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Sample records for c-coriolis interacting dyad

  1. Attachment predicting nonverbal behaviour, interaction quality and perception accuracy in romantic and stranger dyads 

    E-print Network

    Witts, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the nonverbal, interaction quality and perceptual accuracy correlates of attachment style within two interactions groups; strangers and romantic couples. Twenty eight stranger dyads and twenty eight ...

  2. Attachment : predicting non verbal behaviour, interaction quality and perception accuracy in romantic and stranger dyads 

    E-print Network

    Hope, Gary

    2006-01-01

    A variety of non-verbal behaviours were coded and rated from videotaped interactions between 28 stranger and 28 couple dyads. A composite measure of Bartholomew’s (1990, 1991) RSQ & RQ attachment scales was used to derive ...

  3. When Training with a Partner Is Inferior to Training Alone: The Importance of Dyad Type and Interaction Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Amy E.; Beier, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Dyad training, where trainees learn in pairs but ultimately perform individually, has been shown to be an effective method for training some skills. The effectiveness of this approach, however, may be tied to the type of task to be trained and the quality of the interaction in the dyad. We report two studies on the effectiveness of dyad training…

  4. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were examined and compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were positively related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother object-oriented behaviors were positively related only among European Americans. In all groups, infant and mother behaviors within each modality were mutually contingent. Culture moderated lead-lag relations: Japanese infants were more likely than their mothers to respond in object-oriented interactions, European American mothers were more likely than their infants to respond in person-oriented interactions. Japanese American dyads behaved more like European American dyads. Interaction, infant effects, and parent socialization findings are set in cultural and accultural models of transactions between young infants and their mothers. PMID:22860874

  5. Bids for joint attention by parent-child dyads and by dyads of young peers in interaction.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Before they are 3;0-3;6, children typically do not engage with peers in focused interaction, although they do with adults. With parents, children interact around the 'here-and-now'. We hypothesize that young peers do not attempt to establish joint attention to present objects. Using the CHILDES database, we compared attention-directives produced by parents to children, children to peers, and children to parents. Of 391 English-speaking parents, 88% generated attention-directives, mostly Look!, See!, and Watch! Of 15 children (2;10-3;7) engaging in dyadic peer-interaction, only 26% produced such utterances. By comparison, 62% of 268 children (1;2-3;3) addressed such directives to parents. Interaction with peers in young children does not involve joint attention to a shared environmental focus, although it does with parents. The reason may be pragmatic: shared attention in parent-child dyads is a means to get information or help; it may seem pointless for a child to address such directives to a peer. PMID:25702839

  6. Superabsorbing Fullerenes: Spectral and Kinetic Characterization of Photoinduced Interactions in Perylenediimide-Fullerene-C60 Dyads

    E-print Network

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    Superabsorbing Fullerenes: Spectral and Kinetic Characterization of Photoinduced Interactions in Perylenediimide-Fullerene-C60 Dyads Je´ro^me Baffreau, Ste´phanie Leroy-Lhez, Pie´trick Hudhomme, Michiel M energy transfer to the fullerene unit, as shown with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

  7. Dynamic analyses of mother-child interactions in functional and dysfunctional dyads: a synergetic approach.

    PubMed

    Dumas, J E; Lemay, P; Dauwalder, J P

    2001-08-01

    Describes the application of a new analytical approach (derived from synergetics, a complex dynamic systems theory) to home observational data of mother-child interactions in average dyads and dyads with children referred for disruptive behavior problems at home and school (n = 11 in each group). Results show that (1) the two groups differed in their daily interactions in predictable ways, and (2) the most frequent patterns of interactions observed in the two groups brought them back repeatedly to behave in similar ways toward each other. The findings are in keeping with a body of literature on mother-child interactions. However, they add to it by providing multivariate. graphical representations of these interactions and by offering a conceptual framework within which to move from an observational to an inferential level of analysis. At that level, the transactional processes that are characteristic of functional and dysfunctional relationships may become apparent. PMID:11523837

  8. Mother-infant interaction improves with a developmental intervention for mother-preterm infant dyads.

    PubMed

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-12-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = 0.05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

  9. MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTION IMPROVES WITH A DEVELOPMENTAL INTERVENTION FOR MOTHER-PRETERM INFANT DYADS

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F.; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M.; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant‘s biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29–34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention Control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training–Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-minute play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = .06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = .05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

  10. Drug-protein interactions assessed by fluorescence measurements in the real complexes and in model dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayá, Ignacio; Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Jiménez, M. Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2010-02-01

    In the present work, a systematic fluorescence study on supramolecular systems using two serum albumins (HSA or BSA) as hosts and the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs carprofen (CPF) or naproxen (NPX) as guests has been undertaken. In parallel, model dyads containing Tyr or Trp covalently linked to CPF or NPX have also been investigated. In HSA/(S)-CPF and BSA/(S)-CPF ( ?exc = 266 nm), at 1:1 M ratio, an important degree (more than 40%) of singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) was observed to take place. The distance ( r) calculated for energy transfer from the SAs to (S)-CPF through a FRET mechanism was found to be ca. 21 Å. In the case of HSA/(S)-NPX and BSA/(S)-NPX, energy transfer occurred to a lower extent (ca. 7%), and r was determined as ca. 24 Å. In order to investigate the possible excited state interactions between bound ligands and the relevant amino acids present in the protein binding sites, four pairs of model dyads were designed and synthesised, namely ( S, S)-TyrCPF, ( S, R)-TyrCPF, ( S, S)-TrpCPF, ( S, R)-TrpCPF, ( S, S)-TyrNPX, ( S, R)-TyrNPX, ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX. A complete SSET was observed from Tyr or Trp to CPF, since no contribution from the amino acids was present in the emission of the dyads. Likewise, a very efficient Tyr or Trp to NPX energy transfer was observed. Remarkably, in ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX a configuration-dependent reduction in the emission intensity was observed, revealing a strong and stereoselective intramolecular quenching. This effect can be attributed to exciplex formation and is dynamic in nature, as the fluorescence lifetimes were much shorter in ( S, R)- and ( S, S)-TrpNPX (1.5 and 3.1 ns, respectively) than in (S)-NPX (11 ns).

  11. Maternal Holding of Preterm Infants During the Early Weeks After Birth and Dyad Interaction at Six Months

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Madalynn; Robinson, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether a supportive nursing intervention that promoted kangaroo holding of healthy preterm infants by their mothers during the early weeks of the infant’s life facilitated co-regulation between mother and infant at six months of age. Design Randomized controlled trial. Participants Sixty-five mother-infant dyads with mean gestational age at birth of 33 weeks. Fifty percent of infants were male, and 50% were non-White. Interventions An eight week home intervention encouraged daily one hour, uninterrupted holding with either blanket (baby wrapped in blanket and held in mother’s arms) or the kangaroo (baby in skin-to-skin contact on mother’s chest) method. In both conditions, weekly home visits by an experienced RN included encouragement to hold the infant, emotional support, and information about infant behavior and development. A control group received brief social visits, had no holding constraints, and participated in all assessments. Main Outcome Measures When infants were six months of age, the Still-Face Procedure was used to assess mother-infant interaction. Outcome measures were co-regulation of the dyad’s responses during the play episodes of the Still Face Procedure and vitality in infant efforts to re-engage the mother during the neutral face portion of the Still Face procedure. Results Significant differences among groups were found in mother-infant co-regulation. Post hoc analysis showed that dyads who were supported in kangaroo holding displayed more co-regulation behavior during play than dyads in the blanket holding group. No differences were found between groups in infant vitality during the neutral face portion of the Still Face Procedure. Conclusion Dyads supported in practicing kangaroo holding in the early weeks of life may develop more co-regulated interactional strategies than other dyads. PMID:20629927

  12. Patterns of Conflict Interaction in Mother-Toddler Dyads: Differences between Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Huang, Keng-Yen; Lima, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We examined the differences in conflict interaction between depressed mothers and their toddler and non-depressed dyads and whether these differences mediated the association of maternal depression with compromised child socioemotional development. Mother/child interaction was videotaped during a teaching task and during a free play task as part…

  13. Two-Photon Study on the Electronic Interactions between the First Excited Singlet States in Carotenoid-Tetrapyrrole Dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Pen-Nan; Pillai, Smitha; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Walla, Peter J.

    2011-03-22

    Electronic interactions between the first excited states (S1) of carotenoids (Car) of different conjugation lengths (8-11 double bonds) and phthalocyanines (Pc) in different Car-Pc dyad molecules were investigated by two-photon spectroscopy and compared with Car S1-chlorophyll (Chl) interactions in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes (LHCs). The observation of Chl/Pc fluorescence after selective two-photon excitation of the Car S1 state allowed sensitive monitoring of the flow of energy between Car S1 and Pc or Chl. It is found that two-photon excitation excites to about 80% to 100% exclusively the carotenoid state Car S1 and that only a small fraction of direct tetrapyrrole two-photon excitation occurs. Amide-linked Car-Pc dyads in tetrahydrofuran demonstrate a molecular gear shift mechanism in that effective Car S1 ? Pc energy transfer is observed in a dyad with 9 double bonds in the carotenoid, whereas in similar dyads with 11 double bonds in the carotenoid, the Pc fluorescence is strongly quenched by Pc ? Car S1 energy transfer. In phenylamino-linked Car-Pc dyads in toluene extremely large electronic interactions between the Car S1 state and Pc were observed, particularly in the case of a dyad in which the carotenoid contained 10 double bonds. This observation together with previous findings in the same system provides strong evidence for excitonic Car S1-Pc Qy interactions. Very similar results were observed with photosynthetic LHC II complexes in the past, supporting an important role of such interactions in photosynthetic down-regulation.

  14. Pattern of mother-child feeding interactions in preterm and term dyads at 18 and 24 months.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, Paola; Andrei, Federica; Neri, Erica; Chirico, Ilaria; Trombini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Literature on mother-child feeding interactions during the transition to self-feeding in preterm populations is lacking, particularly through observational methods. The present research study aims to look at the longitudinal patterns of mother-toddler feeding interactions, comparing preterm and full term dyads. To this end, a multi-method approach was used to collect data from 27 preterm to 20 full-term toddlers and their mothers. For each dyad, mother-child interactions were observed during the snack time at 18 and 24 months of age and then assessed through the Italian version of the Feeding Scale. Higher scores on the scale indicate a less healthy pattern of interaction. Additionally, at both points in time, mothers completed the BDI-II questionnaire as a screen for maternal depression and the child's developmental stage was assessed using the Griffiths Scales. A series of repeated measures Analysis of Variances were run to detect differences in feeding interactions between the two groups at the time of assessment. Our results show that preterm dyads report overall higher levels of maternal negative affection, interactional conflicts, and less dyadic reciprocity during the meal compared to full-term dyads. Additionally, longitudinal data show that dyadic conflict decreases in both groups, whereas the child's food refusal behaviors increase in the preterm group from 18 to 24 months. No differences were reported for both the BDI-II and the child's development for the two groups. The results reveal that regardless of maternal depression and the child's developmental stage, the two groups show different trajectories in the pattern of feeding interactions during the transition to self -feeding, at 18 and 24 months, with overall less positive interactions in preterm mother-child dyads. PMID:26347699

  15. Pattern of mother–child feeding interactions in preterm and term dyads at 18 and 24 months

    PubMed Central

    Salvatori, Paola; Andrei, Federica; Neri, Erica; Chirico, Ilaria; Trombini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Literature on mother–child feeding interactions during the transition to self-feeding in preterm populations is lacking, particularly through observational methods. The present research study aims to look at the longitudinal patterns of mother–toddler feeding interactions, comparing preterm and full term dyads. To this end, a multi-method approach was used to collect data from 27 preterm to 20 full-term toddlers and their mothers. For each dyad, mother–child interactions were observed during the snack time at 18 and 24 months of age and then assessed through the Italian version of the Feeding Scale. Higher scores on the scale indicate a less healthy pattern of interaction. Additionally, at both points in time, mothers completed the BDI-II questionnaire as a screen for maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage was assessed using the Griffiths Scales. A series of repeated measures Analysis of Variances were run to detect differences in feeding interactions between the two groups at the time of assessment. Our results show that preterm dyads report overall higher levels of maternal negative affection, interactional conflicts, and less dyadic reciprocity during the meal compared to full-term dyads. Additionally, longitudinal data show that dyadic conflict decreases in both groups, whereas the child’s food refusal behaviors increase in the preterm group from 18 to 24 months. No differences were reported for both the BDI-II and the child’s development for the two groups. The results reveal that regardless of maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage, the two groups show different trajectories in the pattern of feeding interactions during the transition to self –feeding, at 18 and 24 months, with overall less positive interactions in preterm mother–child dyads. PMID:26347699

  16. Bids for Joint Attention by Parent-Child Dyads and by Dyads of Young Peers in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Before they are 3;0-3;6, children typically do not engage with peers in focused interaction, although they do with adults. With parents, children interact around the "here-and-now". We hypothesize that young peers do not attempt to establish joint attention to present objects. Using the CHILDES database, we compared attention-directives…

  17. Directly Connected AzaBODIPY-BODIPY Dyad: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Ground- and Excited-State Interactions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunit; Gobeze, Habtom B; Chatterjee, Tamal; D'Souza, Francis; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2015-07-30

    Directly connected, strongly interacting sensitizer donor-acceptor dyads mimic light-induced photochemical events of photosynthesis. Here, we devised a dyad composed of BF2-chelated dipyrromethene (BODIPY) directly linked to BF2-chelated tetraarylazadipyrromethene (azaBODIPY) through the ?-pyrrole position of azaBODIPY. Structural integrity of the dyad was arrived from two-dimensional NMR spectral studies, while single-crystal X-ray structure of the dyad provided the relative orientation of the two macrocycles to be ?62°. Because of direct linking of the two entities, ultrafast energy transfer from the (1)BODIPY* to azaBODIPY was witnessed. A good agreement between the theoretically estimated Förster energy transfer rate and experimentally determined rate was observed, and this rate was found to be higher than that reported for BODIPY-azaBODIPY analogues connected with spacer units. In agreement with the free-energy calculations, the product of energy transfer, (1)azaBODIPY* revealed additional photochemical events such as electron transfer leading to the creation of BODIPY(•+)-azaBODIPY(•-) radical ion pair, more so in polar benzonitrile than in nonpolar toluene, as evidenced by femtosecond transient spectroscopic studies. Additionally, the spectral, electrochemical, and photochemical studies of the precursor compound azaBODIPY-dipyrromethane also revealed occurrence of excited-state events. In this case, electron transfer from the (1)azaBODIPY* to dipyrromethane (DPM) yielded DPM(•+)-azaBODIPY(•-) charge-separated state. The study described here stresses the role of close association of the donor and acceptor entities to promote ultrafast photochemical events, applicable of building fast-response optoelectronic and energy-harvesting devices. PMID:26161574

  18. Information Interactions between Members of Science-Profession Dyads as Reflected by Journal Use: Ichthyology and Fisheries Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, F. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the science-profession dyad of ichthyology and fisheries biology through citation analysis of the journal literature. It found that the fields overlap in the journals cited, and, although differences in citation behavior were identified, some exchange of information within the dyad was indicated. (38 references) (Author/MES)

  19. Analyte interactions with a new ditopic dansylamide-nitrobenzoxadiazole dyad: a combined photophysical, NMR, and theoretical (DFT) study.

    PubMed

    Bhoi, Abhas Kumar; Das, Sudhir Kumar; Majhi, Debashis; Sahu, Prabhat Kumar; Nijamudheen, A; N, Anoop; Rahaman, Abdur; Sarkar, Moloy

    2014-08-21

    We report herein the synthesis and photophysical studies on a new multicomponent chemosensor dyad comprising two fluorescing units, dansylamide (DANS) and nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD). The system has been developed to investigate receptor-analyte binding interactions in the presence of both cations and anions in a single molecular system. A dimethyl amino (in the DANS unit) group is used as a receptor for cations, and acidic hydrogens of sulfonamide and the NBD group are used as receptors for anions. The system is characterized by conventional analytical techniques. The photophysical properties of this supramolecular system in the absence and presence of various metal ions and nonmetal ions as additives are investigated in an acetonitrile medium. Utility of this system in an aqueous medium has also been demonstrated. The absorption and fluorescence spectrum of the molecular system consists of a broad band typical of an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition. A low quantum yield and lifetime of the NBD moiety in the present dyad indicates photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between DANS and the NBD moiety. The fluorescence intensity of the system is found to decrease in the presence of fluoride and acetate anions; however, the quenching is found to be much higher for fluoride. This quenching behavior is attributed to the enhanced PET from the anion receptor to the fluorophore moiety. The mechanistic aspect of the fluoride ion signaling behavior has also been studied by infrared (IR) and (1)H NMR experiments. The hydrogen bonding interaction between the acidic NH protons of the DPN moiety and F(-) is found to be primarily responsible for the fluoride selective signaling behavior. While investigating the cation signaling behavior, contrary to anions, significant fluorescence enhancement has been observed only in the presence of transition-metal ions. This behavior is rationalized by considering the disruption of PET communication between DANS and the NBD moiety due to transition-metal ion binding. Theoretical (density functional theory) studies are also performed for the better understanding of the receptor-analyte interaction. Interestingly, negative cooperativity in binding is observed when the interaction of this system is studied in the presence of both Zn(2+) and F(-). Fluorescence microscopy studies also revealed that the newly developed fluorescent sensor system can be employed as an imaging probe in live cells. PMID:25116958

  20. Photonics of styrylquinoline dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budyka, Mikhail F.

    2015-07-01

    Three types of bichromophoric styrylquinoline (SQ) dyads are discussed in the review: bisstyrylquinoline dyads, styrylquinoline-merocyanine dyads, and styrylquinoline-naphthol dyads, in comparison with the corresponding model monochromophoric compounds. A variety of photochemical and photophysical processes is observed in the dyads: photoluminescence, reversible and kinetic-driven one-way photoisomerization, [2+2]photocycloaddition with formation of a single rctt-isomer of the cyclobutane derivative, Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) where the SQ chromophore can act as an energy donor or acceptor. Operation of the dyads as photoswitches and molecular logic gates is also considered.

  1. Excited state interactions between flurbiprofen and tryptophan in drug-protein complexes and in model dyads. Fluorescence studies from the femtosecond to the nanosecond time domains.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Ignacio; Bonancía, Paula; Jiménez, M Consuelo; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Gustavsson, Thomas; Miranda, Miguel A

    2013-04-01

    We report here on the interaction dynamics between flurbiprofen (FBP) and tryptophan (Trp) covalently linked in model dyads and in a complex of FBP with human serum albumin (HSA) probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy from the femto- to the nano-second timescales. In the dyads, a rapid (k > 10(10) s(-1)) dynamic quenching of the (1)FBP* fluorescence is followed by a slower (k > 10(9) s(-1)) quenching of the remaining (1)Trp* fluorescence. Both processes display a clear stereoselectivity; the rates are 2-3 times higher for the (R,S)-dyad. In addition, a red-shifted exciplex emission is observed, rising in the range of 100-200 ps. A similar two-step dynamic fluorescence quenching is also observed in the FBP-HSA complex, although the kinetics of the involved processes are slower. The characteristic reorientational times determined for the two enantiomeric forms of FBP in the protein show that the interaction is stronger for the (R)-form. This is, to our knowledge, the first observation of stereo-selective flurbiprofen-tryptophan interaction dynamics with femtosecond time resolution. PMID:23426282

  2. Reciprocal Cooperation in Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mithaug, Dennis E.; Wolfe, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the development of reciprocal cooperation in dyads by allowing one subject at a time to be dependent upon a partner and then reversing this condition periodically. Subjects were 10 special education unit students who ranged in age from 10 to 16 years. (MP)

  3. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: a comparison between full-term and preterm dyads.

    PubMed

    Hall, R A S; Hoffenkamp, H N; Tooten, A; Braeken, J; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother's representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and infant attachment. The participants were mothers of full-term (n = 75), moderately preterm (n = 68) and very preterm infants (n = 67). Maternal representations were assessed by the Working Model of the Child Interview at 6 months post-partum. Maternal interactive behavior was evaluated at 6 and 24 months post-partum, using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Care Research Network mother-infant observation scales. Infant attachment was observed at 24 months post-partum and was coded by the Attachment Q-Set. The results reveal that a premature childbirth does not necessarily generate disrupted maternal representations of the infant. Furthermore, maternal interactive behavior appears to be an important mechanism through which maternal representations influence the development of infant attachment in full-term and preterm infants. Early assessment of maternal representations can identify mother-infant dyads at risk, in full-term and preterm samples. PMID:24875043

  4. Does Culture Interact with Media Richness? The Effects of Audio vs. Video Conferencing on Chinese and American Dyads

    E-print Network

    Fussell, Susan R.

    for future work. 1.1 Culture and communication Work in cross-cultural psychology, anthropology, and related for and expectations about interpersonal communication (e.g., [7]). Some cultures, for example, rely more heavily on nonverbal cues than do others [8]. Problems can arise in cross- cultural interactions due to mismatches

  5. Peer-Assisted Learning in the Physical Activity Domain: Dyad Type and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Gernigon, Christophe; Huet, Marie-Laure; Cadopi, Marielle; Winnykamen, Fayda

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed peer interactions in high school students practicing a swimming skill, examining potential dyad type-by- gender differences in peer interaction modes (guidance-tutoring, imitation, cooperation, and parallel activity). Students trained in symmetrical (same competence) or asymmetrical (different competence) same-sex dyads. Tutoring and…

  6. Perceived HIV stigma in AIDS caregiving dyads.

    PubMed

    Wight, Richard G; Aneshensel, Carol S; Murphy, Debra A; Miller-Martinez, Dana; Beals, Kristin P

    2006-01-01

    This study examines perceived HIV stigma in AIDS caregiving dyads in the United States, assessing the measurement of and correlates of personal stigma (among care-recipients living with HIV), courtesy stigma (among caregivers), and dyadic stigma. Survey data from 135 dyads in which the caregiver is a midlife or older mother or wife, and the care-recipient is her HIV-infected adult son or husband, are analyzed with individual-level and multilevel regression models. Results indicate that: (1) perceived stigma can be reliably measured among both persons living with HIV (PLH) and caregivers; (2) personal stigma can be distinguished from courtesy stigma; (3) perceived stigma is relatively low in this sample, and is higher among PLH than caregivers, higher among caregiving wives than mothers, and similar between PLH who are husbands and sons; (4) dyadic stigma is influenced by the caregiver's HIV status, the ethnic composition of the dyad, caregiving duration, and household income; (5) stigma discrepancy within dyads is a function of health discrepancy within dyads; and (6) differences in multivariate correlates of perceived stigma at the individual-level, in comparison to the dyad-level, suggest that dyadic stigma is a unique construct. A recognition that perceived stigma bears its own unique influence on the caregiving dyad is important for understanding how best to allocate resources aimed at alleviating stigma among individuals and families impacted by HIV. PMID:16039763

  7. A Biochemical/Biophysical Assay Dyad for HTS-Compatible Triaging of Inhibitors of the HIV-1 Nef/Hck SH3 Interaction.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Sebastian; Espinola, Sheryll; Morelli, Xavier; Torbett, Bruce E; Arold, Stefan T; Engels, Ingo H

    2013-01-01

    The current treatment regimens for HIV include over 20 anti-retrovirals. However, adverse drug effects and the emergence of drug resistance necessitates the continued improvement of the existing drug classes as well as the development of novel drugs that target as yet therapeutically unexploited viral and cellular pathways. Here we demonstrate a strategy for the discovery of protein-protein interaction inhibitors of the viral pathogenicity factor HIV-1 Nef and its interaction with the host factor SH3. A combination of a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy resonance energy transfer-based assay and a label-free resonant waveguide grating-based assay was optimized for high-throughput screening formats. PMID:24396731

  8. Gaze and Vocalization in Mother-Infant Dyads: Conversation or Coincidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alan; Elliott, Tony

    This paper reports two studies which examined sequential dependence in the dyadic interaction between mother and infant. In the first study, brief videotaped behavioral samples were collected for 24 primiparous mother-infant (M - I) dyads to examine the degree of reciprocal contingency in M - I interactions. Two coders, using a computer interfaced…

  9. Sex-Role Orientation and Relationship Development in Same-Sex Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamke, Leanne K.; Bell, Nancy J.

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the relationship between sex-role identity, behavioral interaction, and interpersonal attraction in an initial extended encounter. Female subjects (N=82) identified as either feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated participated in same-sex dyads. Results of the combined initial and final unstructured interactions indicated greater…

  10. Modulation of Phenol Oxidation in Cofacial Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bon Jun; Huynh, Michael; Halbach, Robert L.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation of two phenols on a xanthene backbone is akin to the tyrosine dyad (Y730 and Y731) of ribonucleotide reductase. X-ray crystallography reveals that the two phenol moieties are cofacially disposed at 4.35 Å. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) reveals that phenol oxidation is modulated within the dyad, which exhibits a splitting of one-electron waves with the second oxidation of the phenol dyad occurring at larger positive potential than that of a typical phenol. In contrast, a single phenol appended to a xanthene exhibits a two-electron (ECE) process, consistent with reported oxidation pathways of phenols in acetonitrile. The perturbation of the phenol potential by stacking is reminiscent of a similar effect for guanines stacked within DNA base pairs. PMID:26305909

  11. The Premarital Dyad During the Sixties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, J. Joel; And Others

    1971-01-01

    This extensive article covers three aspects of the premarital dyad: courtship development, dating behavior and satisfactions, and mate selection. It appears that the interplay of needs and roles seems to be a major part of discussion relevant to mate selection. (Author/CJ)

  12. An Attempt To Design Synchronous Collaborative Learning Environments for Peer Dyads on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fong-Lok; Liang, Steven; Chan, Tak-Wai

    1999-01-01

    Describes the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of three synchronous distributed learning prototype systems: Co-Working System, Working Along System, and Hybrid System. Each supports a particular style of interaction, referred to a socio-activity learning model, between members of student dyads (pairs). All systems were…

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic properties and photodynamic activity of porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyads with application in the photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ballatore, M Belén; Spesia, Mariana B; Milanesio, M Elisa; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2014-08-18

    A covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyad 5 was synthesized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition using 5-(4-formylphenyl)-10,15,20-tris[3-(N-ethylcarbazoyl)]porphyrin, N-methylglycine and fullerene C60. Methylation of 5 was used to obtain a cationic dyad 6. Spectroscopic properties were compared in toluene, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and toluene/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/water reverse micelles. Absorption spectra of the dyads were essentially a superposition of the spectra of the porphyrin and fullerene reference compounds, indicating a very weak interaction between the chromophores in the ground state. The fluorescence emission of the porphyrin moiety in the dyads was strongly quenched by the attached fullerene C60 unit. The singlet molecular oxygen, O2((1)?g), productions (??) were strongly dependent on the solvent polarity. Similar ?? values were obtained for 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[3-(N-ethylcarbazoyl)]porphyrin (TCP) in both solvents. Also, dyad 5 showed a high O2((1)?g) generation in toluene. However, O2((1)?g) production mediated by 5 considerably diminished in the more polar solvent DMF. Also, a high photodynamic activity involving O2((1)?g) was found for both dyads in a simple biomimetic system formed by AOT reverse micelles. The photoinactivation ability of these dyads was investigated in Staphylococcus aureus cell suspensions. Photosensitized inactivation of S. aureus by dyad 6 exhibits a 4.5 log decrease of cell survival (99.997% cell inactivation), when the cultures are treated with 5 ?M photosensitizer and irradiated with visible light (350-800 nm) for 30 min. Under these conditions, a lower photocytotoxic effect was found for 5 (3.2 log decrease). Furthermore, photoinactivation induced by 6 was higher than those obtained with the separate moieties of the dyad. Therefore, molecular structures formed by porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyads represent interesting photosensitizers to inactivate S. aureus. PMID:25010938

  14. Transplant Trajectory and Relational Experience Within Living Kidney Dyads.

    PubMed

    Ummel, Deborah; Achille, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Living kidney donation is considered common practice across most Westernized countries. While extensive research has documented the experience of living donors, few studies have addressed the perspective of recipients, and even fewer have examined the experience of donor and recipient as an interactive dyad. In this study, our aim was to examine the reciprocal influence between donors and recipients across the transplantation process. We recruited a homogeneous sample of 10 donors and recipients, who were interviewed individually. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The presentation of results follows the stages of the transplantation process: the disease experience, the experience of offering and accepting a kidney, the screening period, the surgery, and the post-transplantation period. Results are discussed within the framework of Mauss's gift exchange theory, social roles, and altruism. This comprehensive description of the dyadic experience provides a way to frame and understand psychosocial aspects and relational implications of living renal transplantation. PMID:25700284

  15. Injecting Equipment Sharing in Russian Drug Injecting Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Li, Nan; Tobin, Karin E.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Sokolov, Nikolai; Levchenko, Julia; Batluk, Julia; Kozlov, Andrei A.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how individual attributes, dyad characteristics and social network characteristics may influence engaging in receptive syringe sharing, distributive syringe sharing and sharing cookers in injecting partnerships of IDUs in St Petersburg, Russia. We found that all three levels were associated with injecting equipment sharing, and that dyad characteristics were modified by characteristics of the social network. Self-reported HIV discordance and male gender concordance played a role in the risk of equipment sharing. Dyad interventions may not be sufficient to reduce injecting risk in IDU partnerships, but a combination of dyad and network interventions that target both IDU partnerships and the entire IDU population may be more appropriate to address injecting risk among IDUs. PMID:19214731

  16. Evidence for Unintentional Emotional Contagion Beyond Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Dezecache, Guillaume; Conty, Laurence; Chadwick, Michele; Philip, Leonor; Soussignan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another’s emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B’s faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others’ emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics. PMID:23840683

  17. Motor simulation beyond the dyad: Automatic imitation of multiple actors.

    PubMed

    Cracco, Emiel; De Coster, Lize; Andres, Michael; Brass, Marcel

    2015-12-01

    A large body of research has provided evidence for the idea that individuals simulate the actions of others in their motor system. However, this research has focused almost exclusively on dyadic situations, hence ignoring the fact that social situations often require that the actions of multiple persons are simulated simultaneously. In the current study, we addressed this issue by means of a widely used automatic imitation task. In Experiment 1, it is shown that individuals automatically imitate the actions of 2 agents at the same time. More specifically, the results indicate that 2 identical observed movements produce a stronger imitation effect, whereas 2 different observed movements produce 2 opposite imitation effects that cancel each other out. In Experiment 2, it is shown that the effects obtained in Experiment 1 cannot be explained in terms of attentional capture. Instead, the results point toward an explanation in terms of ideomotor theory. The finding that observers simultaneously represent the actions of multiple agents in their motor system allows for a better understanding of social interaction beyond the dyad. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389616

  18. Synthesis, structure and photophysical properties of ferrocenyl or mixed sandwich cobaltocenyl ester linked meso-tetratolylporphyrin dyads.

    PubMed

    Gokulnath, Sabapathi; Achary, Balahoju Shivaprasad; Kumar, Chakka Kiran; Trivedi, Rajiv; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Giribabu, Lingamallu

    2015-01-01

    We report here the design and synthesis of porphyrin-metallocene dyads consisting of a metallocene [either ferrocene or mixed sandwich ?(5)-[C5H4(COOH)]Co(?(4)-C4Ph4) connected via an ester linkage at meso phenyl position of either free-base or zinc porphyrin. All these dyad systems were characterized by various spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. A dimeric form of this molecule was observed in the X-ray crystal structure of Zn-TTPCo. The absorption spectra of all four dyads indicated the absence of electronic interactions between porphyrin macrocycle and metallocene in the ground state. However, interestingly, in all four dyads, fluorescence emission of the porphyrin was quenched (19-55%) as compared to their monomeric units. The quenching was more pronounced in ferrocene derivatives rather than cobaltocenyl derivatives. The emission quenching can be attributed to the excited-state intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer from metallocene to singlet excited state of porphyrin and the electron-transfer rates (k(ET)) were established in the range 1.51 × 10(8) to 1.11 × 10(9) s(-1). They were found to be solvent dependent. PMID:25348840

  19. Challenges and strategies of dyad research: cardiovascular examples.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Christina; Dunbar, Sandra B; Clark, Patricia C; Strickland, Ora L

    2010-05-01

    This article highlights challenges in recruitment, retention, attrition, data collection, and analysis when studying dyads in cardiovascular research. Including family members in studies is particularly important because family members often have a major role in treatment of patients with cardiovascular illness. The partnership of a patient-family member is referred to as a dyad and may include the cardiovascular patient and another relative, such as an adult child, sibling, spouse, son-in-law or daughter-in-law, or unmarried partner. Insights gained from previous research may facilitate and improve rigor when reviewing and conducting studies involving dyads with cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Including patients and partners in descriptive and intervention studies will allow researchers to more fully explore family factors that may be salient in health outcomes. PMID:20420989

  20. Challenges and strategies of dyad research: cardiovascular examples

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Christina; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Clark, Patricia C.; Strickland, Ora L.

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights challenges in recruitment, retention, attrition, data collection, and analysis when studying dyads in cardiovascular research. Including family members in studies is particularly important because family members often have a major role in treatment of patients with cardiovascular illness. The partnership of a patient–family member is referred to as a dyad and may include the cardiovascular patient and another relative, such as an adult child, sibling, spouse, son-in-law or daughter-in-law, or unmarried partner. Insights gained from previous research may facilitate and improve rigor when reviewing and conducting studies involving dyads with cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Including patients and partners in descriptive and intervention studies will allow researchers to more fully explore family factors that may be salient in health outcomes. PMID:20420989

  1. Dissociation and hallucinations in dyads engaged through interpersonal gazing.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Giovanni B

    2015-08-30

    Interpersonal gazing in dyads, when the two individuals in the dyad stare at each other in the eyes, is investigated in 20 healthy young individuals at low illumination for 10-min. Results indicate dissociative symptoms, dysmorphic face perceptions, and hallucination-like strange-face apparitions. Dissociative symptoms and face dysmorphia were correlated. Strange-face apparitions were non-correlated with dissociation and dysmorphia. These results indicate that dissociative symptoms and hallucinatory phenomena during interpersonal-gazing under low illumination can involve different processes. Strange-face apparitions may characterize the rebound to "reality" (perceptual reality caused by external stimulus and hallucinatory reality caused by internal input) from a dissociative state induced by sensory deprivation. These phenomena may explain psychodynamic projections of the subject's unconscious meanings into the other's face. The results indicate that interpersonal gazing in dyads can be an effective tool for studying experimentally-induced dissociative symptoms and hallucinatory-like apparitions. PMID:26112448

  2. Cooperation beyond the dyad: on simple models and a complex society

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Players in Axelrod and Hamilton's model of cooperation were not only in a Prisoner's Dilemma, but by definition, they were also trapped in a dyad. But animals are rarely so restricted and even the option to interact with third parties allows individuals to escape from the Prisoner's Dilemma into a much more interesting and varied world of cooperation, from the apparently rare ‘parcelling’ to the widespread phenomenon of market effects. Our understanding of by-product mutualism, pseudo-reciprocity and the snowdrift game is also enriched by thinking ‘beyond the dyad’. The concepts of by-product mutualism and pseudo-reciprocity force us to think again about our basic definitions of cooperative behaviour (behaviour by a single individual) and cooperation (the outcome of an interaction between two or more individuals). Reciprocity is surprisingly rare outside of humans, even among large-brained ‘intelligent’ birds and mammals. Are humans unique in having extensive cooperative interactions among non-kin and an integrated cognitive system for mediating reciprocity? Perhaps, but our best chance for finding a similar phenomenon may be in delphinids, which also live in large societies with extensive cooperative interactions among non-relatives. A system of nested male alliances in bottlenose dolphins illustrates the potential and difficulties of finding a complex system of cooperation close to our own. PMID:20679112

  3. Peer Network Overlap in Twin, Sibling, and Friend Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Shirley; Segal, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sibling–peer connections are important for understanding adolescent problem behaviors. Using a novel behavioral genetic design, the current study investigated peer network overlap in 300 child–child pairs (aged 7-13 years) in 5 dyad types: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic twins, full siblings (FSs), friend pairs, and virtual…

  4. Low field photo-CIDNP in the intramolecular electron transfer of naproxen-pyrrolidine dyads.

    PubMed

    Magin, I M; Polyakov, N E; Kruppa, A I; Purtov, P A; Leshina, T V; Kiryutin, A S; Miranda, M A; Nuin, E; Marin, M L

    2016-01-14

    Photoinduced processes with partial (exciplex) and full charge transfer in donor-acceptor systems are of interest because they are frequently used for modeling drug-protein binding. Low field photo-CIDNP (chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) for these processes in dyads, including the drug, (S)- and (R)-naproxen and (S)-N-methyl pyrrolidine in solutions with strong and weak permittivity have been measured. The dramatic influence of solvent permittivity on the field dependence of the N-methyl pyrrolidine (1)H CIDNP effects has been found. The field dependences of both (R,S)- and (S,S)-dyads in a polar medium are the curves with a single extremum in the area of the S-T+ terms intersection. Moreover, the CIDNP field dependences of the same protons measured in a low polar medium present curves with several extrema. The shapes of the experimental CIDNP field dependence with two extrema have been described using the Green function approach for the calculation of the CIDNP effects in the system without electron exchange interactions. The article discusses the possible causes of the differences between the CIDNP field dependence detected in a low-permittivity solvent with the strong Coulomb interactions and in a polar solvent. PMID:26648262

  5. Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of ?-triazoloporphyrin–xanthone dyads

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dileep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel series of ?-triazoloporphyrin–xanthone conjugates and xanthone-bridged ?-triazoloporphyrin dyads has been synthesized in moderate to good yields through Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of copper(II) 2-azido-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin or zinc(II) 2-azidomethyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin with various alkyne derivatives of xanthones in DMF containing CuSO4 and ascorbic acid at 80 °C. Furthermore, these metalloporphyrins underwent demetalation under acidic conditions to afford the corresponding free-base porphyrins in good to excellent yields. After successful spectroscopic characterization, these porphyrins have been evaluated for their photophysical properties. The preliminary results revealed a bathochromic shift in the UV–vis and fluorescence spectra of these porphyrin–xanthone dyads. PMID:26425199

  6. On the orientation of the catalytic dyad in aspartic proteases.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ran; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2010-05-01

    The recent re-refinement of the X-ray structure of apo plasmepsin II from Plasmodium falciparum suggests that the two carboxylate groups in the catalytic dyad are noncoplanar, (Robbins et al., Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 2009;65: 294-296) in remarkable contrast with the vast majority of structures of aspartic proteases. Here, evidence for the noncoplanarity of the catalytic aspartates is provided by analysis of multiple explicit water molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of plasmepsin II, human beta-secretase, and HIV-protease. In the MD runs of plasmepsin II, the angle between the planes of the two carboxylates of the catalytic dyad is almost always in the range 60 degrees -120 degrees , in agreement with the perpendicular orientation in the re-refined X-ray structure. The noncoplanar arrangement is prevalent also in the beta-secretase simulations, as well as in the runs with the inhibitor-bound proteases. Quantum-mechanics calculations provide further evidence that before catalysis the noncoplanar arrangement is favored energetically in eukaryotic aspartic proteases. Remarkably, the coplanar orientation of the catalytic dyad is observed in MD simulations of HIV-protease at 100 K but not at 300 K, which indicates that the noncoplanar arrangement is favored by conformational entropy. This finding suggests that the coplanar orientation in the crystal structures of apo aspartic proteases is promoted by the very low temperature used for data collection (usually around 100 K). PMID:20112416

  7. Exchange and cohesion in dyads and triads: A test of Simmel's hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeongkoo; Thye, Shane R; Lawler, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    This paper uses social exchange theory to address a classic question posed by Simmel (1964) regarding dyads and triads. The question is whether exchanges in a triad will generate more cohesion at the group level than exchanges in an isolated dyad. The main hypotheses, integrating several ideas from Simmel and social exchange theories, are as follows. First, triads generate less variability of behavior than dyads; that is, there is more uniformity or convergence in triads. Second, in the context of repeated exchange, we predict higher levels of cohesion in triads than in dyads. Third, positive emotion or affect has a stronger impact on cohesion in dyads than in triads, whereas uncertainty reduction has a stronger impact on cohesion in triads. To test these hypotheses, an experiment compared isolated dyads to dyads nested in a triadic exchange network. Subjects engaged in exchanges across a series of distinct episodes, using standard experimental procedures from research on relational cohesion (Lawler and Yoon, 1996) and exchange networks (Molm and Cook, 1995; Willer, 1999). Consistent with the hypotheses, the results reveal more convergence of behavior and higher cohesion in triads than in dyads; moreover, uncertainty reduction is the primary basis for cohesion in the triad, whereas positive affect was the primary basis for cohesion in the dyad. These results are discussed in relation to Simmelian dyad-triad dynamics and the theory of relational cohesion. PMID:24090845

  8. Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Donelda

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants interfere with the success of breast-feeding. Health care providers can promote breast-feeding duration by advising unlimited feeds, promoting ‘rooming-in’ at hospitals, and providing support and information. PMID:21267148

  9. Unusual stability of dyads during photochemical hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Prock, J; Strabler, C; Viertl, W; Kopacka, H; Obendorf, D; Müller, T; Tordin, E; Salzl, S; Knör, G; Mauro, M; De Cola, L; Brüggeller, P

    2015-12-28

    Dyads for photochemical water splitting often suffer from instability during irradiation with visible light. However, the use of bis(bidentate) phosphines forming a five-membered ring enhances their stability. The coordination of these phosphor based chelates to soft metals like Pd(ii) prolongs the photocatalytic activity to 1000 hours. To avoid contribution to hydrogen production by colloidal metal, a small amount of Hg is added to the reaction mixture. In the course of our investigations, it turned out that colloidal palladium was not able to produce hydrogen under our irradiation conditions. As soon as metallic palladium emerged in our reaction vessels, no further hydrogen production was detected. This is confirmed by the observation that the hydrogen production depends on the kind of ancillary ligands present in the dyads. The first dyads of the type [MI(bpy)2(dppcb)MII(bpy)](4+) are presented (MI = Os, MII = Pd (1); MI = Ru, MII = Pd (2); MI = Os, MII = Pt (3); MI = Ru, MII = Pt (4)). In [Os(bpy)2(dppcb)Pd(dppm)](PF6)4 (5) the ancillary ligand is varied. Furthermore, it is also possible to produce hydrogen in an intermolecular way. Using different bidentate diphosphines instead of a bis(bidentate) tetraphosphine leads to this intermolecular approach, where the chromophore and the water reduction catalyst (WRC) belong now to two molecules. In this case the TON is sensitive to the type of diphosphine, which is only possible if intact molecules act as catalysts and no free palladium(0) is formed. PMID:26579849

  10. Construction and photophysics study of supramolecular complexes composed of three-point binding fullerene-trispyridylporphyrin dyads and zinc porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Feng, Lai; Wu, Yishi; Wang, Taishan; Wu, Jingyi; Xiang, Junfeng; Li, Bao; Jiang, Li; Shu, Chunying; Wang, Chunru

    2011-01-14

    A series of novel supramolecular complexes composed of a three-point binding C(60)-trispyridylporphyrin dyad (1) or C(70)-trispyridylporphyrin dyad (2) and zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnP) were constructed by adopting a "covalent-coordinate" bonding approach, composed of three-point binding. The dyads and self-assembled supramolecular triads or pentads formed by coordinating the pyridine groups located on the dyads to ZnP, have been characterized by means of spectral and electrochemical techniques. The formation constants of ZnP-1 and ZnP-2 complexes were calculated as 1.4 × 10(4) M(-1) and 2.0 × 10(4) M(-1), respectively, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constants K(SV) were founded to be 2.9 × 10(4) M(-1) and 5.5 × 10(4) M(-1), respectively, which are much higher than those of other supramolecular complexes such as previously reported ZnP-3 (N-ethyl-2-(4-pyridyl)-3,4-fulleropyrrolidine). The electrochemical investigations of these complexes suggest weak interactions between the constituents in the ground state. The excited states of the complexes were further monitored by time-resolved fluorescence measurements. The results revealed that the presence of the multiple binding point dyads (1 or 2) slightly accelerated the fluorescence decay of ZnP in o-DCB relative to that of the "single-point" bound supramolecular complex ZnP-3. In comparison with 1 and 2, C(70) is suggested as a better electron acceptor relative to C(60). DFT calculations on a model of supramolecular complex ZnP-1 (with one ZnP entity) were performed. The results revealed that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is mainly located on the fullerene cage, while the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) is mainly located on the ZnP macrocycle ring, predicting the formation of radical ion pair ZnP(+)?-H(2)P-C(60)(-)? during photo-induced reaction. PMID:21088791

  11. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad

    PubMed Central

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143?cm?1 are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97?cm?1 and 147?cm?1 which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene. PMID:25797419

  12. Socially Shared Metacognition of Dyads of Pupils in Collaborative Mathematical Problem-Solving Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiskala, Tuike; Vauras, Marja; Lehtinen, Erno; Salonen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how metacognition appears as a socially shared phenomenon within collaborative mathematical word-problem solving processes of dyads of high-achieving pupils. Four dyads solved problems of different difficulty levels. The pupils were 10 years old. The problem-solving activities were videotaped and transcribed in terms of…

  13. The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

  14. Curricular Goals and Personal Goals in Master's Thesis Projects: Dutch Student-Supervisor Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…

  15. Charge transfer in model bioinspired carotene-porphyrin dyads.

    PubMed

    Orian, Laura; Carlotto, Silvia; Di Valentin, Marilena; Polimeno, Antonino

    2012-04-19

    We present a computational study based on accurate DFT and TD-DFT methods on model bioinspired donor-acceptor dyads, formed by a carotenoid covalently linked to a tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) at the ortho position of one of the TPP phenyl rings. Dyadic systems can be used in the construction of organic solar cells and development of efficient photocatalytic systems for the solar energy conversion, due to the unique advantages they offer in terms of synthetic feasibility. This study aims to describe the influence of chemical modifications on the absorption spectra, in particular on the lowest energy charge transfer bands. Effects of different metals of biological interest, i.e., Mg, Fe, Ni, and Zn, and of H(2)O and histidine molecules coordinated to the metals in different axial positions are rationalized. PMID:22429261

  16. Emotional Availability and Touch in Deaf and Hearing Dyads.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Grace; Koester, Lynne Sanford

    2015-01-01

    In recent years , increasing attention has been given to the development of deaf children, though few studies have included Deaf parents. The present study examined emotional availability (EA) and functions of touch used by Deaf or hearing parents with hearing or deaf infants during free play. Sixty dyads representing four hearing status groups were observed when the infants were 18 months old. Comparisons among all four groups revealed significant differences in regard to parental sensitivity and child responsiveness, with hearing mothers with deaf infants tending to score lowest in the various subcategories of EA. Significant differences were also found for attentional touch and total touch, with deaf mothers of deaf or hearing infants using both types of touch more than hearing mothers of deaf or hearing infants. The importance of support and interventions for hearing mothers with deaf infants is discussed. PMID:26320752

  17. Angular relationships regulate coordination tendencies of performers in attacker-defender dyads in team sports.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Pedro T; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Davids, Keith; Esteves, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the continuous interpersonal interactions of performers in dyadic systems in team sports, as a function of changing information constraints. As a task vehicle, we investigated how attackers attained success in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball by exploring angular relations with immediate opponents and the basket. We hypothesized that angular relations would convey information for the attackers to dribble past defenders. Four basketball players performed as an attacker and defender in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball, in which the co-positioning and orientation of participants relative to the basket was manipulated. After video recording performance behaviors, we digitized participant movement displacement trajectories and categorized trials as successful or unsuccessful (from the attackers' viewpoint). Results revealed that, to successfully dribble past a defender, attackers tended to explore the left hand side of the space by defenders by increasing their angular velocity and decreasing their angular variability, especially in the center of the court. Interpersonal interactions and goal-achievement in attacker-defender dyads appear to have been constrained by the angular relations sustained between participants relative to the scoring target. Results revealed the functionality of exploratory behaviors of participants attempting re-align spatial relations with an opponent in 1v1 sub-phases of team games. PMID:25625811

  18. Relationship Quality in Non-Cognitively Impaired Mother-Daughter Care Dyads: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Diane N; Hansen, Lissi; Baggs, Judith G; Lyons, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    More than 60 million Americans provide care to a family member; roughly two thirds are women providing care to aging mothers. Despite the protective nature of relationship quality, little attention has been given to its role in mother-daughter care dyads, particularly in mothers without cognitive impairment. A systematic appraisal of peer-reviewed, English language research was conducted. Nineteen articles met criteria. When relationship quality is positive, mother-daughter dyads enjoy rewards and mutuality, even when conflict occurs. Daughters grow more emotionally committed to mothers' over the care trajectory, despite increasing demands. Daughters' commitment deepens as mothers physically decline, and mothers remain engaged, emotional partners. When relationship quality is ambivalent or negative, burden, conflict, and blame conspire, creating a destructive cycle. Avenues for continuing study, including utilizing the dyad as the unit of analysis, troubled dyads, longitudinal assessment, and end of life context, are needed before interventions to improve mother-daughter relationship quality may be successfully implemented. PMID:26307098

  19. A tyrosine-tryptophan dyad and radical-based charge transfer in a ribonucleotide reductase-inspired maquette.

    PubMed

    Pagba, Cynthia V; McCaslin, Tyler G; Veglia, Gianluigi; Porcelli, Fernando; Yohannan, Jiby; Guo, Zhanjun; McDaniel, Miranda; Barry, Bridgette A

    2015-01-01

    In class 1a ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), a substrate-based radical is generated in the ?2 subunit by long-distance electron transfer involving an essential tyrosyl radical (Y122O·) in the ?2 subunit. The conserved W48 ?2 is ?10?Å from Y122OH; mutations at W48 inactivate RNR. Here, we design a beta hairpin peptide, which contains such an interacting tyrosine-tryptophan dyad. The NMR structure of the peptide establishes that there is no direct hydrogen bond between the phenol and the indole rings. However, electronic coupling between the tyrosine and tryptophan occurs in the peptide. In addition, downshifted ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) frequencies are observed for the radical state, reproducing spectral downshifts observed for ?2. The frequency downshifts of the ring and CO bands are consistent with charge transfer from YO· to W or another residue. Such a charge transfer mechanism implies a role for the ?2 Y-W dyad in electron transfer. PMID:26627888

  20. A tyrosine–tryptophan dyad and radical-based charge transfer in a ribonucleotide reductase-inspired maquette

    PubMed Central

    Pagba, Cynthia V.; McCaslin, Tyler G.; Veglia, Gianluigi; Porcelli, Fernando; Yohannan, Jiby; Guo, Zhanjun; McDaniel, Miranda; Barry, Bridgette A.

