction matrix can provide insights and sometimes a complete solution. As an example, the octahedral tilt instabilities of perovskite-type crystals is shown to optimize dipolar interactions. Therefore this instability can be designated as antiferroelectric, because dipole-dipole interactions are a dominant driving force.

  14. The interactive brain hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Di Paolo, Ezequiel; De Jaegher, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Enactive approaches foreground the role of interpersonal interaction in explanations of social understanding. This motivates, in combination with a recent interest in neuroscientific studies involving actual interactions, the question of how interactive processes relate to neural mechanisms involved in social understanding. We introduce the Interactive Brain Hypothesis (IBH) in order to help map the spectrum of possible relations between social interaction and neural processes. The hypothesis states that interactive experience and skills play enabling roles in both the development and current function of social brain mechanisms, even in cases where social understanding happens in the absence of immediate interaction. We examine the plausibility of this hypothesis against developmental and neurobiological evidence and contrast it with the widespread assumption that mindreading is crucial to all social cognition. We describe the elements of social interaction that bear most directly on this hypothesis and discuss the empirical possibilities open to social neuroscience. We propose that the link between coordination dynamics and social understanding can be best grasped by studying transitions between states of coordination. These transitions form part of the self-organization of interaction processes that characterize the dynamics of social engagement. The patterns and synergies of this self-organization help explain how individuals understand each other. Various possibilities for role-taking emerge during interaction, determining a spectrum of participation. This view contrasts sharply with the observational stance that has guided research in social neuroscience until recently. We also introduce the concept of readiness to interact to describe the practices and dispositions that are summoned in situations of social significance (even if not interactive). This latter idea links interactive factors to more classical observational scenarios. PMID:22701412

  15. [Drug-drug interactions: interactions between xenobiotics].

    PubMed

    Haen, E

    2014-04-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a major topic in programs for continuous medical education (CME). Many physicians are afraid of being trapped into charges of malpractice; however, DDI cannot be avoided in many cases. They belong to routine medical practice and it is often impossible to avoid them. Moreover, they do not just occur between drugs but between any kind of foreign substance (xenobiotica), such as food (e.g. grapefruit juice, broccoli, barbecue) as well as legal (e.g. tobacco smoke, caffeine and alcohol) and illegal drugs. Therefore, the medical challenge is not just to avoid any interaction. Instead the physician faces the question of how to proceed with drug treatment in the presence of such interactions. Based on the medical education a physician has to judge first of all whether there is a risk for interactions in the prescription being planned for an individual patient. The classification of interactions proposed in this article (PD1-PD4, PK1-PK3) might help as a sort of check list. For more detailed information the physician can then consult one of the many databases available on the internet, such as PSIAConline (http://www.psiac.de) and MediQ (http://www.mediq.ch). Pharmacokinetic interactions can be easily assessed, monitored and controlled by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Besides these tools it is important to keep in mind that nobody knows everything; even physicians do not know everything. So take pride in asking someone who might help and for this purpose AGATE offers a drug information service AID (http://www.amuep-agate.de). Just good for nothing, without being based on any kind of medical approach are computer programs that judge prescriptions without taking into account a patient's individual peculiarities. In case these types of programs produce red exclamation marks or traffic lights to underline their judgment, they might even work in a contrapuntal way by just eliciting insecurity and fear. PMID:24619146

  16. Cation-alkane interaction.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, J Richard; Sastry, G Narahari

    2014-12-01

    Ab initio computations, up to CCSD(T)/CBS on model systems, and MP2/cc-pVTZ and DFT calculations are performed on cation-alkane and cation-alkene complexes, cation = Li(+), Na(+), Be(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(+) and Zn(2+); alkane = C(n)H2(n+2) (n = 1-10) and C6H12; and alkene = C2H4 and C6H6. Density functional theory-symmetry adapted perturbation theory (DFT-SAPT) calculations reveal that the cation-alkane interactions are predominantly constituted of induction component. The dramatic modulation of the strength of their interaction and the topological features obtained from atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis are consistent with the characteristics of a typical noncovalent interaction. In contrast to many of the conventional noncovalent interactions, cation-alkane interactions are substantially strong and are comparable in strength to the well studied cation-? interactions. PMID:25384257

  17. Cognitive Attributions and Emotional Expectancies Predict Emotions in Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Frabutt, James M.; Campbell Chambers, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent's hostile attributions of mother's intent and emotional self-expectancies as contributors to expression of emotion between mothers and adolescents. Data were collected from 268 10- to 12-year-olds (133 girls, 135 boys) and their mothers. Each dyad was observed in a conversational activity that…

  18. White Racial Identity Dyadic Interactions in Supervision: Implications for Supervisees' Multicultural Counseling Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Warren, Anika K.; Miville, Marie L.

    2005-01-01

    Examining supervisory dyads consisting of a White supervisor and a White supervisee, the authors sought to determine the effects of similarities and differences in levels of supervisor and supervisee racial identity schemas or attitudes on White supervisees' self-reported multicultural counseling competence and multicultural case conceptualization…

  19. Socio-Emotional Climate of Storybook Reading Interactions for Mothers and Preschoolers with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skibbe, Lori E.; Moody, Amelia J.; Justice, Laura M.; McGinty, Anita S.

    2010-01-01

    The current study describes the storybook reading behaviors of 45 preschoolers [30 with language impairment (LI) and 15 with typical language (TL)] and their mothers. Each dyad was observed reading a storybook within their homes, and sessions were subsequently coded for indicators of emotional and instructional quality as well as for child…

  20. Automated Measurement of Facial Expression in Infant-Mother Interaction: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Daniel S.; Mahoor, Mohammad H.; Chow, Sy-Miin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Automated facial measurement using computer vision has the potential to objectively document continuous changes in behavior. To examine emotional expression and communication, we used automated measurements to quantify smile strength, eye constriction, and mouth opening in two 6-month-old infant-mother dyads who each engaged in a face-to-face…

  1. Dual Development of Conversational and Narrative Discourse: Mother and Child Interactions during Narrative Co-Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kimberly Reynolds; Bailey, Alison L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated longitudinally the co-constructed narratives of 31 mother-child dyads collected when the children were 3-, 4-, and 5-years old, examining the dual development of child conversational and narrative discourse skills and the impact of maternal verbal assistance. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed that children's developmental…

  2. Analyzing the Dynamics of Affective Dyadic Interactions Using Patterns of Intra- and Interindividual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Emilio; Steele, Joel S.; Hsieh, Fushing

    2012-01-01

    There are many compelling accounts of the ways in which the emotions of 1 member of a romantic relationship should influence and be influenced by the partner. However, there are relatively few methodological tools available for representing the alleged complexity of dyad level emotional experiences. In this article, we present an algorithm for…

  3. Nonverbal Feedback in Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristiina Jokinen

    Understanding how nonverbal aspects of communication support, complement, and in some cases, override verbal communication\\u000a is necessary for human interactions. It is also crucial for designing and implementing interactive systems that aim at supporting\\u000a flexible interaction management using natural language with users. In particular, the need for more comprehensive communication\\u000a has become obvious in theubiquitous computing context where context-aware applications

  4. Multimodal transformed social interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Turk; Jeremy N. Bailenson; Andrew C. Beall; Jim Blascovich; Rosanna E. Guadagno

    2004-01-01

    Understanding human-human interaction is fundamental to the long-term pursuit of powerful and natural multimodal interfaces. Nonverbal communication, including body posture, gesture, facial expression, and eye gaze, is an important aspect of human-human interaction. We introduce a paradigm for studying multimodal and nonverbal communication in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) called Transformed Social Interaction (TSI), in which a user's visual representation is

  5. Food-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bushra, Rabia; Aslam, Nousheen; Khan, Arshad Yar

    2011-01-01

    The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least food-drug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient. PMID:22043389

  6. Beam-Bem interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Jin; /Fermilab

    2011-12-01

    In high energy storage-ring colliders, the nonlinear effect arising from beam-beam interactions is a major source that leads to the emittance growth, the reduction of beam life time, and limits the collider luminosity. In this paper, two models of beam-beam interactions are introduced, which are weak-strong and strong-strong beam-beam interactions. In addition, space-charge model is introduced.

  7. Toward Cooperative Multimedia Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark T. Maybury

    1995-01-01

    The proliferation of information and services on our global information highways demands mechanisms to support more effective\\u000a and efficient interaction. This article claims that efficient and effective interaction requires both cooperative and multimedia\\u000a communication, illustrating this through several applications developed by our group that aim to enhance interaction with\\u000a complex systems or information sources. After defining the terms cooperative and

  8. Reconceptualizing sex, brain and psychopathology: interaction, interaction, interaction.

    PubMed

    Joel, D; Yankelevitch-Yahav, R

    2014-10-01

    In recent years there has been a growing recognition of the influence of sex on brain structure and function, and in relation, on the susceptibility, prevalence and response to treatment of psychiatric disorders. Most theories and descriptions of the effects of sex on the brain are dominated by an analogy to the current interpretation of the effects of sex on the reproductive system, according to which sex is a divergence system that exerts a unitary, overriding and serial effect on the form of other systems. We shortly summarize different lines of evidence that contradict aspects of this analogy. The new view that emerges from these data is of sex as a complex system whose different components interact with one another and with other systems to affect body and brain. The paradigm shift that this understanding calls for is from thinking of sex in terms of sexual dimorphism and sex differences, to thinking of sex in terms of its interactions with other factors and processes. Our review of data obtained from animal models of psychopathology clearly reveals the need for such a paradigmatic shift, because in the field of animal behaviour whether a sex difference exists and its direction depend on the interaction of many factors including, species, strain, age, specific test employed and a multitude of environmental factors. We conclude by explaining how the new conceptualization can account for sex differences in psychopathology. PMID:24758640

  9. The Science of Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, William A.; Stasko, John T.; Chang, Remco; O'Connell, Theresa

    2009-09-23

    There is a growing recognition with the visual analytics community that interaction and inquiry are inextricable. It is through the interactive manipulation of a visual interface – the analytic discourse – that knowledge is constructed, tested, refined, and shared. This paper reflects on the interaction challenges raised in the original visual analytics research and development agenda and further explores the relationship between interaction and cognition. It identifies recent exemplars of visual analytics research that have made substantive progress toward the goals of a true science of interaction, which must include theories and testable premises about the most appropriate mechanisms for human-information interaction. Six areas for further work are highlighted as those among the highest priorities for the next five years of visual analytics research: ubiquitous, embodied interaction; capturing user intentionality; knowledge-based interfaces; principles of design and perception; collaboration; and interoperability. Ultimately, the goal of a science of interaction is to support the visual analytics community through the recognition and implementation of best practices in the representation of and interaction with visual displays.

