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Toward a neuroscience of interactive parent–infant dyad empathy  

PubMed Central

In accord with social neuroscience’s progression to include interactive experimental paradigms, parents’ brains have been activated by emotionally charged infant stimuli – especially of their own infant –including baby cry and picture. More recent research includes the use of brief video clips and opportunities for maternal response. Among brain systems important to parenting are those involved in empathy. This research may inform recent studies of decreased societal empathy, offer mechanisms and solutions. PMID:23883768

Swain, James E.; Konrath, Sara; Dayton, Carolyn J.; Finegood, Eric D.; Ho, S. Shaun



Mother-infant interaction improves with a developmental intervention for mother-preterm infant dyads.  


While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = 0.05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li




PubMed Central

While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant‘s biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29–34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention Control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training–Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-minute play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = .06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = .05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F.; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M.; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li



Drug-protein interactions assessed by fluorescence measurements in the real complexes and in model dyads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, a systematic fluorescence study on supramolecular systems using two serum albumins (HSA or BSA) as hosts and the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs carprofen (CPF) or naproxen (NPX) as guests has been undertaken. In parallel, model dyads containing Tyr or Trp covalently linked to CPF or NPX have also been investigated. In HSA/(S)-CPF and BSA/(S)-CPF ( ?exc = 266 nm), at 1:1 M ratio, an important degree (more than 40%) of singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) was observed to take place. The distance ( r) calculated for energy transfer from the SAs to (S)-CPF through a FRET mechanism was found to be ca. 21 Å. In the case of HSA/(S)-NPX and BSA/(S)-NPX, energy transfer occurred to a lower extent (ca. 7%), and r was determined as ca. 24 Å. In order to investigate the possible excited state interactions between bound ligands and the relevant amino acids present in the protein binding sites, four pairs of model dyads were designed and synthesised, namely ( S, S)-TyrCPF, ( S, R)-TyrCPF, ( S, S)-TrpCPF, ( S, R)-TrpCPF, ( S, S)-TyrNPX, ( S, R)-TyrNPX, ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX. A complete SSET was observed from Tyr or Trp to CPF, since no contribution from the amino acids was present in the emission of the dyads. Likewise, a very efficient Tyr or Trp to NPX energy transfer was observed. Remarkably, in ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX a configuration-dependent reduction in the emission intensity was observed, revealing a strong and stereoselective intramolecular quenching. This effect can be attributed to exciplex formation and is dynamic in nature, as the fluorescence lifetimes were much shorter in ( S, R)- and ( S, S)-TrpNPX (1.5 and 3.1 ns, respectively) than in (S)-NPX (11 ns).

Vayá, Ignacio; Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Jiménez, M. Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A.



Maternal Holding of Preterm Infants During the Early Weeks After Birth and Dyad Interaction at Six Months  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether a supportive nursing intervention that promoted kangaroo holding of healthy preterm infants by their mothers during the early weeks of the infant’s life facilitated co-regulation between mother and infant at six months of age. Design Randomized controlled trial. Participants Sixty-five mother-infant dyads with mean gestational age at birth of 33 weeks. Fifty percent of infants were male, and 50% were non-White. Interventions An eight week home intervention encouraged daily one hour, uninterrupted holding with either blanket (baby wrapped in blanket and held in mother’s arms) or the kangaroo (baby in skin-to-skin contact on mother’s chest) method. In both conditions, weekly home visits by an experienced RN included encouragement to hold the infant, emotional support, and information about infant behavior and development. A control group received brief social visits, had no holding constraints, and participated in all assessments. Main Outcome Measures When infants were six months of age, the Still-Face Procedure was used to assess mother-infant interaction. Outcome measures were co-regulation of the dyad’s responses during the play episodes of the Still Face Procedure and vitality in infant efforts to re-engage the mother during the neutral face portion of the Still Face procedure. Results Significant differences among groups were found in mother-infant co-regulation. Post hoc analysis showed that dyads who were supported in kangaroo holding displayed more co-regulation behavior during play than dyads in the blanket holding group. No differences were found between groups in infant vitality during the neutral face portion of the Still Face Procedure. Conclusion Dyads supported in practicing kangaroo holding in the early weeks of life may develop more co-regulated interactional strategies than other dyads. PMID:20629927

Neu, Madalynn; Robinson, JoAnn



Regulation of photodynamic interactions in 1,8-naphthalimide-linker-phenothiazine dyads by cyclodextrins.  


This study examines the effects of cyclodextrin (CD) on the photophysical properties of 1,8-naphthalimide (NI) derivatives including NI-linker-phenothiazine (NI-L-PTZ) dyads in a H2O/CH3CN solution (v/v = 9?:?1). Peculiar excimer and exciplex emissions were observed with reference NI and NI-L-PTZ, respectively, in an aqueous environment. The NI-CD complexes exhibited monomeric emission spectral features, which resulted from their inclusion into the CD cavity. The complex formation constants of CDs with the NI derivatives were determined. The T1-Tn absorption band of (3)NI* was observed at around 470 nm during nanosecond-laser flash photolysis. Photoinduced electron transfer in NI-L-PTZ led to NI?(-) and PTZ?(+) from the T1 state. In protic polar solvents, NI?(-) easily formed a ketyl radical (NIH?) by hydrogen abstraction from H2O, and showed a transient absorption band at around 400 nm. The charge recombination (CR) time of the transient species at 400 nm showed a strong CD dependency, and the CR time of the dyad in ?-CD was increased markedly compared with in ?-CD. This suggests that the PTZ moiety can also be included in the ?-CD cavity. PMID:24535071

Cho, Dae Won; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Sugimoto, Akira; Yoon, Ung Chan; Cho, Dae Won; Majima, Tetsuro



Information Interactions between Members of Science-Profession Dyads as Reflected by Journal Use: Ichthyology and Fisheries Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the science-profession dyad of ichthyology and fisheries biology through citation analysis of the journal literature. It found that the fields overlap in the journals cited, and, although differences in citation behavior were identified, some exchange of information within the dyad was indicated. (38 references) (Author/MES)

Martin, F. Douglas



Analyte interactions with a new ditopic dansylamide-nitrobenzoxadiazole dyad: a combined photophysical, NMR, and theoretical (DFT) study.  


We report herein the synthesis and photophysical studies on a new multicomponent chemosensor dyad comprising two fluorescing units, dansylamide (DANS) and nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD). The system has been developed to investigate receptor-analyte binding interactions in the presence of both cations and anions in a single molecular system. A dimethyl amino (in the DANS unit) group is used as a receptor for cations, and acidic hydrogens of sulfonamide and the NBD group are used as receptors for anions. The system is characterized by conventional analytical techniques. The photophysical properties of this supramolecular system in the absence and presence of various metal ions and nonmetal ions as additives are investigated in an acetonitrile medium. Utility of this system in an aqueous medium has also been demonstrated. The absorption and fluorescence spectrum of the molecular system consists of a broad band typical of an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition. A low quantum yield and lifetime of the NBD moiety in the present dyad indicates photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between DANS and the NBD moiety. The fluorescence intensity of the system is found to decrease in the presence of fluoride and acetate anions; however, the quenching is found to be much higher for fluoride. This quenching behavior is attributed to the enhanced PET from the anion receptor to the fluorophore moiety. The mechanistic aspect of the fluoride ion signaling behavior has also been studied by infrared (IR) and (1)H NMR experiments. The hydrogen bonding interaction between the acidic NH protons of the DPN moiety and F(-) is found to be primarily responsible for the fluoride selective signaling behavior. While investigating the cation signaling behavior, contrary to anions, significant fluorescence enhancement has been observed only in the presence of transition-metal ions. This behavior is rationalized by considering the disruption of PET communication between DANS and the NBD moiety due to transition-metal ion binding. Theoretical (density functional theory) studies are also performed for the better understanding of the receptor-analyte interaction. Interestingly, negative cooperativity in binding is observed when the interaction of this system is studied in the presence of both Zn(2+) and F(-). Fluorescence microscopy studies also revealed that the newly developed fluorescent sensor system can be employed as an imaging probe in live cells. PMID:25116958

Bhoi, Abhas Kumar; Das, Sudhir Kumar; Majhi, Debashis; Sahu, Prabhat Kumar; Nijamudheen, A; N, Anoop; Rahaman, Abdur; Sarkar, Moloy



Stereodifferentiating drug-biomolecule interactions in the triplet excited state: studies on supramolecular carprofen/protein systems and on carprofen-tryptophan model dyads.  


Stereoselective interaction between a chiral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, namely carprofen (CP), and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied, and the results were compared with those obtained with model dyads. In the presence of albumin the same triplet-triplet transition was detected for both CP stereoisomers; however, time-resolved measurements revealed a remarkable stereodifferentiation in the CP/HSA interaction. For each stereoisomer, the decay dynamics evidenced the presence of two components with different lifetimes that can be correlated with complexation of CP to the two possible albumin binding sites (site I and site II). This assignment was confirmed by using ibuprofen, a site II displacer. Thus, the shorter lived components, for which stereodifferentiation was more important (tauR/tauS ca. 4), were ascribed to the CP triplet state in site I; the lifetime shortening can be attributed to electron-transfer quenching by the only tryptophan (Trp) of the protein. Laser flash photolysis of model dyads containing covalently linked CP and Trp revealed formation of the expected Trp radical cation, providing support for such a mechanism. Moreover, significant stereodifferentiation was observed between the (R)- and (S)-CP-Trp dyads. In the case of CP/HSA complexes, as well as in the model compounds, the stereodifferentiation detected in the decays is in good agreement with that observed in the formation of the only CP photoproduct, resulting from a photodehalogenation process. Moreover, stereodifferentiation was also found to occur for the photobinding of CP to the protein. PMID:17214494

Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Boscá, Francisco; Miranda, Miguel A



The effect of predispositions toward verbal behavior on interaction patterns in dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self?report instrument, a test of Predispositions toward Verbal Behavior, was designed to measure the cognitive orientation that persons hold toward the extent of their verbal participation in social settings. A word association task was devised to test correspondence among self reports of verbal activation, interaction patterns, and subsequent social attributions. Results showed a significant linear trend among levels of

C. David Mortensen; Paul H. Arntson



Verbal and nonverbal behavior of ability-grouped dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we describe the social interactions of ability-grouped dyads as they constructed knowledge of balance concepts to elucidate the relationship between interactions and conceptual growth. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 30 fifth-grade students were recorded as they completed three activities related to balance. These student interactions were examined within a framework of social cognition. For each dyad,

M. Gail Jones; Glenda Carter



Medical students' perception of dyad practice.  


Training in pairs (dyad practice) has been shown to improve efficiency of clinical skills training compared with single practice but little is known about students' perception of dyad practice. The aim of this study was to explore the reactions and attitudes of medical students who were instructed to work in pairs during clinical skills training. A follow-up pilot survey consisting of four open-ended questions was administered to 24 fourth-year medical students, who completed four hours of dyad practice in managing patient encounters. The responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. The students felt dyad practice improved their self-efficacy through social interaction with peers, provided useful insight through observation, and contributed with shared memory of what to do, when they forgot essential steps of the physical examination of the patient. However, some students were concerned about decreased hands-on practice and many students preferred to continue practising alone after completing the initial training. Dyad practice is well received by students during initial skills training and is associated with several benefits to learning through peer observation, feedback and cognitive support. Whether dyad training is suited for more advanced learners is a subject for future research. PMID:25073865

Tolsgaard, Martin G; Rasmussen, Maria B; Bjørck, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Amandus; Ringsted, Charlotte V



Time-Dependent Solid State Polymorphism of a Series of Donor-Acceptor Dyads.  


In order to exploit the use of favorable electrostatic interactions between aromatic units in directing the assembly of donor-acceptor (D-A) dyads, the present work examines the ability of conjugated aromatic D-A dyads with symmetric side chains to exhibit solid-state polymorphism as a function of time during the solid formation process. Four such dyads were synthesized and their packing in the solid-state from either slower (10-20 days) or faster (1-2 days) evaporation from solvent was investigated using single crystal X-ray analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. Two of the dyads exhibited tail-to-tail (A-A) packing upon slower evaporation from solvent and head-to-tail (D-A) packing upon faster evaporation from solvent. A combination of single crystal analysis and XRD patterns were used to create models wherein a packing model for the other two dyads is proposed. Our findings suggest that while side chain interactions in asymmetric aromatic dyads can play an important role in enforcing segregated D-A dyad assembly, slowly evaporating symmetrically substituted aromatic dyads allows for favorable electrostatic interactions between the aromatic moieties to facilitate the organization of the dyads in the solid-state. PMID:24678269

Peebles, Cameron; Alvey, Paul M; Lynch, Vincent; Iverson, Brent L



Multifunctional ferrocene-ruthenocene dyads linked by single or double aza-containing bridges displaying metal-metal interactions and cation recognition properties.  


The synthesis, electrochemical, electronic, and cation sensing properties of the ruthenocene-terminated 2-aza-1,3-butadiene 2, linear ferrocene-ruthenocene dyads 3 and 5, and the new structural motifs diaza[4.4]ruthenocenophane 7 and mixed ferrocene and ruthenocene metallocenophanes 8 and 10 are presented. The properties of these compounds have been systematically varied by introducing the ferrocene and ruthenocene moieties at the 1- or 4-position of the unsymmetrical 2-aza-1,3-butadiene bridge. Spectroelectrochemical studies of compounds 3 and 8, in which the ruthenocene unit appended at the 1-position of the bridge exhibits a rather unusual electrochemical behavior, revealed the presence of low-energy bands in the near-infrared (NIR) region in the partially oxidized forms, at 1070 and 1163 nm, respectively, which indicate the existence of intramolecular charge transfer between the iron and the ruthenium centers. The electrochemical and intermetallic charge-transfer (MMCT) studies (HAB, lambda and alpha parameters) indicate that the 3*+ and 8*+ systems belong to the Class II classification for a mixed-valence compound. In addition, the low-energy (LE) band of the absorption spectra of all compounds prepared, except compound 10, are red-shifted by complexation with divalent Mg2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, and Ni2+ metal ions. For open dyads, biruthenocene compound 2 exhibited the higher red-shift by 92 nm, whereas for closed compounds the [4.4]ruthenocenoferrocenophane 8 displayed a remarkable red-shift by about 180 nm for Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, and Ni2+ metal ions and by about 146 nm for Mg2+ cation. The changes in the absorption spectra are accompanied by dramatic color changes which allow the potential for "naked eye" detection. The experimental data and conclusions are supported by DFT computations. PMID:17288371

Caballero, Antonio; García, Rafaela; Espinosa, Arturo; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro



Verbal and nonverbal behavior of ability-grouped dyads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we describe the social interactions of ability-grouped dyads as they constructed knowledge of balance concepts to elucidate the relationship between interactions and conceptual growth. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 30 fifth-grade students were recorded as they completed three activities related to balance. These student interactions were examined within a framework of social cognition. For each dyad, characteristics of ability-grouped dyads were identified. Results revealed that high-achieving students effectively used prior experiences, maintained focus on the learning task, and were able to manipulate the equipment effectively to construct knowledge. Low-achieving students exhibited off-task behavior, lacked a metacognitive framework for organizing the learning tasks, centered on irrelevant features of the equipment, and were unable to use language effectively to mediate learning. Within low-high student dyads, high-achieving students typically modeled thinking processes and strategies for manipulating equipment. In addition, they focused the low-achieving students on the components of the tasks while verbally monitoring their progress, thus enabling low students to identify the critical features necessary for concept construction. These results highlighted the differences that students have in the use of language and tools. Low students' inefficient use of tools has implications for the ways science teachers structure lessons and group students for laboratory work.Received: 8 March 1993; Revised: 6 January 1994;

Jones, M. Gail; Carter, Glenda


An Ordinal Pattern Analysis of Four Hypotheses Describing the Interactions between Drug-Addicted, Chronically Disadvantaged, and Middle-Class Mother-Infant Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated interactions among 18 African American mother-infant pairs participating in an early intervention program for infants with developmental delays or at risk for developmental disabilities. The hypothesis that mothers would become less responsive to infants over time as a function of drug addiction, poverty, or serious developmental…

Brinker, Richard P.; And Others



Cooperative dyads for two-photon uncaging.  


A series of dyads that combine a photolabile protecting group (PPG) 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl and different bis-donor or bis-acceptor dissymmetric chromophores acting as two-photon (2P) absorbers were synthesized. Even for low energy transfer efficiency from the 2PA subunit to the uncaging one, improvement of the 2P uncaging sensitivity in the NIR is achieved as compared to isolated PPG. Moreover enhancement of the 2PA response is achieved by tuning the electronic dissymmetry of the 2PA subunit and the arrangement of the complementary subunits in the dyads. PMID:25522917

Cueto Díaz, Eduardo José; Picard, Sébastien; Chevasson, Vincent; Daniel, Jonathan; Hugues, Vincent; Mongin, Olivier; Genin, Emilie; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille



Synthesis of fullerene-acene dyads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells present potential for industrial use because of their possible low cost production. However, their relatively low efficiencies render them impractical for implementation. A comprehensive understanding of the photophysical process is necessary for eventual development of high efficiency OPV cells. Studying photophysical processes of well-defined structures such as dyad or triad molecules may give insight into their photophysical processes. In this study, we selected pentacene derivatives as electron donors and fullerenes as electron acceptors for dyad and triad molecules with well-defined structures. Several new types of organothiosubstituted 6,13-dihydropentacenes with terminal functionality including carboxylic acid, alcohol and amine groups were synthesized. A sterically hindered pentacene derivative was also prepared in order to prevent cycloaddition between C60 and pentacene. Functionalized fullerenes were synthesized for use as electron acceptors. Numerous reaction methods were attempted toward the synthesis of a donor/acceptor dyad with pentacene and fullerene derivatives. However, hydroamination of pristine C 60 using a diamino dihydropentacene derivative was the only successful method demonstrated to link C60 and dihydropentacene derivatives.

Cho, Claire Eunhye


The diffusion of novel signs beyond the dyad  

PubMed Central

We present a study aimed at investigating how novel signs emerge and spread through a community of interacting individuals. Ten triads of participants played a game in which players created novel signs in order to communicate with each other while constantly rotating between the role of interlocutor and that of observer. The main result of the study was that, for a majority of the triads, communicative success was not shared by the three dyads of players in a triad. This imbalance appears to be due to individual differences in game performance as well as to uncooperative behaviors. We suggest that both of these are magnified by the social dynamics induced by the role rotations in the game. PMID:22711975

Galantucci, Bruno; Theisen, Carrie; Gutierrez, Elkin Dario; Kroos, Christian; Rhodes, Theo



Ultrafast spectroscopic investigation of a fullerene poly(3-hexylthiophene) dyad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the femtosecond spectroscopic investigation of a covalently linked dyad, PCB-P3HT, formed by a segment of the conjugated polymer P3HT (regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene)) that is end capped with the fullerene derivative PCB ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid ester), adapted from PCBM. The fluorescence of the P3HT segment in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution is reduced by 64% in the dyad compared to a control compound without attached fullerene (P3HT-OH). Fluorescence upconversion measurements reveal that the partial fluorescence quenching of PCB-P3HT in THF is multiphasic and occurs on an average time scale of 100 ps, in parallel to excited-state relaxation processes. Judging from ultrafast transient absorption experiments, the origin of the quenching is excitation energy transfer from the P3HT donor to the PCB acceptor. Due to the much higher solubility of P3HT compared to PCB in THF, the PCB-P3HT dyad molecules self-assemble into micelles. When pure C60 is added to the solution, it is incorporated into the fullerene-rich center of the micelles. This dramatically increases the solubility of C60 but does not lead to significant additional quenching of the P3HT fluorescence by the C60 contained in the micelles. In PCB-P3HT thin films drop-cast from THF, the micelle structure is conserved. In contrast to solution, quantitative and ultrafast (<150 fs) charge separation occurs in the solid-state films and leads to the formation of long-lived mobile charge carriers with characteristic transient absorption signatures similar to those that have been observed in P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction blends. While ?-stacking interactions between neighboring P3HT chains are weak in the micelles, they are strong in thin films drop-cast from ortho-dichlorobenzene. Here, PCB-P3HT self-assembles into a network of long fibers, clearly seen in atomic force microscopy images. Ultrafast charge separation occurs also for the fibrous morphology, but the transient absorption experiments show fast loss of part of the charge carriers due to intensity-induced recombination and annihilation processes and monomolecular interfacial trap-mediated or geminate recombination. The yield of the long-lived charge carriers in the highly organized fibers is however comparable to that obtained with annealed P3HT:PCBM blends. PCB-P3HT can therefore be considered as an active material in organic photovoltaic devices.

Banerji, Natalie; Seifter, Jason; Wang, Mingfeng; Vauthey, Eric; Wudl, Fred; Heeger, Alan J.



DyAD: smart routing for networks-on-chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present and evaluate a novel routing scheme called DyAD which combines the advantages of both deterministic and adaptive routing schemes. More precisely, we envision a new routing technique which judiciously switches between deterministic and adaptive routing based on the network's congestion conditions. The simulation results show the effectiveness of DyAD by comparing it with purely deterministic

Jingcao Hu; Radu Marculescu



Dyad Composition Effects on Cognitive Elaboration and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors addressed the following research question: Does composition of dyads in terms of gender and ability affect student participation, the level of cognitive elaborations during a collaborative activity, and individual student achievement? The study involved 24 6th-grade dyads paired as follows: a low-ability student with a medium-ability…

Denessen, Eddie; Veenman, Simon; Dobbelsteen, Janine; van Schilt, Josie



The Circle of Security project: Attachment-based intervention with caregiver-pre-school child dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Circle of Security intervention protocol is a 20-week, group-based, parent education and psychotherapy intervention designed to shift patterns of attachment-caregiving interactions in high-risk caregiver-child dyads to a more appropriate developmental pathway. All phases of the protocol, including the pre- and post-intervention assessments, and the intervention itself, are based on attachment theory and procedures, current research on early relationships, and

Robert Marvin; Glen Cooper; Kent Hoffman; Bert Powell



Langmuir-Blodgett films of self-assembled (alkylether-derivatized Zn phthalocyanine)-(C?? imidazole adduct) dyad with controlled intermolecular distance for photoelectrochemical studies.  


A multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of the self-assembled electron donor-acceptor dyad of Zn phthalocyanine, appended with four long-chain aliphatic ether peripheral substituents, and an imidazole adduct of C60 was prepared and applied as a photoactive material in a photoelectrochemical cell. Changes in the simultaneously recorded surface pressure and surface potential vs area per molecule compression isotherms for Langmuir films of the dyad and, separately, of its components helped to identify phase transitions and mutual interactions of molecules in films. The Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) imaging of the Langmuir films showed circular condensed phase domains of the dyad molecules. The determined area per molecule was lower than that estimated for the dyad and its components, separately. The multilayer LB films of the dyad were transferred onto hydrophobized fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated (FTO) glass slides under different conditions. The presence of both components in the dyad LB films was confirmed with the UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. For the LB films transferred at different surface pressures, the PM-IRRAS measurements revealed that the phthalocyanine macrocycle planes and ether moieties in films were tilted with respect to the FTO surface. The AFM imaging of the LB films indicated formation of relatively uniform dyad LB films. Then, the femtosecond transient absorption spectral studies evidenced photoinduced electron transfer in the LB film. The obtained transient signals corresponding to both Zn(TPPE)(•+) and C60im(•-) confirmed the occurrence of intramolecular electron transfer. The determined rate constants of charge separation, kcs = 2.6 × 10(11) s(-1), and charge recombination, kcr = 9.7 × 10(9) s(-1), indicated quite efficient electron transfer within the film. In the photoelectrochemical studies, either photoanodic or photocathodic current was generated depending on the applied bias potential when the dyad LB film-coated FTO was used as the working electrode and ascorbic acid or methylviologen, respectively, as the charge mediator in an aqueous solution. PMID:24785360

Obraztsov, Ievgen; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Hart, Aaron; Gobeze, Habtom B; Kc, Chandra B; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; D'Souza, Francis



Evidence for Unintentional Emotional Contagion Beyond Dyads  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another’s emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B’s faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others’ emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics. PMID:23840683

Dezecache, Guillaume; Conty, Laurence; Chadwick, Michele; Philip, Leonor; Soussignan, Robert



Lanthanide(III) bis(phthalocyaninato)-[60]fullerene dyads: synthesis, characterization, and photophysical properties.  


A novel series of double-decker lanthanide(III) bis(phthalocyaninato)-C(60) dyads [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')]-C(60) (M=Sm, Eu, Lu; Pc=phthalocyanine) (1 a-c) have been synthesized from unsymmetrically functionalized heteroleptic sandwich complexes [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')] (Ln=Sm, Eu, Lu) 3 a-c and fulleropyrrolidine carboxylic acid 2. The sandwich complexes 3 a-c were obtained by means of a stepwise procedure from unsymmetrically substituted free-base phthalocyanine 5, which was first transformed into the monophthalocyaninato intermediate [Ln(III)(acac)(Pc)] and further reacted with 1,2-dicyanobenzene in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU). (1)H NMR spectra of the bis(phthalocyaninato) complexes 3 a-c and dyads 1 a-c were obtained by adding hydrazine hydrate to solutions of the complexes in [D(7)]DMF, a treatment that converts the free radical double-deckers into the protonated species, that is, [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')H] and [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')H]-C(60). The electronic absorption spectra of 3 a-c and 1 a-c in THF exhibit typical transitions of free-radical sandwich complexes. In the case of dyads 1 a-c, the spectra display the absorption bands of both constituents, but no evidence of ground-state interactions could be appreciated. When the UV/Vis spectra of 3 a-c and 1 a-c were recorded in DMF, typical features of the reduced forms were observed. Cyclic voltammetry studies for 3 a-c and 1 a-c were performed in THF. The electrochemical behavior of dyads 1 a-c is almost the exact sum of the behavior of the components, namely the double-decker [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')] and the C(60) fullerene, thus confirming the lack of ground-state interactions between the electroactive units. Photophysical studies on dyads 1 a-c indicate that only after irradiation at 387 nm, which excites both C(60) and [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')] components, a photoinduced electron transfer from the [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')] to C(60) occurs. PMID:19998436

Ballesteros, Beatriz; de la Torre, Gema; Shearer, Axel; Hausmann, Anita; Herranz, M Angeles; Guldi, Dirk M; Torres, Tomás



The Opioid dependent mother and newborn dyad: non-pharmacologic care  

PubMed Central

Opioid dependent pregnant and post-partum women and their infants are a complex and vulnerable population requiring individualized, comprehensive and multidisciplinary treatment. Though methadone maintenance in the setting of comprehensive service provision during pregnancy significantly improves pregnancy outcomes for opioid dependent women, its use has implications for the infant, most notably the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). NAS is comprised of physiologic signs and behaviors that indicate a dysfunctional regulation of the central and autonomic nervous systems, and is variable in its expression in affected infants. The disorganized rather than adaptive behaviors displayed by each infant undergoing the effects of in-utero opioid exposure may impair basic functions such as feeding, sleeping, and the ability to be alert and communicate clear cues to caregivers. Understanding and responding to neurobehavioral dysfunction of the newborn may help to promote the infant’s self-organization and self-regulating abilities. However, the substance abusing mother’s physical and psychological wellbeing may be debilitated in the perinatal period, and her ability to recognize and respond to the newborn’s cues may be limited. A multi-tiered comprehensive assessment and intervention of the methadone-maintained mother, her child, and the mother/infant dyad can improve early maternal nurturing interactions, a crucial component of early infant development, particularly in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to review the contribution of maternal opioid dependency to the difficulties experienced by the mother-infant dyad and their treatment providers in the postnatal period, and the non-pharmacological treatment of the infants with suggestions for practical measures with emphasis on the treatment of the mother and baby as an interactional dyad. PMID:19727440

Velez, Martha; Jansson, Lauren M.



The Opioid dependent mother and newborn dyad: non-pharmacologic care.  


Opioid dependent pregnant and post-partum women and their infants are a complex and vulnerable population requiring individualized, comprehensive and multidisciplinary treatment. Though methadone maintenance in the setting of comprehensive service provision during pregnancy significantly improves pregnancy outcomes for opioid dependent women, its use has implications for the infant, most notably the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). NAS is comprised of physiologic signs and behaviors that indicate a dysfunctional regulation of the central and autonomic nervous systems, and is variable in its expression in affected infants. The disorganized rather than adaptive behaviors displayed by each infant undergoing the effects of in-utero opioid exposure may impair basic functions such as feeding, sleeping, and the ability to be alert and communicate clear cues to caregivers. Understanding and responding to neurobehavioral dysfunction of the newborn may help to promote the infant's self-organization and self-regulating abilities. However, the substance abusing mother's physical and psychological wellbeing may be debilitated in the perinatal period, and her ability to recognize and respond to the newborn's cues may be limited. A multi-tiered comprehensive assessment and intervention of the methadone-maintained mother, her child, and the mother/infant dyad can improve early maternal nurturing interactions, a crucial component of early infant development, particularly in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to review the contribution of maternal opioid dependency to the difficulties experienced by the mother-infant dyad and their treatment providers in the postnatal period, and the non-pharmacological treatment of the infants with suggestions for practical measures with emphasis on the treatment of the mother and baby as an interactional dyad. PMID:19727440

Velez, Martha; Jansson, Lauren M



Peer Network Overlap in Twin, Sibling, and Friend Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that sibling–peer connections are important for understanding adolescent problem behaviors. Using a novel behavioral genetic design, the current study investigated peer network overlap in 300 child–child pairs (aged 7-13 years) in 5 dyad types: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic twins, full siblings (FSs), friend pairs, and virtual…

McGuire, Shirley; Segal, Nancy L.



Conflict escalation in dyads with a history of territorial disputes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Building on the steps to war model, this paper seeks to examine the impact that territorial Militarized Interstate Disputes (MID) have on the time it takes a dyad to go to war after it experiences its first MID. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A model common to epidemiological research, the hazard model, is employed to examine the dyadic relationship from the

Karen K. Petersen



Exchange and cohesion in dyads and triads: A test of Simmel's hypothesis.  


This paper uses social exchange theory to address a classic question posed by Simmel (1964) regarding dyads and triads. The question is whether exchanges in a triad will generate more cohesion at the group level than exchanges in an isolated dyad. The main hypotheses, integrating several ideas from Simmel and social exchange theories, are as follows. First, triads generate less variability of behavior than dyads; that is, there is more uniformity or convergence in triads. Second, in the context of repeated exchange, we predict higher levels of cohesion in triads than in dyads. Third, positive emotion or affect has a stronger impact on cohesion in dyads than in triads, whereas uncertainty reduction has a stronger impact on cohesion in triads. To test these hypotheses, an experiment compared isolated dyads to dyads nested in a triadic exchange network. Subjects engaged in exchanges across a series of distinct episodes, using standard experimental procedures from research on relational cohesion (Lawler and Yoon, 1996) and exchange networks (Molm and Cook, 1995; Willer, 1999). Consistent with the hypotheses, the results reveal more convergence of behavior and higher cohesion in triads than in dyads; moreover, uncertainty reduction is the primary basis for cohesion in the triad, whereas positive affect was the primary basis for cohesion in the dyad. These results are discussed in relation to Simmelian dyad-triad dynamics and the theory of relational cohesion. PMID:24090845

Yoon, Jeongkoo; Thye, Shane R; Lawler, Edward J



Differences in intergender communication within task-oriented dyads  

E-print Network

-Oriented Groups. " American Sociological Review 42:92-105. Pillon, Agnesa, Catherine Degauquier and Francois Duquesne. 1992. "Males' and Females' Conversational Behavior in Cross-Sex Dyads: From Gender Differences to Gender Similarities. " Journal... of Psycholinguistic Research 21:147-172. Pugh, M. D. and Ralph Warhman. 1983. "Neutralizing Sexism in Mixed-Sex Groups: Do Women Have to Be Better than Men?" American Journal of Sociology 88:746-762. Ridgeway, Cecilia L. 1991. "The Social Construction of Status...

McAfee, Joanna Lynn



Ultrafast energy transfer dynamics of a bioinspired dyad molecule.  