    2015-01-01

    In class 1a ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), a substrate-based radical is generated in the ?2 subunit by long-distance electron transfer involving an essential tyrosyl radical (Y122O·) in the ?2 subunit. The conserved W48 ?2 is ?10?Å from Y122OH; mutations at W48 inactivate RNR. Here, we design a beta hairpin peptide, which contains such an interacting tyrosine–tryptophan dyad. The NMR structure of the peptide establishes that there is no direct hydrogen bond between the phenol and the indole rings. However, electronic coupling between the tyrosine and tryptophan occurs in the peptide. In addition, downshifted ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) frequencies are observed for the radical state, reproducing spectral downshifts observed for ?2. The frequency downshifts of the ring and CO bands are consistent with charge transfer from YO· to W or another residue. Such a charge transfer mechanism implies a role for the ?2 Y-W dyad in electron transfer. PMID:26627888

  1. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog–human dyad

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog–human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog–human relationships and how these may influence dogs’ perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog–human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog–human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog–human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. PMID:25750549

  2. The relationship of sexual dyad and personal network characteristics and individual attributes to unprotected sex among young injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan

    2008-01-01

    We examine in the heterosexual partnerships (dyads) of IDUs the correlates of engaging in unprotected sex on three levels: individual attributes, social network characteristics, and dyad characteristics. Unprotected sex was significantly less likely to occur in dyads where the participant injected daily or had high safe-sex attitude scores, and in dyads where both members encouraged each other to use condoms. Unprotected sex was significantly more likely to occur in dyads that smoked crack together, shared needles with each other, and where the participant knew that the sex partner had concurrent sex partners. In the sexual dyads of IDUs there is a combined risk of unsafe injecting and unsafe sex. Both injecting and sexual risk, and their combination need to be addressed in interventions that target the sexual partnerships of IDUs. Such interventions should also aim to reduce injected and non-injected crack and other stimulant use associated with high-risk sex. PMID:17690975

  3. Corrole-ferrocene and corrole-anthraquinone dyads: synthesis, spectroscopy and photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kandhadi, Jaipal; Yeduru, Venkatesh; Bangal, Prakriti R; Giribabu, Lingamallu

    2015-10-01

    Two different donor-acceptor systems based on corrole-ferrocene and corrole-anthraquinone having the 'Olefin Bridge' at the ?-pyrrole position have been designed and synthesized. Both the dyads corrole-ferrocene () and corrole-anthraquinone () are characterized by elemental analysis, ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, UV-Visible, fluorescence spectroscopies (steady-state, femtosecond time-resolved), femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (fs-TA) and electrochemical methods. (1)H-NMR shows that two doublets at 6.50 and 7.25(?) ppm belong to vinylic protons, which are characteristic of the formation of dyads. UV-Visible absorption spectra showed that dyads are merely superpositions of their respective constituent monomers and dominated by corrole S1 ? S0 (Q-band) and S2 ? S0 (Soret band) transitions with a systematic red-shift of both Soret and Q-bands along with the broadening of the bands. A prominent splitting of the Soret band for both the dyads is observed due to bulky substitutions at the peripheral position, which deviate from the planarity of the corrole macrocycle. Both the dyads exhibit significant fluorescence emission quenching (95-97%) of corrole emission compared to the free-base corrole monomer. Emission quenching is attributed to the excited-state intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from corrole to anthraquinone in the dyad, whereas in the dyad it is reversed. The electron-transfer rates (kET) for and were found to be 3.33 × 10(11) and 2.78 × 10(10) s(-1), respectively. Despite their very different driving forces, charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) are found to be in identical timescales. PMID:26247198

  4. A trident dithienylethene-perylenemonoimide dyad with super fluorescence switching speed and ratio.

    PubMed

    Li, Chong; Yan, Hui; Zhao, Ling-Xi; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Hu, Zhe; Huang, Zhen-Li; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent diarylethenes are promising in molecular optical memory and photonic devices. However, the performance of current diarylethenes is far from satisfactory because of the scarcity of high-speed switching capability and large fluorescence on-off ratio. Here we report a trident perylenemonoimide dyad modified by triple dithienylethenes whose photochromic fluorescence quenching ratio at the photostationary state exceeds 10,000 and the fluorescence quenching efficiency is close to 100% within seconds of ultraviolet irradiation. The highly sensitive fluorescence on/off switching of the trident dyad enables recyclable fluorescence patterning and all-optical transistors. The prototype optical device based on the trident dyad enables the optical switching of incident light and conversion from incident light wavelength to transmitted light wavelength, which is all-optically controlled, reversible and wavelength-convertible. In addition, the trident dyad-staining block copolymer vesicles are observed via optical nanoimaging with a sub-100 nm resolution, portending a potential prospect of the dithienylethene dyad in super-resolution imaging. PMID:25502396

  5. A trident dithienylethene-perylenemonoimide dyad with super fluorescence switching speed and ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Yan, Hui; Zhao, Ling-Xi; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Hu, Zhe; Huang, Zhen-Li; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent diarylethenes are promising in molecular optical memory and photonic devices. However, the performance of current diarylethenes is far from satisfactory because of the scarcity of high-speed switching capability and large fluorescence on-off ratio. Here we report a trident perylenemonoimide dyad modified by triple dithienylethenes whose photochromic fluorescence quenching ratio at the photostationary state exceeds 10,000 and the fluorescence quenching efficiency is close to 100% within seconds of ultraviolet irradiation. The highly sensitive fluorescence on/off switching of the trident dyad enables recyclable fluorescence patterning and all-optical transistors. The prototype optical device based on the trident dyad enables the optical switching of incident light and conversion from incident light wavelength to transmitted light wavelength, which is all-optically controlled, reversible and wavelength-convertible. In addition, the trident dyad-staining block copolymer vesicles are observed via optical nanoimaging with a sub-100?nm resolution, portending a potential prospect of the dithienylethene dyad in super-resolution imaging.

  6. Adrenocortical attunement in mother-child dyads: importance of situational and behavioral characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Paula L; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Schwartzman, Alex E; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2011-09-01

    Synchronization of behavior, emotions and autonomic physiology in mother-child dyads is related to adaptive functioning in children. It is important to explore the possibility of "attunement", or systematic synchronization, of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis because it is sensitive to social information processing at an unconscious level. Due to limited research in humans, the present study aimed to demonstrate mother-child cortisol attunement in a human population, and examine how behavioral sensitivity may moderate this association. Saliva samples were collected from 75 mother-child dyads during a home visit. A free-play task was used to determine behavioral sensitivity within the dyad. Findings suggest that mother-child dyads demonstrate attunement of HPA axis activity and that attunement is particularly prominent during times of increased challenge. Furthermore, results suggest factors associated with behavioral sensitivity may influence attunement within the dyad. Bidirectional synchronization of adrenocortical levels may serve to positively impact later developmental outcomes in children. PMID:21767597

  7. Coupling tendencies during exploratory behaviours of competing players in rugby union dyads.

    PubMed

    Correia, Vanda; Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Diniz, Ana; Kelso, J A Scott

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated interpersonal coordination tendencies in 1vs.1 dyads in rugby union, here expressed by participants' movement velocity towards or away from the sideline as they competed to score or prevent a try. We examined whether coupling tendencies of members of each dyad shaped key performance outcomes (try or successful tackle). Data on movement displacement trajectories of eight male rugby union players (aged 11-12 years) were analysed during performance in 47 trials. To assess coordination tendencies during exploratory behaviours in the dyads, analyses of performance time series data were undertaken using variable time graphs, running correlations and cross-correlations. Results revealed distinct coupling patterns characterised by shifts between synchronous coordination and asynchronous coordination tendencies and uncoordinated actions. Observed behaviours were interpreted as attempts of competing participants to create and perceive possibilities for action while seeking to achieve specific performance goals. Findings also revealed that a variety of patterned relations between participants resulted in different performance outcomes. PMID:24814417

  8. A prospective pilot study of psychosocial functioning in head and neck cancer patient-caregiver dyads.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Chandylen L; Lagorio, Lisa; Carnaby, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the psychosocial functioning of 10 head and neck cancer patient-caregiver dyads over the radiation/chemoradiation (radiation or combined chemoradiation) treatment period, including the interdependence in patient-caregiver quality of life (QOL). Dyads were recruited prior to or at the initiation of radiation/chemoradiation treatment. Patient QOL decreased across the treatment trajectory, and many caregiver QOL subscales decreased during the middle of treatment. Caregiver burden increased over the treatment trajectory with levels remaining relatively low. Patients and caregivers demonstrated interdependence in QOL toward the middle and conclusion of treatment. Patients demonstrated more depression than caregivers at all time points. Results suggest that both members of the dyad should be targeted for psychosocial interventions during radiation/chemoradiation treatment period. PMID:24988320

  9. Attachment Style, Vagal Tone, and Empathy during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Butterworth, Molly R.

    2012-01-01

    We tested associations among empathic responsiveness, attachment style, and vagal tone (a physiologic index of emotion regulation) in 103 mother-adolescent dyads. Dyads discussed positive and negative topics and then separately reviewed a videotape of the interaction and rated their own and the other person's affect at one-minute intervals. We…

  10. An Examination of Changes in Emotion Co-Regulation among Mother and Child Dyads during the Strange Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yuqing; Leu, Szu-Yun; Barnard, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Elaine A.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied state-space grid analysis to describe how preschooler-mother dyads co-regulate emotion in the Strange Situation. Second-to-second mother and child affect during pre-separation play (baseline) and the final reunion (post perturbation) episodes of the Strange Situation were coded for 80 dyads. Change in emotion…

  11. Effects of Gender Role and Task Content on Performance in Same-Gender Dyads: Transactive Memory as a Potential Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas; Huguet, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was designed to examine the effects of gender role and task content on performance in learning dyads and to test the potential mediator effect of an intragroup process related to transactive memory. A total of 44 same-gender dyads participated in the study and were asked to collaborate on a stereotypically masculine or feminine…

  12. High-resolution spectroscopy and analysis of the ?1/?3 stretching dyad of osmium tetroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louviot, M.; Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Roy, P.; Balcon, D.

    2012-01-01

    OsO4 is a heavy tetrahedral molecule that may constitute a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations. Its favorable spin statistics (due to the zero nuclear spin of oxygen atoms) is such that only A1 and A2 rovibrational levels are allowed, leading to a dense, but quite easily resolved spectrum. Most lines are single ones, instead of complex line clusters as in the case of other heavy spherical-tops like SF6, for instance. It is thus possible to fully assign and fit the spectrum and to obtain precise experimental effective molecular parameters. The strong ?3 stretching fundamental has been studied a long time ago as an isolated band [McDowell RS, Radziemski LJ, Flicker H, Galbraith HW, Kennedy RC, Nereson NG, et al. Journal of Chemical Physics 1978;88:1513-21; Bobin B, Valentin A, Henry L. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 1987;122:229-41]. We reinvestigate here this region and perform new assignments and effective Hamiltonian parameter fits for the four main isotopologues (192OsO4, 190OsO4, 189OsO4, 188OsO4), by considering the ?1/?3 stretching dyad. A new experimental spectrum has been recorded at room temperature, thanks to a Bruker IFS 125 HR interferometer and using a natural abundance OsO4 sample. Assignments and analyses were performed thanks to the SPVIEW and XTDS softwares, respectively [Wenger Ch, Boudon V, Rotger M, Sanzharov M, Champion J-P. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 2008;251:102-13]. We provide precise effective Hamiltonian parameters, including band centers and Coriolis interaction parameters. We discuss isotopic shifts and estimate the band centers for the three minor isotopologues (187OsO4, 186OsO4, 184OsO4). The Q branches of the first two of them are clearly identified in the experimental spectrum.

  13. High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Analysis of the ?_3/2?_4 Dyad of CF_4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, V.; Domanskaya, A.; Maul, C.; Georges, R.; Mitchell, J.

    2009-06-01

    CF_4 is a strong greenhouse gas of both anthropogenic and natural origin. However, high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of this molecule has received only a limited interest up to now. The public databases only contain cross-sections for this species, but no detailed line list. We reinvestigate here the strongly absorbing ?_3 region around 7.3 ?m. Two new Fourier transform infrared spectra at a 0.003 cm^{-1} resolution have been recorded: i) a room-temperature spectrum in a static cell with a 5 mb pressure and ii) a supersonic expansion jet spectrum at a 15 K estimated temperature. Following the work of Gabard et al., we perform a simultaneous analysis of both the ?_3 and 2?_4 bands since a strong Coriolis interaction occurs between them, perturbing the ?_3 R-branch rotational clusters around J=20. As in Ref. ref{gab}, we also include ?_3-?_3 microwave data in the fit. The analysis is performed thanks to the XTDS and SPVIEW programs. Compared to Ref. ref{gab}, the present work extends the analysis up to higher J values (56 instead of 32). Absorption intensities are estimated thanks to the dipole moment derivative value of D. Papoušek et al. and compare well with the experiment. The rotational energy surfaces for the ?_3/2?_4 dyad are also examined in order to understand the distribution of rovibrational levels. D. R. Worton, W. T. Sturges, L. K. Gohar et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 2184-2189 (2007). T. Gabard, G. Pierre and M. Takami, Mol. Phys. 85, 735-744 (1995) Ch. Wenger, V. Boudon, M. Rotger, M. Sanzharov and J.-P. Champion, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 251 102-113 (2008). D. Papoušek, Z. Papou\\vsková and D. P. Chong, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 15387-15395 (1995).

  14. Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial Relationships, Communication, and Opportunities

    E-print Network

    Maestripieri, Dario

    Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial This study investigated mother infant interactions in lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla conducive to infant social learning. Eleven gorilla mother infant dyads were focally observed in weekly 1-hr

  15. Use of Kinesic Abilities within a Complementary Dyad in a Special Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfers-Wygand, Patricia; Seitz, Jay A.

    This report discusses the outcomes of a project that investigated whether the Multiple Intelligences (MI) model could be used to address specific problems in learning in special population classrooms. Dyads were created in which two students were paired together who displayed opposite strengths and weaknesses on the eight independent multiple…

  16. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

  17. Computational design of catalytic dyads and oxyanion holes for ester hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Florian; Blomberg, Rebecca; Khare, Sagar D.; Kiss, Gert; Kuzin, Alexandre P.; Smith, Adam J. T.; Gallaher, Jasmine; Pianowski, Zbigniew; Helgeson, Roger C.; Grjasnow, Alexej; Xiao, Rong; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Su, Min; Vorobiev, Sergey; Lew, Scott; Forouhar, Farhad; Kornhaber, Gregory J.; Hunt, John F.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Tong, Liang; Houk, K.N.; Hilvert, Donald; Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    Nucleophilic catalysis is a general strategy for accelerating ester and amide hydrolysis. In natural active sites, nucleophilic elements such as catalytic dyads and triads are usually paired with oxyanion-holes for substrate activation, but it is difficult to parse out the independent contributions of these elements or to understand how they emerged in the course of evolution. Here we explore the minimal requirements for esterase activity by computationally designing artificial catalysts using catalytic dyads and oxyanion holes. We found much higher success rates using designed oxyanion holes formed by backbone NH groups rather than by sidechains or bridging water molecules and obtained four active designs in different scaffolds by combining this motif with a Cys-His dyad. Following active site optimization, the most active of the variants exhibited a catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) of 400 M?1s?1 for the cleavage of a p-nitrophenyl ester. Kinetic experiments indicate that the active site cysteines are rapidly acylated as programmed by design, but the subsequent slow hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate limits overall catalytic efficiency. Moreover, the Cys-His dyads are not properly formed in crystal structures of the designed enzymes. These results highlight the challenges that computational design must overcome to achieve high levels of activity. PMID:22871159

  18. Couple Coping and Adjustment to Multiple Sclerosis in Care Receiver-Carer Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    1998-01-01

    The utility of "coping congruency" and "average level of couple coping" in explaining adjustment to multiple sclerosis was examined. Interview and questionnaire data was collected for 45 dyads with a 12-month follow-up. Predictors include Time 1 illness, caregiving, and coping variables. Findings support both concepts for explaining collective and…

  19. PATTERNS OF EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN MOTHER-INFANT DYADS: ASSOCIATIONS WITH MULTIPLE LEVELS OF CONTEXT.

    PubMed

    Mingo, M Verónica; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2015-09-01

    This study explored emotional availability (EA)- an individual's emotional responsiveness and attunement to another's needs and goals (R.N. Emde, 1980)- among a high social risk group of 226 adolescent mothers and their infants (average = 12 months old). The aim was to identify dyadic patterns of EA and to examine their association with multiple indicators of the ecological context. Maternal sensitivity, maternal nonhostility, and child responsiveness were assessed with the Emotional Availability Scales, Third Edition (Z. Biringen, J. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 1998) during free play and teaching observations at home. Four EA patterns were identified using k-means cluster analysis: (a) "low functioning," (b) "high functioning," (c) "low functioning dyads with nonhostile mothers," and (d) "inconsistently sensitive mother and responsive child." These patterns had distinct associations with (a) mothers' parenting attitudes regarding children's power and independence and parent-child role reversal, (b) mothers' strategies in conflict resolution with their partners and their children, and (c) the dyads' living arrangements. This study makes a contribution to the understanding of the mother-child relationship from a systemic and relational perspective and explores the association of EA patterns with the dyads' relational context. Implications for programs and treatment approaches aimed at supporting dyads at social risk are discussed. PMID:26331847

  20. Synthesis of mesogenic phthalocyanine-C60 donor–acceptor dyads designed for molecular heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    PubMed Central

    Debever, Olivier; Amato, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Summary A series of phthalocyanine-C60 dyads 2a–d was synthesized. Key steps in their synthesis are preparation of the low symmetry phthalocyanine intermediate by the statistical condensation of two phthalonitriles, and the final esterification of the fullerene derivative bearing a free COOH group. Structural characterization of the molecules in solution was performed by NMR spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Preliminary studies suggest formation of liquid crystalline (LC) mesophases for some of the prepared dyads. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of LC phthalocyanine-C60 dyads. PMID:19936269

  1. Rough-and-Tumble Play and the Regulation of Aggression: An Observational Study of Father–Child Play Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Flanders, Joseph L.; Leo, Vanessa; Paquette, Daniel; Pihl, Robert O.; Séguin, Jean R.

    2012-01-01

    Rough-and-tumble play (RTP) is a common form of play between fathers and children. It has been suggested that RTP can contribute to the development of selfregulation. This study addressed the hypothesis that the frequency of father–child RTP is related to the frequency of physically aggressive behavior in early childhood. This relationship was expected to be moderated by the dominance relationship between father and son during play. Eighty-five children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were videotaped during a free-play session with their fathers in their homes and questionnaire data was collected about father–child RTP frequency during the past year. The play dyads were rated for the degree to which the father dominated play interactions. A significant statistical interaction revealed that RTP frequency was associated with higher levels of physical aggression in children whose fathers were less dominant. These results indicate that RTP is indeed related to physical aggression, though this relationship is moderated by the degree to which the father is a dominant playmate. PMID:19431190

  2. Factors Affecting Co-Operative vs. Competitive Behavior in Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Gerald; Phelan, Joseph G.

    Theoretical interpretations of cooperation and competition are discussed in relation to motivational and situational determinants. It is suggested that the degree of competition exhibited in an interaction is an inverse function of the quantity of resources available, and that the effect of situational characteristics on cooperative behavior is…

  3. Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

    1997-01-01

    Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…

  4. Interplay between singlet and triplet excited states in a conformationally locked donor-acceptor dyad.

    PubMed

    Filatov, Mikhail A; Etzold, Fabian; Gehrig, Dominik; Laquai, Frédéric; Busko, Dmitri; Landfester, Katharina; Baluschev, Stanislav

    2015-11-28

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a palladium(ii) porphyrin - anthracene dyad bridged via short and conformationally rigid bicyclo[2.2.2]octadiene spacer were achieved. A spectroscopic investigation of the prepared molecule in solution has been undertaken to study electronic energy transfer in excited singlet and triplet states between the anthracene and porphyrin units. By using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy it was shown that excitation of the singlet excited state of the anthracene leads to energy transfer to the lower-lying singlet state of porphyrin. Alternatively, excitation of the porphyrin followed by intersystem crossing to the triplet state leads to very fast energy transfer to the triplet state of anthracene. The rate of this energy transfer has been determined by transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparative studies of the dynamics of triplet excited states of the dyad and reference palladium octaethylporphyrin (PdOEP) have been performed. PMID:26488635

  5. Photodynamics of excitation energy transfer in self-assembled dyads. Evidence for back transfer.

    PubMed

    Leray, Isabelle; Valeur, Bernard; Paul, Dharam; Regnier, Emilie; Koepf, Matthieu; Wytko, Jennifer A; Boudon, Corinne; Weiss, Jean

    2005-03-01

    Three self-assembled photonic dyads comprising a zinc porphyrin donor and a free base acceptor have been studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The driving force of the assembly is the site selective binding of an imidazole connected to a free base porphyrin. Three spacers have been incorporated between the imidazole connector and the free base porphyrin, providing three different distances separating the donor and the acceptor. The high efficiencies and the rates of energy transfer in the set of dyads is consistent with the Forster energy transfer mechanism. Evidence for Forster back transfer has been obtained, and its efficiency and rate have been quantitatively evaluated for the first time. PMID:15738996

  6. Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. II. Recoupled pair bond dyads in carbon and sulfur difluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, Thom H. Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Xu, Lu T.

    2015-01-21

    Formation of a bond between a second ligand and a molecule with a recoupled pair bond results in a recoupled pair bond dyad. We examine the recoupled pair bond dyads in the a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2}, which are formed by the addition of a fluorine atom to the a{sup 4}?{sup ?} states of CF and SF, both of which possess recoupled pair bonds. The two dyads are very different. In SF{sub 2}, the second FS–F bond is very strong (D{sub e} = 106.3 kcal/mol), the bond length is much shorter than that in the SF(a{sup 4}?{sup ?}) state (1.666 Å versus 1.882 Å), and the three atoms are nearly collinear (?{sub e} = 162.7°) with only a small barrier to linearity (0.4 kcal/mol). In CF{sub 2}, the second FC–F bond is also very strong (D{sub e} = 149.5 kcal/mol), but the bond is only slightly shorter than that in the CF(a{sup 4}?{sup ?}) state (1.314 Å versus 1.327 Å), and the molecule is strongly bent (?{sub e} = 119.0°) with an 80.5 kcal/mol barrier to linearity. The a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2} illustrate the fundamental differences between recoupled pair bond dyads formed from 2s and 3p lone pairs.

  7. Post-Disaster Mental Health Among Parent–Child Dyads After a Major Earthquake in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Juth, Vanessa; Seyle, D. Conor; Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Tan, Edwin T.

    2015-01-01

    The interdependent adjustment of children and their parents following disasters has been well documented. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to provide an appropriate analytical framework for examining how family members may contribute to each other’s post-disaster mental health. Independent self-reports were collected from parent–child dyads (n=397) residing in a rural community in Indonesia that was devastated by a major earthquake. Elementary school children (M=10 years; 51 % female) and one of their parents (M=41 years; 73 % female) each reported on their disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and general distress. The APIM was used to examine mental health within dyads and moderation by gender across dyads. Children reported lower disaster exposure and fewer PTS symptoms, but similar general distress levels, as their parents. Children’s and parents’ disaster-specific PTS symptoms were the strongest predictor of their own general distress. Parents’ PTS symptoms were associated with children’s general distress (b=0.14, p<0.001), but children’s PTS symptoms were not associated with parents’ general distress (b=?0.02, p>0.05). Findings were not moderated by parents’ or children’s gender. Although children and parents may respond differently to natural disasters, they may be best understood as a dyad. APIM analyses provide new evidence suggesting a unidirectional path of influence from parents’ disaster-related symptomatology to children’s general mental health. Dyadic approaches to understanding mental health and treating symptoms of distress among disaster survivors and their families following trauma are encouraged. PMID:25851238

  8. Post-Disaster Mental Health Among Parent-Child Dyads After a Major Earthquake in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Juth, Vanessa; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Seyle, D Conor; Widyatmoko, C Siswa; Tan, Edwin T

    2015-10-01

    The interdependent adjustment of children and their parents following disasters has been well documented. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to provide an appropriate analytical framework for examining how family members may contribute to each other's post-disaster mental health. Independent self-reports were collected from parent-child dyads (n?=?397) residing in a rural community in Indonesia that was devastated by a major earthquake. Elementary school children (M?=?10 years; 51 % female) and one of their parents (M?=?41 years; 73 % female) each reported on their disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and general distress. The APIM was used to examine mental health within dyads and moderation by gender across dyads. Children reported lower disaster exposure and fewer PTS symptoms, but similar general distress levels, as their parents. Children's and parents' disaster-specific PTS symptoms were the strongest predictor of their own general distress. Parents' PTS symptoms were associated with children's general distress (b?=?0.14, p??0.05). Findings were not moderated by parents' or children's gender. Although children and parents may respond differently to natural disasters, they may be best understood as a dyad. APIM analyses provide new evidence suggesting a unidirectional path of influence from parents' disaster-related symptomatology to children's general mental health. Dyadic approaches to understanding mental health and treating symptoms of distress among disaster survivors and their families following trauma are encouraged. PMID:25851238

  9. Component analysis of dyads designed for light-driven water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Lars; Kaveevivitchai, Nattawut; Zong, Ruifa; Thummel, Randolph P

    2014-01-21

    A series of seven dyad molecules have been prepared utilizing a [Ru(tpy)(NN)I](+) type oxidation catalyst (NN = 2,5-di(pyrid-2'-yl) pyrazine (1), 2,5-di-(1',8'-dinaphthyrid-2'-yl) pyrazine (2), or 4,6-di-(1',8'-dinaphthyrid-2'-yl) pyrimidine (3). The other bidentate site of the bridging ligand was coordinated with 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), or a substituted derivative. These dinuclear complexes were characterized by their (1)H NMR spectra paying special attention to protons held in the vicinity of the electronegative iodide. In one case, 10a, the complex was also analyzed by single crystal X-ray analysis. The electronic absorption spectra of all the complexes were measured and reported as well as emission properties for the sensitizers. Oxidation and reduction potentials were measured and excited state redox properties were calculated from this data. Turnover numbers, initial rates, and induction periods for oxygen production in the presence of a blue LED light and sodium persulfate as a sacrificial oxidant were measured. Similar experiments were run without irradiation. Dyad performance correlated well with the difference between the excited state reduction potential of the photosensitizer and the ground state oxidation potential of the water oxidation dyad. The most active system was one having 5,6-dibromophen as the auxiliary ligand, and the least active system was the one having 4,4'-dimethylbpy as the auxiliary ligand. PMID:24364791

  10. Examining "fat talk" experimentally in a female dyad: how are women influenced by another woman's body presentation style?

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katheryn L; Martz, Denise M; Curtin, Lisa A; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-06-01

    Fat talk, the verbal dissatisfaction that women express about their bodies, was studied in a female dyad whereby participants interacted with a female confederate who either self-derogated, self-accepted, or self-aggrandized. A 2 (participant body esteem: high vs. low) x3 (confederate style of body image presentation) design was used. Results revealed that participants' public disclosure of their body image varied according to confederate's style. Consistent with a reciprocity effect, participants disclosed the lowest public body image ratings in the self-derogate condition, with moderate ratings in the self-accept condition, and highest ratings in the self-aggrandize condition. Moreover, participants with low compared to high body esteem stated lower public body image. Participants' judgments of the confederates' likeability did not vary as a function of the confederate's body presentational style. Findings support the recursive nature of the social psychology of body image such that personal body image dissatisfaction is partially influenced by fat talk social norms. PMID:18089261

  11. [Multidisciplinary care during peripartum: mother-baby dyad in the center of the relational constellations].

    PubMed

    Girard, E; Ortiz, N; Alberque, C; Almeida Heymans, A; Epiney, M; Canuto, A; Weber, K

    2013-02-13

    Pregnancy and new motherhood may be crisis and vulnerability periods and therefore increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. Liaison psychiatry plays a major role in the first psychiatric evaluation of mothers in order to specify a diagnosis and to initiate a treatment when necessary. This article describes the care of mothers suffering from peripartum psychiatric disorders by the liaison psychiatry in the maternity ward, an outpatient practice, as well as an in-patient care unit where mother and baby can stay together. The multidisciplinary approach and its constellation around the mother-baby dyad are detailed and two clinical cases are reported. PMID:23477067

  12. Autoregulation of fos: the dyad symmetry element as the major target of repression.

    PubMed Central

    König, H; Ponta, H; Rahmsdorf, U; Büscher, M; Schönthal, A; Rahmsdorf, H J; Herrlich, P

    1989-01-01

    Fos and Jun co-operatively repress the fos promoter. Removal of all putative Fos/Jun binding sites from the fos promoter neither obliterates the repression by Fos/Jun in transient cotransfection experiments in NIH3T3 cells nor the turn-off kinetics of serum-induced fos expression in stably transfected NIH3T3 cells. The dyad symmetry element (DSE) suffices to subject a promoter to this type of repression. However, one of the putative Fos/Jun binding sites (-292 to -299 and thus located immediately adjacent to the DSE), determines the very low level of basal expression. Images PMID:2511006

  13. Fluorescent photoswitching of a naphthopyran-benzimidazole dyad with high-degree fluorescent modulation within poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuangqing; Si, Yanling; Tong, Cuiyan; Wang, Guang; Qi, Bin; Yang, Guochun

    2013-06-01

    A naphthopyran-bridge-benzimidazole dyad which exhibits both fluorescence and photochromism was synthesized and its fluorescence photoswitching was investigated. Irradiation with UV light induces the isomerization of the naphthopyran component to the corresponding merocyanine. The fluorescence of the dyad was switched reversibly between on and off upon UV irradiation and thermal bleaching of the naphthopyran. Using ultraviolet illumination a pattern was created on a polymethylmethacrylate doped film with the dyad. Thus either a non-destructive photoswitch or an image recording system becomes available. The measurement of redox potentials by cyclic voltammetry combined with electronic spectra and a molecular energy diagram of the individual naphthopyran and benzimidazole demonstrated that the transformation of naphthopyran induced energy and electron transfer from the fluorescent benzimidazole to the photochromic naphthopyran, a feature which was also supported by our DFT calculations.

  14. Preparation of Information-Containing Macromolecules by Ligation of Dyad-Encoded Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Thanh Tam; Oswald, Laurence; Chan-Seng, Delphine; Charles, Laurence; Lutz, Jean-François

    2015-08-17

    A simplified strategy for preparing non-natural information-containing polymers is reported. The concept relies on the successive ligation of oligomers that contain minimal sequence motifs. It was applied here to the synthesis of digitally-encoded poly(triazole amide)s, in which propyl and 2-methyl propyl motifs are used to code 0 and 1, respectively. A library of four oligo(triazole amide)s containing the information dyads 00, 01, 10, and 11 was prepared. These oligomers contain two reactive functions, that is, an alkyne and a carboxylic acid. Thus, they can be linked to another with the help of a reactive spacer containing azide and amine functions. Using two successive chemoselective steps, that is, azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition and carboxylic acid-amine coupling, monodisperse polymers can be obtained. In particular, the library of dyads permits the implementation of any desired sequence using a small number of steps. As a proof-of-concept, the synthesis of molecular bytes 00000000 and 00000110 is described. PMID:26230871

  15. Longitudinal Effects of Health-Harming and Health-Protective Behaviors within Adolescent Romantic Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Carpentier, Melissa; Azzouz, Faouzi; Fortenberry, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Most models exploring adolescent health behavior have focused on individual influences to understand behavior change. The goal of the current study was to assess the role of adolescent romantic partners on the expression of health behavior. Our sample utilized two waves of data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994, 1996), which included 80 romantic dyads (160 individuals). A longitudinal multilevel analysis was conducted. We assessed individual and romantic partner health-harming behaviors (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, smoking, and marijuana use), health-protective behaviors (i.e., physical activity, physical inactivity, sleep patterns, seatbelt use, and contraception motivations), as well as the role of gender and age. Participants average age was 16 years at baseline. We found evidence for partner similarity and partner influence with the majority of health-harming behaviors. Specifically, partner influence was evident for smoking and alcohol use with partner influence approaching significance for marijuana use. We found limited evidence for partner similarity and partner influence for health-protective behaviors. The importance of assessing romantic dyads was evident in these data. Interventions focusing on health-harming behavior for adolescent populations are important public health goals. It is recommended that future intervention efforts with adolescent health-harming behaviors should target not only peers, but also consider the role of romantic partners. PMID:22424832

  16. Curcumin ameliorates reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad: behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and molecular evidences.

    PubMed

    Arora, V; Kuhad, A; Tiwari, V; Chopra, K

    2011-11-01

    An apparent clinical relationship between pain and depression has long been recognized. Depression and pain are often diagnosed in the same patients. The emerging concept for pain-depression pathogenesis is the dysfunction of biogenic amine-mediated pain-depression control and the possible involvement of nitrodative stress-induced neurogenic inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad in rats. Administration of reserpine (1mg/kg subcutaneous daily for three consecutive days) led to a significant decrease in nociceptive threshold as evident from reduced paw withdrawal threshold in Randall Sellitto and von-Frey hair test as well as significant increase in immobility time in forced swim test. This behavioural deficit was integrated with decrease in the biogenic amine (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) levels along with increased substance P concentration, nitrodative stress, inflammatory cytokines, NF-?? and caspase-3 levels in different brain regions (cortex and hippocampus) of the reserpinised rats. Curcumin (100, 200, 300mg/kg; ip) dose dependently ameliorated the behavioural deficits associated with pain and depression by restoring behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and molecular alterations against reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad in rats. PMID:21612876

  17. Discovering regulatory elements in non-coding sequences by analysis of spaced dyads

    PubMed Central

    Helden, Jacques van; Rios, Alma. F.; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2000-01-01

    The application of microarray and related technologies is currently generating a systematic catalog of the transcriptional response of any single gene to a multiplicity of experimental conditions. Clustering genes according to the similarity of their transcriptional response provides a direct hint to the regulons of the different transcription factors, many of which have still not been characterized. We have developed a new method for deciphering the mechanism underlying the common transcriptional response of a set of genes, i.e. discovering cis-acting regulatory elements from a set of unaligned upstream sequences. This method, called dyad analysis, is based on the observation that many regulatory sites consist of a pair of highly conserved trinucleotides, spaced by a non-conserved region of fixed width. The approach is to count the number of occurrences of each possible spaced pair of trinucleotides, and to assess its statistical significance. The method is highly efficient in the detection of sites bound by C6 Zn2 binuclear cluster proteins, as well as other transcription factors. In addition, we show that the dyad and single-word analyses are efficient for the detection of regulatory patterns in gene clusters from DNA chip experiments. In combination, these programs should provide a fast and efficient way to discover new regulatory sites for as yet unknown transcription factors. PMID:10734201

  18. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Large Third-Order Optical Nonlinearity of a Novel Copper Phthalocyanine Ferrocene Dyad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Yue-Jing; Xu, Song; Li, Zhong-Yu; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Fu-Shi

    2008-09-01

    Third-order optical nonlinearity of a novel copper phthalocyanine-ferrocene dyad is measured by femtosecond forward degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique at 800 nm. The second-order hyperpolarizability of the novel copper phthalocyanine-ferrocene dyad is measured to be 1.74 × 10-30 esu. This large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinear response is mainly enhanced by the formation of intramolecular charge-transfer which can enhance the delocalized movements of the large ?-electrons in the molecules.

  19. Tuning the Charge-Separated Lifetimes of Ruthenium(II)polypyridyl-Viologen Dyads and Ruthenium(II)polypyridyl-Viologen Triads by the Formation of Supramolecular Assemblies

    E-print Network

    Turro, Claudia

    ARTICLES Tuning the Charge-Separated Lifetimes of Ruthenium(II)polypyridyl-Viologen Dyads and Ruthenium(II)polypyridyl-Viologen Triads by the Formation of Supramolecular Assemblies with Crown Ethers and photophysical properties of a ruthenium dyad (4) and triad (5) are reported. Both biomimetic systems

  20. A Conserved Tyrosyl–Glutamyl Catalytic Dyad in Evolutionarily Linked Enzymes: Carbapenam Synthetase and ?-Lactam Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Raber, Mary L.; Arnett, Samantha O.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    ?-Lactam-synthesizing enzymes carbapenam synthetase (CPS) and ?-lactam synthetase (?-LS) are evolutionarily linked to a common ancestor, asparagine synthetase B (AS-B). These three relatives catalyze substrate acyl-adenylation and nucleophilic acyl substitution by either an external (AS-B) or internal (CPS, ?-LS) nitrogen source. Unlike AS-B, crystal structures of CPS and ?-LS revealed a putative Tyr-Glu dyad (CPS, Y345/E380; ?-LS, Y348/E382) proposed to deprotonate the respective internal nucleophile. CPS and ?-LS site-directed mutagenesis (Y345/8A, Y345/8F, E380/2D, E380/2Q, E380A) resulted in the reduction of their catalytic efficiency, with Y345A, E380A, and E382Q producing undetectable amounts of ?-lactam product. However, [32P]PPi–ATP exchange assays demonstrated Y345A and E380A undergo the first half-reaction, with the remaining active mutants showing decreased forward commitment to ?-lactam cyclization. pH–rate profiles of CPS and ?-LS supported the importance of a Tyr-Glu dyad in ?-lactam formation and suggested its reverse protonation in ?-LS. The kinetics of CPS double-site mutants reinforced the synergism of Tyr-Glu in catalysis. Furthermore, significant solvent isotope effects on kcat (Dkcat) for Y345F (1.9) and Y348F (1.7) maintained the assignment of Y345/8 in proton transfer. A proton inventory on Y348F determined its D(kcat/Km) = 0.2 to arise from multiple reactant-state fractionation factors, presumably from water molecule(s) replacing the missing Tyr hydroxyl. The role of a CPS and ?-LS Tyr-Glu catalytic dyad was solidified by a significant decrease in mutant kcat viscosity dependence with respect to the wild-type enzymes. The evolutionary relation and potential for engineered biosynthesis were demonstrated by ?-LS acting as a carbapenam synthetase. PMID:19371088

  1. Resemblance of dietary intakes of snacks, sweets, fruit, and vegetables among mother-child dyads from low income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in low-income mother–child dyads. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from Head Start centers in Houston, Texas, and Birmingham, Alabama. Twenty-four-hour dietary ...