  10. Interactive brains, social minds

    PubMed Central

    Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the neural and behavioral dynamics of social interaction, single-person studies are increasingly complemented by research designs that simultaneously assess two or more interacting individuals. In this article, we review studies on neural mechanisms and markers of social interactions that use multi-person functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological recordings. We propose a terminology for investigating social interaction dynamics, show how forward models of action regulation may serve as a framework for investigating interpersonal action coordination and discuss different methodological approaches to studying functional brain connectivity. PMID:22448303

  11. How Interactive Is the Interactive Whiteboard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quashie, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    An interactive whiteboard (IWB) is simply a surface onto which a computer screen can be displayed, via a projector. It is touch-sensitive and lets one use a pen like a mouse, controlling the computer from the board itself. Everything that can be displayed on a computer can be displayed onto the whiteboard and, if the computer is linked to speakers…

  12. Interactive Presentation of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdin, Martin; Turcáni, Milan; Vrábel, Marek

    2009-01-01

    In the paper we discus about design of universal environment for solution of creating effective multimedia applications with accent on the implementation of interactive elements with the possibility of using the adaptive systems (AS). We also discuss about possibilities of offline presentation of this interactive multimedia adaptive animations…

  13. Analyzing Verbal Classroom Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryspin, William J.; Feldhusen, John F.

    This textbook on verbal classroom interaction is designed to be used as one unit in an educational psychology course at the postsecondary level. The book is divided into three sections which discuss the Flanders' Interaction Analysis System (FIAS), the categories in the system, and the use of the system. The first section gives the underlying…

  14. Debugging Interactive Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad A. Myers; Alan Ferrency; Rich McDaniel; Roger Dannenberg

    Although interactive, direct manipulation applications are known to be difficult to design and implement, the toolkits with which they are built generally do not contain any par- ticular support for debugging. The Amulet toolkit contains a comprehensive collection of monitoring and debugging tools, including an interactive ''Inspector.'' These tools are provided in a machine-independent way in C++ without using hooks

  15. Interactions in solids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Manoliu

    1979-01-01

    The attractive interaction between a magnetic monopole and a ferromagnetic domain was calculated. The complete calculation which includes effects of anisotropy and exchange, gives a result for the interaction energy (referred to the pole at infinity) which is ten percent lower than that obtained by the methods of images. A monopole of unit charge, g = (137\\/2)e, is found to

  16. Interaction: Additivity plus Nonlinearity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, T. P.

    2004-01-01

    Whether or not there is an interaction between two factors in their effects on a dependent variable is often a central question. This paper proposes a general mechanism by which an interaction may arise: (a) the two factors are the same thing--or, at least, have a dimension in common--in the sense that it is meaningful to add (or subtract) them;…

  17. Human Computer Intelligent Interaction

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Human Computer Intelligent Interaction Computer technologies are progressing at a breakneck speed doing during the last decade on Human Computer Interaction. Specifically,information flow from human human-computer interfaces.In this talk,I shall describe some of the research my students and I have been

  18. Interacting With Virtual Reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Wloka

    1995-01-01

    Interacting with virtual reality is fundamentally different from interacing with traditional desktopgraphics. The three features that characterize virtual reality interaction are immersion, richinteraction and presence; I define these features. To achieve them, virtual reality system designersneed to address many different issues. I discuss some of these issues, in particular multipleinputs, multiple outputs, multiple participants, dynamic virtual worlds, user interface paradigmsand...

  19. Visualizing Dispersion Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Elinor; Venkataraman, Bhawani

    2014-01-01

    An animation and accompanying activity has been developed to help students visualize how dispersion interactions arise. The animation uses the gecko's ability to walk on vertical surfaces to illustrate how dispersion interactions play a role in macroscale outcomes. Assessment of student learning reveals that students were able to develop…

  20. Interactive geometry remeshing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Alliez; Mark Meyer; Mathieu Desbrun

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel technique, both flexible and efficient, for interactive remeshing of irregular geometry. First, the original (arbitrary genus) mesh is substituted by a series of 2D maps in parameter space. Using these maps, our algorithm is then able to take advantage of established signal processing and halftoning tools that offer real-time interaction and intricate control. The user can

  1. Flexomagnetoelectric interaction in multiferroics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Pyatakov; A. K. Zvezdin

    2009-01-01

    Various phenomena related to inhomogeneous magnetoelectric interaction are considered. The interrelation between spatial modulation of order parameter and electric polarization, known as flexoelectric effect in liquid crystals, in the case of magnetic media appears in a form of electric polarization induced by spin modulation and vice versa. This flexomagnetoelectric interaction is also related to the effect of ferroelectric domain structure

  2. CONTROL OF HAPTIC INTERACTION

    E-print Network

    Twente, Universiteit

    CONTROL OF HAPTIC INTERACTION An Energy-Based Approach Michel Franken #12;CONTROL OF HAPTIC;CONTROL OF HAPTIC INTERACTION AN ENERGY-BASED APPROACH PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van;#12;To my parents #12;#12;Samenvatting Haptic feedback systemen zijn systemen die een gewenste kracht

  3. What Is Interactivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smuts, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author attempts to develop a definition of "interactivity" that meets two sometimes incompatible goals: the definition should be in accord with the best intuitions on how the term should be used, and it should usefully differentiate interactivity from related but incompatible concepts with which it is often confused. The…

  4. Smoking and Social Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panu Poutvaaray; Lars-H. R. Siemers

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms affect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted

  5. Smoking and social interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panu Poutvaara; Lars-H. R. Siemers

    2008-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms affect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers in their midst to stop smoking, even though the disutility from smoking exceeds the utility from social interaction. Overall, the level of smoking

  6. Interactive Multimedia Presentation Capabilities

    E-print Network

    Boll, Susanne

    Interactive Multimedia Presentation Capabilities for an Object-Oriented DBMS Susanne Boll, Michael and Mathematics (ERCIM) Workshop Reports, 9th ERCIM Database Research Group Workshop on Multimedia Database Sys, FRANCE, 1996. #12;Interactive Multimedia Presentation Capabilities for an Object-Oriented DBMS Susanne

  7. Elementary particle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to {mu}{sup +} and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics. (LSP)

  8. Interactive Visualization of Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

  9. Interaction Relation Ontology Learning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan-Xi; Wang, Ru-Jing; Huang, He; Su, Ya-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ontology is widely used in semantic computing and reasoning, and various biomedicine ontologies have become institutionalized to make the heterogeneous knowledge computationally amenable. Relation words, especially verbs, play an important role when describing the interaction between biological entities in molecular function, biological process, and cellular component; however, comprehensive research and analysis are still lacking. In this article, we propose an automatic method to build interaction relation ontology by investigating relation verbs, analyzing the syntactic relation of PubMed abstracts to perform relation vocabulary expansion, and integrating WordNet into our method to construct the hierarchy of relation vocabulary. Five attributes are populated automatically for each word in interaction relation ontology. As a result, the interaction relation ontology is constructed; it contains a total of 963 words and covers the most relation words used in existing methods of proteins interaction relation. PMID:24377790

  10. Legacy Systems Interaction Reengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ramly, Mohammad; Stroulia, Eleni; Samir, Hani

    We present a lightweight approach for reengineering the human computer interaction (HCI) and/or interaction with other software systems. While interaction reengineering can be achieved by changing the source code and design (e.g., library replacement, refactoring, etc.) resulting in a different user interface (UI), we limit the discussion to interaction reengineering methods that do not involve changing the source code or internal design of the system. Instead, we focus on methods and techniques for wrapping and packaging the existing interaction layer to reproduce it in a different format, e.g., on a different platform or to integrate the legacy system services in another application possibly under a different architecture paradigm, e.g., service-oriented architectures (SOA).

  11. MIMESIS: Interactive Interface for Mass-Interaction Matthieu Evrard

    E-print Network

    MIMESIS: Interactive Interface for Mass-Interaction Modeling Matthieu Evrard ICA Laboratory introduces MIMESIS, a end-user software based on mass-interaction modeling. In MIMESIS, the mass-interaction-based modeling, simulation, animation, mass-interaction network, user-friendly interface, animation language. 1

  12. Leo space plasma interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1991-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays interact with the low earth orbit (LEO) space plasma in two fundamentally different ways. One way is the steady collection of current from the plasma onto exposed conductors and semiconductors. The relative currents collected by different parts of the array will then determine the floating potential of the spacecraft. In addition, these steady state collected currents may lead to sputtering or heating of the array by the ions or electrons collected, respectively. The second kind of interaction is the short time scale arc into the space plasma, which may deplete the array and/or spacecraft of stored charge, damage solar cells, and produce EMI. Such arcs only occur at high negative potentials relative to the space plasma potential, and depend on the steady state ion currents being collected. New high voltage solar arrays being incorporated into advanced spacecraft and space platforms may be endangered by these plasma interactions. Recent advances in laboratory testing and current collection modeling promise the capability of controlling, and perhaps even using, these space plasma interactions to enable design of reliable high voltage space power systems. Some of the new results may have an impact on solar cell spacing and/or coverslide design. Planned space flight experiments are necessary to confirm the models of high voltage solar array plasma interactions. Finally, computerized, integrated plasma interactions design tools are being constructed to place plasma interactions models into the hands of the spacecraft designer.

  13. Forces and Interactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Although the purist will state that there are four forces, when explaining observed phenomena at the nanoscale it is very useful to include interactions such as ionic and covalent bonding, hydrogen bonds, Brownian motion, van der Waals forces, thermal vibration, rotation , adhesive and cohesive forces and subcategories of these interactions. Often, the effect of what is observed at any scale (macroscale to nanoscale) is dependent upon the priorities of these forces. For example the interaction between planets is driven by the gravitational force because of the large mass of the objects, The strength of the interaction of planets due to the electrostatic forces exists, but is very small -- overshadowed by the gravitational forces. The opposite is often true at the nanoscale, atoms and molecules are significantly impacted by electrostatic forces - and because of the small mass, minimally impacted by gravitational attraction. So it is just a matter of which force or interaction is the top interaction for any given situation. These modules use many different activities which allow students to evaluate the priority of different forces and interactions with different materials and at different scales.