A caroteno-purpurin dyad molecule was studied by steady-state and pump-probe spectroscopies to resolve the excited-state deactivation dynamics of the different energy levels as well as the connecting energy flow pathways and corresponding rate constants. The data were analyzed with a two-step multi-parameter global fitting procedure that makes use of an evolutionary algorithm. We found that following ultrafast excitation of the donor (carotenoid) chromophore to its S2 state, the energy flows via two channels: energy transfer (70%) and internal conversion (30%) with time constants of 54 and 110 fs, respectively. Additionally, some of the initial excitation is found to populate the hot ground state, revealing another limitation to the functional efficiency. At later times, a back transfer occurs from the purpurin to the carotenoid triplet state in nanosecond timescales. Details of the energy flow within the dyad as well as species associated spectra are disentangled for all excited-state and ground-state species for the first time. We also observe oscillations with the most pronounced peak on the Fourier transform spectrum having a frequency of 530 cm(-1). The dyad mimics the dynamics of the natural light-harvesting complex LH2 from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and is hence a good model system to be used in studies aimed to further explain previous work in which the branching ratio between the competing pathways of energy loss and energy transfer could be manipulated by adaptive femtosecond pulse shaping. PMID:18260660

Savolainen, Janne; Dijkhuizen, Niels; Fanciulli, Riccardo; Liddell, Paul A; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Hauer, Jürgen; Buckup, Tiago; Motzkus, Marcus; Herek, Jennifer L



Beverage intake in low-income parent-child dyads.  


Beverage consumption adds to daily energy intake and often exceeds the recommended amount for discretionary energy. Previous research has shown that children are consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in greater frequency and the relationship between parent-child dyads in beverage consumption is meaningful due to the parental influence on the development of beverage consumption behaviors. In particular, low-income families are at greater risk for obesity and higher levels of SSB consumption. The current investigation assessed habitual beverage intake among low-income parent-child dyads (N=95) with children between the ages of 9-17 years. The sample (46% African American; 45% Caucasian) had a mean body mass index (BMI) for the parents of 31.8±8.9 kg/m(2), while the mean BMI percentile for age and gender for the children was 70.3±31.3. Both parents and children consumed fewer nutrient-dense beverages and more energy-dense beverages than the recommended amount. The mean daily energy intake from beverages was 451±236 kcal for the parents and 457±237 kcal for the children. Correlations between parent-child dyad intake was also evident, identifying parents as potential role models and gatekeepers of the home food environment. Future interventions to prevent childhood obesity in low-income populations should address beverage intake, particularly SSB consumption, and determine the degree to which this behavior is learned behavior in the home. PMID:22051366

Pinard, Courtney A; Davy, Brenda M; Estabrooks, Paul A



Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad  

PubMed Central

Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants interfere with the success of breast-feeding. Health care providers can promote breast-feeding duration by advising unlimited feeds, promoting ‘rooming-in’ at hospitals, and providing support and information. PMID:21267148

Ellis, Donelda



Beyond the ‘dyad’: a qualitative re-evaluation of the changing clinical consultation  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify characteristics of consultations that do not conform to the traditionally understood communication ‘dyad’, in order to highlight implications for medical education and develop a reflective ‘toolkit’ for use by medical practitioners and educators in the analysis of consultations. Design A series of interdisciplinary research workshops spanning 12?months explored the social impact of globalisation and computerisation on the clinical consultation, focusing specifically on contemporary challenges to the clinician–patient dyad. Researchers presented detailed case studies of consultations, taken from their recent research projects. Drawing on concepts from applied sociolinguistics, further analysis of selected case studies prompted the identification of key emergent themes. Setting University departments in the UK and Switzerland. Participants Six researchers with backgrounds in medicine, applied linguistics, sociolinguistics and medical education. One workshop was also attended by PhD students conducting research on healthcare interactions. Results The contemporary consultation is characterised by a multiplicity of voices. Incorporation of additional voices in the consultation creates new forms of order (and disorder) in the interaction. The roles ‘clinician’ and ‘patient’ are blurred as they become increasingly distributed between different participants. These new consultation arrangements make new demands on clinicians, which lie beyond the scope of most educational programmes for clinical communication. Conclusions The consultation is changing. Traditional consultation models that assume a ‘dyadic’ consultation do not adequately incorporate the realities of many contemporary consultations. A paradox emerges between the need to manage consultations in a ‘super-diverse’ multilingual society, while also attending to increasing requirements for standardised protocol-driven approaches to care prompted by computer use. The tension between standardisation and flexibility requires addressing in educational contexts. Drawing on concepts from applied sociolinguistics and the findings of these research observations, the authors offer a reflective ‘toolkit’ of questions to ask of the consultation in the context of enquiry-based learning. PMID:25270858

Swinglehurst, Deborah; Roberts, Celia; Li, Shuangyu; Weber, Orest; Singy, Pascal



Socially Shared Metacognition of Dyads of Pupils in Collaborative Mathematical Problem-Solving Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how metacognition appears as a socially shared phenomenon within collaborative mathematical word-problem solving processes of dyads of high-achieving pupils. Four dyads solved problems of different difficulty levels. The pupils were 10 years old. The problem-solving activities were videotaped and transcribed in terms of…

Iiskala, Tuike; Vauras, Marja; Lehtinen, Erno; Salonen, Pekka



Association between Dyads and Correct Responses on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sensitivity of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) to working memory deficits may be enhanced by examining "dyads" (i.e., correct responses immediately preceded by a correct response) as a complement to the traditional total correct summary score. In a sample of 397 mostly African American (79%) healthy adults, total dyad and total…

Gonzalez, Raul; Miller, S. Walden; Carey, Catherine L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Rippeth, Julie D.; Schweinsburg, Brian C.; Norman, Marc A.; Martin, Eileen M.; Heaton, Robert K.



The Relationship of Sexual Dyad and Personal Network Characteristics and Individual Attributes to Unprotected Sex Among Young Injecting Drug Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine in the heterosexual partnerships (dyads) of IDUs the correlates of engaging in unprotected sex on three levels:\\u000a individual attributes, social network characteristics, and dyad characteristics. Unprotected sex was significantly less likely\\u000a to occur in dyads where the participant injected daily or had high safe-sex attitude scores, and in dyads where both members\\u000a encouraged each other to use condoms.

V. Anna Gyarmathy; Alan Neaigus



CO2 photoreduction with long-wavelength light: dyads and monomers of zinc porphyrin and rhenium bipyridine.  


Photocatalytic CO(2) reduction has been studied for two dyads with porphyrin covalently attached to rhenium tricarbonyl bipyridine moieties, and on separate components consisting of [Re(CO)(3)(Picoline)Bpy](+) and either zinc porphyrin or zinc chlorin. TONs decrease in the order: zinc porphyrin + Re > long spacer dyad > zinc chlorin + Re > short spacer dyad. PMID:22785349

Windle, Christopher D; Câmpian, Marius V; Duhme-Klair, Anne-K; Gibson, Elizabeth A; Perutz, Robin N; Schneider, Jacob



The Indefinite Dyad and the Golden Section: Uncovering Plato’s Second Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Scott Olsen examines the philosophy of Plato to bring to light the nature of Plato’s Second Principle, known as the Indefinite\\u000a Dyad, sometimes called the Greater and the Lesser, and its relation to the Golden Section, ? . He responds to the challenge\\u000a posed in 1983 by Kenneth Sayre, and explains how the the Indefinite Dyad can be used to

Scott Olsen



Role of a phthalocyanine–fullerene dyad in multilayered organic solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-bridged phthalocyanine–fullerene dyad (H2Pc–C60ee) was used as photo-active intramolecular donor–acceptor system in a layered organic solar cell. In this device, a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PHT) film was used as electron donor, whereas either C60 or perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) film was selected as electron acceptor. The introduction of the dyad layer leads to an enhancement of the power conversion efficiency (?)

Paola Vivo; Mikko Ojala; Vladimir Chukharev; Alexander Efimov; Helge Lemmetyinen



Smoking Concordance in Lung and Colorectal Cancer Patient-Caregiver Dyads and Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Background Distress may be heightened among members of cancer patient-caregiver dyads that are mismatched on smoking status (either the patient or caregiver smokes, but the other does not), negatively affecting quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between patient-caregiver smoking concordance, caregiver psychological adjustment, and caregiver and patient mental and physical QoL. Methods Lung and colorectal patient-caregiver dyads (N= 742) were identified from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) and CanCORS Caregiver studies. The majority of the cancer patients were male (67.0 %) with local (45.6 %) or regional (12.9 %) disease. The majority of the informal caregivers were females (78.6%), under 65 years of age (69.6%), and often spouses (57.8%) of the patients. Results Lung and colorectal cancer caregivers who were members of dyads where one or both members continued to smoke, reported worse mental health QoL than non-smoking dyads. For colorectal cancer patients, continuing to smoke when the caregiver did not was associated with worse mental health QoL compared to non-smoking dyads. Dyad smoking was less strongly associated with physical QoL for both caregivers and patients. Conclusion Results highlight the importance of assessing smoking in both cancer patients and their caregivers and referring families to appropriate psychosocial and smoking cessation services. Impact This is the first study to show associations between cancer patient-caregiver smoking status and QoL for both dyad members. Future studies will need to confirm these associations longitudinally and investigate potential mechanisms linking dyad smoking and QoL. PMID:21177426

Weaver, Kathryn E.; Rowland, Julia H.; Augustson, Erik; Atienza, Audie A.




PubMed Central

Despite psychometric rationale to include multiple informants, psychological assessment typically involves data collected from the patient (target) only, particularly with regard to depressive and anxious symptomatology. This study addressed this gap in the literature by assessing convergence between targets and their close friends (informants) in an ethnically diverse sample of young adults. One hundred and thirty-nine friendship dyads completed a packet of questionnaires including different versions administered to the targets and informants, with targets completing the standard questionnaire battery focused on their own symptoms and informants completing questionnaires on their view of the target participants’ symptoms, rather than their own characteristics. Measures were included to assess a wide range of symptomatology, including behavioral, cognitive, and physiological symptoms of anxiety and depression. The target-informant correlations were largely significant and of small-to-medium magnitude. In addition, target-informant agreement was higher in more visible symptoms (e.g., behavioral) than in less visible symptoms (e.g., physiological) of anxiety and depression. Interestingly, level of closeness in the relationship did not influence the magnitude of correlations. Implications for future research and integration into clinical assessment practices are discussed. PMID:25089072




A trident dithienylethene-perylenemonoimide dyad with super fluorescence switching speed and ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoswitchable fluorescent diarylethenes are promising in molecular optical memory and photonic devices. However, the performance of current diarylethenes is far from satisfactory because of the scarcity of high-speed switching capability and large fluorescence on-off ratio. Here we report a trident perylenemonoimide dyad modified by triple dithienylethenes whose photochromic fluorescence quenching ratio at the photostationary state exceeds 10,000 and the fluorescence quenching efficiency is close to 100% within seconds of ultraviolet irradiation. The highly sensitive fluorescence on/off switching of the trident dyad enables recyclable fluorescence patterning and all-optical transistors. The prototype optical device based on the trident dyad enables the optical switching of incident light and conversion from incident light wavelength to transmitted light wavelength, which is all-optically controlled, reversible and wavelength-convertible. In addition, the trident dyad-staining block copolymer vesicles are observed via optical nanoimaging with a sub-100?nm resolution, portending a potential prospect of the dithienylethene dyad in super-resolution imaging.

Li, Chong; Yan, Hui; Zhao, Ling-Xi; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Hu, Zhe; Huang, Zhen-Li; Zhu, Ming-Qiang



Let the force be with us: dyads exploit haptic coupling for coordination.  


People often perform actions that involve a direct physical coupling with another person, such as when moving furniture together. Here, we examined how people successfully coordinate such actions with others. We tested the hypothesis that dyads amplify their forces to create haptic information to coordinate. Participants moved a pole (resembling a pendulum) back and forth between two targets at different amplitudes and frequencies. They did so by pulling on cords attached to the base of the pole, one on each side. In the individual condition, one participant performed this task bimanually, and in the joint condition two participants each controlled one cord. We measured the moment-to-moment pulling forces on each cord and the pole kinematics to determine how well individuals and dyads performed. Results indicated that dyads produced much more overlapping forces than individuals, especially for tasks with higher coordination requirements. Thus, the results suggest that dyads amplify their forces to generate a haptic information channel. This likely reflects a general coordination principle in haptic joint action, where force amplification allows dyads to perform at the same level as individuals. PMID:21417545

van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Knoblich, Guenther; Sebanz, Natalie



A trident dithienylethene-perylenemonoimide dyad with super fluorescence switching speed and ratio.  


Photoswitchable fluorescent diarylethenes are promising in molecular optical memory and photonic devices. However, the performance of current diarylethenes is far from satisfactory because of the scarcity of high-speed switching capability and large fluorescence on-off ratio. Here we report a trident perylenemonoimide dyad modified by triple dithienylethenes whose photochromic fluorescence quenching ratio at the photostationary state exceeds 10,000 and the fluorescence quenching efficiency is close to 100% within seconds of ultraviolet irradiation. The highly sensitive fluorescence on/off switching of the trident dyad enables recyclable fluorescence patterning and all-optical transistors. The prototype optical device based on the trident dyad enables the optical switching of incident light and conversion from incident light wavelength to transmitted light wavelength, which is all-optically controlled, reversible and wavelength-convertible. In addition, the trident dyad-staining block copolymer vesicles are observed via optical nanoimaging with a sub-100?nm resolution, portending a potential prospect of the dithienylethene dyad in super-resolution imaging. PMID:25502396

Li, Chong; Yan, Hui; Zhao, Ling-Xi; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Hu, Zhe; Huang, Zhen-Li; Zhu, Ming-Qiang



Recruitment of Older Adult Patient-Caregiver Dyads for an Online Caregiver Resource Program: Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

Hip fracture is a significant health problem for older adults and generally requires surgery followed by intensive rehabilitation. Informal caregivers (CGs) can provide vital assistance to older adults recovering from hip fracture. Caregiving is a dyadic process that affects both CGs and care recipients (CRs). In a feasibility study, we assessed the effects of using a theory-based online hip fracture resource program for CGs on both CGs and CRs. In this article, we discuss our recruitment process and the lessons learned. Participants were recruited from six acute hospitals, and CGs used the online resource program for 8 weeks. A total of 256 hip fracture patients were screened, and 164 CRs were ineligible. CG screening was initiated when CRs were determined to be eligible. Among 41 eligible dyads, 36 dyads were recruited. Several challenges to the recruitment of these dyads for online studies were identified, including a low number of eligible dyads in certain hospitals and difficulty recruiting both the CR and the CG during the short hospital stay. Field nurses often had to make multiple trips to the hospital to meet with both the CR and the CG. Thus, when a subject unit is a dyad recruited from acute settings, the resources required for the recruitment may be more than doubled. These challenges could be successfully alleviated with careful planning, competent field staff members, collaboration with hospital staff members, and efficient field operations. PMID:23549905

Orwig, Denise; Resnick, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Bellantoni, Michele; Sterling, Robert



Effects of Gender Role and Task Content on Performance in Same-Gender Dyads: Transactive Memory as a Potential Mediator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment was designed to examine the effects of gender role and task content on performance in learning dyads and to test the potential mediator effect of an intragroup process related to transactive memory. A total of 44 same-gender dyads participated in the study and were asked to collaborate on a stereotypically masculine or feminine…

Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas; Huguet, Pascal



Counselling Australian Baby Boomers: Examining the Loss and Grief Issues Facing Aging Distance-Separated Sibling Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has long been recognised that mature-aged sibling dyads provide each other with emotional support. What has yet to be determined is whether this support function is maintained within the baby boomer generational cohort of sibling dyads who through economic relocation/migration have become separated by distance. As such, this paper highlights…

Taylor, Myra Frances; Clark, Nadia; Newton, Elaine



Protein Geometry and Placement in the Cardiac Dyad Influence Macroscopic Properties of Calcium-Induced Calcium Release  

E-print Network

Protein Geometry and Placement in the Cardiac Dyad Influence Macroscopic Properties of Calcium-Induced Calcium Release Antti J. Tanskanen,*yz Joseph L. Greenstein,*yz Alex Chen,*yz Sean X. Sun,y§ and Raimond L of calcium (Ca21 ) ions in the dyad have often been described by assigning continuously valued Ca21

Sun, Sean


Psychological adaptation to life-threatening injury in dyads: the role of dysfunctional disclosure of trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Certain modes of trauma disclosure have been found to be associated with more severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in different trauma populations: the reluctance to disclose trauma-related thoughts and feelings, a strong urge to talk about it, and physical as well as emotional reactions during disclosure. Although social-contextual influences gain more and more interest in trauma research, no study has yet investigated these “dysfunctional disclosure tendencies” and their association with PTS from an interpersonal perspective. Objective (1) To replicate previous findings on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies in patients with life-threatening injury and their significant others and (2) to study interpersonal associations between dysfunctional disclosure style and PTS at a dyadic level. Method PTS symptom severity and self-reports on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies were assessed in N=70 dyads comprising one individual with severe traumatic brain injury and a significant other (“proxy”) 3 months after injury. Results Regression analyses predicting PTS symptom severity revealed dysfunctional disclosure tendencies to have incremental validity above and beyond sex, age, and trauma severity within the individual (both patient and proxy), with moderate effect sizes. The interaction between patient's and proxy's disclosure style explained additional portions of the variance in patients’ PTS symptom severity. Conclusions Findings suggest that dysfunctional disclosure tendencies are related to poorer psychological adaptation to severe traumatic brain injury. This intrapersonal association may be exacerbated by dysfunctional disclosure tendencies on the part of a significant other. Although the results require replication in other trauma samples without brain injury to further generalize the findings beyond the observed population, the study contributes to the expanding literature on the crucial role of interpersonal relationships in trauma recovery. PMID:22893822

Pielmaier, Laura; Maercker, Andreas



Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial Relationships, Communication, and Opportunities  

E-print Network

Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial This study investigated mother infant interactions in lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla conducive to infant social learning. Eleven gorilla mother infant dyads were focally observed in weekly 1-hr

Maestripieri, Dario


African American and European American Therapists' Experiences of Addressing Race in Cross-Racial Psychotherapy Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Consensual Qualitative Research, 12 licensed psychologists' overall experiences addressing race in psychotherapy were investigated, as were their experiences addressing race in a specific cross-racial therapy dyad. Results indicated that only African American psychologists reported routinely addressing race with clients of color or when race…

Knox, Sarah; Burkard, Alan W.; Johnson, Adanna J.; Suzuki, Lisa A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.



Couple Coping and Adjustment to Multiple Sclerosis in Care Receiver-Carer Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The utility of "coping congruency" and "average level of couple coping" in explaining adjustment to multiple sclerosis was examined. Interview and questionnaire data was collected for 45 dyads with a 12-month follow-up. Predictors include Time 1 illness, caregiving, and coping variables. Findings support both concepts for explaining collective and…

Pakenham, Kenneth I.



Multi-electron-acceptor dyad and triad systems based on perylene bisimides and fullerenes.  


Fullerene (C(60)) and 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTDCI) were used as building blocks for an electron acceptor dyad (C(60)-PTCDI) and triad (C(60)-PTCDI-C(60)). As the first reduction potentials for C(60) and PTCDI are very close, simultaneous introduction of two or three electrons is possible into the dyad and triad, respectively. Further stepwise electrochemical reduction leads to formation of a series of well-defined anionic species in which electrons associated with the fullerene or the PTDCI components of the molecule can be clearly distinguished. In total, up to four electrons can be reversibly injected into the dyad C(60)-PTCDI and up to six into the triad C(60)-PTCDI-C(60) system. The optical absorption properties in the UV/Vis range are also crucially defined by the distribution of electrons between the acceptor parts, as the injection/removal of electrons causes drastic colour changes in the dyad and the triad systems. PMID:21365704

Chamberlain, Thomas W; Davies, E Stephen; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Champness, Neil R



Value creation architecture and engineering : A business model encompassing the firm-customer dyad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for a value creation business (VCB) model. It seeks to unlock two essential research questions: “what constitutes value”, and “how do firms create value for customers?” in the context of the firm-customer dyad. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is conceptual and is premised on a review of the

Liem Viet Ngo; Aron OCass



Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. II. Recoupled pair bond dyads in carbon and sulfur difluoride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of a bond between a second ligand and a molecule with a recoupled pair bond results in a recoupled pair bond dyad. We examine the recoupled pair bond dyads in the a3B1 states of CF2 and SF2, which are formed by the addition of a fluorine atom to the a4?- states of CF and SF, both of which possess recoupled pair bonds. The two dyads are very different. In SF2, the second FS-F bond is very strong (De = 106.3 kcal/mol), the bond length is much shorter than that in the SF(a4?-) state (1.666 Å versus 1.882 Å), and the three atoms are nearly collinear (?e = 162.7°) with only a small barrier to linearity (0.4 kcal/mol). In CF2, the second FC-F bond is also very strong (De = 149.5 kcal/mol), but the bond is only slightly shorter than that in the CF(a4?-) state (1.314 Å versus 1.327 Å), and the molecule is strongly bent (?e = 119.0°) with an 80.5 kcal/mol barrier to linearity. The a3B1 states of CF2 and SF2 illustrate the fundamental differences between recoupled pair bond dyads formed from 2s and 3p lone pairs.

Dunning, Thom H.; Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Xu, Lu T.



Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. II. Recoupled pair bond dyads in carbon and sulfur difluoride.  


Formation of a bond between a second ligand and a molecule with a recoupled pair bond results in a recoupled pair bond dyad. We examine the recoupled pair bond dyads in the a(3)B1 states of CF2 and SF2, which are formed by the addition of a fluorine atom to the a(4)?(-) states of CF and SF, both of which possess recoupled pair bonds. The two dyads are very different. In SF2, the second FS-F bond is very strong (De = 106.3 kcal/mol), the bond length is much shorter than that in the SF(a(4)?(-)) state (1.666 Å versus 1.882 Å), and the three atoms are nearly collinear (?e = 162.7°) with only a small barrier to linearity (0.4 kcal/mol). In CF2, the second FC-F bond is also very strong (De = 149.5 kcal/mol), but the bond is only slightly shorter than that in the CF(a(4)?(-)) state (1.314 Å versus 1.327 Å), and the molecule is strongly bent (?e = 119.0°) with an 80.5 kcal/mol barrier to linearity. The a(3)B1 states of CF2 and SF2 illustrate the fundamental differences between recoupled pair bond dyads formed from 2s and 3p lone pairs. PMID:25612696

Dunning, Thom H; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Xu, Lu T



Carborane photochemistry triggered by aryl substitution: carborane-based dyads with phenyl carbazoles.  


A bright combination: a new type of donor-acceptor dyad, carbazolylaryl-substituted ortho-carboranes, which are conveniently prepared from the corresponding acetylenes and decaborane pathways, showed unique excited-state behavior associated with electron transfer unlike the meta- and para-counterparts. PMID:22298500

Wee, Kyung-Ryang; Han, Won-Sik; Cho, Dae Won; Kwon, Soonnam; Pac, Chyongjin; Kang, Sang Ook



The Histidine 115-Histidine 134 Dyad Mediates the Lactonase Activity of Mammalian Serum Paraoxonases*  

E-print Network

examples of a histidine dyad in enzyme active sites and the first example of a hydrolytic enzyme PON1, a high density lipoprotein- associated enzyme that is the most studied family member, remains is a promiscuous activity of this enzyme, is mediated by other residues. To our knowledge, this is one of few

Tawfik, Dan S.


Analysis of Cross-Sectional Univariate Measurements for Family Dyads Using Linear Mixed Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome measurements from members of the same family are likely correlated. Such intrafamilial correlation (IFC) is an important dimension of the family as a unit but is not always accounted for in analyses of family data. This article demonstrates the use of linear mixed modeling to account for IFC in the important special case of univariate measurements for family dyads

George J. Knafl; Jane K. Dixon; Jean P. OMalley; Margaret Grey; Janet A. Deatrick; Agatha M. Gallo; Kathleen A. Knafl



Custodial Grandmother-Grandfather Dyads: Pathways among Marital Distress, Grandparent Dysphoria, Parenting Practice, and Grandchild Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on…

Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.



Synthesis of mesogenic phthalocyanine-C60 donor–acceptor dyads designed for molecular heterojunction photovoltaic devices  

PubMed Central

Summary A series of phthalocyanine-C60 dyads 2a–d was synthesized. Key steps in their synthesis are preparation of the low symmetry phthalocyanine intermediate by the statistical condensation of two phthalonitriles, and the final esterification of the fullerene derivative bearing a free COOH group. Structural characterization of the molecules in solution was performed by NMR spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Preliminary studies suggest formation of liquid crystalline (LC) mesophases for some of the prepared dyads. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of LC phthalocyanine-C60 dyads. PMID:19936269

Debever, Olivier; Amato, Claire



Electron Exchange and the Photophysics of Metal-Quinone Complexes. 1. Synthesis and Spectroscopy of Chromium-Quinone Dyads  

E-print Network

of Chromium-Quinone Dyads Daniel E. Wheeler and James K. McCusker* Department of Chemistry, University and spectroscopic characterization of monosemiquinone and monocatechol complexes of chromium(III) are described

McCusker, James K.


On the photo-induced charge-carrier generation within monolayers of self-assembled organic donor-acceptor dyads.  


By means of STM and nc-AFM the self-assembly of a new donor-acceptor (DA) dyad molecule on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is identified and compared to molecular simulations. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements clearly show the photovoltaic activity of this model system under illumination. The optoelectronic properties and the local morphology of the DA dyad assembly are simultaneously probed by KPFM down to the level of one molecular monolayers. PMID:25123291

Fuchs, Franz; Linares, Mathieu; de Vet, Christiaan; Leclère, Philippe; Demadrille, Renaud; Grévin, Benjamin



The role of the nurse-physician leadership dyad in implementing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.  


The concept of the nurse-physician leadership dyad incorporates the expertise of both nurses and physicians as leaders of change within health system environments. The leadership dyad model has been used traditionally in health care administrative settings to manage utilization of resources more effectively. Because the Baby-Friendly designation requires major cultural shifts in long-standing maternity care practices, an interdisciplinary approach to implementation is necessary. PMID:24939200

St Fleur, Rose; McKeever, Joyce



Factors Affecting Co-Operative vs. Competitive Behavior in Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretical interpretations of cooperation and competition are discussed in relation to motivational and situational determinants. It is suggested that the degree of competition exhibited in an interaction is an inverse function of the quantity of resources available, and that the effect of situational characteristics on cooperative behavior is…

O'Day, Gerald; Phelan, Joseph G.


Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…

Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University



An organic spin crossover material in water from a covalently linked radical dyad.  


A covalently linked viologen radical cation dyad acts as a reversible thermomagnetic switch in water. Cycling between diamagnetic and paramagnetic forms by heating and cooling is accompanied by changes in optical and magnetic properties with high radical fidelity. Thermomagnetic switches in water may eventually find use as novel biological thermometers and in temperature-responsive organic materials where the changes in properties originate from a change in electronic spin configuration rather than a change in structure. PMID:25068840

Geraskina, Margarita R; Buck, Alexander T; Winter, Arthur H



Promoting cultural understanding through pediatric clinical dyads: an education research project.  


This project explored the experiences of six undergraduate nursing students, three American nursing students and three nursing students from the Sultan of Oman, who participated in a faculty initiated education research project as part of their pediatric clinical practicum. Students were placed in dyads, with one American-born student and one Omani student in each dyad. Omani students also were paired with American nurse preceptors. A transcript-based content analysis was used to analyze data generated from qualitative focus group student interviews and student journals. The analysis generated three themes that described how myths were dispelled, cultural barriers were broken down and knowledge gained from another cultural perspective. The nurse preceptors were surveyed at the conclusion of the program. The survey findings suggest that preceptors gained a different cultural perspective of nursing care and they were better informed of the Omani students' learning needs. There was, however, an additional investment of preceptor time in meeting the learning needs of international students. Additional faculty time was also required for preparation and time during clinical conferencing to address differences in nursing practice between U.S. and Oman while meeting course learning objectives. Overall, the educational program provided evidence of enhancing American and Omani student cultural competence and Omani student adaptation to the United States. Coupling a domestic student with an international student to form dyads from the beginning of international students' experience could be a significant enhancement to both groups of students' learning experience. PMID:24746943

McDermott-Levy, Ruth; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Reynolds, Kathryn



Component analysis of dyads designed for light-driven water oxidation.  


A series of seven dyad molecules have been prepared utilizing a [Ru(tpy)(NN)I](+) type oxidation catalyst (NN = 2,5-di(pyrid-2'-yl) pyrazine (1), 2,5-di-(1',8'-dinaphthyrid-2'-yl) pyrazine (2), or 4,6-di-(1',8'-dinaphthyrid-2'-yl) pyrimidine (3). The other bidentate site of the bridging ligand was coordinated with 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), or a substituted derivative. These dinuclear complexes were characterized by their (1)H NMR spectra paying special attention to protons held in the vicinity of the electronegative iodide. In one case, 10a, the complex was also analyzed by single crystal X-ray analysis. The electronic absorption spectra of all the complexes were measured and reported as well as emission properties for the sensitizers. Oxidation and reduction potentials were measured and excited state redox properties were calculated from this data. Turnover numbers, initial rates, and induction periods for oxygen production in the presence of a blue LED light and sodium persulfate as a sacrificial oxidant were measured. Similar experiments were run without irradiation. Dyad performance correlated well with the difference between the excited state reduction potential of the photosensitizer and the ground state oxidation potential of the water oxidation dyad. The most active system was one having 5,6-dibromophen as the auxiliary ligand, and the least active system was the one having 4,4'-dimethylbpy as the auxiliary ligand. PMID:24364791

Kohler, Lars; Kaveevivitchai, Nattawut; Zong, Ruifa; Thummel, Randolph P



Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.  


Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. PMID:24463037

Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro



Maternal recasts and activity variations: a comparison of mother-child dyads involving children with and without SLI.  


This study investigated maternal recast and the children's responses comparing dyads made up of a mother and a child with typical language development (TD) or a child with specific language impairment (SLI). More specifically, this article deals with the influence of the type of activity being carried out on the number and types of maternal recasts. A sample of 17 French-speaking children with SLI (age 5 to 7 years) matched with 17 TD same-age peers was observed in interaction with their mother during four different activities (joint reading, symbolic play, question guessing game and clue guessing game). The results showed that group and activity had an impact on the number and type of recasts. Mothers of children with SLI offered more recasts than mothers of TD children. The former preferred phonological recasts whereas the latter preferred lexical ones. Moreover, recasts were more frequently used in joint reading than in other activities. Regarding the children's responses, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Children with SLI took up the maternal proposition more frequently after a lexical recast than after a recast of another type. The findings provide evidence for considering the features of the activities in clinical settings. PMID:23819678

Rezzonico, Stefano; de Weck, Geneviève; Salazar Orvig, Anne; da Silva Genest, Christine; Rahmati, Somayeh



Photoacid behavior versus proton-coupled electron transfer in phenol-Ru(bpy)3(2+) dyads.  


Two dyads composed of a Ru(bpy)3(2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) photosensitizer and a covalently attached phenol were synthesized and investigated. In the shorter dyad (Ru-PhOH) the ruthenium complex and the phenol are attached directly to each other whereas in the longer dyad there is a p-xylene (xy) spacer in between (Ru-xy-PhOH). Electrochemical investigations indicate that intramolecular electron transfer (ET) from phenol to the photoexcited metal complex is endergonic by more than 0.3 eV in both dyads, explaining the absence of any (3)MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) excited-state quenching by the phenols in pure CH3CN and CH2Cl2. When pyridine is added to a CH2Cl2 solution, significant excited-state quenching can be observed for both dyads, but the bimolecular quenching rate constants differ by 2 orders of magnitude between Ru-PhOH and Ru-xy-PhOH. Transient absorption spectroscopy shows that in the presence of pyridine both dyads react to photoproducts containing Ru(II) and phenolate. The activation energies associated with the photoreactions in the two dyads differ by 1 order of magnitude, and this might suggest that the formation of identical photoproducts proceeds through fundamentally different reaction pathways in Ru-PhOH and Ru-xy-PhOH. For Ru-PhOH direct proton release from the photoexcited dyad is a plausible reaction pathway. For Ru-xy-PhOH a sequence of a photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) followed by an intramolecular (thermal) electron transfer in the reverse direction is a plausible reaction pathway; this two-step process involves a reaction intermediate containing Ru(I) and phenoxyl radical that reacts very rapidly to Ru(II) and phenolate. Thermal back-reactions to restore the initial starting materials occur on a 30-50 ?s time scale in both dyads; i.e., due to proton release the photoproducts are very long-lived. These back-reactions exhibit inverse H/D kinetic isotope effects of 0.7 ± 0.1 (Ru-PhOH) and 0.6 ± 0.1 (Ru-xy-PhOH) at room temperature. PMID:23834357

Kuss-Petermann, Martin; Wenger, Oliver S



Inhibition of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase under Conditions Occurring in the Cardiac Dyad during a Ca2+ Transient  

PubMed Central

The space between the t-tubule invagination and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane, the dyad, in ventricular myocytes has been predicted to experience very high [Ca2+] for short periods of time during a Ca2+ transient. The dyadic space accommodates many protein kinases responsible for the regulation of Ca2+ handling proteins of the cell. We show in vitro that cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is inhibited by high [Ca2+] through a shift in the ratio of CaATP/MgATP toward CaATP. We further generate a three-dimensional mathematical model of Ca2+ and ATP diffusion within dyad. We use this model to predict the extent to which PKA would be inhibited by an increased CaATP/MgATP ratio during a Ca2+ transient in the dyad in vivo. Our results suggest that under normal physiological conditions a myocyte paced at 1 Hz would experience up to 55% inhibition of PKA within the cardiac dyad, with inhibition averaging 5% throughout the transient, an effect which becomes more pronounced as the myocyte contractile frequency increases (at 7 Hz, PKA inhibition averages 28% across the dyad throughout the duration of a Ca2+ transient). PMID:16632511

Jones, Peter P.; Bazzazi, Hojjat; Kargacin, Gary J.; Colyer, John



Fluorescence photoswitching and photoreversible two-way energy transfer in a photochrome-fluorophore dyad.  