  2. Crystal Structure of a Bacterial Signal Peptidase Apoenzyme IMPLICATIONS FOR SIGNAL PEPTIDE BINDING AND THE SER-LYS DYAD MECHANISM*

    E-print Network

    Paetzel, Mark

    AND THE SER-LYS DYAD MECHANISM* Received for publication, November 15, 2001 Published, JBC Papers in Press is consistent with SPase utilizing an unusual oxyanion hole containing one side-chain hydroxyl hy- drogen (Ser-88 O H) and one main-chain amide hydro- gen (Ser-90 NH). Analysis of the apoenzyme active site

  3. The Role of Maternal Factors in Sibling Relationship Quality: A Multilevel Study of Multiple Dyads per Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and…

  4. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and…

  5. JUST AMONG FRIENDS: ASSOCIATIONS AMONG EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION, FRIEND BEHAVIOR, AND FRIENDSHIP QUALITY IN EARLY ADOLESCENT SAME-SEX FRIEND DYADS

    E-print Network

    Legerski, John-Paul

    2010-08-31

    To better understand emotional expression within the context of close same-sex friendships of young adolescents, this study examined emotional expressivity among 116 adolescents (58 friend dyads) in Grades 7-8 (12-14 years of age) utilizing a multi...

  6. Influence of Mentoring on Dyad Satisfaction: Is There Agreement between Matched Pairs of Novice Teachers and Their Formal Mentors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiman, Bradley C.

    2007-01-01

    Mentoring has evolved to become a crucial aspect of support for new teachers and has become the dominant form of teacher induction. However, limited scholarly effort has compared the perceptions of dyad members for congruence and differences. The purpose of the study was to examine and compare the perceptions of novice teachers and formal mentors…

  7. A Co(II)-Ru(II) dyad relevant to light-driven water oxidation catalysis.

    PubMed

    López, Alejandro Montellano; Natali, Mirco; Pizzolato, Erica; Chiorboli, Claudio; Bonchio, Marcella; Sartorel, Andrea; Scandola, Franco

    2014-06-28

    Artificial photosynthesis aims at efficient water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen, by exploiting solar light. As a priority requirement, this process entails the integration of suitable multi-electron catalysts with light absorbing units, where charge separation is generated in order to drive the catalytic routines. The final goal could be the transposition of such an asset into a photoelectrocatalytic cell, where the two half-reactions, proton reduction to hydrogen and water oxidation to oxygen, take place at two appropriately engineered photoelectrodes. We herein report a covalent approach to anchor a Co(II) water oxidation catalyst to a Ru(II) polypyridine photosensitizer unit; photophysical characterisation and the catalytic activity of such a dyad in a light activated cycle are reported, and implications for the development of regenerative systems are discussed. PMID:24664104

  8. Influence of donor-acceptor distance variation on photoinduced electron and proton transfer in rhenium(I)-phenol dyads.

    PubMed

    Kuss-Petermann, Martin; Wolf, Hilke; Stalke, Dietmar; Wenger, Oliver S

    2012-08-01

    A homologous series of four molecules in which a phenol unit is linked covalently to a rhenium(I) tricarbonyl diimine photooxidant via a variable number of p-xylene spacers (n = 0-3) was synthesized and investigated. The species with a single p-xylene spacer was structurally characterized to get some benchmark distances. Photoexcitation of the metal complex in the shortest dyad (n = 0) triggers release of the phenolic proton to the acetonitrile/water solvent mixture; a H/D kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 2.0 ± 0.4 is associated with this process. Thus, the shortest dyad basically acts like a photoacid. The next two longer dyads (n = 1, 2) exhibit intramolecular photoinduced phenol-to-rhenium electron transfer in the rate-determining excited-state deactivation step, and there is no significant KIE in this case. For the dyad with n = 1, transient absorption spectroscopy provided evidence for release of the phenolic proton to the solvent upon oxidation of the phenol by intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer. Subsequent thermal charge recombination is associated with a H/D KIE of 3.6 ± 0.4 and therefore is likely to involve proton motion in the rate-determining reaction step. Thus, some of the longer dyads (n = 1, 2) exhibit photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), albeit in a stepwise (electron transfer followed by proton transfer) rather than concerted manner. Our study demonstrates that electronically strongly coupled donor-acceptor systems may exhibit significantly different photoinduced PCET chemistry than electronically weakly coupled donor-bridge-acceptor molecules. PMID:22809316

  9. Ultrafast Photoinduced Electron Transfer and Charge Stabilization in Donor-Acceptor Dyads Capable of Harvesting Near-Infrared Light.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Venugopal; Gobeze, Habtom B; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-08-01

    To harvest energy from the near-infrared (near-IR) and infrared (IR) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, which constitutes nearly 70?% of the solar radiation, there is a great demand for near-IR and IR light-absorbing sensitizers that are capable of undergoing ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer when connected to a suitable electron acceptor. Towards achieving this goal, in the present study, we report multistep syntheses of dyads derived from structurally modified BF2-chelated azadipyrromethene (ADP; to extend absorption and emission into the near-IR region) and fullerene as electron-donor and electron-acceptor entities, respectively. The newly synthesized dyads were fully characterized based on optical absorbance, fluorescence, geometry optimization, and electrochemical studies. The established energy level diagram revealed the possibility of electron transfer either from the singlet excited near-IR sensitizer or singlet excited fullerene. Femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption studies were performed to gather evidence of excited state electron transfer and to evaluate the kinetics of charge separation and charge recombination processes. These studies revealed the occurrence of ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer leading to charge stabilization in the dyads, and populating the triplet states of ADP, benzanulated-ADP and benzanulated thiophene-ADP in the respective dyads, and triplet state of C60 in the case of BF2 -chelated dipyrromethene derived dyad during charge recombination. The present findings reveal that these sensitizers are suitable for harvesting light energy from the near-IR region of the solar spectrum and for building fast-responding optoelectronic devices operating under near-IR radiation input. PMID:26130432

  10. Infant-like Social Interactions between a Robot and a Human Caretaker

    E-print Network

    Sukthankar, Gita Reese

    1 Infant-like Social Interactions between a Robot and a Human Caretaker Cynthia Breazeal (Ferrell interactions with humans. keywords: Human-robot interaction, social agents, emotional agents shortened title. Specifically, the mode of social interaction is that of a caretaker-infant dyad where a human acts

  11. Time Resolved Spectroscopic Studies on a Novel Synthesized Photo-Switchable Organic Dyad and Its Nanocomposite Form in Order to Develop Light Energy Conversion Devices.

    PubMed

    Dutta Pal, Gopa; Paul, Abhijit; Yadav, Somnath; Bardhan, Munmun; De, Asish; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Jana, Aindrila; Ganguly, Tapan

    2015-08-01

    UV-vis absorption, steady state and time resolved spectroscopic investigations in pico and nanosecond time domain were made in the different environments on a novel synthesized dyad, 3-(2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (MNTMA) in its pristine form and when combined with gold (Au) nanoparticles i.e., in its nanocomposite structure. Both steady state and time resolved measurements coupled with the DFT calculations performed by using Gaussian 03 suit of software operated in the linux operating system show that though the dyad exhibits mainly the folded conformation in the ground state but on photoexcitation the nanocomposite form of dyad prefers to be in elongated structure in the excited state indicating its photoswitchable nature. Due to the predominancy of elongated isomeric form of the dyad in the excited state in presence of Au Nps, it appears that the dyad MNTMA may behave as a good light energy converter specially in its nanocomposite form. As larger charge separation rate (kcs ~ 4 x 10(8) s-1) is found relative to the rate associated with the energy wasting charge recombination processes (kcR ~ 3 x 10(5) s-1) in the nanocomposite form of the dyad, it demonstrates the suitability of constructing the efficient light energy conversion devices with Au-dyad hybrid nanomaterials. PMID:26369151

  12. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the…

  13. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M.; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and ‘fun task’ conditions. We focused on the link between interactants’ affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants’ personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants’ body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation. PMID:25505435

  14. Pyrene-based dyad and triad leading to a reversible chemical and redox optical and magnetic switch.

    PubMed

    Franco, Carlos; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Caballero, Antonio; Espinosa, Arturo; Molina, Pedro; Veciana, Jaume; Rovira, Concepció

    2015-03-27

    Two new pyrene-polychlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) dyads and triads have been synthesized and characterized by optical, magnetic, and electrochemical methods. The interplay between the different electronic states of the PTM moiety in the dyads and triads and the optical and magnetic properties of the molecules have been studied. The electronic spectra of the radicals 5(.) and 6(.) show the intramolecular charge-transfer transition at around 700?nm due to the acceptor character of the PTM radical. In the diamagnetic protonated derivatives 3 and 4 the fluorescence due to the pyrene is maintained, whereas in the radicals 5(.) and 6(.) and the corresponding anions 5(-) and 6(-) there is a clear quenching of the fluorescence, which is more efficient in the case of radicals. The redox activity of PTM radicals that are easily reduced to the corresponding carbanion has been exploited to fabricate electrochemical switches with optical and magnetic response. PMID:25694181

  15. Development of Unsymmetrical Dyads As Potent Noncarbohydrate-Based Inhibitors against Human ?-N-Acetyl-d-hexosaminidase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human ?-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase has gained much attention due to its roles in several pathological processes and been considered as potential targets for disease therapy. A novel and efficient skeleton, which was an unsymmetrical dyad containing naphthalimide and methoxyphenyl moieties with an alkylamine spacer linkage as a noncarbohydrate-based inhibitor, was synthesized, and the activities were valuated against human ?-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase. The most potent inhibitor exhibits high inhibitory activity with Ki values of 0.63 ?M. The straightforward synthetic manners of these unsymmetrical dyads and understanding of the binding model could be advantageous for further structure optimization and development of new therapeutic agents for Hex-related diseases. PMID:24900704

  16. Light-driven generation of hydrogen: New chromophore dyads for increased activity based on Bodipy dye and Pt(diimine)(dithiolate) complexes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; Sabatini, Randy P; Fu, Wen-Fu; Eum, Min-Sik; Brennessel, William W; Wang, Lidong; McCamant, David W; Eisenberg, Richard

    2015-07-28

    New dyads consisting of a strongly absorbing Bodipy (dipyrromethene-BF2) dye and a platinum diimine dithiolate (PtN2S2) charge transfer (CT) chromophore have been synthesized and studied in the context of the light-driven generation of H2 from aqueous protons. In these dyads, the Bodipy dye is bonded directly to the benzenedithiolate ligand of the PtN2S2 CT chromophore. Each of the new dyads contains either a bipyridine (bpy) or phenanthroline (phen) diimine with an attached functional group that is used for binding directly to TiO2 nanoparticles, allowing rapid electron photoinjection into the semiconductor. The absorption spectra and cyclic voltammograms of the dyads show that the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the dyads are the sum of the individual chromophores (Bodipy and the PtN2S2 moieties), indicating little electronic coupling between them. Connection to TiO2 nanoparticles is carried out by sonication leading to in situ attachment to TiO2 without prior hydrolysis of the ester linking groups to acids. For H2 generation studies, the TiO2 particles are platinized (Pt-TiO2) so that the light absorber (the dyad), the electron conduit (TiO2), and the catalyst (attached colloidal Pt) are fully integrated. It is found that upon 530 nm irradiation in a H2O solution (pH 4) with ascorbic acid as an electron donor, the dyad linked to Pt-TiO2 via a phosphonate or carboxylate attachment shows excellent light-driven H2 production with substantial longevity, in which one particular dyad [4(bpyP)] exhibits the highest activity, generating ? 40,000 turnover numbers of H2 over 12 d (with respect to dye). PMID:26116625

  17. Child-Directed Interaction: Prediction of Change in Impaired Mother-Child Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Michelle D.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2006-01-01

    The first phase of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), called child-directed interaction, teaches parents to use positive and differential social attention to improve the parent-child relationship. This study examined predictors of change in mother and child functioning during the child-directed interaction for 100 mother-child dyads. The…

  18. [Influence of maternal feeding restrictions on the mother-daughter dyad].

    PubMed

    Schiattino, I; Sanfuentes, M T; Lagarribel, M; Jara, S; Lolas, F; Liberman, C

    1998-01-01

    Alimentary restraint, cognitive variable related to eating behavior and obesity, is reportedly a valuable predictor for the development of therapeutic strategies. This paper addresses the relationship between maternal restraint and several psychological variables in their daughters (alexithymia, neuroticism, extraversion). From the study of 35 mother-daughter dyads it can be concluded that daughters of highly restrained mothers tend to present high scores in the Restraint scale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire of Stunkard and Messick, translated into Spanish and validated as Cuestionario de Conducta Alimentaria. Daughters of highle restrained mothers present also higher scores in the Neuroticism scale of the revised version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Daughters of mothers with low Restraint scores are in average higher than those of their mothers, although lower than those belonging to daughters of highle restrained mothers. Previous observations on the positive correlation between Disinhibition and Hunger of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire are confirmed. These results add an additional risk factor for obesity (mothers with high Restraint) and contribute to delineate a set of psychometric indicators which might be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of eating and body weight disorders. PMID:9949563

  19. Histone H3 phosphorylation near the nucleosome dyad alters chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    North, Justin A.; Šimon, Marek; Ferdinand, Michelle B.; Shoffner, Matthew A.; Picking, Jonathan W.; Howard, Cecil J.; Mooney, Alex M.; van Noort, John; Poirier, Michael G.; Ottesen, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosomes contain ?146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone protein octamer that controls DNA accessibility to transcription and repair complexes. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of histone proteins regulates nucleosome function. To date, only modest changes in nucleosome structure have been directly attributed to histone PTMs. Histone residue H3(T118) is located near the nucleosome dyad and can be phosphorylated. This PTM destabilizes nucleosomes and is implicated in the regulation of transcription and repair. Here, we report gel electrophoretic mobility, sucrose gradient sedimentation, thermal disassembly, micrococcal nuclease digestion and atomic force microscopy measurements of two DNA–histone complexes that are structurally distinct from nucleosomes. We find that H3(T118ph) facilitates the formation of a nucleosome duplex with two DNA molecules wrapped around two histone octamers, and an altosome complex that contains one DNA molecule wrapped around two histone octamers. The nucleosome duplex complex forms within short ?150 bp DNA molecules, whereas altosomes require at least ?250 bp of DNA and form repeatedly along 3000 bp DNA molecules. These results are the first report of a histone PTM significantly altering the nucleosome structure. PMID:24561803

  20. Communication Strategies to Reduce Cancer Disparities: Insights from African-American Mother-Daughter Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Wilson Genderson, Maureen; Ports, Katie A.; Carlyle, Kellie E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mothers and daughters share a powerful and unique bond, which has potential for the dissemination of information on a variety of women's health issues, including the primary and secondary prevention of breast and cervical cancer. This study presents formative research from a long-term project examining the potential of mother-daughter communication in promoting cancer screening among African-American women. Methods Thirty-two mother-daughter pairs (N = 64) completed orally administered surveys regarding their cancer knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and barriers to care. This study compares the attitudes and beliefs of low-income, urban, African-American mothers and their adolescent daughters regarding cervical and breast cancer screening. Results Both mothers and daughters had fairly high levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer. In addition, there was a high concordance rate between mothers' and daughters' responses, suggesting a potential sharing of health knowledge between mother and daughter. Discussion These results have implications for selecting communication strategies to reduce health disparities, and support that the mother-daughter dyad could be a viable unit to disseminate targeted screening information. PMID:26461906

  1. Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

  2. Structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad monolayer on the water surface and solid substrate

    SciTech Connect

    D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, A. S.; Alekseev, A. S.; Klechkovskaya, V. V. Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H.; Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2011-01-15

    Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad TBD6a were formed on the surface of a water subphase and then transported on a solid substrate by the Langmuir-Schaefer method. A simulation was performed for the structure of a single molecule and for a molecular monolayer, according to the area per molecule in the monolayer formed, which was calculated based on an analysis of the {pi}-A isotherm. A unit cell was chosen for the proposed molecular packing (a = 1.54 nm, b = 1.50 nm, c = 1.75 nm, {alpha} = 80.0 Degree-Sign , {beta} = 90.0 Degree-Sign , and {gamma} = 90.0 Degree-Sign ), and the atomic coordinates were calculated. A comparison of the interplanar spacings and diffraction peak intensities in the experimental and calculated (for the unit cell proposed) diffraction patterns indicates that a platelike texture is formed in the monolayer and that the crystal structure of the domains corresponds to the model chosen.

  3. Ultrafast Electronic Energy Transfer Beyond the Weak Coupling Limit in a Proximal but Orthogonal Molecular Dyad.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Gordon J; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Benniston, Andrew C; Harriman, Anthony; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2015-12-24

    Electronic energy transfer (EET) from a donor to an acceptor is an important mechanism that controls the light harvesting efficiency in a wide variety of systems, including artificial and natural photosynthesis and contemporary photovoltaic technologies. The detailed mechanism of EET at short distances or large angles between the donor and acceptor is poorly understood. Here the influence of the orientation between the donor and acceptor on EET is explored using a molecule with two nearly perpendicular chromophores. Very fast EET with a time constant of 120 fs is observed, which is at least 40 times faster than the time predicted by Coulombic coupling calculations. Depolarization of the emission signal indicates that the transition dipole rotates through ca. 64°, indicating the near orthogonal nature of the EET event. The rate of EET is found to be similar to structural relaxation rates in the photoexcited oligothiophene donor alone, which suggests that this initial relaxation brings the dyad to a conical intersection where the excitation jumps to the acceptor. PMID:26617059

  4. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Stephen S. H.; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J.; Kelvin, Alyson A.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1? upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus infection in the mother-infant dyad initiate immunological and oncogenic signaling cascades within the mammary gland. These findings suggest the mammary gland may have a greater role in infection and immunity than previously thought. PMID:26448646

  5. Dyadic interracial interactions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Toosi, Negin R; Babbitt, Laura G; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined over 40 years of research on interracial interactions by exploring 4 types of outcomes: explicit attitudes toward interaction partners, participants' self-reports of their own emotional state, nonverbal or observed behavior, and objective measures of performance. Data were collected from 108 samples (N = 12,463) comparing dyadic interracial and same-race interactions, predominantly featuring Black and White Americans. Effect sizes were small: Participants in same-race dyads tended to express marginally more positive attitudes about their partners (r = .07), reported feeling less negative affect (r = .10), showed more friendly nonverbal behavior (r = .09), and scored higher on performance measures (r = .07) than those in interracial dyads. Effect sizes also showed substantial heterogeneity, and further analyses indicated that intersectional, contextual, and relational factors moderated these outcomes. For example, when members of a dyad were the same sex, differences between interracial and same-race dyads in negative affect were reduced. Structured interactions led to more egalitarian performance outcomes than did free-form interactions, but the effects of interaction structure on nonverbal behavior depended on participant gender. Furthermore, benefits of intergroup contact were apparent: Differences in emotional state across dyadic racial composition disappeared in longer term interactions, and racial minorities, who often have greater experience with intergroup contact, experienced less negative affect in interracial interactions than did majority group members. Finally, there was a significant historical trend toward more egalitarian outcomes across dyadic racial composition for explicit attitudes and for nonverbal behavior; however, participants' emotional responses and performance have remained consistent. PMID:22061690

  6. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  7. The Association between Parental Interaction Style and Children's Joint Engagement in Families with Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Elder, Lauren; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between parental interaction style (responsive vs directive) and child-initiated joint engagement within caregiver-child interactions with toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Method: Videotaped interactions of 85 toddler-caregiver dyads were coded for child engagement and both parental…

  8. Assessing whether measurement invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across child-parent dyad depends on the child gender: a multiple group confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children's and parents' perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant items across girl-parent dyad were mostly detected in the psychological well-being and the social support and peers domains. Moreover, the boys and their parents differed mainly in the autonomy and parent relation domain. Detecting different non-invariant items across the girl-parent dyad compared to the boy-parent dyad underlines the importance of taking the child's gender into account when assessing measurement invariance between children and their parents and consequently deciding about children's physical, psychological or social well-being from the parents' viewpoint. PMID:25169000

  9. Long Term Follow-Up after a Randomized Integrated Educational and Psychosocial Intervention in Patient-Partner Dyads Affected by Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, contemporary heart failure care remains patient-focused, but awareness of the partners’ and families’ situation is increasing. Randomized studies have mainly evaluated the short-term effects of dyadic interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the 24-month effects of an intervention with psych-educational support in dyads of heart failure patients and their partners. Methods This study used a randomized study design and 155 patient-partner dyads were enrolled. The intervention included a nurse-led program of three sessions addressing psychoeducational support. Results The intervention did not have any effect on health, depressive symptoms or perceived control among the patient-partner dyads after 24 months. Furthermore, time to first event did not differ significantly between the intervention group and the control patients. Conclusion This study may be regarded as a first step in trying to understand dyads’ need for supportive care. Individualized and more targeted interventions seem necessary to achieve a higher impact on dyad outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02398799 PMID:26406475

  10. Effects of Parental Interaction on Infant Vocalization Rate, Variability and Vocal Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Beau; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Messinger, Daniel; Bene, Edina; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Lee, Chia-Chang; Lambert, Brittany; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Examination of infant vocalization patterns across interactive and noninteractive contexts may facilitate better understanding of early communication development. In the current study, with 24 infant-parent dyads, infant volubility increased significantly when parent interaction ceased (presenting a "still face," or SF) after a period of…

  11. Slow and fast singlet energy transfers in BODIPY-gallium(III)corrole dyads linked by flexible chains.

    PubMed

    Brizet, Bertrand; Desbois, Nicolas; Bonnot, Antoine; Langlois, Adam; Dubois, Adrien; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Gros, Claude P; Goze, Christine; Denat, Franck; Harvey, Pierre D

    2014-04-01

    Red (no styryl), green (monostyryl), and blue (distyryl) BODIPY-gallium(III) (BODIPY = boron-dipyrromethene) corrole dyads have been prepared in high yields using click chemistry, and their photophysical properties are reported. An original and efficient control of the direction of the singlet energy transfers is reported, going either from BODIPY to the gallium-corrole units or from gallium-corroles to BODIPY, depending upon the nature of the substitution on BODIPY. In one case (green), both directions are possible. The mechanism for the energy transfers is interpreted by means of through-space Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). PMID:24661249

  12. Photophysical properties of new bis-perylene dyads for potential upconversion use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Marcos R.; Steer, Ronald P.; Rüther, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Two new bis-perylenes, BPC with a meta-disubstituted benzene linker, and BPD with a p,p?-disubstituted biphenyl linker, have been synthesized and their photophysical parameters measured. Their singlet and triplet energies decrease incrementally in the order perylene, BPC, BPD, making them ideally matched with C60 for triplet-triplet energy transfer in sensitized photon upconversion schemes. Following photosensitization by triplet C60, BPC exhibits strong fluorescence upconversion by triplet-triplet annihilation, indicating that these bis-perylene dyads (and the multimers that can be constructed from them) will be interesting candidates for use in organic devices such as bulk-heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells employing non-coherent photon upconversion. Excitation of C60 at 532 nm will produce its long-lived lowest triplet state with near unit quantum efficiency under the conditions of this experiment [33]. The thermal energy loss usually associated with triplet-triplet energy transfer, Eq. (2), is minimal in this system as the triplet energies of the donor and acceptor are nearly identical at ca. 1.5 eV. In the absence of self-quenching of the fluorescing singlet state, increasing the relative concentrations of acceptor to donor can raise the overall efficiency of the sensitization process to nearly 100%, even if their triplet energies are the same, due to entropic assistance [34]. This was confirmed by measuring the upconversion intensity as a function of dyad concentration at constant absorbed power (Supplementary Information), and by transient absorption measurements of C60 (T1) at 740 nm (Supplementary Information). The latter show that C60(T1) decays with a lifetime on the order of 400 ns for equimolar C60 + BPC concentrations, i.e. at a rate at least 100 times faster (due to quenching by energy transfer) than it would decay in the absence of the BPC triplet energy acceptor. Note also that the dimers with their slightly lower triplet energies are expected to exhibit greater net C60 donor to acceptor triplet energy transfer efficiencies than perylene itself [23], albeit with a slight incremental thermal energy loss of ca. 0.05-0.10 eV. The lifetime of the BPC triplet could not be measured by transient absorption because of its weak absorption cross-section in the probe wavelength region. Nevertheless, the unquenched lifetime of the BPC triplet is expected to be long. The lifetime of the triplet of perylene itself is ca. 5 ms in fluid degassed solution at room temperature [22], and mono- or di-substitution of the perylene ring system with light-atom substituents does not produce an order-of-magnitude decrease in this value [35]. The measured first order rate constant in this case would, however, be the sum of all first order and pseudo-first order processes, with the latter dominating the overall triplet decay rate under the experimental conditions employed. Using anthanthrene or bis-tetracene as a reasonable model [18,23], the lifetime of BPC(T1) is likely to be about two orders of magnitude shorter than its unquenched lifetime under the conditions of these experiments, i.e. of the order of a few tens of ?s, consistent with the generally first order decay found at the low to moderate laser excitation power density range shown in Figure 3. Again using well-known upconverters as models [15,22,23], the rate constant for TTA of BPC is likely to approach within a factor of 2 or 3 of the diffusion-controlled limit (1.1 × 1010 M-1 s-1), spin statistical limitations notwithstanding, as described by Schmidt et al. [36]. The rate constants for the relaxation of the product S1 state of TTA in the bis-perylenes are provided in Table 1. In an upconverting solar photovoltaic cell, the thermal energy losses in excess of those associated with the Shockley-Queisser limit will be small in this system. Using the zero point energies of the electronic excited states involved in the absorption, sensitization and upconversion steps as reference data, the S1-T1 thermal energy loss in the C60 absorber is 0.20 eV per absorbed p

  13. Effects of big-five personality traits on the quality of relationship and satisfaction in Chinese coach-athlete dyads.

    PubMed

    Yang, S X; Jowett, S; Chan, D K C

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach-athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach-athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach-athlete dyad. PMID:25367655

  14. HIV seroadaptation among individuals, within sexual dyads, and by sexual episodes, men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2008

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Willi; Chen, Yea-Hung; Raymond, H Fisher; Nyugen, Binh; Colfax, Grant; Mehrtens, Jason; Robertson, Tyler; Stall, Ron; Levine, Deb; Truong, Hong-Ha M

    2011-01-01

    “Seroadaptation” comprises sexual behaviors to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission based on knowing one’s own and one’s sexual partners’ serostatus. We measured the prevalence of seroadaptive behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited through time-location sampling (TLS) across three perspectives: by individuals (N=1,207 MSM), among sexual dyads (N=3,746 partnerships), and for sexual episodes (N=63,789 episodes) in the preceding six months. Seroadaptation was more common than 100% condom use when considering the consistent behavioral pattern of individuals (adopted by 39.1% vs. 25.0% of men, respectively). Among sexual dyads 100% condom use was more common than seroadaptation (33.1% vs. 26.4%, respectively). Considering episodes of sex, not having anal intercourse (65.0%) and condom use (16.0%) were the most common risk reduction behaviors. Sex of highest acquisition and transmission risks (unprotected anal intercourse with a HIV serodiscordant or unknown status partner in the riskier position) occurred in only 1.6% of sexual episodes. In aggregate, MSM achieve a high level of sexual harm reduction through multiple strategies. Detailed measures of seroadaptive behaviors are needed to effectively target HIV risk and gauge the potential of serosorting and related sexual harm reduction strategies on the HIV epidemic. PMID:21347888

  15. Hair cortisol concentrations in higher- and lower-stress mother-daughter dyads: A pilot study of associations and moderators.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Sarah J; Russell, Evan; Kryski, Katie R; Sheikh, Haroon I; Singh, Shiva M; Koren, Gideon; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are receiving increased attention as a novel biomarker of psychophysiological responses to chronic stress, with potential relevance for psychopathology risk research. We examined the validity of HCC as a marker of psychosocial stress in mother (M(age) ?=?37.87 years)-daughter (M(age) ?=?7.62 years) dyads characterized by higher (n?=?30) or lower (n?=?30) maternal chronic stress. Additionally, we examined whether early care moderated similarity of HCC levels within dyads. Higher-stress mothers had significantly lower HCC compared to lower-stress mothers, consistent with other research showing that chronic stress leads to blunted HPA axis activity over time. Further, HCC in daughters were significantly and positively associated with previously assessed salivary cortisol stress reactivity. Finally, mother-daughter HCC associations were significantly moderated by negative parenting styles, such that associations became stronger as quality of parenting decreased. Findings overall indicate that HCC may be a useful marker of cortisol responses to chronic stress. PMID:25820649

  16. Porphyrin-fullerene C60 dyads with high ability to form photoinduced charge-separated state as novel sensitizers for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Milanesio, M Elisa; Alvarez, M Gabriela; Rivarola, Viviana; Silber, Juana J; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2005-01-01

    The photodynamic activities of a porphyrin-C60 dyad (P-C60) and its metal complex with Zn(II) (ZnP-C60) were compared with 5-(4-acetamidophenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (P), both in homogeneous medium-bearing photooxidizable substrates and in vitro on the Hep-2-human-larynx-carcinoma cell line. This study represents the first evaluation of dyads, with a high capacity to form a photoinduced charge-separated state, to act as agents to inactivate cells by photodynamic therapy (PDT). Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies were performed in toluene and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The emission of the porphyrin moiety in the dyads is strongly quenched by the attached fullerene C60 moiety. The singlet molecular oxygen, O2(1delta(g)), productions (phi(delta)) were determined using 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA). The values of phi(delta) were strongly dependent on the solvent's polarity. Comparable phi(delta) values were found for dyads and P in toluene, while O2(1delta(g)) production was significantly diminished for the dyads in DMF. In more polar solvent, the stabilization of charge-transfer state takes place, decreasing the efficiency of porphyrin triplet-state formation. Also, both dyads photosensitize the decomposition of L-tryptophan in DMF. In biological medium, no dark cytotoxicity was observed using sensitizer concentrations < or = 1 microM and 24 h of incubation. The uptake of sensitizers into Hep-2 was studied using 1 microM of sensitizer and different times of incubation. Under these conditions, a value of approximately 1.5 nmol/10(6) cells was found between 4 and 24 h of incubation. The cell survival after irradiation of the cells with visible light was dependent upon light-exposure level. A higher photocytotoxic effect was observed for P-C60, which inactivates 80% of cells after 15 min of irradiation. Moreover, both dyads keep a high photoactivity even under argon atmosphere. Thus, depending on the microenvironment where the sensitizer is localized, these compounds could produce biological photodamage through either an O2(1delta(g))-mediated photoreaction process or a free-radicals mechanism under low oxygen concentration. These results show that molecular dyads, which can form a photoinduced charge-separated state, are a promising model for phototherapeutic agents, with potential applications in cell inactivation by PDT. PMID:15757366

  17. Evidence for substrate binding-induced zwitterion formation in the catalytic Cys-His dyad of the SARS-CoV main protease.

    PubMed

    Paasche, Alexander; Zipper, Andreas; Schäfer, Simon; Ziebuhr, John; Schirmeister, Tanja; Engels, Bernd

    2014-09-23

    The coronavirus main protease (M(pro)) represents an attractive drug target for antiviral therapy of coronavirus (CoV) infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The SARS-CoV M(pro) and related CoV proteases have several distinct features, such as an uncharged Cys-His catalytic dyad embedded in a chymotrypsin-like protease fold, that clearly separate these enzymes from archetypical cysteine proteases. To further characterize the catalytic system of CoV main proteases and to obtain information about improved inhibitors, we performed comprehensive simulations of the proton-transfer reactions in the SARS-CoV M(pro) active site that lead to the Cys(-)/His(+) zwitterionic state required for efficient proteolytic activity. Our simulations, comprising the free enzyme as well as substrate-enzyme and inhibitor-enzyme complexes, lead us to predict that zwitterion formation is fostered by substrate binding but not inhibitor binding. This indicates that M(pro) employs a substrate-induced catalytic mechanism that further enhances its substrate specificity. Our computational data are in line with available experimental results, such as X-ray geometries, measured pKa values, mutagenesis experiments, and the measured differences between the kinetic parameters of substrates and inhibitors. The data also provide an atomistic picture of the formerly postulated electrostatic trigger involved in SARS-CoV M(pro) activity. Finally, they provide information on how a specific microenvironment may finely tune the activity of M(pro) toward specific viral protein substrates, which is known to be required for efficient viral replication. Our simulations also indicate that the low inhibition potencies of known covalently interacting inhibitors may, at least in part, be attributed to insufficient fostering of the proton-transfer reaction. These findings suggest ways to achieve improved inhibitors. PMID:25196915

  18. Six-Week Postpartum Maternal Self-Criticism and Dependency and 4-Month Mother-Infant Self- and Interactive Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were…

  19. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants during Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on Their Language Development as Toddlers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ("media verbal interactions") might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads

  20. A conserved tyrosyl-glutamyl catalytic dyad in evolutionarily linked enzymes: carbapenam synthetase and beta-lactam synthetase.

    PubMed

    Raber, Mary L; Arnett, Samantha O; Townsend, Craig A

    2009-06-01

    Beta-lactam-synthesizing enzymes carbapenam synthetase (CPS) and beta-lactam synthetase (beta-LS) are evolutionarily linked to a common ancestor, asparagine synthetase B (AS-B). These three relatives catalyze substrate acyl-adenylation and nucleophilic acyl substitution by either an external (AS-B) or internal (CPS, beta-LS) nitrogen source. Unlike AS-B, crystal structures of CPS and beta-LS revealed a putative Tyr-Glu dyad (CPS, Y345/E380; beta-LS, Y348/E382) proposed to deprotonate the respective internal nucleophile. CPS and beta-LS site-directed mutagenesis (Y345/8A, Y345/8F, E380/2D, E380/2Q, E380A) resulted in the reduction of their catalytic efficiency, with Y345A, E380A, and E382Q producing undetectable amounts of beta-lactam product. However, [(32)P]PP(i)-ATP exchange assays demonstrated Y345A and E380A undergo the first half-reaction, with the remaining active mutants showing decreased forward commitment to beta-lactam cyclization. pH-rate profiles of CPS and beta-LS supported the importance of a Tyr-Glu dyad in beta-lactam formation and suggested its reverse protonation in beta-LS. The kinetics of CPS double-site mutants reinforced the synergism of Tyr-Glu in catalysis. Furthermore, significant solvent isotope effects on k(cat) ((D)k(cat)) for Y345F (1.9) and Y348F (1.7) maintained the assignment of Y345/8 in proton transfer. A proton inventory on Y348F determined its (D)(k(cat)/K(m)) = 0.2 to arise from multiple reactant-state fractionation factors, presumably from water molecule(s) replacing the missing Tyr hydroxyl. The role of a CPS and beta-LS Tyr-Glu catalytic dyad was solidified by a significant decrease in mutant k(cat) viscosity dependence with respect to the wild-type enzymes. The evolutionary relation and potential for engineered biosynthesis were demonstrated by beta-LS acting as a carbapenam synthetase. PMID:19371088

  1. Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine.

    PubMed

    Saisawang, Chonticha; Saitornuang, Sawanan; Sillapee, Pornpan; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R; Ketterman, Albert J

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional and is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease and show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine and serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases and would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target. PMID:26597768

  2. PAPER www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Charge separation and energy transfer in a carotenoC60 dyad: photoinduced

    E-print Network

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    a carotenoid pigment linked to a fullerene derivative (C­C60) in which the carotenoid acts both as an antenna for the fullerene and as an electron transfer partner. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was carried out state and the dyad ground state. Introduction Carotenoids are ubiquitous pigments in nature where

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

  4. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  5. Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine

    PubMed Central

    Saisawang, Chonticha; Saitornuang, Sawanan; Sillapee, Pornpan; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R.; Ketterman, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional and is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease and show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine and serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases and would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target. PMID:26597768

  6. Similarities amid the Difference: Caregiving Burden and Adaptation Outcomes in Dyads of Parents and Their Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carona, C.; Crespo, C.; Canavarro, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study had two main objectives: first, to examine the direct and indirect effects, via social support, of caregiving burden on the adaptation outcomes of children/adolescents with cerebral palsy and their parents; and second, to assess the invariance of such models in clinical vs. healthy subsamples. Participants were 210 dyads of…

  7. Reciprocal Peer Learning with Task Cards: Analysis of Behaviour and Verbal Interactions in Structured and Unstructured Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iserbyt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is a part of a larger research project where the effect of instructional guidance in terms of role definition and role switching was investigated on students' learning of Basic Life Support (BLS) during a 20-minute reciprocal learning episode with task cards. BLS is a lifesaving skill consisting of nine sub skills to be…

  8. Dyads at Risk: Methadone-Maintained Women and Their Four-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeremy, Rita Jeruchimowicz; Bernstein, Victor J.

    1984-01-01

    Compares 17 methadone-exposed and 23 control four-month-old infants in interactions with their mothers. Results indicate that methadone is only one of several risk factors affecting interaction. Mothers rated poor in communication have poor psychosocial and psychological resources, and infants rated poor in communication showed problematic motor…

  9. Predictors of calcium intake at dinner meals of ethnically diverse mother-child dyads from families with limited incomes.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Nicklas, Theresa A; Franklin, Frank; Liu, Yan

    2009-10-01

    Diets adequate in calcium and other key nutrients early in life are critical for optimal growth. This study's objective was to determine associations between beverage and dairy food intakes of mothers and their young children and food/beverage contributions to calcium at dinner meals from ethnically diverse families with limited incomes. This was a secondary analysis of dietary data on mother-child dyads from a cross-sectional study. The sample was 465 children (4.4+/-0.6 years) and their mothers, 41% African American, 34% Hispanic, and 21% white. Dietary and anthropometric data were collected in 52 Head Start centers in Alabama and Texas during 1 year starting fall 2004. Associations between mother-child intakes were examined by race/ethnicity using correlations. Calcium intake from dinners was predicted (stepwise regression) from four beverage categories-milk, sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juices, and non-energy-containing beverages plus water-and from cheese and dairy desserts. Overall, the mother's dinnertime intake of milk did not predict that of her child. Mother-child intakes of cheese, dairy desserts, and sweetened beverages correlated more strongly than did milk. All the beverages and dairy groups demonstrated moderate correlations for dyads with those for cheese (r=0.56), dairy desserts (r=0.39), fruit juice (r=0.36), and sweetened beverages (r=0.31) higher than that for milk overall (r=0.29, P<0.01). Milk and cheese predicted the most variance in calcium intake for both mothers and children overall (R(2)=0.82), and for all race-ethnic groups, except African-American children, where the contribution from cheese predominated. Food and nutrition professionals should encourage replacing sweet beverages at dinner with low-fat milk or calcium-fortified beverages to improve the nutrient density of meals. PMID:19782174

  10. A semiempirical study for the ground and excited states of free-base and zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parusel, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    The ground and excited states of a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad in both its free-base and zinc forms (D. Kuciauskas et al., J. Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 15926) have been investigated by semiempirical methods. The excited-state properties are discussed by investigation of the character of the molecular orbitals. All frontier MOs are mainly localized on either the donor or the acceptor subunit. Thus, the absorption spectra of both systems are best described as the sum of the spectra of the single components. The experimentally observed spectra are well reproduced by the theoretical computations. Both molecules undergo efficient electron transfer in polar but not in apolar solvents. This experimental finding is explained theoretically by explicitly considering solvent effects. The tenth excited state in the gas phase is of charge-separated character where an electron is transferred from the porphyrin donor to the fullerene acceptor subunit. This state is stabilized in energy in polar solvents due to its large formal dipole moment. The stabilization energy for an apolar environment such as benzene is not sufficient to lower this state to become the first excited singlet state. Thus, no electron transfer is observed, in agreement with experiment. In a polar environment such as acetonitrile, the charge-separated state becomes the S, state and electron transfer takes place, as observed experimentally. The flexible single bond connecting both the donor and acceptor subunits allows free rotation by ca. +/- 30 degrees about the optimized ground-state conformation. For the charge-separated state this optimized geometry has a maximum dipole moment. The geometry of the charge-separated state thus does not change relatively to the ground-state conformation. The electron-donating properties of porphyrin are enhanced in the zinc derivative due to a reduced porphyrin HOMO-LUMO energy gap. This yields a lower energy for the charge-separated state compared to the free-base dyad.

  11. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads were formed between keepers and zoo animals, which influenced animal behaviour. PMID:26509670

  12. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha J.; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman’s zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals’ latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: “attitude towards the animals” and “knowledge and experience of the animals”. In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads were formed between keepers and zoo animals, which influenced animal behaviour. PMID:26509670

  13. Stability of Maternal Discipline Practices and the Quality of Mother-Child Interaction during Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother-child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother-toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e.,…

  14. Gravitating toward Science: Parent-Child Interactions at a Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szechter, Lisa E.; Carey, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the nature of parent-child conversations at an informal science education center housed in an active gravitational-wave observatory. Each of 20 parent-child dyads explored an interactive exhibit hall privately, without the distraction of other visitors. Parents employed a variety of strategies to support their children's…

  15. Playing with Technology: Mother-Toddler Interaction Scores Lower during Play with Electronic Toys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Michaela B.; Shapka, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To investigate play with electronic toys (battery-operated or digital), 25 mother-toddler (16-24 months old) dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with sets of age-appropriate electronic and non-electronic toys for approximately 10 min each. Parent-child interactions were coded from recorded segments of both of the play conditions using the…

  16. Lexical Sharing in Mother-Child Interaction. Technical Report No. 161.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William S.; Dore, John

    An investigation was conducted of socioeconomic differences in the cognitive style and content of mother/child interaction, through the use of a task in which mothers attempted to get their children to point to the target item in an array of four pictures. Subjects were 32 mother/child dyads, half black and half white. Within each ethnic group,…

  17. Social signal processing for studying parent–infant interaction

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent–infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies. PMID:25540633

  18. Social signal processing for studying parent-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent-infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies. PMID:25540633

  19. A Comparison of Dyadic Interactions and Coping with Still-Face in Healthy Pre-Term and Full-Term Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montirosso, Rosario; Borgatti, Renato; Trojan, Sabina; Zanini, Rinaldo; Tronick, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Pre-term birth has a significant impact on infants' social and emotional competence, however, little is known about regulatory processes in pre-term mother-infant dyads during normal or stressful interactions. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the differences in infant and caregiver interactive behaviour and dyadic coordination…

  20. The Structure of the RLIP76 RhoGAP-Ral Binding Domain Dyad: Fixed Position of the Domains Leads to Dual Engagement of Small G Proteins at the Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekar, Karthik V.; Campbell, Louise J.; Nietlispach, Daniel; Owen, Darerca; Mott, Helen R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary RLIP76 is an effector for Ral small GTPases, which in turn lie downstream of the master regulator Ras. Evidence is growing that Ral and RLIP76 play a role in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis. RLIP76 contains both a RhoGAP domain and a Ral binding domain (GBD) and is, therefore, a node between Ras and Rho family signaling. The structure of the RhoGAP-GBD dyad reveals that the RLIP76 RhoGAP domain adopts a canonical RhoGAP domain structure and that the linker between the two RLIP76 domains is structured, fixing the orientation of the two domains and allowing RLIP76 to interact with Rho-family GTPases and Ral simultaneously. However, the juxtaposed domains do not influence each other functionally, suggesting that the RLIP76-Ral interaction controls cellular localization and that the fixed orientation of the two domains orientates the RhoGAP domain with respect to the membrane, allowing it to be perfectly poised to engage its target G proteins. PMID:24207123

  1. Electron transfer reaction of light harvesting zinc naphthalocyanine-subphthalocyanine self-assembled dyad: spectroscopic, electrochemical, computational, and photochemical studies.