  14. Interactive Weather Information Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Offered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interactive Weather Information Network (IWIN) is a collection of interactive weather maps and satellite images that is updated every five seconds. Visitors can see cloud cover animation loops, NEXRAD Radar images of precipitation, a map of all current weather fronts, and an interactive national map to see information about any particular state. Other information on the site includes a listing of any active weather warnings, a link for world weather data, and more, making this a must-see site for all those users interested in the most current weather happenings anywhere.

  15. Integrating Interactive Notebooks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cheryl Waldman

    2009-01-01

    An interactive notebook can be a powerful instructional tool, allowing students to take control of their learning while processing information and engaging in self-reflection. The three-part learning cycle of an interactive notebook makes it easy to use and integrate into the science lesson. The basic ideas has its roots in a number of programs (TCI 2000; AVID 2007), but applying knowledge about how students learn science can make this an even more effective tool. In addition to presenting techniques for design, implementation, and assessment, this article describes how interactive notebooks empower students for science achievement.

  16. Multimodal Interaction and Proactive Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A Brewster

    One important issue for proactive computing is how users control and interact with the systems they will carry and have access to when they are out in the field. One solution is to use multimodal interaction (interaction using different combinations of sensory modalities) to allow people to interact in a range of different ways. This paper discusses gestural interaction as

  17. Interactive Health Games

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Boost your health knowledge by playing these interactive health games. Go to: ... Homeland Security) Drugs and Young People Test Your Knowledge (National Institute on Drug Abuse) E E. Coli ...

  18. Robotics and interactive simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oussama Khatib; Oliver Brock; Kyong-Sok Chang; Francois Conti; Diego C. Ruspini; Luis Sentis

    2002-01-01

    As applications of robots extend into everyday human life, new approaches to simulating interactions between them and their environments are emerging at the intersection of the physical and virtual worlds.

  19. Interactive Lecture Demonstrations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Maier

    Created by Dorothy Merritts, Robert Walter (Franklin & Marshall College), Bob MacKay (Clark College). Enhanced by Mark Maier with assistance from Rochelle Ruffer, Sue Stockly and Ronald Thornton Interactive ...

  20. Dawn's Framing Camera Interactive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-06

    This interactive illustrates how images from space get to earth and how we interpret the images. Users are encouraged to experiment with images to get a firm grasp of how scientists use color filters to interpret data.

  1. Interactive Periodic Table

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive Periodic Table (application/applet) has been designed as a learning tool to help the beginning high school or undergraduate chemistry student gain insight. It could be used either as a lecture aid or distributed to students.

  2. interactive Tezuka Osamu Manga

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    In-depth interactive experience Akihabara Tezuka Osamu Manga Museum Kyoto International Manga Museum Ghibli Museum America mura Takarazuka Theater Kadokawa related manga and animation studios Mandarake Yonezawa Yoshihiro Memorial Library of Manga and Subcultures Anime Pilgrimages The National Museum

  3. Compact Disc Interactive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valk, Anton

    1987-01-01

    This overview of a digital optical storage medium with a multimedia capability includes a global description of specifications, current status, and elements required to make a CD-I (compact disk interactive) launch possible. (Author/CLB)

  4. Historical Milestones: Interactive Timeline

    Cancer.gov

    BBRB has achieved several major milestones that are driving improvements in biospecimen quality. Use this interactive tool to learn more about how NCI is addressing biospecimen issues that impact cancer research and patient care.

  5. Flexomagnetoelectric interaction in multiferroics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Pyatakov; A. K. Zvezdin

    2009-01-01

    Various phenomena related to inhomogeneous magnetoelectric interaction are considered. The interrelation between spatial modulation\\u000a of order parameter and electric polarization, known as flexoelectric effect in liquid crystals, in the case of magnetic media\\u000a appears in a form of electric polarization induced by spin modulation and vice versa. This flexomagnetoelectric interaction\\u000a is also related to the effect of ferroelectric domain structure

  6. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  7. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Appelquist; Claude Bernard

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)L×SU(2)R symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found

  8. Flank solar wind interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Stewart L.; Greenstadt, Eugene W.; Coroniti, Ferdinand V.

    1994-01-01

    In this report we will summarize the results of the work performed under the 'Flank Solar Wind Interaction' investigation in support of NASA's Space Physics Guest Investigator Program. While this investigation was focused on the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind as observed by instruments on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3 spacecraft, it also represents the culmination of decades of research performed by scientists at TRW on the rich phenomenology of collisionless shocks in space.

  9. Callisto Plasma Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmstrom, M.; Lindkvist, J.; Barabash, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling the interaction between Callisto and Jupiter's magnetosphere is important to understand the origin of the magnetic field perturbations observed by Galileo, potentially related to subsurface oceans. Understanding the plasma environment at Callisto is also important in view of the future JUICE mission. We study the plasma interactions of Callisto using a hybrid model (ions as particles and electrons as a fluid). Included in the model is an ionosphere and conductive sub surface layers. The results are compared to Galileo observations.

  10. Gallium interactions with Zircaloy 

    E-print Network

    West, Michael Keith

    1998-01-01

    : Nuclear Engineering GALLIUM INTERACTIONS WITH ZIRCALOY A Thesis by MICHAEL KEITH WEST Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Ron R.... Hart (Chair of Co ittee) Karl T. H g, (Me e Marvin L. Adams (Member) Alan E. Waltar (Head of Department) December 1998 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering ABSTRACT Gallium Interactions with Zircaloy. (December 1998) Michael Keith West, B. S...

  11. Replicators with Hebb interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, V. M.

    2003-01-01

    We do an analytical study of the statistical properties of an ecosystem composed of species that are coupled via pairwise interactions that are given by the Hebb rule and have deterministic self-interactions u. In the model each species is characterized by an infinite set of p = ?N traits. As one of our main results, we observe that the ecosystem becomes less cooperative as the complexity of species (number of traits) is increased.

  12. Interactional Coherence in CMC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan C. Herring

    1999-01-01

    Text-only CMC has been claimed to be interactionally incoherent due to limitations imposed by messaging systems on turn-taking and reference, yet its popularity continues to grow. In an attempt to resolve this apparent paradox, this study evaluates the coherence of computer- mediated interaction by surveying research on cross-turn coherence. The results reveal a high degree of disrupted adjacency, overlapping exchanges,

  13. BasketMath Interactive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Cummings

    2003-01-01

    BasketMath Interactive is an Educational Online Interactive for grades 4-10. Students click on a topic from the table of contents and they are given a mathematics question and animation. When a question is correctly answered, students will see a basketball animation. When they incorrectly answer the question, students are given the correct response and, at times, the solution. Incorrect responses are tracked and areas of improvement are shown.

  14. Interaction with Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlef Breitling; Sergei Klimentov; Friedrich Dausinger

    Contrary to longer-pulsed laser irradiation, ultrashort laser pulses in the femto- and low picosecond-pulse duration domains are expected to be too short to interact directly with the material vapor they produce during ablation. Nonetheless, the very high intensities reached by focused ultrashort pulses cause a number of interaction phenomena of the pulses with the ambient atmosphere. The various effects are discussed

  15. Grapefruit and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, grapefruit juice has been known to affect the metabolism of certain drugs. Several serious adverse effects involving drug interactions with grapefruit juice have been published in detail. The components of grapefruit juice vary considerably depending on the variety, maturity and origin of the fruit, local climatic conditions, and the manufacturing process. No single component accounts for all observed interactions. Other grapefruit products are also occasionally implicated, including preserves, lyophylised grapefruit juice, powdered whole grapefruit, grapefruit seed extract, and zest. Clinical reports of drug interactions with grapefruit juice are supported by pharmacokinetic studies, each usually involving about 10 healthy volunteers, in which the probable clinical consequences were extrapolated from the observed plasma concentrations. Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme most often involved in drug metabolism. This increases plasma concentrations of the drugs concerned, creating a risk of overdose and dose-dependent adverse effects. Grapefruit juice also inhibits several other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, but they are less frequently implicated in interactions with clinical consequences. Drugs interacting with grapefruit and inducing serious clinical consequences (confirmed or very probable) include: immunosuppressants, some statins, benzodiazepines, most calcium channel blockers, indinavir and carbamazepine. There are large inter-individual differences in enzyme efficiency. Along with the variable composition of grapefruit juice, this makes it difficult to predict the magnitude and clinical consequences of drug interactions with grapefruit juice in a given patient. There is increasing evidence that transporter proteins such as organic anion transporters and P-glycoprotein are involved in interactions between drugs and grapefruit juice. In practice, numerous drugs interact with grapefruit juice. Although only a few reports involving severe clinical consequences have been published, they suggest that grapefruit juice should be avoided during drug therapy, especially when the drug has a narrow therapeutic margin or carries a risk of serious dose-dependent adverse effects. Patients should be informed of this risk whenever a drug is prescribed or dispensed. PMID:23373097

  16. Interaction as stochastic noise

    E-print Network

    Roberto D'Agosta

    2015-01-16

    Interaction is so ubiquitous that imaging a world free from it is a difficult fantasy exercise. At the same time, in understanding any complex physical system, our ability of accounting for the mutual interaction of its constituents is often insufficient when not the restraining factor. Many strategies have been devised to control particle-particle interaction and explore the diverse regimes, from weak to strong interaction. Beautiful examples of these achievements are the experiments on Bose condensates, or the recent experiments on the dynamics of spin chains. Here I introduce another possibility, namely replacing the particle-particle interaction with an external stochastic field, and once again reducing the dynamics of a many-body system to the dynamics of single-particle systems. The theory is exact, in the sense that no approximations are introduced in decoupling the many-body system in its non-interacting sub-parts. Moreover, the equations of motion are linear, and no unknown external potential is inserted.