A thorough photophysical study of a photochrome-fluorophore dyad (3), combining a fluorescent laser dye (DCM-type, , ?(1) = 0.27) and a photochromic diarylethene (2), obtained by click chemistry, is presented. In addition to photochromism, the open form (OF) of 2 exhibits fluorescence (?(-OF) = 0.016), whereas the closed form (CF) does not. Fluorescence is switched upon alternate UV/visible irradiation of 2. The emission band of 2-OF matches the absorption band of 1 (400-550 nm), whereas the emission band of 1 overlaps the absorption band of 2-CF (550-700 nm). Therefore, a photoreversible two-way excitation energy transfer (EET), controlled by the state of the photochromic moiety, is obtained in the dyad 3. Their efficiencies are quantified as ?(EET)(OF?F) = 85% and as ?(EET)(F?CF) ~ 100% from the comparison of emission and excitation spectra between 1, 2, and 3. These results are fully compatible with the shortening of fluorescence lifetimes (from ?(-OF) = 70 ps and 170 ps essentially to ?(-OF) < 10 ps) and to the values of Förster radii determined for 3 (R(0)(OF ? F) = 29 Å and R(0)(F ? CF) = 71 Å), evidencing a Förster-type resonance energy transfer mechanism (FRET). An important outcome of this two-way FRET is the possibility to quench 49% of the fluorescence in 3 at PSS upon UV irradiation, corresponding to the conversion extent of the photochromic reaction, which is different from 2 (?(CF) = 91%). This is a clear example of a situation where the presence of FRET between the photochromic unit and the fluorophore affects noticeably the photochromic properties of the dyad molecule 3. PMID:22868638

Ouhenia-Ouadahi, Karima; Métivier, Rémi; Maisonneuve, Stéphane; Jacquart, Aurélie; Xie, Juan; Léaustic, Anne; Yu, Pei; Nakatani, Keitaro



Behavioral autonomy age expectations among Mexican-origin mother-daughter dyads: an examination of within-group variability.  


This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and daughters, such that mothers reported later expectations for the timing of behavioral autonomy than did daughters. Follow-up analyses indicated that findings appeared to be driven by maternal nativity, with dyads comprised of Mexico-born mothers reporting the latest age expectations for behavioral autonomy when compared with dyads comprised of U.S. born mothers. Findings underscore the need to examine normative development among Latino adolescents and their families with a specific focus on how sociocultural characteristics can contribute to within-family differences. PMID:22093152

Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M



Tuning the Charge-Separated Lifetimes of Ruthenium(II)polypyridyl-Viologen Dyads and Ruthenium(II)polypyridyl-Viologen Triads by the Formation of Supramolecular Assemblies  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Tuning the Charge-Separated Lifetimes of Ruthenium(II)polypyridyl-Viologen Dyads and Ruthenium(II)polypyridyl-Viologen Triads by the Formation of Supramolecular Assemblies with Crown Ethers and photophysical properties of a ruthenium dyad (4) and triad (5) are reported. Both biomimetic systems

Turro, Claudia


Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Dyads: Short-Term Stability and Continuity from Variable-Centered and Person-Centered Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional availability (EA) is a prominent index of socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Can basic psychometric properties of EA be looked at from both variable (scale) and person (cluster) points of view in individuals and in dyads? Is EA stable and continuous over a short period of time? This methodological study shows significant…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Haynes, O. Maurice



Longitudinal Effects of Health-Harming and Health-Protective Behaviors within Adolescent Romantic Dyads  

PubMed Central

Most models exploring adolescent health behavior have focused on individual influences to understand behavior change. The goal of the current study was to assess the role of adolescent romantic partners on the expression of health behavior. Our sample utilized two waves of data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994, 1996), which included 80 romantic dyads (160 individuals). A longitudinal multilevel analysis was conducted. We assessed individual and romantic partner health-harming behaviors (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, smoking, and marijuana use), health-protective behaviors (i.e., physical activity, physical inactivity, sleep patterns, seatbelt use, and contraception motivations), as well as the role of gender and age. Participants average age was 16 years at baseline. We found evidence for partner similarity and partner influence with the majority of health-harming behaviors. Specifically, partner influence was evident for smoking and alcohol use with partner influence approaching significance for marijuana use. We found limited evidence for partner similarity and partner influence for health-protective behaviors. The importance of assessing romantic dyads was evident in these data. Interventions focusing on health-harming behavior for adolescent populations are important public health goals. It is recommended that future intervention efforts with adolescent health-harming behaviors should target not only peers, but also consider the role of romantic partners. PMID:22424832

Aalsma, Matthew C.; Carpentier, Melissa; Azzouz, Faouzi; Fortenberry, Dennis



A Framework for Incorporating Dyads in Models of HIV-Prevention  

PubMed Central

Although HIV is contracted by individuals, it is typically transmitted in dyads. Most efforts to promote safer sex practices, however, focus exclusively on individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework that specifies how models of dyadic processes and relationships can inform models of HIV-prevention. At the center of the framework is the proposition that safer sex between two people requires a dyadic capacity for successful coordination. According to this framework, relational, individual, and structural variables that affect the enactment of safer sex do so through their direct and indirect effects on that dyadic capacity. This dyadic perspective does not require an ongoing relationship between two individuals; rather, it offers a way of distinguishing between dyads along a continuum from anonymous strangers (with minimal coordination of behavior) to long-term partners (with much greater coordination). Acknowledging the dyadic context of HIV-prevention offers new targets for interventions and suggests new approaches to tailoring interventions to specific populations. PMID:20838872

Hops, Hyman; Redding, Colleen A.; Reis, Harry T.; Rothman, Alexander J.; Simpson, Jeffry A.



BODIPY functionalized o-carborane dyads for low-energy photosensitization.  


A new type of organic dyad that can induce low-energy photosensitization has been developed; electron donor and electron acceptor units are boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) and ortho-carborane (o-Cb), respectively. The new dyads consist of a V-shaped BODIPY-(o-Cb)-BODIPY molecular array in which two BODIPY units are substituted onto two adjacent carbon atoms of the central o-Cb. In the presence of the o-Cb unit, as an electron acceptor, significant fluorescence quenching was observed which indicated that photoinduced electron transfer (PET) had occurred from the end-on BODIPY units to the central o-Cb with PET efficiencies of 63-71%. As a result, the corresponding cationic and anionic species that are responsible for the charge transfer state were detected by the serial spectroelectrochemical studies: cationic BODIPY radicals at 400 nm at the applied voltage of 1.44 V and broad absorption bands of anionic o-Cb radicals in the range of 250-490 nm at -1.84 V. Transient absorption studies further confirmed the BODIPY radical anion at 540 nm and the o-Cb radical anion at 350-475 nm with a structureless broad band. PMID:25482506

Jin, Guo Fan; Cho, Yang-Jin; Wee, Kyung-Ryang; Hong, Seong Ahn; Suh, Il-Hwan; Son, Ho-Jin; Lee, Jong-Dae; Han, Won-Sik; Cho, Dae Won; Kang, Sang Ook



Examination of ChlorinBacteriochlorin Energy-transfer Dyads as Prototypes for Near-infrared Molecular Imaging Probes  

E-print Network

Examination of Chlorin­Bacteriochlorin Energy-transfer Dyads as Prototypes for Near-infrared features across the red and near-infrared (NIR) regions, tunable excited-state lifetimes (10 ns absorption and efficient emission in the red or near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, (2) sharp absorption

Larson-Prior, Linda


A "click-chemistry" approach for the synthesis of porphyrin dyads as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Two novel porphyrin dyads ( and ) consisting of two zinc-metallated porphyrin units, covalently linked at their peripheries through 1,2,3-triazole containing bridges and functionalized by a terminal carboxylic acid group, have been synthesized via "click" reactions, which are Cu-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between azide- and acetylene-containing porphyrins. Photophysical and electrochemical measurements, together with DFT calculations, showed that the two dyads possess suitable frontier orbital energy levels for use as sensitizers in DSSCs. The and based solar cells were fabricated resulting in power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.82 and 5.16%, respectively. As shown by photovoltaic measurements (J-V curves) and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectra of the two solar cells, the higher PCE value of the latter is attributed to its enhanced photovoltaic parameters, and particularly its enhanced short circuit current (Jsc). This is related to the stronger absorption profile of the sensitizing dyad (the dyad with the shorter triazole containing bridge) and the higher dye loading of the corresponding solar cell. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) demonstrated that the based solar cell exhibits longer electron lifetime (?e) and more effective suppression of the recombination between the injected electrons and the electrolyte. PMID:25465056

Nikolaou, Vasilis; Angaridis, Panagiotis A; Charalambidis, Georgios; Sharma, Ganesh D; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G



Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and…

Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.



Crystal Structure of a Bacterial Signal Peptidase Apoenzyme IMPLICATIONS FOR SIGNAL PEPTIDE BINDING AND THE SER-LYS DYAD MECHANISM*  

E-print Network

AND THE SER-LYS DYAD MECHANISM* Received for publication, November 15, 2001 Published, JBC Papers in Press is consistent with SPase utilizing an unusual oxyanion hole containing one side-chain hydroxyl hy- drogen (Ser-88 O H) and one main-chain amide hydro- gen (Ser-90 NH). Analysis of the apoenzyme active site

Paetzel, Mark


The ferrocene-pyrylium dyad as a selective colorimetric chemodosimeter for the toxic cyanide and hydrogen sulfide anions in water.  


The ferrocene-pyrylium dyad behaves as a selective redox and colorimetric chemodosimeter for CN(-) and HS(-) anions, exhibiting a clear perturbation in the redox potential of the ferrocene unit and in the absorption band, in the presence of these anions. PMID:24643719

Sola, Antonia; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro



Energy transfer in aminonaphthalimide-boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyads upon one- and two-photon excitation: applications for cellular imaging.  


Aminonaphthalimide-BODIPY energy transfer cassettes were found to show very fast (kEET ? 10(10)-10(11) s(-1) and efficient BODIPY fluorescence sensitization. This was observed upon one- and two-photon excitation, which extends the application range of the investigated bichromophoric dyads in terms of accessible excitation wavelengths. In comparison with the direct excitation of the BODIPY chromophore, the two-photon absorption cross-section ? of the dyads is significantly incremented by the presence of the aminonaphthalimide donor [? ? 10 GM for the BODIPY versus 19-26 GM in the dyad at ?(exc)=840 nm; 1 GM (Goeppert-Mayer unit)=10(-50) cm(4) smolecule(-1) photon-(1)]. The electronic decoupling of the donor and acceptor, which is a precondition for the energy transfercassette concept, was demonstrated by time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The applicability of the new probes in the one- and twophoton excitation mode was demonstrated in a proof-of-principle approach in the fluorescence imaging of HeLa cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the merging of multiphoton excitation with the energy transfer cassette concept for a BODIPY-containing dyad. PMID:24730057

Collado, Daniel; Remón, Patricia; Vida, Yolanda; Najera, Francisco; Sen, Pratik; Pischel, Uwe; Perez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel



Synthesis of perylene-3,4-mono(dicarboximide)--fullerene C60 dyads as new light-harvesting systems.  


Fullerene C 60-perylene-3,4-mono(dicarboximide) (C 60-PMI) dyads 1- 3 were synthesized in the search for new light-harvesting systems. The synthetic strategy to the PMI intermediate used a cross-coupling Suzuki reaction for the introduction of a formyl group in the ortho, meta, or para position. Subsequent 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with C 60 led to the target C 60-PMI dyad. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the first one-electron reduction process unambiguously occurs onto the C 60 moiety and the following two-electron process corresponds to the concomitant second reduction of C 60 and the first reduction of PMI. A quasi-quantitative quenching of fluorescence was shown in dyads 1- 3, and an intramolecular energy transfer was suggested to occur from the PMI to the fullerene moiety. These C 60-PMI dyads constitute good candidates for future photovoltaic applications with expected well-defined roles for both partners, i.e., PMI acting as a light-harvesting antenna and C 60 playing the role of the acceptor in the photoactive layer. PMID:18642952

Baffreau, Jérôme; Ordronneau, Lucie; Leroy-Lhez, Stéphanie; Hudhomme, Piétrick



GADEM: a genetic algorithm guided formation of spaced dyads coupled with an EM algorithm for motif discovery.  


Genome-wide analyses of protein binding sites generate large amounts of data; a ChIP dataset might contain 10,000 sites. Unbiased motif discovery in such datasets is not generally feasible using current methods that employ probabilistic models. We propose an efficient method, GADEM, which combines spaced dyads and an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Candidate words (four to six nucleotides) for constructing spaced dyads are prioritized by their degree of overrepresentation in the input sequence data. Spaced dyads are converted into starting position weight matrices (PWMs). GADEM then employs a genetic algorithm (GA), with an embedded EM algorithm to improve starting PWMs, to guide the evolution of a population of spaced dyads toward one whose entropy scores are more statistically significant. Spaced dyads whose entropy scores reach a pre-specified significance threshold are declared motifs. GADEM performed comparably with MEME on 500 sets of simulated "ChIP" sequences with embedded known P53 binding sites. The major advantage of GADEM is its computational efficiency on large ChIP datasets compared to competitors. We applied GADEM to six genome-wide ChIP datasets. Approximately, 15 to 30 motifs of various lengths were identified in each dataset. Remarkably, without any prior motif information, the expected known motif (e.g., P53 in P53 data) was identified every time. GADEM discovered motifs of various lengths (6-40 bp) and characteristics in these datasets containing from 0.5 to >13 million nucleotides with run times of 5 to 96 h. GADEM can be viewed as an extension of the well-known MEME algorithm and is an efficient tool for de novo motif discovery in large-scale genome-wide data. The GADEM software is available at ( PMID:19193149

Li, Leping



Photoinduced electron transfer in thin films of porphyrin-fullerene dyad and perylenetetracarboxidiimide.  


Photoinduced intra- and intermolecular electron transfer (ET) in thin films of porphyrin-fullerene dyad (P-F) and perylenetetracarboxidiimide (PTCDI) was studied by means of photoelectrical and spectroscopic methods. Films consisting of smooth 100 mol% layers of P-F and PTCDI were prepared by the Langmuir-Schäfer (LS) technique and thermal evaporation, respectively. The time-resolved Maxwell displacement charge (TRMDC) and laser flash-photolysis methods were utilized to demonstrate photoinduced ET from P-F to PTCDI regardless of which chromophore is photoexcited. Finally, the information about the electron movement in the respective thin films was used to build a layered organic solar cell, whose internal quantum yield (?(I)) of collected charges was 13%. PMID:20721381

Vivo, Paola; Alekseev, Alexander S; Kaunisto, Kimmo; Pekkola, Oili; Tolkki, Antti; Chukharev, Vladimir; Efimov, Alexander; Ihalainen, Petri; Peltonen, Jouko; Lemmetyinen, Helge



Preen secretions encode information on MHC similarity in certain sex-dyads in a monogamous seabird  

PubMed Central

Animals are known to select mates to maximize the genetic diversity of their offspring in order to achieve immunity against a broader range of pathogens. Although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), it remains unknown whether they can use olfactory cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners. Here we combined gas chromatography data with genetic similarity indices based on MHC to test whether similarity in preen secretion chemicals correlated with MHC relatedness in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a species that preferentially mates with genetically dissimilar partners. We found that similarity in preen secretion chemicals was positively correlated with MHC relatedness in male-male and male-female dyads. This study provides the first evidence that preen secretion chemicals can encode information on MHC relatedness and suggests that odor-based mechanisms of MHC-related mate choice may occur in birds. PMID:25370306

Leclaire, Sarah; van Dongen, Wouter F. D.; Voccia, Steeve; Merkling, Thomas; Ducamp, Christine; Hatch, Scott A.; Blanchard, Pierrick; Danchin, Étienne; Wagner, Richard H.



Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production from an MCM-41-immobilized photosensitizer-[Fe-Fe] hydrogenase mimic dyad.  


A covalently linked photosensitizer-catalytic center dyad Ps-Hy, consisting of two bis(2-phenylpyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine)iridium(iii) chromophores (Ps) and a diiron hydrogenase mimic (Hy) was constructed by using click reaction. Ps-Hy was incorporated into K(+)-exchanged molecular sieve MCM-41 to form a composite (Ps-Hy@MCM-41), which has been successfully applied to the photochemical production of hydrogen. The catalytic activity of Ps-Hy@MCM-41 is ?3-fold higher as compared with that of Ps-Hy in the absence of MCM-41. The incorporation of Ps-Hy into MCM-41 stabilizes the catalyst, and consequently, advances the photocatalysis. The present study provides a potential strategy for improving catalytic efficiency of artificial photosynthesis systems using mesoporous molecular sieves. PMID:25238441

Wang, Wen; Yu, Tianjun; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Jinping; Yang, Guoqiang; Li, Yi



Contaminated and uncontaminated feeding influence perceived intimacy in mixed-sex dyads.  


It was expected that viewers watching adult mixed-sex pairs dining together will give higher ratings of the perceived intimacy and involvement of the pair if feeding is displayed while eating, especially if the feeding involves contaminated (i.e., with potential germ transfer) foods. Our hypotheses were tested using a design in which participants viewed five videotapes in varying order. Each video showed different mixed-sex pairs of actors sharing meal and included a distinct form of food sharing or none. These were shown to 50 small groups of young adults in quasi-random sequences to control for order effects. Immediately after each video, viewers were asked about the attractiveness, attraction and intimacy in the dyad they had just observed. As predicted, videos featuring contaminated feeding consistently produced higher ratings on involvement and attraction than those showing uncontaminated feeding which, in turn, mostly produced higher ratings on involvement and attraction than those showing no feeding behaviors. PMID:22387714

Alley, Thomas R



Evidence for stroke family caregiver and dyad interventions: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association.  


Stroke is a leading cause of severe, long-term disability. Most stroke survivors are cared for in the home by a family caregiver. Caregiver stress is a leading cause of stroke survivor institutionalization, which results in significant costs to the healthcare system. Stroke family caregiver and dyad intervention studies have reported a variety of outcomes. A critical analysis of 17 caregiver intervention studies and 15 caregiver/stroke survivor dyad intervention studies was conducted to provide evidence-based recommendations for the implementation and future design of stroke family caregiver and dyad interventions. PMID:25034718

Bakas, Tamilyn; Clark, Patricia C; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; King, Rosemarie B; Lutz, Barbara J; Miller, Elaine L



Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the…

Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald



Parental stress, parenting behavior and observed parent-child interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between parental stress, social support, and directly observed parenting behavior and dyadic interaction in a non-clinical sample of 26 parent-child dyads, in which the child was age five or younger. This study also explored the differential impact of various types of stress on parenting behavior and dyadic interaction, including life stress as measured by the

Katrina L Adams



Coordinated movement and rapport in teacher-student interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

High school students in 19 teaching dyads were measured for their degree of interpersonal coordination and rapport. Two types of movement coordination were identified and rated by a group of untrained judges: the degree of perceivedmovement synchrony, and the extent ofbehavior matching. Ratings of movement synchrony in true interactions were significantly greater than similar ratings in pseudo interaction control clips

Frank J. Bernieri



High-potential perfluorinated phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads for generation of high-energy charge-separated states: formation and photoinduced electron-transfer studies.  


High oxidation potential perfluorinated zinc phthalocyanines (ZnF(n)Pcs) are synthesised and their spectroscopic, redox, and light-induced electron-transfer properties investigated systematically by forming donor-acceptor dyads through metal-ligand axial coordination of fullerene (C60) derivatives. Absorption and fluorescence spectral studies reveal efficient binding of the pyridine- (Py) and phenylimidazole-functionalised fullerene (C60Im) derivatives to the zinc centre of the F(n)Pcs. The determined binding constants, K, in o-dichlorobenzene for the 1:1 complexes are in the order of 10(4) to 10(5) M(-1); nearly an order of magnitude higher than that observed for the dyad formed from zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) lacking fluorine substituents. The geometry and electronic structure of the dyads are determined by using the B3LYP/6-31G* method. The HOMO and LUMO levels are located on the Pc and C60 entities, respectively; this suggests the formation of ZnF(n)Pc(.+)-C60Im(.-) and ZnF(n)Pc(.+)-C60Py(.-) (n=0, 8 or 16) intra-supramolecular charge-separated states during electron transfer. Electrochemical studies on the ZnPc-C60 dyads enable accurate determination of their oxidation and reduction potentials and the energy of the charge-separated states. The energy of the charge-separated state for dyads composed of ZnF(n)Pc is higher than that of normal ZnPc-C60 dyads and reveals their significance in harvesting higher amounts of light energy. Evidence for charge separation in the dyads is secured from femtosecond transient absorption studies in nonpolar toluene. Kinetic evaluation of the cation and anion radical ion peaks reveals ultrafast charge separation and charge recombination in dyads composed of perfluorinated phthalocyanine and fullerene; this implies their significance in solar-energy harvesting and optoelectronic device building applications. PMID:24850373

Das, Sushanta K; Mahler, Andrew; Wilson, Angela K; D'Souza, Francis



Joint attention in parent-child dyads involving children with selective mutism: a comparison between anxious and typically developing children.  


Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint attention measures coded from direct observations with their parent during an unstructured free play task and two structured tasks. As predicted, the SM dyads established significantly fewer episodes of joint attention through parental initiation acts than the MA and CC dyads during the structured tasks. Findings suggest that children with SM may withdraw from their parents during stressful situations, thus missing out on opportunities for learning other coping skills. We discuss the implications of the present findings for understanding the maintenance and treatment of SM. PMID:20960051

Nowakowski, Matilda E; Tasker, Susan L; Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela E; Edison, Shannon; Pierre, Jeff St; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A



Development of Unsymmetrical Dyads As Potent Noncarbohydrate-Based Inhibitors against Human ?-N-Acetyl-d-hexosaminidase  

PubMed Central

Human ?-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase has gained much attention due to its roles in several pathological processes and been considered as potential targets for disease therapy. A novel and efficient skeleton, which was an unsymmetrical dyad containing naphthalimide and methoxyphenyl moieties with an alkylamine spacer linkage as a noncarbohydrate-based inhibitor, was synthesized, and the activities were valuated against human ?-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase. The most potent inhibitor exhibits high inhibitory activity with Ki values of 0.63 ?M. The straightforward synthetic manners of these unsymmetrical dyads and understanding of the binding model could be advantageous for further structure optimization and development of new therapeutic agents for Hex-related diseases. PMID:24900704



Existential loss as a determinant to well-being in the dementia caregiving dyad: A conceptual model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following describes a conceptual model for dementia caregiving. The interdisciplinary model proposes that a caregiver’s confrontation with existential loss plays a determining role in the well-being of the dementia care dyad. The paper describes how existential threats can affect a caregiver’s appraisal of the care situation, and thus how a caregiver copes. Still further, it is speculated that caregiver

Rich Piiparinen; Carol J. Whitlatch



Structural and Kinetic Analysis of Bacillus subtilis N-Acetylglucosaminidase Reveals a Unique Asp-His Dyad Mechanism*  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional structures of NagZ of Bacillus subtilis, the first structures of a two-domain ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase of family 3 of glycosidases, were determined with and without the transition state mimicking inhibitor PUGNAc bound to the active site, at 1.84- and 1.40-? resolution, respectively. The structures together with kinetic analyses of mutants revealed an Asp-His dyad involved in catalysis: His234 of BsNagZ acts as general acid/base catalyst and is hydrogen bonded by Asp232 for proper function. Replacement of both His234 and Asp232 with glycine reduced the rate of hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate 4?-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminide 1900- and 4500-fold, respectively, and rendered activity pH-independent in the alkaline range consistent with a role of these residues in acid/base catalysis. N-Acetylglucosaminyl enzyme intermediate accumulated in the H234G mutant and ?-azide product was formed in the presence of sodium azide in both mutants. The Asp-His dyad is conserved within ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases but otherwise absent in ?-glycosidases of family 3, which instead carry a “classical” glutamate acid/base catalyst. The acid/base glutamate of Hordeum vulgare exoglucanase (Exo1) superimposes with His234 of the dyad of BsNagZ and, in contrast to the latter, protrudes from a second domain of the enzyme into the active site. This is the first report of an Asp-His catalytic dyad involved in hydrolysis of glycosides resembling in function the Asp-His-Ser triad of serine proteases. Our findings will facilitate the development of mechanism-based inhibitors that selectively target family 3 ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases, which are involved in bacterial cell wall turnover, spore germination, and induction of ?-lactamase. PMID:20826810

Litzinger, Silke; Fischer, Stefanie; Polzer, Patrick; Diederichs, Kay; Welte, Wolfram; Mayer, Christoph




Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined the relationship between gender (client, therapist, and client\\/therapist dyad) and various psychotherapy-related variables for clients with mood and\\/or anxiety disorders. In several instances, both client and therapist gender predicted treatment retention and psychological symptom changes during 3 months of therapy. In general, female clients were more likely to advance beyond the initial intake assessment and also complete

John G. Cottone; Philip Drucker; Rafael A. Javier



Mealtime Television Viewing and Dietary Quality in Low-Income African American and Caucasian Mother–Toddler Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and\\u000a to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers’ and toddlers’ food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey\\u000a design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother–toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early\\u000a Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler–Parent

Mildred A. Horodynski; Manfred Stommel; Holly E. Brophy-Herb; Lorraine Weatherspoon



Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.



Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. PMID:23682698

Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.



Maternal-child dyads of functioning: the intergenerational impact of violence against women on children.  


Violence against women is a global epidemic with potential consequences of injury, illness, and death. Children exposed to the violence may also be impacted with functional impairments. Little is known of the inter-generational impact of violence experienced by the mother from an intimate partner on functioning of her children. No dyad analysis was found in the literature. To examine the inter-generational impact of violence against women on the behavioral functioning of children, 300 mothers reporting intimate partner abuse and one randomly chosen child, age 18 months to 16 years of age; were evaluated for borderline and clinical diagnostic levels of problem behaviors. Linear, Logistic, and Ordinal regression models were applied. Mothers' problem behavior scores were significantly related to children's problem behavior scores (internalizing r = 0.611, externalizing r = 0.494, total problems r = 0.662, all ps < 0.001). Mothers who reported clinical and borderline clinical internalized problems (i.e., depression, anxiety) were 7 times more likely to have children with the same problems and mothers with borderline clinical and clinical external problems (i.e., aggression, hostility) were 4.5 times more likely to have children with the same external problems. These dyadic analyses provide evidence of a direct relationship of maternal functioning on child behavioral functioning. Intervention strategies to decrease internalizing maternal behavioral problems, such as depression, anxiety, and post traumatic stress disorder, and/or externalizing problems, such as hostility and aggression, can be expected to have a pass through, secondary impact on the behavioral functioning of children. Awareness of the relationship between intimate partner violence against mothers and child behavioral function can support interventions that decrease the distress experienced by mothers and their children, interrupt intergenerational transmission of abusive behaviors, and promote better maternal child functioning. PMID:24740718

McFarlane, Judith; Symes, Lene; Binder, Brenda K; Maddoux, John; Paulson, Rene



Adolescents' Interactions with a Best Friend: Associations with Attachment Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether adolescents' attachment style is related to friendship interactions and perceptions of friendship quality. Attachment pairings were contrasted to examine whether dyad members' security of attachment or their models of others was more related to friendship. A total of 44 pairs of same-sex adolescent friends were videotaped…

Weimer, Barbara L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.; Oldenburg, Christopher M.



The Association between Parental Interaction Style and Children's Joint Engagement in Families with Toddlers with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examines the relationship between parental interaction style (responsive vs directive) and child-initiated joint engagement within caregiver-child interactions with toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Method: Videotaped interactions of 85 toddler-caregiver dyads were coded for child engagement and both parental…

Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Elder, Lauren; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie



State as an Infant-Environment Interaction: An Analysis of Mother-Infant Behavior as a Function of Sex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on the psychological construct of state is reviewed, and it is proposed that state be defined in terms of an infant-environment interaction. Interactive behavior of 32 mother-infant dyads was observed in the home for a total of 2 hours for each pair, in order to explore various types of interactive processes and analyses. A…

Lewis, Michael


Covalent dyads of porphyrin-fullerene and perylene-fullerene for organic photovoltaics: Spectroscopic and photocurrent studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supermolecular complexes of zinc porphyrin or perylenediimide as covalent dyads with fullerene (C 60) in chloroform and as Langmuir-Blodgett layers on an Au substrate were studied. In our studies we have used following spectroscopic methods: electronic absorption, fluorescence and electron spin resonance in solution. Also infrared absorption spectra in a KBr pellet and reflectance-absorption in Langmuir-Blodgett layers were monitored. Photocurrent generation in a photoelectrochemical cell was also studied. The redistribution of charge both upon porphyrin linkage to C 60 and when the systems are deposited on the Au substrate was shown. Photocurrent examinations show a great influence of the fullerene presence on photoresponse of the systems.

Wróbel, Danuta; Lewandowska, Kornelia



Parent Cognitions and Parent-Infant Interaction: The Relationship with Development in the First 12 Months  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parent cognitions and parent-infant interaction in terms of their contribution to infant development in the first 12 months. With a sample of 95 mother-infant dyads, results using structural equation modelling confirmed the expected finding that parent-infant interaction mediates the association between parent cognitions and…

Ferrier-Lynn, Melissa; Skouteris, Helen



Interpersonal Perception and Manifest Behaviour in Mother-Child Power Oriented Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mother-child interactions involving power were examined among 240 middle class mother-child dyads in which children were either 8 or 11 years old. Defined as exchanges occurring around decision-making points in which the mother and child had divergent aims, power interactions were classified according to whether they were symmetrical or…

Ugazio, Valeria


Mother-Infant Interaction and Infant Development Among the Wolof of Senegal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten mother-infant dyads were observed in their homes for four hours each during one month in order to measure interactive aspects of their behavior. Demographic data are included for the participating families, who are members of the Wolof in Senegal, Africa. For this study, interaction was defined as a sequence of behaviors involving both…

Lusk, Diane; Lewis, Michael


Computational Insights into Substrate and Site Specificities, Catalytic Mechanism, and Protonation States of the Catalytic Asp Dyad of ? -Secretase.  