    PubMed

    El-Khouly, Mohamed E

    2010-10-21

    Electron transfer reaction of a self-assembled donor-acceptor dyad formed by axial coordination of zinc naphthalocyanine, ZnNc, and subphthalocyanine appended with pyridine coordinating ligand, SubPc(py), was investigated in the present study. The SubPc(Py)?:?ZnNc self-assembled dyad absorbs the light in a wide section of the UV/Vis/NIR spectra. The formation constant of SubPc(py)?:?ZnNc in o-dichlorobenzene was found to be 1.2 × 10(5) M(-1) from the steady-state absorption and emission measurements, suggesting stable complex formation. The geometric and electronic calculations by using ab initio B3LYP/6-311G methods showed the majority of the highest occupied frontier molecular orbital (HOMO) on the zinc naphthalocyanine entity, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) was on the subphthalocyanine entity, suggesting that the charge-separated state of the supramolecular complex is (SubPc(py))?(-)?:?ZnNc?(+). The electrochemical results suggest the exothermic charge-separation process via the singlet states of both SubPc(py) and ZnNc entities. Upon coordination the pyridine appended subphthalocyanine to ZnNc; the main quenching pathway involved charge separation via the singlet excited states of ZnNc and SubPc(py). A clear evidence of the intramolecular electron transfer from the singlet state of ZnNc to SubPc(py) was monitored by femtosecond laser photolysis in o-dichlorobenzene by observing the characteristic absorption band of the ZnNc radical cation in the NIR region at 960 nm. The rate of charge-separation process was found to be 1.3 × 10(10) s(-1), indicating fast and efficient charge separation. The rate of charge recombination and the lifetime of the charge-separated state were found to be 1.0 × 10(9) s(-1) and 1 ns, respectively. The absorption in a wide section of the solar spectrum and high charge-separation/charge-recombination ratio suggests the usefulness of self-assembled SubPc(Py)?:?ZnNc for being a photosynthetic model. PMID:20820580

  2. The neural basis of perceiving person interactions.

    PubMed

    Quadflieg, Susanne; Gentile, Francesco; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether the grouping of people into meaningful social scenes (e.g., two people having a chat) impacts the basic perceptual analysis of each partaking individual. To explore this issue, we measured neural activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants sex-categorized congruent as well as incongruent person dyads (i.e., two people interacting in a plausible or implausible manner). Incongruent person dyads elicited enhanced neural processing in several high-level visual areas dedicated to face and body encoding and in the posterior middle temporal gyrus compared to congruent person dyads. Incongruent and congruent person scenes were also successfully differentiated by a linear multivariate pattern classifier in the right fusiform body area and the left extrastriate body area. Finally, increases in the person scenes' meaningfulness as judged by independent observers was accompanied by enhanced activity in the bilateral posterior insula. These findings demonstrate that the processing of person scenes goes beyond a mere stimulus-bound encoding of their partaking agents, suggesting that changes in relations between agents affect their representation in category-selective regions of the visual cortex and beyond. PMID:25697049

  3. The Ugi four-component reaction as a concise modular synthetic tool for photo-induced electron transfer donor-anthraquinone dyads

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Sarah; Makhloufi, Gamall; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Summary Phenothiazinyl and carbazolyl-donor moieties can be covalently coupled to an anthraquinone acceptor unit through an Ugi four-component reaction in a rapid, highly convergent fashion and with moderate to good yields. These novel donor–acceptor dyads are electronically decoupled in the electronic ground state according to UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. However, in the excited state the inherent donor luminescence is efficiently quenched. Previously performed femtosecond spectroscopic measurements account for a rapid exergonic depopulation of the excited singlet states into a charge-separated state. Calculations of the Gibbs energy of photo-induced electron transfer from readily available UV–vis spectroscopic and cyclovoltammetric data applying the Weller approximation enables a quick evaluation of these novel donor–acceptor dyads. In addition, the X-ray structure of a phenothiazinyl–anthraquinone dyad supports short donor–acceptor distances by an intramolecular ?-stacking conformation, an important assumption also implied in the calculations of the Gibbs energies according to the Weller approximation. PMID:24991251

  4. Emotional Relationships in Mothers and Infants: Culture-Common and Community-Specific Characteristics of Dyads from Rural and Metropolitan Settings in Argentina, Italy, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; de Galperín, Celia Zingman; Gini, Motti; Tichovolsky, Marianne Heslington

    2010-01-01

    This study uses country and regional contrasts to examine culture-common and community-specific variation in mother-infant emotional relationships. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American mothers and their daughters and sons, living in rural and metropolitan settings, were observed at home at infant age 5 months. Both variable- and person-centered perspectives of dyadic emotional relationships were analyzed. Supporting the notion that adequate emotional relationships are a critical and culture-common characteristic of human infant development, across all samples most dyads scored in the adaptive range in terms of emotional relationships. Giving evidence of community-specific characteristics, Italian mothers were more sensitive, and Italian infants more responsive, than Argentine and U.S. mothers and infants; in addition, rural mothers were more intrusive than metropolitan mothers, and rural dyads more likely than expected to be classified as mid-range in emotional relationships and less likely to be classified as high in emotional relationships. Adaptive emotional relationships appear to be a culture-common characteristic of mother-infant dyads near the beginning of life, but this relational construct is moderated by community-specific (country and regional) context. PMID:22247569

  5. Patterns in Early Interaction between Young Preschool Children with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Liliedahl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether the asymmetrical pattern of communication usually found between people who use augmentative and alternative communication and their partners using natural speech was also found in the interaction between non-vocal young preschool children with cerebral palsy and their parents. Three parent-child dyads

  6. Mexican American Mothers of Low and Middle Socioeconomic Status: Communication Behaviors and Interactive Strategies during Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Hines, Rachel; Montiel, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare the communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies used by Mexican American mothers of low- and middle-socioeconomic status (SES) background during shared book reading. Method: Twenty Mexican American mother-child dyads from the Southwestern United States were observed…

  7. Examining the Role of Communication on Sibling Relationship Quality and Interaction for Sibling Pairs with and without a Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent…

  8. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Delivered to At-Risk Families in the Home Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Rachel; Self-Brown, Shannon; Valente, Jessica R.; Dorsey, Shannon; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Bertuglia-Haley, Michelle; Prieto, Metta

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted for 83 parent-child dyads who participated in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) delivered in-home by community agency therapists. Data included self-report measures and therapist observations at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated significant positive changes in child/parent behavior and parent attitudes…

  9. Comparing the Quality of Third, Fourth, and Fifth Graders' Social Interactions and Cognitive Strategy Use during Structured Online Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coiro, Julie; Sekeres, Diane Carver; Castek, Jill; Guzniczak, Lizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the social and cognitive interaction patterns of third, fourth, and fifth graders as they collaboratively read on the Internet and responded to an inquiry prompt. Data analysis revealed patterns of cognitive strategy use that intersected with social forms and functions of dialogue. Dyads that exhibited higher levels of…

  10. Examining Peer Acceptance in Verbal and Non-Verbal Interaction during Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Implications for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of peer acceptance in a study investigating the interactions of pairs of disabled and non-disabled pupils working together on computer-based tasks in mainstream primary schools in Cyprus. Twenty dyads of pupils were observed and videotaped while working together at the computer. Data analyses were based on the…

  11. A triazine di(carboxy)porphyrin dyad versus a triazine di(carboxy)porphyrin triad for sensitizers in DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Zervaki, G E; Tsaka, Vasilitsa; Vatikioti, Alexandra; Georgakaki, Irene; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Sharma, G D; Coutsolelos, A G

    2015-08-14

    Two porphyrin-chromophores, i.e. triad PorZn-(PorCOOH)(2)-(piper)2 (GZ-T1) and dyad (PorZn)(2)-NMe2 (GZ-T1), have been synthesized and their photophysical and electrochemical properties have been investigated. The optical properties together with the appropriate electronic energy levels, i.e. the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, revealed that both porphyrin assemblies can function as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The and -based DSSCs have been prepared and studied using 20 mM CDCA as coadsorbent and were found to exhibit an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.88% and 4.56%, respectively (under an illumination intensity of 100 mW cm(-2) with TiO(2) films of 12 ?m). The higher PCE of the -sensitized DSSC, as revealed from the current-voltage characteristic under illumination and the incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectra of the two DSSCs, is mainly attributed to its enhanced short circuit current (J(sc)), although both the open circuit voltage (V(oc)) and the fill factor are improved too. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) demonstrated a shorter electron transport time, longer electron lifetime and higher charge recombination resistance for the DSSC sensitized with the dye as well as a larger dye loading onto the TiO(2) surface. PMID:26134439

  12. External and internal reality: the impact of the current socio-economic crisis on the analytic dyad.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Anna

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the impact of the current economic crisis on the psychic functioning of the patient and the analyst, their relationship and collaboration. This intrusion of 'external reality' is multidimensional, and thus with multiple meanings. The critical role of the economic factor brings various dimensions of money into play, such as self-preservation, power as well as aspects of psychosexual development. In addition, the crisis involves symbolic loss of basic ideals such as honesty and social responsibility. Patient and analyst are affected in similar and different ways in their respective roles as well as according to the specific intrapsychic functioning of each. Moreover, unique characteristics of the crisis often create a crisis in the analysis. In order to avoid deformation of the analytic relationship, the analytic dyad must examine and work through the multiple meanings of the crisis as well as the meaning of the impact of the crisis on the analytic relationship for both patient and analyst. This complex transference- countertransference interplay poses specific challenges to the analyst. After discussion of these issues, clinical material is presented that demonstrates how they appear in analytic practice today. PMID:25376265

  13. High resolution study of MGeH4 (M=76, 74) in the dyad region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Sennikov, P. G.; Koshelev, M. A.; Velmuzhova, I. A.; Velmuzhov, A. P.; Bulanov, A. D.

    2014-09-01

    The infrared spectrum of GeH4 (88.1% of 76GeH4, 11.5% of 74GeH4, and minor amounts of three other stable isotopic species in the sample) was measured in the 700-1080 cm-1 region with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform interferometer (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and analyzed. 1922 transitions with J=26 were assigned to the ?4 and ?2 bands of 76GeH4 (?2 is a symmetry forbidden absorption band, and its transitions appear in the spectrum only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ?4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with an accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The result of analogous analysis of the 74GeH4 isotopologue (the number of assigned transitions is 788) is also presented.

  14. Patterns of interaction-dominant dynamics in individual versus collaborative memory foraging.

    PubMed

    Szary, Janelle; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T; Rhodes, Theo

    2015-11-01

    The extent to which a cognitive system's behavioral dynamics fit a power law distribution is considered indicative of the extent to which that system's behavior is driven by multiplicative, interdependent interactions between its components. Here, we investigate the dynamics of memory processes in individual and collaborating participants. Collaborative dyads showed the characteristic collaborative inhibition effect when compared to nominal groups in terms of the number of items retrieved in a categorical recall task, but they also generate qualitatively different patterns of search behavior. To categorize search behavior, we used multi-model inference to compare the degree to which five candidate models (normal, exponential, gamma, lognormal, and Pareto) described the temporal distribution of each individual and dyad's recall processes. All individual and dyad recall processes were best fit by interaction-dominant distributions (lognormal and Pareto), but a clear difference emerged in that individual behavior is more power law, and collaborative behavior was more lognormal. We discuss these results in terms of the cocktail model (Holden et al. in Psychol Rev 116(2):318-342, 2009), which suggests that as a task becomes more constrained (such as through the necessity of collaborating), behavior can shift from power law to lognormal. This shift may reflect a decrease in the dyad's ability to flexibly shift between perseverative and explorative search patterns. Finally, our results suggest that a fruitful avenue for future research would be to investigate the constraints modulating the shift from power law to lognormal behavior in collaborative memory search. PMID:26314586

  15. Synchrony, Complexity and Directiveness in Mothers’ Interactions with Infants Pre- and Post-Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Mary K.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Morris, Kourtney J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of profound hearing loss on mother-infant interactions before and after cochlear implantation with a focus on maternal synchrony, complexity, and directiveness. Participants included two groups of mother-infant dyads: 9 dyads of mothers and infants with normal hearing; and 9 dyads of hearing mothers and infants with profound hearing loss. Dyads were observed at two time points: Time 1, scheduled to occur before cochlear implantation for infants with profound hearing loss (mean age = 13.6 months); and Time 2 (mean age = 23.3 months), scheduled to occur approximately six months after cochlear implantation. Hearing infants were age-matched to infants with hearing loss at both time points. Dependent variables included the proportion of maternal utterances that overlapped infant vocalizations, maternal mean length of utterance, infant word use, and combined maternal directives and prohibitions. Results showed mothers’ utterances overlapped the vocalizations of infants with hearing loss more often before cochlear implantation than after, mothers used less complex utterances with infants with cochlear implants compared to hearing peers (Time 2), and mothers of infants with profound hearing loss used frequent directives and prohibitions both before and after cochlear implantation. Together, mothers and infants adapted relatively quickly to infants’ access to cochlear implants, showing improved interactional synchrony, increased infant word use, and levels of maternal language complexity compatible with infants’ word use, all within seven months of cochlear implant activation. PMID:24793733

  16. Histone Acetylation near the Nucleosome Dyad Axis Enhances Nucleosome Disassembly by RSC and SWI/SNF.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; North, Justin A; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Manohar, Mridula; Prasad, Rashmi; Luger, Karolin; Ottesen, Jennifer J; Poirier, Michael G; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2015-12-01

    Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as "readers," which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers. PMID:26416878

  17. Coupled sensitizer-catalyst dyads: electron-transfer reactions in a perylene-polyoxometalate conjugate.

    PubMed

    Odobel, Fabrice; Séverac, Marjorie; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Fosse, Céline; Cannizzo, Caroline; Mayer, Cédric R; Elliott, Kristopher J; Harriman, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafast discharge of a single-electron capacitor: A variety of intramolecular electron-transfer reactions are apparent for polyoxometalates functionalized with covalently attached perylene monoimide chromophores, but these are restricted to single-electron events. (et=electron transfer, cr=charge recombination, csr=charge-shift reaction, PER=perylene, POM=polyoxometalate).A new strategy is introduced that permits covalent attachment of an organic chromophore to a polyoxometalate (POM) cluster. Two examples are reported that differ according to the nature of the anchoring group and the flexibility of the linker. Both POMs are functionalized with perylene monoimide units, which function as photon collectors and form a relatively long-lived charge-transfer state under illumination. They are reduced to a stable pi-radical anion by electrolysis or to a protonated dianion under photolysis in the presence of aqueous triethanolamine. The presence of the POM opens up an intramolecular electron-transfer route by which the charge-transfer state reduces the POM. The rate of this process depends on the molecular conformation and appears to involve through-space interactions. Prior reduction of the POM leads to efficient fluorescence quenching, again due to intramolecular electron transfer. In most cases, it is difficult to resolve the electron-transfer products because of relatively fast reverse charge shift that occurs within a closed conformer. Although the POM can store multiple electrons, it has not proved possible to use these systems as molecular-scale capacitors because of efficient electron transfer from the one-electron-reduced POM to the excited singlet state of the perylene monoimide. PMID:19197929

  18. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun; Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-?B in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways.

  19. Boys Withdraw More in One-on-One Interactions, Whereas Girls Withdraw More in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Heath, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Past research predicts that males will be more likely to withdraw in one-on-one interactions versus groups, whereas females will be more likely to withdraw in groups than in one-on-one interactions. Ninety-eight 10-year-old children engaged in a word generation task either in same-sex dyads or in groups. Boys completed significantly more words in…

  20. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  1. Communication: Charge-transfer rate constants in zinc-porphyrin-porphyrin-derived dyads: A Fermi golden rule first-principles-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, Arun K.; Dunietz, Barry D.

    2014-09-28

    We investigate photoinduced charge transfer (CT) processes within dyads consisting of porphyrin derivatives in which one ring ligates a Zn metal center and where the rings vary by their degree of conjugation. Using a first-principles approach, we show that molecular-scale means can tune CT rates through stabilization affected by the polar environment. Such means of CT tuning are important for achieving high efficiency optoelectronic applications using organic semiconducting materials. Our fully quantum mechanical scheme is necessary for reliably modeling the CT process across different regimes, in contrast to the pervading semi-classical Marcus picture that grossly underestimates transfer in the far-inverted regime.

  2. Coassembly-Directed Fabrication of an Exfoliated Form of Alternating Multilayers Composed of a Self-assembled Organoplatinum(II) Complex-Fullerene Dyad.

    PubMed

    Sato, Satoru; Takei, Toshiaki; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Yasuda, Takeshi; Kojima, Tatsuhiro; Kawano, Masaki; Ohnuma, Masato; Tashiro, Kentaro

    2015-12-21

    The self-assembly of covalently linked dyad 1a of cyclometalated organoplatinum(II) complex and fullerene afforded alternating multilayers of electron-rich and -deficient molecular components. On the other hand, the coassembly of 1a with organoplatinum(II) complex 2 having no fullerene moiety gave an exfoliated form of the multilayers, by inhibiting the interdigitation of organoplatinum(II) complex moieties of 1a. The coassembled 1a/2 transports both of the photogenerated holes and electrons, while the self-assembled 1a allows only the transportation of electrons under the same conditions. PMID:26245539

  3. Communication, Coping, and Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Survivors and Family/Friend Dyads: A Pilot Study of Chinese- and Korean-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung-won

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to understand the dyadic relationships between family communication and quality of life (QOL) and between coping and QOL in Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivor (BCS)-family member dyads. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 32 Chinese- and Korean-American BCS-family member dyads were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program and area hospitals in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The dyadic data were analyzed using a pooled regression actor-partner interdependence model. Results The study findings demonstrated that the survivors’ general communication and use of reframing coping positively predicted their own QOL. The survivors’ and family members’ general communication was also a strong predictor of the family members’ physical-related QOL score specifically. Meanwhile, each person’s use of mobilizing coping negatively predicted his or her partner’s QOL. Conclusions The study findings add important information to the scarce literature on the QOL of Asian-American survivors of breast cancer. The findings suggest that Chinese- and Korean-American BCS and their family members may benefit from interventions that enhance communication and coping within the family unit. PMID:24700695

  4. Generation of Phosphorescent Triplet States via Photoinduced Electron Transfer: Energy and Electron Transfer Dynamics in Pt Porphyrin-Rhodamine B Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.

    2012-01-01

    Control over generation and dynamics of excited electronic states is fundamental to their utilization in all areas of technology. We present the first example of multichromophoric systems in which emissive triplet states are generated via a pathway involving photoinduced electron transfer (ET), as opposed to local intrachromophoric processes. In model dyads, PtP-Phn-pRhB+ (1-3, n=1-3), comprising platinum(II) meso-tetraarylporphyrin (PtP) and rhodamine B piperazine derivative (pRhB+), linked by oligo-p-phenylene bridges (Phn), upon selective excitation of pRhB+ at a frequency below that of the lowest allowed transition of PtP, room-temperature T1?S0 phosphorescence of PtP was observed. The pathway leading to the emissive PtP triplet state includes excitation of pRhB+, ET with formation of the singlet radical pair, intersystem crossing within that pair and subsequent radical recombination. Due to the close proximity of the triplet energy levels of PtP and pRhB+, reversible triplet-triplet (TT) energy transfer between these states was observed in dyads 1 and 2. As a result, the phosphorescence of PtP was extended in time by the long decay of the pRhB+ triplet. Observation of ET and TT in the same series of molecules enabled direct comparison of the distance attenuation factors ? between these two closely related processes. PMID:22400988

  5. Infection disclosure in the injecting dyads of Hungarian and Lithuanian injecting drug users who self-reported being infected with hepatitis C virus or human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    GYARMATHY, V. ANNA; NEAIGUS, ALAN; LI, NAN; UJHELYI, ESZTER; CAPLINSKIENE, IRMA; CAPLINSKAS, SAULIUS; LATKIN, CARL A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of disclosure to network members of being hepatitis C virus (HCV)- or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected among injecting dyads of infected injection drug users (IDUs) in Budapest, Hungary and Vilnius, Lithuania,. Multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess associations. Very strong infection disclosure norms exist in Hungary, and HCV disclosure was associated with using drugs and having sex within the dyad. Non-ethnic Russian IDUs in Lithuania were more likely to disclose HCV infection to non-Roma, emotionally close and HCV-infected network members, and to those with whom they shared cookers, filters, drug solutions or rinse water or got used syringes from, and if they had fewer non-IDU or IDU network members. Ethnic Russian Lithuanian IDUs were more likely to disclose HCV if they had higher disclosure attitude and knowledge scores, ‘trusted’ network members, and had lower non-injecting network density and higher injecting network density. HIV-infected Lithuanian IDUs were more likely to disclose to ‘trusted’ network members. Disclosure norms matched disclosure behaviour in Hungary, while disclosure in Lithuania to ‘trusted’ network members suggests possible stigmatization. Ongoing free and confidential HCV/HIV testing services for IDUs are needed to emphasize and strengthen disclosure norms, and to decrease stigma. PMID:20840002

  6. Interactions During Feeding with Mothers and Their Infants with Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Schmiege, Sarah J.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Fehringer, Karen; Workman, Rachel; Marcheggianni-Howard, Cassandra; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To examine whether maternal–child interaction during feedings was suboptimal in dyads in which the infant had gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to compare massage therapy to a nonmassage therapy sham treatment in improving the mother–child interaction in these dyads. Design: In this randomized, controlled pilot study, infants received massage therapy (n=18) or a nonmassage touch/holding sham treatment (n=18). Mothers, data collectors, and the investigator who scored the feeding observations were blinded to group assignment. Settings/Location: Dyads were recruited from pediatric care providers in the Denver metropolitan area and online advertisements at the University of Colorado. Treatments were given in the home of the dyad. Participants: Healthy infants, born at 38–42 weeks gestational age, were 5–10 weeks of age at enrollment; had a score of at least 16 on the Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire-Revised; and were diagnosed with GERD by their pediatric provider. Mothers were English speaking and at least 18 years of age. Interventions: Treatments were given for 30 minutes twice weekly for 6 weeks. A certified infant massage therapist administered massage, and a registered nurse or physical therapist experienced with infants administered the control treatment. Outcome Measures: Maternal and infant scores on the Nursing Child Assessment of Feeding Scale (NCAFS). Results: NCAFS scores were significantly lower than national norms. Small to moderately sized effects showing improvement in the massage group relative to the nonmassage group were seen for Sensitivity to Cues, Social-Emotional Growth Fostering, Cognitive Growth Fostering, and Clarity of Cues (Cohen d) and ranged from 0.24 to 0.56. Conclusions: Mothers and infants with GERD experience significantly worse interactions than those without GERD. Massage given twice weekly by a professional trended toward improved interaction during feeding. Daily maternal administration of massage may have a positive effect on the relationship. PMID:24742255

  7. Photoinduced intercomponent excited-state decays in a molecular dyad made of a dinuclear rhenium(I) chromophore and a fullerene electron acceptor unit.

    PubMed

    Nastasi, Francesco; Puntoriero, Fausto; Natali, Mirco; Mba, Miriam; Maggini, Michele; Mussini, Patrizia; Panigati, Monica; Campagna, Sebastiano

    2015-05-01

    A novel molecular dyad, 1, made of a dinuclear {[Re2(?-X)2(CO)6(?-pyridazine)]} component covalently-linked to a fullerene unit by a carbocyclic molecular bridge has been prepared and its redox, spectroscopic, and photophysical properties - including pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared region - have been investigated, along with those of its model species. Photoinduced, intercomponent electron transfer occurs in 1 from the thermally-equilibrated, triplet metal/ligand-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLLCT) state of the dinuclear rhenium(I) subunit to the fullerene acceptor, with a time constant of about 100 ps. The so-formed triplet charge-separated state recombines in a few nanoseconds by a spin-selective process yielding, rather than the ground state, the locally-excited, triplet fullerene state, which finally decays to the ground state by intersystem crossing in about 290 ns. PMID:25722091

  8. Effects of Maternal Stimulant Medication on Observed Parenting in Mother-Child Dyads with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rooney, Mary; Seymour, Karen E.; Lavin, Heather Jones; Pian, Jessica; Robb, Adelaide; Efron, Lisa; Conlon, Charles; Stein, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study of 23 mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their offspring with ADHD examined the effects of maternal stimulant medication on observed interactions. Parent-child interactions were observed using a structured protocol before and after mothers underwent a 5-week, double-blind stimulant titration. Despite…

  9. Hesitant avoidance while walking: an error of social behavior generated by mutual interaction

    PubMed Central

    Honma, Motoyasu; Koyama, Shinichi; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Altering physical actions when responding to changing environmental demands is important but not always effectively performed. This ineffectiveness, which is an error of social behavior generated by mutual interactions, is not well understood. This study investigated mechanisms of a hesitant behavior that occurs in people walking toward each other, causing people to move in the same direction when attempting to avoid a collision. Using a motion capture device affixed to 17 pairs, we first confirmed the hesitant behavior by a difference between the experimental task, which involved an indeterminate situation to assess the actions of another individual, and the control task, which involved a predetermined avoiding direction, in a real-time situation involving two people. We next investigated the effect of three external factors: long distance until an event, synchronized walking cycle, and different foot relations in dyads on the hesitant behavior. A dramatic increase in freezing and near-collision behavior occurred in dyads for which the avoiding direction was not predetermined. The behavior related with the combination of long distance until an event, synchronized walking cycle, and different foot relations in dyads. We found that the hesitant behavior is influenced by an interpersonal relationship under enough distance to predict other movement. The hesitant behavior has possibly emerged as an undesired by-product of joint action. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptive control of perception-action coupling in mutual interaction. PMID:26257675

  10. Rhomboid protease dynamics and lipid interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta; Val, Coral del; White, Stephen H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Intramembrane proteases, which cleave TM helices, participate in numerous biological processes encompassing all branches of life. Several crystallographic structures of Escherichia coli GlpG rhomboid protease have been determined. In order to understand GlpG dynamics and lipid interactions in a native-like environment, we have examined the molecular dynamics of wild-type and mutant GlpG in different membrane environments. The irregular shape and small hydrophobic thickness of the protein cause significant bilayer deformations that may be important for substrate entry into the active site. Hydrogen-bond interactions with lipids are paramount in protein orientation and dynamics. Mutations in the unusual L1 loop cause changes in protein dynamics and protein orientation that are relayed to the His-Ser catalytic dyad. Similarly, mutations in TM5 change the dynamics and structure of the L1 loop. These results imply that the L1 loop has an important regulatory role in proteolysis. PMID:19278654

  11. Determination of preferential molecular orientation in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Seregin, A. Yu. D'yakova, Yu. A.; Yakunin, S. N.; Makhotkin, I. A.; Alekseev, A. S.; Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Tereschenko, E. Yu.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H.; Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-11-15

    Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad molecules with zinc atoms incorporated into the porphyrin ring (ZnDHD6ee) on the surface of aqueous subphase and on Si substrates have been investigated by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry. The experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions and on synchrotron radiation sources (KMC-2 station of BESSY II (Berlin) and Langmuir station at the National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute'). Depth distributions of Zn atoms and electron density in the monolayer film are calculated. On the basis of the analysis of these distributions, it is concluded that ZnDHD6ee dyad molecules in monolayers have preferential orientation. The data obtained indicate that the molecules in monolayer film retain their orientation when the monolayer is transferred from a liquid subphase surface onto a solid substrate.

  12. Acceleration of an aromatic Claisen rearrangement via a designed spiroligozyme catalyst that mimics the ketosteroid isomerase catalytic dyad.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew F L; Osuna, Sílvia; Bollot, Guillaume; Vaddypally, Shivaiah; Zdilla, Michael J; Houk, K N; Schafmeister, Christian E

    2014-03-12

    A series of hydrogen-bonding catalysts have been designed for the aromatic Claisen rearrangement of a 1,1-dimethylallyl coumarin. These catalysts were designed as mimics of the two-point hydrogen-bonding interaction present in ketosteroid isomerase that has been proposed to stabilize a developing negative charge on the ether oxygen in the migration of the double bond.1 Two hydrogen bond donating groups, a phenol alcohol and a carboxylic acid, were grafted onto a conformationally restrained spirocyclic scaffold, and together they enhance the rate of the Claisen rearrangement by a factor of 58 over the background reaction. Theoretical calculations correctly predict the most active catalyst and suggest that both preorganization and favorable interactions with the transition state of the reaction are responsible for the observed rate enhancement. PMID:24456160

  13. Acceleration of an Aromatic Claisen Rearrangement via a Designed Spiroligozyme Catalyst that Mimics the Ketosteroid Isomerase Catalytic Dyad

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of hydrogen-bonding catalysts have been designed for the aromatic Claisen rearrangement of a 1,1-dimethylallyl coumarin. These catalysts were designed as mimics of the two-point hydrogen-bonding interaction present in ketosteroid isomerase that has been proposed to stabilize a developing negative charge on the ether oxygen in the migration of the double bond.1 Two hydrogen bond donating groups, a phenol alcohol and a carboxylic acid, were grafted onto a conformationally restrained spirocyclic scaffold, and together they enhance the rate of the Claisen rearrangement by a factor of 58 over the background reaction. Theoretical calculations correctly predict the most active catalyst and suggest that both preorganization and favorable interactions with the transition state of the reaction are responsible for the observed rate enhancement. PMID:24456160

  14. A highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe for Hg2+ based on bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad and for live cells imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li; Wang, Sheng; Lv, Yingnian; Son, Young-A.; Cao, Derong

    2014-07-01

    A new photochromic diarylethene derivative bearing rhodamine 6G dimmer as a fluorescent molecular probe is designed and synthesized successfully. All the compounds are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad exhibit excellent phtochromism with reversibly color and fluorescence changes alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. Upon addition of Hg2+, its color changes from colorless to red and its fluorescence is remarkably enhanced. Whereas other ions including K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Cr3+ and so on induce basically no spectral changes, which constitute a highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe toward Hg2+. Furthermore, by means of laser confocal scanning microscopy experiments, it is demonstrated that this probe can be applied for live cell imaging and monitoring Hg2+ in living lung cancer cells with satisfying results, which shows its value of potential application in environmental and biological systems.

  15. Relationship Quality and Shared Activity in Marital and Cohabiting Dyads in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, Wave 2

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This paper introduces scales on shared activity and relationship quality for married and partnered older adults using multiple indicators from the second wave of National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Method. We assessed the reliability of the scales using Cronbach’s alpha and the item-total correlation. We conducted exploratory factor analysis to explore the structure of the items and compared the distribution of each scale means by age group and gender. Results. We found that the relational quality scale has a 2-factor structure, including a positive and negative dimension. The shared activity scale has a 1-factor structure. We found that partnered men show both higher positive and higher negative relationship quality than do partnered women, suggesting that more older men than women experience ambivalent feelings toward their spouse or partner and more women than men have relationships of indifferent quality, with relatively low costs and relatively low benefits. Discussion. The separate conceptualization of shared activity and relationship quality provides one way to examine the dynamic nature of marital quality in later life such as the extent to which shared activities among couples promote or detract from relationships’ quality. Analyses for individuals and for dyads are discussed. PMID:25123690

  16. A highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe for Hg2+ based on bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad and for live cells imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Wang, Sheng; Lv, Yingnian; Son, Young-A; Cao, Derong

    2014-07-15

    A new photochromic diarylethene derivative bearing rhodamine 6G dimmer as a fluorescent molecular probe is designed and synthesized successfully. All the compounds are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad exhibit excellent phtochromism with reversibly color and fluorescence changes alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. Upon addition of Hg(2+), its color changes from colorless to red and its fluorescence is remarkably enhanced. Whereas other ions including K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Fe(3+), Al(3+), Cr(3+) and so on induce basically no spectral changes, which constitute a highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe toward Hg(2+). Furthermore, by means of laser confocal scanning microscopy experiments, it is demonstrated that this probe can be applied for live cell imaging and monitoring Hg(2+) in living lung cancer cells with satisfying results, which shows its value of potential application in environmental and biological systems. PMID:24691371

  17. Study of structural order in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, Andrei S.; Orekhov, Anton S.; Alekseev, A. S.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Klechkovskaya, V. V. Tereschenko, E. Yu.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H.; Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-11-15

    The structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers formed on the surface of aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough and transferred onto solid substrates has been studied. The data obtained are interpreted using simulation of the structure of isolated molecules and their packing in monolayer and modeling of diffraction patterns from molecular aggregates having different sizes and degrees of order. Experiments on the formation of condensed ZnDHD6ee monolayers are described. The structure of these monolayers on a water surface is analyzed using {pi}-A isotherms. The structure of the monolayers transferred onto solid substrates is investigated by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The unit-cell parameters of two-dimensional domains, which are characteristic of molecular packing in monolayers and deposited films, are determined. Domains are found to be organized into a texture (the molecular axes are oriented by the [001] direction perpendicular to the substrate). The monolayers contain a limited number of small 3D domains.

  18. School-based nutrition programs are associated with reduced child food insecurity over time among Mexican-origin mother-child dyads in Texas Border Colonias.

    PubMed

    Nalty, Courtney C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R

    2013-05-01

    In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers' and children's (aged 6-11 y) perspectives and experiences of child food insecurity and its seasonal volatility, including the effects of school-based and summertime nutrition programs. Forty-eight Mexican-origin mother-child dyads completed standardized, Spanish-language food-security instruments during 2 in-home visits between July 2010 and March 2011. Multilevel longitudinal logistic regression measured change in food security while accounting for correlation in repeated measurements by using a nested structure. Cohen's ? statistic assessed dyadic discordance in child food insecurity. School-based nutrition programs reduced the odds of child food insecurity by 74% [OR = 0.26 (P < 0.01)], showcasing the programs' impact on the condition. Single head of household was associated with increased odds of child food insecurity [OR = 4.63 (P = 0.03)]. Fair dyadic agreement of child food insecurity was observed [? = 0.21 (P = 0.02)]. Obtaining accurate prevalence rates and understanding differences of intrahousehold food insecurity necessitate measurement at multiple occasions throughout the year while considering children's perceptions and experiences of food insecurity in addition to parental reports. PMID:23486977

  19. Inter-Brain Synchronization during Social Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Guillaume; Nadel, Jacqueline; Soussignan, Robert; Martinerie, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    During social interaction, both participants are continuously active, each modifying their own actions in response to the continuously changing actions of the partner. This continuous mutual adaptation results in interactional synchrony to which both members contribute. Freely exchanging the role of imitator and model is a well-framed example of interactional synchrony resulting from a mutual behavioral negotiation. How the participants' brain activity underlies this process is currently a question that hyperscanning recordings allow us to explore. In particular, it remains largely unknown to what extent oscillatory synchronization could emerge between two brains during social interaction. To explore this issue, 18 participants paired as 9 dyads were recorded with dual-video and dual-EEG setups while they were engaged in spontaneous imitation of hand movements. We measured interactional synchrony and the turn-taking between model and imitator. We discovered by the use of nonlinear techniques that states of interactional synchrony correlate with the emergence of an interbrain synchronizing network in the alpha-mu band between the right centroparietal regions. These regions have been suggested to play a pivotal role in social interaction. Here, they acted symmetrically as key functional hubs in the interindividual brainweb. Additionally, neural synchronization became asymmetrical in the higher frequency bands possibly reflecting a top-down modulation of the roles of model and imitator in the ongoing interaction. PMID:20808907

  20. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan supportive interventions. PMID:26388792

  1. Social coordination in toddler's word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen

    2008-06-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.

  2. Maternal Cocaine Use: Estimated Effects on Mother-Child Play Interactions in the Preschool Period

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Arnise L.; Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the quality of parent-child interactions in preschool-aged children exposed prenatally to cocaine. African-American mothers and their full-term newborns (n = 343) were enrolled prospectively at birth and classified as either prenatally cocaine-exposed (n = 157) or non–cocaine-exposed (n = 186) on the basis of maternal self-report and bioassays. Follow-up evaluations at 3 years of age (mean age, 40 mo) included a videotaped dyadic play session and maternal interviews to assess ongoing drug use and maternal psychological distress. Play interactions were coded using a modified version of Egeland et al’s Teaching Task coding scheme. Regression analyses indicated cocaine-associated deficits in mother-child interaction, even with statistical adjustment for multiple suspected influences on interaction dynamics. Mother-child interactions were most impaired in cocaine-exposed dyads when the mother continued to report cocaine use at the 3-year follow-up. Multivariate profile analysis of the Egeland interaction subscales indicated greater maternal intrusiveness and hostility, poorer quality of instruction, lower maternal confidence, and diminished child persistence in the cocaine-exposed dyads. PMID:12177564

  3. Brain-Mind Dyad, Human Experience, the Consciousness Tetrad and Lattice of Mental Operations: And Further, The Need to Integrate Knowledge from Diverse Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other’s basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other’s work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of cooperative but evidential and critical enquiry – this is the goal for this monograph, and the work to follow. PMID:21694960

  4. Brain-mind dyad, human experience, the consciousness tetrad and lattice of mental operations: and further, the need to integrate knowledge from diverse disciplines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other's basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other's work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of cooperative but evidential and critical enquiry - this is the goal for this monograph, and the work to follow. PMID:21694960

  5. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Karen A; Katz, Albert N; Leith, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 196-216, 1982) can be found in interactive language. Of the eight tokens examined only three were found to differ in the hypothesized direction, and these only in male-male dyads. In the second study, we trained a male and a female confederate to use either male or female gendered tokens found to be reliable in Study One in their chats with participants. Our design permits disentangling of effects due to knowledge of the gender of the interlocutors and use of specific language tokens. We find that use of language tokens by the confederate promoted use of the same token by their interlocutor, regardless of knowledge of the confederate's gender. Moreover use of tokens consistent or inconsistent with visible gender influenced how the interlocutor perceived the confederate. Taken together these data are inconsistent with either the notion that gendered language is context independent (as suggested in the gender-as-culture hypothesis) or the notion that gendered language only emerges when gender is made salient, as would, in these studies, occur in mixed-gendered groups. PMID:24664126

  6. Comparative Network Analysis of Preterm vs. Full-Term Infant-Mother Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kalmár, Magda; Tóth, Ildikó; Krishna, Sandeep; Jensen, Mogens H.; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported that interactions of mothers with preterm infants show differential characteristics compared to that of mothers with full-term infants. Interaction of preterm dyads is often reported as less harmonious. However, observations and explanations concerning the underlying mechanisms are inconsistent. In this work 30 preterm and 42 full-term mother-infant dyads were observed at one year of age. Free play interactions were videotaped and coded using a micro-analytic coding system. The video records were coded at one second resolution and studied by a novel approach using network analysis tools. The advantage of our approach is that it reveals the patterns of behavioral transitions in the interactions. We found that the most frequent behavioral transitions are the same in the two groups. However, we have identified several high and lower frequency transitions which occur significantly more often in the preterm or full-term group. Our analysis also suggests that the variability of behavioral transitions is significantly higher in the preterm group. This higher variability is mostly resulted from the diversity of transitions involving non-harmonious behaviors. We have identified a maladaptive pattern in the maternal behavior in the preterm group, involving intrusiveness and disengagement. Application of the approach reported in this paper to longitudinal data could elucidate whether these maladaptive maternal behavioral changes place the infant at risk for later emotional, cognitive and behavioral disturbance. PMID:23805298

  7. Relational Demography in Coaching Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagas, Michael; Paetzold, Ramona; Ashley, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The decline in the proportion of female head coaches in the intercollegiate ranks is one of the most significant issues in the realm of women's sports today. To extend the body of research that has studied this topic, we investigated the impact relational demographic effects on the work attitudes of coaches, which differs from previous research…

  8. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother–child interactions during feeding practice

    PubMed Central

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S.; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother–child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger–satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasizes parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother–child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive conflicts and negative affective states, all of which can hinder the development of adequate interactive patterns during feeding. The results suggest that IWMs can constitute an indicator for the evaluation of the relational quality of the dyad and that evaluations of dyadic interactions should be considered when programming interventions. PMID:26379576

  9. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother-child interactions during feeding practice.

    PubMed

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children's autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasizes parents' emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children's age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive conflicts and negative affective states, all of which can hinder the development of adequate interactive patterns during feeding. The results suggest that IWMs can constitute an indicator for the evaluation of the relational quality of the dyad and that evaluations of dyadic interactions should be considered when programming interventions. PMID:26379576

  10. The Origins of 12-Month Attachment: A Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    A detailed microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of essential communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1s time base; mother and infant facial-visual “engagement” variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual’s behavior that were correlated with the partner’s previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother, yielded comparable numbers of findings. Rather than the more usual hypothesis that more contingency is “better,” we partially supported our hypothesis that 12-month insecurity is associated with both higher and lower 4-month self- and interactive contingency values than secure, as a function of mother vs. infant and communication modality. Thus, in the origins of attachment security, more contingency is not necessarily better. A remarkable degree of differentiation was identified in the 4-month patterns of “future” C and D infants, classified as resistant and disorganized, respectively, at 12 months. Only future D infants were emotionally distressed, with simultaneous positive and negative discrepant affect; only their mothers showed difficulty in sharing infant affect, particularly distress, and lowered their contingent coordination with infant facial-visual engagement. This lowered contingent coordination makes it more difficult for infants to come to expect that their emotional/attentional states can influence mothers to coordinate with them and thus compromises the infant’s sense of interactive efficacy. Only future C dyads showed the spatial approach/avoid pattern of “chase and dodge;” only mothers of future D infants showed the spatial intrusion pattern of “looming” into the infant’s face. Both future C and D dyads showed patterns of touch dysregulation. Future C infants inhibited their emotional coordination with mothers’ less affectionate touch, as if tuning it out. Future D dyads showed a dyadic touch dysregulation, in which mothers lowered their coordination with infant touch, while infants had a lowered ability to use their own touch. Both mothers of future C and D infants disturbed the stability of the spatial “frame” of the encounter by transitioning among upward, forward and loom orientations in less predictable ways than mothers of future B infants. Only mothers of future D infants disturbed the attentional “frame” as

  11. Establishment of Joint Attention in Dyads Involving Hearing Mothers of Deaf and Hearing Children, and Its Relation to Adaptive Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence points to joint attention as a mediating variable in children's adaptive behavior. Joint attention in interactions between hearing mothers and congenitally deaf (n = 27) and hearing (n = 29) children, ages 18-36 months, was examined. All deaf children had severe to profound hearing loss. Mother-child interactions were coded for…

  12. Control of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Release by Stochastic RyR Gating within a 3D Model of the Cardiac Dyad and Importance of Induction Decay for CICR Termination

    PubMed Central

    Cannell, M.B.; Kong, C.H.T.; Imtiaz, M.S.; Laver, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    The factors responsible for the regulation of regenerative calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) during Ca2+ spark evolution remain unclear. Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) gating in rats and sheep was recorded at physiological Ca2+, Mg2+, and ATP levels and incorporated into a 3D model of the cardiac dyad, which reproduced the time course of Ca2+ sparks, Ca2+ blinks, and Ca2+ spark restitution. The termination of CICR by induction decay in the model principally arose from the steep Ca2+ dependence of RyR closed time, with the measured sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) lumen Ca2+ dependence of RyR gating making almost no contribution. The start of CICR termination was strongly dependent on the extent of local depletion of junctional SR Ca2+, as well as the time course of local Ca2+ gradients within the junctional space. Reducing the dimensions of the dyad junction reduced Ca2+ spark amplitude by reducing the strength of regenerative feedback within CICR. A refractory period for Ca2+ spark initiation and subsequent Ca2+ spark amplitude restitution arose from 1), the extent to which the regenerative phase of CICR can be supported by the partially depleted junctional SR, and 2), the availability of releasable Ca2+ in the junctional SR. The physical organization of RyRs within the junctional space had minimal effects on Ca2+ spark amplitude when more than nine RyRs were present. Spark amplitude had a nonlinear dependence on RyR single-channel Ca2+ flux, and was approximately halved by reducing the flux from 0.6 to 0.2 pA. Although rat and sheep RyRs had quite different Ca2+ sensitivities, Ca2+ spark amplitude was hardly affected. This suggests that moderate changes in RyR gating by second-messenger systems will principally alter the spatiotemporal properties of SR release, with smaller effects on the amount released. PMID:23708355

  13. Capturing the Temporal Sequence of Interaction in Young Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Fiona; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We explored whether young children exhibit subtypes of behavioral sequences during sibling interaction. Ten-minute, free-play observations of over 300 sibling dyads were coded for positivity, negativity and disengagement. The data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling (GMM). Younger (18-month-old) children’s temporal behavioral sequences showed a harmonious (53%) and a casual (47%) class. Older (approximately four-year-old) children’s behavior was more differentiated revealing a harmonious (25%), a deteriorating (31%), a recovery (22%) and a casual (22%) class. A more positive maternal affective climate was associated with more positive patterns. Siblings’ sequential behavioral patterns tended to be complementary rather than reciprocal in nature. The study illustrates a novel use of GMM and makes a theoretical contribution by showing that young children exhibit distinct types of temporal behavioral sequences that are related to parenting processes. PMID:25996957

  14. Effects of positive feedback on the social interactions of boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a test of the self-protective hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Diener, M B; Milich, R

    1997-09-01

    Tested the hypothesis that inflated self-assessments offered by children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) serve a self-protective function. This was accomplished by examining the effects of positive feedback on self-perceptions and social interactions of boys with ADHD and comparison boys. Boys with ADHD and comparison boys, 8 to 11 years old, were paired in 60 dyads and interacted in two unstructured cooperative tasks. Following the first interaction, 1 boy in half of the dyads received positive feedback, supposedly from his partner, concerning his performance. Results indicated that following the first interaction, but prior to feedback, boys with ADHD had an overly positive view of how much their partner liked them. However, following the second interaction, boys with ADHD who received positive feedback actually showed a significant decrease in their self-perceptions, whereas comparison boys who received feedback showed an increase. These results are seen as supportive of the self-protective hypothesis that children with ADHD offer inflated self-perceptions to counter feelings of inadequacy. When presented with positive feedback, they are able to relax this defensive posture and offer more realistic self-assessments. PMID:9292383

  15. Interactions between and among Heritage Language Learners and Second Language Learners during Collaborative Writing Activities: How Learners Attend to Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined…

  16. Behavioral correlates of maternal expressed emotion in interaction tasks.

    PubMed

    Cruise, Ruth C; Sheeber, Lisa B; Tompson, Martha C

    2011-10-01

    Family expressed emotion (EE), a measure of emotional overinvolvement (EOI) and criticism (CRIT), is predictive of relapses and poor treatment outcomes among adults experiencing a range of psychopathology and may predict outcomes among youth with mood disorders. Although it is typically measured by an individual interview with a family member, EE is thought to index family processes and, therefore, should be reflected in family interactional behavior. We examined the association between maternal EE and interactional behavior in a sample of mothers and their 8-12-year-old children. Mother-child dyads participated in three video-recorded interaction tasks--two problem-solving tasks and one planning-fun-activity task. Maternal EE was measured by the Five Minute Speech Sample, and mothers were classified as CRIT, EOI, or low EE. Maternal interactional behavior was coded using the Living in Family Environments coding system. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to test the hypothesis that both maternal EE and the type of task would predict maternal interactional behavior. On average, maternal critical behavior increased from the first to the second problem-solving task and decreased during the planning-fun-activity task. Mothers high in CRIT showed greater relative frequencies of critical behavior as compared to mothers high in EOI or mothers low in EE. The results suggest that maternal CRIT, as assessed by the Five Minute Speech Sample, is significantly associated with observed maternal critical behavior. PMID:21744959

  17. ADHD Medication Vacations and Parent-Child Interactions by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sulak, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine medication vacations among children with ADHD according to parent-child dyads (e.g., mother-son, father-daughter, mother-daughter, and father-son). Method: In a survey study of 259 parents of children with ADHD, the use of medication vacations according to parent-child sex dyads was…

  18. The interactive effects of belongingness and charisma on helping and compliance.

    PubMed

    Den Hartog, Deanne N; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Keegan, Anne E

    2007-07-01

    This study tests the main and interactive effects of belongingness and perceived charismatic leadership on 2 forms of organizational citizenship behavior (helping and compliance). In line with expectations, a study of 115 manager-subordinate dyads demonstrates that employees show more helping (manager rated) when they have a stronger sense of belongingness at work and more helping as well as compliance when they perceive their leader to be more charismatic (subordinate rated). Belongingness partially mediates the relationship between charisma and helping. Also, as hypothesized, belongingness and charisma have interactive effects on employees' helping and compliance. The impact of perceived charisma on these behaviors is stronger for employees with a low sense of belongingness at work than for individuals with a higher sense of belongingness. PMID:17638470

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Ru(II) Tris(1,1O-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads Incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium Cation or N-Benzyl-N'-methyl-viologen. Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Optical Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monen M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2004-01-01

    The title compounds (1 and 2, above) were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions of appropriate Ru(1I) complexes with the electron a cceptors. Characterization was conducted in solution and in frozen ma trices. Finally, the title compounds were evaluated as dopants of sol-gel materials. It was found that the intramolecular quenching efficie ncy of 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridinium cation in solution depends on the solvent: photoluminescence is quenched completely in CH,CN, but not i n methanol or ethanol. On the other hand, intramolecular emission que nching by 4-benzyl-N-methyl viologen is complete in all solvents. The difference between the two quenchers is traced electrochemically to t he solvation of the 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridiniums by alcohol. In froze n matrices or adsorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both Ru(I1) complex/electron acceptor dyads of this study are photoluminescent, and the absence of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigi dity. When doped aerogels are cooled at 77 K, the emission intensity increases by approximately 4x, and the spectra shift to the blue, analogous to what is observed with Ru(I1) complexes in solutions undergoi ng fluid-to-rigid transition. However, in contrast to frozen solution s, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at low tempe ratures are still accessible to gas-phase quenchers diffusing through the mesopores, leading to more sensitive platforms for sensors than o ther room-temperature configurations. Thus the photoluminescence of o ur Ru(I1) complex dyads adsorbed on aerogel is quenchable by O2 both at room temperature and at 77 K. Furthermore, it was also found that O 2 modulates the photoluminescence of aerogels doped with 4-benzoyl -N -methylpyridinium-based dyads over a wider dynamic range compared wi th aerogels doped with either our vislogen-based dyads or with Ru(I1) tris(1,lO-phenanthroline) itself.