  17. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  18. Modeling and Control Interactive Networks

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Modeling and Control of Complex Interactive Networks By Massoud Amin E nergy, telecommunications complex networks, geographi- cally dispersed, nonlinear, and interacting both among themselves, distributed, highly interactive networks, nor does any such entity have the ability to evaluate, monitor

  19. The Interactive Process: Reasonable Accommodation

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    The Interactive Process: Reasonable Accommodation March 2009 Manager's Guide #12;Table of Contents .......................................................13 #12;3THE INTERACTIVE PROCESS: REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION MANAGER'S GUIDE--March 2009 Overview This Managers' Guide on the Interactive Process: Reasonable Accommodation provides supportive information

  20. Interpersonal strategies for disturbance attenuation during a rhythmic joint motor action.

    PubMed

    Melendez-Calderon, A; Komisar, V; Burdet, E

    2015-08-01

    Helping someone carry a table is fairly easy; however, our understanding of such joint motor actions is still poorly understood. We studied how pairs of human subjects (referred to as dyads) collaborate physically to attenuate external mechanical perturbations during a target tracking task. Subjects tracked a target moving in a slow and predictable way using wrist flexion/extension movements, with and without destabilizing torque perturbations. Dyad strategies were classified using interaction torques and muscular activity. During unperturbed interactions (baseline), the dyads tended to stabilize on a particular strategy. The baseline strategy was not the same in all dyads, suggesting that the solution to the task was not global but specific to each particular dyad. After several trials of unperturbed interactions, we introduced mechanical vibrations and analyzed the adaptation process. Dyads showed a tendency to counteract the external disturbances by first increasing co-contraction within each subject (independent co-contraction), and then raising the amount of opposing interaction torques (dyadic co-contraction) with increased perturbation amplitude. The introduction of perturbations impelled dyads to abandon their unperturbed baseline strategy and adopt a more common strategy across dyads, suggesting attractor solutions. Our results establish a framework for future human-human interaction studies, and have implications in human motor control as well as human-robot and robot-robot interactions. PMID:25959343

  1. Interactions between photodegradation components

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09), very low P-value (<.0.0001), non-significant lack of fit, the coefficient of R-squared (R2?=?0.999), adjusted R-squared (Radj2?=?0.998), predicted R-squared (Rpred2?=?0.994) and the adequate precision (95.94). Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (< 0.8 g/L) and 100 mg/L p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method. PMID:22967885

  2. Interacting boson model with surface delta interaction between nucleons: Structure and interaction of bosons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Druce; S. A. Moszkowski

    1986-01-01

    The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. We have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson-proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits. A connection is made between these coefficients and the parameters of the interaction

  3. Interaction Trap/Two-Hybrid System to Identify Interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Golemis, Erica A.; Serebriiskii, Ilya; Finley, Russell L.; Kolonin, Mikhail G.; Gyuris, Jeno; Brent, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The yeast two-hybrid method (or interaction trap) is a powerful technique for detecting protein interactions. The procedure is performed using transcriptional activation of a dual reporter system in yeast to identify interactions between a protein of interest (the bait protein) and the candidate proteins for interaction. The method can be used to screen a protein library for interactions with a bait protein or to test for association between proteins that are expected to interact based on prior evidence. Interaction mating facilitates the screening of a library with multiple bait proteins. PMID:18228339

  4. Stimuli-responsive self-assembly of a naphthalene diimide by orthogonal hydrogen bonding and its coassembly with a pyrene derivative by a pseudo-intramolecular charge-transfer interaction.

    PubMed

    Das, Anindita; Ghosh, Suhrit

    2014-01-20

    A naphthalene diimide (NDI) building block containing hydrazide (H1) and hydroxy (H2) groups self-assembled into a reverse-vesicular structure in methylcyclohexane by orthogonal H-bonding and ?-stacking. At an elevated temperature (LCST=43?°C), destruction of the assembled structure owing to selective dissociation of H2-H2 H?bonding led to macroscopic precipitation. Further heating resulted in homogeneous redispersion of the sample at 70?°C (UCST) and the formation of a reverse-micellar structure. In the presence of a pyridine (H3)-functionalized pyrene (PY) donor, a supramolecular dyad (NDI-PY) was formed by H2-H3 H-bonding. Slow transformation into an alternate NDI-PY stack occurred by a folding process due to the charge-transfer interaction between NDI and PY. The mixed NDI-PY assembly exhibited a morphology transition from a reverse micelle (with a NDI-PY mixed-stack core) below the LCST to another reverse micelle (with a NDI core) above the UCST via a "denatured" intermediate. PMID:24376055

  5. Light and Matter Interactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students â??are introduced to the basic concepts of light, followed by several interactive simulations that model the interactions of light with matter." The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, questions to answer, and models they can manipulate. The content of the module is divided into eight pages: Introducing Light and Photons, The Electromagnetic Spectrum, Photon Absorption and Emission 1 and II, Different Substances Have Different Photon Absorptions and Emissions, Light Can Heat Matter, Simulating Black Color, and Heated Matter Can Emit Light. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments and rubric, details of the central concepts, and correlation of the concepts to AAAS and NSES standards.

  6. Achromatic Interaction Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Guimei Wang,, Yaroslav Derbenev, S.Alex Bogacz, P. Chevtsov, Andre Afanaciev, Charles Ankenbrandt, Valentin Ivanov, Rolland P. Johnson

    2009-05-01

    Designers of high-luminosity energy-frontier muon colliders must provide strong beam focusing in the interaction regions. However, the construction of a strong, aberration-free beam focus is difficult and space consuming, and long straight sections generate an off-site radiation problem due to muon decay neutrinos that interact as they leave the surface of the earth. Without some way to mitigate the neutrino radiation problem, the maximum c.m. energy of a muon collider will be limited to about 3.5 TeV. A new concept for achromatic low beta design is being developed, in which the interaction region telescope and optical correction elements, are installed in the bending arcs. The concept, formulated analytically, combines space economy, a preventative approach to compensation for aberrations, and a reduction of neutrino flux concentration. An analytical theory for the aberration-free, low beta, spatially compact insertion is being developed.

  7. Dike/Drift Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gaffiney

    2004-11-23

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).

  8. lambda. N effective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Millener, D.J.

    1984-05-23

    A combination of theoretical estimates, based on a ..lambda..N potential model, and phenomenological analysis of hypernuclear data is used to determine a set of four P/sub N/s/sub ..lambda../ two-body matrix elements which characterize the spin dependence of the ..lambda..N interaction in the p shell. The central spin-spin and the ..lambda.. spin-orbit matrix elements are most strongly constrained by existing data. The spin dependence is weak in the sense that s/sub ..lambda../ doublet splittings are predicted to be of order 100 keV except for the special case of /sub ..lambda..//sup 7/Li where the central spin-spin interaction dominates and the ground-state doublet separation is likely to be about 600 keV. The results of recent (K/sup -/, ..pi../sup -/..gamma..) experiments at the Brookhaven AGS are interpreted in terms of the ..lambda..N effective interaction.

  9. Highly interactive kink solutions

    E-print Network

    A. R. Gomes; R. Menezes; J. C. R. E. Oliveira

    2012-08-23

    In this work we present a new class of real scalar field models admitting strongly interactive kink solutions. Instead of the usual exponential asymptotic behavior these topological solutions exhibit a power-law one. We investigate the interaction force between a pair of kink/anti-kink solutions both analytically and numerically, by integrating the time dependent field equations of the model. Furthermore, working within the first-order framework, we analyze the linear stability of these solutions. The stability analysis leads to Sch\\"odinger-like equations with potentials which, despite admitting no bound states, lead to strong resonance peaks. We argue that these properties are important for some possible physical applications.

  10. Synchronization via Hydrodynamic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendelbacher, Franziska; Stark, Holger

    2013-12-01

    An object moving in a viscous fluid creates a flow field that influences the motion of neighboring objects. We review examples from nature in the microscopic world where such hydrodynamic interactions synchronize beating or rotating filaments. Bacteria propel themselves using a bundle of rotating helical filaments called flagella which have to be synchronized in phase. Other micro-organisms are covered with a carpet of smaller filaments called cilia on their surfaces. They beat highly synchronized so that metachronal waves propagate along the cell surfaces. We explore both examples with the help of simple model systems and identify generic properties for observing synchronization by hydrodynamic interactions.

  11. LHS Interactive Showcase

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    The Lawrence Hall of Science of the University of California Berkeley maintains the Interactive Showcase Web site. Eleven interactive Shockwave activities are presented based on various science themes. One called Variables allows users to change a human cannonballer's weight, angle of flight, the gun powder amount, and wind direction and speed with the goal of getting him to land in a net. Others deal with space flight, auto fuel efficiency, the human body, ideas and inventions, and more. Although the activities do not offer a huge amount of educational content, their fun quotient will surely draw students in and hopefully spark their interest in the sciences.

  12. Propeller/wing interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, David P.; Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.

    1989-01-01

    The present experimental investigation of the steady-state and unsteady-state effects due to the interaction between a tractor propeller's wake and a wing employs, in the steady case, wind tunnel measurements at low subsonic speed; results are obtained which demonstrate wing performance response to variations in configuration geometry. Other steady-state results involve the propeller-hub lift and side-force due to the wing's influence on the propeller. The unsteady effects of interaction were studied through flow visualization of propeller-tip vortex distortion over a wing, again using a tractor-propeller configuration.

  13. Interacting Constituents in Cosmology

    E-print Network

    R. Aldrovandi; R. R. Cuzinatto; L. G. Medeiros

    2007-05-22

    Universe evolution, as described by Friedmann's equations, is determined by source terms fixed by the choice of pressure $\\times$ energy-density equations of state $p(\\rho)$. The usual approach in Cosmology considers equations of state accounting only for kinematic terms, ignoring the contribution from the interactions between the particles constituting the source fluid. In this work the importance of these neglected terms is emphasized. A systematic method, based on the Statistical Mechanics of real fluids, is proposed to include them. A toy-model is presented which shows how such interaction terms can engender significant cosmological effects.