In this review, information regarding substrate and site specificities, catalytic mechanism, and protonation states of the catalytic Asp dyad of ?-secretase (BACE1) derived from computational studies has been discussed. BACE1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the generation of Alzheimer amyloid beta peptide through the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Due to its biological functioning, this enzyme has been considered as one of the most important targets for finding the cure for Alzheimer's disease. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggested that structural differences in the key regions (inserts A, D, and F and the 10s loop) of the enzyme are responsible for the observed difference in its activities towards the WT- and SW-substrates. The modifications in the flap, third strand, and insert F regions were found to be involved in the alteration in the site specificity of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol bound form of BACE1. Our QM and QM/MM calculations suggested that BACE1 hydrolyzed the SW-substrate more efficiently than the WT-substrate and that cleavage of the peptide bond occurred in the rate-determining step. The results from molecular docking studies showed that the information concerning a single protonation state of the Asp dyad is not enough to run an in silico screening campaign. PMID:25309776

Barman, Arghya; Prabhakar, Rajeev



Photophysical properties of new bis-perylene dyads for potential upconversion use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new bis-perylenes, BPC with a meta-disubstituted benzene linker, and BPD with a p,p?-disubstituted biphenyl linker, have been synthesized and their photophysical parameters measured. Their singlet and triplet energies decrease incrementally in the order perylene, BPC, BPD, making them ideally matched with C60 for triplet-triplet energy transfer in sensitized photon upconversion schemes. Following photosensitization by triplet C60, BPC exhibits strong fluorescence upconversion by triplet-triplet annihilation, indicating that these bis-perylene dyads (and the multimers that can be constructed from them) will be interesting candidates for use in organic devices such as bulk-heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells employing non-coherent photon upconversion. Excitation of C60 at 532 nm will produce its long-lived lowest triplet state with near unit quantum efficiency under the conditions of this experiment [33]. The thermal energy loss usually associated with triplet-triplet energy transfer, Eq. (2), is minimal in this system as the triplet energies of the donor and acceptor are nearly identical at ca. 1.5 eV. In the absence of self-quenching of the fluorescing singlet state, increasing the relative concentrations of acceptor to donor can raise the overall efficiency of the sensitization process to nearly 100%, even if their triplet energies are the same, due to entropic assistance [34]. This was confirmed by measuring the upconversion intensity as a function of dyad concentration at constant absorbed power (Supplementary Information), and by transient absorption measurements of C60 (T1) at 740 nm (Supplementary Information). The latter show that C60(T1) decays with a lifetime on the order of 400 ns for equimolar C60 + BPC concentrations, i.e. at a rate at least 100 times faster (due to quenching by energy transfer) than it would decay in the absence of the BPC triplet energy acceptor. Note also that the dimers with their slightly lower triplet energies are expected to exhibit greater net C60 donor to acceptor triplet energy transfer efficiencies than perylene itself [23], albeit with a slight incremental thermal energy loss of ca. 0.05-0.10 eV. The lifetime of the BPC triplet could not be measured by transient absorption because of its weak absorption cross-section in the probe wavelength region. Nevertheless, the unquenched lifetime of the BPC triplet is expected to be long. The lifetime of the triplet of perylene itself is ca. 5 ms in fluid degassed solution at room temperature [22], and mono- or di-substitution of the perylene ring system with light-atom substituents does not produce an order-of-magnitude decrease in this value [35]. The measured first order rate constant in this case would, however, be the sum of all first order and pseudo-first order processes, with the latter dominating the overall triplet decay rate under the experimental conditions employed. Using anthanthrene or bis-tetracene as a reasonable model [18,23], the lifetime of BPC(T1) is likely to be about two orders of magnitude shorter than its unquenched lifetime under the conditions of these experiments, i.e. of the order of a few tens of ?s, consistent with the generally first order decay found at the low to moderate laser excitation power density range shown in Figure 3. Again using well-known upconverters as models [15,22,23], the rate constant for TTA of BPC is likely to approach within a factor of 2 or 3 of the diffusion-controlled limit (1.1 × 1010 M-1 s-1), spin statistical limitations notwithstanding, as described by Schmidt et al. [36]. The rate constants for the relaxation of the product S1 state of TTA in the bis-perylenes are provided in Table 1. In an upconverting solar photovoltaic cell, the thermal energy losses in excess of those associated with the Shockley-Queisser limit will be small in this system. Using the zero point energies of the electronic excited states involved in the absorption, sensitization and upconversion steps as reference data, the S1-T1 thermal energy loss in the C60 absorber is 0.20 eV per absorbed p

Ribas, Marcos R.; Steer, Ronald P.; Rüther, Ricardo



Evidence for substrate binding-induced zwitterion formation in the catalytic Cys-His dyad of the SARS-CoV main protease.  


The coronavirus main protease (M(pro)) represents an attractive drug target for antiviral therapy of coronavirus (CoV) infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The SARS-CoV M(pro) and related CoV proteases have several distinct features, such as an uncharged Cys-His catalytic dyad embedded in a chymotrypsin-like protease fold, that clearly separate these enzymes from archetypical cysteine proteases. To further characterize the catalytic system of CoV main proteases and to obtain information about improved inhibitors, we performed comprehensive simulations of the proton-transfer reactions in the SARS-CoV M(pro) active site that lead to the Cys(-)/His(+) zwitterionic state required for efficient proteolytic activity. Our simulations, comprising the free enzyme as well as substrate-enzyme and inhibitor-enzyme complexes, lead us to predict that zwitterion formation is fostered by substrate binding but not inhibitor binding. This indicates that M(pro) employs a substrate-induced catalytic mechanism that further enhances its substrate specificity. Our computational data are in line with available experimental results, such as X-ray geometries, measured pKa values, mutagenesis experiments, and the measured differences between the kinetic parameters of substrates and inhibitors. The data also provide an atomistic picture of the formerly postulated electrostatic trigger involved in SARS-CoV M(pro) activity. Finally, they provide information on how a specific microenvironment may finely tune the activity of M(pro) toward specific viral protein substrates, which is known to be required for efficient viral replication. Our simulations also indicate that the low inhibition potencies of known covalently interacting inhibitors may, at least in part, be attributed to insufficient fostering of the proton-transfer reaction. These findings suggest ways to achieve improved inhibitors. PMID:25196915

Paasche, Alexander; Zipper, Andreas; Schäfer, Simon; Ziebuhr, John; Schirmeister, Tanja; Engels, Bernd



Interrelationship of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization within and between pneumococcal-vaccine naïve mother-child dyads  

PubMed Central

Background A high prevalence of bacterial nasopharyngeal co-infections has been reported in children, however, such data is limited in adults. We examined the interaction of Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae pharyngeal colonization in mother-child dyads. Methods Pneumococcal-vaccine naïve children and their mothers had pharyngeal swabs undertaken at 1.6, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 7.4, 9.5, 12.5, 16.2 and 24.2 months of child’s age. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and S. aureus using standard microbiologic methods. Multivariate generalized estimating equation-models were used to explore the associations of the three bacteria within and between children and their mothers. Results In children, the observed probability of co-colonization was higher than expected. Well-defined associations in colonization between the bacteria were observed in children but not among mothers. In children, a synergistic association was observed between S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.75, 95% CI: 1.32-2.32) and a negative association between S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (AOR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.39-0.67) or H. influenzae and S. aureus (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.16-0.34) colonization. Additionally, all three bacteria had a higher likelihood of concurrent colonization. There was a strong association in colonization by the bacteria in children and their mothers, including increased likelihood of maternal colonization if the child was colonized by S. pneumoniae (AOR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.28-2.63) and H. influenzae (AOR: 6.34, 95% CI: 2.24-18.0). Conclusions The effects of immunization of children with pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine in settings such as ours needs monitoring with regard to potential changes of pharyngeal bacterial ecology which could occur in vaccinated and –unvaccinated age-groups. PMID:24134472



Effect of mutual position of electron donor and acceptor on photoinduced electron transfer in supramolecular chlorophyll-fullerene dyads.  


In this study we have explored the influence of mutual position of chlorin electron donor and fullerene C60 electron acceptor on photoinduced electron transfer. Two zinc-chlorin-aza-[18]crown-6 compounds and three pyrrolidino[60]fullerenes with alkyl aminium and varying coordinative moieties were synthesized and used for self-assembling of a set of complexes via two-point binding. The aza[18]crown6 moieties were connected to chlorins via amide linker either at 13(4) or 17(4) position, hence, being attached on different sides of the chlorin plane. Furthermore, in the former case, the linker holds the crown closely spaced, whereas, in the latter, the linker gives more space and conformational freedom for the crown with respect to the chlorin macrocycle. The coordinative moieties at fullerene site, 3-pyridine, 4-pyridine, and 3-furan, were built by utilizing the Prato reaction. The two-point binding drove the molecules into specific complex formation by self-assembling; aminium ion was chelated by crown ether, while zinc moiety of chlorin was coordinated by pyridine and furan. Such pairing resulted in distinct supramolecular chlorin-fullerene dyads with defined distance and orientation. The performed computational studies at DFT level in solution, with TPSS-D3/def2-TZVP//def2-SVP, indicated different geometries and binding energies for the self-assembling complexes. Notably, the computations pointed out that for all the studied complexes, the donor-acceptor distances and binding energies were dictated by chirality of pyrrolidino ring at C60. The selective excitation of chlorin chromophore revealed efficient emission quenching in all dyads. The ultrafast spectroscopy studies suggested a fast and efficient photoinduced charge transfer in the dyads. The lifetimes of the charge separated states range from 55 to 187 ps in o-dichlorobenzene and from 14 to 60 ps in benzonitrile. Expectedly, the electron transfer rate was found to be critically dependent on the donor-acceptor distance; additionally, the mutual orientation of these entities was found to have significant contribution on the rate. PMID:24495002

Stranius, Kati; Iashin, Vladimir; Nikkonen, Taru; Muuronen, Mikko; Helaja, Juho; Tkachenko, Nikolai



Direct comparison of a covalently-linked dyad and a 1:1 mixture of tetrabenzoporphyrin and fullerene as organic photovoltaic materials.  


A p-i-n organic photovoltaic cell with tetrabenzoporphyrin (BP), a BP-C?? dyad and PCBM for the p-, i- and n-layers, respectively, gave a better fill factor and power conversion efficiency than the corresponding p-i-n cell having a 1:1 blend film of BP and PCBM as the i-layer. PMID:24956974

Tamura, Yuto; Saeki, Hiroyuki; Hashizume, Junpei; Okazaki, Yukinori; Kuzuhara, Daiki; Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Aratani, Naoki; Yamada, Hiroko



Similarities amid the Difference: Caregiving Burden and Adaptation Outcomes in Dyads of Parents and Their Children with and without Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study had two main objectives: first, to examine the direct and indirect effects, via social support, of caregiving burden on the adaptation outcomes of children/adolescents with cerebral palsy and their parents; and second, to assess the invariance of such models in clinical vs. healthy subsamples. Participants were 210 dyads of…

Carona, C.; Crespo, C.; Canavarro, M. C.



Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey



Do Verbal Interactions with Infants during Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on Their Language Development as Toddlers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ("media verbal interactions") might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads

Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy



Synthesis of new porphyrin-fullerene dyads capable of forming charge-separated States on a microsecond lifetime scale.  


A series of covalently linked axially symmetric porphyrin-fullerene dyads with a rigid pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrolic linker enabling a fixed and orthogonal arrangement of the chromophores has been synthesized and studied by means of transient absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The lifetime of the charge-separated state has been found to depend on the substituents on the porphyrin core, reaching up to 4??s for a species with meso-(p-MeOC6 H4 ) substituents. The ground and excited electronic states of model compounds have been calculated at the DFT and TD-DFT B3LYP(6-31G(d)) levels of theory and analyzed with regard to the effect of the substituent on the stabilization of the charge-separated state in the porphyrin-fullerene ensemble with a view to explaining the observed dependence. PMID:25382590

Konev, Alexander S; Khlebnikov, Alexander F; Prolubnikov, Pavel I; Mereshchenko, Andrey S; Povolotskiy, Alexey V; Levin, Oleg V; Hirsch, Andreas



Models of dyadic social interaction.  

PubMed Central

We discuss the logic of research designs for dyadic interaction and present statistical models with parameters that are tied to psychologically relevant constructs. Building on Karl Pearson's classic nineteenth-century statistical analysis of within-organism similarity, we describe several approaches to indexing dyadic interdependence and provide graphical methods for visualizing dyadic data. We also describe several statistical and conceptual solutions to the 'levels of analytic' problem in analysing dyadic data. These analytic strategies allow the researcher to examine and measure psychological questions of interdependence and social influence. We provide illustrative data from casually interacting and romantic dyads. PMID:12689382

Griffin, Dale; Gonzalez, Richard



Photoconductive and supramolecularly engineered organic field-effect transistors based on fibres from donor-acceptor dyads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the formation of photoconductive self-assembled fibres by solvent induced precipitation of a HBC-PMI donor-acceptor dyad. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy revealed that upon illumination with white light the surface potential of the fibres shifted to negative values due to a build-up of negative charge. When integrated in a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration, the devices can be turned `on' much more efficiently using light than conventional bias triggered field-effect, suggesting that these structures could be used for the fabrication of light sensing devices. Such a double gating represents an important step towards bi-functional organic FETs, in which the current through the junction can be modulated both optically (by photoexcitation) and electrically (by gate control).We report on the formation of photoconductive self-assembled fibres by solvent induced precipitation of a HBC-PMI donor-acceptor dyad. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy revealed that upon illumination with white light the surface potential of the fibres shifted to negative values due to a build-up of negative charge. When integrated in a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration, the devices can be turned `on' much more efficiently using light than conventional bias triggered field-effect, suggesting that these structures could be used for the fabrication of light sensing devices. Such a double gating represents an important step towards bi-functional organic FETs, in which the current through the junction can be modulated both optically (by photoexcitation) and electrically (by gate control). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and photoresponse on spin-coated film (3 pages). See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11635a

Treier, Matthias; Liscio, Andrea; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.; Kastler, Marcel; Müllen, Klaus; Palermo, Vincenzo; Samorì, Paolo



A semiempirical study for the ground and excited states of free-base and zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ground and excited states of a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad in both its free-base and zinc forms (D. Kuciauskas et al., J. Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 15926) have been investigated by semiempirical methods. The excited-state properties are discussed by investigation of the character of the molecular orbitals. All frontier MOs are mainly localized on either the donor or the acceptor subunit. Thus, the absorption spectra of both systems are best described as the sum of the spectra of the single components. The experimentally observed spectra are well reproduced by the theoretical computations. Both molecules undergo efficient electron transfer in polar but not in apolar solvents. This experimental finding is explained theoretically by explicitly considering solvent effects. The tenth excited state in the gas phase is of charge-separated character where an electron is transferred from the porphyrin donor to the fullerene acceptor subunit. This state is stabilized in energy in polar solvents due to its large formal dipole moment. The stabilization energy for an apolar environment such as benzene is not sufficient to lower this state to become the first excited singlet state. Thus, no electron transfer is observed, in agreement with experiment. In a polar environment such as acetonitrile, the charge-separated state becomes the S, state and electron transfer takes place, as observed experimentally. The flexible single bond connecting both the donor and acceptor subunits allows free rotation by ca. +/- 30 degrees about the optimized ground-state conformation. For the charge-separated state this optimized geometry has a maximum dipole moment. The geometry of the charge-separated state thus does not change relatively to the ground-state conformation. The electron-donating properties of porphyrin are enhanced in the zinc derivative due to a reduced porphyrin HOMO-LUMO energy gap. This yields a lower energy for the charge-separated state compared to the free-base dyad.

Parusel, A. B.



Dyads at Risk: Methadone-Maintained Women and Their Four-Month-Old Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares 17 methadone-exposed and 23 control four-month-old infants in interactions with their mothers. Results indicate that methadone is only one of several risk factors affecting interaction. Mothers rated poor in communication have poor psychosocial and psychological resources, and infants rated poor in communication showed problematic motor…

Jeremy, Rita Jeruchimowicz; Bernstein, Victor J.



The social network structure of a wild meerkat population: 1. Intergroup interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of individuals frequently interact with each other, but typically analysis of such interactions is restricted to isolated\\u000a dyads. Social network analysis (SNA) provides a method of analysing polyadic interactions and is used to analyse interactions\\u000a between individuals. We use a population of 12 groups (ca. 250 animals) of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) to test whether SNA can also be

J. A. Drewe; J. R. Madden; G. P. Pearce



Gender roles, computer attitudes, and dyadic computer interaction performance in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females tend to score lower than males on measures of computer aptitude and attitudes. This study examined the potential effects of several mediating factors, sex of experimenter, sex of experimental partner, sex typing (Bem Sex Role Inventory score), and level of past experience, on a computer interaction task involving a dyad. College students, drawn from a primarily white college population,

Sue Winkle Williams; Shirley M. Ogletree; William Woodburn; Paul Raffeld



The Effects of Daily Stress at Work on Mother-Child Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined mothers' employment situation as an important aspect of daily life that may influence day-to-day changes in parent-child interactions. Thirty-five mother-child dyads, recruited through four work site-based child care centers, were studied for 5 consecutive days. Target children were preschoolers enrolled full-time in the child…

Repetti, Rena L.; Wood, Jenifer


Motion Learning and Adaptive Impedance for Robot Control during Physical Interaction with Humans  

E-print Network

Motion Learning and Adaptive Impedance for Robot Control during Physical Interaction with Humans E-realistic simulation of a dyad of two planar 2-DOF robots. I. INTRODUCTION Biological organisms show a unique by conventional high-gain, trajectory-tracking robotic controllers [1]. Once a robot is required not only

Floreano, Dario


The Effects of Teacher Facilitation on the Social Interactions of Young Children during Computer Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This group study investigated the impact of teacher facilitation on the social interactions of young children during computer activities. The study compared 18 dyads comprised of children with and without disabilities who received teacher facilitation during computer activities to a group of children who did not receive teacher facilitation. The…

Lau, Cynthia; Higgins, Kyle; Gelfer, Jeff; Hong, Eunsook; Miller, Susan



The Discursive Construction of College English Learners' Identity in Cross-Cultural Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are abundant studies on second/foreign language learners' identities. However, there appears to be insufficient longitudinal research on the construction of learners' L2 identities in systematic interactions between fixed dyads in an out-of-class context. Adopting a critical discourse analysis framework (Fairclough, 2003) and suitably…

Gu, Michelle Mingyue



Social signal processing for studying parent–infant interaction  

PubMed Central

Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent–infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies. PMID:25540633

Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set values for the initial position, velocity, and mass of the two particles, and click on the button "Initialize Animation" to play the animation using your specified values. Note, if m or v are too large, the particles may actually pass through one another which will seem a little strange. Note: the interaction between the particles is a "non-contact" interaction, much like the electrostatic force on two charges. Mathematically, it is actually a Hooke's law interaction.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario



A Comparison of Dyadic Interactions and Coping with Still-Face in Healthy Pre-Term and Full-Term Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre-term birth has a significant impact on infants' social and emotional competence, however, little is known about regulatory processes in pre-term mother-infant dyads during normal or stressful interactions. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the differences in infant and caregiver interactive behaviour and dyadic coordination…

Montirosso, Rosario; Borgatti, Renato; Trojan, Sabina; Zanini, Rinaldo; Tronick, Ed



Talking to Strangers--A Sociolinguistic Experiment: Variation in Initial Dyadic Interactions between Spanish-Speakers in Early 21st Century Buenos Aires, Argentina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the chances of a dyad of Spanish-speaking strangers using informal address in casual, initial interactions in Buenos Aires, Argentina, today? To discover the pattern(s) of contemporary address, the Principal Investigator (PI) conducted a sociolinguistic experiment focusing on strangers' initial interactions to minimize the influence of…

Dziugis, Mary Ann



The Structure of the RLIP76 RhoGAP-Ral Binding Domain Dyad: Fixed Position of the Domains Leads to Dual Engagement of Small G Proteins at the Membrane  

PubMed Central

Summary RLIP76 is an effector for Ral small GTPases, which in turn lie downstream of the master regulator Ras. Evidence is growing that Ral and RLIP76 play a role in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis. RLIP76 contains both a RhoGAP domain and a Ral binding domain (GBD) and is, therefore, a node between Ras and Rho family signaling. The structure of the RhoGAP-GBD dyad reveals that the RLIP76 RhoGAP domain adopts a canonical RhoGAP domain structure and that the linker between the two RLIP76 domains is structured, fixing the orientation of the two domains and allowing RLIP76 to interact with Rho-family GTPases and Ral simultaneously. However, the juxtaposed domains do not influence each other functionally, suggesting that the RLIP76-Ral interaction controls cellular localization and that the fixed orientation of the two domains orientates the RhoGAP domain with respect to the membrane, allowing it to be perfectly poised to engage its target G proteins. PMID:24207123

Rajasekar, Karthik V.; Campbell, Louise J.; Nietlispach, Daniel; Owen, Darerca; Mott, Helen R.



Incidental Noticing and EFL Students’ Subsequent Second Language Learning in Synchronous Text-based Discussion: An Investigation of Both NES-NNES and NNES-NNES Dyads  

E-print Network

; 2001b; Loewen, 2002, 2003a, 2003b, 2004, 2005; Loewen & Philp, 2006; Murphy, 2002; Williams, 1999, 2001; Schmidt & Frota, 1986). Similar learning outcome is expected to occur when moved to an online text-based chat mode setting because online... investigation of the synchronous CMC (SCMC) medium itself, particularly the association between text-based online chat and L2 acquisition. This study aims to explore 3 the role of incidental noticing during text-based online chatting between (1) dyads...

Kung, Wan-Tsai



Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571: Crystal Structure and Insights into a New Class of Ser-Lys Dyad Proteins  

PubMed Central

Cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH) catalyzes the hydrolytic ring-opening of cyanuric acid (2,4,6-trihydroxy-1,3,5-triazine), an intermediate in s-triazine bacterial degradation and a by-product from disinfection with trichloroisocyanuric acid. In the present study, an X-ray crystal structure of the CAH-barbituric acid inhibitor complex from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571 has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution. The CAH protein fold consists of three structurally homologous domains forming a ?-barrel-like structure with external ?-helices that result in a three-fold symmetry, a dominant feature of the structure and active site that mirrors the three-fold symmetrical shape of the substrate cyanuric acid. The active site structure of CAH is similar to that of the recently determined AtzD with three pairs of active site Ser-Lys dyads. In order to determine the role of each Ser-Lys dyad in catalysis, a mutational study using a highly sensitive, enzyme-coupled assay was conducted. The 109-fold loss of activity by the S226A mutant was at least ten times lower than that of the S79A and S333A mutants. In addition, bioinformatics analysis revealed the Ser226/Lys156 dyad as the only absolutely conserved dyad in the CAH/barbiturase family. These data suggest that Lys156 activates the Ser226 nucleophile which can then attack the substrate carbonyl. Our combination of structural, mutational, and bioinformatics analyses differentiates this study and provides experimental data for mechanistic insights into this unique protein family. PMID:24915109

Cho, Seunghee; Shi, Ke; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Dodge, Anthony G.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aihara, Hideki



Turkish mothers’ self?efficacy beliefs and styles of interactions with their children with language delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkish mothers’ self?efficacy beliefs and their interactional behaviors with their children with language delays are described and explored. Participants included 19 mother–child dyads. Mothers’ interaction with their children with language delays was videotaped for 30 minutes in a free?play context. Regarding mothers’ interactional behaviors, results indicate that most mothers were sensitive to the behaviors of their children, responsive and effective

Ibrahim H. Diken



Improving the efficiency of the photoinduced charge-separation process in a rhenium(I)-zinc porphyrin dyad by simple chemical functionalization.  


We demonstrate here that, whereas the rhenium(I)-zinc porphyrin dyad fac-[Re(CO)3(bpy)(Zn·4'MPyP)](CF3SO3) [1; 4'MPyP = 5-(4'-pyridyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin] shows no evidence for photoinduced electron transfer upon excitation in the visible region because the charge-separated state ZnP(+)-Re(-) is almost isoenergetic with the singlet excited state of the zinc porphyrin (?G = -0.05 eV), the introduction of electron-withdrawing ethyl ester groups on the bpy ligand significantly improves the thermodynamics of the process (?G = -0.42 eV). As a consequence, in the new dyad fac-[Re(CO)3(4,4'-DEC-bpy)(Zn·4'MPyP)](CF3SO3) (4; 4,4'-DEC-bpy = 4,4'-diethoxycarbonyl-2,2'-bipyridine), an efficient and ultrafast intramolecular electron-transfer process occurs from the excited zinc porphyrin to the rhenium unit upon excitation with visible light. Conversely, the introduction of electron-donor tert-butyl groups on the meso-phenyl moieties of the zinc porphyrin has a negligible effect on the photophysics of the system. For dyad 4, the time constants for the charge-separation and charge-recombination processes in solvents of different polarity (PrCN, DCM, and toluene) were measured by an ultrafast time-resolved absorption technique (?(exc) = 560 nm). PMID:23461643

Gatti, Teresa; Cavigli, Paolo; Zangrando, Ennio; Iengo, Elisabetta; Chiorboli, Claudio; Indelli, Maria Teresa



Face-to-Face Interactions of Postpartum Depressed and Nondepressed Mother–Infant Pairs at 2 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression’s influence on mother–infant interactions at 2 months postpartum was studied in 24 depressed and 22 nondepressed mother–infant dyads. Depression was diagnosed using the SADS-L and RDC. In S’s homes, structured interactions of 3 min duration were videotaped and later coded using behavioral descriptors and a 1-s time base. Unstructured interactions were described using rating scales. During structured interactions, depressed

Jeffrey F. Cohn; Susan B. Campbell; Reinaldo Matias; Joyce Hopkins



Mapping Cardiac Physiology and Parenting Processes in Maltreating Mother–Child Dyads  

PubMed Central

Child maltreatment (CM) lies on an extreme end of the continuum of parenting-at-risk, and while CM has been linked with a variety of behavioral indicators of dysregulation in children, less is known about how physiological markers of regulatory capacity contribute to this association. The present study examined patterns of mother and child physiological regulation and their relations with observed differences in parenting processes during a structured interaction. Abusing, neglecting, and non-CM mothers and their 3- to 5-year-old children completed a resting baseline and moderately challenging joint task. The structural analysis of social behavior was used to code mother–child interactions while simultaneous measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia were obtained. Results indicated that physically abusive mothers were more likely to react to children’s positive bids for autonomy with strict and hostile control, than either neglecting or non-CM mothers. CM exposure and quality of maternal responding to children’s autonomous bids were uniquely associated with lower parasympathetic tone in children. Results provide evidence of neurodevelopmental associations between early CM exposure, the immediate interactive context of parenting, and children’s autonomic physiology. PMID:21842991

Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Loke, Eric; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth A.; Woehrle, Petra L.; Van Epps, John J.; Gowda, Anjali; Ammerman, Robert T.



Highly efficient and selective photocatalytic oxidation of sulfide by a chromophore-catalyst dyad of ruthenium-based complexes.  


Electronic coupling across a bridging ligand between a chromophore and a catalyst center has an important influence on biological and synthetic photocatalytic processes. Structural and associated electronic modifications of ligands may improve the efficiency of photocatalytic transformations of organic substrates. Two ruthenium-based supramolecular assemblies based on a chromophore-catalyst dyad containing a Ru-aqua complex and its chloro form as the catalytic components were synthesized and structurally characterized, and their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties were investigated. Under visible light irradiation and in the presence of [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 as a sacrificial electron acceptor, both complexes exhibited good photocatalytic activity toward oxidation of sulfide into the corresponding sulfoxide with high efficiency and >99% product selectivity in neutral aqueous solution. The Ru-aqua complex assembly was more efficient than the chloro complex. Isotopic labeling experiments using (18)O-labeled water demonstrated the oxygen atom transfer from the water to the organic substrate, likely through the formation of an active intermediate, Ru(IV)?O. PMID:25526316

Li, Ting-Ting; Li, Fu-Min; Zhao, Wei-Liang; Tian, Yong-Hua; Chen, Yong; Cai, Rong; Fu, Wen-Fu



Effect of geometrical orientation on the charge-transfer energetics of supramolecular (tetraphenyl)-porphyrin/C60 dyads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge transfer (CT) excited state energies of donor-acceptor (D/A) pairs determine the achievable open-circuit voltage of D/A-based organic solar cell devices. Changes in the relative orientation of donor-acceptor pairs at the interface influence the frontier orbital energy levels, which impacts the dissociation of bound excitons at the D/A-interface. We examine the effect of relative orientation on CT excited state energies of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The donors studied are base- and Zn-tetraphenyl porphyrin coupled to C60 as the acceptor molecule in an end-on configuration. We compare the energetics of a few low-lying CT states for the end-on geometry to our previously calculated CT energetics of a co-facial orientation. The calculated CT excitation energies are larger for the end-on orientation in comparison to the co-facial structure by about 0.7 eV, which primarily occurs due to a decrease in exciton binding energy in going from the co-facial to the end-on orientation. Furthermore, changes in relative donor-acceptor orientation have a larger impact on the CT energies than changes in donor-acceptor distance.

Olguin, Marco; Zope, Rajendra R.; Baruah, Tunna



Vectorial photoinduced electron transfer in multicomponent film systems of poly(3-hexylthiophene), porphyrin-fullerene dyad, and perylenetetracarboxidiimide.  


Multistage electron transfer in a film system consisting of a hole-transporting layer (HTL), donor-acceptor pair (D-A), and an electron-transporting layer (ETL) was studied by photovoltage and flash-photolysis techniques. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PHT) was used as the HTL, while a symmetric porphyrin-fullerene dyad (P-F) and perylenetetracarboxidiimide (PTCDI) layers were functioning as the D-A pair and ETL, respectively. The photoexcitation of this three-component film system causes charge separations in the monomolecular P-F film, followed by electron transfer from the PHT polymer film and the fullerene anions to the porphyrin cations and the PTCDI layer, respectively. The final transient state is a charged PHT(+)|P-F|PTCDI(-) system, with significantly increased amplitude and lifetime of the photoelectrical signals compared to previously studied P-F|PTCDI and PHT|P-F systems, due to the its increased charge-separation distance. The study promotes the knowledge on the charge transfer mechanism in multilayered film systems. PMID:20683545

Vivo, Paola; Kaunisto, Kimmo; Alekseev, Alexander S; Pekkola, Oili; Tolkki, Antti; Chukharev, Vladimir; Lemmetyinen, Helge



The chicken skeletal alpha-actin gene promoter region exhibits partial dyad symmetry and a capacity to drive bidirectional transcription.  

PubMed Central

The chicken skeletal alpha-actin gene promoter region (-202 to -12) provides myogenic transcriptional specificity. This promoter contains partial dyad symmetry about an axis at nucleotide -108 and in transfection experiments is capable of directing transcription in a bidirectional manner. At least three different transcription initiation start sites, oriented toward upstream sequences, were mapped 25 to 30 base pairs from TATA-like regions. The opposing transcriptional activity was potentiated upon the deletion of sequences proximal to the alpha-actin transcription start site. Thus, sequences which serve to position RNA polymerase for alpha-actin transcription may allow, in their absence, the selection of alternative and reverse-oriented start sites. Nuclear runoff transcription assays of embryonic muscle indicated that divergent transcription may occur in vivo but with rapid turnover of nuclear transcripts. Divergent transcriptional activity enabled us to define the 3' regulatory boundary of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter which retains a high level of myogenic transcriptional activity. The 3' regulatory border was detected when serial 3' deletions bisected the element (-91 CCAAA TATGG -82) which reduced transcriptional activity by 80%. Previously we showed that disruption of its upstream counterpart (-127 CCAAAGAAGG -136) resulted in about a 90% decrease in activity. These element pairs, which we describe as CCAAT box-associated repeats, are conserved in all sequenced vertebrate sarcomeric actin genes and may act in a cooperative manner to facilitate transcription in myogenic cells. Images PMID:3211124

Grichnik, J M; French, B A; Schwartz, R J



Examining Peer Acceptance in Verbal and Non-Verbal Interaction during Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Implications for Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the results of peer acceptance in a study investigating the interactions of pairs of disabled and non-disabled pupils working together on computer-based tasks in mainstream primary schools in Cyprus. Twenty dyads of pupils were observed and videotaped while working together at the computer. Data analyses were based on the…

Mavrou, Katerina



Examining the Role of Communication on Sibling Relationship Quality and Interaction for Sibling Pairs with and without a Developmental Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent…

Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.



Patterns in Early Interaction between Young Preschool Children with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments and Their Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to examine whether the asymmetrical pattern of communication usually found between people who use augmentative and alternative communication and their partners using natural speech was also found in the interaction between non-vocal young preschool children with cerebral palsy and their parents. Three parent-child dyads

Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Liliedahl, Marie



Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Delivered to At-Risk Families in the Home Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation was conducted for 83 parent-child dyads who participated in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) delivered in-home by community agency therapists. Data included self-report measures and therapist observations at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated significant positive changes in child/parent behavior and parent attitudes…

Galanter, Rachel; Self-Brown, Shannon; Valente, Jessica R.; Dorsey, Shannon; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Bertuglia-Haley, Michelle; Prieto, Metta



High resolution study of MGeH4 (M=76, 74) in the dyad region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared spectrum of GeH4 (88.1% of 76GeH4, 11.5% of 74GeH4, and minor amounts of three other stable isotopic species in the sample) was measured in the 700-1080 cm-1 region with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform interferometer (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and analyzed. 1922 transitions with J=26 were assigned to the ?4 and ?2 bands of 76GeH4 (?2 is a symmetry forbidden absorption band, and its transitions appear in the spectrum only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ?4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with an accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The result of analogous analysis of the 74GeH4 isotopologue (the number of assigned transitions is 788) is also presented.

Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Sennikov, P. G.; Koshelev, M. A.; Velmuzhova, I. A.; Velmuzhov, A. P.; Bulanov, A. D.



Mealtime television viewing and dietary quality in low-income African American and Caucasian mother-toddler dyads.  