  20. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Qualities, Internal Working Models, and Styles as Predictors of Adolescents’ Observed Interactions with Friends

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how current parent-adolescent relationship qualities and adolescents’ representations of relationships with parents were related to friendship interactions in 200 adolescent-close friend dyads. Adolescents and friends were observed discussing problems during a series of structured tasks. Negative interactions with mothers were significantly related to adolescents’ greater conflict with friends, poorer focus on tasks, and poorer communication skills. Security of working models (as assessed by interview) was significantly associated with qualities of friendship interactions, whereas security of attachment styles (as assessed by questionnaire) was not. More dismissing (vs. secure) working models were associated with poorer focus on problem discussions and weaker communication skills with friends, even after accounting for gender differences and current parent-adolescent relationship qualities. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed links between dimensions of parent-adolescent relationships and friendships. We also consider methodological and conceptual differences between working model and style measures of attachment representations. PMID:20174459

  1. Automatic imitation of the arm kinematic profile in interacting partners.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Badino, Leonardo; Cipresso, Pietro; Chirico, Alice; Ferrari, Elisabetta; Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive neuroscience, traditionally focused on individual brains, is just beginning to investigate social cognition through realistic interpersonal interaction. However, quantitative investigation of the dynamical sensorimotor communication among interacting individuals in goal-directed ecological tasks is particularly challenging. Here, we recorded upper-body motion capture of 23 dyads, alternating their leader/follower role, in a tower-building task. Either a strategy of joining efforts or a strategy of independent action could in principle be used. We found that arm reach velocity profiles of participants tended to converge across trials. Automatic imitation of low-level motor control parameters demonstrates that the task is achieved through continuous action coordination as opposed to independent action planning. Moreover, the leader produced more consistent and predictable velocity profiles, suggesting an implicit strategy of signaling to the follower. This study serves as a validation of our joint goal-directed non-verbal task for future applications. In fact, the quantification of human-to-human continuous sensorimotor interaction, in a way that can be predicted and controlled, is probably one of the greatest challenges for the future of human-robot interaction. PMID:26224265

  2. Theoretical studies on the geometrical and electronic structures of supramolecule bis(2,2?-bipyridine)-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline ruthenium(II)/functionalized SWCNT dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadnezhad, M.; Darvish Ganji, M.; Rezvani, M.

    2015-11-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotube (CNT) with multiple redox and photo active entities is one of the extensive processes due to its importance in building molecular or supramolecular electronic devices, solar energy storage and conversion systems. Thus, to have better understanding about structural aspects and correct electronic structure of these large systems, the quantum studies have gained increased popularity. In present study, we have investigated the structural and electronic properties of functionalized CNTs (fCNTs) with [Ru(bpy)2(5-NH2-1,10-phen)]+2, (Ru-bpy-phen)+2, supramolecule based on DFT calculations. Main attention has been applied to obtain stable configuration, binding energies and effect of functionalization on electronic behavior of the selected supramolcule. We also evaluate the effect of nanotube's diameter and chirality on electronic properties of considered supramolecule. Calculated binding energies show that interaction between the (Ru-bpy-phen)+2 and the host CNTs depends on the tube diameter while the chirality doesn't affect significantly on the binding nature of respected complex. We have also investigated the influence of non-local dispersion interactions (vdW) and temperature on the stability and electronic structure of the considered system. Results obtained from the ab initio MD simulations showed that increasing the temperature can affect the distance between C and N atoms in the linkage position. The charge analysis indicates the existence of remarkable charge transfer between (Ru-bpy-phen)+2 as donor and fCNTs as acceptor moieties in the isolated molecule. In the presence of vdW forces and at higher temperature, the charge transfer was decreased but the direction of transferred charge remains unchanged.

  3. Reciprocal and Complementary Sibling Interactions: Relations with Socialization Outcomes in the Kindergarten Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Achacoso, Joseph A.; John, Aesha; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings To examine associations between sibling interaction patterns and later social outcomes in single- and two-parent families, 113 kindergarteners took part in naturalistic observations at home with siblings, classmates participated in sociometric interviews, and teachers completed behavior ratings. Sibling interactions were coded using a newly-developed 39-item checklist, and proportions of complementary and reciprocal sibling interactions computed. Complementarity occurred more among dyads where kindergartners were with toddler or infant siblings than among kindergartners with older or near-age younger siblings. Higher levels of complementarity predicted lower levels of internalizing but were not related to externalizing problems. Kindergartners’ sociometric status in the classroom differed as a function of sibling interaction patterns, with neglected and controversial children experiencing less complementarity/more reciprocity than popular, average, and rejected children. Finally, there was some evidence for differential associations of sibling interaction patterns with social outcomes for children in single- versus two-parent families: regressions testing interaction effects show sibling reciprocity positively associated with kindergartners’ social skills only in single-parent families, and complementary sibling interactions positively related to internalizing problems only in two-parent families. Implications for Practice Those working with divorcing or other single-parent families might consider sibling interactions as a potential target for social skill building. PMID:26005311

  4. Examining the role of communication on sibling relationship quality and interaction for sibling pairs with and without a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashlyn L; Romski, Maryann; Sevcik, Rose A

    2013-09-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent communicators and their siblings did not differ in terms of syntactic complexity but typically developing siblings dominated the interaction and exhibited greater lexical diversity regardless of communication status. Communication status did not impact the warmth/closeness, rivalry, or conflict in the sibling relationship, but siblings of independent communicators engaged in the greatest amount of helping and managing behaviors. These results represent a first step in understanding the role of communication skills in the sibling relationship for families of children with disabilities. PMID:24245732

  5. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy in a Community Setting: Examining Outcomes, Attrition, and Treatment Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patrica L.; Benz, Joan; Swinger, Dawn; Moussette, Pam; Drake, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) deployed in a community setting comparing in-home with the standard office-based intervention. Child behavior, parent stress, parent functioning, and attrition were examined. Methods Using a quasi-experimental design, standardized measures at three time points were collected from parent-child dyads (n=120) with thirty-seven families completing treatment. Results Growth modeling analyses indicate significant improvements in child and parent outcomes in both treatment settings with more rapid improvements in parent outcomes within office-based treatment. Attrition was predicted by income and parent functioning. Conclusion PCIT delivered in the community can produce measureable improvements. In-home PCIT is a feasible option but future research should consider benefits and costs. Treatment completion remains a challenge. PMID:24839378

  6. TRANSITION FROM ADVERSARIAL TO COOPERATIVE STRATEGIC INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-08-01

    This note extends the game theoretic analysis of strategic conflicts begun in earlier Seminars on Planetary Emergencies to interactions with and without defenses between two or more adversaries with more realistic target structures. It reviews the essentials of game theory as applied to the analysis of strategic decisions, the application of first and second strike costs as payoffs, and solution optimization, which resolves several inconsistencies seen with earlier metrics. The stability of the current bilateral offensive configuration is shown to be high and insensitive to deep reductions in offensive forces, the deployment of limited defenses, and the exchange of significant offensive forces for defenses. The transition from adversarial to cooperative interaction is represented by the progressive reduction of the parameters representing each side's preference for damaging or deterring the other, which monotonically improves stability. Estimates of strike incentives in bilateral and trilateral configurations are reduced by the inclusion of high value targets in both sides' force allocations, which dominates the details of offensive and defensive forces. The shift to high value targets stabilizes trilateral offensive configurations, a result that differs with that from analyses based on military costs only. When defenses are included, they lead to a balance between a large defended side and small undefended side that resembles the balance between two large sides. Including the large side's preference for defense of high value targets in the analyses reduces its strike incentives and thus the small side's incentive to preempt. However, it also removes the large sides' ability to deter, so the stability of multi-polar configurations continues to be controlled by the least stable dyad, which places constraints on the size of defenses that can be deployed stably that could be more stringent than those from the bilateral balance.

  7. A critical examination of indices of dynamic interaction for wildlife telemetry studies.

    PubMed

    Long, Jed A; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Webb, Stephen L; Gee, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01

    Wildlife scientists continue to be interested in studying ways to quantify how the movements of animals are interdependent - dynamic interaction. While a number of applied studies of dynamic interaction exist, little is known about the comparative effectiveness and applicability of available methods used for quantifying interactions between animals. We highlight the formulation, implementation and interpretation of a suite of eight currently available indices of dynamic interaction. Point- and path-based approaches are contrasted to demonstrate differences between methods and underlying assumptions on telemetry data. Correlated and biased correlated random walks were simulated at a range of sampling resolutions to generate scenarios with dynamic interaction present and absent. We evaluate the effectiveness of each index at identifying different types of interactive behaviour at each sampling resolution. Each index is then applied to an empirical telemetry data set of three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) dyads. Results from the simulated data show that three indices of dynamic interaction reliant on statistical testing procedures are susceptible to Type I error, which increases at fine sampling resolutions. In the white-tailed deer examples, a recently developed index for quantifying local-level cohesive movement behaviour (the di index) provides revealing information on the presence of infrequent and varying interactions in space and time. Point-based approaches implemented with finely sampled telemetry data overestimate the presence of interactions (Type I errors). Indices producing only a single global statistic (7 of the 8 indices) are unable to quantify infrequent and varying interactions through time. The quantification of infrequent and variable interactive behaviour has important implications for the spread of disease and the prevalence of social behaviour in wildlife. Guidelines are presented to inform researchers wishing to study dynamic interaction patterns in their own telemetry data sets. Finally, we make our code openly available, in the statistical software R, for computing each index of dynamic interaction presented herein. PMID:24428545

  8. Photoinduced processes in dyads and triads containing a ruthenium(II)-bis(terpyridine) photosensitizer covalently linked to electron donor and acceptor groups. [Ru(ttp) sub 2 sup 2+ where ttp=4 prime -p-tolyl-2,2 prime :6 prime ,2 double prime -terpyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, J.P.; Guillerez, S.; Sauvage, J.P. ); Barigelletti, F.; Flamigni, L. ); De Cola, L.; Balzani, V. )

    1991-10-30

    Five supramolecular systems containing the Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+} photosensitizer (P) covalently linked to an electron acceptor (A), MV{sup 2+}, and/or an electron donor (D), PTZ or DPAA, have been synthesized; ttp is 4{prime}-p-tolyl-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double prime}-terpyridine, MV{sup 2+} is methyl viologen, PTZ is phenotiazine, and DPAA is di-p-anisylamine. In the D-P-A triads the electron donor and acceptor groups are linked in opposite positions with respect to the photosensitizer. The spectroscopic properties (room-temperature absorption spectra, emission spectra and lifetimes in the 90-200 K temperature range, and transient absorption spectra and lifetimes at 150 K) and the (room-temperature) electrochemical behavior of the supramolecular systems and of their components have been investigated. At 90 K, where the solvent is frozen, no quenching of the photosensitizer luminescence is observed for all the supramolecular systems. At 150 K, where the solvent is fluid, the results obtained were as follows. In the PTZ-Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+} dyad, neither quenching of the photosensitizer luminescence nor formation of oxidized donor are observed. In the DPAA-Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+} dyad, luminescence quenching and transient formation of the oxidized donor take place. For the Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+}-MV{sup 2+} dyad, transient formation of the reduced acceptor is observed, but the lifetime of the photosensitizer luminescence increases, indicating that charge recombination leads back to the excited photosensitizer. The PTZ-Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+}-MV{sup 2+} triad behaves as the Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+}-MV{sup 2+} dyad. For the DPAA-Ru(ttp){sub 2}{sup 2+}-MV{sup 2+} triad, strong luminescence quenching is observed, and transient absorption spectroscopy shows that charge separation is followed by a very fast charge recombination reaction ({tau}<100 ns). Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the photoinduced electron-transfer processes are discussed.

  9. A dendritic fullerene-porphyrin dyad.

    PubMed

    Campidelli, Stéphane; Deschenaux, Robert; Swartz, Angela; Rahman, G M Aminur; Guldi, Dirk M; Milic, Dragana; Vázquez, Ester; Prato, Maurizio

    2006-12-01

    We describe the synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of a fullerene derivative whose structure includes a Zn-porphyrin and a second generation liquid-crystalline (LC) dendrimer. The size of the fullerene and porphyrin units with respect to the size of the LC dendrimer prevents the formation of liquid-crystalline phases. However, this system gives interesting photoinduced electron transfer phenomena. Compound has been investigated by steady state and time resolved fluorescence as well as transient absorption spectroscopy in polar and apolar solvents. We demonstrate that the fluorescence of the porphyrin unit in is quenched compared to the Zn-tetraphenylporphyrin used as reference. Femto- and picosecond transient absorption permit to identify the formation of a radical ion pair while nanosecond experiments allowed the determination of the charge recombination lifetimes. PMID:17136279

  10. Construction of Trust Judgments within Cooperative Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evin, Agathe; Sève, Carole; Saury, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the aims of physical education (PE) is to develop social skills such as cooperation, teamwork, and mutual helping among students. Cooperation is a broad research topic, implicating several disciplines in the human sciences (e.g. psychology, sociology, linguistics, philosophy). It is also an important topic in various domains…

  11. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning. PMID:21874515

  12. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  13. Manipulation of Non-verbal Interaction Style and Demographic Embodiment to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2005-02-01

    For years, people have sought more natural means of communicating with their computers. Many have suggested that interaction with a computer should be as easy as interacting with other people, taking advantage of the multimodal nature of human communication. While users should, in theory, gravitate to such anthropomorphic embodiments, quite the contrary has been experienced; users generally have been dissatisfied and abandoned their use. This suggests a disconnect between the factors that make human-human communication engaging and those used by designers to support human-agent interaction. This paper discusses a set of empirical studies that attempted to replicate human-human nonverbal behavior. The focus revolved around the behaviors that portrayed a credible façade, helping the embodied conversational agent (ECA) to form a successful cooperative dyad with the user. Based on a review of the nonverbal literature, a framework was created that identified trustworthy and credible nonverbal behaviors across five areas and formed design guidelines for character interaction. The design suggestions for those areas emanating from the facial region (facial expression, eye contact and paralanguage) were experimentally supported but there was no concordant increase in perceived trust when bodily regions (posture and gesture) were added. In addition, in examining the importance of demographic elements in the embodiment, it was found that users prefer to interact with characters that match their ethnicity and are young looking. There was no significant preference for gender. The implications of these results, as well as other interesting consequences are discussed.

  14. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise

    PubMed Central

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D.; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender’s and receiver’s temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions. PMID:25848050

  15. Child-directed interaction: prediction of change in impaired mother-child functioning.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Michelle D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2006-06-01

    The first phase of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), called child-directed interaction, teaches parents to use positive and differential social attention to improve the parent-child relationship. This study examined predictors of change in mother and child functioning during the child-directed interaction for 100 mother-child dyads. The children were 3-6-years-old and diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder. After establishing that significant improvements occurred in mother report of child disruptive behavior, parenting stress, and parenting practices, these three variables were combined to form a latent impaired mother-child functioning construct. Structural equation models were examined using maternal demographic and psychosocial variables as predictors of impaired mother-child functioning before and after the child-directed interaction. Mothers' self-reported daily hassles and depressive symptomatology predicted 74% of variance in impaired mother-child functioning before treatment. Mothers' report of social support predicted impaired mother-child functioning after the child-directed interaction, with 57% of the variance accounted for in this longitudinal model. These findings suggest the importance of improving maternal social support during the initial phase of PCIT. PMID:16708275

  16. Do you put your best foot forward? Interactive effects of task performance and impression management tactics on career outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jen-Wei; Chiu, Wei-La; Chang, Yi-Ying; Johnstone, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the interactive effects of task performance and impression management tactics on career outcomes from the socioanalytic perspective. Based on a survey of 195 employee-supervisor dyads from various industries in Taiwan, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that (1) the relationship between task performance and a one-year salary adjustment was greater among employees who frequently employ ingratiation than among those who do not, (2) the relationship between task performance and a one-year salary adjustment was greater among employees who frequently employ exemplification than among those who do not, and (3) the relationship between task performance and career satisfaction was greater among employees who frequently employ self-promotion than among those who do not. This study concludes by suggesting implications for research and practice, and offers some directions for future research. PMID:25175887

  17. [A phenomenological study on mother-infant interacting behavior patterns relating to newborn infant feeding in Korea].

    PubMed

    Han, K J

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe mother-infant interacting behavior patterns related to newborn infant feeding and to explore the mother's cultural belief about their infant. The data collection was conducted by observation and interview. Twenty-five mothers and their newborn infants who were normally delivered and were also planned to breastfeed were comprised as the subjects of this study. All subjects were interviewed and observed individually at 1 to 5 days after the delivery at the hospital, mid-wife's clinic, Maternal Child Health Center and their home throughout the country from remote area to big city. The observation data were recorded with symbolic letter on a recording sheet newly developed as a result of preliminary study. The interview data were tape recorded and then recorded in narrative form. Mother-infant interaction behaviors in early-feeding period were analyzed based on 19 analytic sub-categories and their composing elements. Unit of analysis were mother, infant and mother-infant dyad. 8 analytic categories draw from the data. Each were preparation, instrument, interaction inducing, evaluation referred to mother's behavior, preparation, instrument, interaction inducing referred to infant's behavior and synchronic behaviors referred to mother-infant dyad. Frequencies of behavior items based on the categories were converted to percent. The result showed that in mother's preparation behavior, the breast condition of Korean mother can be an affecting factor for mother-infant interaction during feeding, and vocalization behavior was observed most frequently in interaction inducing behavior while the least frequent behavior observed was contacting. Subcultural characteristics of mother-infant interaction behaviors were analyzed for their relationships between groups of mothers who have lived in remote area vs urban area, and who were multipara vs primipara. Using a chi-square test, there were statistically significant relationships in the activity of psychological readiness in preparation behavior and the movement of extremities for the position of instrumental behavior in both groups. However, interaction inducing behaviors were not related with statistical significance in any set of groups. Accomplishment of marriage, bonding and emotional mediation of family members were the categories related to mother's cultural belief about the infant in aspect of functional values. Infant at birth is considered little more than a biological organism without social capabilities. Although the newborn infant is still be attached to his mother, he makes his mother extend her territoriality. The mother's interacting behavior toward her infant based on those beliefs appeared task oriented, separative behavioral series.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1812313

  18. Stability of maternal discipline practices and the quality of mother–child interaction during toddlerhood?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother–child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother–toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e., child sex, temperament) that might moderate the association between maternal discipline and quality of mother–child interactions were also examined. Maternal discipline, quality of mother–child interactions, and temperamental moderators were measured at 16–18 months (Time 1) and 34–37 months (Time 2). Results showed that the stability of maternal use of discipline strategies over the toddler years was moderate. Lower maternal use of PD, higher maternal use of ID, and higher preference/reliance on ID (relative to PD) were associated with higher quality of mother–child interactions. Moderation effects of child temperament were also found. High ID and PD were associated with low quality of mother–child relationships in non-temperamentally difficult children but not in temperamentally difficult children. PMID:23450036

  19. Why Synchrony Matters during Mother-Child Interactions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Avril, Marie; Achard, Catherine; Chetouani, Mohamed; Missonnier, Sylvain; Cohen, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of mother-child interactions is a core issue of early child development and psychopathology. This paper focuses on the concept of “synchrony” and examines (1) how synchrony in mother-child interaction is defined and operationalized; (2) the contribution that the concept of synchrony has brought to understanding the nature of mother-child interactions. Method Between 1977 and 2013, we searched several databases using the following key-words: « synchrony » « interaction » and « mother-child ». We focused on studies examining parent-child interactions among children aged 2 months to 5 years. From the 63 relevant studies, we extracted study description variables (authors, year, design, number of subjects, age); assessment conditions and modalities; and main findings. Results The most common terms referring to synchrony were mutuality, reciprocity, rhythmicity, harmonious interaction, turn-taking and shared affect; all terms were used to characterize the mother-child dyad. As a consequence, we propose defining synchrony as a dynamic and reciprocal adaptation of the temporal structure of behaviors and shared affect between interactive partners. Three main types of assessment methods for studying synchrony emerged: (1) global interaction scales with dyadic items; (2) specific synchrony scales; and (3) micro-coded time-series analyses. It appears that synchrony should be regarded as a social signal per se as it has been shown to be valid in both normal and pathological populations. Better mother-child synchrony is associated with familiarity (vs. unknown partner), a healthy mother (vs. pathological mother), typical development (vs. psychopathological development), and a more positive child outcomes. Discussion Synchrony is a key feature of mother-infant interactions. Adopting an objective approach in studying synchrony is not a simple task given available assessment tools and due to its temporality and multimodal expression. We propose an integrative approach combining clinical observation and engineering techniques to improve the quality of synchrony analysis. PMID:25469637

  20. Imagined Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeycutt, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Social scientists have been studying imagined interactions since the mid-1980s and have measured numerous physiological correlates (Honeycutt, 2010). In this commentary I assess the research reported in Crisp and Turner (May-June 2009) and highlight the underlying mechanisms of imagined interactions that have empirically been laid out across…

  1. Drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan; Watelet, Jean-Baptiste; Whomsley, Rhys; Benedetti, Margherita Strolin; Demoly, Pascal; Tipton, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Drugs for allergy are often taken in combination with other drugs, either to treat allergy or other conditions. In common with many pharmaceuticals, most such drugs are subject to metabolism by P450 enzymes and to transmembrane transport. This gives rise to considerable potential for drug-drug interactions, to which must be added consideration of drug-diet interactions. The potential for metabolism-based drug interactions is increasingly being taken into account during drug development, using a variety of in silico and in vitro approaches. Prediction of transporter-based interactions is not as advanced. The clinical importance of a drug interaction will depend upon a number of factors, and it is important to address concerns quantitatively, taking into account the therapeutic index of the compound. PMID:19601724

  2. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  3. developments. interactive

    E-print Network

    Jaun, André

    interactive course: ffl web­pages for hyper­linked lecture notes, student exercises and projects, ffl java teachers: ffl public on the web y : lecture notes including the JBONE applet, ffl on demand: source Java

  4. Interactive Maps

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index Interactive Maps Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human

  5. Neutrino Interactions

    E-print Network

    Kevin McFarland

    2008-04-24

    This manuscript summarizes a series of three lectures on interactions of neutrinos . The lectures begin with a pedagogical foundation and then explore topics of interest to current and future neutrino oscillation and cross-section experiments.

  6. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P. Read; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent’s preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner’s appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner’s model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference. PMID:26053429

  7. Infant twins' social interactions with caregivers and same-age siblings.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Naomi J; Brooks, Patricia J; Yuksel-Sokmen, P Ozlem; Ragir, Sonia; Flory, Michael J; Lennon, Elizabeth M; Karmel, Bernard Z; Gardner, Judith M

    2015-11-01

    The study of twin behavior offers the opportunity to study differential patterns of social and communicative interactions in a context where the adult partner and same-age peer are equally familiar. We investigated the development of social engagement, communicative gestures, and imitation in 7- to 25-month-old twins. Twin dyads (N=20 pairs) participated in 10-min, semi-structured play sessions, with the mother seated in a chair completing paperwork for half the session, and on the floor with her children for the other half. Overall, twins engaged more with their mothers than with their siblings: they showed objects and imitated speech and object use more frequently when interacting with their mothers than with their siblings. When the mother was otherwise engaged, the twins played with toys separately, observed each other's toy play, or were unengaged. These results demonstrate that adult scaffolding of social interactions supports increased communicative bids even in a context where both familiar peers and adults are available as communicative partners. PMID:26476957

  8. Hadronic Interactions

    E-print Network

    Takeshi Yamazaki

    2015-03-30

    Understanding hadronic interactions is crucial for investigating the properties of unstable hadrons, since measuring physical quantities for unstable hadrons including the resonance mass and decay width requires simultaneous calculations of final scattering states. Recent studies of hadronic scatterings and decays are reviewed from this point of view. The nuceon-nucleon and multi-nucleon interactions are very important to understand the formation of nucleus from the first principle of QCD. These interactions have been studied mainly by two methods, due originally to L\\"uscher and to HALQCD. The results obtained from the two methods are compared in three channels, $I=2$ two-pion, H-dibaryon, and two-nucleon channels. So far the results from the two methods for the two-nucleon channels are different even at the level of the presence or absence of bound states. We then discuss possible uncertainties in each method. Recent results on the binding energy for helium nuclei are also reviewed.

  9. Interactive Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jean K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents guiding principles for developing interactive lessons for the World Wide Web. Describes "Amazing Space: Education Online from the Hubble Space Telescope", a program where students study spectacular Hubble Space Telescope images of stars and star-forming regions to learn about the life cycle of stars and the creation of atoms. (JRH)

  10. Interacting Compasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, Hector G.; Betancourt, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The use of multiple compasses to map and visualize magnetic fields is well-known. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the compasses aligning them along the lines of force. Some science museums show the field of a magnet using a table with many compasses in a closely packed arrangement. However, the very interesting interactions that occur…

  11. Constructive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyake, Naomi

    To identify conditions that make a conversational interaction constructive--in the sense that the participants can find the way toward the success of what they wanted to accomplish--two situations were examined. In one, a professional researcher explained her data to a statistician. In the other, three groups of two people cooperated with each…

  12. Speaking and Listening with the Eyes: Gaze Signaling during Dyadic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Simon; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive scientists have long been interested in the role that eye gaze plays in social interactions. Previous research suggests that gaze acts as a signaling mechanism and can be used to control turn-taking behaviour. However, early research on this topic employed methods of analysis that aggregated gaze information across an entire trial (or trials), which masks any temporal dynamics that may exist in social interactions. More recently, attempts have been made to understand the temporal characteristics of social gaze but little research has been conducted in a natural setting with two interacting participants. The present study combines a temporally sensitive analysis technique with modern eye tracking technology to 1) validate the overall results from earlier aggregated analyses and 2) provide insight into the specific moment-to-moment temporal characteristics of turn-taking behaviour in a natural setting. Dyads played two social guessing games (20 Questions and Heads Up) while their eyes were tracked. Our general results are in line with past aggregated data, and using cross-correlational analysis on the specific gaze and speech signals of both participants we found that 1) speakers end their turn with direct gaze at the listener and 2) the listener in turn begins to speak with averted gaze. Convergent with theoretical models of social interaction, our data suggest that eye gaze can be used to signal both the end and the beginning of a speaking turn during a social interaction. The present study offers insight into the temporal dynamics of live dyadic interactions and also provides a new method of analysis for eye gaze data when temporal relationships are of interest. PMID:26309216

  13. Infant Television and Video Exposure Associated With Limited Parent-Child Verbal Interactions in Low Socioeconomic Status Households

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Berkule, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Huberman, Harris S.; Alvir, Jose; Dreyer, Benard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess verbal interactions related to television and other electronic media exposure among mothers and 6 month-old-infants. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 154 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development. Setting Urban public hospital. Participants Low socioeconomic status mothers of 6-month-old infants. Main Exposure Media exposure and content. Main Outcome Measures Mother-infant verbal interaction associated with media exposure and maternal coviewing. Results Of 154 low socioeconomic status mothers, 149 (96.8%) reported daily media exposure in their infants, with median exposure of 120 (interquartile range, 60-210) minutes in a 24-hour period. Among 426 program exposures, mother-infant interactions were reported during 101 (23.7%). Interactions were reported most frequently with educational young child–oriented media (42.8% of programs), compared with 21.3% of noneducational young child–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.98) and 14.7% of school-age/teenage/adult–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.3). Among coviewed programs with educational content, mothers reported interactions during 62.7% of exposures. Coviewing was not reported more frequently for educational young child–oriented programs. Conclusions We found limited verbal interactions during television exposure in infancy, with interactions reported for less than one-quarter of exposures. Although interactions were most commonly reported among programs with educational content that had been coviewed, programs with educational content were not more likely to be coviewed than were other programs. Our findings do not support development of infant-directed educational programming in the absence of strategies to increase coviewing and interactions. PMID:18458186

  14. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix’s (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent’s empathic tendencies and his/her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry versus laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child’s distress versus non-distress). PMID:24955589

  15. Predictors of treatment attrition and treatment length in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Taiwanese families?,??

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.

    2015-01-01

    Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has been used successfully in the United States and in other countries around the world, but its use in Asian countries has been more limited. The present study is the first of its kind to examine the predictors of treatment attrition and length in a sample of Taiwanese caregivers and their children. It is also the first to examine PCIT outcomes in Taiwanese families. Maladaptive personality characteristics of the caregiver were the best predictor of attrition, followed by single-parent, removal of the child from the home, and lower levels of caregiver education. Treatment length was predicted by child minority status and parent–child interactions (i.e., parent commands and negative parent talk). In terms of outcomes, statistically significant treatment changes were noted for all treatment outcome variables at post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that PCIT is a promising intervention for this population. The predictors of treatment attrition and length can be used when Taiwanese caregiver–child dyads present for services so that additional assistance can be provided prior to or during treatment to increase adherence to the recommended number of treatment sessions for maximal impact. Future studies may replicate the present study with a larger clinical sample to examine the long-term effects of PCIT and to include a no-treatment control condition to afford a more robust empirical evaluation. PMID:26705373

  16. Too many motives? The interactive effects of multiple motives on organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Riki; Bolino, Mark C; Lin, Cheng-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Prior research indicates that employees engage in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) because of prosocial values, organizational concern, and impression management motives. Building upon and extending prior research, we investigate all 3 OCB motives by developing a categorization scheme to differentiate their distinctiveness and by building a contextualized argument regarding their interactive effects on OCB in a more collectivistic culture. In a sample of 379 Chinese employee-supervisor dyads from Taiwan, we found that the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was strengthened by organizational concern motives; likewise, the relationship between organizational concern and OCBs directed at the organization was strengthened by prosocial values motives. However, in contrast to prior research (Grant & Mayer, 2009), the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was weakened by impression management motives. A 3-way interaction between all 3 motives further suggests that, in Asian cultures, impression management motives may undermine the positive effects of prosocial values and organizational concern motives on OCBs directed at individuals but not OCBs directed at the organization. PMID:25198096

  17. Beyond the average marital communication: Latent profiles of the observed interactions among Chinese newlywed couples.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongjian; Fang, Xiaoyi; Fine, Mark A; Ju, Xiaoyan; Lan, Jing; Liu, Xuanwen

    2015-12-01

    Employing a multicontext observational design, using a person-centered approach, and treating the marital dyad as the unit of analysis, this study examined the within-couple communication patterning of 144 Chinese newlywed couples and its association with relationship satisfaction. Latent profile analysis consistently revealed 3 profiles of spouses' interactive behaviors across contexts differing in both topic nature (i.e., problem-solving vs. social support) and initiator (i.e., husbands vs. wives): (a) traditionally undemonstrative profile, (b) emotionally quarrelling profile, and (c) warmly supportive profile. The prevalence of communication profiles changed markedly with the nature of the discussion topic and the topic initiator. Further, using latent class analysis, we classified couples into subgroups based on their identified profile memberships across contexts (i.e., consistency of interaction mode across contexts). Three classes were identified: (a) consistently quarrelling class, (b) consistently supportive class, and (c) modestly traditional class. Both the consistently supportive class and the modestly traditional class reported significantly higher levels of marital satisfaction than did the consistently quarrelling class. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26192133

  18. Early development of turn-taking in vocal interaction between mothers and infants

    PubMed Central

    Gratier, Maya; Devouche, Emmanuel; Guellai, Bahia; Infanti, Rubia; Yilmaz, Ebru; Parlato-Oliveira, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Infants are known to engage in conversation-like exchanges from the end of the second month after birth. These ‘protoconversations’ involve both turn-taking and overlapping vocalization. Previous research has shown that the temporal organization of adult–infant turn-taking sequences is similar to that of adult verbal conversation. It has also been shown that young infants adjust the quality of their vocalization in response to the quality and timing of adult vocalization. We present new evidence of turn-taking interaction in infants aged between 8 and 21 weeks based on the analysis of 176 samples of naturalistic face-to-face interactions from 51 dyads. We found high levels of latched turns as well as frequent initiation of turn-taking by infants at these ages. Our data do not support the hypothesis that turn-taking ability increases with age between 2 and 5 months but do suggest that infants are active participants in turn-taking from the earliest age and that mothers adjust turn-taking formats to infants. PMID:26388790

  19. Maternal dispositional empathy and electrodermal reactivity: Interactive contributions to maternal sensitivity with toddler-aged children.

    PubMed

    Emery, Helen T; McElwain, Nancy L; Groh, Ashley M; Haydon, Katherine C; Roisman, Glenn I

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: Dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix's (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent's empathic tendencies and his or her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry vs. laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child's distress vs. nondistress). PMID:24955589

  20. Observing social signals in scaffolding interactions: how to detect when a helping intention risks falling short.

    PubMed

    Leone, Giovanna

    2012-10-01

    In face-to-face interactions, some social signals are aimed at regulating scaffolding processes, by which more knowledgeable people try to help less knowledgeable ones, to enable them to learn new concepts or skills (Vygotsky 1978). Observing face-to-face scaffolding interactions might not only allow us to grasp a large variety of these highly interesting social signals but may also be useful for the sake of scaffolding processes themselves. It often happens, in fact, that the empowering intentions implicit in these processes end up falling short, if the social signals regulating this specific kind of face-to-face interaction are misunderstood. Interestingly, many of these misunderstood aspects are related to the recipient's role. Indeed, attention is usually focused on the behavior of those imparting the knowledge, while skills already mastered by the learners, as well as their feedback, tend not to be taken as much into account. For the purpose of exploring the often very subtly nuanced social signals regulating on-going scaffolding processes in real-life interactions, an example of a methodological tool is presented: one already used to observe the interactions of dyads of Italian primary school teachers and their pupils, and mothers and their children. The article leads to two main conclusions: that the results of instances of scaffolding may be predicted as to their success or otherwise simply by telescoping crucial social signals during the scaffolding's initial phases, and that when helpers disregard these signals the effects of their actions may be detrimental or even humiliating for the receivers, notwithstanding the helper's intentions. PMID:22009169

  1. Computation Interactive

    E-print Network

    Borcea, Cristian

    ErnmEnt FundEd grAnt In ubIquItouS SoCIAl ComputIng, wE hAvE dEvElopEd And dEployEd An IntErACtIvE poStEr k FIgurE 1. CoMPuter InterFACeS hAve not rePlACeD trADI- tIonAl PoSterS AnD BulletIn BoArDS. (IMAge

  2. Infant physiological regulation and maternal risks as predictors of dyadic interaction trajectories in families with a preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A J Miller; Bolt, Daniel M; Hane, Amanda; Burnson, Cynthia; Winters, Jill

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of rates of growth in dyadic interaction quality in children born preterm who did not experience significant neurological findings during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. Multiple methods were used to collect data from 120 preterm infants (48% girls, 52% boys) and their mothers. Infant heart rate variability (HRV), gestational age, neonatal health, feeding route, and maternal socioeconomic (SES) risks were assessed at NICU discharge (mean of 36 weeks postconception). Mother-child interactions were observed at 4, 9, 16, and 24 months postterm and analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling. On average, children's quality of play, interest, and attention increased over time while their dysregulation and irritability decreased, whereas average maternal positive affect and involvement declined in quality (ps < .05), although there was individual variation in rates of change. Mothers of infants with higher postfeeding HRV (i.e., vagal regulation) exhibited less decrease in positive affect and involvement between 4 months and 24 months, compared with mothers of infants with lower HRV (p < .05). Although infants with higher postfeeding HRV showed less positive affect and communication at 4 months, they exhibited significantly greater increases in positive affect and social competence and decreases in dysregulation and irritability between 4 months and 24 months, compared with infants with lower HRV (ps < .05). Dyads experiencing more SES risks showed less optimal interactions at 4 months; this difference remained as children grew older (ps < .05). Results have implications for our understanding of social development in preterm infants. PMID:21244152

  3. Early maternal relational traumatic experiences and psychopathological symptoms: a longitudinal study on mother-infant and father-infant interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tambelli, Renata; Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Early maternal relational traumas and psychopathological risk can have an impact on mother-infant interactions. Research has suggested the study of fathers and of their psychological profiles as protection or risk factors. The aim of the paper is to assess the quality of parental interactions during feeding in families with mothers with early traumatic experiences. One hundred thirty-six (N?=?136) families were recruited in gynecological clinics: Group A included families with mothers who experienced early sexual/physical abuse; Group B was composed of families with mothers who experienced early emotional abuse or neglect; and Group C comprised healthy controls. The subjects participated in a 10-month longitudinal protocol [at the fourth month of pregnancy (T0), 3 months after child birth (T1), and 6 months after child birth (T2)] that included an observation of mother-infant and father-infant interactions during feeding (Scala di Valutazione dell’Interazione Alimentare [SVIA]) and a self-reporting 90-item Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R). Maternal higher rates of depression and early traumatic experiences of neglect and emotional abuse predicted more maladaptive scores on the affective state of the dyad SVIA subscale. Paternal anxiety predicted more severe levels of food refusal in the child during feeding. PMID:26354733

  4. Infant Physiological Regulation and Maternal Risks as Predictors of Dyadic Interaction Trajectories in Families With a Preterm Infant

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Bolt, Daniel M.; Hane, Amanda; Burnson, Cynthia; Winters, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of rates of growth in dyadic interaction quality in children born preterm who did not experience significant neurological findings during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. Multiple methods were used to collect data from 120 preterm infants (48% girls, 52% boys) and their mothers. Infant heart rate variability (HRV), gestational age, neonatal health, feeding route, and maternal socioeconomic (SES) risks were assessed at NICU discharge (mean of 36 weeks postconception). Mother–child interactions were observed at 4, 9, 16, and 24 months postterm and analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling. On average, children’s quality of play, interest, and attention increased over time while their dysregulation and irritability decreased, whereas average maternal positive affect and involvement declined in quality (ps < .05), although there was individual variation in rates of change. Mothers of infants with higher postfeeding HRV (i.e., vagal regulation) exhibited less decrease in positive affect and involvement between 4 months and 24 months, compared with mothers of infants with lower HRV (p < .05). Although infants with higher postfeeding HRV showed less positive affect and communication at 4 months, they exhibited significantly greater increases in positive affect and social competence and decreases in dysregulation and irritability between 4 months and 24 months, compared with infants with lower HRV (ps < .05). Dyads experiencing more SES risks showed less optimal interactions at 4 months; this difference remained as children grew older (ps < .05). Results have implications for our understanding of social development in preterm infants. PMID:21244152

  5. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to understandings of normative language development for non-Western, non middle-class children in multilingual contexts. PMID:25972828

  6. Emotions and family interactions in childhood: Associations with leukocyte telomere length emotions, family interactions, and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Robles, Theodore F; Carroll, Judith E; Bai, Sunhye; Reynolds, Bridget M; Esquivel, Stephanie; Repetti, Rena L

    2016-01-01

    Conceptualizations of links between stress and cellular aging in childhood suggest that accumulating stress predicts shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). At the same time, several models suggest that emotional reactivity to stressors may play a key role in predicting cellular aging. Using intensive repeated measures, we tested whether exposure or emotional "reactivity" to conflict and warmth in the family were related to LTL. Children (N=39; 30 target children and 9 siblings) between 8 and 13 years of age completed daily diary questionnaires for 56 consecutive days assessing daily warmth and conflict in the marital and the parent-child dyad, and daily positive and negative mood. To assess exposure to conflict and warmth, diary scale scores were averaged over the 56 days. Mood "reactivity" was operationalized by using multilevel modeling to generate estimates of the slope of warmth or conflict scores (marital and parent-child, separately) predicting same-day mood for each individual child. After diary collection, a blood sample was collected to determine LTL. Among children aged 8-13 years, a stronger association between negative mood and marital conflict, suggesting greater negative mood reactivity to marital conflict, was related to shorter LTL (B=-1.51, p<.01). A stronger association between positive mood and marital affection, suggesting positive mood reactivity, was related to longer LTL (B=1.15, p<.05). These effects were independent of exposure to family and marital conflict and warmth, and positive and negative mood over a two-month period. To our knowledge, these findings, although cross-sectional, represent the first evidence showing that link between children's affective responses and daily family interactions may have implications for telomere length. PMID:26551267

  7. Interactive Coding for Interactive Proofs Yevgeniy Dodis

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Interactive Coding for Interactive Proofs Yevgeniy Dodis New York University dodis of the interaction can be polynomially long. Recently, the study of interactive coding (pioneered by Schulman [17, 18 of robustness cannot be achieved by simply applying an error correcting code to each message, a method which

  8. Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

  9. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine/Polydrug Use on Maternal-Infant Feeding Interactions During the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    MINNES, SONIA; SINGER, LYNN T.; ARENDT, ROBERT; SATAYATHUM, SUDTIDA

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal cocaine use on quality of maternal-infant interactions were evaluated using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS). A total of 341 (155 cocaine using; 186 non–cocaine using) low socioeconomic, primarily African-American dyads were evaluated longitudinally at birth, 6.5, and 12 months. Group differences over time were examined, controlling for covariates, using a mixed-model linear approach. Women who used cocaine during pregnancy were less sensitive to their infants than non–cocaine-using women at 6.5 and 12 months. At 6.5 months, heavier prenatal cocaine users were less responsive to their infants than lighter users. In infants, prenatal cocaine exposure was related to poorer clarity of cues. There were no significant cocaine effects on maternal social-emotional growth fostering, cognitive growth fostering, or infant responsiveness to mother. Controlling for covariates, concentration of cocaine metabolites predicted maternal sensitivity to infant cues and infant clarity of cues at 1 year. Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and other pre- and postnatal factors adversely affect maternal-infant interactions during the first year of life. PMID:15956868

  10. Functional Mapping of Protein-Protein Interactions in an Enzyme Complex by Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Roderer, Kathrin; Neuenschwander, Martin; Codoni, Giosiana; Sasso, Severin; Gamper, Marianne; Kast, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The shikimate pathway enzyme chorismate mutase converts chorismate into prephenate, a precursor of Tyr and Phe. The intracellular chorismate mutase (MtCM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly active on its own, but becomes >100-fold more efficient upon formation of a complex with the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (MtDS). The crystal structure of the enzyme complex revealed involvement of C-terminal MtCM residues with the MtDS interface. Here we employed evolutionary strategies to probe the tolerance to substitution of the C-terminal MtCM residues from positions 84–90. Variants with randomized positions were subjected to stringent selection in vivo requiring productive interactions with MtDS for survival. Sequence patterns identified in active library members coincide with residue conservation in natural chorismate mutases of the AroQ? subclass to which MtCM belongs. An Arg-Gly dyad at positions 85 and 86, invariant in AroQ? sequences, was intolerant to mutation, whereas Leu88 and Gly89 exhibited a preference for small and hydrophobic residues in functional MtCM-MtDS complexes. In the absence of MtDS, selection under relaxed conditions identifies positions 84–86 as MtCM integrity determinants, suggesting that the more C-terminal residues function in the activation by MtDS. Several MtCM variants, purified using a novel plasmid-based T7 RNA polymerase gene expression system, showed that a diminished ability to physically interact with MtDS correlates with reduced activatability and feedback regulatory control by Tyr and Phe. Mapping critical protein-protein interaction sites by evolutionary strategies may pinpoint promising targets for drugs that interfere with the activity of protein complexes. PMID:25551646

  11. Interactive portraiture : designing intimate interactive experiences

    E-print Network

    Zuckerman, Orit

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I present a set of interactive portrait experiences that strive to create an intimate connection between the viewer and the portrayed subject; an emotional experience, one of personal reflection. My interactive ...