  14. Reading to Children and Listening to Children Read: Mother-Child Interactions as a Function of Principal Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Chang, Sandra; Gould, Odette N.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Although storybook reading has received considerable research attention, listening to children read has been the source of much less inquiry. In this study, 40 mother-child dyads were videotaped during adult-to-child and child-to-adult reading. Relations between book-related themes (e.g., types of talk), maternal evaluative…

  15. Gene-Environment Contributions to the Development of Infant Vagal Reactivity: The Interaction of Dopamine and Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propper, Cathi; Moore, Ginger A.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.; Calkins, Susan D.; Carbone, Mary Anna; Cox, Martha

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated dopamine receptor genes ("DRD2" and "DRD4") and maternal sensitivity as predictors of infant respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity, purported indices of vagal tone and vagal regulation, in a challenge task at 3, 6, and 12 months in 173 infant-mother dyads. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) revealed that at…

  16. Mothers' and Fathers' Psychological Symptoms and Marital Functioning: Examination of Direct and Interactive Links with Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2004-01-01

    A community sample of 51 mother-father dyads with a school-age child rated marital functioning, parental psychological symptoms, and children's adjustment problems. Parents with more psychological symptoms reported lower marital satisfaction levels. Mothers' and fathers' marital functioning and symptomatology individually related to children's…

  17. Interactive shape metamorphosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, David T.; State, Andrei; Banks, David

    1994-01-01

    A technique for controlled metamorphosis between surfaces in 3-space is described. Well-understood techniques to produce shape metamorphosis between models in a 2D parametric space is applied. The user selects morphable features interactively, and the morphing process executes in real time on a high-performance graphics multicomputer.

  18. Interactive Tabletops in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenbourg, Pierre; Evans, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Interactive tabletops are gaining increased attention from CSCL researchers. This paper analyses the relation between this technology and teaching and learning processes. At a global level, one could argue that tabletops convey a socio-constructivist flavor: they support small teams that solve problems by exploring multiple solutions. The…

  19. Interactive pedagogical drama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacy C. Marsella; W. Lewis Johnson; Catherine LaBore

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an agent-based approach to realizing interactive pedagogical drama. Characters choose their actions autonomously, while director and cinematographer agents manage the action and its presentation in order to maintain story structure, achieve pedagogical goals, and present the dynamic story to as to achieve the best dramatic effect. Artistic standards must be maintained while permitting substantial variability in story

  20. Designing Interactive Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip

    1990-01-01

    Describes multimedia, computer-based interactive learning systems that support various forms of individualized study. Highlights include design models; user interfaces; design guidelines; media utilization paradigms, including hypermedia and learner-controlled models; metaphors and myths; authoring tools; optical media; workstations; four case…

  1. INVESTIGATING MULTIMODAL INTERACTIONS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IN SCIENCE LEARNING by STAMATINA ANASTOPOULOU A thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham of designing such systems involves studying the benefits of multimodal interactions in learning. Therefore _____________________________________________________ 10 2.2 About learning ___________________________________________________ 10 2.2.1 Computer aided

  2. Interactive unawareness revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Y. Halpern; Leandro Chaves Rêgo

    2005-01-01

    We analyze a model of interactive unawareness introduced by Heifetz, Meier and Schipper (HMS). We consider two axiomatizations for their model, which capture different notions of validity. These axiomatizations allow us to compare the HMS approach to both the standard (S5) epistemic logic and two other approaches to unawareness: that of Fagin and Halpern and that of Modica and Rustichini.

  3. Platelet membrane interactions.

    PubMed

    White, J G

    1999-01-01

    The term 'viscous metamorphosis' was coined in early studies to describe the fusion and disintegration of platelets into an amorphous mass sealing sites of vascular injury. Improvements in morphological techniques revealed that disintegration was not involved in the platelet hemostatic reaction, and that part of the definition was eliminated. Fusion was retained, however, even though platelet fusion was never observed. The present study has examined the different forms of platelet membrane interaction to determine if fusion is an appropriate term for any aspect of platelet physiology or pathology. Fusion was not observed during platelet-platelet, platelet-surface or platelet-fibrin interaction at any stage in the development. Only fusion of secretory organelles with channels of the open canalicular system (OCS) during the release reaction represents involvement of the phenomenon. Pathological fusion occurs during long-term storage when alpha granules bind together to form giant organelles. The only examples of surface membrane fusion develops when platelets are incubated with the cholinergic agent, carbachol (carbamyl choline chloride). Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid also causes intimate associations of OCS channels and interacting surface membranes, but not the fusion of lipid bilayers that carbachol induces. Thus, fusion does not appear to be an appropriate term to describe platelet-membrane interactions, except for the process of secretion. PMID:16801116

  4. Latent Variable Interaction Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacker, Randall E.

    2002-01-01

    Used simulation to study two different approaches to latent variable interaction modeling with continuous observed variables: (1) a LISREL 8.30 program and (2) data analysis through PRELIS2 and SIMPLIS programs. Results show that parameter estimation was similar but standard errors were different. Discusses differences in ease of implementation.…

  5. Interactive texture mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Maillot; Hussein Yahia; Anne Verroust

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to texture mapping. A global method to lower the distortion of the mapped image is presented; by considering a general optimization function we view the map- ping as an energy-minimization process. We have constructed an interactive texture tool, which is fast and easy to use, to manip- ulate atlases in texture space. We present

  6. Interaction as Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Hewett, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The Harpersbury Hospital School in Hertfordshire, England, developed a curriculum of "mothering," or intensive, structured interaction teaching, to promote development of language, cognition, and sociability in pupils with severe and complex learning difficulties. The process approach is based on the critical learning that infants experience while…

  7. Interactive Geometry Remeshing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Alliez USC; Mark Meyer Caltech; Mathieu Desbrun

    We present a novel technique, both flexible and efficient, for inter- active remeshing of irregular geometry. First, the original (arbitrary genus) mesh is substituted by a series of 2D maps in parameter space. Using these maps, our algorithm is then able to take advan- tage of established signal processing and halftoning tools that offer real-time interaction and intricate control. The

  8. Herb-drug interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriane Fugh-Berman

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin,

  9. Iamascope: an interactive kaleidoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney Fels

    1997-01-01

    a colourfulpiece of floating glass inside the kaleidoscope,and simultaneously views a kaleidescopic image ofhimself on a huge screen (170") in real time. Thebody movements of the participant also directlycontrol music and his voice echoes in a beautifuldance of symmetry with the image. Participantswill engage physically, verbally and visually withthe Iamascope. This is a whole body, sensory interaction.The kalaidescopic image is

  10. Creating an Interactive PDF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive

  11. SEM Ground Spider Interactive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive look at a ground spider's anatomy has close-up images taken using the high-resolution technology of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). By mousing over the labeled images, students can view fifteen features of a generalized ground spider's anatomy.

  12. Interactive Evolution of Camouflage

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Interactive Evolution of Camouflage Craig Reynolds* Sony Computer Entertainment, US R&D Keywords of the evolution of camouflage in nature. The 2D model uses evolved textures for prey, a background texture the earliest publication on evolution, camouflage has been cited as a key illustration of natural selections

  13. Interactive Genetics Tutorial Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The Interactive Genetics Tutorial (IGT) project and the Intelligent Tutoring System for the IGT project named MENDEL supplement genetics instruction in biology courses by providing students with experience in designing, conducting, and evaluating genetics experiments. The MENDEL software is designed to: (1) simulate genetics experiments that…

  14. Electromagnetic interaction of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, Peter R.

    The observation of extraordinary transmission through subwavelength apertures has propelled a great interest in understanding its nature. It defies classical theories of electromagnetic interaction by demanding a closer examination of the surface properties. Traditionally, as surface features become much smaller in size than a single wavelength of interest, the structure is essentially continuous. Any periodic subwavelength corrugation or aperture array should not interact strongly with an incident field and therefore not contribute to any significant transmission through the film. We find that this is not always the case and that we may tune the surface geometry at these scales to affect the overall medium behavior. It is possible that a material may transcend its own natural properties and, in essence, become a metamaterial. The following analysis examines the concepts of metamaterials from a fundamental viewpoint. It does not seek to disrupt classical theories but instead demonstrates their validity to describe a new phenomenon. Several theories have been proposed that offer unique surface interactions as evidence of enhanced transmission. It is proposed that a fundamental Maxwell representation is sufficient in predicting the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with a metamaterial. In particular, a formalism has been developed to analyze enhanced transmission through a metallic grating structure. To experimentally validate this model, a fabrication procedure has been developed that allows for the production of quality thick film structures with subwavelength features. Finally, the analysis of metamaterials looks towards the RF spectrum to demonstrate a novel design to achieve conformal waveguides and antennas.

  15. NFB Interactive: Bla Bla

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Morisset, Vincent

    2012-07-06

    What does it mean to interact with art? To communicate? And what unique wrinkles may develop as an exploration of these questions is designed specifically for a computer? The National Film Board commissioned Vincent Morisset to create this interactive tale, and it is an experience that warrants several return trips. Morisset has a rather fascinating resume, as he has worked on creating music videos for Sigur Ros and Arcade Fire. Much like his films, this interactive online project requires the participation of the viewer. As the introduction to the film states: "without him or her, the characters remain inert, waiting for the next interaction. The spectator clicks, plays and searches through the simple, uncluttered scenes, truly driving the experience." Without saying too much about the film, visitors can get started by responding to the opening screen's request to "Click Anywhere." There are six "chapters" to the film, each one of which examines a principle of human communication. Visitors will find the playfulness, interesting characters, and unique shapes a real treat.

  16. Nucleon-nucleon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    Nucleon-nucleon interactions are at the heart of nuclear physics, bridging the gap between QCD and the effective interactions appropriate for the shell model. We discuss the current status of {ital NN} data sets, partial-wave analyses, and some of the issues that go into the construction of potential models. Our remarks are illustrated by reference to the Argonne {ital v}{sub 18} potential, one of a number of new potentials that fit elastic nucleon-nucleon data up to 350 MeV with a {Chi}{sup 2} per datum near 1. We also discuss the related issues of three-nucleon potentials, two-nucleon charge and current operators, and relativistic effects. We give some examples of calculations that can be made using these realistic descriptions of {ital NN} interactions. We conclude with some remarks on how our empirical knowledge of {ital NN} interactions may help constrain models at the quark level, and hence models of nucleon structure.