To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy. PMID:19629662

Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine



Hunter-Gatherer Inter-Band Interaction Rates: Implications for Cumulative Culture  

PubMed Central

Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%–29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture. PMID:25047714

Hill, Kim R.; Wood, Brian M.; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A. Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T.



Positive Socialization Mechanisms in Secure and Insecure Parent-Child Dyads: Two Longitudinal Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early security amplified beneficial effects of children's willing, receptive stance toward the parent on socialization outcomes. Methods We examined parent-child early attachment organization, assessed in Strange Situation at 14–15 months, as moderating links between children's willing stance toward parents and socialization outcomes in Study 1 (108 mothers and children, followed to 73 months) and Study 2 (101 mothers, fathers, and children, followed to 80 months). Children's willing stance was observed as committed compliance at 14 and 22 months in Study 1, and as responsiveness to the parent in naturalistic interactions and teaching contexts at 25 and 67 months in Study 2. Socialization outcomes included children's internalization of maternal prohibition, observed at 33, 45, and 56 months, and maternal ratings of children's externalizing problems at 73 months in Study 1, and mothers' and fathers' ratings of children's Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder symptoms at 80 months in Study 2. Results Indirect effects of attachment were replicated across both studies and diverse measures: Attachment security significantly amplified the links between children's willing stance to mothers and all outcomes. Secure children's willing, cooperative stance to mothers predicted future successful socialization outcomes. Insecure children's willing stance conferred no beneficial effects. Conclusions Implications of early attachment extend to long-term, indirect developmental sequelae. Security in the first year serves as a catalyst for future positive socialization processes. PMID:20406336

Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.



Boys Withdraw More in One-on-One Interactions, Whereas Girls Withdraw More in Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research predicts that males will be more likely to withdraw in one-on-one interactions versus groups, whereas females will be more likely to withdraw in groups than in one-on-one interactions. Ninety-eight 10-year-old children engaged in a word generation task either in same-sex dyads or in groups. Boys completed significantly more words in…

Benenson, Joyce F.; Heath, Anna



The Impact of Visual Communication on the Intersubjective Development of Early Parent?Child Interaction with 18- to 24-Month-Old Deaf Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a study that examined the impact of visual communication on the quality of the early interaction between deaf and hearing mothers and fathers and their deaf children aged between 18 and 24 months. Three communication mode groups of parent?deaf child dyads that differed by the use of signing and visual?tactile communication…

Loots, Gerrit; Devise, Isabel; Jacquet, Wolfgang



Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

Figueiredo, B.


The 'functional' dyad of scorpion toxin Pi1 is not itself a prerequisite for toxin binding to the voltage-gated Kv1.2 potassium channels.  

PubMed Central

Pi1 is a 35-residue scorpion toxin cross-linked by four disulphide bridges that acts potently on both small-conductance Ca2+-activated (SK) and voltage-gated (Kv) K+ channel subtypes. Two approaches were used to investigate the relative contribution of the Pi1 functional dyad (Tyr-33 and Lys-24) to the toxin action: (i) the chemical synthesis of a [A24,A33]-Pi1 analogue, lacking the functional dyad, and (ii) the production of a Pi1 analogue that is phosphorylated on Tyr-33 (P-Pi1). According to molecular modelling, this phosphorylation is expected to selectively impact the two amino acid residues belonging to the functional dyad without altering the nature and three-dimensional positioning of other residues. P-Pi1 was directly produced by peptide synthesis to rule out any possibility of trace contamination by the unphosphorylated product. Both Pi1 analogues were compared with synthetic Pi1 for bioactivity. In vivo, [A24,A33]-Pi1 and P-Pi1 are lethal by intracerebroventricular injection in mice (LD50 values of 100 and 40 microg/mouse, respectively). In vitro, [A24,A33]-Pi1 and P-Pi1 compete with 125I-apamin for binding to SK channels of rat brain synaptosomes (IC50 values of 30 and 10 nM, respectively) and block rat voltage-gated Kv1.2 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes (IC50 values of 22 microM and 75 nM, respectively), whereas they are inactive on Kv1.1 or Kv1.3 channels at micromolar concentrations. Therefore, although both analogues are less active than Pi1 both in vivo and in vitro, the integrity of the Pi1 functional dyad does not appear to be a prerequisite for the recognition and binding of the toxin to the Kv1.2 channels, thereby highlighting the crucial role of other toxin residues with regard to Pi1 action on these channels. The computed simulations detailing the docking of Pi1 peptides on to the Kv1.2 channels support an unexpected key role of specific basic amino acid residues, which form a basic ring (Arg-5, Arg-12, Arg-28 and Lys-31 residues), in toxin binding. PMID:12962541

Mouhat, Stéphanie; Mosbah, Amor; Visan, Violeta; Wulff, Heike; Delepierre, Muriel; Darbon, Hervé; Grissmer, Stephan; De Waard, Michel; Sabatier, Jean-Marc



Rolling cycle amplification based single-color quantum dots-ruthenium complex assembling dyads for homogeneous and highly selective detection of DNA.  


In this work, a new, label-free, homogeneous, highly sensitive, and selective fluorescent biosensor for DNA detection is developed by using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) based single-color quantum dots-ruthenium complex (QDs-Ru) assembling dyads. This strategy includes three steps: (1) the target DNA initiates RCA reaction and generates linear RCA products; (2) the complementary DNA hybridizes with the RCA products to form long double-strand DNA (dsDNA); (3) [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) (dppx=7,8-dimethyldipyrido [3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenanthroline) intercalates into the long dsDNA with strong fluorescence emission. Due to its strong binding propensity with the long dsDNA, [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) is removed from the surface of the QDs, resulting in restoring the fluorescence of the QDs, which has been quenched by [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) through a photoinduced electron transfer process and is overlaid with the fluorescence of dsDNA bonded Ru(II) polypyridyl complex (Ru-dsDNA). Thus, high fluorescence intensity is observed, and is related to the concentration of target. This sensor exhibits not only high sensitivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) ssDNA with a low detection limit (0.5pM), but also excellent selectivity in the complex matrix. Moreover, this strategy applies QDs-Ru assembling dyads to the detection of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) without any functionalization and separation techniques. PMID:25467495

Su, Chen; Liu, Yufei; Ye, Tai; Xiang, Xia; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike



Infection disclosure in the injecting dyads of Hungarian and Lithuanian injecting drug users who self-reported being infected with hepatitis C virus or human immunodeficiency virus  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of disclosure to network members of being hepatitis C virus (HCV)- or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected among injecting dyads of infected injection drug users (IDUs) in Budapest, Hungary and Vilnius, Lithuania,. Multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess associations. Very strong infection disclosure norms exist in Hungary, and HCV disclosure was associated with using drugs and having sex within the dyad. Non-ethnic Russian IDUs in Lithuania were more likely to disclose HCV infection to non-Roma, emotionally close and HCV-infected network members, and to those with whom they shared cookers, filters, drug solutions or rinse water or got used syringes from, and if they had fewer non-IDU or IDU network members. Ethnic Russian Lithuanian IDUs were more likely to disclose HCV if they had higher disclosure attitude and knowledge scores, ‘trusted’ network members, and had lower non-injecting network density and higher injecting network density. HIV-infected Lithuanian IDUs were more likely to disclose to ‘trusted’ network members. Disclosure norms matched disclosure behaviour in Hungary, while disclosure in Lithuania to ‘trusted’ network members suggests possible stigmatization. Ongoing free and confidential HCV/HIV testing services for IDUs are needed to emphasize and strengthen disclosure norms, and to decrease stigma. PMID:20840002




Generation of Phosphorescent Triplet States via Photoinduced Electron Transfer: Energy and Electron Transfer Dynamics in Pt Porphyrin-Rhodamine B Dyads  

PubMed Central

Control over generation and dynamics of excited electronic states is fundamental to their utilization in all areas of technology. We present the first example of multichromophoric systems in which emissive triplet states are generated via a pathway involving photoinduced electron transfer (ET), as opposed to local intrachromophoric processes. In model dyads, PtP-Phn-pRhB+ (1-3, n=1-3), comprising platinum(II) meso-tetraarylporphyrin (PtP) and rhodamine B piperazine derivative (pRhB+), linked by oligo-p-phenylene bridges (Phn), upon selective excitation of pRhB+ at a frequency below that of the lowest allowed transition of PtP, room-temperature T1?S0 phosphorescence of PtP was observed. The pathway leading to the emissive PtP triplet state includes excitation of pRhB+, ET with formation of the singlet radical pair, intersystem crossing within that pair and subsequent radical recombination. Due to the close proximity of the triplet energy levels of PtP and pRhB+, reversible triplet-triplet (TT) energy transfer between these states was observed in dyads 1 and 2. As a result, the phosphorescence of PtP was extended in time by the long decay of the pRhB+ triplet. Observation of ET and TT in the same series of molecules enabled direct comparison of the distance attenuation factors ? between these two closely related processes. PMID:22400988

Mani, Tomoyasu; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.



Efficacy of a Crisis Intervention in Improving Mother-Child Interaction and Children's Play Functioning.  


OBJECTIVE. We examined the efficacy of a crisis-based intervention in improving mother-child interaction and children's play functioning for families who had experienced domestic violence. METHOD. Using a pretest-posttest two-group control study design, we assigned the intervention group (n = 20 mother-child dyads) to the Family Intervention for Improving Occupational Performance (FI-OP) program and the control group (n = 17 dyads) to a playroom program. Both programs consisted of eight 30-min sessions. We videotaped dyads during free play and used standardized tools to assess interactions, play skills, and playfulness. RESULTS. After the intervention, mother-child interaction was significantly better in the FI-OP group than in the playroom group. The children in the FI-OP group also demonstrated significantly greater improvement in play skills, but not in playfulness. CONCLUSION. FI-OP is a promising program for improving aspects of mother-child interaction and children's play functioning among survivors of domestic violence. PMID:25553747

Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Weintraub, Naomi



Mother-Child Conflict Interaction in the Toddler Years: Behavior Patterns and Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined mother-child (M-C) conflict behavior during the toddler years. The nature of M-C conflict behaviors, whether conflict\\u000a behavior differed by context, and factors that were associated with conflict interactions were examined. We used data collected\\u000a as part of the National Evaluation of the Healthy Steps for Young Children Program. 378 M-C dyads participated in this study.\\u000a Videotaped observational data

Keng-Yen Huang; Douglas M. Teti; Margaret O’Brien Caughy; Stanley Feldstein; Janice Genevro



The relationship of empathy in movement to synchrony, echoing, and empathy in verbal interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study analyzed the relationships among synchrony, echoing, and empathy in dyadic counseling sessions and friendly\\u000a conversations to explore the validity of relating synchrony to movement empathy. It also compared the counseling and friendship\\u000a dyads’ movement profiles. The study worked only with female participants. One from each pair viewed three ten minute sections\\u000a from her videotaped interaction and used

Danielle L. Fraenkel



Mother–Infant Person- and Object-Directed Interactions in Latino Immigrant Families: A Comparative Approach  

PubMed Central

Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother–infant person-and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother–infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother–infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers and infants engaged in person-directed behaviors longer than Latino immigrant or European American mothers and infants. Mother and infant person-directed behaviors were positively related; mother and infant object-related behaviors were related for some cultural groups but not others. Nearly all mother and infant behaviors were mutually contingent. Mothers were more responsive to infants’ behaviors than infants were to mothers. Some cultural differences in responsiveness emerged. Immigrant status has a differentiated role in mother–infant interactions. PMID:23275761

Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Bakeman, Roger



Determination of preferential molecular orientation in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad molecules with zinc atoms incorporated into the porphyrin ring (ZnDHD6ee) on the surface of aqueous subphase and on Si substrates have been investigated by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry. The experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions and on synchrotron radiation sources (KMC-2 station of BESSY II (Berlin) and Langmuir station at the National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute'). Depth distributions of Zn atoms and electron density in the monolayer film are calculated. On the basis of the analysis of these distributions, it is concluded that ZnDHD6ee dyad molecules in monolayers have preferential orientation. The data obtained indicate that the molecules in monolayer film retain their orientation when the monolayer is transferred from a liquid subphase surface onto a solid substrate.

Seregin, A. Yu., E-mail:; D'yakova, Yu. A.; Yakunin, S. N.; Makhotkin, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Tereschenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)



Emergency department case management: the dyad team of nurse case manager and social worker improve discharge planning and patient and staff satisfaction while decreasing inappropriate admissions and costs: a literature review.  


A model of emergency department (ED) case management consisting of a social worker and a nurse case manager can prevent inappropriate admissions, improve discharge planning, decrease cost, and enhance patient satisfaction. The individual and combined roles of the dyad team of social worker and nurse case manager are discussed. A literature review includes how a case management dyad team of social worker and nurse case manager in the ED can decrease utilization of the ED for nonemergent visits, promote the use of community resources, and improve discharge planning to avoid excessive costs. The importance of the dyad team working with the interdisciplinary team in the ED, the primary care physician (PCP), and other community health care providers in order to provide a holistic approach to care is addressed. A discussion about the improvement of both patient and staff satisfaction demonstrates the results of case management strategies that support and advocate for patients to receive quality, cost-effective care across the health care continuum, while decreasing the use of the ED for nonemergent care. PMID:12478226

Bristow, Darlene P; Herrick, Charlotte A



Emergency department case management: the dyad team of nurse case manager and social worker improve discharge planning and patient and staff satisfaction while decreasing inappropriate admissions and costs: a literature review.  


A model of emergency department (ED) case management consisting of a social worker and a nurse case manager can prevent inappropriate admissions, improve discharge planning, decrease cost, and enhance patient satisfaction.3 The individual and combined roles of the dyad team of social worker and nurse case manager are discussed. A literature review includes how a case management dyad team of social worker and nurse case manager in the ED can decrease utilization of the ED for nonemergent visits, promote the use of community resources, and improve discharge planning to avoid excessive costs. The importance of the dyad team working with the interdisciplinary team in the ED, the primary care physician (PCP), and other community health care providers in order to provide a holistic approach to care is addressed. A discussion about the improvement of both patient and staff satisfaction demonstrates the results of case management strategies that support and advocate for patients to receive quality, cost-effective care across the health care continuum, while decreasing the use of the ED for nonemergent care. PMID:12048342

Bristow, Darlene P; Herrick, Charlotte A



Acceleration of an Aromatic Claisen Rearrangement via a Designed Spiroligozyme Catalyst that Mimics the Ketosteroid Isomerase Catalytic Dyad  

PubMed Central

A series of hydrogen-bonding catalysts have been designed for the aromatic Claisen rearrangement of a 1,1-dimethylallyl coumarin. These catalysts were designed as mimics of the two-point hydrogen-bonding interaction present in ketosteroid isomerase that has been proposed to stabilize a developing negative charge on the ether oxygen in the migration of the double bond.1 Two hydrogen bond donating groups, a phenol alcohol and a carboxylic acid, were grafted onto a conformationally restrained spirocyclic scaffold, and together they enhance the rate of the Claisen rearrangement by a factor of 58 over the background reaction. Theoretical calculations correctly predict the most active catalyst and suggest that both preorganization and favorable interactions with the transition state of the reaction are responsible for the observed rate enhancement. PMID:24456160



Acceleration of an aromatic Claisen rearrangement via a designed spiroligozyme catalyst that mimics the ketosteroid isomerase catalytic dyad.  


A series of hydrogen-bonding catalysts have been designed for the aromatic Claisen rearrangement of a 1,1-dimethylallyl coumarin. These catalysts were designed as mimics of the two-point hydrogen-bonding interaction present in ketosteroid isomerase that has been proposed to stabilize a developing negative charge on the ether oxygen in the migration of the double bond.1 Two hydrogen bond donating groups, a phenol alcohol and a carboxylic acid, were grafted onto a conformationally restrained spirocyclic scaffold, and together they enhance the rate of the Claisen rearrangement by a factor of 58 over the background reaction. Theoretical calculations correctly predict the most active catalyst and suggest that both preorganization and favorable interactions with the transition state of the reaction are responsible for the observed rate enhancement. PMID:24456160

Parker, Matthew F L; Osuna, Sílvia; Bollot, Guillaume; Vaddypally, Shivaiah; Zdilla, Michael J; Houk, K N; Schafmeister, Christian E



Study of structural order in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers formed on the surface of aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough and transferred onto solid substrates has been studied. The data obtained are interpreted using simulation of the structure of isolated molecules and their packing in monolayer and modeling of diffraction patterns from molecular aggregates having different sizes and degrees of order. Experiments on the formation of condensed ZnDHD6ee monolayers are described. The structure of these monolayers on a water surface is analyzed using {pi}-A isotherms. The structure of the monolayers transferred onto solid substrates is investigated by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The unit-cell parameters of two-dimensional domains, which are characteristic of molecular packing in monolayers and deposited films, are determined. Domains are found to be organized into a texture (the molecular axes are oriented by the [001] direction perpendicular to the substrate). The monolayers contain a limited number of small 3D domains.

D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, Andrei S.; Orekhov, Anton S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gainutdinov, R. V.; Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail:; Tereschenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)



A compact tetrathiafulvalene-benzothiadiazole dyad and its highly symmetrical charge-transfer salt: ordered donor ?-stacks closely bound to their acceptors.  


A compact and planar donor-acceptor molecule 1 comprising tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and benzothiadiazole (BTD) units has been synthesised and experimentally characterised by structural, optical, and electrochemical methods. Solution-processed and thermally evaporated thin films of 1 have also been explored as active materials in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). For these devices, hole field-effect mobilities of ?FE = (1.3±0.5)×10(-3) and (2.7±0.4)×10(-3) ?cm(2) ?V?s(-1) were determined for the solution-processed and thermally evaporated thin films, respectively. An intense intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition at around 495?nm dominates the optical absorption spectrum of the neutral dyad, which also shows a weak emission from its ICT state. The iodine-induced oxidation of 1 leads to a partially oxidised crystalline charge-transfer (CT) salt {(1)2I3}, and eventually also to a fully oxidised compound {1I3}?1/2I2. Single crystals of the former CT compound, exhibiting a highly symmetrical crystal structure, reveal a fairly good room temperature electrical conductivity of the order of 2?S?cm(-1). The one-dimensional spin system bears compactly bonded BTD acceptors (spatial localisation of the LUMO) along its ridge. PMID:24737663

Geng, Yan; Pfattner, Raphael; Campos, Antonio; Hauser, Jürg; Laukhin, Vladimir; Puigdollers, Joaquim; Veciana, Jaume; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Rovira, Concepció; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia



A highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe for Hg2+ based on bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad and for live cells imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new photochromic diarylethene derivative bearing rhodamine 6G dimmer as a fluorescent molecular probe is designed and synthesized successfully. All the compounds are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad exhibit excellent phtochromism with reversibly color and fluorescence changes alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. Upon addition of Hg2+, its color changes from colorless to red and its fluorescence is remarkably enhanced. Whereas other ions including K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Cr3+ and so on induce basically no spectral changes, which constitute a highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe toward Hg2+. Furthermore, by means of laser confocal scanning microscopy experiments, it is demonstrated that this probe can be applied for live cell imaging and monitoring Hg2+ in living lung cancer cells with satisfying results, which shows its value of potential application in environmental and biological systems.

Xu, Li; Wang, Sheng; Lv, Yingnian; Son, Young-A.; Cao, Derong



A highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe for Hg2+ based on bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad and for live cells imaging.  


A new photochromic diarylethene derivative bearing rhodamine 6G dimmer as a fluorescent molecular probe is designed and synthesized successfully. All the compounds are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad exhibit excellent phtochromism with reversibly color and fluorescence changes alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. Upon addition of Hg(2+), its color changes from colorless to red and its fluorescence is remarkably enhanced. Whereas other ions including K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Fe(3+), Al(3+), Cr(3+) and so on induce basically no spectral changes, which constitute a highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe toward Hg(2+). Furthermore, by means of laser confocal scanning microscopy experiments, it is demonstrated that this probe can be applied for live cell imaging and monitoring Hg(2+) in living lung cancer cells with satisfying results, which shows its value of potential application in environmental and biological systems. PMID:24691371

Xu, Li; Wang, Sheng; Lv, Yingnian; Son, Young-A; Cao, Derong



Training Partnership Dyads for Community-Based Participatory Research: Strategies and Lessons Learned From the Community Engaged Scholars Program  

PubMed Central

This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus–community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution’s Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra



Remarkable Features of the McMurry Reaction Conditions in Dimerization of Formyl- and 2-Formylvinylpurpurinimides. Electrochemistry of Monomeric Ni(II) Purpurinimide and the Corresponding Dyads  

PubMed Central

To investigate the electrochemical properties of purpurinimide dyads and electron transfer sites for their reduction and oxidation, a series of dimers with variable C-C linkages were synthesized. For the preparation of these novel structures, the formyl and 2-formylvinyl substituents were regioselectively introduced at positions-3 and 20 of Ni(II) purpurinimides by the Vilsmeier reaction. The Ni(II) complexes were then subjected to the McMurry reaction under two different conditions with unexpected results being obtained. For example, the reaction of formyl purpurinimides with TiCl3(DME)1.5 failed to produce the desired C-C dimers and the starting compounds were recovered almost quantitatively. Under similar reaction conditions, the 20-(2-formylvinyl)purpurinimide also did not dimerize but gave instead unexpected benzoisobacteriochlorins via an intramolecular cyclization. However, treatment of the 3-formyl- and 20-formyl-purpurinimides with TiCl4/Zn gave the corresponding dimers linked with one double bond (trans-) in modest yields. Under similar conditions, Ni(II) purpurinimides containing a 2-formylvinyl substituent either at position-3 or position-20 afforded the respective C-C dimers, where the purpurinimide moieties were joined with a trans-trans-trans- hexatriene linker. Molecular modeling data suggest that the nature of the conformational energy difference found in all trans- vs. trans-cis-trans- conformers of the dimers connected by a hexatriene linker at the meso- or ?-position of the macrocycle is not due to the intrinsic conformational energy difference of the linker region, which is identical for both dimers. PMID:19072690

Goswami, Lalit N.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Dobhal, Mahabeer P.; Zhang, Min; Missert, Joseph R.; Shibata, Masayuki; Kadish, Karl M.; Pandey, Ravindra K.



Brain-Mind Dyad, Human Experience, the Consciousness Tetrad and Lattice of Mental Operations: And Further, The Need to Integrate Knowledge from Diverse Disciplines  

PubMed Central

Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other’s basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other’s work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of cooperative but evidential and critical enquiry – this is the goal for this monograph, and the work to follow. PMID:21694960

Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.



Sensitive single-color fluorescence "off-on" switch system for dsDNA detection based on quantum dots-ruthenium assembling dyads.  


Due to the high importance of detecting DNA with both fast speed and high sensitivity, we proposed a new dsDNA detection method relying on a novel single-color fluorescence "off-on" switch system. Water-soluble glutathione capped CdTe QDs (emission at 605 nm) was prepared for taking advantage of the readily tunable emission property of QDs. Initially, QDs was completely quenched by the Ru(phen)2(dppz)(2+), as the spontaneous formation of QDs-Ru assembling dyads. Then, in the case of the addition of dsDNA, the Ru(phen)2(dppz)(2+) was removed away from the CdTe QDs, producing free CdTe QDs and the Ru-dsDNA complex. Both of them could be excited at the same wavelength and emit overlaid fluorescence. This single-color fluorescence "off-on" signal was sensitive to the concentration of dsDNA. Native dsDNA with the concentration of 10 pg/mL could be detected when 0.5 nM CdTe QDs was used, and ssDNA, RNA or BSA had no interference on it. With this system, the dsDNA samples of hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients were tested. The results were in good agreement with those detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR (P>0.05), and for those samples with very low DNA concentrations, this system could provide more accurate results, demonstrating the possible clinical applicability of this "off-on" switch system. For this system, chemical conjugation or labeling of probes is not required, and unmodified native DNA targets could be detected in less than half an hour. Therefore, a simple, fast, sensitive, low cost, highly selective and practically applicable detection system for dsDNA has been described. PMID:24463196

Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Dongxu; Ding, Hui-Guo; Huang, Yan-Xiang; Zhong, Hai-Zheng; Xie, Hai-Yan



Inter-Brain Synchronization during Social Interaction  

PubMed Central

During social interaction, both participants are continuously active, each modifying their own actions in response to the continuously changing actions of the partner. This continuous mutual adaptation results in interactional synchrony to which both members contribute. Freely exchanging the role of imitator and model is a well-framed example of interactional synchrony resulting from a mutual behavioral negotiation. How the participants' brain activity underlies this process is currently a question that hyperscanning recordings allow us to explore. In particular, it remains largely unknown to what extent oscillatory synchronization could emerge between two brains during social interaction. To explore this issue, 18 participants paired as 9 dyads were recorded with dual-video and dual-EEG setups while they were engaged in spontaneous imitation of hand movements. We measured interactional synchrony and the turn-taking between model and imitator. We discovered by the use of nonlinear techniques that states of interactional synchrony correlate with the emergence of an interbrain synchronizing network in the alpha-mu band between the right centroparietal regions. These regions have been suggested to play a pivotal role in social interaction. Here, they acted symmetrically as key functional hubs in the interindividual brainweb. Additionally, neural synchronization became asymmetrical in the higher frequency bands possibly reflecting a top-down modulation of the roles of model and imitator in the ongoing interaction. PMID:20808907

Dumas, Guillaume; Nadel, Jacqueline; Soussignan, Robert; Martinerie, Jacques



The origins of 12-month attachment: a microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant interaction.  


A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1 s time base; mother and infant facial-visual "engagement" variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual's own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual's behavior that were correlated with the partner's previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother, yielded comparable numbers of findings. Rather than the more usual hypothesis that more contingency is "better," we partially supported our hypothesis that 12-month insecurity is associated with both higher and lower 4-month self- and interactive contingency values than secure, as a function of mother vs. infant and communication modality. Thus, in the origins of attachment security, more contingency is not necessarily better. A remarkable degree of differentiation was identified in the 4-month patterns of "future" C and D infants, classified as resistant and disorganized, respectively, at 12 months. The central feature of future C dyads was dysregulated tactile and spatial exchanges, generating approach-withdrawal patterns. The intact maternal contingent coordination overall safeguards the future C infant's interactive agency. However, future C infants likely come to expect maternal spatial/tactile impingement, and to expect to "dodge" as mothers "chase." They managed maternal touch by tuning it out, sacrificing their ability to communicate about maternal touch. They "approached" by vigilantly coordinating their facial-visual engagement with maternal facial-visual engagement, but they "withdrew" by inhibiting their facial-visual engagement coordination with maternal touch. We proposed that future C infants will have difficulty feeling sensed and known during maternal spatial/tactile impingements. The central feature of future D dyads is intrapersonal and interpersonal discordance or conflict in the context of intensely distressed infants. Lowered maternal contingent coordination, and failures of maternal affective correspondence, constituted maternal emotional withdrawal from distressed infants, compromising infant interactive agency and emotional coherence. The level of dysregulation in future D dyads was thus of an entirely different order than that of future C dyads. We proposed that the future D infant represents not being sensed and known by the mother, particularly in states of distress. We proposed that the emer

Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley



Sensitisation of Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-based luminescence by Ir(III) units in Ir/lanthanide dyads: evidence for parallel energy-transfer and electron-transfer based mechanisms.  


A series of blue-luminescent Ir(III) complexes with a pendant binding site for lanthanide(III) ions has been synthesized and used to prepare Ir(III)/Ln(III) dyads (Ln = Eu, Tb, Gd). Photophysical studies were used to establish mechanisms of Ir?Ln (Ln = Tb, Eu) energy-transfer. In the Ir/Gd dyads, where direct Ir?Gd energy-transfer is not possible, significant quenching of Ir-based luminescence nonetheless occurred; this can be ascribed to photoinduced electron-transfer from the photo-excited Ir unit (*Ir, (3)MLCT/(3)LC excited state) to the pendant pyrazolyl-pyridine site which becomes a good electron-acceptor when coordinated to an electropositive Gd(III) centre. This electron transfer quenches the Ir-based luminescence, leading to formation of a charge-separated {Ir(4+)}?-(pyrazolyl-pyridine)?(-) state, which is short-lived possibly due to fast back electron-transfer (<20 ns). In the Ir/Tb and Ir/Eu dyads this electron-transfer pathway is again operative and leads to sensitisation of Eu-based and Tb-based emission using the energy liberated from the back electron-transfer process. In addition direct Dexter-type Ir?Ln (Ln = Tb, Eu) energy-transfer occurs on a similar timescale, meaning that there are two parallel mechanisms by which excitation energy can be transferred from *Ir to the Eu/Tb centre. Time-resolved luminescence measurements on the sensitised Eu-based emission showed both fast and slow rise-time components, associated with the PET-based and Dexter-based energy-transfer mechanisms respectively. In the Ir/Tb dyads, the Ir?Tb energy-transfer is only just thermodynamically favourable, leading to rapid Tb?Ir thermally-activated back energy-transfer and non-radiative deactivation to an extent that depends on the precise energy gap between the *Ir and Tb-based (5)D4 states. Thus, the sensitised Tb(iii)-based emission is weak and unusually short-lived due to back energy transfer, but nonetheless represents rare examples of Tb(III) sensitisation by a energy donor that could be excited using visible light as opposed to the usually required UV excitation. PMID:24608523

Sykes, Daniel; Cankut, Ahmet J; Ali, Noorshida Mohd; Stephenson, Andrew; Spall, Steven J P; Parker, Simon C; Weinstein, Julia A; Ward, Michael D



Parent–Child Interactions, Peripheral Serotonin, and Self-Inflicted Injury in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Self-inflicted injury in adolescence indicates significant emotional and psychological suffering. Although data on the etiology of self-injury are limited, current theories suggest that the emotional lability observed among self-injuring adolescents results from complex interactions between individual biological vulnerabilities and environmental risk. For example, deficiencies in serotonergic functioning, in conjunction with certain family interaction patterns, may contribute to the development of emotional lability and risk for self-injury. The authors explored the relation between peripheral serotonin levels and mother–child interaction patterns among typical (n = 21) and self-injuring (n = 20) adolescents. Findings revealed higher levels of negative affect and lower levels of both positive affect and cohesiveness among families of self-injuring participants. Peripheral serotonin was also correlated with the expression of positive affect within dyads. Furthermore, adolescents’ serotonin levels interacted with negativity and conflict within dyads to explain 64% of the variance in self-injury. These findings underscore the importance of considering both biological and environmental risk factors in understanding and treating self-injuring adolescents. PMID:18229978

Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Smith, Cindy J.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Stevens, Adrianne L.



Comparative Network Analysis of Preterm vs. Full-Term Infant-Mother Interactions  

PubMed Central

Several studies have reported that interactions of mothers with preterm infants show differential characteristics compared to that of mothers with full-term infants. Interaction of preterm dyads is often reported as less harmonious. However, observations and explanations concerning the underlying mechanisms are inconsistent. In this work 30 preterm and 42 full-term mother-infant dyads were observed at one year of age. Free play interactions were videotaped and coded using a micro-analytic coding system. The video records were coded at one second resolution and studied by a novel approach using network analysis tools. The advantage of our approach is that it reveals the patterns of behavioral transitions in the interactions. We found that the most frequent behavioral transitions are the same in the two groups. However, we have identified several high and lower frequency transitions which occur significantly more often in the preterm or full-term group. Our analysis also suggests that the variability of behavioral transitions is significantly higher in the preterm group. This higher variability is mostly resulted from the diversity of transitions involving non-harmonious behaviors. We have identified a maladaptive pattern in the maternal behavior in the preterm group, involving intrusiveness and disengagement. Application of the approach reported in this paper to longitudinal data could elucidate whether these maladaptive maternal behavioral changes place the infant at risk for later emotional, cognitive and behavioral disturbance. PMID:23805298

Kalmár, Magda; Tóth, Ildikó; Krishna, Sandeep; Jensen, Mogens H.; Semsey, Szabolcs



Comparative Network Analysis of Preterm vs. Full-Term Infant-Mother Interactions.  