  12. Early developmental changes in the timing of turn-taking: a longitudinal study of mother–infant interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hilbrink, Elma E.; Gattis, Merideth; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    To accomplish a smooth transition in conversation from one speaker to the next, a tight coordination of interaction between speakers is required. Recent studies of adult conversation suggest that this close timing of interaction may well be a universal feature of conversation. In the present paper, we set out to assess the development of this close timing of turns in infancy in vocal exchanges between mothers and infants. Previous research has demonstrated an early sensitivity to timing in interactions (e.g., Murray and Trevarthen, 1985). In contrast, less is known about infants’ abilities to produce turns in a timely manner and existing findings are rather patchy. We conducted a longitudinal study of 12 mother–infant dyads in free-play interactions at the ages of 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, and 18 months. Based on existing work and the predictions made by the Interaction Engine Hypothesis (Levinson, 2006), we expected that infants would begin to develop the temporal properties of turn-taking early in infancy but that their timing of turns would slow down at 12 months, which is around the time when infants start to produce their first words. Findings were consistent with our predictions: infants were relatively fast at timing their turn early in infancy but slowed down toward the end of the first year. Furthermore, the changes observed in infants’ turn-timing skills were not caused by changes in maternal timing, which remained stable across the 3–18 months period. However, the slowing down of turn-timing started somewhat earlier than predicted: at 9 months. PMID:26483741

  13. Shared pleasure in early mother-infant interaction: predicting lower levels of emotional and behavioral problems in the child and protecting against the influence of parental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Mäntymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Luoma, Ilona; Latva, Reija; Salmelin, Raili K; Tamminen, Tuula

    2015-01-01

    Shared pleasure (SP) was analyzed in fifty-eight 2-month-old infants and their mothers in face-to-face interaction (T1, at 2 months). The association of SP with child's emotional and behavioral outcome at 2 years (T2) was examined. SP as a possible protecting factor in the presence of parental psychopathology also was studied. Mean duration of SP moments (SP-MD) was related to subsequent socioemotional outcome of the child: Infants of dyads with longer SP-MD showed fewer internalizing and externalizing problems 2 years later. In hierarchical linear regressions, SP-MD uniquely and significantly contributed to internalizing problems after adjusting for infant and maternal factors and mother's interactive behavior. SP protected the child against the influence of parental psychopathology. Father's mental health problems during the follow-up increased the child's risk for higher externalizing and internalizing problems, but only among children with short SP-MD at T1. Internalizing symptoms at T2 increased when moving from the category "no mental health problems" to "mental health problems in one parent" and further to "mental health problems in both parents," but this increase was found only among those with short SP-MD at T1. SP in parent-child interaction is an important feature that fosters positive psychological development and moderates the health effects of other risks such as parental psychopathology. PMID:25739800

  14. The relationship development assessment - research version: preliminary validation of a clinical tool and coding schemes to measure parent-child interaction in autism.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Fionnuala; Guerin, Suzanne; Hobson, Jessica A; Gutstein, Steven E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this project was to replicate and extend findings from two recent studies on parent-child relatedness in autism (Beurkens, Hobson, & Hobson, 2013; Hobson, Tarver, Beurkens, & Hobson, 2013, under review) by adapting an observational assessment and coding schemes of parent-child relatedness for the clinical context and examining their validity and reliability. The coding schemes focussed on three aspects of relatedness: joint attentional focus (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), the capacity to co-regulate an interaction and the capacity to share emotional experiences. The participants were 40 children (20 with autism, 20 without autism) aged 6-14, and their parents. Parent-child dyads took part in the observational assessment and were coded on these schemes. Comparisons were made with standardised measures of autism severity (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2001; Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS: Constantino & Gruber, 2005), relationship quality (Parent Child Relationship Inventory, PCRI: Gerard, 1994) and quality of parent-child interaction (Dyadic Coding Scales, DCS: Humber & Moss, 2005). Inter-rater reliability was very good and, as predicted, codes both diverged from the measure of parent-child relationship and converged with a separate measure of parent-child interaction quality. A detailed profile review revealed nuanced areas of group and individual differences which may be specific to verbally-able school-age children. The results support the utility of the Relationship Development Assessment - Research Version for clinical practice. PMID:24366957

  15. Impact of a maternal history of childhood abuse on the development of mother-infant interaction during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Anna; Möhler, Eva; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a maternal history of abuse on mother-infant interaction (emotional availability; EA) in infancy and early toddlerhood. Over an 18-month period, women giving birth to a child in the local obstetric units were screened using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Women who reported moderate or severe sexual and/or physical abuse were included in the maltreatment group (n=58; MG) and compared with a non-maltreated comparison group (n=61; CG). EA was investigated under experimental conditions when the children were 5 and 12 months of age using the Emotional Availability Scales. While mother-child dyads in the MG showed only very discrete interactional alterations at an infant age of 5 months, their EA differed significantly from the CG at 12 months due to the lack of an increase in EA observed in the MG. Exploratory analyses showed an additional effect of emotional abuse on EA at 12 months. These data indicate that the period when child locomotion develops might represent a critical time window for mothers with a history of abuse. Our results constitute an advance in research on child abuse as they identify a possible time window of non-normative alteration in mother-child interaction. This period could be targeted by strategies to prevent intergenerational transmission of abusive experiences. PMID:26140735

  16. Differential Habitat Use or Intraguild Interactions: What Structures a Carnivore Community?

    PubMed

    Gompper, Matthew E; Lesmeister, Damon B; Ray, Justina C; Malcolm, Jay R; Kays, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Differential habitat use and intraguild competition are both thought to be important drivers of animal population sizes and distributions. Habitat associations for individual species are well-established, and interactions between particular pairs of species have been highlighted in many focal studies. However, community-wide assessments of the relative strengths of these two factors have not been conducted. We built multi-scale habitat occupancy models for five carnivore taxa of New York's Adirondack landscape and assessed the relative performance of these models against ones in which co-occurrences of potentially competing carnivore species were also incorporated. Distribution models based on habitat performed well for all species. Black bear (Ursus americanus) and fisher (Martes pennanti) distribution was similar in that occupancy of both species was negatively associated with paved roads. However, black bears were also associated with larger forest fragments and fishers with smaller forest fragments. No models with habitat features were more supported than the null habitat model for raccoons (Procyon lotor). Martens (Martes americana) were most associated with increased terrain ruggedness and elevation. Weasel (Mustela spp.) occupancy increased with the cover of deciduous forest. For most species dyads habitat-only models were more supported than those models with potential competitors incorporated. The exception to this finding was for the smallest carnivore taxa (marten and weasel) where habitat plus coyote abundance models typically performed better than habitat-only models. Assessing this carnivore community as whole, we conclude that differential habitat use is more important than species interactions in maintaining the distribution and structure of this carnivore guild. PMID:26731404

  17. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator.

    PubMed

    Tina, K G; Bhadra, R; Srinivasan, N

    2007-07-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bonds, interactions between hydrophobic residues, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, aromatic-aromatic interactions, aromatic-sulphur interactions and cation-pi interactions within a protein or between proteins in a complex. Interactions are calculated on the basis of standard, published criteria. The identified interactions between residues can be visualized using a RasMol and Jmol interface. The advantage with PIC server is the easy availability of inter-residue interaction calculations in a single site. It also determines the accessible surface area and residue-depth, which is the distance of a residue from the surface of the protein. User can also recognize specific kind of interactions, such as apolar-apolar residue interactions or ionic interactions, that are formed between buried or exposed residues or near the surface or deep inside. PMID:17584791

  18. On the Origins of Disorganized Attachment and Internal Working Models: Paper II. An Empirical Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Lachmann, Frank; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen A.; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley; Jaffe, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication predicted 12-month infant disorganized (vs. secure) attachment outcomes in an urban community sample. We documented a dyadic systems view of the roles of both partners, the roles of both self- and interactive contingency, and the importance of attention, orientation and touch, and as well as facial and vocal affect, in the co-construction of attachment disorganization. The analysis of different communication modalities identified striking intrapersonal and interpersonal intermodal discordance or conflict, in the context of intensely distressed infants, as the central feature of future disorganized dyads at 4 months. Lowered maternal contingent coordination, and failures of maternal affective correspondence, constituted maternal emotional withdrawal from distressed infants. This maternal withdrawal compromises infant interactive agency and emotional coherence. We characterize of the nature of emerging internal working models of future disorganized infants as follows: Future disorganized infants represent states of not being sensed and known by their mothers, particularly in moments of distress; they represent confusion about both their own and their mothers’ basic emotional organization, and about their mothers’ response to their distress. This internal working model sets a trajectory in development which may disturb the fundamental integration of the person. The remarkable specificity of our findings has the potential to lead to more finely-focused clinical interventions. PMID:23066334

  19. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  20. Planning for Interactive Videodisc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Discusses levels of planning involved in developing interactive videodisc programs, including the macro decisions of hardware, authoring facility, and production format choices; and individual program planning, including content analysis, program design, and interaction development. (MBR)

  1. Health Data Interactive

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Data Access Data Access Data Linkage Mortality Data Medicare ... Related Sites Research Data Center NCHS Home Health Data Interactive Welcome! Health Data Interactive presents tables with ...

  2. Computerized Interactive Harness Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized interactive harness engineering program inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically data-base system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records.

  3. On Interaction Classifaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, James H.; Kinnear, Thomas C.

    1980-01-01

    Further classification is made of Lindquist's dichotomy of interaction effects. The extension hopefully reduces errors or interpretation and provides a simple, accurate means of summarizing interactions obtained. (Author/RL)

  4. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  5. Co-Operative Conflict Resolution in Institutionalised Boy Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Natasa; Krivohlavy, Jaro

    1974-01-01

    In order to test the practicality of non-zero sum games for analyzing children's social behavior, the classic Prisoners' Dilemna Game performance were compared for institutionalized and home-reared boys. (DP)

  6. Differences in intergender communication within task-oriented dyads 

    E-print Network

    McAfee, Joanna Lynn

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the task structure on intergender communication. The primary goal of this research is to find out whether a cooperative or competitive task structure has an effect on inequalities in ...

  7. Drug interaction management.

    PubMed

    Hansten, Philip D

    2003-06-01

    Although thousands of articles on drug interactions have been published and numerous computerized screening systems have been developed, patients continue to suffer from adverse drug interactions. Possible methods for reducing the risk of drug interactions include improving the knowledge of health care providers, improving computerized screening systems, providing information on patient risk factors, increased use of pharmacogenetic information, more attention to drug administration risk factors, and improving patient education on drug interactions. PMID:12840961

  8. Interactive Reactor Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Herbert E., Jr.; Himmelblau, David M.

    In the field of chemical engineering, interactive process models can simulate the dynamic behavior and analysis of chemical processes. DYFLO was the process simulation program selected as a foundation for development of interactive programs for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in chemical engineering. Interactive Computing and time sharing…

  9. Interactions of Set Theory,

    E-print Network

    Baldwin, John T.

    Interactions of Set Theory, L1,, and ACE INFINITY Workshop John T. Baldwin University of Illinois forcing Interactions of Set Theory, L1,, and ACE INFINITY Workshop John T. Baldwin University of Illinois at Chicago March 11, 2015 #12;Interactions of Set Theory, L1,, and ACE INFINITY Workshop John T. Baldwin

  10. Dynamic Interactive Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabry, Khaled; Barker, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the notions of interactivity and dynamicity of learning systems in relation to information technologies and design principles that can contribute to interactive and dynamic learning. It explores the concept of dynamic interactive learning systems based on the emerging generation of information as part of a…

  11. Global Interaction in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Audrey Grace

    2010-01-01

    Based on a virtual conference, Glide'08 (Global Interaction in Design Education), that brought international design scholars together online, this special issue expands on the topics of cross-cultural communication and design and the technological affordances that support such interaction. The author discusses the need for global interaction in…

  12. Quintessence with Yukawa interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, André A.; Olivari, Lucas C.; Abdalla, E.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a quintessence model for dark energy interacting with dark matter via a Yukawa interaction. To put constraints on this model we use the cosmic microwave background measurements from the Planck satellite together with baryon acoustic oscillation, type Ia supernovae and H0 data. We conclude that this is a viable model and an appropriate scalar potential can favor the interacting scenario.

  13. Differences in forebrain androgen receptor expression in winners and losers of male anole aggressive interactions.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Tomoko; Wilczynski, Walter

    2014-09-25

    Size matched male green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) were paired in a neutral setting and allowed to engage in aggressive displays. Winners and losers were apparent in each pair within 90min, resulting in stable dominant/subordinate dyads. Androgen receptor (AR) expression was assessed at three time points after the initial pairing, 2h, 3 days, and 10 days in dominants, subordinates, and two groups of control males housed alone or with a female for an equal period of time. Expression was quantified in three forebrain areas that have been implicated in aggression and reproductive social behavior in this species, the preoptic area (POA), the anterior hypothalamus (AH), septal area (SEP), and ventromedial nucleus of the posterior division of the dorsal ventricular ridge (PDVRVM ). There were significant overall group differences in AR mRNA expression in the POA and AH that appeared to result from higher POA AR expression in dominant males compared to other groups, and generally lower AR expression in subordinate males. Pairwise comparison revealed that dominants' AR mRNA expression in the POA was significantly higher in the 2h and 3 day groups compared to that of subordinates, with a similar, but nonsignificant, difference in the 10 day group. Dominants had significantly higher AR mRNA expression in the AH compared to that of subordinates in the 2h group, but differences were not significant at later times. The results suggest that POA and AH sensitivity to androgens is increased in dominants compared to subordinates, and that the difference can be seen soon after the agonistic interaction establishing winners and losers. PMID:25069090

  14. The interactive brain hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Di Paolo, Ezequiel; De Jaegher, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Enactive approaches foreground the role of interpersonal interaction in explanations of social understanding. This motivates, in combination with a recent interest in neuroscientific studies involving actual interactions, the question of how interactive processes relate to neural mechanisms involved in social understanding. We introduce the Interactive Brain Hypothesis (IBH) in order to help map the spectrum of possible relations between social interaction and neural processes. The hypothesis states that interactive experience and skills play enabling roles in both the development and current function of social brain mechanisms, even in cases where social understanding happens in the absence of immediate interaction. We examine the plausibility of this hypothesis against developmental and neurobiological evidence and contrast it with the widespread assumption that mindreading is crucial to all social cognition. We describe the elements of social interaction that bear most directly on this hypothesis and discuss the empirical possibilities open to social neuroscience. We propose that the link between coordination dynamics and social understanding can be best grasped by studying transitions between states of coordination. These transitions form part of the self-organization of interaction processes that characterize the dynamics of social engagement. The patterns and synergies of this self-organization help explain how individuals understand each other. Various possibilities for role-taking emerge during interaction, determining a spectrum of participation. This view contrasts sharply with the observational stance that has guided research in social neuroscience until recently. We also introduce the concept of readiness to interact to describe the practices and dispositions that are summoned in situations of social significance (even if not interactive). This latter idea links interactive factors to more classical observational scenarios. PMID:22701412

  15. One possible interaction-inertial interaction

    E-print Network

    Xuejun Yang

    2012-10-24

    Proposed in this paper is a possible interaction which exists in nature - inertial interaction. It gives matter an inertia and inertial mass. The formula of inertial mass has been derived. It is possible that inertial interaction leads to the redshifts of quasars, the rotation curve of spiral galaxy, the accelerating expansion of the universe, and the stronger gravitational lens effects of quasars, galaxies, or clusters of galaxies. Einstein's Gravitational Equation has been modified. Gravitational redshift, perihelion precession, and bending of light in spherically symmetric vacuum gravitational field are calculated. The differential equations of static spherically symmetric star's internal evolution are given. The accelerating expansion stage of the universe evolution equations are derived. The evolution of the universe is periodic. Time does not have an origin. There is no Big Bang. Although there is divergent singularity, there is no universe's singularity of incomplete geodesic. There are no horizon problem and no flatness problem. The problems that may exist are discussed.

  16. [Drug-drug interactions: interactions between xenobiotics].

    PubMed

    Haen, E

    2014-04-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a major topic in programs for continuous medical education (CME). Many physicians are afraid of being trapped into charges of malpractice; however, DDI cannot be avoided in many cases. They belong to routine medical practice and it is often impossible to avoid them. Moreover, they do not just occur between drugs but between any kind of foreign substance (xenobiotica), such as food (e.g. grapefruit juice, broccoli, barbecue) as well as legal (e.g. tobacco smoke, caffeine and alcohol) and illegal drugs. Therefore, the medical challenge is not just to avoid any interaction. Instead the physician faces the question of how to proceed with drug treatment in the presence of such interactions. Based on the medical education a physician has to judge first of all whether there is a risk for interactions in the prescription being planned for an individual patient. The classification of interactions proposed in this article (PD1-PD4, PK1-PK3) might help as a sort of check list. For more detailed information the physician can then consult one of the many databases available on the internet, such as PSIAConline (http://www.psiac.de) and MediQ (http://www.mediq.ch). Pharmacokinetic interactions can be easily assessed, monitored and controlled by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Besides these tools it is important to keep in mind that nobody knows everything; even physicians do not know everything. So take pride in asking someone who might help and for this purpose AGATE offers a drug information service AID (http://www.amuep-agate.de). Just good for nothing, without being based on any kind of medical approach are computer programs that judge prescriptions without taking into account a patient's individual peculiarities. In case these types of programs produce red exclamation marks or traffic lights to underline their judgment, they might even work in a contrapuntal way by just eliciting insecurity and fear. PMID:24619146

  17. INTERACTIONS II 5.A Interactions in Reactions and Decays

    E-print Network

    Boal, David

    (in addition to the weak interaction and gravity). The dominant interaction in reaction (5CHAPTER 5 INTERACTIONS II 5.A Interactions in Reactions and Decays In Chapter 2, we discuss interact with each other. How do these interactions influence decays or reactions? Consider the scattering

  18. The Science of Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, William A.; Stasko, John T.; Chang, Remco; O'Connell, Theresa

    2009-09-23

    There is a growing recognition with the visual analytics community that interaction and inquiry are inextricable. It is through the interactive manipulation of a visual interface – the analytic discourse – that knowledge is constructed, tested, refined, and shared. This paper reflects on the interaction challenges raised in the original visual analytics research and development agenda and further explores the relationship between interaction and cognition. It identifies recent exemplars of visual analytics research that have made substantive progress toward the goals of a true science of interaction, which must include theories and testable premises about the most appropriate mechanisms for human-information interaction. Six areas for further work are highlighted as those among the highest priorities for the next five years of visual analytics research: ubiquitous, embodied interaction; capturing user intentionality; knowledge-based interfaces; principles of design and perception; collaboration; and interoperability. Ultimately, the goal of a science of interaction is to support the visual analytics community through the recognition and implementation of best practices in the representation of and interaction with visual displays.

  19. Nerve-pulse interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some recent experimental and theoretical results on mechanisms through which individual nerve pulses can interact are reviewed. Three modes of interactions are considered: (1) interaction of pulses as they travel along a single fiber which leads to velocity dispersion; (2) propagation of pairs of pulses through a branching region leading to quantum pulse code transformations; and (3) interaction of pulses on parallel fibers through which they may form a pulse assembly. This notion is analogous to Hebb's concept of a cell assembly, but on a lower level of the neural hierarchy.

  20. How Interactive Is the Interactive Whiteboard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quashie, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    An interactive whiteboard (IWB) is simply a surface onto which a computer screen can be displayed, via a projector. It is touch-sensitive and lets one use a pen like a mouse, controlling the computer from the board itself. Everything that can be displayed on a computer can be displayed onto the whiteboard and, if the computer is linked to speakers…

  1. interactOnce interactOnce

    E-print Network

    Lüth, Christoph - Deutschen Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz & Fachbereich 3

    Monadische I/O: Einfache Beispiele -- Funktionen aus der Standardb ucherei: getLine :: IO String -- eine Zeile lesen putStr :: String-> IO () -- Zeile ausgeben putStrLn :: String-> IO () -- Zeile mit LF ausgeben echo :: IO () echo = getLine >>= putStrLn >>= \\_ -> echo interactOnce :: (String-> String)-> IO

  2. Dual Development of Conversational and Narrative Discourse: Mother and Child Interactions during Narrative Co-Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kimberly Reynolds; Bailey, Alison L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated longitudinally the co-constructed narratives of 31 mother-child dyads collected when the children were 3-, 4-, and 5-years old, examining the dual development of child conversational and narrative discourse skills and the impact of maternal verbal assistance. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed that children's developmental…

  3. Contingent Interactions between Parents and Young Children with Severe Expressive Communication Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Grabast, Jodi; Burgers Jerke, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Parents and their children with severe expressive impairments may have limited successful communicative exchanges due to each partner's difficulty in recognizing and responding to communicative behaviors of the other. This study examined the communicative functions and modes of communication that received contingent responses in 20 dyads of…

  4. Cognitive Attributions and Emotional Expectancies Predict Emotions in Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Frabutt, James M.; Campbell Chambers, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent's hostile attributions of mother's intent and emotional self-expectancies as contributors to expression of emotion between mothers and adolescents. Data were collected from 268 10- to 12-year-olds (133 girls, 135 boys) and their mothers. Each dyad was observed in a conversational activity that…

  5. Automated Measurement of Facial Expression in Infant-Mother Interaction: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Daniel S.; Mahoor, Mohammad H.; Chow, Sy-Miin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Automated facial measurement using computer vision has the potential to objectively document continuous changes in behavior. To examine emotional expression and communication, we used automated measurements to quantify smile strength, eye constriction, and mouth opening in two 6-month-old infant-mother dyads who each engaged in a face-to-face…

  6. Peer Competence and Mother-Child and Child-Child Interactions in One-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of the predictors of preschool-aged children's peer relationships, data were collected on the social behavior of 1-year-olds. Participating in the study were 48 mother-child dyads. Individual and comparison data were gathered through observation and videotape recordings in laboratory dyadic play sessions involving…

  7. Interactive Presentation of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdin, Martin; Turcáni, Milan; Vrábel, Marek

    2009-01-01

    In the paper we discus about design of universal environment for solution of creating effective multimedia applications with accent on the implementation of interactive elements with the possibility of using the adaptive systems (AS). We also discuss about possibilities of offline presentation of this interactive multimedia adaptive animations…

  8. Visualizing Dispersion Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Elinor; Venkataraman, Bhawani

    2014-01-01

    An animation and accompanying activity has been developed to help students visualize how dispersion interactions arise. The animation uses the gecko's ability to walk on vertical surfaces to illustrate how dispersion interactions play a role in macroscale outcomes. Assessment of student learning reveals that students were able to develop…

  9. Interactive Videodisc Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of capabilities of interactive videodisc, which combines video images recorded on disc and random-access, highlights interactivity; teaching techniques with videodiscs (including masking, disassembly, movie maps, tactical maps, action code, and simulation); costs; and games. Illustrative material is provided. (High Technology, P. O. Box…

  10. University-industry interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    It is posited that university industry interaction is highly desirable from the viewpoint of the long term economic development of the country as well as being desirable for the Space Grant Programs. The present and future possible interactions are reviewed for the three university levels namely, undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research.

  11. Interactive Visualization of Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

  12. Spacelab user interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of the third and final phase of a study undertaken to define means of optimizing the Spacelab experiment data system by interactively manipulating the flow of data were presented. A number of payload applicable interactive techniques and an integrated interaction system for each of two possible payloads are described. These interaction systems have been functionally defined and are accompanied with block diagrams, hardware specifications, software sizing and speed requirements, operational procedures and cost/benefits analysis data for both onboard and ground based system elements. It is shown that accrued benefits are attributable to a reduction in data processing costs obtained by, generally, a considerable reduction in the quantity of data that might otherwise be generated without interaction. One other additional anticipated benefit includes the increased scientific value obtained by the quicker return of all useful data.

  13. Interaction relation ontology learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-Xi; Wang, Ru-Jing; Chen, Peng; Huang, He; Su, Ya-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Ontology is widely used in semantic computing and reasoning, and various biomedicine ontologies have become institutionalized to make the heterogeneous knowledge computationally amenable. Relation words, especially verbs, play an important role when describing the interaction between biological entities in molecular function, biological process, and cellular component; however, comprehensive research and analysis are still lacking. In this article, we propose an automatic method to build interaction relation ontology by investigating relation verbs, analyzing the syntactic relation of PubMed abstracts to perform relation vocabulary expansion, and integrating WordNet into our method to construct the hierarchy of relation vocabulary. Five attributes are populated automatically for each word in interaction relation ontology. As a result, the interaction relation ontology is constructed; it contains a total of 963 words and covers the most relation words used in existing methods of proteins interaction relation. PMID:24377790

  14. Leo space plasma interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1991-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays interact with the low earth orbit (LEO) space plasma in two fundamentally different ways. One way is the steady collection of current from the plasma onto exposed conductors and semiconductors. The relative currents collected by different parts of the array will then determine the floating potential of the spacecraft. In addition, these steady state collected currents may lead to sputtering or heating of the array by the ions or electrons collected, respectively. The second kind of interaction is the short time scale arc into the space plasma, which may deplete the array and/or spacecraft of stored charge, damage solar cells, and produce EMI. Such arcs only occur at high negative potentials relative to the space plasma potential, and depend on the steady state ion currents being collected. New high voltage solar arrays being incorporated into advanced spacecraft and space platforms may be endangered by these plasma interactions. Recent advances in laboratory testing and current collection modeling promise the capability of controlling, and perhaps even using, these space plasma interactions to enable design of reliable high voltage space power systems. Some of the new results may have an impact on solar cell spacing and/or coverslide design. Planned space flight experiments are necessary to confirm the models of high voltage solar array plasma interactions. Finally, computerized, integrated plasma interactions design tools are being constructed to place plasma interactions models into the hands of the spacecraft designer.

  15. Protoplanet Magnetosphere Interactions

    E-print Network

    Papaloizou, John C B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study a simple model of an orbiting protoplanet in a central magnetospheric cavity, the entry into such a cavity having been proposed as a mechanism for halting inward orbital migration. We have calculated the gravitational interaction of the protoplanet with the magnetosphere using a local model and determined the rate of evolution of the orbit. The interaction is found to be determined by the outward flux of MHD waves and thus the possibility of the existence of such waves in the cavity is significant. The estimated orbital evolution rates due to gravitational and other interactions with the magnetosphere are unlikely to be significant during protoplanetary disk lifetimes.

  16. Protoplanet Magnetosphere Interactions

    E-print Network

    John C. B. Papaloizou

    2007-01-11

    In this paper, we study a simple model of an orbiting protoplanet in a central magnetospheric cavity, the entry into such a cavity having been proposed as a mechanism for halting inward orbital migration. We have calculated the gravitational interaction of the protoplanet with the magnetosphere using a local model and determined the rate of evolution of the orbit. The interaction is found to be determined by the outward flux of MHD waves and thus the possibility of the existence of such waves in the cavity is significant. The estimated orbital evolution rates due to gravitational and other interactions with the magnetosphere are unlikely to be significant during protoplanetary disk lifetimes.

  17. The ADAMS interactive interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Rietscha, E.R.

    1990-12-17

    The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

  18. ?-Hole aerogen bonding interactions.

    PubMed

    Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio

    2015-09-23

    In this manuscript we combine high level ab initio calculations (RI-MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ) and the analysis of several crystal structures to demonstrate the existence of ?-hole aerogen bonding interactions in Xe(iv) compounds. The ability of XeF4 and Xe(OMe)4 to interact with electron rich molecules is rationalized using several computational tools, including molecular electrostatic potential surfaces, energetic and geometric features of the complexes and "atoms in molecules" (AIM) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analyses. We have found support for the ?-hole interaction involving the xenon atom from the solid state architecture of several X-ray structures retrieved from the crystal structural depot. Particularly, ?-hole aerogen bonding interactions are quite common in the solid state of Xe(iv) compounds. PMID:26252726

  19. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    E-print Network

    Bakr, Waseem S.

    Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision ...

  20. Historical Milestones: Interactive Timeline

    Cancer.gov

    BBRB has achieved several major milestones that are driving improvements in biospecimen quality. Use this interactive tool to learn more about how NCI is addressing biospecimen issues that impact cancer research and patient care.

  1. Authoring Interactive Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayeski, Diane; Williams, David V.

    1984-01-01

    This guide to using computer authoring aids to develop interactive instructional programs covers types of aids, languages, costs, mainframes, and key considerations. A sampling of resources with manufacturers' names and addresses is included. (SK)

  2. Interactive Office user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Lowers, Benjamin; Nabors, Terri L.

    1990-01-01

    Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

  3. Interactive Virtual Environments Introduction

    E-print Network

    Petriu, Emil M.

    Reality Interactive Virtual Reality Virtualized Reality Augmented Reality #12;HUMAN PERCEPTION OF REALITY the virtual environment. This technology has already found promising applications in industry, communications applications in industrial design, communications, telerobotics, scientific research, medicine, training

  4. PIA: ISOPHOT Interactive Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Acosta, Jose; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Skaley, Detlef; Tai, Wai Ming; Morris, Huw; Merluzzi, Paola

    2014-08-01

    ISOPHOT is one of the instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). ISOPHOT Interactive Analysis (PIA) is a scientific and calibration interactive data analysis tool for ISOPHOT data reduction. Written in IDL under Xwindows, PIA offers a full context sensitive graphical interface for retrieving, accessing and analyzing ISOPHOT data. It is available in two nearly identical versions; a general observers version omits the calibration sequences.

  5. Ion Pair-? Interactions.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Kaori; Humbert-Droz, Marie; Letrun, Romain; Vauthey, Eric; Wesolowski, Tomasz A; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    We report that anion-? and cation-? interactions can occur on the same aromatic surface. Interactions of this type are referred to as ion pair-? interactions. Their existence, nature, and significance are elaborated in the context of spectral tuning, ion binding in solution, and activation of cell-penetrating peptides. The origin of spectral tuning by ion pair-? interactions is unraveled with energy-minimized excited-state structures: The solvent- and pH-independent red shift of absorption and emission of push-pull fluorophores originates from antiparallel ion pair-? attraction to their polarized excited state. In contrast, the complementary parallel ion pair-? repulsion is spectroscopically irrelevant, in part because of charge neutralization by intriguing proton and electron transfers on excited push-pull surfaces. With time-resolved fluorescence measurements, very important differences between antiparallel and parallel ion pair-? interactions are identified and quantitatively dissected from interference by aggregation and ion pair dissociation. Contributions from hydrogen bonding, proton transfer, ?-? interactions, chromophore twisting, ion pairing, and self-assembly are systematically addressed and eliminated by concise structural modifications. Ion-exchange studies in solution, activation of cell-penetrating peptides in vesicles, and computational analysis all imply that the situation in the ground state is complementary to spectral tuning in the excited state; i.e., parallel rather than antiparallel ion pair-? interactions are preferred, despite repulsion from the push-pull dipole. The overall quite complete picture of ion pair-? interactions provided by these remarkably coherent yet complex results is expected to attract attention throughout the multiple disciplines of chemistry involved. PMID:26291550

  6. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  7. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  8. Interaction as stochastic noise

    E-print Network

    Roberto D'Agosta

    2015-01-16

    Interaction is so ubiquitous that imaging a world free from it is a difficult fantasy exercise. At the same time, in understanding any complex physical system, our ability of accounting for the mutual interaction of its constituents is often insufficient when not the restraining factor. Many strategies have been devised to control particle-particle interaction and explore the diverse regimes, from weak to strong interaction. Beautiful examples of these achievements are the experiments on Bose condensates, or the recent experiments on the dynamics of spin chains. Here I introduce another possibility, namely replacing the particle-particle interaction with an external stochastic field, and once again reducing the dynamics of a many-body system to the dynamics of single-particle systems. The theory is exact, in the sense that no approximations are introduced in decoupling the many-body system in its non-interacting sub-parts. Moreover, the equations of motion are linear, and no unknown external potential is inserted.

  9. Nonadditivity of nanoparticle interactions.

    PubMed

    Batista, Carlos A Silvera; Larson, Ronald G; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-10-01

    Understanding interactions between inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) is central to comprehension of self-organization processes and a wide spectrum of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. However, quantitative description of the interparticle forces is complicated by many obstacles that are not present, or not as severe, for microsize particles (?Ps). Here we analyze the sources of these difficulties and chart a course for future research. Such difficulties can be traced to the increased importance of discreteness and fluctuations around NPs (relative to ?Ps) and to multiscale collective effects. Although these problems can be partially overcome by modifying classical theories for colloidal interactions, such an approach fails to manage the nonadditivity of electrostatic, van der Waals, hydrophobic, and other interactions at the nanoscale. Several heuristic rules identified here can be helpful for discriminating between additive and nonadditive nanoscale systems. Further work on NP interactions would benefit from embracing NPs as strongly correlated reconfigurable systems with diverse physical elements and multiscale coupling processes, which will require new experimental and theoretical tools. Meanwhile, the similarity between the size of medium constituents and NPs makes atomic simulations of their interactions increasingly practical. Evolving experimental tools can stimulate improvement of existing force fields. New scientific opportunities for a better understanding of the electronic origin of classical interactions are converging at the scale of NPs. PMID:26450215

  10. Ultracold fermions with repulsive interactions

    E-print Network

    Ketterle, Wolfgang

    An ultracold Fermi gas with repulsive interaction has been studied. For weak interactions, the atomic gas is metastable, and the interactions were characterized by obtaining the isothermal compressibility from atomic density ...

  11. A JOINT PROGRAM OF Interactive

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    animation, game design and development, visual effects, graphic design, human-computer interaction (HCIA JOINT PROGRAM OF Interactive Multimedia and Design www.bitdegree.ca BACHELOR OF INFORMATION, imagination, fun and technology. The Interactive Multimedia and Design (IMD) program provides

  12. A Local Contingency Analysis of the Fine-Tuning Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolov, Jeffrey L.

    1993-01-01

    Tested the fine-tuning hypothesis of language acquisition, which postulates that parents fine-tune their speech to their children's language level, by examining local patterns of interaction within the conversations of three parent-child dyads. The high positive correlations between parent-child dyads for the different interactional patterns…

  13. Optimizing Client Assignment for Enhancing Interactivity in Distributed Interactive Applications

    E-print Network

    Tang, Xueyan

    1 Optimizing Client Assignment for Enhancing Interactivity in Distributed Interactive Applications to interact with each other. Wide spreads of client locations in large-scale DIAs often require geographical architecture, the network latencies involved in the interactions between clients are directly affected by how

  14. Dike/Drift Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gaffiney

    2004-11-23

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).

  15. Achromatic Interaction Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Guimei Wang,, Yaroslav Derbenev, S.Alex Bogacz, P. Chevtsov, Andre Afanaciev, Charles Ankenbrandt, Valentin Ivanov, Rolland P. Johnson

    2009-05-01

    Designers of high-luminosity energy-frontier muon colliders must provide strong beam focusing in the interaction regions. However, the construction of a strong, aberration-free beam focus is difficult and space consuming, and long straight sections generate an off-site radiation problem due to muon decay neutrinos that interact as they leave the surface of the earth. Without some way to mitigate the neutrino radiation problem, the maximum c.m. energy of a muon collider will be limited to about 3.5 TeV. A new concept for achromatic low beta design is being developed, in which the interaction region telescope and optical correction elements, are installed in the bending arcs. The concept, formulated analytically, combines space economy, a preventative approach to compensation for aberrations, and a reduction of neutrino flux concentration. An analytical theory for the aberration-free, low beta, spatially compact insertion is being developed.

  16. Interaction Trap/Two-Hybrid System to Identify Interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Golemis, Erica A.; Serebriiskii, Ilya; Finley, Russell L.; Kolonin, Mikhail G.; Gyuris, Jeno; Brent, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The yeast two-hybrid method (or interaction trap) is a powerful technique for detecting protein interactions. The procedure is performed using transcriptional activation of a dual reporter system in yeast to identify interactions between a protein of interest (the bait protein) and the candidate proteins for interaction. The method can be used to screen a protein library for interactions with a bait protein or to test for association between proteins that are expected to interact based on prior evidence. Interaction mating facilitates the screening of a library with multiple bait proteins. PMID:18228339

  17. Towards interactive narrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Marc; Charles, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Interactive Storytelling technologies have attracted significant interest in the field of simulation and serious gaming for their potential to provide a principled approach to improve user engagement in training scenarios. In this paper, we explore the use of Interactive Storytelling to support Narrative Medicine as a reflective practice. We describe a workflow for the generation of virtual narratives from high-level descriptions of patients' experiences as perceived by physicians, which can help to objectivize such perceptions and support various forms of analysis. PMID:23400131

  18. Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona

    2007-04-23

    In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions.

  19. Interactive Technology for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Robert; Perl, Barry

    1991-01-01

    By using the kind of two-way television system envisioned by Buckminster Fuller, school children can learn at their own rates and select interesting topics, thereby continually reinforcing the desire to learn. Today's new interactive video systems, from multimedia encyclopedias to hypermedia combinations, allow students to explore subject matter…

  20. Creating Interaction Techniques by

    E-print Network

    Myers, Brad A.

    Creating Interaction Techniques by Demonstration Brad A. Myers University of ]bronto* Peridot interfaces. A previous article' presented an overview of Peridot, concentrating on how the static displays of the user interface can be specified by demonstration. The full description of Peridot and the research

  1. Electron interaction in matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dance, W. E.; Rainwater, W. J.; Rester, D. H.

    1969-01-01

    Data on the scattering of 1-MeV electrons in aluminum for the case of non-normal incidence, electron-bremsstrahlung cross-sections in thin targets, and the production of bremstrahlung by electron interaction in thick targets, are presented both in tabular and graphic form. These results may interest physicists and radiologists.

  2. Interactions of cosmic superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Mark G.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    We develop methods by which cosmic superstring interactions can be studied in detail. These include the reconnection probability and emission of radiation such as gravitons or small string loops. Loop corrections to these are discussed, as well as relationships to (p; q)-strings. These tools should allow a phenomenological study of string models in anticipation of upcoming experiments sensitive to cosmic string radiation.

  3. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  4. Interactions of Cosmic Superstrings

    E-print Network

    Mark G. Jackson

    2007-09-04

    We develop methods by which cosmic superstring interactions can be studied in detail. These include the reconnection probability and emission of radiation such as gravitons or small string loops. Loop corrections to these are discussed, as well as relationships to $(p,q)$-strings. These tools should allow a phenomenological study of string models in anticipation of upcoming experiments sensitive to cosmic string radiation.

  5. GENIE final state interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytman, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Final state interactions are an important component of any neutrino-nucleus Monte Carlo program. GENIE has 2 FSI programs which serve different purposes. Each has fair-good agreement with a wide range of hadron-nucleus data. Recent improvements and planned advancements are described.

  6. Data Interactive Publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenico, B.; Weber, J.

    2012-04-01

    For some years now, the authors have developed examples of online documents that allowed the reader to interact directly with datasets, but there were limitations that restricted the interaction to specific desktop analysis and display tools that were not generally available to all readers of the documents. Recent advances in web service technology and related standards are making it possible to develop systems for publishing online documents that enable readers to access, analyze, and display the data discussed in the publication from the perspective and in the manner from which the author wants it to be represented. By clicking on embedded links, the reader accesses not only the usual textual information in a publication, but also data residing on a local or remote web server as well as a set of processing tools for analyzing and displaying the data. With the option of having the analysis and display processing provided on the server (or in the cloud), there are now a broader set of possibilities on the client side where the reader can interact with the data via a thin web client, a rich desktop application, or a mobile platform "app." The presentation will outline the architecture of data interactive publications along with illustrative examples.

  7. Data Interactive Publications Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenico, B.; Weber, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    A few years back, the authors presented examples of online documents that allowed the reader to interact directly with datasets, but there were limitations that restricted the interaction to specific desktop analysis and display tools that were not generally available to all readers of the documents. Recent advances in web service technology and related standards are making it possible to develop systems for publishing online documents that enable readers to access, analyze, and display the data discussed in the publication from the perspective and in the manner from which the author wants it to be represented. By clicking on embedded links, the reader accesses not only the usual textual information in a publication, but also data residing on a local or remote web server as well as a set of processing tools for analyzing and displaying the data. With the option of having the analysis and display processing provided on the server, there are now a broader set of possibilities on the client side where the reader can interact with the data via a thin web client, a rich desktop application, or a mobile platform "app." The presentation will outline the architecture of data interactive publications along with illustrative examples.

  8. Interacting Convection Zones

    E-print Network

    L. J. Silvers; M. R. E. Proctor

    2007-08-28

    We present results from simulations to examine how the separation between two convectively unstable layers affect their interaction. We show that two convectively unstable layers remain connected via the overshooting plumes even when they are separated by several pressure scale heights.

  9. Feature Article Interactive Color

    E-print Network

    Meier, Barbara J.