  17. Interaction: Examples and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, James B. M.

    2000-01-01

    Explores examples of software that employs interactivity to engage students in a dialogue with the past: (1) "Reverse America"; (2) "Pilgrims and Indians"; (3) "Keys to Victory in the War for Independence"; (4) "Monmouth"; (5) "Critical Period"; (6) "Translating"; (7) "Founders"; and (8) "Convention". (CMK)

  18. Weather and radar interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Booth

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of weather on radar system performance. This discussion were based on computer simulations and climatological data. The relationships between frequency and range were explored as they interact with the weather. This effort is being conducted in the RF Technology Division of the Applied Sensors, Guidance, and Electronics Directorate, US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development,

  19. Video surveillance of interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri Ivanov; Chris Stauffer; Aaron Bobick; W. E. L. Grimson

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic surveillance system, which performs labeling of events and interactions in an outdoor environment. The system is designed to monitor activities in an open parking lot. It consists of three components-an adaptive tracker, an event generator, which maps object tracks onto a set of pre-determined discrete events, and a stochastic parser. The system performs segmentation and

  20. Interacting Convection Zones

    E-print Network

    L. J. Silvers; M. R. E. Proctor

    2007-08-28

    We present results from simulations to examine how the separation between two convectively unstable layers affect their interaction. We show that two convectively unstable layers remain connected via the overshooting plumes even when they are separated by several pressure scale heights.

  1. SPATIAL INTERACTION DATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Thompson

    1974-01-01

    The lack of good flow data is a handicap to spatial interaction researth, yet many published works provide little evaluation of such data. Good quality flow data should provide spatial coverage at a large scale with small sampling and other error components. Few generally available data series for interregional commodity flows, interregional population migration, and intercity person movement in the

  2. Interactions between Lattice Hadrons

    E-print Network

    H. Rudolf Fiebig; Harald Markum

    2002-12-24

    The effective residual interaction for a system of hadrons has a long tradition in theoretical physics. It has been mostly addressed in terms of boson exchange models. The aim of this review is to describe approaches based on lattice field theory and numerical simulation. At the present time this subject matter is in an exploratory stage. A large array of problems waits to be tackled, so that known features of hadron-hadron interactions will eventually be understood in a model-independent way. The lattice formulation, being capable of dealing with the nonperturbative regime, describes strong-interaction physics from first principles, i.e. quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Although the physics of hadron-hadron interactions may be intrinsically complicated, the methods used in lattice simulations are simple: For the most part they are based on standard mass calculations. This chapter addresses commonly used techniques, within QCD and also simpler lattice models, describes important results, and also gives some insight into numerical methods for multi-quark systems.

  3. Interactively Modeling with Photogrammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Poulin; Mathieu Ouimet; Marie-claude Frasson

    1998-01-01

    We describe an interactive system to reconstruct 3D geometry and extract textures from a set of photographs taken with arbitrary camera parame- ters. The basic idea is to let the user draw 2D geometry on the images and set constraints using these drawings. Because the input comes directly from the user, he can more easily resolve most of the ambiguities

  4. KAIST Interactive Bicycle Simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-soo Kwon; Gi-hun Yang; Chong-won Lee; Jae-cheol Shin; Youngjin Park; Byungbo Jung; Doo Yong Lee; Kyungno Lee; Soon-Hung Han; Byoung-Hyun Yoo; Kwang-Yun Wohn; Jung-Hyun Ahn

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents key technologies and system integration issues of the KAIST interactive bicycle simulator. The rider on the bicycle feels the motion and has the visual experience as if he\\/she is riding in the campus of the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. The simulator consists of a bicycle, a Stewart platform, a magnetorheological handle, a pedal resistance

  5. $??$ Interaction and Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Yeunhwan Lim; Chang Ho Hyun; Kyujin Kwak; Chang-Hwan Lee

    2014-12-18

    We investigate the effect of the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interactions on the bulk properties of neutron star (NS). We employ a few Skyrme-type models and a finite-range force model in order to describe the $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ interactions for the nuclear matter of NS. With the model parameters that reproduce the binding energies of the double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei, we calculate the equation of state (EoS) for the matter of NS self-consistently. By solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation with the new EoS, we find that the bulk properties of NS, such as mass and radius, strongly depend on the $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ interactions. It has been generally known (as "hyperonization puzzle") that the existence of hyperons in NS matter is not well supported by the recent discovery of the high mass NS ($M_{NS} \\approx 2 M_\\odot$) because hyperons make the EoS soft. However, we find that some of our NS models can predict both the existence of the $\\sim 2 M_\\odot$ NS and the observationally constrained mass-radius relations. Our results indicate that the $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ interactions could provide a clue to this puzzle.

  6. Electronically Enhanced Classroom Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Stephen; Cargill, Julie; Cutts, Quintin

    A design rationale for introducing electronic equipment (a group response system) for student interaction in lecture theaters is presented, linking the instructional design to theory. The effectiveness of the equipment for learning depends mostly on what pedagogic method is employed. Various alternative types are introduced, including: assessment;…

  7. Roles and ta interactions

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    ses in Cell Signa e; Role of Natur ate Immunity an g the role of affer interplay betwee Basis Roger Abou Roles and ta interactions gliomas; mi Brian H. A Angiogenes David T. A Molecular M Repair Paula Q. B Regulation o activity by k roles in phy Douglas A. Mechanisms Timothy P. Regulation o

  8. Standardizing Interaction Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomassen, Aukje; Ozcan, Oguzhan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to which extend the didactic format of studio-based group-work is applicable for creating a common-ground for Interaction Design Education in European Perspective. The current debate on design education shows us a landscape of different initiatives. So far difficulties have arisen in the area of accreditation and…

  9. Childhood asthma: paternal critical attitude and father-child interaction.

    PubMed

    Schöbinger, R; Florin, I; Zimmer, C; Lindemann, H; Winter, H

    1992-12-01

    The study investigated paternal critical attitude (CA) and negative father-child communication in families with an asthmatic child and in controls. Twenty-seven children with bronchial asthma (6-13 yr) and 23 healthy children with their fathers participated in the project. Fathers were asked to describe their child (Five Minute Speech Sample; FMSS). Additionally, father and child discussed a mutual problem (Problem Discussion; PD). Tape recordings were taken. Critical attitude (CA) was assessed from the fathers' responses during the FMSS. Negative verbal behavior during PD was coded for father and child. During the FMSS, significantly more fathers of the asthmatic children than of the controls showed CA. During the PD, fathers of the asthmatic children made significantly more critical remarks than their controls. Significantly more long sequences of negative verbal communication occurred in father-child dyads with an asthmatic child than in the control dyads. No significant relationship was found between either the fathers' attitudes or amount of negative verbal communication and the children's severity of asthma, compliance, or IgE status. PMID:1432864

  10. Coworker exchange: Relationships between coworkers, leader-member exchange, and work attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn M. Sherony; Stephen G. Green

    2002-01-01

    The study of leadership exchanges is extended by studying both leader-member exchanges (LMXs) and coworker exchanges (CWXs). Data from 110 coworker dyads were used to examine relationships between LMXs and CWXs and between exchange relationships and work attitudes. As predicted, the interaction between 2 coworkers' LMX scores predicted CWX quality for the coworker dyad. Also, after controlling for LMX, greater

  11. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  12. Race Effects on the Employee Engagement-Turnover Intention Relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Jones; James K. Harter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we review extant research findings on employee engagement. We then outline and test potential differences in the relationship between engagement and intent to remain with the organization, based upon variations in the racial composition of the supervisor-employee dyad. Our analyses revealed an interaction whereby at low levels of engagement, members of different-race dyads report a lower tendency

  13. Covariations between Mothers' Responsiveness and Their Use of ''Do'' and ''Don't'' Instructions: Implications for Child Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigilante, Vanessa Ann; Wahler, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-two clinic-referred (20) and volunteer (32) mother-child dyads were observed in their home settings for 1 hour per dyad. Observers monitored the mothers' responsiveness during interactions with their children, and mothers' use of ''do'' and ''don't'' instructions were recorded; the children's compliance with instructions was also recorded,…

  14. Verbal and nonverbal interactions of four- and five-year-old friends in potential conflict situations.

    PubMed

    Tomada, Giovanna; Schneider, Barry H; Fonzi, Ada

    2002-09-01

    Dyads of 4- and 5-year-old friends and nonfriends attending preschools in central Italy were identified by friendship nominations. The 217 dyads of friends and non-friends participated in 2 closed-field tasks designed to simulate real-life situations of potential conflict. In the 4-year-old cohort, there were no significant differences in the behavior of the partners in either of the situations. However, at age 5 years, friends respected the rules of a fast-paced competitive game significantly more than did nonfriends. In discussing how to share a single object (a chocolate egg with a toy inside), 5-year-old friends were more likely to reach agreement than were nonfriends. The results suggest important developmental changes in the processes of negotiation and sharing within the preschool years. PMID:12230153

  15. Interacting Spin-2 Fields

    E-print Network

    Kurt Hinterbichler; Rachel A. Rosen

    2013-03-15

    We construct consistent theories of multiple interacting spin-2 fields in arbitrary spacetime dimensions using a vielbein formulation. We show that these theories have the additional primary constraints needed to eliminate potential ghosts, to all orders in the fields, and to all orders beyond any decoupling limit. We postulate that the number of spin-2 fields interacting at a single vertex is limited by the number of spacetime dimensions. We then show that, for the case of two spin-2 fields, the vielbein theory is equivalent to the recently proposed theories of ghost-free massive gravity and bi-metric gravity. The vielbein formulation greatly simplifies the proof that these theories have an extra primary constraint which eliminates the Boulware-Deser ghost.

  16. Interactives: The Periodic Table

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    It can be tricky to remember the position of lanthanides within the periodic table of elements, but this interactive feature from Annenberg Media's "Interactive" series will keep students in the know about those so-called "rare earth" elements. This particular feature begins with "Atomic Basics", which provides an overview of the atom and its various functions. After completing this section, visitors can test their knowledge with the "Name That Atom" game. The game is full of protons, neutrons, and electrons, but it should be no problem for students who've been paying attention to this lively exploration of the atom. Moving on through the site, visitors will learn about the periodic table's organization, isotopes, and the groups within the table, all the way from the alkali metals to the boron family.