Several studies have reported that interactions of mothers with preterm infants show differential characteristics compared to that of mothers with full-term infants. Interaction of preterm dyads is often reported as less harmonious. However, observations and explanations concerning the underlying mechanisms are inconsistent. In this work 30 preterm and 42 full-term mother-infant dyads were observed at one year of age. Free play interactions were videotaped and coded using a micro-analytic coding system. The video records were coded at one second resolution and studied by a novel approach using network analysis tools. The advantage of our approach is that it reveals the patterns of behavioral transitions in the interactions. We found that the most frequent behavioral transitions are the same in the two groups. However, we have identified several high and lower frequency transitions which occur significantly more often in the preterm or full-term group. Our analysis also suggests that the variability of behavioral transitions is significantly higher in the preterm group. This higher variability is mostly resulted from the diversity of transitions involving non-harmonious behaviors. We have identified a maladaptive pattern in the maternal behavior in the preterm group, involving intrusiveness and disengagement. Application of the approach reported in this paper to longitudinal data could elucidate whether these maladaptive maternal behavioral changes place the infant at risk for later emotional, cognitive and behavioral disturbance. PMID:23805298

Sipos, Lilla; Mengel Pers, Benedicte; Kalmár, Magda; Tóth, Ildikó; Krishna, Sandeep; Jensen, Mogens H; Semsey, Szabolcs



Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.  


Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1?=?13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents. PMID:25070359

Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan



[Early mother-infant interaction and factors negatively affecting parenting].  


The social information-processing model contributes to identifying the psychological processes underlying the construct "sensitivity" in early mother-child interaction. Negative emotional states associated with inadequate self-regulation in coping with stressors affect the mother's attention skills and the processing of the baby's signals. This leads to less synchronous parental practices, particularly unsatisfactory when the baby is unhappy, or crying because the required self-regulation is not provided. This micro-social research studies the sequential profile of maternal reactions to the baby's positive/neutral vs. difficult behaviours and compares them in two groups of dyads, one with mothers who reported high levels of distress and other negative factors for parenting and another group with low levels. The unfavourable circumstances of the high stress group and their negative effects on interaction were observed in some indiscriminate maternal responses and particularly as they reacted to their baby's difficult behaviour, when the mother's regulatory role is more necessary. PMID:17296085

Cerezo, María Angeles; Trenado, Rosa María; Pons-Salvador, Gemma



Control of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Release by Stochastic RyR Gating within a 3D Model of the Cardiac Dyad and Importance of Induction Decay for CICR Termination  

PubMed Central

The factors responsible for the regulation of regenerative calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) during Ca2+ spark evolution remain unclear. Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) gating in rats and sheep was recorded at physiological Ca2+, Mg2+, and ATP levels and incorporated into a 3D model of the cardiac dyad, which reproduced the time course of Ca2+ sparks, Ca2+ blinks, and Ca2+ spark restitution. The termination of CICR by induction decay in the model principally arose from the steep Ca2+ dependence of RyR closed time, with the measured sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) lumen Ca2+ dependence of RyR gating making almost no contribution. The start of CICR termination was strongly dependent on the extent of local depletion of junctional SR Ca2+, as well as the time course of local Ca2+ gradients within the junctional space. Reducing the dimensions of the dyad junction reduced Ca2+ spark amplitude by reducing the strength of regenerative feedback within CICR. A refractory period for Ca2+ spark initiation and subsequent Ca2+ spark amplitude restitution arose from 1), the extent to which the regenerative phase of CICR can be supported by the partially depleted junctional SR, and 2), the availability of releasable Ca2+ in the junctional SR. The physical organization of RyRs within the junctional space had minimal effects on Ca2+ spark amplitude when more than nine RyRs were present. Spark amplitude had a nonlinear dependence on RyR single-channel Ca2+ flux, and was approximately halved by reducing the flux from 0.6 to 0.2 pA. Although rat and sheep RyRs had quite different Ca2+ sensitivities, Ca2+ spark amplitude was hardly affected. This suggests that moderate changes in RyR gating by second-messenger systems will principally alter the spatiotemporal properties of SR release, with smaller effects on the amount released. PMID:23708355

Cannell, M.B.; Kong, C.H.T.; Imtiaz, M.S.; Laver, D.R.



Establishment of Joint Attention in Dyads Involving Hearing Mothers of Deaf and Hearing Children, and Its Relation to Adaptive Social Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mounting evidence points to joint attention as a mediating variable in children's adaptive behavior. Joint attention in interactions between hearing mothers and congenitally deaf (n = 27) and hearing (n = 29) children, ages 18-36 months, was examined. All deaf children had severe to profound hearing loss. Mother-child interactions were coded for…

Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Schmidt, Louis A.



Predictability of observed mother-child interaction from preschool to middle childhood in a high-risk sample.  


This study examined predictability of observed parent-child interaction from preschool to middle childhood in 283 mother-child dyads. Participants were welfare recipients enrolled in the Observational Study of the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program. Structured observational sessions were conducted both at preschool age and middle childhood, and were coded for maternal social behavior, child social behavior, and dyadic interaction. Analyses explored direct relations between the assessments; relations between the assessments with possible third-variable influences, such as maternal literacy, covaried out; and moderated relations. Results indicated that observed mother-child interaction in middle childhood could be significantly predicted from observed interaction 4 years earlier. Risk status moderated the relations such that those families with greater risk factors tended to show more stability, although this stability was, at times, through maintaining suboptimal functioning. PMID:11949907

Weinfield, Nancy S; Ogawa, John R; Egeland, Byron



Using Dyad-Specific Social Stories to Increase Communicative and Social Skills of Preschoolers with Hearing Loss in Self-Contained and Inclusive Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with profound hearing loss often do not have the same prelinguistic opportunities for social and communication interaction as peers with typical hearing and benefit from structured opportunities to learn these skills. This study examined the effect of two interventions to improve the communicative and social skills of four preschoolers…

Raver, Sharon A.; Bobzien, Jonna; Richels, Corrin; Hester, Peggy; Anthony, Nicole



Observations of the whole bell-shaped energy gap law in the intra-molecular charge separation (CS) from S2 state of directly linked Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads: Examinations of wider range of energy gap (-[Delta]GCS) for the CS rates in normal regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very recently, we have succeeded in the first observation of the whole bell-shaped energy gap law (EGL) of photoinduced charge separation (CS) reaction, examining the ultrafast reaction from the S2 state of Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads with the fs fluorescence dynamics measurements, which showed EGL including both normal and inverted regimes considerably broader than the result in our previous investigations. We have

Noboru Mataga; Seiji Taniguchi; Haik Chosrowjan; Astuhiro Osuka; Kei Kurotobi



Following the Child's Lead: Mothers' Interactions with Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the extent to which mothers of preschool children with autism use language that is related to the child's focus of attention. Fourteen mother–child dyads involving preschool children with autism participated in this study, along with 14 matched dyads involving typically developing preschool children. Both groups were observed during 15 minutes of free play. Results revealed that the

Linda R. Watson



Combined two-photon excitation and d?f energy transfer in a water-soluble Ir(III)/Eu(III) dyad: two luminescence components from one molecule for cellular imaging.  


The first example of cell imaging using two independent emission components from a dinuclear d/f complex is reported. A water-stable, cell-permeable Ir(III) /Eu(III) dyad undergoes partial Ir?Eu energy transfer following two-photon excitation of the Ir unit at 780?nm. Excitation in the near-IR region generated simultaneously green Ir-based emission and red Eu-based emission from the same probe. The orders-of-magnitude difference in their timescales (Ir ca. ?s; Eu ca. 0.5?ms) allowed them to be identified by time-gated detection. Phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (PLIM) allowed the lifetime of the Ir-based emission to be measured in different parts of the cell. At the same time, the cells are simultaneously imaged by using the Eu-based emission component at longer timescales. This new approach to cellular imaging by using dual d/f emitters should therefore enable autofluorescence-free sensing of two different analytes, independently, simultaneously and in the same regions of a cell. PMID:24930403

Baggaley, Elizabeth; Cao, Deng-Ke; Sykes, Daniel; Botchway, Stanley W; Weinstein, Julia A; Ward, Michael D



Combined Two-Photon Excitation and d?f Energy Transfer in a Water-Soluble IrIII/EuIII Dyad: Two Luminescence Components from One Molecule for Cellular Imaging  

PubMed Central

The first example of cell imaging using two independent emission components from a dinuclear d/f complex is reported. A water-stable, cell-permeable IrIII/EuIII dyad undergoes partial Ir?Eu energy transfer following two-photon excitation of the Ir unit at 780 nm. Excitation in the near-IR region generated simultaneously green Ir-based emission and red Eu-based emission from the same probe. The orders-of-magnitude difference in their timescales (Ir ca. ?s; Eu ca. 0.5 ms) allowed them to be identified by time-gated detection. Phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (PLIM) allowed the lifetime of the Ir-based emission to be measured in different parts of the cell. At the same time, the cells are simultaneously imaged by using the Eu-based emission component at longer timescales. This new approach to cellular imaging by using dual d/f emitters should therefore enable autofluorescence-free sensing of two different analytes, independently, simultaneously and in the same regions of a cell. PMID:24930403

Baggaley, Elizabeth; Cao, Deng-Ke; Sykes, Daniel; Botchway, Stanley W; Weinstein, Julia A; Ward, Michael D



The electronic structure and charge transfer excited states of the endohedral trimetallic nitride C80 (Ih) fullerenes-Zn-tetraphenyl porphyrin dyads.  


Endohedral fullerenes offer the possibility of tuning their properties through a choice of the endohedral unit. The Sc3N@C80 fullerene is the most abundant fullerene after C60 and C70. Recently, Sc3N@C80 has been tested for light harvesting properties with encouraging results. In this work, we study the electronic structure of three endohedral fullerene-Zn tetraphenyl porphyrin complexes using density functional theory. The binding between the components in these complexes arises due to van der Waals interaction. A fragment orbital analysis is carried out to examine the interaction between the two components which shows that a small charge transfer occurs in the ground state from the ZnTPP to the fullerenes and that the orientation of the Sc3N plane affects the ground state charge transfer. The charge transfer excited state energies are calculated using our perturbative delta-SCF method. A comparison with earlier calculations shows that the charge transfer excitation energy increases as C60-ZnTPP < C70-ZnTPP < Sc3N@C80-ZnTPP < Y3N@C80-ZnTPP. The orientation of the endohedral unit does not influence the excitation energy in the donor-acceptor complexes. PMID:25631359

Basurto, Luis; Amerikheirabadi, Fatemeh; Zope, Rajendra; Baruah, Tunna



Parent-infant interaction during perinatal addiction treatment.  


Studies of parent-child interactions during perinatal addiction treatment are needed to offer insights into the nature of child development outcomes for this population. A purposeful sample of 17 women in a drug and alcohol addiction treatment program and their infants was studied over the course of their first year in the program. The purpose of this naturalistic field study was to examine parent-child interactions during addiction treatment. The following research question guided the inquiry: What is the nature of parent-infant interaction during the first year in a perinatal addiction treatment program? This study combined grounded theory methodology with the quantitative methods of descriptive and differential statistics. Open-coding of interviews, field notes, and the treatment records followed grounded theory methodology. A time-sampling procedure was used to examine stability of interactions at the beginning of program participation, again when each infant was 6 months old, and when each infant was 12 months. Results are used to describe parent-child interactions across samples and over time. Chi-square procedures were performed on number of children in each family, length of time in the program, sobriety, and mutual enjoyment of interaction. A significant difference in interaction by length of time in the program (chi 2 = 7.0801, df = 1, p < .00) as well as in interaction by percent sobriety (chi 2 = 4.1538, df = 1, p < .04) was evident. Behaviors of the infants reflected the emotional tone and parenting responses of their mothers. Dyads whose interactions showed a pattern of mutuality were more likely to continue in the treatment program and to maintain sobriety. The ability of a mother to enjoy her infant seemed to be the one factor that made the most difference in child behaviors. Results can be used by clinicians to guide the choice of treatment approaches that support the parent-child relationship during addiction treatment. PMID:7759321

Nardi, D A



Adaptation of a Communication Interaction Behavior Instrument for use in Mechanically Ventilated, Nonvocal Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Valid and reliable instruments are needed to measure communication interaction behaviors between nurses and mechanically ventilated (MV) intensive care unit (ICU) patients who are without oral speech. Objectives To refine and evaluate preliminary validity and reliability of a Communication Interaction Behavior Instrument (CIBI) adapted for use with nonvocal, MV ICU patients. Methods Raters observed nurse-patient communication interactions using a checklist of nurse and patient behaviors, categorized as positive and negative behaviors. We used 3-minute video-recorded observations of 5 MV ICU adults (<60 years) and their nurses to establish preliminary inter-rater reliability and confirm appropriateness of definitions (4 observations per dyad, N=20). Based on expert input and reliability results, the behaviors and item definitions on the CIBI were revised. The revised tool was then tested in a larger sample of 38 MV ICU patients (?60 years) and their nurses (4 observations per dyad, N=152) to determine inter-rater reliability. Results For preliminary testing, percent agreement for individual items ranged from 60–100% for nurse behaviors and 20–100% for patient behaviors across the 5 pilot cases. Based on these results, 11 definitions were modified and 4 items were dropped. Using the revised 29-item instrument, percent agreement improved for nurse behaviors (73–100%) and patient behaviors (68–100%). Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.13–1.00, with lower coefficients for patient behaviors. Conclusion Preliminary results suggest that the revised CIBI has good face validity and demonstrates good inter-rater reliability for many of the behaviors but further refinement is needed. The use of dual raters with adjudication of discrepancies is the recommended method of administration for the revised CIBI. PMID:24335909

Nilsen, Marci; Happ, Mary Beth; Donovan, Heidi; Barnato, Amber; Hoffman, Leslie; Sereika, Susan M.



A qualitative study of the instructional behaviors and practices of a dyad of educators in self-contained and inclusive co-taught secondary biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1997) mandates that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum. School districts have developed a variety of service delivery models to provide challenging educational experiences for all students. Co-teaching or collaborative teaching is the most widely used of the different service delivery models. While the philosophy of inclusion is widely accepted, the efficacy of the various inclusion models has recently been the focus of educational research. Researchers have questioned whether the presence of a special educator in the general education classroom has resulted in students with high incidence disabilities receiving specialized instruction. A qualitative study was designed to examine the instructional behaviors and practices exhibited and used by a dyad of educators in self-contained learning disabilities and inclusive co-taught secondary Biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period. In addition to utilizing interviews, observations, and classroom observation scales to answer the research questions, supporting student data (time-sampling measurement/opportunity to learn and student grades) were collected. The study concluded that the presence of a special educator in a co-taught classroom: (1) did contribute to the creation of a new learning environment, and notable changes in the instructional behaviors and practices of a general educator; (2) did contribute to limited specialized instruction for students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms and embedded (not overt) special education practices related to the planning and decision-making of the educators; (3) did contribute to the creation of a successful co-teaching partnership including the use of effective teaching behaviors; and (4) did impact success for some of the students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms; but (5) did not ensure the continuation of some of the new instructional behaviors and practices in the general education classroom if the collaboration ended.

Hardy, Shanon D.


Transcription of synthetic DNA containing sequences with dyad symmetry by wheat-germ RNA polymerase II. Increased rates of product release in single-step addition reactions.  


Interaction of purified eukaryotic RNA polymerase II with various synthetic palindromic DNA sequences is associated with the formation of transcriptional complexes of different stabilities, i.e. having different propensities for releasing the nascent transcript. This phenomenon was observed by using wheat-germ RNA polymerase II and a series of double-stranded template polymers containing palindromic repeating motifs of 6-16 bp, with regulatory alternating purine and pyrimidine bases such as d[ATA(CG)nC].d[TAT(GC)nG], with n = 1, 3 or 6 referred to as d(GC), d(GC)3 or d(GC)6, respectively. We also synthesized two double-stranded methylated polymers, containing the repeating units d(ATAm5CGm5C).d(TATGm5CG) and d[ATA(m5CG)6m5C].d[TAT(Gm5C)6G] [designated d(GmC) and d(GmC)6, respectively]. All of these polymers served as templates for the reaction of single-step addition of CTP to a CpG primer catalysed by wheat-germ RNA polymerase II, to an extent that seems well correlated with the number of potential initiation sites within the DNA molecules. Furthermore, in these reactions, the enzyme appears to form relatively stable transcriptional complexes, as trinucleotide product was released only very slowly. In marked contrast to the results with the CpG primer, the single-step addition reaction primed by UpA, i.e. the synthesis of UpApU proceeded at a much higher velocity and was strongly enhanced by increasing the d(G-C) content of the repeating units of the DNA polymers. Thus, taking into account the number of potential sites at which UpApU synthesis could occur, the extent of UpApU synthesis was increased about 12-fold with d(GC)6 compared to that with the d(GC) template. The catalytic nature of the reaction necessarily implies that the stability of the transcription complexes with the plant RNA polymerase II decreased as the d(G-C) content of the repeating motif increased. Furthermore, although the synthesis of CpGpC could be demonstrated with d(GmC)6 as template, the UpA-primed synthesis of UpApU could not be detected with this polymer. The results obtained in transcription of these polymers are discussed in relation to the potential involvement of palindromic DNA in transcription termination and attenuation in the presence of RNA polymerase II. PMID:1999201

Job, D; Job, C; de Mercoyrol, L; Shire, D



Drug/protein interactions studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here on a recent time-resolved fluorescence study [1] of the interaction between flurbiprofen (FBP), a chiral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and human serum albumin (HSA), the main transport protein in the human body. We compare the results obtained for the drug-protein complex with those of various covalently linked flurbiprofentryptophan dyads having well-defined geometries. In all cases stereoselective dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed, varying greatly from one system to another. In addition, the fluorescence anisotropy decays also display a clear stereoselectivity. For the drug-protein complexes, this can be interpreted in terms of the protein microenvironment playing a significant role in the conformational relaxation of FBP, which is more restricted in the case of the (R)- enantiomer.

Gustavsson, Thomas; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Vayá, Ignacio; Bonancía, Paula; Jiménez, M. C.; Miranda, Miguel A.




SciTech Connect

This note extends the game theoretic analysis of strategic conflicts begun in earlier Seminars on Planetary Emergencies to interactions with and without defenses between two or more adversaries with more realistic target structures. It reviews the essentials of game theory as applied to the analysis of strategic decisions, the application of first and second strike costs as payoffs, and solution optimization, which resolves several inconsistencies seen with earlier metrics. The stability of the current bilateral offensive configuration is shown to be high and insensitive to deep reductions in offensive forces, the deployment of limited defenses, and the exchange of significant offensive forces for defenses. The transition from adversarial to cooperative interaction is represented by the progressive reduction of the parameters representing each side's preference for damaging or deterring the other, which monotonically improves stability. Estimates of strike incentives in bilateral and trilateral configurations are reduced by the inclusion of high value targets in both sides' force allocations, which dominates the details of offensive and defensive forces. The shift to high value targets stabilizes trilateral offensive configurations, a result that differs with that from analyses based on military costs only. When defenses are included, they lead to a balance between a large defended side and small undefended side that resembles the balance between two large sides. Including the large side's preference for defense of high value targets in the analyses reduces its strike incentives and thus the small side's incentive to preempt. However, it also removes the large sides' ability to deter, so the stability of multi-polar configurations continues to be controlled by the least stable dyad, which places constraints on the size of defenses that can be deployed stably that could be more stringent than those from the bilateral balance.




A critical examination of indices of dynamic interaction for wildlife telemetry studies.  


Wildlife scientists continue to be interested in studying ways to quantify how the movements of animals are inter-dependent - dynamic interaction. While a number of applied studies of dynamic interaction exist, little is known about the comparative effectiveness and applicability of available methods used for quantifying interactions among animals. We highlight the formulation, implementation, and interpretation of a suite of eight currently available indices of dynamic interaction. Point- and path-based approaches are contrasted to demonstrate differences between methods and underlying assumptions on telemetry data. Correlated and biased-correlated random walks were simulated at a range of sampling resolutions to generate scenarios with dynamic interaction present and absent. We evaluate the effectiveness of each index at identifying differing types of interactive behaviour at each sampling resolution. Each index is then applied to an empirical telemetry dataset of three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) dyads. Results from the simulated data show that three indices of dynamic interaction reliant on statistical testing procedures are susceptible to Type I error, which increases at fine sampling resolutions. In the white-tailed deer examples, a recently developed index for quantifying local-level cohesive movement behaviour (the di index) provides revealing information on the presence of infrequent and varying interactions in space and time. Point-based approaches implemented with finely sampled telemetry data over-estimate the presence of interactions (Type I errors). Indices producing only a single global statistic (7 of the 8 indices) are unable to quantify infrequent and varying interactions through time. The quantification of infrequent and variable interactive behaviour has important implications for the spread of disease, and the prevalence of social behaviour in wildlife. Guidelines are presented to inform researchers wishing to study dynamic interaction patterns in their own telemetry datasets. Finally, we make openly available our code, in the statistical software R, for computing each index of dynamic interaction presented herein. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:24428545

Long, Jed A; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Webb, Stephen L; Gee, Kenneth L



Interactive Calendar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of an interactive calendar that incorporates reading and writing in its use. Discusses a typical lesson, managing the interactive calendar, changes throughout the year, extensions and variations of the interactive calendar, and benefits of using the interactive calendar. Urges every primary teacher to learn about interactive

Ritterskamp, Pegge; Singleton, Jan



Construction of Trust Judgments within Cooperative Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: One of the aims of physical education (PE) is to develop social skills such as cooperation, teamwork, and mutual helping among students. Cooperation is a broad research topic, implicating several disciplines in the human sciences (e.g. psychology, sociology, linguistics, philosophy). It is also an important topic in various domains…

Evin, Agathe; Sève, Carole; Saury, Jacques



Mother-Infant Person- and Object-Directed Interactions in Latino Immigrant Families: A Comparative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother-infant person- and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother-infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother-infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers…

Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Bakeman, Roger



Manipulation of Non-verbal Interaction Style and Demographic Embodiment to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility  

SciTech Connect

For years, people have sought more natural means of communicating with their computers. Many have suggested that interaction with a computer should be as easy as interacting with other people, taking advantage of the multimodal nature of human communication. While users should, in theory, gravitate to such anthropomorphic embodiments, quite the contrary has been experienced; users generally have been dissatisfied and abandoned their use. This suggests a disconnect between the factors that make human-human communication engaging and those used by designers to support human-agent interaction. This paper discusses a set of empirical studies that attempted to replicate human-human nonverbal behavior. The focus revolved around the behaviors that portrayed a credible façade, helping the embodied conversational agent (ECA) to form a successful cooperative dyad with the user. Based on a review of the nonverbal literature, a framework was created that identified trustworthy and credible nonverbal behaviors across five areas and formed design guidelines for character interaction. The design suggestions for those areas emanating from the facial region (facial expression, eye contact and paralanguage) were experimentally supported but there was no concordant increase in perceived trust when bodily regions (posture and gesture) were added. In addition, in examining the importance of demographic elements in the embodiment, it was found that users prefer to interact with characters that match their ethnicity and are young looking. There was no significant preference for gender. The implications of these results, as well as other interesting consequences are discussed.

Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.



Posture sharing in dyadic interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of posture sharing in the development of a positive relationship is generally acknowledged as a critical aspect of\\u000a dance therapy. Often noted is the distinction between “mimicking” of body positions and “sharing” of movement quality (effort\\u000a in Laban’s Effort system). This experiment investigates posture sharing in an interview dyad, defining the movement unit so\\u000a that it includes not

Davida Navarre



Kinesthetic interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In physical and occupational therapy two people interact through force and motion. Other common examples of this interaction include lifting and moving a bulky object, teaching manual skills, dancing, and handing off a baton or a drinking glass. These tasks involve kinesthetic interaction, a communication channel distinct from spoken language and gestures. Understanding kinesthetic interaction should be important in designing

Kyle B. Reed; Michael Peshkin; Mitra J. Hartmann; J. Edward Colgate; James Patton



Why Synchrony Matters during Mother-Child Interactions: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of mother-child interactions is a core issue of early child development and psychopathology. This paper focuses on the concept of “synchrony” and examines (1) how synchrony in mother-child interaction is defined and operationalized; (2) the contribution that the concept of synchrony has brought to understanding the nature of mother-child interactions. Method Between 1977 and 2013, we searched several databases using the following key-words: « synchrony » « interaction » and « mother-child ». We focused on studies examining parent-child interactions among children aged 2 months to 5 years. From the 63 relevant studies, we extracted study description variables (authors, year, design, number of subjects, age); assessment conditions and modalities; and main findings. Results The most common terms referring to synchrony were mutuality, reciprocity, rhythmicity, harmonious interaction, turn-taking and shared affect; all terms were used to characterize the mother-child dyad. As a consequence, we propose defining synchrony as a dynamic and reciprocal adaptation of the temporal structure of behaviors and shared affect between interactive partners. Three main types of assessment methods for studying synchrony emerged: (1) global interaction scales with dyadic items; (2) specific synchrony scales; and (3) micro-coded time-series analyses. It appears that synchrony should be regarded as a social signal per se as it has been shown to be valid in both normal and pathological populations. Better mother-child synchrony is associated with familiarity (vs. unknown partner), a healthy mother (vs. pathological mother), typical development (vs. psychopathological development), and a more positive child outcomes. Discussion Synchrony is a key feature of mother-infant interactions. Adopting an objective approach in studying synchrony is not a simple task given available assessment tools and due to its temporality and multimodal expression. We propose an integrative approach combining clinical observation and engineering techniques to improve the quality of synchrony analysis. PMID:25469637

Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Avril, Marie; Achard, Catherine; Chetouani, Mohamed; Missonnier, Sylvain; Cohen, David



Maternal-infant interaction and autonomic function in healthy infants and infants with transposition of the great arteries.  


The quality of maternal-infant interaction is a critical factor in the development of infants' autonomic function and social engagement skills. In this secondary data analysis, relationships among infant and maternal affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction, as measured by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment, and infant autonomic function, as measured by heart rate variability, were examined during feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age in 16 healthy infants and in 15 infants with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Contrary to previous research, at 2 weeks infant age, mothers of infants with TGA had significantly higher scores in affect and behavior than did mothers of healthy infants. The affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction of infants with TGA also did not differ from that of healthy infants. Although infants' social engagement skills did not differ by health condition (TGA or healthy), these skills did differ by parasympathetic nervous system function: infants better able to suppress vagal activity with challenge had more positive and less dysregulated affect and behavior, regardless of health status. These findings suggest that maternal-infant interactions for some cardiac disease subgroups may not differ from healthy dyads. Additional research is required to identify both healthy and ill infants with delayed autonomic maturation and to develop and test interventions to enhance critical interactive functions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25352237

Harrison, Tondi M; Ferree, Allison



Perceiving nonverbal behavior: neural correlates of processing movement fluency and contingency in dyadic interactions.  


Despite the fact that nonverbal dyadic social interactions are abundant in the environment, the neural mechanisms underlying their processing are not yet fully understood. Research in the field of social neuroscience has suggested that two neural networks appear to be involved in social understanding: (1) the action observation network (AON) and (2) the social neural network (SNN). The aim of this study was to determine the differential contributions of the AON and the SNN to the processing of nonverbal behavior as observed in dyadic social interactions. To this end, we used short computer animation sequences displaying dyadic social interactions between two virtual characters and systematically manipulated two key features of movement activity, which are known to influence the perception of meaning in nonverbal stimuli: (1) movement fluency and (2) contingency of movement patterns. A group of 21 male participants rated the "naturalness" of the observed scenes on a four-point scale while undergoing fMRI. Behavioral results showed that both fluency and contingency significantly influenced the "naturalness" experience of the presented animations. Neurally, the AON was preferentially engaged when processing contingent movement patterns, but did not discriminate between different degrees of movement fluency. In contrast, regions of the SNN were engaged more strongly when observing dyads with disturbed movement fluency. In conclusion, while the AON is involved in the general processing of contingent social actions, irrespective of their kinematic properties, the SNN is preferentially recruited when atypical kinematic properties prompt inferences about the agents' intentions. PMID:23813661

Georgescu, Alexandra L; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Santos, Natacha S; Tepest, Ralf; Bente, Gary; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Vogeley, Kai



Imagined Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social scientists have been studying imagined interactions since the mid-1980s and have measured numerous physiological correlates (Honeycutt, 2010). In this commentary I assess the research reported in Crisp and Turner (May-June 2009) and highlight the underlying mechanisms of imagined interactions that have empirically been laid out across…

Honeycutt, James M.



Interactive Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a unique computer application called interactive art. The technique involves a series of events in which individuals/groups interact with sensors and television monitors hooked up to a central microcomputer. Numerous examples are provided to illustrate that individuals need not be passive in their entertainment, art appreciation, or…

Wilson, Stephen



International interactive  

E-print Network

, analysis package, data files. ffl Description of scanning protocol. Movies of the scanning. Talairach at interactive speeds. [6] ffl Computer graphics primitives: points, lines, polygons. ffl Color, transparency Lars Kai Information visualization ffl Interactive graphical overview of the process of one or more

Nielsen, Finn Ã?rup


Genetic and Biochemical Analysis of PadR-padC Promoter Interactions during the Phenolic Acid Stress Response in Bacillus subtilis 168 ?¶  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis 168 is resistant to phenolic acids by expression of an inducible enzyme, the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PadC), that decarboxylates these acids into less toxic vinyl derivatives. In the phenolic acid stress response (PASR), the repressor of padC, PadR, is inactivated by these acids. Inactivation of PadR is followed by a strong expression of padC. To elucidate the functional interaction between PadR and the padC promoter, we performed (i) footprinting assays to identify the region protected by PadR, (ii) electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) with a modified padC promoter protected region to determine the interacting sequences, and (iii) random mutagenesis of padR to identify amino acid residues essential for the function of PadR. We identified an important consensus dyad sequence called IR1-2 (ATGT-8N-ACAT) overlapping a second dyad element (GTGT-8N-ACAT) that we named dIR1-2bis. The entire dIR1-2bis/IR1-2 sequence permits binding of two PadR dimers in EMSAs, which may be observed for bacteria grown under noninduced conditions where the padC promoter is completely repressed. Three groups of modified PadRs giving a PASR phenotype were characterized in vivo. The DNA sequences of certain mutant padR alleles indicate that important residues are all located in the region containing the coiled-coil leucine zipper domain that is involved in dimerization. These substitutions reduce the affinity of PadR binding to the padC promoter. Of particular interest are residue L128, located at the center of the putative coiled-coil leucine zipper domain, and residue E97, which is conserved among all PadRs. PMID:21685295

Nguyen, Thi Kim Chi; Tran, Ngoc Phuong; Cavin, Jean-François



Behavior problems in middle childhood: the predictive role of maternal distress, child attachment, and mother-child interactions.  


The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal relation between early school-age measures of maternal psychosocial distress, quality of mother-child interactions, and child attachment behavior, and behavior problem profiles in middle childhood using a multi-informant design. Participants were 243 French-speaking mother-child dyads (122 girls) who were part of an ongoing longitudinal project. Maternal psychosocial distress was assessed when children were between 4 and 6 years of age. Mother-child interactive quality and attachment patterns were observed at age 6 during a laboratory visit. At age 8.5, externalizing and internalizing problems were assessed using mother and child reports. Results show that maternal psychosocial distress predicted later social adaptation reported by the child through the mediation of mother-child interactions. Analyses also revealed that higher maternal psychosocial distress and controlling attachment patterns, either of the punitive or caregiving type, significantly predicted membership in both child internalizing and externalizing clinical problem groups. Lower mother-child interactive quality, male gender, and child ambivalent attachment were also predictors of externalizing clinical problems. PMID:23748336

Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Moss, Ellen; Cyr, Chantal; Pascuzzo, Katherine



Interactive Investigator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Investigator, available through Virtual Museum Canada, is a website "for anyone with an interest in the different scientific methods used to solve crimes." Users will find a database of forensic science, containing short but informative essays on forensic entomology, toxicology, alcohol analysis, and various other forensic science topics. A simple timeline reviews key dates in the development of forensics, starting with the creation of the Paris Institute for Forensic Science in 1868. But the main feature (and the most fun) is an interactive game, in which players collect and analyze crime scene clues to solve a murder case. Interactive Investigator is also available in French.


CNN Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CNN Interactive is the department of CNN dedicated to producing news for access through computers and other advanced technology. Launched in January 1995, CNN Interactive is currently producing news on CD-ROMs, for business through the CNN At Work project and now for the Internet and World Wide Web. A staff of producers, writers and Internet editors work around the clock to customize CNN News content for computer users. The Web site allows users to browse hundreds of stories or to search for specific topics of interest. CNN Interactive on the Web contains today's news and a news archive stretching back as far as several years to help give perspective to stories. The CNN Interactive Web site has images, sounds and video, yet is optimized for users at slower access speeds. The site is free to users at this time.



DNA Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNA Interactive is an educational site celebrating the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick. The web site features interactive modules about the history of DNA science; discovering and reading the DNA code; manipulating the code to create tailored molecules; studying the human genome; applications of DNA research; and a chronicle of the eugenics movement. These modules feature rare video interviews with scientists, 3D animations, and narrative text to present and explain DNA science. Other materials include a teacher's guide with downloadable, printable lessons, an online teaching community, and information on further resources.