    IPTs,we conducted a Web-based survey of individuals who work with color (see the Color Task Analysis Survey at http, illus- trators, animators, computer artists, and color techni- cians. The respondents had an averageFeature Article Interactive Color Palette Tools 64 May/June 2004 Published by the IEEE Computer

  10. The Interactive Videodisc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveridge, Leo L.

    1983-01-01

    The American Medical Association has been exploring the capabilities of optical videodisc recordings and demonstrating pilot programs that use good principles of audiovisual and computer-assisted instruction in tutorial formats or presented as patient-management problems. Using interactive videodisc programs, we can solve some of medical…

  11. Interactive Sound Federico Avanzini

    E-print Network

    Avanzini, Federico

    perception and action-perception loop theories, goes down to sound modelling and design techniques for interactive computer animation and virtual reality applications. We do not intend to provide an in-depth discussion about different the- ories of perception. We rather review a number of studies from experimental

  12. Electronically Enhanced Classroom Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Stephen; Cargill, Julie; Cutts, Quintin

    A design rationale for introducing electronic equipment (a group response system) for student interaction in lecture theaters is presented, linking the instructional design to theory. The effectiveness of the equipment for learning depends mostly on what pedagogic method is employed. Various alternative types are introduced, including: assessment;…

  13. Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana; Mayer, Richard

    2007-01-01

    What are interactive multimodal learning environments and how should they be designed to promote students' learning? In this paper, we offer a cognitive-affective theory of learning with media from which instructional design principles are derived. Then, we review a set of experimental studies in which we found empirical support for five design…

  14. Computers for Interactive Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Barbara; Aggen, William

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes features of computer-based interactive video including sophisticated answer judging, diagnostic feedback, simulation, animation, audible tones, touch sensitive screen, function keys, and video enhancements, and matches these to the characteristics and pedagogical styles of learners. The learner characteristics discussed include internal…

  15. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  16. MARKERAUGMENTED ROBOTENVIRONMENT INTERACTION

    E-print Network

    Mali, Amol D.

    collection task [2], drum sampling [3], a reactive serpentine robot that navigates complex pipe structuresMARKER­AUGMENTED ROBOT­ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION Amol Dattatraya Mali Electrical Engg. & Computer an increasing interest in developing computational theories of autonomous robots. However the previous work has

  17. Teleconferencing and Interactive Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lorne A., Comp.; Olgren, Christine H., Comp.

    This publication contains more than 50 papers on the latest developments and applications of interactive media to link distant locations. The contributors, who represent business, government, education, medical, and telecommunications organizations in the United States, Canada, England, and Australia, have had direct experience with the full range…

  18. Creating an Interactive PDF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive

  19. [Fluoroquinolones. Drug interactions].

    PubMed

    Rusu, G; D?nil?, G

    2000-01-01

    This review summarizes clinically relevant drug-drug interactions for fluoroquinolones: antiacids containing aluminum and magnesium salts, iron or zinc preparations, sucralfate, cimetidine, ranitidine, warfarina, cyclosporin, rifampin, oral contraceptive steroids, benzodiazepine, probenecid, beta-lactam antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, metronidazole, theophylline, caffeine. PMID:12089990

  20. Nucleon-nucleon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    Nucleon-nucleon interactions are at the heart of nuclear physics, bridging the gap between QCD and the effective interactions appropriate for the shell model. We discuss the current status of {ital NN} data sets, partial-wave analyses, and some of the issues that go into the construction of potential models. Our remarks are illustrated by reference to the Argonne {ital v}{sub 18} potential, one of a number of new potentials that fit elastic nucleon-nucleon data up to 350 MeV with a {Chi}{sup 2} per datum near 1. We also discuss the related issues of three-nucleon potentials, two-nucleon charge and current operators, and relativistic effects. We give some examples of calculations that can be made using these realistic descriptions of {ital NN} interactions. We conclude with some remarks on how our empirical knowledge of {ital NN} interactions may help constrain models at the quark level, and hence models of nucleon structure.

  1. Interactive shape metamorphosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, David T.; State, Andrei; Banks, David

    1994-01-01

    A technique for controlled metamorphosis between surfaces in 3-space is described. Well-understood techniques to produce shape metamorphosis between models in a 2D parametric space is applied. The user selects morphable features interactively, and the morphing process executes in real time on a high-performance graphics multicomputer.

  2. Random interactions with isospin

    SciTech Connect

    Kirson, Michael W.; Mizrahi, Jonathan A.

    2007-12-15

    The explicit inclusion of isospin degrees of freedom in sd-shell shell-model calculations with random two-body interactions produces a richer and more varied pattern of ground-state spins and isospins than has been found with only a single type of valence nucleon. The degree of dominance of 0{sup +} ground states in even-even nuclei is far from uniform in the presence of different numbers of valence neutrons and protons and is mirrored by the prevalence of 1{sup +} ground states in odd-odd nuclei. Random interactions distinguish between the ground-state patterns of even-even and odd-odd nuclei. The natural isospin ordering observed in nuclei (with states of minimum isospin lying lowest in energy and increasing in energy with increasing isospin) is also prominent despite the randomness of the interactions. Universal 0{sup +} even-even ground states and almost universal natural isospin ordering, as observed in nuclei, evidently still require two-body interactions with specific dynamic properties.

  3. Random Oscillating Gate Interactions

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Random Oscillating Gate Interactions TREND 2004 Julie Arrighi Gregory Bewley Daniel Lathrop #12 number Obvious oscillators Select random networks #12;X-OR example #12;nine not gates hooked in oscillating loops #12;nine not gates hooked in oscillating loops #12;random networks Tend toward flat line

  4. Pharmacokinetic interactions of topiramate.

    PubMed

    Bialer, Meir; Doose, Dennis R; Murthy, Bindu; Curtin, Christopher; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Twyman, Roy E; Schwabe, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Topiramate is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) that has been approved worldwide (in more than 80 countries) for the treatment of various kinds of epilepsy. It is currently being evaluated for its effect in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. The pharmacokinetics of topiramate are characterised by linear pharmacokinetics over the dose range 100-800 mg, low oral clearance (22-36 mL/min), which, in monotherapy, is predominantly through renal excretion (renal clearance 10-20 mL/min), and a long half-life (19-25 hours), which is reduced when coadministered with inducing AEDs such as phenytoin, phenobarbital and carbamazepine. The absolute bioavailability, or oral availability, of topiramate is 81-95% and is not affected by food. Although topiramate is not extensively metabolised when administered in monotherapy (fraction metabolised approximately 20%), its metabolism is induced during polytherapy with carbamazepine and phenytoin, and, consequently, its fraction metabolised increases. During concomitant treatment with topiramate and carbamazepine or phenytoin, the (oral) clearance of topiramate increases 2-fold and its half-life becomes shorter by approximately 50%, which may require topiramate dosage adjustment when phenytoin or carbamazepine therapy is added or discontinued. From a pharmacokinetic standpoint, topiramate is a unique example of a drug that, because of its major renal elimination component, is not subject to drug interaction due to enzyme inhibition, but nevertheless is susceptible to clinically relevant drug interactions due to induction of its metabolism. Unlike old AEDs such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, topiramate is a mild inducer and, currently, the only interaction observed as a result of induction by topiramate is that with ethinylestradiol. Topiramate only increases the oral clearance of ethinylestradiol in an oral contraceptive at high dosages (>200 mg/day). Because of this dose-dependency, possible interactions between topiramate and oral contraceptives should be assessed according to the topiramate dosage utilised. This paper provides a critical review of the pharmacokinetic interactions of topiramate with old and new AEDs, an oral contraceptive, and the CNS-active drugs lithium, haloperidol, amitriptyline, risperidone, sumatriptan, propranolol and dihydroergotamine. At a daily dosage of 200 mg, topiramate exhibited no or little (with lithium, propranolol and the amitriptyline metabolite nortriptyline) pharmacokinetic interactions with these drugs. The results of many of these drug interaction studies with topiramate have not been published before, and are presented and discussed for the first time in this article. PMID:15355124

  5. Reading to Children and Listening to Children Read: Mother-Child Interactions as a Function of Principal Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Chang, Sandra; Gould, Odette N.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Although storybook reading has received considerable research attention, listening to children read has been the source of much less inquiry. In this study, 40 mother-child dyads were videotaped during adult-to-child and child-to-adult reading. Relations between book-related themes (e.g., types of talk), maternal evaluative…

  6. Gene-Environment Contributions to the Development of Infant Vagal Reactivity: The Interaction of Dopamine and Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propper, Cathi; Moore, Ginger A.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.; Calkins, Susan D.; Carbone, Mary Anna; Cox, Martha

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated dopamine receptor genes ("DRD2" and "DRD4") and maternal sensitivity as predictors of infant respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity, purported indices of vagal tone and vagal regulation, in a challenge task at 3, 6, and 12 months in 173 infant-mother dyads. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) revealed that at…

  7. On topological RNA interaction structures.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jing; Reidys, Christian M

    2013-07-01

    Recently a folding algorithm of topological RNA pseudoknot structures was presented in Reidys et al. (2011). This algorithm folds single-stranded ?-structures, that is, RNA structures composed by distinct motifs of bounded topological genus. In this article, we set the theoretical foundations for the folding of the two backbone analogues of ? structures: the RNA ?-interaction structures. These are RNA-RNA interaction structures that are constructed by a finite number of building blocks over two backbones having genus at most ?. Combinatorial properties of ?-interaction structures are of practical interest since they have direct implications for the folding of topological interaction structures. We compute the generating function of ?-interaction structures and show that it is algebraic, which implies that the numbers of interaction structures can be computed recursively. We obtain simple asymptotic formulas for 0- and 1-interaction structures. The simplest class of interaction structures are the 0-interaction structures, which represent the two backbone analogues of secondary structures. PMID:23829651

  8. Interactive protein manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  9. The Interactive Astronomy Textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluke, Christopher J.; Barnes, David G.

    We introduce the use of in situ interactive three-dimensional (3-d) figures in digital astronomy textbooks as a means of enhancing student learning. The recent 3-d extensions to the Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF), combined with simple JavaScript, provide new ways to present intrinsically 3-d models, data sets, and instructional diagrams in digital publications. This is an enhancement to the usual method of presenting static, two-dimensional views, or "comic strip" sequences, to indicate changes in viewpoint. Interactive figures provide opportunities for students to undertake active learning while reading a textbook: they are able to explore and uncover the connections between viewpoint, orientation, and the 3-d nature of models and data sets for themselves.

  10. Volcanism-Climate Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Louis S. (editor); Desilva, Shanaka (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The range of disciplines in the study of volcanism-climate interactions includes paleoclimate, volcanology, petrology, tectonics, cloud physics and chemistry, and climate and radiation modeling. Questions encountered in understanding the interactions include: the source and evolution of sulfur and sulfur-gaseous species in magmas; their entrainment in volcanic plumes and injection into the stratosphere; their dissipation rates; and their radiative effects. Other issues include modeling and measuring regional and global effects of such large, dense clouds. A broad-range plan of research designed to answer these questions was defined. The plan includes observations of volcanoes, rocks, trees, and ice cores, as well as satellite and aircraft observations of erupting volcanoes and resulting lumes and clouds.

  11. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

  12. Kinase substrate interactions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael G; Ptacek, Jason; Snyder, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Kinases have become popular therapeutic targets primarily due to their integral role in cell cycle and tumor progression. The efficacy of high-throughput screening efforts is dependent on the development of high quality multiplex tools capable of replacing lower-throughput technologies such as mass spectroscopy or solution-based assays for the study of kinase-substrate interactions. Functional protein microarrays are comprised of thousands of immobilized proteins on glass slides that have been used successfully to identify protein-protein interactions. Here, we describe the application of functional protein microarrays for the identification of the phosphorylation targets of individual protein kinases using highly sensitive radioactive detection and robust informatics algorithms. PMID:21370067

  13. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

  14. Interactive design center.

    SciTech Connect

    Pomplun, Alan R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-07-01

    Sandia's advanced computing resources provide researchers, engineers and analysts with the ability to develop and render highly detailed large-scale models and simulations. To take full advantage of these multi-million data point visualizations, display systems with comparable pixel counts are needed. The Interactive Design Center (IDC) is a second generation visualization theater designed to meet this need. The main display integrates twenty-seven projectors in a 9-wide by 3-high array with a total display resolution of more than 35 million pixels. Six individual SmartBoard displays offer interactive capabilities that include on-screen annotation and touch panel control of the facility's display systems. This report details the design, implementation and operation of this innovative facility.

  15. Ultrahigh energy neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, G.; Elliot, B.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.; Mrenna, S.

    1990-03-01

    Ultrahigh energy neutrinos are valuable probes of physics beyond the Standard Model. Neutrinos of the highest energies are emitted by point sources in the sky. We review briefly the predictions of the Standard Model concerning neutrino interactions. We further argue that a number of preon models designed to overcome some difficulties of the Standard Model leads to a blurring of the distinction between leptons and quarks. As a consequence, at sufficiently high energies neutrinos acquire ``anomalous'' interactions. While this phenomenon can probably explain the observed muon excess in extensive air showers (EAS), it can be also tested by studying the absorption of the primaries on the cosmic microwave background. We discuss some observations to be performed in the search of such ``new physics'' beyond the Standard Model.

  16. Ligand-Receptor Interactions

    E-print Network

    Bongrand, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The formation and dissociation of specific noncovalent interactions between a variety of macromolecules play a crucial role in the function of biological systems. During the last few years, three main lines of research led to a dramatic improvement of our understanding of these important phenomena. First, combination of genetic engineering and X ray cristallography made available a simultaneous knowledg of the precise structure and affinity of series or related ligand-receptor systems differing by a few well-defined atoms. Second, improvement of computer power and simulation techniques allowed extended exploration of the interaction of realistic macromolecules. Third, simultaneous development of a variety of techniques based on atomic force microscopy, hydrodynamic flow, biomembrane probes, optical tweezers, magnetic fields or flexible transducers yielded direct experimental information of the behavior of single ligand receptor bonds. At the same time, investigation of well defined cellular models raised the ...

  17. Interacting warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx

    2013-05-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear ??{sub m}{sup ?}?{sub e}{sup ?} form, where ?{sub m} and ?{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters ? and ? are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (?,?,?) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ?CDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (?,?,?) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.

  18. Charmed Hadron Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Liuming Liu

    2009-07-01

    We calculate the scattering lengths of the scattering processes where one or both hadrons contain charm quarks in full lattice QCD. We use relativistic Fermilab formulation for the charm quark. For the light quark, we use domain-wall fermions in the valence sector and improved Kogut- Susskind sea quarks. In J = Psi - N and D - K channels, we observe attractive interactions. In D - D* channel, the sign of the scattering length changes, which suggests a bound state.

  19. Structural control interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.; Mowery, D. K.; Winder, S. W.; Worley, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The basic guidance and control concepts that lead to structural control interaction and structural dynamic loads are identified. Space vehicle ascent flight load sources and the load relieving mechanism are discussed, along with the the characteristics and special problems of both present and future space vehicles including launch vehicles, orbiting vehicles, and the Space Shuttle flyback vehicle. The special dynamics and control analyses and test problems apparent at this time are summarized.

  20. Antinucleon-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical results on anti p-nucleus interactions are reviewed. We focus on determinations of the anti p optical potential from elastic scattering, the use of (anti p, anti p') inelastic scattering to reveal aspects of the spin-isospin dependence of N anti N amplitudes, and some puzzling features of (anti p, anti n) charge exchange reactions on nuclei. 47 refs., 7 figs.

  1. ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN

    2013-07-30

    The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NO?A”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

  2. Transactional interactive multimedia banner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shae, Zon-Yin; Wang, Xiping; von Kaenel, Juerg

    2000-05-01

    Advertising in TV broadcasting has shown that multimedia is a very effective means to present merchandise and attract shoppers. This has been applied to the Web by including animated multimedia banner ads on web pages. However, the issues of coupling interactive browsing, shopping, and secure transactions e.g. from inside a multimedia banner, have only recently started to being explored. Currently there is an explosively growing amount of back-end services available (e.g., business to business commerce (B2B), business to consumer (B2C) commerce, and infomercial services) in the Internet. These services are mostly accessible through static HTML web pages at a few specific web portals. In this paper, we will investigate the feasibility of using interactive multimedia banners as pervasive access point for the B2C, B2B, and infomercial services. We present a system architecture that involves a layer of middleware agents functioning as the bridge between the interactive multimedia banners and back-end services.

  3. Resonance Point Interactions

    E-print Network

    C. J. Fewster

    1993-09-01

    A new construction is presented for point interactions (PI) and generalised point interactions (GPI). The construction is an inverse scattering procedure, using integral transforms suggested by the required scattering theory. The usual class of PI in 3 dimensions (i.e. the self adjoint extensions of the Laplacian on the domain of smooth functions compactly supported away from the origin) is reconstructed. In addition a 1-parameter family of GPI models termed resonance point interactions (RPI) is constructed, labelled by $M$. The case $M0$ appears to be new. In both cases, the Hilbert space of states must be extended, for $M0$, the Hilbert space is extended to a Pontryagin space. In the latter case, the space of physical states is identified as a positive definite invariant subspace. Complete M{\\o}ller wave operators are constructed for the models considered, using a two space formalism where necessary, which confirm that the PI and RPI models exhibit the required scattering theory. The physical interpretation of RPI as models for quantum mechanical systems exhibiting zero energy resonances is described.

  4. Pathogen-pathogen interaction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the health implications of the fact that infectious agents often do not act independently; rather their disease potential is mediated in diverse and significant ways by their relationships with other pathogens. Pathogen-pathogen interaction (PPI), for example, impacts various virulence factors in human infection. Although still in its infancy, the study of PPI, a form of epidemiological synergism, is emerging as an important arena of new research and new understanding in health and clinical care. The aims of this paper are to: (1) draw attention to the role of PPI in human disease patterns; (2) present the syndemics model as a biosocial approach for examining the nature, pathways, contexts, and health implications of PPI and (3) suggest the utility of this approach to PPI. Toward these ends, this paper (a) reviews three case examples of alternative PPIs, (b) describes the development and key concepts and components of the syndemics model with specific reference to interacting infectious agents, (c) contextualizes this discussion with a brief review of broader syndemics disease processes (not necessarily involving infections disease) and (d) comments on the research, treatment and prevention implications of syndemic interaction among pathogens. PMID:21178409

  5. Interactive Atlas of Histology

    PubMed Central

    Goubran, Emile Z.; Vinjamury, Sivarama P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: An interactive atlas of histology was developed for online use by chiropractic students to enable them to practice and self-assess their ability to identify various histological structures. This article discusses the steps in the development, implementation, and usefulness of an interactive atlas of histology for students who take histology examinations. Methods: The atlas was developed by digitizing images imported through a video-microscope using actual microscope slides. Leica EWS 2100 and PowerPoint software were used to construct the atlas. The usefulness of the atlas was assessed through a comparison of histology exam scores between four classes before and four classes after the use of the atlas. Analysis of admissions data, including overall grade point average (GPA), science and nonscience GPA, and a number of course units, was done initially to avoid any identifiable differences in the academic competency between the two being compared. A survey of the students was also done to assess atlas usefulness and students' satisfaction with the atlas. Results: Analysis of histology exam scores showed that the average scores in the lab exam were significantly higher for the classes that used the atlas. Survey results showed a high level of student satisfaction with the atlas. Conclusion: The development and use of an online interactive atlas of histology for chiropractic students helped to improve lab exams scores. In addition, students were satisfied with the features and usefulness of this atlas. PMID:18483638

  6. Bacteria-surface interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tuson, Hannah H.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of bacteria with surfaces has important implications in a range of areas, including bioenergy, biofouling, biofilm formation, and the infection of plants and animals. Many of the interactions of bacteria with surfaces produce changes in the expression of genes that influence cell morphology and behavior, including genes essential for motility and surface attachment. Despite the attention that these phenotypes have garnered, the bacterial systems used for sensing and responding to surfaces are still not well understood. An understanding of these mechanisms will guide the development of new classes of materials that inhibit and promote cell growth, and complement studies of the physiology of bacteria in contact with surfaces. Recent studies from a range of fields in science and engineering are poised to guide future investigations in this area. This review summarizes recent studies on bacteria-surface interactions, discusses mechanisms of surface sensing and consequences of cell attachment, provides an overview of surfaces that have been used in bacterial studies, and highlights unanswered questions in this field. PMID:23930134

  7. Human-Computer Interaction --INTERACT'01 767 Michitake Hirose (Ed.)

    E-print Network

    Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    Human-Computer Interaction --INTERACT'01 767 Michitake Hirose (Ed.) Published by IOS Press, © IFIP developed with other situations of use in mind. The user interface software itself can also be con- structed

  8. Studying Multimodal Interaction at an Interactive Museum Exhibit on

    E-print Network

    Hornecker, Eva

    Studying Multimodal Interaction at an Interactive Museum Exhibit on SteamPower Locomotive Abstract interaction in museum visitors' experience of exhibits, their engagement with the topic and the exhibit such as the average number of visitors stopping at an exhibit, the average amount of time visitors spend at an exhibit

  9. Client Assignment for Improving Interactivity in Distributed Interactive Applications

    E-print Network

    Tang, Xueyan

    Client Assignment for Improving Interactivity in Distributed Interactive Applications Lu Zhang systems that allow multiple participants to interact with one another in real time. Wide spreads of client requirements of the applications. In the distributed server architecture, how the clients are assigned

  10. Imitation, Interaction and Dialogue Using Intensive Interaction: Tea Party Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Intensive Interaction has become widely used when building up communication with children with profound learning difficulties. Often practitioners understand Intensive Interaction to be primarily about imitation and Mark Barber shows how this can be a "mis"understanding that limits the kinds of interactions that can be enjoyed by conversation…

  11. On the dark sector interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Ronggen; Su Qiping

    2010-05-15

    It is possible that there exist some interactions between dark energy (DE) and dark matter (DM), and a suitable interaction can alleviate the coincidence problem. Several phenomenological interacting forms are proposed and are fitted with observations in the literature. In this paper we investigate the possible interaction in a way independent of specific interacting forms by the use of observational data (supernovae, BAO, CMB, and Hubble parameter). We divide the whole range of redshift into a few bins and set the interacting term {delta}(z) to be a constant in each redshift bin. We consider four parametrizations of the equation of state w{sub de} for DE and find that {delta}(z) is likely to cross the noninteracting ({delta}=0) and have an oscillation form. It suggests that to study the interaction between DE and DM, more general phenomenological forms of the interacting term should be considered.

  12. Intelligently interactive combat simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.

    2001-09-01

    To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.

  13. Interactive Lesson Designs: A Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    1985-01-01

    Proposes a taxonomy which describes interactivity and adaptation outside the context of any particular medium. Designed to facilitate the instructional design and media selection processes, this taxonomy is represented as a cube whose axes represent interactivity and internal and external adaptation levels. Levels of interactivity and adaptation…

  14. COTTON HOST-MICROBE INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herein discuss the beneficial cotton-microbe interactions, especially as they relate to control of cotton pests, and disease interactions in which specificity of interactions, influence of environment, mechanisms of parasitism and pathogenesis, responses to pathogens, and consequences of disease are...

  15. Web Interactions A Dissertation Presented

    E-print Network

    Strickland, Stevie

    Web Interactions A Dissertation Presented by Paul Thorsen Graunke to The College of Computer Thorsen Graunke ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12; ii Web Interactions by Paul Thorsen Graunke ABSTRACT that exhibit the same exibility as Web dialogues. A foundational model of Web interactions pro- vides

  16. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia Padilla; Armellini, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner) is present at a high level. This…

  17. NATURAL INTERACTION WITH SOCIAL ROBOTS

    E-print Network

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    : Cognitive Neuroscience, Psychology Research interests: Human-robot interaction, assistive robotics, socialNATURAL INTERACTION WITH SOCIAL ROBOTS Agnieszka Wykowska and Anna Esposito Topic Group coordinated and quantitative dynamic behavioral (gestural and emotional) features in human-human and human-machine interactions

  18. Gaze-augmented Manual Interaction

    E-print Network

    Reiterer, Harald

    Gaze-augmented Manual Interaction MAGIC Pointing Replication inteHRDis Goals and Motivation project to tackle two of the largest issues of gaze-based interaction techniques: the lack of precision of gaze data and the inherent unnaturalness of using gaze for interaction tasks. These new techniques

  19. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Higgs, Stephen; Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations. PMID:25421894

  20. Detection of molecular interactions

    DOEpatents

    Groves, John T. (Berkeley, CA); Baksh, Michael M. (Fremont, CA); Jaros, Michal (Brno, CH)

    2012-02-14

    A method and assay are described for measuring the interaction between a ligand and an analyte. The assay can include a suspension of colloidal particles that are associated with a ligand of interest. The colloidal particles are maintained in the suspension at or near a phase transition state from a condensed phase to a dispersed phase. An analyte to be tested is then added to the suspension. If the analyte binds to the ligand, a phase change occurs to indicate that the binding was successful.

  1. Interactive Classification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    2000-01-01

    The investigators upgraded a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the more effective use of the technologies in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project were: 1) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate a wider range of meaning; 2) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded; and 3) the development of an interpreter for SL that would handle representations of some basic cognitive acts and perspectives.

  2. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172

  3. Human Computer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwani, Akhilesh; Sengar, Chitransh; Talwaniper, Jyotsna; Sharma, Shaan

    2012-08-01

    The paper basically deals with the study of HCI (Human computer interaction) or BCI(Brain-Computer-Interfaces) Technology that can be used for capturing brain signals and translating them into commands that allow humans to control (just by thinking) devices such as computers, robots, rehabilitation technology and virtual reality environments. The HCI is based as a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often aimed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.The paper also deals with many advantages of BCI Technology along with some of its applications and some major drawbacks.

  4. Evaluation of electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Green, David F; Tidor, Bruce

    2003-08-01

    Described here are several computational procedures for the analysis of electrostatic interactions in molecular complexes, all based on a continuum model of solvation. The first section describes how to compute the residual potential, a measure of how electrostatically complementary a ligand is for its receptor. The second procedure describes electrostatic component analysis, a method by which the electrostatic contribution to the binding free energy can be broken up into terms directly attributable to individual chemical groups. Finally, electrostatic affinity optimization is described. This procedure is particularly useful in determining what portions of a ligand are the most suboptimal, and thus provide the greatest opportunity for the design of improvements. PMID:18428710

  5. Bunyavirus-vector interactions.

    PubMed

    Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2014-11-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172

  6. Interacting Double Coset Magnons

    E-print Network

    Abdelhamid Mohamed Adam Ali; Robert de Mello Koch; Nirina Hasina Tahiridimbisoa; Augustine Larweh Mahu

    2015-12-16

    We consider the anomalous dimensions of restricted Schur polynomials constructed using n~O(N) complex adjoint scalars Z and m complex adjoint scalars Y. We fix m<interactions. The form of this new operator mixing is studied in detail for a system of two giant gravitons with four strings attached.

  7. Kaon-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C B

    1980-01-01

    The recent progress in hypernuclear physics, in particular the studies of ..lambda.. and ..sigma.. states via the strangeness-exchange (K/sup -/,..pi../sup -/) reaction, are reviewed. Prospects for future investigations with (proposed) intense kaon beams are also evaluated, for instance the production of high spin hypernuclei via the (..pi../sup +/,K/sup +/) reaction, and the formation of strangeness S = -2 hypernuclei (..lambda lambda.. or Xi/sup -/) by means of the (K/sup -/,K/sup +/) process. A very brief resume of elastic, inelastic and charge exchange reactions induced by the interaction of K/sup +/ mesons with nuclei is given.

  8. Superweakly interacting massive particles.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jonathan L; Rajaraman, Arvind; Takayama, Fumihiro

    2003-07-01

    We investigate a new class of dark matter: superweakly interacting massive particles (super-WIMPs). As with conventional WIMPs, super-WIMPs appear in well motivated particle theories with naturally the correct relic density. In contrast to WIMPs, however, super-WIMPs are impossible to detect in all conventional dark matter searches. We consider the concrete examples of gravitino and graviton cold dark matter in models with supersymmetry and universal extra dimensions, respectively, and show that super-WIMP dark matter satisfies stringent constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. PMID:12906530

  9. Visuo-Vestibular Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA3 includes short reports covering: (1) Vestibulo-Oculomotor Interaction in Long-Term Microgravity; (2) Effects of Weightlessness on the Spatial Orientation of Visually Induced Eye Movements; (3) Adaptive Modification of the Three-Dimensional Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex during Prolonged Microgravity; (4) The Dynamic Change of Brain Potential Related to Selective Attention to Visual Signals from Left and Right Visual Fields; (5) Locomotor Errors Caused by Vestibular Suppression; and (6) A Novel, Image-Based Technique for Three-Dimensional Eye Measurement.

  10. Siblings' Mediated Learning Strategies in Families with and without Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzuriel, David; Hanuka-Levy, Dikla

    2014-01-01

    Dyads of siblings in which the younger sibling had an intellectual disability (ID, n = 25) were videotaped interacting. The ID group was compared with typically developing sibling dyads matched on mental age (n = 25) and chronological age (n = 25). We observed the mediation strategies, activation, and antimediation behaviors of older siblings and…

  11. Families by Adoption and Birth: I. Mother-Infant Socio-emotional Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    The role of adoptive family dynamics in the etiology of both resilient and adverse developmental outcomes is not well understood. In this study, socio-emotional aspects of the mother-infant relationship were examined in families by adoption and by birth. Matched groups of mothers and their 5-month-old first babies were observed in the home setting. Dyads in the two groups were comparable in the frequency and ranking of a full array of age-appropriate behaviors. Group differences emerged for selected infant and maternal behaviors; infants by birth were in an alert state and smiled more often than infants by adoption, and adoptive mothers nourished and caressed their infants more than did mothers by birth. While the structure of the infant’s behavior repertoire was similar for both groups, there were twice as many significant correlations among maternal behaviors for the birth group than for the adoptive group. There were also more correlations between maternal and infant behaviors for dyads by birth than for dyads by adoption, and the nature of the correlations differed for the two groups. It is argued that both groups of mothers and babies were functioning in the adaptive, healthy range, and that observed differences between them reflect subtle differences in behavioral emphasis, possibly related to the unique paths to parenthood represented by adoption and birth. PMID:19888444

  12. XEphem: Interactive Astronomical Ephemeris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Elwood Charles

    2011-12-01

    XEphem is a scientific-grade interactive astronomical ephemeris package for UNIX-like systems. Written in C, X11 and Motif, it is easily ported to systems. Among other things, XEphem: computes heliocentric, geocentric and topocentric information for all objects; has built-in support for all planets; the moons of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Earth; central meridian longitude of Mars and Jupiter; Saturn's rings; and Jupiter's Great Red Spot; allows user-defined objects including stars, deepsky objects, asteroids, comets and Earth satellites; provides special efficient handling of large catalogs including Tycho, Hipparcos, GSC; displays data in configurable tabular formats in conjunction with several interactive graphical views; displays a night-at-a-glance 24 hour graphic showing when any selected objects are up; displays 3-D stereo Solar System views that are particularly well suited for visualizing comet trajectories; quickly finds all close pairs of objects in the sky; and sorts and prints all catalogs with very flexible criteria for creating custom observing lists. Its capabilities are listed more fully in the user manual introduction.

  13. Interactive Terascale Particle Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, David; Green, Bryan; Moran, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to produce an interactive visualization of a 2 TB computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data set using particle tracing (streaklines). We use the method introduced by Bruckschen et al. [2001] that pre-computes a large number of particles, stores them on disk using a space-filling curve ordering that minimizes seeks, and then retrieves and displays the particles according to the user's command. We describe how the particle computation can be performed using a PC cluster, how the algorithm can be adapted to work with a multi-block curvilinear mesh, and how the out-of-core visualization can be scaled to 296 billion particles while still achieving interactive performance on PG hardware. Compared to the earlier work, our data set size and total number of particles are an order of magnitude larger. We also describe a new compression technique that allows the lossless compression of the particles by 41% and speeds the particle retrieval by about 30%.

  14. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  15. Metal-dielectric interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Metal direlectric surface interactions and dielectric films on metal substrates were investigated. Since interfacial interaction depends so heavily on the nature of the surfaces, analytical surface tools such as Auger emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field ion microscopy were used to assist in surface and interfacial characterization. The results indicate that with metals contacting certain glasses in the clean state interfacial, bonding produces fractures in the glasses while when a film such as water is present, fractures occur in the metal near the interface. Friction forces were used to measure the interfacial bond strengths. Studies with metals contacting polymers using field ion microscopy revealed that strong bonding forces could develop being between a metal and polymer surface with polymer transferring to the metal surface in various ways depending upon the forces applied to the surface in contact. With the deposition of refractory carbides, silicides and borides onto metal and alloy substrates the presence of oxides at the interface or active gases in the deposition plasma were shown to alter interfacial properties and chemistry. Auger ion depth profile analysis indicated the chemical composition at the interface and this could be related to the mechanical, friction, and wear behavior of the coating.

  16. Nucleon-antinucleon interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of our understanding of the low energy nucleon-antinucleon (N anti N) interaction is reviewed. We compare several phenomenological models which fit the available N anti N cross section data. The more realistic of these models employ an annihilation potential W(r) which is spin, isospin and energy dependent. The microscopic origins for these dependences are discussed in terms of quark rearrangement and annihilation processes. It is argued that the study of N anti N annihilation offers a powerful means of studying quark dynamics at short distances. We also discuss how one may try to isolate coherent meson exchange contributions to the medium and long range part of the N anti N potential. These pieces of the N anti N interaction are calculable via the G-parity transformation from a model for the NN potential; their effects are predicted to be seen in N anti N spin observables, to be measured at LEAR. The possible existence of quasi-stable bound states or resonances of the anti N plus one or more nucleons is discussed, with emphasis on few-body systems. 42 references.

  17. New particles and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.; Grannis, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    The Working Group on New Particles and Interactions met as a whole at the beginning and at the end of the Workshop. However, much of what was accomplished was done in five subgroups. These were devoted to: (1) new quarks and leptons; (2) technicolor; (3) supersymmetry; (4) rare decays and CP; and (5) substructure of quarks and leptons. Other aspects of new particles, e.g., Higgs, W', Z', fell to the Electroweak Working Group to consider. The central question of this Workshop of comparing anti pp (with L = 10/sup 32//cm/sup 2/-sec) with pp (with L = 10/sup 33//cm/sup 2/-sec) colliders carried through to all these subgroups. In addition there were several other aspects of hadron colliders which were considered: what does an increase in ..sqrt..s gain in cross section and resultant sensitivity to new physics versus an increase in luminosity; will polarized beams or the use of asymmetries be essential in finding new interactions; where and at what level do rate limitations due to triggering or detection systems play a role; and how and where will the detection of particles with short, but detectable, lifetimes be important. 25 references.

  18. JSPAM: Interacting galaxies modeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, John F.; Holincheck, Anthony; Harvey, Allen

    2015-11-01

    JSPAM models galaxy collisions using a restricted n-body approach to speed up computation. Instead of using a softened point-mass potential, the software supports a modified version of the three component potential created by Hernquist (1994, ApJS 86, 389). Although spherically symmetric gravitationally potentials and a Gaussian model for the bulge are used to increase computational efficiency, the potential mimics that of a fully consistent n-body model of a galaxy. Dynamical friction has been implemented in the code to improve the accuracy of close approaches between galaxies. Simulations using this code using thousands of particles over the typical interaction times of a galaxy interaction take a few seconds on modern desktop workstations, making it ideal for rapidly prototyping the dynamics of colliding galaxies. Extensive testing of the code has shown that it produces nearly identical tidal features to those from hierarchical tree codes such as Gadget but using a fraction of the computational resources. This code was used in the Galaxy Zoo: Mergers project and is very well suited for automated fitting of galaxy mergers with automated pattern fitting approaches such as genetic algorithms. Java and Fortran versions of the code are available.

  19. Weak Interactions and Instability Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Taku; McCann, Kevin S.

    2015-01-01

    Food web theory states that a weak interactor which is positioned in the food web such that it tends to deflect, or mute, energy away from a potentially oscillating consumer-resource interaction often enhances community persistence and stability. Here we examine how adding other weak interactions (predation/harvesting) on the stabilizing weak interactor alters the stability of food web using a set of well-established food web models/modules. We show that such “weak on weak” interaction chains drive an indirect dynamic cascade that can rapidly ignite a distant consumer-resource oscillator. Nonetheless, we also show that the “weak on weak” interactions are still more stable than the food web without them, and so weak interactions still generally act to stabilize food webs. Rather, these results are best interpreted to say that the degree of the stabilizing effect of a given important weak interaction can be severely compromised by other weak interactions (including weak harvesting). PMID:26219561

  20. IDG - INTERACTIVE DIF GENERATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preheim, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive DIF Generator (IDG) utility is a tool used to generate and manipulate Directory Interchange Format files (DIF). Its purpose as a specialized text editor is to create and update DIF files which can be sent to NASA's Master Directory, also referred to as the International Global Change Directory at Goddard. Many government and university data systems use the Master Directory to advertise the availability of research data. The IDG interface consists of a set of four windows: (1) the IDG main window; (2) a text editing window; (3) a text formatting and validation window; and (4) a file viewing window. The IDG main window starts up the other windows and contains a list of valid keywords. The keywords are loaded from a user-designated file and selected keywords can be copied into any active editing window. Once activated, the editing window designates the file to be edited. Upon switching from the editing window to the formatting and validation window, the user has options for making simple changes to one or more files such as inserting tabs, aligning fields, and indenting groups. The viewing window is a scrollable read-only window that allows fast viewing of any text file. IDG is an interactive tool and requires a mouse or a trackball to operate. IDG uses the X Window System to build and manage its interactive forms, and also uses the Motif widget set and runs under Sun UNIX. IDG is written in C-language for Sun computers running SunOS. This package requires the X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4, with OSF/Motif 1.1. IDG requires 1.8Mb of hard disk space. The standard distribution medium for IDG is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. The program was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. SunOS is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. X Window System is a trademark of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. OSF/Motif is a trademark of the Open Software Foundation, Inc. UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories.

  1. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera frame of reference. The first study investigated the effects of inclusion and exclusion of the robot chassis along with superimposing a simple arrow overlay onto the video feed of operator task performance during teleoperation of a mobile robot in a driving task. In this study, the front half of the robot chassis was made visible through the use of three cameras, two side-facing and one forward-facing. The purpose of the second study was to compare operator performance when teleoperating a robot from an egocentric-only and combined (egocentric plus exocentric camera) view. Camera view parameters that are found to be beneficial in these laboratory experiments can be implemented on NASA rovers and tested in a real-world driving and navigation scenario on-site at the Johnson Space Center.

  2. MIDOS : Multimodal Interactive DialOgue System

    E-print Network

    Adler, Aaron D. (Aaron Daniel), 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between people are typically conversational, multimodal, and symmetric. In conversational interactions, information flows in both directions. In multimodal interactions, people use multiple channels. In symmetric ...

  3. Interactive molecular dynamics

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Daniel V

    2015-01-01

    Physics students now have access to interactive molecular dynamics simulations that can model and animate the motions of hundreds of particles, such as noble gas atoms, that attract each other weakly at short distances but repel strongly when pressed together. Using these simulations, students can develop an understanding of forces and motions at the molecular scale, nonideal fluids, phases of matter, thermal equilibrium, nonequilibrium states, the Boltzmann distribution, the arrow of time, and much more. This article summarizes the basic features and capabilities of such a simulation, presents a variety of student exercises using it at the introductory and intermediate levels, and describes some enhancements that can further extend its uses. A working simulation code, in HTML5 and JavaScript for running within any modern Web browser, is provided as an online supplement.

  4. Three dimensional interactive display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) interactive display and method of forming the same, includes a transparent capaciflector (TC) camera formed on a transparent shield layer on the screen surface. A first dielectric layer is formed on the shield layer. A first wire layer is formed on the first dielectric layer. A second dielectric layer is formed on the first wire layer. A second wire layer is formed on the second dielectric layer. Wires on the first wire layer and second wire layer are grouped into groups of parallel wires with a turnaround at one end of each group and a sensor pad at the opposite end. An operational amplifier is connected to each of the sensor pads and the shield pad biases the pads and receives a signal from connected sensor pads in response to intrusion of a probe. The signal is proportional to probe location with respect to the monitor screen.

  5. Parvovirus Glycan Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin-Ya; Halder, Sujata; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Parvoviridae utilize glycan receptors for cellular attachment and subsequent interactions determine transduction efficiency or pathogenic outcome. This review focuses on the identity of the glycan receptors utilized, their capsid binding footprints, and a discussion of the overlap of these sites with tropism, transduction, and pathogenicity determinants. Despite high sequence diversity between the different genera, most parvoviruses bind to negatively charged glycans, such as sialic acid and heparan sulfate, abundant on cell surface membranes. The capsid structure of these viruses exhibit high structural homology enabling common regions to be utilized for glycan binding and at the same time the sequence diversity at the common footprints allows for binding of different glycans or differential binding of the same glycan. PMID:25047752

  6. Interactive molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Daniel V.

    2015-03-01

    Physics students now have access to interactive molecular dynamics simulations that can model and animate the motions of hundreds of particles, such as noble gas atoms, that attract each other weakly at short distances but repel strongly when pressed together. Using these simulations, students can develop an understanding of forces and motions at the molecular scale, nonideal fluids, phases of matter, thermal equilibrium, nonequilibrium states, the Boltzmann distribution, the arrow of time, and much more. This article summarizes the basic features and capabilities of such a simulation, presents a variety of student exercises using it at the introductory and intermediate levels, and describes some enhancements that can further extend its uses. A working simulation code, in html5 and javascript for running within any modern Web browser, is provided as an online supplement.

  7. Wave - current interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugan, I.; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng

    2012-04-01

    The problem of wave interaction with current is still a big challenge in physical oceanography. In spite of numerous numbers of papers devoting to the analysis of the phenomenon some very strong effects are still waiting for its clear description. One of the problems here is the Benjamin-Feir instability in the presence of variable current. Modulation instability is one of the most ubiquitous types of instabilities in nature. In modern nonlinear physics, it is considered as a basic process that classifies the qualitative behavior of modulated waves (``envelope waves'') and may initialize the formation of stable entities such as envelope solitons. We theoretically describe the explosion instability of waves on the adverse blocking current and corresponding frequency downshifting. Waves can be blocked only partly and overpass the opposite current barrier at the lower side band resonance frequency. Theoretical results are compared with available experiments.

  8. Causal electromagnetic interaction equations

    SciTech Connect

    Zinoviev, Yury M.

    2011-02-15

    For the electromagnetic interaction of two particles the relativistic causal quantum mechanics equations are proposed. These equations are solved for the case when the second particle moves freely. The initial wave functions are supposed to be smooth and rapidly decreasing at the infinity. This condition is important for the convergence of the integrals similar to the integrals of quantum electrodynamics. We also consider the singular initial wave functions in the particular case when the second particle mass is equal to zero. The discrete energy spectrum of the first particle wave function is defined by the initial wave function of the free-moving second particle. Choosing the initial wave functions of the free-moving second particle it is possible to obtain a practically arbitrary discrete energy spectrum.

  9. Molecular interactions of DNA-topoisomerase I and II inhibitor with DNA and topoisomerases and in ternary complexes: binding modes and biological effects for intoplicine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Nabiev, I; Chourpa, I; Riou, J F; Nguyen, C H; Lavelle, F; Manfait, M

    1994-08-01

    Molecular interactions of intoplicine, dual DNA-topoisomerases (Topo) I and II inhibitor, with topoisomerases, plasmid DNA, in ternary cleavable complexes with enzymes and plasmid DNA, and in the reversed cleavable complexes were examined by means of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and CD spectroscopy and by biochemical techniques. Detailed spectral analysis of intoplicine derivatives allowed us to assign SERS vibrational modes of chromophores and to propose the models for these complexes. Intoplicine was found to be able to interact specifically with the Topo II alone, but with Topo I only when in the presence of DNA. It shows at least two modes of binding to the DNA: the first was found to be dominant for its derivative 1c (most potent Topo I inhibitor), and the second was dominant for derivative 2a (most potent Topo II inhibitor). The possibility of forming these two types of complexes simultaneously is suggested to be one of the main factors enabling the drug to be a dual Topo I and Topo II inhibitor. The "deep intercalation mode" of the drug from the DNA minor groove with the long axis of the chromophore oriented roughly parallel to the dyad axis has been suggested to be responsible for induction of distortions of the DNA structure by the intercalating drug. Being involved in the formation of Topo I-mediated cleavable ternary complex, the molecules participating in the deep intercalation mode within the DNA do not change their molecular interactions as compared with their complex with the DNA alone. The stabilization of the Topo I-mediated cleavable complex was shown to be followed by the local denaturation of DNA in the AT-rich regions of the helix. When the ternary cleavable complex was reversed, the drug was shown to be in the complex with the plasmid. The "outside binding mode" from the DNA major groove via the hydroxyl group of the A-ring of the chromophore has been suggested to be responsible for Topo II inhibition. These molecules did not induce significant distortions of the DNA structure. Being involved in the formation of Topo II-mediated cleavable ternary complex, the drug changed its molecular interactions as compared with the complex with DNA alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8043587

  10. Exchange interaction between J multiplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahara, Naoya; Chibotaru, Liviu F.

    2015-05-01

    Analytical expressions for the exchange interaction between J multiplets of interacting metallic centers are derived on the basis of a complete electronic model which includes the intrasite relativistic effects. A common belief that this interaction can be approximated by an isotropic form ?J1.J2 (or ?J1.S2 in the case of interaction with an isotropic spin) is found to be ungrounded. It is also shown that the often used "1 /U approximation" for the description of the kinetic contribution of the exchange interaction is not valid in the case of J multiplets. The developed theory can be used for microscopic description of exchange interaction in materials containing lanthanides, actinides, and some transition-metal ions.