  17. Pronouns in marital interaction.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Rachel A; Gordon, Peter C; Chambless, Dianne L

    2005-12-01

    Recent studies in social psychology have found that the frequency of certain words in people's speech and writing is related to psychological aspects of their personal health. We investigated whether counts of "self" and "other" pronouns used by 59 couples engaged in a problem-solving discussion were related to indices of marital health. One spouse in each couple had a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder or panic disorder with agoraphobia; 50% of the patients and 40% of their spouses reported marital dissatisfaction. Regardless of patients' diagnostic status, spouses who used more second-person pronouns were more negative during interactions, whereas those who used more first-person plural pronouns produced more positive problem solutions, even when negative behavior was statistically controlled. Moreover, use of first-person singular pronouns was positively associated with marital satisfaction. These findings suggest that pronouns used by spouses during conflict-resolution discussions provide insight into the quality of their interactions and marriages. PMID:16313655

  18. Interactive chemical reactivity exploration.

    PubMed

    Haag, Moritz P; Vaucher, Alain C; Bosson, Maël; Redon, Stéphane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-10-20

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the samson programming environment. PMID:25205397

  19. Diabetes Interactive Atlas.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Karen A; Burrows, Nilka R; Geiss, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas' maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity. PMID:24503340

  20. Evolution of intrafamilial interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, M.

    1987-12-01

    A theory for the evolution of behavioral interactions among relatives is developed that allows for genetic correlations between the types of behavior that are expressed in different social contexts. Both theoretical and empirical considerations indicate that such genetic constraints will almost certainly be common in natural populations. It is shown that when genetic correlations between elements of social behavior exist, Hamilton's rule inaccurately describes the conditions for evolution by the way of kin selection. The direction in which social organization evolves is a delicate function of the genetic covariance structure among behaviors expressed as an offspring, sibling, parent, etc. A change in this covariance structure caused by random genetic drift or by a change in environment for a population exhibiting genotype-environment interaction can cause the population to suddenly cross a threshold into a new selective domain. Consequently, radical changes in social organization may arise between closely related species without any major shift in selective pressure external to the population.

  1. Diabetes Interactive Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Nilka R.; Geiss, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas’ maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity. PMID:24503340

  2. Interactives: 3D Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How much liquid can that glass hold? What are the dimensions of that package that's heading off to a friend overseas? Answers to both of those questions (and many more) can be found in this lovely interactive feature on 3D shapes created by experts at the Annenberg Media group. Visitors to this site will learn about three-dimensional geometric shapes by examining a number of objects through a number of interactive exercises and games. The materials are divided into four sections, which include "3D Shapes", "Surface Area & Volume", and "Platonic Solids". The "Platonic Solids" area is quite a bit of fun, as visitors will get the opportunity to print out foldable shapes such as a tetrahedron. A short fifteen question quiz that tests the materials covered by these various activities rounds out the site.

  3. Cell interactions with Polymersomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis; Photos, Peter; Dan, Nily

    2002-03-01

    Polymersomes are liposome-like vesicles assembled in various aqueous media using PEO-based diblock copolymers. Injection into rats show clearance times comparable to PEO-decorated 'stealth' liposomes and end-distributions consistent with cell-based (i.e. phagocytic) removal. In vitro studies suggest the PEO brush successfully delays plasma protein adsorption over short time scales but not over tens of hours. The interfacial 'fouling' that occurs with such protein adsorption mediates interactions with phagocytic white cells. Similar fouling occurs with cells such as red cells as well, but these and other cells appear to possess specific proteins that turn off phagocytic responses. The results obtained with a wide range of copolymers thus suggest a default clearance pathway that cannot be avoided by passive means so much as turned off by specific interactions.

  4. DNA interactive timeline

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dolan DNA Learning Center. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    2005-01-01

    In need of an interactive, chronological account of genetic discoveries and the scientists who made them? The scrolling timeline on this module provides just that. Arranged in segments of time that begin in pre-1920's and end with post-2000, visitors can explore a range of videos, photographs, and personal accounts, as well as biographical information of scientists by clicking on their images. As visitors move their cursors over the images, they are prompted to click on pop-up windows for further information and additional interactive features. For instance, one image shows Linus Pauling?s proposed triple-stranded DNA. When visitors click on this image, they learn about the elementary mistake that Pauling made when proposing this structure. The timeline also incorporates notable world events that put the genetic discoveries into perspective. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  5. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

  6. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

  7. Plate Tectonics: Plate Interactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the fourth of five Science Objects in the Plate Tectonic SciPack. It identifies the events that may occur and landscapes that form as a result of different plate interactions. The areas along plate margins are active. Plates pushing against one another can cause earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain formation, and very deep ocean trenches. Plates pulling apart from one another can cause smaller earthquakes, magma rising to the surface, volcanoes, and oceanic valleys and mountains from sea-floor spreading. Plates sliding past one another can cause earthquakes and rock deformation. Learning Outcomes:? Explain why volcanoes and earthquakes occur along plate boundaries. ? Explain how new sea floor is created and destroyed.? Describe features that may be seen on the surface as a result of plate interactions.

  8. Pions interact with nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Hüfner

    1975-01-01

    This is a pedagogically oriented report about the interaction of pions with nuclei. The review is restricted to low and medium energy phenomena, i.e., to pion energies below 300 MeV. Pionic atoms, pion absorption and production, and the scattering around the (3,3) resonance are the main topics. The experimental data are interpreted within the frame of multiple scattering theory. The

  9. Personality and group interaction

    E-print Network

    Hair, Elizabeth Catherine

    1996-01-01

    Interaction. (May 1996) Elizabeth Catherine Hair, B. S. , Texas Aif M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. William G. Graziano This research is concerned with the interrelations between individual characteristics and "group climate". I probed... to William Graziano for his many hours of support in developing and implementing this study. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant ? SBR-92-12201 and the National Institute of Mental Health Grant ? R01 MH50069 awarded to Dr...

  10. Interactive collision detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip M. Hubbard

    1993-01-01

    Collision detection and response can make a virtual-reality application seem more believable. Unfortunately, existing collision-detection algorithms are too slow for interactive use. The authors present a new algorithm that is not only fast but also interruptible, allowing an application to trade quality for more speed. The algorithm uses simple four-dimensional geometry to approximate motion, and sets of spheres to approximate

  11. Interactive examination management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Vasupongayya; T. Kamolphiwong; S. Kamolphiwong; S. Sae-Wong

    2010-01-01

    To handle several online examination settings, a web-based application test management software, namely interactive examination management system (iEMS), is proposed in this paper. The outstanding points of the proposed system are its good architecture designs, ease of uses, rich features, flexibilities and extensibilities. Seven standard types of questions are supported including multiple-choice, true\\/false, matching, ordering, fill-in the blank, short answer

  12. Simulating Interactions of Characters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taku Komura; Hubert P. H. Shum; Edmond S. L. Ho

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to create scenes where multiple characters densely interact with each other. Manually creating the motions\\u000a of characters is time consuming due to the correlation of the movements between the characters. Capturing the motions of multiple\\u000a characters is also difficult as it requires a huge amount of post-processing of the data. In this paper, we explain the methods

  13. Multiple jet interactions 

    E-print Network

    Hehr, Roger James

    1983-01-01

    MULTIPLE JET INTERACTIONS A Thesis by ROGER JAMES HEHR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering... augmenting ejector systems in 3 such aircraft as the Mar1ne Corps/McDonnell Douglas AV-BB "Harrier". Schetz and Krzywoblocki present comprehensive reviews on the 2 4 works published concerning jets. The theoretical and experimental work relevant...

  14. Interactive multiresolution mesh editing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Zorin; Peter Schröder; Wim Sweldens

    1997-01-01

    We describe a multiresolution representation for meshes based on subdivision, which is a natural extension of the existing patch-based surface representations. Combining subdivision and the smooth-ing algorithms of Taubin [26] allows us to construct a set of algo-rithms for interactive multiresolution editing of complex hierarchi-cal meshes of arbitrary topology. The simplicity of the underly-ing algorithms for refinement and coarsification enables

  15. Video Surveillance of Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Bobick; Chris Stauffer; W. E. L. Grimson; Yuri Ivanov

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic surveillance system,which performs labeling of events and interactions in anoutdoor environment. The system is designed to monitoractivities in an open parking lot. It consists of three componentsan adaptive tracker, an event generator, which mapsobject tracks onto a set of pre-determined discrete events,and a stochastic parser. The system performs segmentationand labeling of surveillance video of a

  16. Interaction with Soil Microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hampp; M. T. Tarkka

    \\u000a Plant roots form a part of a multitude of organismic interactions within the soil. Due to the release of organic compounds\\u000a they attract diversified microbiological populations where fungi and bacteria can form distinct communities. In this root\\u000a sphere (“rhizosphere”), fungi can be extremely helpful for the plant in facilitating the supply of water and nutrients (mycorrhiza),\\u000a but also detrimental, if

  17. BioInteractive Neuroscience

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    HHMI (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)

    2011-08-01

    This website is a collection of lectures (the annual Holiday Lecture on Science series by leading neuroscientists) , animations, virtual labs, and images presented by nationally recognized neuroscientists. BioInteractive is a great resource for complex biological systems information. Particularly noteworthy is the Animations section, which presents high-quality movies of development of the human embryonic brain, molecular basis of early LTP, molecular mechanism of synaptic function, and many other dynamic phenomena. Provided by Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

  18. Interactive Media Authoring Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kok Wee Goh; Gangwen Mei; Shuzhi Sam Ge

    2008-01-01

    Advance in technologies has revolutionized the traditional mode of teaching and learning. Various media authoring systems\\u000a have been developed in order to enhance the effectiveness of learning and teaching processes by supplementing traditional\\u000a teaching materials such as text books and lecture notes with interactive digital media. In this paper, we are going to discuss\\u000a two media authoring systems, KooBits and

  19. The Interactive Astronomy Textbook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Fluke; David G. Barnes

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the use of in situ interactive three-dimensional (3-d) figures in digital astronomy textbooks as a means of enhancing student learning. The recent 3-d extensions to the Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF), combined with simple JavaScript, provide new ways to present intrinsically 3-d models, data sets, and instructional diagrams in digital publications. This is an enhancement to the usual

  20. ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN

    2013-07-30

    The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NO?A”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

  1. Interactive epistemology I: Knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Aumann

    1999-01-01

    .   Formal Interactive Epistemology deals with the logic of knowledge and belief when there is more than one agent or “player.”\\u000a One is interested not only in each person's knowledge about substantive matters, but also in his knowledge about the others'\\u000a knowledge. This paper examines two parallel approaches to the subject. The first is the semantic approach, in which knowledge

  2. Interactive epistemology II: Probability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Aumann

    1999-01-01

    .   Formal Interactive Epistemology deals with the logic of knowledge and belief when there is more than one agent or “player.”\\u000a One is interested not only in each person's knowledge and beliefs about substantive matters, but also in his knowledge and\\u000a beliefs about the others' knowledge and beliefs. This paper examines two parallel approaches to the subject. The first is

  3. Microbial Interactions - student worksheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joanna Verran

    This is a downloadable Microsoft Word document containing a 10-question student assessment worksheet to accompany the Microbial Interactions video segment of the Unseen Life on Earth series from Annenberg Media. The questions mirror language used in the video and focus on clearly stated facts. Thus, the worksheet assesses listening skills more than concept comprehension. This assessment would be appropriate for the secondary or introductory undergraduate level.