Information seeking during "bad news" oncology interactions: Question asking by patients and their companions.  


Previous research has investigated patient question asking in clinical settings as a strategy of information seeking and as an indicator of the level of active patient participation in the interaction. This study investigates questions asked by patients and their companions during stressful encounters in the oncology setting in the USA. We transcribed all questions patients and companions asked the oncologist during 28 outpatient interactions in which "bad news" was discussed (n = 705) and analyzed them for frequency and topic. Additionally, we analyzed the extent to which personal and demographic characteristics and independently obtained ratings of the oncologist-patient/companion relationships were related to question asking. Findings demonstrated that at least one companion was present in 24 (86%) of the 28 interactions and companions asked significantly more questions than patients. The most frequently occurring topics for both patients and companions were treatment, diagnostic testing, diagnosis, and prognosis. In general, personal and demographic characteristics were unrelated to question asking, but older patients asked fewer questions, while more educated patients asked more questions. With regard to ratings of the quality of the dyadic relationships, results showed that "trust" between the physician and companions was positively correlated and "conversational dominance by physician" was negatively correlated with the frequency of companion questions. Additionally, positive ratings of the relationship between physicians and companions were correlated with fewer patient questions. This study demonstrates that companions are active participants in stressful oncology interactions. Future research and physician training in communication would benefit from expanding the focus beyond the patient-physician dyad to the roles and influence of multiple participants in medical interactions. PMID:16962218

Eggly, Susan; Penner, Louis A; Greene, Meredith; Harper, Felicity W K; Ruckdeschel, John C; Albrecht, Terrance L



Dyadic coregulation and deviant talk in adolescent friendships: interaction patterns associated with problematic substance use in early adulthood.  


In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention synchrony). Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, deviant content in adolescent interactions at age 16-17 years was strongly predictive of problematic use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana at ages 22 and 23. Although dyadic coregulation was not directly predictive of early adulthood substance use, it did moderate the impact of deviant talk within the dyad on future alcohol and marijuana use. For these substances, high levels of dyadic coregulation increased the risk associated with high levels of deviant talk for problematic use in early adulthood. Results held when comparing across genders and across ethnic groups. The results suggest that these interpersonal dynamics are associated with developmental trajectories of risk for or resilience to peer influence processes. PMID:24188039

Piehler, Timothy F; Dishion, Thomas J



Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna



Dinosaur Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore why animals, specifically dinosaurs, live in families. Learners examine Dinosphere scenes (drawing of dinosaurs in groups) and sort the scenes by reasons the animals are living in groups. Then, learners glue together geometric shapes to create dinosaurs interacting in groups and families. This activity is featured on page 26 of the "Dinosphere" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Crosslin, Rick; Fortney, Mary; Indianapolis, The C.



Interactive Spreadsheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Excel spreadsheets display hard-to-understand concepts in statistics, quantum mechanics, physics, and more. Parameters are adjusted by clicking on easy-to-use buttons or by using numeric input boxes. Graphs, tables, and/or figures are then created reflecting the change in parameters.



NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is an interactive on-line book based upon the book “Your Amazing Immune System” which brings students to an exploration on how our immune system protects our body from infectious diseases. In addition, it gives students background on autoimmune diseases, immune reactions, and how immunology can be used in fighting cancer.

European Federation Of Immunological Societies, Efis



Constructive Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify conditions that make a conversational interaction constructive--in the sense that the participants can find the way toward the success of what they wanted to accomplish--two situations were examined. In one, a professional researcher explained her data to a statistician. In the other, three groups of two people cooperated with each…

Miyake, Naomi


Interactive Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents guiding principles for developing interactive lessons for the World Wide Web. Describes "Amazing Space: Education Online from the Hubble Space Telescope", a program where students study spectacular Hubble Space Telescope images of stars and star-forming regions to learn about the life cycle of stars and the creation of atoms. (JRH)

Martin, Jean K.



Interacting parastrings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interacting parastrings offer the alternative of constructing string theories directly in four (as well as a number of other) space-time dimensions. These theories are consistent with Lorentz invariance, Lovelace analyticity, and modular invariance. They are also derivable from actions in light-cone gauge. For supersymmetric parastrings, the corresponding actions are supersymmetric.

Ardalan, F.; Mansouri, F.



Psychophysical Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN relation to the letters on ``Psychophysical Interaction'' appearing in NATURE, the initial questioning the discussion works back to is whether we are to recognise in mind the mere knower, or manipulator, as well, of animal action. In relation to such a questioning it may be of use to consider that what is inferred concerning mind as existing anywhere outside

A. Bowman



Mohr Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mohr's Circle is a graphical method that allows engineers to visualize and analyze internal stress (force per unit area) within engineering materials. The Mohrs applet is designed to interactively explore the relationship between a given stress state, the frame of reference and the graphical Mohr's Circle representation.

Love, Garrett R.; Feiner, Joel


Math Interactives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math Interactives is part of a larger site, called, which is "designed and developed to assist kindergarten to Grade 12 teachers in Alberta locate and utilize digital learning and teaching resources. The design of the site is reflective of how teachers think and work in an online environment." Visitors interested in multiple ways to learn math will love the print and video math activities available on the site. There are four categories from which visitors can choose, on the left hand side of the homepage: Number, Pattern and Relations, Shape and Space and Statistics and Probability. Each section contains a video and an interactive that encourages students to explore the concept in question. For example, students may learn about linear equations through a video about the costs of feeding animals at the Calgary Zoo, and later come up with their own linear equations to predict the costs, accounting for price of food, amount needed, and delivery fees.



Argentophilic interactions.  


The decade 1990-2000 saw a growing interest in aurophilic interactions in gold chemistry. These interactions were found to influence significantly a variety of structural and other physical characteristics of gold(I) compounds. The attention paid to this unusual and counterintuitive type of intra- and intermolecular bonding between seemingly closed-shell metal centers has rapidly been extended to also include silver chemistry. Hundreds of experimental and computational studies have since been dedicated to the argentophilicity phenomenon. The results of this development are reviewed herein focusing on molecular systems where two or more silver(I) centers are in close contact leading to specific structural characteristics and a variety of novel physical properties. These include strongly modified ligand-to-metal charge-transfer processes observed in absorption and emission spectroscopy, but also colossal positive and negative thermal expansion on the one hand and unprecedented negative linear compressibility of crystal parameters on the other. PMID:25393553

Schmidbaur, Hubert; Schier, Annette



Seasons Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation contains several interactive features: An orbital panel (labeled Seasons) is an interactive animation of the Earth's axis of rotation which is tilted relative to the plane of the Earth?s yearly orbit around the sun. A location on the revolving Earth is marked with an 'X' at the 45 degree latitude which is depicted in an animated landscape panel which shows the path of the Sun in the sky over the course of 24 hour day. (For this learning goal, the orbital season panel and landscape panel will be used.) Additional components of the resource include the changing sunlight angle at this latitude hitting the earth and a thermometer showing the average daily temperature through one orbit of the planet around the sun. Two control panels located on the bottom right hand side allows changes to the tilt of the Earth's axis of rotation with respect to the plane of its orbit and the speed of the rotation and orbit around the Sun. The Sun's path can also be set to trace across the sky for each season. Two other planets, Venus and Uranus, are included for axis tilt comparison. Clickable buttons on top of screen provide a text Introduction, How To, Interactive, Exercises, and Solutions.


Development and validation of the Peer Interaction Macro-Coding System Scales (PIMS): A new tool for observational measurement of social competence in youth with spina bifida.  


Many children with chronic health conditions encounter enduring difficulties in their peer interactions and friendships. This study aimed to create and validate scales derived from an observational coding system (i.e., Peer Interaction Macro-Coding System, or PIMS) in a sample of children with spina bifida and their peers. Participants were 106 target child-peer dyads who completed a battery of questionnaires and interviews and were videotaped performing 4 interaction tasks, which were then coded across multiple domains of social functioning. Five scales (i.e., Control, Prosocial Skills, Positive Affect, Conflict, and Dyadic Cohesion) were rationally derived based on a review of the literature and a panel of experts. Internal consistency and interrater reliability at the scale level were good to excellent for all 5 scales. Interscale correlations were in the low-to-moderate range for 4 of the scales, although the Dyadic Cohesion Scale was highly correlated with two other scales and was subsequently dropped. Convergent validity and discriminant validity were established by examining the 4 remaining scales in association with comparable questionnaire and interview data. The 4 PIMS scales appear to be reliable and valid measures of social competence and may enhance future multimethod research efforts aimed at learning more about peer interactions and overall social competence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24932641

Holbein, Christina E; Zebracki, Kathy; Holmbeck, Grayson N



Interactive atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Where is ozone located in the atmosphere? This informational activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, explores the changes in ozone concentration with altitude. Students are introduced to layers of the atmosphere and the amount of ozone found at each layer of the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. The activity also discusses why the addition of ozone to the atmosphere at different levels determines the temperatures of those levels. Students can move up and down to different layers of the atmosphere. A temperature scale is shown that runs from the surface of the Earth to the outer most reaches of the atmosphere. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)



Electroweak interactions  

SciTech Connect

A point of view of the electroweak interaction is presented. It begins phenomenologically and moves in stages toward the conventional gauge theory formalism containing elementary scalar Higgs-fields and then beyond. The purpose in so doing is that the success of the standard SU(2) x U(1) theory in accounting for low energy phenomena need not automatically imply success at high energies. It is deemed unlikely by most theorists that the predicted W/sup + -/ or Z/sup 0/ does not exist or does not have the mass and/or couplings anticipated in the standard model. However, the odds that the standard predictions will work are not 100%. Therefore there is some reason to look at the subject as one would were he forced by a wrong experimental outcome - to go back to fundamentals and ascertain what is the minimal amount of theory necessary to account for the data.

Bjorken, J.D.



Functional Mapping of Protein-Protein Interactions in an Enzyme Complex by Directed Evolution  

PubMed Central

The shikimate pathway enzyme chorismate mutase converts chorismate into prephenate, a precursor of Tyr and Phe. The intracellular chorismate mutase (MtCM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly active on its own, but becomes >100-fold more efficient upon formation of a complex with the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (MtDS). The crystal structure of the enzyme complex revealed involvement of C-terminal MtCM residues with the MtDS interface. Here we employed evolutionary strategies to probe the tolerance to substitution of the C-terminal MtCM residues from positions 84–90. Variants with randomized positions were subjected to stringent selection in vivo requiring productive interactions with MtDS for survival. Sequence patterns identified in active library members coincide with residue conservation in natural chorismate mutases of the AroQ? subclass to which MtCM belongs. An Arg-Gly dyad at positions 85 and 86, invariant in AroQ? sequences, was intolerant to mutation, whereas Leu88 and Gly89 exhibited a preference for small and hydrophobic residues in functional MtCM-MtDS complexes. In the absence of MtDS, selection under relaxed conditions identifies positions 84–86 as MtCM integrity determinants, suggesting that the more C-terminal residues function in the activation by MtDS. Several MtCM variants, purified using a novel plasmid-based T7 RNA polymerase gene expression system, showed that a diminished ability to physically interact with MtDS correlates with reduced activatability and feedback regulatory control by Tyr and Phe. Mapping critical protein-protein interaction sites by evolutionary strategies may pinpoint promising targets for drugs that interfere with the activity of protein complexes. PMID:25551646

Roderer, Kathrin; Neuenschwander, Martin; Codoni, Giosiana; Sasso, Severin; Gamper, Marianne; Kast, Peter



Task-Oriented and Bottle Feeding Adversely Affect the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions Following Abnormal Newborn Screens  

PubMed Central

Objective Examine effects of newborn screening (NBS) and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Methods Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among four groups of infants classified by severity of NBS and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal NBS. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3–19 weeks (M=9.19, SD=3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Results Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Conclusions Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding following a neonatal CF diagnosis. PMID:20495477

Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L.



Interactive Foundations of Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim that interactive systems have richer behavior than algorithms is surprisingly easy to prove. Turing machines cannot model interaction machines (which extend Turing machines with interactive input\\/output) because interaction is not expressible by a finite initial input string. Interaction machines extend the Chomsky hierarchy, are modeled by interaction grammars, and precisely capture fuzzy concepts like open systems and empirical

Peter Wegner



Interactive portraiture : designing intimate interactive experiences  

E-print Network

In this thesis I present a set of interactive portrait experiences that strive to create an intimate connection between the viewer and the portrayed subject; an emotional experience, one of personal reflection. My interactive ...

Zuckerman, Orit



Maternal Disrupted Communication During Face-to-Face Interaction at 4 months: Relation to Maternal and Infant Cortisol Among at-Risk Families  

PubMed Central

The study evaluated the association between maternal disrupted communication and the reactivity and regulation of the psychobiology of the stress response in infancy. Mothers and infants were recruited via the National Health Service from the 20% most economically impoverished data zones in a suburban region of Scotland. Mothers (N = 63; M age = 25.9) and their 4-month-old infants (35 boys, 28 girls) were videotaped interacting for 8 min, including a still-face procedure as a stress inducer and a 5-min coded recovery period. Saliva samples were collected from the dyads prior to, during, and after the still-face procedure and later assayed for cortisol. Level of disruption in maternal communication with the infant was coded from the 5-min videotaped interaction during the recovery period which followed the still-face procedure. Severely disrupted maternal communication was associated with lower levels of maternal cortisol and a greater divergence between mothers’ and infants’ cortisol levels. Results point to low maternal cortisol as a possible mechanism contributing to the mother’s difficulty in sensitively attuning to her infant’s cues, which in turn has implications for the infant’s reactivity to and recovery from a mild stressor in early infancy. PMID:25506272

Crockett, Erin E.; Holmes, Bjarne M.; Granger, Douglas A.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen



Health Data Interactive  


... message, please visit this page: About . Data Access Data Access Interactive Tables and Databases NCHS ... Statistics Online Research Data Center NCHS Home Health Data Interactive Welcome! Health Data Interactive presents tables with ...


Breastfeeding and Health Outcomes for the Mother-Infant Dyad  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Worldwide, breastfeeding saves the lives of infants and reduces their disease burden. Breastfeeding also reduces the disease burden for mothers. This article examines who chooses to breastfeed and for how long in the American context. It also reviews the latest evidence about the consequences of breastfeeding for the health of both the infant and mother. The results of this review provide support for current national and international recommendations that support breastfeeding. PMID:23178059

Dieterich, Christine M.; Felice, Julia P.; O’Sullivan, Elizabeth



Determinants of Continuity in Conventional Industrial Channel Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the question of how to build stable, long-term relationships between manufacturers and members of conventional channels. This descriptive field study concerns a basic requirement for building long-term relationships, which is the expectation by a marketing intermediary that the relationship will last. Hypotheses about the continuity of relationships are developed from the literature on

Erin Anderson; Barton Weitz



Imitation by Second-Borns in Adult-Sibling Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five- to seven-year-old second-born children from white, middle-class, intact families were the subjects for this study. Older siblings served as role model for each child, and the parent surrogate models were selected from a pool and trained to act as the child's real parent. The imitation task emphasized verbal, postural, and motor responses of…

Hodapp, Albert F.; LaVoie, Joseph C.


Perceptions of Conflict Management Styles in Chinese Intergenerational Dyads  

E-print Network

to the third author. Our special thanks go to Rui Zhang and Yi Song for their assistance in data collection. Research on cross-cultural communication and conflict management has generated a rich literature on how individuals perceive, manage...) and Shandong province (n = 129). They were volunteers recruited through flyers and completed the questionnaires in groups under the supervision of a research assistant. Older adults were recruited through flyers, word of mouth, and snowballing techniques...

Zhang, Yan Bing; Harwood, Jake; Hummert, Mary Lee



Interactions Between Computational Verbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of interactions between computa- tional verbs are studied in a general context. The interactions can be categorized by their strengthes and directions as well as the configurations of interactions. Two interaction types; namely, coupling and parameter modulation are studied. The identical synchronization and generalized synchronization between com- putational verbs and their linguistic implications are investigated. The merge and

Tao Yang



Dipolar colloids in nematostatics: tensorial structure, symmetry, different types, and their interaction.  


In spite of the analogy to the electrostatics, the three-dimensional colloidal nematostatics is substantially different in both its mathematical structure and its physical implications. The general tensorial structure of elastic multipoles derived in V. M. Pergamenshchik and V. O. Uzunova [Eur. Phys. J. E 23, 161 (2007); Phys. Rev. E 76, 011707 (2007)] allows for a classification of different types of colloids in the nematostatics. In comparison to their electrostatic counterparts, the elastic multipoles have one extra tensorial index. Based on this structure, we identify possible types of elastic dipoles. An elastic dipole is characterized by three coefficients--isotropic strength, anisotropy, and chirality--and a two-component vector along the unperturbed director. The relationship between the dipole type and symmetry groups is established and sketches of various representative types of dipolar colloids are given. Instead of a single electric dipole, in the nematostatics there are four different pure types (dipolar singlets) and eight mixed types of elastic dipoles (one quintet, one quartet, two triplets, and four doublets). It is shown that the full symmetry of the colloid-induced director field and the colloid's shape (body) symmetry determine different dipole components. For instance, a helicoidal component of the anchoring easy axes can make a chiral elastic dipole of a colloid with the quadrupolar shape symmetry. The interaction potentials for different singlet and doublet dipoles are derived and illustrated in terms of the dipolar dyads and elastic Coulomb law. We argue that multipole parameters must be found by pure numerical means, as from ansatz director distributions one can find only orders of their magnitudes. PMID:21405852

Pergamenshchik, V M; Uzunova, V A



Two distinct, sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins interact independently with the major replication pause region of sea urchin mtDNA.  

PubMed Central

We have identified a second DNA-binding protein in sea urchin embryo mitochondria, which interacts with a binding site in the major replication pause region, at the junction of the genes for ATP synthase subunit 6 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COIII). We provisionally designate this protein mtPBP2, to distinguish it from the previously characterized mitochondrial pause-region binding protein mtPBP1, whose properties and binding site are quite distinct. The high-affinity binding site for mtPBP2 lies at the 5' end of the COIII gene, and exhibits partial dyad symmetry, although modification interference analysis indicates that recognition is complex. Binding of mtPBP2 to this site induces a bend of approximately 45 degrees in the DNA. Southwestern blots show that mtPBP1 and 2 are both single polypeptides, of apparent molecular weights 25 kD and 18 kD respectively. In vitro, mtPBP1 and mtPBP2 bind independently to their high-affinity sites, which are separated by about 50 bp. Images PMID:8392708

Qureshi, S A; Jacobs, H T



Interactive Worksheets and More  


... configured not to display inline frames. Home > Interactive worksheets & more See where you stand Check your drinking ... quitting Social support Professional help Resources Tools Interactive worksheets Calculators Info & help links Q & As About Us | ...


Sepup Seasons Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An interactive that illustrates the relationships between the axial tilt of the Earth, latitude, and temperature. Several data sets (including temperature, Sun-Earth distance, daylight hours) can be collected using this interactive.

California, Regents O.; Sepup


Cardiovascular Interactions CVI Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cardiovascular Interactions Project is an electronic active learning tool that demonstrates the complex and intricate interactions between the functions of the heart and peripheral circulation to provide an adequate cardiac output during various stresses.

PhD Carl F. Rothe (Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology)



Automated Measurement of Facial Expression in Infant-Mother Interaction: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automated facial measurement using computer vision has the potential to objectively document continuous changes in behavior. To examine emotional expression and communication, we used automated measurements to quantify smile strength, eye constriction, and mouth opening in two 6-month-old infant-mother dyads who each engaged in a face-to-face…

Messinger, Daniel S.; Mahoor, Mohammad H.; Chow, Sy-Miin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.



Analyzing the Dynamics of Affective Dyadic Interactions Using Patterns of Intra- and Interindividual Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many compelling accounts of the ways in which the emotions of 1 member of a romantic relationship should influence and be influenced by the partner. However, there are relatively few methodological tools available for representing the alleged complexity of dyad level emotional experiences. In this article, we present an algorithm for…

Ferrer, Emilio; Steele, Joel S.; Hsieh, Fushing



Dual Development of Conversational and Narrative Discourse: Mother and Child Interactions during Narrative Co-Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated longitudinally the co-constructed narratives of 31 mother-child dyads collected when the children were 3-, 4-, and 5-years old, examining the dual development of child conversational and narrative discourse skills and the impact of maternal verbal assistance. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed that children's developmental…

Kelly, Kimberly Reynolds; Bailey, Alison L.



Sibling-Mediated Social Interaction Intervention for Young Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors investigated the effectiveness of a sibling-mediated intervention in supporting the social behaviors of young children with autism. They used a multiple-baseline design across four sibling dyads to examine the effectiveness of the intervention. The researchers taught the typically developing siblings ways to…

Tsao, Ling-Ling; Odom, Samuel L.



Black Hole Interaction Energy  

E-print Network

The interaction energy between two black holes at large separation distance is calculated. The first term in the expansion corresponds to the Newtonian interaction between the masses. The second term corresponds to the spin-spin interaction. The calculation is based on the interaction energy defined on the two black holes initial data. No test particle approximation is used. The relation between this formula and cosmic censorship is discussed.

Sergio Dain



Interactive Holographic Cinema  

E-print Network

INTERACTIVE HOLOGRAPHIC CINEMA A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER ALBERT PORTALES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 2012 Major Subject: Visualization Interactive Holographic Cinema Copyright 2012 Christopher Albert Portales INTERACTIVE HOLOGRAPHIC CINEMA A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER ALBERT PORTALES...

Portales, Christopher



Dynamic Interactive Learning Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews and discusses the notions of interactivity and dynamicity of learning systems in relation to information technologies and design principles that can contribute to interactive and dynamic learning. It explores the concept of dynamic interactive learning systems based on the emerging generation of information as part of a…

Sabry, Khaled; Barker, Jeff



Performance Modeling Of Interactive Gaming  

E-print Network

Performance Modeling Of Interactive Gaming A.F. Wattimena May 2006 #12;Performance Modeling of Interactive Gaming ii #12;Performance Modeling of Interactive Gaming iii Performance Modeling of Interactive Gaming Alexander Franciscus Wattimena

Bhulai, Sandjai


Emulsifier-Carbohydrate Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since emulsifiers are amphiphilic molecules, they interact with other polar and nonpolar ingredients commonly present in food\\u000a (Gaonkar and McPherson, 2005). Interactions with water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, oils, and flavors have been studied.\\u000a Interactions may be beneficial, such as retardation of staling in bread, or adverse, such as distortion of a flavor profile.\\u000a Several mechanisms may be responsible for producing

Gerard L. Hasenhuettl


OTV impacts and interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible impacts and interactions of the agency's planning activities for the Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) that is tentatively scheduled for initial operational capability in the late 1990's are identified. In general, the various Mars missions require vehicles of significant size and performance far greater than that provided by any OTV configuration currently being seriously considered. Therefore, interactions and impacts on these current concepts are minimal. These impacts and interactions fall into categories of technologies, systems, and operations. Each category is addressed.

Roberts, Barney B.



Beam-Bem interactions  

SciTech Connect

In high energy storage-ring colliders, the nonlinear effect arising from beam-beam interactions is a major source that leads to the emittance growth, the reduction of beam life time, and limits the collider luminosity. In this paper, two models of beam-beam interactions are introduced, which are weak-strong and strong-strong beam-beam interactions. In addition, space-charge model is introduced.

Kim, Hyung Jin; /Fermilab



The Science of Interaction  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing recognition with the visual analytics community that interaction and inquiry are inextricable. It is through the interactive manipulation of a visual interface – the analytic discourse – that knowledge is constructed, tested, refined, and shared. This paper reflects on the interaction challenges raised in the original visual analytics research and development agenda and further explores the relationship between interaction and cognition. It identifies recent exemplars of visual analytics research that have made substantive progress toward the goals of a true science of interaction, which must include theories and testable premises about the most appropriate mechanisms for human-information interaction. Six areas for further work are highlighted as those among the highest priorities for the next five years of visual analytics research: ubiquitous, embodied interaction; capturing user intentionality; knowledge-based interfaces; principles of design and perception; collaboration; and interoperability. Ultimately, the goal of a science of interaction is to support the visual analytics community through the recognition and implementation of best practices in the representation of and interaction with visual displays.

Pike, William A.; Stasko, John T.; Chang, Remco; O'Connell, Theresa



Two interacting Hofstadter butterflies  

SciTech Connect

The problem of two interacting particles in a quasiperiodic potential is addressed. Using analytical and numerical methods, we explore the spectral properties and eigenstates structure from the weak to the strong interaction case. More precisely, a semiclassical approach based on noncommutative geometry techniques is used to understand the intricate structure of such a spectrum. An interaction induced localization effect is furthermore emphasized. We discuss the application of our results on a two-dimensional model of two particles in a uniform magnetic field with on-site interaction. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Barelli, A.; Bellissard, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Jacquod, P. [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland), Confederation Helvetique] [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland), Confederation Helvetique; Shepelyansky, D.L. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)



Nerve-pulse interactions  

SciTech Connect

Some recent experimental and theoretical results on mechanisms through which individual nerve pulses can interact are reviewed. Three modes of interactions are considered: (1) interaction of pulses as they travel along a single fiber which leads to velocity dispersion; (2) propagation of pairs of pulses through a branching region leading to quantum pulse code transformations; and (3) interaction of pulses on parallel fibers through which they may form a pulse assembly. This notion is analogous to Hebb's concept of a cell assembly, but on a lower level of the neural hierarchy.

Scott, A.C.



Interaction and Intelligent Behavior  

E-print Network

We introduce basic behaviors as primitives for control and learning in situated, embodied agents interacting in complex domains. We propose methods for selecting, formally specifying, algorithmically implementing, ...

Mataric, Maja J.



Interactive dynamic aircraft scheduling  

E-print Network

Introducing recent advances in computer technology to improve aircraft scheduling is investigated. Incorporating interactive graphics, modern database manipulation techniques, and decision support algorithms, the computer ...

Deckwitz, Thomas Anthony



What Is Interactivity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author attempts to develop a definition of "interactivity" that meets two sometimes incompatible goals: the definition should be in accord with the best intuitions on how the term should be used, and it should usefully differentiate interactivity from related but incompatible concepts with which it is often confused. The…

Smuts, Aaron



Elementary particle interactions  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to {mu}{sup +} and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics. (LSP)

Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.



Drug interactions with radiopharmaceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable information on documented drug and radiopharmaceutical interactions has been assembled in a tabular form, classified by the type of nuclear medicine study. The aim is to provide a rapid reference for nuclear medicine staff to look for such interactions. The initiation of drug chart monitoring or drug history taking of nuclear medicine patients and the reporting of such events

Stuart Hesslewood; Emmeline Leung



Interaction and Children's Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interprets and contrasts children's mathematical interaction from the points of view of radical constructivism and of Soviet activity theory. Proposes a superseding model based on the interrelations between the basic sequence of actions and perturbation and the interaction of constructs. Supports the model by describing how children used…

Steffe, Leslie P.; Tzur, Ron



Species Interactions Competition  

E-print Network

1 Species Interactions Competition Competition Consumers compete when 2 or more consumers utilize will become limiting 2 types of competition Intraspecific: Between individuals of same species (conspecifics of competition Exploitative (scramble): Indirect interactions via resource Early bird gets the worm; plants

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane


Interactive Visualization of Dependencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James



The Interaction Equivalency Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the key issues regarding The Interaction Equivalency Theorem posited by Anderson (2003a), which consists of the three interaction elements found in formal education courses among teacher, student, and content. It first examines the core concepts of the theorem and argues that two theses of different dimensions can be…

Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry



LIA: LWS Interactive Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) was one of two complementary spectrometers on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). LIA (LWS Interactive Analysis) is used for processing data from the LWS. It provides access to the different processing steps, including visualization of intermediate products and interactive manipulation of the data at each stage.

Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Development Team



Human Computer Intelligent Interaction  

E-print Network

Human Computer Intelligent Interaction Computer technologies are progressing at a breakneck speed doing during the last decade on Human Computer Interaction. Specifically,information flow from human human-computer interfaces.In this talk,I shall describe some of the research my students and I have been

Chen, Sheng-Wei


Climate: A Complex Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article continues an examination of each of the seven essential principles of climate literacy on which the online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle is structured. Principle 2 covers the complex interactions among the components of the Earth system. The author discusses the scientific concepts underlying the interactions and expands the discussion with diagrams, photos, and online resources.

Lightle, Kimberly



Visualizing Dispersion Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An animation and accompanying activity has been developed to help students visualize how dispersion interactions arise. The animation uses the gecko's ability to walk on vertical surfaces to illustrate how dispersion interactions play a role in macroscale outcomes. Assessment of student learning reveals that students were able to develop…

Gottschalk, Elinor; Venkataraman, Bhawani



Planet -Star Plasma Interactions  

E-print Network

Planet - Star Plasma Interactions Philippe Zarka LESIA, Observatoire de Paris/CNRS, Meudon References : · Zarka, P., Plasma interactions of exoplanets with their parent star and associated radio emissions, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 598-617, 2007. · Griessmeier, J.-M., P. Zarka and H. Spreeuw, Predicting

Demoulin, Pascal


Interactive grid adaption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive grid adaption method is developed, discussed and applied to the unsteady flow about an oscillating airfoil. The user is allowed to have direct interaction with the adaption of the grid as well as the solution procedure. Grid points are allowed to adapt simultaneously to several variables. In addition to the theory and results, the hardware and software requirements are discussed.

Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Everton, Eric L.



Interaction of Plant Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of the word interaction by physiologists has led to a consensus that gibberellin and abscisin interact in affecting plant responses. However, no such consensus is admissible if one uses the statisticians' definition which is more physiologically sound than that used by physiologists.

Robert E. Drury



Designs for Cooperative Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators are moving toward models of instruction that contain a myriad of interaction patterns among teachers and students. This shift from didactic teaching models to intensely involving designs is difficult for teachers, but is made easier if seen as a gradual change. This book provides an overview of 12 cooperative interaction designs for the…

Fogarty, Robin


Interaction relation ontology learning.  


Ontology is widely used in semantic computing and reasoning, and various biomedicine ontologies have become institutionalized to make the heterogeneous knowledge computationally amenable. Relation words, especially verbs, play an important role when describing the interaction between biological entities in molecular function, biological process, and cellular component; however, comprehensive research and analysis are still lacking. In this article, we propose an automatic method to build interaction relation ontology by investigating relation verbs, analyzing the syntactic relation of PubMed abstracts to perform relation vocabulary expansion, and integrating WordNet into our method to construct the hierarchy of relation vocabulary. Five attributes are populated automatically for each word in interaction relation ontology. As a result, the interaction relation ontology is constructed; it contains a total of 963 words and covers the most relation words used in existing methods of proteins interaction relation. PMID:24377790

Li, Chuan-Xi; Wang, Ru-Jing; Chen, Peng; Huang, He; Su, Ya-Ru



Interaction Relation Ontology Learning  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ontology is widely used in semantic computing and reasoning, and various biomedicine ontologies have become institutionalized to make the heterogeneous knowledge computationally amenable. Relation words, especially verbs, play an important role when describing the interaction between biological entities in molecular function, biological process, and cellular component; however, comprehensive research and analysis are still lacking. In this article, we propose an automatic method to build interaction relation ontology by investigating relation verbs, analyzing the syntactic relation of PubMed abstracts to perform relation vocabulary expansion, and integrating WordNet into our method to construct the hierarchy of relation vocabulary. Five attributes are populated automatically for each word in interaction relation ontology. As a result, the interaction relation ontology is constructed; it contains a total of 963 words and covers the most relation words used in existing methods of proteins interaction relation. PMID:24377790

Li, Chuan-Xi; Wang, Ru-Jing; Huang, He; Su, Ya-Ru



Spacelab user interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the third and final phase of a study undertaken to define means of optimizing the Spacelab experiment data system by interactively manipulating the flow of data were presented. A number of payload applicable interactive techniques and an integrated interaction system for each of two possible payloads are described. These interaction systems have been functionally defined and are accompanied with block diagrams, hardware specifications, software sizing and speed requirements, operational procedures and cost/benefits analysis data for both onboard and ground based system elements. It is shown that accrued benefits are attributable to a reduction in data processing costs obtained by, generally, a considerable reduction in the quantity of data that might otherwise be generated without interaction. One other additional anticipated benefit includes the increased scientific value obtained by the quicker return of all useful data.