  11. Scale Interactions and Galaxy Evolution

    E-print Network

    Daniel Pfenniger

    2002-12-13

    To understand galaxies and their evolution, it is necessary to describe how the different scales interact: how the microscopic physics, such as star formation, or the large scale physics, such as galaxy interactions may modify the galaxy global shapes. The purpose of this review is to point out some general or recent topics related to such scale interactions, both observational and theoretical, which are relevant in the present understanding of galaxies.

  12. Arc electrode interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, X.; Berns, D.; Heberlein, J.

    1994-01-01

    The project consisted of two parts: (1) the cathode interaction studies which were a continuation of previous work and had the objective of increasing our understanding of the microscopic phenomena controlling cathode erosion in arc jet thrusters, and (2) the studies of the anode attachment in arc jet thrusters. The cathode interaction studies consisted of (1) a continuation of some modeling work in which the previously derived model for the cathode heating was applied to some specific gases and electrode materials, and (2) experimental work in which various diagnostics was applied to the cathode. The specific diagnostics used were observation of the cathode tip during arcing using a Laser Strobe Video system in conjunction with a tele-microscope, a monochromator with an optical multichannel analyzer for the determination of the cathode temperature distribution, and various ex situ materials analysis methods. The emphasis of our effort was shifted to the cathode materials analysis because a parallel project was in place during the second half of 1993 with a visiting scientist pursuing arc electrode materials studies. As a consequence, the diagnostic investigations of the arc in front of the cathode had to be postponed to the first half of 1994, and we are presently preparing these measurements. The results of last year's study showed some unexpected effects influencing the cathode erosion behavior, such as increased erosion away from the cathode tip, and our understanding of these effects should improve our ability to control cathode erosion. The arc jet anode attachment studies concentrated on diagnostics of the instabilities in subsonic anode attachment arc jet thrusters, and were supplemental measurements to work which was performed by one of the authors who spent the summer as an intern at NASA Lewis Research Center. A summary of the results obtained during the internship are included because they formed an integral part of the study. Two tasks for 1994, the diagnostics of the anode closure phenomenon, and the use of arc jet thrusters for the deposition of c-BN, are being prepared.

  13. Strangeness fluctuations from K -? interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friman, Bengt; Lo, Pok Man; Marczenko, Micha?; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro

    2015-10-01

    Motivated by recent lattice QCD studies, we explore the effects of interactions on strangeness fluctuations in strongly interacting matter at finite temperature. We focus on S-wave K ? scattering and discuss the role of the K0*(800 ) and K*(1430 ) resonances within the S-matrix formulation of thermodynamics. Using the empirical K ? phase shifts as input, we find that the K ? S-wave interactions provide part of the missing contribution to the strangeness susceptibility. Moreover, it is shown that the simplified treatment of the interactions in this channel, employed in the hadron resonance gas approach, leads to a systematic overestimate of the strangeness fluctuations.

  14. Bacteriophage protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Häuser, Roman; Blasche, Sonja; Dokland, Terje; Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth; von Brunn, Albrecht; Salas, Margarita; Casjens, Sherwood; Molineux, Ian; Uetz, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophages T7, ?, P22, and P2/P4 (from Escherichia coli), as well as ?29 (from Bacillus subtilis), are among the best-studied bacterial viruses. This chapter summarizes published protein interaction data of intraviral protein interactions, as well as known phage-host protein interactions of these phages retrieved from the literature. We also review the published results of comprehensive protein interaction analyses of Pneumococcus phages Dp-1 and Cp-1, as well as coliphages ? and T7. For example, the ?55 proteins encoded by the T7 genome are connected by ?43 interactions with another ?15 between the phage and its host. The chapter compiles published interactions for the well-studied phages ? (33 intra-phage/22 phage-host), P22 (38/9), P2/P4 (14/3), and ?29 (20/2). We discuss whether different interaction patterns reflect different phage lifestyles or whether they may be artifacts of sampling. Phages that infect the same host can interact with different host target proteins, as exemplified by E. coli phage ? and T7. Despite decades of intensive investigation, only a fraction of these phage interactomes are known. Technical limitations and a lack of depth in many studies explain the gaps in our knowledge. Strategies to complete current interactome maps are described. Although limited space precludes detailed overviews of phage molecular biology, this compilation will allow future studies to put interaction data into the context of phage biology. PMID:22748812

  15. Theoretical studies of molecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, W.A. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This research program is directed at extending fundamental knowledge of atoms and molecules including their electronic structure, mutual interaction, collision dynamics, and interaction with radiation. The approach combines the use of ab initio methods--Hartree-Fock (HF) multiconfiguration HF, configuration interaction, and the recently developed quantum Monte Carlo (MC)--to describe electronic structure, intermolecular interactions, and other properties, with various methods of characterizing inelastic and reaction collision processes, and photodissociation dynamics. Present activity is focused on the development and application of the QMC method, surface catalyzed reactions, and reorientation cross sections.

  16. RKKY interaction in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Yawar; Moradian, Rostam

    2015-12-01

    We study the RKKY interaction between two magnetic impurities located on the same layer (intralayer case) or on different layers (interlayer case) in undoped bilayer graphene (BLG) in the four-bands model, by directly calculating the Green functions in the eigenvalues and eigenvectors representation. Our results show that both intra- and interlayer RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same (opposite) sublattice are always ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic). Furthermore we find unusual long-distance decay of the RKKY interaction in BLG. The intralyer RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same sublattice, JAnAn(R) and JBnBn(R), decay closely as 1 /R6 and 1 /R2 at large impurity distances respectively, but when they are located on opposite sublattices the RKKY interactions exhibit 1 /R4 decays approximately. In the interlayer case, the RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same sublattice show a decay close to 1 /R4 at large impurity distances, but if two magnetic impurities be on opposite sublattices the RKKY interactions, JA1B2(R) and JB1A2(R), decay closely as 1 /R6 and 1 /R2 respectively. Both intra- and interlayer RKKY interactions have anisotropic oscillatory factors which for intralayer case is equal to that for single layer graphene (SLG). Our results at weak and strong interlayer coupling limits reduce to the RKKY interaction of SLG and that of BLG in the two-bands approximation respectively.

  17. Structural interaction with control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, R. B.; Zvara, J.

    1971-01-01

    A monograph which assesses the state of the art of space vehicle design and development is presented. The monograph presents criteria and recommended practices for determining the structural data and a mathematical structural model of the vehicle needed for accurate prediction of structure and control-system interaction; for design to minimize undesirable interactions between the structure and the control system; and for determining techniques to achieve the maximum desirable interactions and associated structural design benefits. All space vehicles are treated, including launch vehicles, spacecraft, and entry vehicles. Important structural characteristics which affect the structural model used for structural and control-system interaction analysis are given.

  18. BIODIVERSITY Biotic interactions influence the

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Biotic interactions influence the projected distribution of a specialist and Christopher N. Johnson1, 1 Centre for Tropical Biodiversity and Climate Change Research, School of Marine

  19. Josef Alber's "Interaction of Color": From Print to Interactive Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Jerry; Roberts, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of interactive, multimedia courseware based on Josef Alber's book, "Interaction of Color." Alber's ideas and teachings on the perceptions of color are explained, and steps involving computer graphics, hardware, and software that resulted in the use of CD-ROM and videodisc with an Apple Macintosh II are detailed. (LRW)

  20. Interactive reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    McVay, D.A.; Bastian, P.A. ); Epperson, B.D. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper describes a system that allows engineers to monitor and control a reservoir simulation run during its execution. The system consists of a 3D, three-phase black-oil reservoir simulator running simultaneously with an interactive graphics pre- and postprocessor. Previous authors have described systems that allow monitoring of job execution with simultaneous graphics displays; the system described here is unique in that the engineer can modify simulator and well-control parameters during the execution. While the system will be helpful in detection and correction of time-dependent data problems, it will be very useful in optimizing reservoir management decisions in future performance projections. The system is implemented on an IBM-compatible 486 microcomputer with commercially available multitasking software, although it can be implemented easily on any microcomputer or workstation capable of multitasking. The authors show that implementation of the system required only a moderate amount of modification of the pre- and postprocessor and even less modification of the reservoir simulator.

  1. Influenza-Sediment Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusiak, A.; Block, K. A.; Katz, A.; Gottlieb, P.; Alimova, A.; Galarza, J.; Wei, H.; Steiner, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    A typical water fowl can secrete 1012 influenza virions per day. Therefore it is not unexpected that influenza virions interact with sediments in the water column. The influence of sediments on avian influenza virions is not known. With the threat of avian influenza emerging into the human population, it is crucial to understand virus survivability and residence time in a body of water. Influenza and clay sediments are colloidal particles and thus aggregate as explained by DLVO (Derjaguin & Landau, Verwey & Overbeek) theory. Of great importance is an understanding of the types of particulate or macromolecular components that bind the virus particles, and whether the virus remains biologically active. We present results of hetero-aggregation and transmission electron microscopy experiments performed with influenza A/PR8/38. Influenza particles are suspended with sediment and minimal nutrients for several days, after which the components are evaluated to determine influenza concentration and survivability. Transmission electron microscopy results are reported on the influenza-sediment aggregates to elucidate structure and morphology of the components.

  2. Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brian C.

    Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF R.Q.A. Santana Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) #12;Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) Sumário 1 Introdução Abordagens de múltiplos modelos Introdução ao Interacting

  3. Interact - Access to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M.; Callaghan, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    INTERACT is currently a network of 50 terrestrial research stations from all Arctic countries, but is still growing. The network was inaugurated in January 2011 when it received an EU 7th Framework award. INTERACT's main objective is to build capacity for identifying, understanding, predicting and responding to diverse environmental changes throughout the wide environmental and land-use envelopes of the Arctic. Implicit in this objective is the task to build capacity for monitoring, research, education and outreach. INTERACT is increasing access to the Arctic: 20 INTERACT research stations in Europe and Russia are offering Transnational Access and so far, 5600 person-days of access have been granted from the total of 10,000 offered. An INTERACT Station Managers' Forum facilitates a dialogue among station managers on subjects such as best practice in station management and standardised monitoring. The Station Managers' Forum has produced a unique 'one-stop-shop' for information from 45 research stations in an informative and attractive Station Catalogue that is available in hard copy and on the INTERACT web site (www.eu-interact.org). INTERACT also includes three joint research activities that are improving monitoring in remote, harsh environments and are making data capture and dissemination more efficient. Already, new equipment for measuring feedbacks from the land surface to the climate system has been installed at several locations, while best practices for sensor networking have been established. INTERACT networks with most of the high-level Arctic organisations: it includes AMAP and WWF as partners, is endorsed by IASC and CBMP, has signed MoUs with ISAC and the University of the Arctic, is a task within SAON, and contributes to the Cold Region community within GEO/GEOSS. INTERACT welcomes other interactions.

  4. INCA- INTERACTIVE CONTROLS ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed to provide a user friendly environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control systems. INCA is designed for use with both small and large order systems. Using the interactive graphics capability, the INCA user can quickly plot a root locus, frequency response, or time response of either a continuous time system or a sampled data system. The system configuration and parameters can be easily changed, allowing the INCA user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in a very convenient manner. A journal file capability is included. This stores an entire sequence of commands, generated during an INCA session into a file which can be accessed later. Also included in INCA are a context-sensitive help library, a screen editor, and plot windows. INCA is robust to VAX-specific overflow problems. The transfer function is the basic unit of INCA. Transfer functions are automatically saved and are available to the INCA user at any time. A powerful, user friendly transfer function manipulation and editing capability is built into the INCA program. The user can do all transfer function manipulations and plotting without leaving INCA, although provisions are made to input transfer functions from data files. By using a small set of commands, the user may compute and edit transfer functions, and then examine these functions by using the ROOT_LOCUS, FREQUENCY_RESPONSE, and TIME_RESPONSE capabilities. Basic input data, including gains, are handled as single-input single-output transfer functions. These functions can be developed using the function editor or by using FORTRAN- like arithmetic expressions. In addition to the arithmetic functions, special functions are available to 1) compute step, ramp, and sinusoid functions, 2) compute closed loop transfer functions, 3) convert from S plane to Z plane with optional advanced Z transform, and 4) convert from Z plane to W plane and back. These capabilities allow the INCA user to perform block diagram algebraic manipulations quickly for functions in the S, Z, and W domains. Additionally, a versatile digital control capability has been included in INCA. Special plane transformations allow the user to easily convert functions from one domain to another. Other digital control capabilities include: 1) totally independent open loop frequency response analyses on a continuous plant, discrete control system with a delay, 2) advanced Z-transform capability for systems with delays, and 3) multirate sampling analyses. The current version of INCA includes Dynamic Functions (which change when a parameter changes), standard filter generation, PD and PID controller generation, incorporation of the QZ-algorithm (function addition, inverse Laplace), and describing functions that allow the user to calculate the gain and phase characteristics of a nonlinear device. The INCA graphic modes provide the user with a convenient means to document and study frequency response, time response, and root locus analyses. General graphics features include: 1) zooming and dezooming, 2) plot documentation, 3) a table of analytic computation results, 4) multiple curves on the same plot, and 5) displaying frequency and gain information for a specific point on a curve. Additional capabilities in the frequency response mode include: 1) a full complement of graphical methods Bode magnitude, Bode phase, Bode combined magnitude and phase, Bode strip plots, root contour plots, Nyquist, Nichols, and Popov plots; 2) user selected plot scaling; and 3) gain and phase margin calculation and display. In the time response mode, additional capabilities include: 1) support for inverse Laplace and inverse Z transforms, 2) support for various input functions, 3) closed loop response evaluation, 4) loop gain sensitivity analyses, 5) intersample time response for discrete systems using the advanced Z transform, and 6) closed loop time response using mixed plane (S, Z, W) operations with delay. A Graphics mode command was a

  5. Interactive Videodisc: A New Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekema, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Outlines the principles of user control, pacing, design quality, frame-oriented messaging, self-evident structure, self-contained components, and visual information in interactive videodisc design. The concepts of user friendliness, normal path and user-interrupt interactions, and screen design are also discussed. (MBR)

  6. Results-Based Interaction Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Meredith

    2008-01-01

    Interaction design is a user-centered approach to development in which users and their goals are the driving force behind a project's design. Interaction design principles are fundamental to the design and implementation of effective websites, but they are not sufficient. This article argues that, to reach its full potential, a website should also…

  7. Interactions between Diatoms and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Shady A.; Parker, Micaela S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Diatoms and bacteria have cooccurred in common habitats for hundreds of millions of years, thus fostering specific associations and interactions with global biogeochemical consequences. Diatoms are responsible for one-fifth of the photosynthesis on Earth, while bacteria remineralize a large portion of this fixed carbon in the oceans. Through their coexistence, diatoms and bacteria cycle nutrients between oxidized and reduced states, impacting bioavailability and ultimately feeding higher trophic levels. Here we present an overview of how diatoms and bacteria interact and the implications of these interactions. We emphasize that heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans that are consistently associated with diatoms are confined to two phyla. These consistent bacterial associations result from encounter mechanisms that occur within a microscale environment surrounding a diatom cell. We review signaling mechanisms that occur in this microenvironment to pave the way for specific interactions. Finally, we discuss known interactions between diatoms and bacteria and exciting new directions and research opportunities in this field. Throughout the review, we emphasize new technological advances that will help in the discovery of new interactions. Deciphering the languages of diatoms and bacteria and how they interact will inform our understanding of the role these organisms have in shaping the ocean and how these interactions may change in future oceans. PMID:22933565

  8. DESIGN SPACE FOR MULTIMODAL INTERACTION

    E-print Network

    and usable multimodal interfaces. As a result, real multimodal systems are now being built in variousDESIGN SPACE FOR MULTIMODAL INTERACTION Laurence Nigay CLIPS-IMAG,Université de Grenoble 1 38000 present our definitions and existing frameworks useful for the design of multimodal interaction. Key words

  9. CONDUCTANCE OF NANOSYSTEMS WITH INTERACTION

    E-print Network

    Ramsak, Anton

    CONDUCTANCE OF NANOSYSTEMS WITH INTERACTION A. Ramsak1,2 and T. Rejec1 1Jozef Stefan Institute.ramsak@fmf.uni-lj.si Abstract The zero-temperature linear response conductance through an interacting meso- scopic region attached to noninteracting leads is investigated. We present a set of formulas expressing the conductance

  10. Interactive Flow in Exercise Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Rebecca; Smith, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A phenomenology of the bodily experience of interactive flow adds to Csikszentmihalyi's flow theory. Whereas Csikszentmihalyi attended to teachers' and students' experiences of flow separately, this inquiry explores flow through three water-inspired layers of physical interaction between fitness professionals and their clients. Teaching fitness is…

  11. Skyrmion interactions at short distances

    SciTech Connect

    Sommermann, H.M.; Wyld, H.W.; Pethick, C.J.

    1985-07-29

    We perform exact numerical calculations of interactions between pairs and chains of skyrmions, and make estimates of many-body forces. The picture of skyrmion interactions that emerges is very different from the one based on the product Ansatz for the chiral field employed in previous studies.

  12. Spectroscopy Interaction of electromagnetic radiation

    E-print Network

    Gerwert, Klaus

    Spectroscopy 691 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms or molecules #12;Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump 486 #12;Electromagnetic Radiation 692 harmonic wave (Maxwell): y;Spectroscopy 691 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms or molecules two processes: emission

  13. Drug interactions with antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Horn, J R; Hansten, P D

    1995-07-01

    Antibacterial drugs, such as quinolones, macrolides, rifampin, isoniazid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, can interact with other drugs in a wide variety of clinically significant ways. They are frequently administered with other prescription and nonprescription medications. Antibacterial agents may interact by causing a change in the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of a second drug. In other cases, the antimicrobial may be affected by the action of another drug. Interactions involving antimicrobials often result from alterations in the absorption of the antimicrobial from the gastrointestinal tract or changes in the hepatic metabolism or renal elimination of the drugs concurrently administered. While certain classes of antibacterial drugs are known to interact with many other drugs, the interaction potential of most classes of antimicrobials is not uniform among members of the class. This diversity in interaction potential provides the clinician with an opportunity to avoid potential interactions by means of appropriate drug selection. An understanding of the common, clinically significant drug interactions involving antibacterial agents will enable the physician to avoid unnecessary adverse drug reactions. PMID:7798069

  14. Gaming Redefines Interactivity for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKanter, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The new definition of interactivity has as its focal point the skills of people, not the capabilities of the technology. The goal is to enhance the interaction between people and the learning that can only occur among curious and motivated individuals working together. The social nature of people, the increasing capabilities of technology and the…

  15. Distributed Interactive Intelligent Tutoring Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddo, John; Kolodziej, James

    A Distributed Interactive Intelligent Tutoring Simulation (DIITS) has been developed to train Army Infantry squad and fire team leaders skills to perform military operations cooperatively in urban terrain. It integrates distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) and thus capitalizes on the strengths of both:…

  16. Temporally Coherent Interactive Ray Tracing

    E-print Network

    Temporally Coherent Interactive Ray Tracing W. Martin S. Parker E. Reinhard P. Shirley W. Thompson Although ray tracing has been successfully applied to interactively render large datasets, su­ persampling to have subpixel detail, one­sample­per­pixel ray tracing can produce visually distracting popping

  17. Temporally Coherent Interactive Ray Tracing

    E-print Network

    Reinhard, Erik

    Temporally Coherent Interactive Ray Tracing W. Martin S. Parker E. Reinhard P. Shirley W. Thompson Although ray tracing has been successfully applied to interactively render large datasets, su- persampling to have subpixel detail, one-sample-per-pixel ray tracing can produce visually distracting popping

  18. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  19. Mental Models in Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Santamaria, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors introduce a new way to analyze cognitive change during social interactions, based on the mental model theory of reasoning. From this approach, cognitive performance can be improved for solving problems that require multiple models when participants in a social interaction group maintain qualitatively different models of…

  20. Interactive Cultural Cultivating in FLT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Youwen

    2010-01-01

    Culture cultivating in foreign language teaching (FLT) is usually conducted through factual introductions in the form of articles, books, seminars, lectures or workshops. This approach regards L2 learners as passive receivers of cultural knowledge without their interaction involved. This paper aims at raising an interactive approach to develop L2…

  1. Water wave interactions Walter Craig

    E-print Network

    Thomann, Laurent

    Water wave interactions Walter Craig Department of Mathematics & Statistics ´EquationsMaster University) Water wave interactions 25 janvier 2011 1 / 34 #12;Joint work with: Philippe Guyenne University, Killam Research Fellows Program, Fields Institute Walter Craig (McMaster University) Water wave

  2. The Wonders of Interactive Whiteboards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of using interactive whiteboards in the classroom. Developed by Smart Technologies, the Smart Board is one of several interactive whiteboards on the market today. Through Smart Board, starters can write, erase, and perform mouse functions with their finger, a pen, or anything with a maneuverable, firm surface.…

  3. Interactive Poster and Demonstration Sessions

    E-print Network

    ACL-05 Interactive Poster and Demonstration Sessions Proceedings 26 June 2005 University Poster and Demonstration session took place on Sunday, June 26, 2005 in Ann Arbor Michigan, on the first work (Interactive Posters) or previously published but subsequently improved existing systems

  4. Hard scattering in ?p interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Arpagaus, M.; Babayev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Ban, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Berthon, U.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besancon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, C.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; DelBuono, L.; Devel, M.; DeRoeck, A.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Feng, Y.; Fensome, I. F.; Ference, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Gensch, U.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Gillespie, D.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Goldberg, M.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Handschuh, D.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Hartz, P.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Hedgecock, R.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladky, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kasarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurca, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Lenhardt, U.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levin, D.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindström, G.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Morton, J. M.; Müller, K.; Murin, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newton, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prosi, R.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Ryseck, E.; Sacton, J.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Seman, M.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Smolik, L.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steiner, H.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, R. J.; Tichomirov, I.; Trenkel, C.; Truöl, P.; Tchernyshov, V.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; VanEsch, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vasdik, J.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Vick, R.; Villet, G.; Vogel, E.; Wacker, K.; Walker, I. W.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.

    1992-12-01

    We report on the investigation of the final state in interactions of quasi-real photons with protons. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. Evidence for hard interactions is seen in both single particle spectra and jet formation. The data can best be described by inclusion of resolved photon processess as predicted by QCD.

  5. Interactive Video Cubism Sidney Fels

    E-print Network

    Fels, Sidney S.

    Interactive Video Cubism Sidney Fels Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering University@mic.atr.co.jp ABSTRACT This paper presents an interactive video visualization system. In this visualization video data is considered to be a block of three dimensional data where frames of video data comprise the third dimension

  6. Human-Computer Interaction Design

    E-print Network

    Blevis, Eli

    1 Human-Computer Interaction Design Master of Science Program Handbook School of Informatics. Introduction This handbook details the Master of Science (MS) program in Human-Computer Interaction Design (HCI these schedules keeping your respective cohort in mind. 1. Introduction 2. HCI/d MS Program Structure 3. Course

  7. Human-Computer Interaction Design

    E-print Network

    Blevis, Eli

    1 Human-Computer Interaction Design Master of Science Program Handbook School of Informatics. Introduction This handbook details the Master of Science (MS) program in Human-Computer Interaction Design (HCI Year 2 Spring 2015 ... and so forth Kindly read these schedules keeping your respective cohort in mind

  8. Distinguishing Ordinal and Disordinal Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widaman, Keith F.; Helm, Jonathan L.; Castro-Schilo, Laura; Pluess, Michael; Stallings, Michael C.; Belsky, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Re-parameterized regression models may enable tests of crucial theoretical predictions involving interactive effects of predictors that cannot be tested directly using standard approaches. First, we present a re-parameterized regression model for the Linear x Linear interaction of 2 quantitative predictors that yields point and interval estimates…

  9. Noncovalent interaction of carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, Deivasigamani; Panigrahi, Swati; Sastry, Garikapati Narahari

    2014-08-19

    The potential application of carbon nanomaterials in biology and medicine increases the necessity to understand the nature of their interactions with living organisms and the environment. The primary forces of interaction at the nano-bio interface are mostly noncovalent in nature. Quantifying such interactions and identifying various factors that influence such interactions is a question of outstanding fundamental interest in academia and industry. In this Account, we have summarized our recent studies in understanding the noncovalent interactions of carbon nanostructures (CNSs), which were obtained by employing first-principles calculations on various model systems representing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene. Bestowed with an extended sp(2) carbon network, which is a common feature in all of these nanostructures, they exhibit ?-? interactions with aromatic molecules (benzene, naphthalene, nucleobases, amino acids), cation-? type of interactions with metal ions, anion-? interactions with anions, and other XH···? type of interactions with various small molecules (H2O, NH3, CH4, H2, etc.). CNTs are wrapped-up forms of two-dimensional graphene, and hence, it is interesting to compare the binding abilities of these two allotropes that differ in their curvature. The chirality and curvature of CNSs appear to play a major role in determining the structural, energetic, and functional properties. Flat graphene shows stronger noncovalent interactions than the curved nanotubes toward various substrates. Understanding the interactions of CNSs with organic molecules and biomolecules has gained a great deal of research interest because of their potential applications in various fields. Aromatic hydrocarbons show a strong propensity to interact with CNSs via the ?-? mode of interaction rather than CH···? interaction. As DNA sequencing appears to be one of the most important potential applications of carbon nanomaterials, the study of CNS-nucleobase interactions has become quite important. The nucleobases are physisorbed on the surface of CNSs in the order G > T ? A > C > U, exhibiting ?-?-stacking type of interaction. These interactions become stronger as the curvature of the CNSs decreases. It is also indispensable to study the interaction of nanomaterials with proteins and especially with amino acids at a molecular level to understand the drug delivery mechanism of CNSs. We have shown that the CNSs interact with small molecules by means of physisorption and thus show potential for sensor applications. The prime requisite for the exploitation of these CNSs in nanoelectronics is the tunable energy gap. We have revealed that metal ion doping modulates the HOMO-LUMO energy gap of the nanotubes significantly and thus provides a handle to tune the electronic and conductivity properties of CNTs. Moreover, metal ions tend to selectively bind with nanotubes of different chirality such as armchair and zigzag nanotubes. The reduction of planar hydrocarbon materials by lithium atoms has also been studied very systematically. We also illustrate the way in which noncovalent interactions can be used to optimize and fine-tune the properties of CNSs. PMID:25032482

  10. Decoherence of interacting Majorana modes

    PubMed Central

    Ng, H. T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the decoherence of Majorana modes of a fermion chain, where the fermions interact with their nearest neighbours. We investigate the effect of dissipation and dephasing on the Majorana modes of a fermionic chain. The dissipative and dephasing noises induce the non-parity- and parity-preserving transitions between the eigenstates of the system, respectively. Therefore, these two types of noises lead to the different decoherence mechanisms. In each type of noise, we discuss the low- and high-frequency regimes to describe the different environments. We numerically calculate the dissipation and dephasing rates in the presence of long-range interactions. We find that the decoherence rate of interacting Majorana modes is different to that of non-interacting modes. We show the examples that the long-range interactions can reduce the decoherence rate. It is advantageous to the potential applications of quantum information processing. PMID:26211881

  11. Scattering calculations and confining interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the research work performed under this grant were concerned with strong interaction processes ranging from kaon-nucleon interaction to proton-nucleus scattering calculations. Research performed under this grant can be categorized into three groups: (1) parametrization of fundamental interactions, (2) development of formal theory, and (3) calculations based upon the first two. Parametrizations of certain fundamental interactions, such as kaon-nucleon interaction, for example, were necessary because kaon-nucleon scattering amplitude was needed to perform kaon-nucleus scattering calculations. It was possible to calculate kaon-nucleon amplitudes from the first principle, but it was unnecessary for the purpose of the project. Similar work was also done for example for anti-protons and anti-nuclei. Formal developments to some extent were also pursued so that consistent calculations can be done.

  12. Aromatic-proline interactions: electronically tunable CH/? interactions.

    PubMed

    Zondlo, Neal J

    2013-04-16

    Proline residues have unique roles in protein folding, structure, and function. Proline and the aromatic amino acids comprise the encoded cyclic protein residues. Aromatic protein side chains are defined by their negatively charged ? faces, while the faces of the proline ring are partially positively charged. This polarity results from their two-point connection of the side chain to the electron-withdrawing protein backbone, and the lower electronegativity of hydrogen compared to carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The hydrogens adjacent to the carbonyl and amide nitrogen, H? and H?, respectively, are the most partially positive. Proline's side chain is also conformationally restricted, allowing for interaction with aromatic residues with minimal entropic or steric penalty. Proline and aromatic residues can interact favorably with each other, due to both the hydrophobic effect and the interaction between the ? aromatic face and the polarized C-H bonds, called a CH/? interaction. Aromatic-proline interactions can occur locally, for example, to stabilize cis-amide bonds, and over larger distances, in the tertiary structures of proteins, and intermolecularly in protein-protein interactions. In peptides and proteins, aromatic-proline sequences more readily adopt cis-prolyl amide bonds, where the aromatic ring interacts with the proline ring in the cis conformation. In aromatic-proline sequences, Trp and Tyr are more likely to induce cis-amide bonds than Phe, suggesting an aromatic electronic effect. This result would be expected for a CH/? interaction, in which a more electron-rich aromatic would have a stronger (more cis-stabilizing) interaction with partial positive charges on prolyl hydrogens. In this Account, we describe our investigations into the nature of local aromatic-proline interactions, using peptide models. We synthesized a series of 26 peptides, TXPN, varying X from electron-rich to electron poor aromatic amino acids, and found that the population of cis-amide bond (Ktrans/cis) is tunable by aromatic electronics. With 4-substituted phenylalanines, we observed a Hammett correlation between aromatic electronics and Ktrans/cis, with cis-trans isomerism electronically controllable by 1.0 kcal/mol. All aromatic residues exhibit a higher cis population than Ala or cyclohexylalanine, with Trp showing the strongest aromatic-proline interaction. In addition, proline stereoelectronic effects can modulate cis-trans isomerism by an additional 1.0 kcal/mol. The aromatic-proline interaction is enthalpic, consistent with its description as a CH/? interaction. Proline-aromatic sequences can also promote cis-prolyl bonds, either through interactions of the aromatic ring with the preceding cis-proline or with the H? prior to cis-proline. Within proline-rich peptides, sequences commonly found in natively disordered proteins, aromatic residues promote multiple cis-amide bonds due to multiple favorable aromatic-proline interactions. Collectively, we found aromatic-proline interactions to be significantly CH/? in nature, tunable by aromatic electronics. We discuss these data in the context of aromatic-proline and aromatic-glycine interactions in local structure, in tertiary structure, in protein-protein interactions, and in protein assemblies. PMID:23148796

  13. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Tomasz; Juszczak, Cezary; Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  14. Pair interaction ordering in fluids with random interactions

    E-print Network

    Lenin S. Shagolsem; Dino Osmanovi?; Orit Peleg; Yitzhak Rabin

    2015-01-25

    We use molecular dynamics simulations in 2d to study multi-component fluid in the limiting case where {\\it all the particles are different} (APD). The particles are assumed to interact via Lennard-Jones (LJ) potentials, with identical size parameters but their pair interaction parameters are generated at random from a uniform or from a peaked distribution. We analyze both the global and the local properties of these systems at temperatures above the freezing transition and find that APD fluids relax into a non-random state characterized by clustering of particles according to the values of their pair interaction parameters (particle-identity ordering).

  15. Adverse food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Alie; van Hunsel, Florence; Bast, Aalt

    2015-12-01

    Food supplements and herbal products are increasingly popular amongst consumers. This leads to increased risks of interactions between prescribed drugs and these products containing bioactive ingredients. From 1991 up to 2014, 55 cases of suspected adverse drug reactions due to concomitant intake of health-enhancing products and drugs were reported to Lareb, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre. An overview of these suspected interactions is presented and their potential mechanisms of action are described. Mainly during the metabolism of xenobiotics and due to the pharmacodynamics effects interactions seem to occur, which may result in adverse drug reactions. Where legislation is seen to distinct food and medicine, legislation concerning these different bioactive products is less clear-cut. This can only be resolved by increasing the molecular knowledge on bioactive substances and their potential interactions. Thereby potential interactions can be better understood and prevented on an individual level. By considering the dietary pattern and use of bioactive substances with prescribed medication, both health professionals and consumers will be increasingly aware of interactions and these interactive adverse effects can be prevented. PMID:26482404

  16. Hemoglobin interacting proteins and implications of spectrin hemoglobin interaction.

    PubMed

    Basu, Avik; Chakrabarti, Abhijit

    2015-10-14

    In this report we have analyzed interacting partners of hemoglobin inside erythrocyte and sought possible implications of hemoglobin-spectrin interaction. Our list of identified cytosolic hemoglobin interacting proteins includes redox regulators like peroxiredoxin-2, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1, flavin reductase and chaperones like HSP70, ?-hemoglobin stabilizing protein. Others include metabolic enzymes like carbonic anhydrase-1, selenium binding protein-1, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and nucleoside diphosphate kinase. Additionally, various membrane proteins like ? and ? spectrin, ankyrin, band3, protein4.1, actin and glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase have been shown to interact with hemoglobin. Our result indicates that major membrane skeleton protein spectrin, that also has a chaperone like activity, helps to fold the unstable alpha-globin chains in vitro. Taken together our results could provide insight into a protein network evolved around hemoglobin molecule inside erythrocyte that may add a new perspective in understanding the hemoglobin function and homeostasis. PMID:26141508

  17. Interactive computer code for dynamic and soil structure interaction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mulliken, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    A new interactive computer code is presented in this paper for dynamic and soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses. The computer program FETA (Finite Element Transient Analysis) is a self contained interactive graphics environment for IBM-PC`s that is used for the development of structural and soil models as well as post-processing dynamic analysis output. Full 3-D isometric views of the soil-structure system, animation of displacements, frequency and time domain responses at nodes, and response spectra are all graphically available simply by pointing and clicking with a mouse. FETA`s finite element solver performs 2-D and 3-D frequency and time domain soil-structure interaction analyses. The solver can be directly accessed from the graphical interface on a PC, or run on a number of other computer platforms.

  18. Hidden interaction in SBO galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galletta, G.; Bettoni, D.; Oosterloo, T.; Fasano, G.

    1990-01-01

    Galaxies, like plants, show a large variety of grafts: an individual of some type connects physically with a neighborhood of same or different type. The effects of these interactions between galaxies have a broad range of morphologies depending, among other quantities, on the distance of the closest approach between systems and the relative size of the two galaxies. A sketch of the possible situations is shown in tabular form. This botanical classification is just indicative, because the effects of interactions can be notable also at relatively large separations, when additional conditions are met, as for example low density of the interacting systems or the presence of intra-cluster gas. In spite of the large variety of encounters and effects, in the literature the same terms are often used to refer to different types of interactions. Analysis indicates that only few of the situations show evident signs of interaction. They appear to be most relevant when the size of the two galaxies is comparable. Bridges and tails, like the well known case of NGC 4038/39, the Antennae, are only observed for a very low percentage of all galaxies (approx. 0.38 percent, Arp and Madore 1977). In most cases of gravitational bond between two galaxies, the effects of interactions are not relevant or evident. For instance, the detection of stellar shells (Malin and Carter 1983), which have been attributed to the accretion of gas stripped from another galaxy or to the capture and disruption of a small stellar system (Quinn 1984), requires particular observing and reduction techniques. Besides these difficulties of detection, time plays an important role in erasing, within a massive galaxy, the effects of interactions with smaller objects. This can happen on a timescale shorter than the Hubble time, so the number of systems now showing signs of interaction suggests lower limits to the true frequency of interactions in the life-time of a stellar system.

  19. Finteraction Finger Interaction with Mobile Phone

    E-print Network

    Reiterer, Harald

    Finteraction Finger Interaction with Mobile Phone Mahsa Jenabi, Harald Reiterer Human.reiterer}@uni-konstanz.de ABSTRACT Touch interaction with mobile phones enable users to have a more natural interaction of the mobile phone during the interaction using his "big finger". On the other hand, interaction enhanced

  20. Status Characteristics and Social Interaction 

    E-print Network

    Berger, Joseph; Cohen, Bernard P; Zelditch, Morris Jr

    2015-08-10

    The authors review literature on effects of status differences on interaction and formulate general principles of status generalization to explain them. Next they conduct direct tests of the explanation in an experimental ...

  1. Bibliotherapy--The Interactive Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Arleen McCarty

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the similarities between what librarians call activity bibliotherapy and psychotherapists call poetry therapy, and the need for cooperation between these professions. The interactive aspects of bibliotherapy and the need for professional training in this process are emphasized. (CLB)

  2. InterAction Database (IADB)

    Cancer.gov

    The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.

  3. States of Strongly Interacting Matter

    E-print Network

    H. Satz

    2002-01-08

    I discuss the phase structure of strongly interacting matter at high temperatures and densities, as predicted by statistical QCD, and consider in particular the nature of the transition of hot hadronic matter to a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons.

  4. Probing Biomolecular Interactions Using Nanopore

    E-print Network

    Meller, Amit

    -interactions, and in some cases, structure. Single-molecule techniques like atomic force microscope (AFM) and optical a powerful tool to study their structure, dynamics, and function. The response of biomolecules to applied

  5. Weak interactions and presupernova evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.B. State Univ. of New York . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-02-19

    The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and {beta}{sup {minus}} decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Interaction between catalytic micro motors

    E-print Network

    Bayati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Starting from a microscopic model for a spherically symmetric active Janus particle, we study the interactions between two such active motors. The ambient fluid mediates a long range hydrodynamic interaction between two motors. This interaction has both direct and indirect hydrodynamic contributions. The direct contribution is due to the propagation of fluid flow that originated from a moving motor and affects the motion of the other motor. The indirect contribution emerges from the re-distribution of the ionic concentrations in the presence of both motors. Electric force exerted on the fluid from this ionic solution enhances the flow pattern and subsequently changes the motion of both motors. By formulating a perturbation method for very far separated motors, we derive analytic results for the transnational and rotational dynamics of the motors. We show that the overall interaction at the leading order, modifies the translational and rotational speeds of motors which scale as ${\\cal O}\\left([1/D]^3\\right)$ a...

  7. NCI Interactive Budget Analysis Tool

    Cancer.gov

    This tool provides users an interactive overview of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) budget and Fact Book data since Fiscal Year 1999. Additional historical NCI budget information can be obtained through the NCI Fact Book Collection.

  8. Interactive Sensing in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthy, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents models and algorithms for interactive sensing in social networks where individuals act as sensors and the information exchange between individuals is exploited to optimize sensing. Social learning is used to model the interaction between individuals that aim to estimate an underlying state of nature. In this context the following questions are addressed: How can self-interested agents that interact via social learning achieve a tradeoff between individual privacy and reputation of the social group? How can protocols be designed to prevent data incest in online reputation blogs where individuals make recommendations? How can sensing by individuals that interact with each other be used by a global decision maker to detect changes in the underlying state of nature? When individual agents possess limited sensing, computation and communication capabilities, can a network of agents achieve sophisticated global behavior? Social and game theoretic learning are natural settings for addressing these...

  9. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  10. Soft exchanges for interaction design

    E-print Network

    Farah, Kamal (Kamal Cristobal)

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries and fabric of human experience are continuously redefined by microorganisms interacting at imperceptible scales. Though hidden, these systems condition our body and the environment we inhabit. Instruments ...

  11. Corotating Interaction Regions and clumping

    E-print Network

    R. Blomme

    2007-09-04

    We present hydrodynamical models for Corotating Interaction Regions, which were used by Lobel (2007) to model the Discrete Absorption Components in HD 64760. We also discuss our failure to model the rotational modulations seen in the same star.

  12. WYSIWYG NPR: Interactive Stylization for

    E-print Network

    employs a tablet interface to provide the designer with an interactive paradigm in which stroke effects, storytelling (e.g. children's books), games, fine arts, and animation. iii #12;Acknowledgments This research

  13. Creep-Fatigue Interaction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    Fatigue fives in metals are nominally time independent below 0.5 T(sub Melt). At higher temperatures, fatigue lives are altered due to time-dependent, thermally activated creep. Conversely, creep rates are altered by super. imposed fatigue loading. Creep and fatigue generally interact synergistically to reduce material lifetime. Their interaction, therefore, is of importance to structural durability of high-temperature structures such as nuclear reactors, reusable rocket engines, gas turbine engines, terrestrial steam turbines, pressure vessel and piping components, casting dies, molds for plastics, and pollution control devices. Safety and lifecycle costs force designers to quantify these interactions. Analytical and experimental approaches to creep-fatigue began in the era following World War II. In this article experimental and life prediction approaches are reviewed for assessing creep-fatigue interactions of metallic materials. Mechanistic models are also discussed briefly.

  14. Interactive Streaming of Structured Data

    E-print Network

    Paluska, Justin Mazzola

    We present ChunkStream, a system for efficient streaming and interactive editing of online video. Rather than using a specialized protocol and stream format, ChunkStream makes use of a generic mechanism employing chunks. ...

  15. Soliton interactions in pulsar magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verga, Alberto Daniel; Fontán, Constantino Ferro

    1984-12-01

    The modulational instability of Langmuir waves and their interaction with Alfvén waves is described by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a self-consistent field. We show that this equation may be derived from a lagrangian density which allows us to study soliton interactions. Moreover, we analyze one-dimensional self-similar collapse of solitons in the presence of an external source of plasmons. Member of Carrera del Investigador (CONICET).

  16. Interactive Astronomical Data Analysis Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinglesmith, D. A., III

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the Interactive Astronomical Data Analysis Facility (IADAF) which performs interactive analysis of astronomical data for resident and visiting scientists. The facilities include a Grant measuring engine, a PDS 1010A microdensitometer, a COMTAL image display system and a PDP 11/40 computer system. Both hardware and software systems are examined, including a description of thirteen overlay programs. Some uses of the IADAF are indicated.

  17. Natural interaction for unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Glenn; Purman, Ben; Schermerhorn, Paul; Garcia-Sampedro, Guillermo; Lanting, Matt; Quist, Michael; Kawatsu, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Military unmanned systems today are typically controlled by two methods: tele-operation or menu-based, search-andclick interfaces. Both approaches require the operator's constant vigilance: tele-operation requires constant input to drive the vehicle inch by inch; a menu-based interface requires eyes on the screen in order to search through alternatives and select the right menu item. In both cases, operators spend most of their time and attention driving and minding the unmanned systems rather than on being a warfighter. With these approaches, the platform and interface become more of a burden than a benefit. The availability of inexpensive sensor systems in products such as Microsoft Kinect™ or Nintendo Wii™ has resulted in new ways of interacting with computing systems, but new sensors alone are not enough. Developing useful and usable human-system interfaces requires understanding users and interaction in context: not just what new sensors afford in terms of interaction, but how users want to interact with these systems, for what purpose, and how sensors might enable those interactions. Additionally, the system needs to reliably make sense of the user's inputs in context, translate that interpretation into commands for the unmanned system, and give feedback to the user. In this paper, we describe an example natural interface for unmanned systems, called the Smart Interaction Device (SID), which enables natural two-way interaction with unmanned systems including the use of speech, sketch, and gestures. We present a few example applications SID to different types of unmanned systems and different kinds of interactions.

  18. Cluster states from Heisenberg interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Borhani, Massoud; Loss, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    We show that a special type of entangled states, cluster states, can be created with Heisenberg interactions and local rotations in 2d steps where d is the dimension of the lattice. We find that, by tuning the coupling strengths, anisotropic exchange interactions can also be employed to create cluster states. Finally, we propose electron spins in quantum dots as a possible realization of a one-way quantum computer based on cluster states.

  19. Interaction of two collisionless shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cargill, P. J.; Goodrich, C. C.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1986-01-01

    Kinetic simulations of the interaction between two collisionless shocks are presented. During the collision of two perpendicular shocks, the shock electromagnetic field structures pass through each other, while the previously shocked ions are kept separate by the electric field arising in the collision. When two supercritical shocks collide, a fraction of ions are accelerated up to an order of magnitude in energy by first being reflected at one shock, then interacting with the electric fields of the other shock.

  20. 3D interactive pictorial maps 

    E-print Network

    Naz, Asma

    2005-02-17

    these maps interactive on the Web and have them accessible to a large number of viewers. The results show a number of interactive 3D pictorial maps of different countries and continents. These maps are initially built with Maya, a 3D modeling software... of simplififcation and exaggeration.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8 3D polygonal text in Maya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 9 Final 3D model of Italy with text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 10 Top view of 3D model of France...