  4. Crystal structures of histone Sin mutant nucleosomes reveal altered protein–DNA interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uma M Muthurajan; Yunhe Bao; Lawrence J Forsberg; Rajeswari S Edayathumangalam; Pamela N Dyer; Cindy L White; Karolin Luger

    2004-01-01

    Here we describe 11 crystal structures of nucleosome core particles containing individual point mutations in the structured regions of histones H3 and H4. The mutated residues are located at the two protein-DNA interfaces flanking the nucleosomal dyad. Five of the mutations partially restore the in vivo effects of SWI\\/SNF inactivation in yeast. We find that even nonconservative mutations of these

  5. The Cation-Interaction Stabilizing Interaction Between a

    E-print Network

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    crystal structures and look for interacting pairs (F,Y,W)···(K,R) (geometric criterion). 359 interacting pairs found. ·Evaluate all pairs using HF/6-31G** theory ·Develop a force-field model that reproduces to Protein-Ligand/Drug-Receptor Interactions Multidrug resistance protein and related transporters (MDR

  6. Imitation, Interaction and Dialogue Using Intensive Interaction: Tea Party Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Intensive Interaction has become widely used when building up communication with children with profound learning difficulties. Often practitioners understand Intensive Interaction to be primarily about imitation and Mark Barber shows how this can be a "mis"understanding that limits the kinds of interactions that can be enjoyed by conversation…

  7. Nontrophic interactions, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning: an interaction web model.

    PubMed

    Goudard, Alexandra; Loreau, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Research into the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has mainly focused on the effects of species diversity on ecosystem properties in plant communities and, more recently, in food webs. Although there is growing recognition of the significance of nontrophic interactions in ecology, these interactions are still poorly studied theoretically, and their impact on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is largely unknown. Existing models of mutualism usually consider only one type of species interaction and do not satisfy mass balance constraints. Here, we present a model of an interaction web that includes both trophic and nontrophic interactions and that respects the principle of mass conservation. Nontrophic interactions are represented in the form of interaction modifications. We use this model to study the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem properties that emerges from the assembly of entire interaction webs. We show that ecosystem properties such as biomass and production depend not only on species diversity but also on species interactions, in particular on the connectance and magnitude of nontrophic interactions, and that the nature, prevalence, and strength of species interactions in turn depend on species diversity. Nontrophic interactions alter the shape of the relationship between biodiversity and biomass and can profoundly influence ecosystem processes. PMID:18171154

  8. Industry InteractiveIndustry Interactive Procurement SystemProcurement System

    E-print Network

    Industry InteractiveIndustry Interactive Procurement SystemProcurement System (IIPS)(IIPS) Douglas posted to IIPS Grants.Gov is the single government point- of-entry for discretionary financial assistance button Click on the Industry Interactive Procurement System radio button A dialog box appears ­ Enter

  9. Cardiovascular Interactions Model and Demonstration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Carl F. Rothe (Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology)

    2005-06-22

    The Cardiovascular Interactions Project is an electronic active learning tool that demonstrates the complex and intricate interactions between the functions of the heart and peripheral circulation to provide an adequate cardiac output during various stresses.

  10. Interactive interface to NCAR graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on interactive interface to NCAR graphics are presented. Topics covered include: NCAR graphics features; NCAR graphics components; NCAR graphics utilities; NCAR graphics programmatic interface; a typical application; and overview of NCAR interactive.

  11. Ch??-interactions in proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Brandl; Manfred S. Weiss; Andreas Jabs; Jürgen Sühnel; Rolf Hilgenfeld

    2001-01-01

    A non-redundant set of 1154 protein structures from the Protein Data Bank was examined with respect to close interactions between C-H-donor and ?-acceptor groups. A total of 31,087 interactions were found to satisfy our selection criteria. Their geometric parameters suggest that these interactions can be classified as weak hydrogen bonds.A set of 12 interaction classes were defined based on the

  12. Ridge Regression for Interactive Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory study of the value of ridge regression for interactive models is reported. Assuming that the linear terms in a simple interactive model are centered to eliminate non-essential multicollinearity, a variety of common models, representing both ordinal and disordinal interactions, are shown to have "orientations" that are favorable to…

  13. Mapping Letters through Interaction Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Iturrioz; Jorge Cano; Monica Wachowicz

    2009-01-01

    Many kinds of text documents (e.g. newspapers, reports and letters) provide a potential source of geo-referenced information that is often underutilized. In interaction design, the use of dynamic icons and animation plays an important role in creating a sense of interactivity and feedback with virtual worlds. This paper shall focus on developing an interaction design approach for improving information retrieval

  14. Grapefruit-drug interactions: can interactions with drugs be avoided?

    PubMed

    Mertens-Talcott, S U; Zadezensky, I; De Castro, W V; Derendorf, H; Butterweck, V

    2006-12-01

    Grapefruit is rich in flavonoids, which have been demonstrated to have a preventive influence on many chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, since the early 1990s, the potential health benefits of grapefruit have been overshadowed by the possible risk of interactions between drugs and grapefruit and grapefruit juice. Several drugs interacting with grapefruit are known in different drug classes, such as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and immunosuppressives. Currently known mechanisms of interaction include the inhibition of cytochrome P450 as a major mechanism, but potential interactions with P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporters have also been reported. This review is designed to provide a comprehensive summary of underlying mechanisms of interaction and human clinical trials performed in the area of grapefruit drug interactions and to point out possible replacements for drugs with a high potential for interactions. PMID:17101740

  15. GEF-effector interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Arf family of small GTP-binding proteins, or GTPases, are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that catalyze GDP release from their substrate Arf, allowing GTP to bind. In the secretory pathway, Arf1 is first activated by GBF1 at the cis-Golgi, then by BIG1 and BIG2 at the trans-Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN). Upon activation, Arf1-GTP interacts with effectors such as coat complexes, and is able to recruit different coat complexes to different membrane sites in cells. The COPI coat is primarily recruited to cis-Golgi membranes, whereas other coats, such as AP-1/clathrin, and GGA/clathrin, are recruited to the trans-Golgi and the TGN. Although Arf1-GTP is required for stable association of these various coats to membranes, and is sufficient in vitro, other molecules, such as vesicle cargo and coat receptors on the membrane, contribute to specificity of coat recruitment in cells. Another mechanism to achieve specificity is interaction of effectors such as coats with the GEF itself, which would increase the concentration of a given coat in proximity to the site where Arf is activated, thus favoring its recruitment. This interaction between a GEF and an effector could also provide a mechanism for spatial organization of vesicle budding sites, similar to that described for Cdc42-mediated establishment of polarity sites such as the emerging bud in yeast. Another factor affecting the amount of freely diffusible Arf1-GTP in membranes is the GEF(s) themselves acting as effectors. Sec7p, the yeast homolog of mammalian BIG1 and BIG2, and Arno/cytohesin 2, a PM-localized Arf1 GEF, both bind to Arf1-GTP. This binding to the products of the exchange reaction establishes a positive feedback loop for activation. PMID:25610717

  16. DNA interactive genome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dolan DNA Learning Center. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    2005-01-01

    This site offers three interactive modules that explore the human genetic landscape and the methods used to map and sequence the entire human genome. The modules include a tour of the 23 pairs of chromosomes, genome mining to extract data about genes, and the Human Genome Project itself. Each module is subdivided into additional parts. These parts include videos, tutorials, and computer simulations. For instance, in one simulation visitors are to arrange a scrambled segment of DNA by clicking and dragging the fragments into the correct order. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  17. Multiple jet interactions

    E-print Network

    Hehr, Roger James

    1983-01-01

    Multiple Jet Interactions. (August 1983) Roger James Hehr, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. David J. Norton An experimental study to determine the effects of changing the nozzle separation ratio, h/D, of a linear array... of round jets on the veloc1ty field 40 nozzle diameters downstream of the nozzle exits was conducted. An init1al study of the individual jets comprisino the array was also conducted to provide a basis of comparison for future stud1es and for ver1ficat1...

  18. DNA interactive chronicle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dolan DNA Learning Center. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    2005-01-01

    This site contains four interactive modules that offer teachers a direct look at how information about genetics can be misapplied and misinterpreted within societies. The modules are arranged by topics that focus on Eugenics, Carrie Buck and forced sterilization, Nazi Germany and the elimination of mental illnesses, and a personal account of a woman living with manic depression. Each module is subdivided into additional parts. These parts include images, videos, and simulations of contributions to this controversial aspect of genetics. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  19. Interactive Classification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    2000-01-01

    The investigators upgraded a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the more effective use of the technologies in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project were: 1) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate a wider range of meaning; 2) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded; and 3) the development of an interpreter for SL that would handle representations of some basic cognitive acts and perspectives.

  20. Detection of molecular interactions

    DOEpatents

    Groves, John T. (Berkeley, CA); Baksh, Michael M. (Fremont, CA); Jaros, Michal (Brno, CH)

    2012-02-14

    A method and assay are described for measuring the interaction between a ligand and an analyte. The assay can include a suspension of colloidal particles that are associated with a ligand of interest. The colloidal particles are maintained in the suspension at or near a phase transition state from a condensed phase to a dispersed phase. An analyte to be tested is then added to the suspension. If the analyte binds to the ligand, a phase change occurs to indicate that the binding was successful.