Forces and Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the purist will state that there are four forces, when explaining observed phenomena at the nanoscale it is very useful to include interactions such as ionic and covalent bonding, hydrogen bonds, Brownian motion, van der Waals forces, thermal vibration, rotation , adhesive and cohesive forces and subcategories of these interactions. Often, the effect of what is observed at any scale (macroscale to nanoscale) is dependent upon the priorities of these forces. For example the interaction between planets is driven by the gravitational force because of the large mass of the objects, The strength of the interaction of planets due to the electrostatic forces exists, but is very small -- overshadowed by the gravitational forces. The opposite is often true at the nanoscale, atoms and molecules are significantly impacted by electrostatic forces - and because of the small mass, minimally impacted by gravitational attraction. So it is just a matter of which force or interaction is the top interaction for any given situation. These modules use many different activities which allow students to evaluate the priority of different forces and interactions with different materials and at different scales.



[Interactive production of resistance].  


Already the first version of the resistance concept as a force of the paint against which Freud had to summon psychic work names an interactive event. The conversational-analytic examination of therapeutic dialogs may bring to light that resistances are not just embedded in the interpersonal relationship of patient and psychotherapist, but are produced with verbal and non-verbal means with which patient and psychotherapist handle their interactions. This is described with a micro analysis of the therapeutic interaction in videographed sequences from an analytic oriented short therapy of a patient with phobic and compulsive symptoms. PMID:7571884

Streeck, U



Interactive WSN-Bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the concept of ambient intelligence, we utilized wireless sensor network (WSN) and vision-based tracking technologies to create an interactive WSN-Bar. WSN-Bar is an interactive and innovative creation which has two modules: Garden of Light and Vivacious Bushes. It refers the variety of natural environmental factors and focuses on the relationship between human and nature. WSN-Bar can also detect the changes of brightness, temperature, CO2 density outdoors and the movement of people inside the building. Besides, WSN-Bar is an interactive installation art which creates the opportunity to reduce the estranged gape among the participants.

Lin, Jiun-Shian; Hsu, Su-Chu; Chen, Ying-Chung


Electric and Magnetic Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book offers a myriad of lessons, experiments, and demonstrations in all topics in the field of electricity and magnetism. From charge interactions to electromagnetic radiation and induction, it covers the material of a second semester calculus-based introductory physics course. This book is the second of two in the Matter & Interactions series. The Matter & Interactions series emphasizes that there are only a few fundamental principles that underlie the behavior of matter, and that it is possible to construct models that can explain and predict a wide variety of physical phenomena using these principles.

Chabay, Ruth; Sherwood, Bruce



Gene-Environment Contributions to the Development of Infant Vagal Reactivity: The Interaction of Dopamine and Maternal Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated dopamine receptor genes ("DRD2" and "DRD4") and maternal sensitivity as predictors of infant respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity, purported indices of vagal tone and vagal regulation, in a challenge task at 3, 6, and 12 months in 173 infant-mother dyads. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) revealed that at…

Propper, Cathi; Moore, Ginger A.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.; Calkins, Susan D.; Carbone, Mary Anna; Cox, Martha



Interactive Gumball Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners review the history of gumball machines and explore potential and kinetic energy, while working in teams to build a gumball slide. Teams then design and build their own interactive gumball machine.



Interactive Office user's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

Montgomery, Edward E.; Lowers, Benjamin; Nabors, Terri L.



Plant/Insect Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of 12 investigative questions is designed to help students observe how insects interact with plants in their habitat. The one-page printable PDF list includes questions about the insect behavior and the plant characteristics.


Dawn's Framing Camera Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive illustrates how images from space get to earth and how we interpret the images. Users are encouraged to experiment with images to get a firm grasp of how scientists use color filters to interpret data.


Interactive Periodic Table  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Periodic Table (application/applet) has been designed as a learning tool to help the beginning high school or undergraduate chemistry student gain insight. It could be used either as a lecture aid or distributed to students.


Human Body Systems Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, studens are presented with a body system and a variety of organs. Students drag and drop all the organs that belong in that particular body system to a body who is missing his parts.



Changes Affecting Human Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary changes in population patterns, power structures, civil rights, and role adaptations, are affecting human interactions and self-concepts. These social changes call for a re-vamped educational system capable of contributing to a genuine community education. (JH)

Dodson, Dan W.



Human-machine interactions  


Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)



Interactive Real Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Real Analysis is an online, interactive textbook for Real Analysis or Advanced Calculus in one real variable. Organized into the topics of sets and relations, infinity and induction, sequences of numbers, topology, continuity and differentiation, the integral (Riemann and Lebesgue), sequences of functions, and metric spaces. Features Java tools Function Plotter, Continuity Checker, Root Finder, Family Plotter, and Derivative Checker. Also includes a glossary of calculus terms and biographies, with definitions, theorems, and problems.

Wachsmuth, Bert G.


Strongly interacting Higgs bosons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)L×SU(2)R symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found

Thomas Appelquist; Claude Bernard



BasketMath Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BasketMath Interactive is an Educational Online Interactive for grades 4-10. Students click on a topic from the table of contents and they are given a mathematics question and animation. When a question is correctly answered, students will see a basketball animation. When they incorrectly answer the question, students are given the correct response and, at times, the solution. Incorrect responses are tracked and areas of improvement are shown.

Cummings, Robert; Software, Science A.



Economics Interactive Lectures List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Samuel Baker, Associate Professor in the Department of Health Administration at the University of South Carolina, has developed a series of interactive economics lectures. The lectures are at the level of introductory microeconomics. Lecture topics cover: demand, supply, elasticity, market equilibrium, costs, discounting, and internal rate of return. Each lecture features Java based interactive questions and examples. Users receive immediate feedback and hints on their responses to questions.

Baker, Samuel L.



Flank solar wind interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report we will summarize the results of the work performed under the 'Flank Solar Wind Interaction' investigation in support of NASA's Space Physics Guest Investigator Program. While this investigation was focused on the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind as observed by instruments on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3 spacecraft, it also represents the culmination of decades of research performed by scientists at TRW on the rich phenomenology of collisionless shocks in space.

Moses, Stewart L.; Greenstadt, Eugene W.; Coroniti, Ferdinand V.



Induced gauge interactions revisited  

E-print Network

It has been shown that the old-fashioned idea of Sakharov's induced gravity and gauge interactions in the "one-loop dominance" version works astonishingly well yielding reasonable parameters. It appears that induced coupling constants of gauge interactions of the standard model assume qualitatively realistic values. Moreover, it is possible to induce the Barbero--Immirzi parameter of canonical gravity from the fields entering the standard model.

Bogus?aw Broda; Micha? Szanecki



Interactive Frog Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Virginia Curry School of Education's Instructional Technology Program has announced Interactive Frog Dissection. The tutorial combines text with 60 in-line color images and 17 QuickTime movies illustrating dissection procedures and internal organs. Numerous clickable image maps provide interactive practice. Research with pre-Web versions of the program suggests it is a valuable preparation tool or even a useful substitute for laboratory dissection.


PIA: ISOPHOT Interactive Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISOPHOT is one of the instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). ISOPHOT Interactive Analysis (PIA) is a scientific and calibration interactive data analysis tool for ISOPHOT data reduction. Written in IDL under Xwindows, PIA offers a full context sensitive graphical interface for retrieving, accessing and analyzing ISOPHOT data. It is available in two nearly identical versions; a general observers version omits the calibration sequences.

Gabriel, Carlos; Acosta, Jose; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Skaley, Detlef; Tai, Wai Ming; Morris, Huw; Merluzzi, Paola



Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction is a joint effort by professors from Michigan State University, the University of Wuerzburg, and Ludwig-Maximilians University at Munich. A multitude of examples are used to present atom scattering, crystal structure, convolution theorem, Fourier transformations of crystal phase, and other topics. The interactive examples are simulations, using software developed by the authors, where students can input the number of atoms or atom type, etc. and view results as .gif images.


Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Tutorial About Diffraction is a joint effort by professors from Michigan State University, the University of Wuerzburg, and Ludwig-Maximilians University at Munich. A multitude of examples are used to present atom scattering, crystal structure, convolution theorem, Fourier transformations of crystal phase, and other topics. The interactive examples are simulations, using software developed by the authors, where students can input the number of atoms or atom type, etc. and view results as .gif images.



Inferring domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein-protein interactions are important events in cellular and biochemical processes within a cell. Several researchers have undertaken the task of analyzing protein-protein interactions covering all genes of an organism by using yeast two-hybrid assays. Protein-protein interactions involve physical interactions between protein domains. Therefore, understanding protein interactions at the domain level gives a global view of the protein interaction network, and

Minghua Deng; Shipra Mehta; Fengzhu Sun; Ting Chen



Interaction with Machine Improvisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo


Gender, Strategy Selection, and Discussion Satisfaction in Interpersonal Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines gender-related similarities and differences regarding conflict strategies and satisfaction with conflict interaction in a corporate setting. Reports that gender significantly affected the selection of influence strategies: male-male dyads used assertiveness and reason consistently, while female-female dyads shifted from high levels of…

Papa, Michael J.; Natalle, Elizabeth J.



Anim. Behav., 1989,37,498-506 Does dominance determine how far dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemulis,  

E-print Network

. The outcomes of interactions within dyads of dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis, were observed. Each dyadAnim. Behav., 1989,37,498-506 Does dominance determine how far dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemulis consisted of a junco caught in winter in Michigan matched with another of the same sex-age class caught

Theimer, Tad


Heterogeneity in Maltreated and Non-Maltreated Preschool Children's Inhibitory Control: The Interplay between Parenting Quality and Child Temperament  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the contribution of child temperament, parenting, and their interaction on inhibitory control development in a sample of maltreated and non-maltreated preschool children. One hundred and eighteen mother-child dyads were drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which…

Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Teti, Douglas M.



The interaction of hemoglobin with the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 of the human erythrocyte membrane.  


Previous studies point to the acidic amino-terminal segment of band 3, the anion transport protein of the red cell, as the common binding site for hemoglobin and several of the glycolytic enzymes to the erythrocyte membrane. We now report on the interaction of hemoglobin with the synthetic peptide AcM-E-E-L-Q-D-D-Y-E-D-E, corresponding to the first 11 residues of band 3, and with the entire 43,000-Da cytoplasmic domain of the protein. In the presence of increasing concentrations of the peptide, the oxygen binding curve for hemoglobin is shifted progressively to the right, indicating that the peptide binds preferentially to deoxyhemoglobin. The dissociation constant for the deoxyhemoglobin-peptide complex at pH 7.2 in the presence of 100 mM NaCl is 0.31 mM. X-ray crystallographic studies were carried out to determine the exact mode of binding of the peptide to deoxyhemoglobin. The difference electron density map of the deoxyhemoglobin-peptide complex at 5 A resolution showed that the binding site extends deep (approximately 18 A) into the central cavity between the beta chains, along the dyad symmetry axis, and includes Arg 104 beta 1 and Arg 104 beta 2 as well as most of the basic residues within the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding site. The peptide appears to have an extended conformation with only 5 to 7 of the 11 residues in contact with hemoglobin. In agreement with the crystallographic studies, binding of the peptide to deoxyhemoglobin was blocked by cross-linking the beta chains at the entrance to the central cavity. Oxygen equilibrium studies showed that the isolated cytoplasmic fragment of band 3 also binds preferentially to deoxyhemoglobin. The binding of the 43,000-Da fragment to hemoglobin was inhibited in the cross-linked derivative indicating that the acidic amino-terminal residues in the intact cytoplasmic domain also bind within the central cavity of the hemoglobin tetramer. PMID:6469962

Walder, J A; Chatterjee, R; Steck, T L; Low, P S; Musso, G F; Kaiser, E T; Rogers, P H; Arnone, A



Interaction relabelling and extreme characters: methods for exploring aesthetic interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aesthetics and interaction are interwoven concepts, rather than separate entities. An aesthetics of interaction must consider richness in appearance, actions, and role. Moving beyond a narrow focus on usability in this way requires new methods for understanding design possibilities. Here we describe two: interaction relabelling, in which possible interactions with a known mechanical device are mapped to the functions of

J. P. Djajadiningrat; W. W. Gaver; J. W. Frens



Propeller tip vortex interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propeller wakes interacting with aircraft aerodynamic surfaces are a source of noise and vibration. For this reason, flow visualization work on the motion of the helical tip vortex over a wing and through the second stage of a counterrotation propeller (CRP) has been pursued. Initially, work was done on the motion of a propeller helix as it passes over the center of a 9.0 aspect ratio wing. The propeller tip vortex experiences significant spanwise displacements when passing across a lifting wing. A stationary propeller blade or stator was installed behind the rotating propeller to model the blade vortex interaction in a CRP. The resulting vortex interaction was found to depend on the relative vortex strengths and vortex sign.

Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.



Light and Matter Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students â??are introduced to the basic concepts of light, followed by several interactive simulations that model the interactions of light with matter." The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, questions to answer, and models they can manipulate. The content of the module is divided into eight pages: Introducing Light and Photons, The Electromagnetic Spectrum, Photon Absorption and Emission 1 and II, Different Substances Have Different Photon Absorptions and Emissions, Light Can Heat Matter, Simulating Black Color, and Heated Matter Can Emit Light. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments and rubric, details of the central concepts, and correlation of the concepts to AAAS and NSES standards.


Interacting Agegraphic Dark Energy  

E-print Network

A new dark energy model, named "agegraphic dark energy", has been proposed recently, based on the so-called K\\'{a}rolyh\\'{a}zy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegraphic dark energy model and holographic dark energy model. The similarity and difference between agegraphic dark energy and holographic dark energy are also discussed.

Hao Wei; Rong-Gen Cai



Interactive atmosphere lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ozone layer makes up an important part of our atmosphere. This informational activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, explores changes in ozone concentration with altitude. Students view a diagram that shows the layers of the atmosphere with a temperature scale running from the surface of the Earth to the outermost reaches of the atmosphere. After reading introductory material, students are presented with nine questions about the layers of the atmosphere and interactions with ozone. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)



Interactive collision detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The assembly of Space Station Freedom will require operations where large bodies are manipulated in close proximity to one other. A fast and reliable method for performing collision detection would greatly benefit the development and verification of such operations. The Interactive Graphics and Operations Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL) has developed an algorithm for performing collision detection which provides accurate results at interactive speeds. This algorithm uses a highly-optimized ray tracer for performing the analysis. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the algorithm and demonstrate its capabilities.

Bell, Brad



Solitary water wave interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article concerns the pairwise nonlinear interaction of solitary waves in the free surface of a body of water lying over a horizontal bottom. Unlike solitary waves in many completely integrable model systems, solitary waves for the full Euler equations do not collide elastically; after interactions, there is a nonzero residual wave that trails the post-collision solitary waves. In this report on new numerical and experimental studies of such solitary wave interactions, we verify that this is the case, both in head-on collisions (the counterpropagating case) and overtaking collisions (the copropagating case), quantifying the degree to which interactions are inelastic. In the situation in which two identical solitary waves undergo a head-on collision, we compare the asymptotic predictions of Su and Mirie [J. Fluid Mech. 98, 509 (1980)] and Byatt-Smith [J. Fluid Mech. 49, 625 (1971)], the wavetank experiments of Maxworthy [J. Fluid Mech. 76, 177 (1976)], and the numerical results of Cooker, Weidman, and Bale [J. Fluid Mech. 342, 141 (1997)] with independent numerical simulations, in which we quantify the phase change, the run-up, and the form of the residual wave and its Fourier signature in both small- and large-amplitude interactions. This updates the prior numerical observations of inelastic interactions in Fenton and Rienecker [J. Fluid Mech. 118, 411 (1982)]. In the case of two nonidentical solitary waves, our precision wavetank experiments are compared with numerical simulations, again observing the run-up, phase lag, and generation of a residual from the interaction. Considering overtaking solitary wave interactions, we compare our experimental observations, numerical simulations, and the asymptotic predictions of Zou and Su [Phys. Fluids 29, 2113 (1986)], and again we quantify the inelastic residual after collisions in the simulations. Geometrically, our numerical simulations of overtaking interactions fit into the three categories of Korteweg-deVries two-soliton solutions defined in Lax [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 21, 467 (1968)], with, however, a modification in the parameter regime. In all cases we have considered, collisions are seen to be inelastic, although the degree to which interactions depart from elastic is very small. Finally, we give several theoretical results: (i) a relationship between the change in amplitude of solitary waves due to a pairwise collision and the energy carried away from the interaction by the residual component, and (ii) a rigorous estimate of the size of the residual component of pairwise solitary wave collisions. This estimate is consistent with the analytic results of Schneider and Wayne [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 53, 1475 (2000)], Wright [SIAM J. Math. Anal. 37, 1161 (2005)], and Bona, Colin, and Lannes [Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal. 178, 373 (2005)]. However, in light of our numerical data, both (i) and (ii) indicate a need to reevaluate the asymptotic results in Su and Mirie [J. Fluid Mech. 98, 509 (1980)] and Zou and Su [Phys. Fluids 29, 2113 (1986)].

Craig, W.; Guyenne, P.; Hammack, J.; Henderson, D.; Sulem, C.



Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions.

Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona [Department of Physics, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Sheshi 'Neenee Tereza' No 4, Tirana (Albania)



Families by Adoption and Birth: I. Mother-Infant Socio-emotional Interactions  

PubMed Central

The role of adoptive family dynamics in the etiology of both resilient and adverse developmental outcomes is not well understood. In this study, socio-emotional aspects of the mother-infant relationship were examined in families by adoption and by birth. Matched groups of mothers and their 5-month-old first babies were observed in the home setting. Dyads in the two groups were comparable in the frequency and ranking of a full array of age-appropriate behaviors. Group differences emerged for selected infant and maternal behaviors; infants by birth were in an alert state and smiled more often than infants by adoption, and adoptive mothers nourished and caressed their infants more than did mothers by birth. While the structure of the infant’s behavior repertoire was similar for both groups, there were twice as many significant correlations among maternal behaviors for the birth group than for the adoptive group. There were also more correlations between maternal and infant behaviors for dyads by birth than for dyads by adoption, and the nature of the correlations differed for the two groups. It is argued that both groups of mothers and babies were functioning in the adaptive, healthy range, and that observed differences between them reflect subtle differences in behavioral emphasis, possibly related to the unique paths to parenthood represented by adoption and birth. PMID:19888444

Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H.



KAIST Interactive Bicycle Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents key technologies and system integration issues of the KAIST interactive bicycle simulator. The rider on the bicycle feels the motion and has the visual experience as if he\\/she is riding in the campus of the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. The simulator consists of a bicycle, a Stewart platform, a magnetorheological handle, a pedal resistance

Dong-soo Kwon; Gi-hun Yang; Chong-won Lee; Jae-cheol Shin; Youngjin Park; Byungbo Jung; Doo Yong Lee; Kyungno Lee; Soon-Hung Han; Byoung-Hyun Yoo; Kwang-Yun Wohn; Jung-Hyun Ahn



Under the table interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the design space of a two-sided interactive touch table, designed to receive touch input from both the top and bottom surfaces of the table. By combining two registered touch surfaces, we are able to offer a new dimension of input for co-located collaborative groupware. This design accomplishes the goal of increasing the relative size of the input area

Daniel Wigdor; Darren Leigh; Clifton Forlines; Samuel Shipman; John Barnwell; Ravin Balakrishnan; Chia Shen



Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

Dominich, Sandor



Forces and Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The content related to forces and interactions is important to most science disciplines. While chemistry is the most obvious place to introduce these ideas, it is important to connect aspects of this big idea to phenomena in biology, physics, and Earth sc

Joseph S. Krajcik



Interactive Evolution of Camouflage  

E-print Network

that these tints are of service to these birds and insects in preserving them from danger.--Charles Darwin, 1859Interactive Evolution of Camouflage Craig Reynolds* Sony Computer Entertainment, US R&D Keywords of the evolution of camouflage in nature. The 2D model uses evolved textures for prey, a background texture

Fernandez, Thomas


Interactive Speech Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a robust interactive method for speech understanding. The generalized LR parsing is enhanced in this approach. Parsing proceeds from left to right correcting minor errors. When a very noisy portion is detected, the parser skips that portion using a nonterminal symbol. The unidentified portion is resolved by re-utterance of that portion which is parsed very efficiently by

Hiroaki Saito



Interactive Digital Signal Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interactive Digital Signal Processor, IDSP, consists of set of time series analysis "operators" based on various algorithms commonly used for digital signal analysis. Processing of digital signal time series to extract information usually achieved by applications of number of fairly standard operations. IDSP excellent teaching tool for demonstrating application for time series operators to artificially generated signals.

Mish, W. H.



Electronically Enhanced Classroom Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A design rationale for introducing electronic equipment (a group response system) for student interaction in lecture theaters is presented, linking the instructional design to theory. The effectiveness of the equipment for learning depends mostly on what pedagogic method is employed. Various alternative types are introduced, including: assessment;…

Draper, Stephen; Cargill, Julie; Cutts, Quintin


NFB Interactive: Bla Bla  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does it mean to interact with art? To communicate? And what unique wrinkles may develop as an exploration of these questions is designed specifically for a computer? The National Film Board commissioned Vincent Morisset to create this interactive tale, and it is an experience that warrants several return trips. Morisset has a rather fascinating resume, as he has worked on creating music videos for Sigur Ros and Arcade Fire. Much like his films, this interactive online project requires the participation of the viewer. As the introduction to the film states: "without him or her, the characters remain inert, waiting for the next interaction. The spectator clicks, plays and searches through the simple, uncluttered scenes, truly driving the experience." Without saying too much about the film, visitors can get started by responding to the opening screen's request to "Click Anywhere." There are six "chapters" to the film, each one of which examines a principle of human communication. Visitors will find the playfulness, interesting characters, and unique shapes a real treat.

Morisset, Vincent



Interactive Cell Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online resource that uses interactive models for students to click on to learn about the cell. The visual representation will have students distinguish between animal and plant cells and also learn about the permeability of the cell membrane.



The Digital Interactive Video  

E-print Network

The Digital Interactive Video Exploration and Reflection (Diver) system lets users create virtual pathways through existing video content using a virtual camera and an annotation window for commentary repurposing, and discussion. W ith the inexorable growth of low-cost consumer video elec- tronics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are interactive multimodal learning environments and how should they be designed to promote students' learning? In this paper, we offer a cognitive-affective theory of learning with media from which instructional design principles are derived. Then, we review a set of experimental studies in which we found empirical support for five design…

Moreno, Roxana; Mayer, Richard



Brain-computer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) technology is to augment human capabilities by enabling people to interact with a computer through a conscious and spontaneous modulation of their brainwaves after a short training period. Indeed, by analyzing brain electrical activity online, several groups have designed brain-actuated systems that provide alternative channels for communication, entertainment and control. Thus, a person can

José Del R. Millán



Plasmodium–Mosquito Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquitoes serve as the obligate vectors for the transmission of malaria parasites. During its sexual life cycle within the mosquito, the parasite must undergo several morphological changes and overcome developmental bottlenecks to ensure its successful transmission to a new vertebrate host. Here we review our current understanding of the molecular interactions that occur between Plasmodium parasites and its mosquito (Genus:

Ryan C. Smith; Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena



Creating an Interactive PDF  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive

Branzburg, Jeffrey



Random interactions with isospin  

SciTech Connect

The explicit inclusion of isospin degrees of freedom in sd-shell shell-model calculations with random two-body interactions produces a richer and more varied pattern of ground-state spins and isospins than has been found with only a single type of valence nucleon. The degree of dominance of 0{sup +} ground states in even-even nuclei is far from uniform in the presence of different numbers of valence neutrons and protons and is mirrored by the prevalence of 1{sup +} ground states in odd-odd nuclei. Random interactions distinguish between the ground-state patterns of even-even and odd-odd nuclei. The natural isospin ordering observed in nuclei (with states of minimum isospin lying lowest in energy and increasing in energy with increasing isospin) is also prominent despite the randomness of the interactions. Universal 0{sup +} even-even ground states and almost universal natural isospin ordering, as observed in nuclei, evidently still require two-body interactions with specific dynamic properties.

Kirson, Michael W.; Mizrahi, Jonathan A. [Department of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)



Geriatric Live Interactive Teleconferencing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document includes a successful model for implementing educational teleconferencing, the Geriatric Live Interactive Teleconferencing program at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU). As a vehicle for continuing professional education, teleconferencing can transmit the latest information to large numbers of health professionals in a variety of…

Parham, Iris A.; Wood, Joan



Iamascope: an interactive kaleidoscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

a colourfulpiece of floating glass inside the kaleidoscope,and simultaneously views a kaleidescopic image ofhimself on a huge screen (170") in real time. Thebody movements of the participant also directlycontrol music and his voice echoes in a beautifuldance of symmetry with the image. Participantswill engage physically, verbally and visually withthe Iamascope. This is a whole body, sensory interaction.The kalaidescopic image is

Sidney Fels



Electron interaction in matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data on the scattering of 1-MeV electrons in aluminum for the case of non-normal incidence, electron-bremsstrahlung cross-sections in thin targets, and the production of bremstrahlung by electron interaction in thick targets, are presented both in tabular and graphic form. These results may interest physicists and radiologists.

Dance, W. E.; Rainwater, W. J.; Rester, D. H.



Interactive Sound Federico Avanzini  

E-print Network

necessary, we will make use of the notions about physics-based sound synthesis techniques reviewed based on physical models of sound generation mechanisms allow for high quality syn- thesis and interactivity, since the physical parameters of the sound models #12;9.1. Introduction 347 can be naturally

Avanzini, Federico


Creating Interaction Techniques by  

E-print Network

Creating Interaction Techniques by Demonstration Brad A. Myers University of ]bronto* Peridot interfaces. A previous article' presented an overview of Peridot, concentrating on how the static displays of the user interface can be specified by demonstration. The full description of Peridot and the research

Myers, Brad A.


Codeon Interactions with Healthcare  

E-print Network

Codeon Interactions with Healthcare Professionals #12;#12;Table of Contents Preamble 1 Basis 7 Speaker Programs and Speaker Training Meetings 8 Healthcare Professionals Who Are Members and healthier lives. Ethical relationships with healthcare professionals are critical to our mission of helping

Chapman, Michael S.


Nucleon-nucleon interactions  

SciTech Connect

Nucleon-nucleon interactions are at the heart of nuclear physics, bridging the gap between QCD and the effective interactions appropriate for the shell model. We discuss the current status of {ital NN} data sets, partial-wave analyses, and some of the issues that go into the construction of potential models. Our remarks are illustrated by reference to the Argonne {ital v}{sub 18} potential, one of a number of new potentials that fit elastic nucleon-nucleon data up to 350 MeV with a {Chi}{sup 2} per datum near 1. We also discuss the related issues of three-nucleon potentials, two-nucleon charge and current operators, and relativistic effects. We give some examples of calculations that can be made using these realistic descriptions of {ital NN} interactions. We conclude with some remarks on how our empirical knowledge of {ital NN} interactions may help constrain models at the quark level, and hence models of nucleon structure.

Wiringa, R.B.



Cell interactions with Polymersomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymersomes are liposome-like vesicles assembled in various aqueous media using PEO-based diblock copolymers. Injection into rats show clearance times comparable to PEO-decorated 'stealth' liposomes and end-distributions consistent with cell-based (i.e. phagocytic) removal. In vitro studies suggest the PEO brush successfully delays plasma protein adsorption over short time scales but not over tens of hours. The interfacial 'fouling' that occurs with such protein adsorption mediates interactions with phagocytic white cells. Similar fouling occurs with cells such as red cells as well, but these and other cells appear to possess specific proteins that turn off phagocytic responses. The results obtained with a wide range of copolymers thus suggest a default clearance pathway that cannot be avoided by passive means so much as turned off by specific interactions.

Discher, Dennis; Photos, Peter; Dan, Nily



Interactive protein manipulation  

SciTech Connect

We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.



Dust-magnetosphere interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many different interactions have been proposed among the magnetospheric particles, fields, and dust grains in the rings of the outer planets. Attention is presently given to the energetic particle absorption signatures obtained by Pioneer 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2, which trace the mass concentrations of particulates in the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Particulates immersed in the magnetospheric plasma and exposed to solar UV radiation will charge up to a surface potential that depends on the density and electron energy of the plasma, as well as on the concentration of dust particles. Kinetic effects of charged dust particles arise from the interaction with the planetary magnetic field. Electromagnetic effects are noted which lead to the halo of Jupiter's ring, the dust distribution in Saturn's E ring, and the levitated dust in the Saturn B ring spokes.

Gruen, E.; Morfil, G. E.; Mendis, D. A.



Interactive optical panel  


An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)



Gravitationally Generated Interactions  

E-print Network

Starting from a 5D-Riemannian manifold, we show that a reduction mechanism to 4D-spacetimes reproduces Extended Theories of Gravity (ETGs) that are direct generalizations of Einstein's gravity. In this context, the gravitational degrees of freedom can be dealt under the standard of spacetime deformations. Besides, such deformations can be related to the mass spectra of particles. The intrinsic non-linearity of ETGs gives an energy-dependent running coupling, while torsion gives rise to interactions among spinors displaying the structure of the weak forces among fermions. We discuss how this scheme is compatible with the known observational evidence and suggest that eventual discrepancies could be detected in experiments, as ATLAS and CMS, today running at LHC (CERN). We finally discuss the consequences of the present approach in view of unification of physical interactions.

Salvatore Capozziello; Mariafelicia De Laurentis; Luca Fabbri; Stefano Vignolo



Volcanism-Climate Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The range of disciplines in the study of volcanism-climate interactions includes paleoclimate, volcanology, petrology, tectonics, cloud physics and chemistry, and climate and radiation modeling. Questions encountered in understanding the interactions include: the source and evolution of sulfur and sulfur-gaseous species in magmas; their entrainment in volcanic plumes and injection into the stratosphere; their dissipation rates; and their radiative effects. Other issues include modeling and measuring regional and global effects of such large, dense clouds. A broad-range plan of research designed to answer these questions was defined. The plan includes observations of volcanoes, rocks, trees, and ice cores, as well as satellite and aircraft observations of erupting volcanoes and resulting lumes and clouds.

Walter, Louis S. (editor); Desilva, Shanaka (editor)



Interactive optical panel  


An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

Veligdan, J.T.



Plate Tectonics: Plate Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of five Science Objects in the Plate Tectonic SciPack. It identifies the events that may occur and landscapes that form as a result of different plate interactions. The areas along plate margins are active. Plates pushing against one another can cause earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain formation, and very deep ocean trenches. Plates pulling apart from one another can cause smaller earthquakes, magma rising to the surface, volcanoes, and oceanic valleys and mountains from sea-floor spreading. Plates sliding past one another can cause earthquakes and rock deformation. Learning Outcomes:? Explain why volcanoes and earthquakes occur along plate boundaries. ? Explain how new sea floor is created and destroyed.? Describe features that may be seen on the surface as a result of plate interactions.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)



Interactive design center.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia's advanced computing resources provide researchers, engineers and analysts with the ability to develop and render highly detailed large-scale models and simulations. To take full advantage of these multi-million data point visualizations, display systems with comparable pixel counts are needed. The Interactive Design Center (IDC) is a second generation visualization theater designed to meet this need. The main display integrates twenty-seven projectors in a 9-wide by 3-high array with a total display resolution of more than 35 million pixels. Six individual SmartBoard displays offer interactive capabilities that include on-screen annotation and touch panel control of the facility's display systems. This report details the design, implementation and operation of this innovative facility.

Pomplun, Alan R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)



NASA: Interactive Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amidst many strong and detailed government websites, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) site always presents a rich variety of material for the space-curious public. Their "Interactive Features" area is embedded in their larger "Multimedia" site, and it's a fantastic kaleidoscope of sweeping views of Saturn, fun with the X-15 spacecraft, and more than a few (several dozen, actually) interactive timelines. First-time users can browse through the archive of features at their leisure, or they can also use the search engine to look for specific items. Some of the more noteworthy features here include a timeline which explores the history of "planet hunting" ("PlanetQuest Historic Timeline") and the trip through space in the "Virtual Lunar Outpost". It's easy to while away a few hours on the site and it is one that budding space scientists will want to bookmark.


Electron: Cluster interactions  

SciTech Connect

Beam depletion spectroscopy has been used to measure absolute total inelastic electron-sodium cluster collision cross sections in the energy range from E {approximately} 0.1 to E {approximately} 6 eV. The investigation focused on the closed shell clusters Na{sub 8}, Na{sub 20}, Na{sub 40}. The measured cross sections show an increase for the lowest collision energies where electron attachment is the primary scattering channel. The electron attachment cross section can be understood in terms of Langevin scattering, connecting this measurement with the polarizability of the cluster. For energies above the dissociation energy the measured electron-cluster cross section is energy independent, thus defining an electron-cluster interaction range. This interaction range increases with the cluster size.

Scheidemann, A.A. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kresin, V.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Knight, W.D. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics



DNA interactive timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In need of an interactive, chronological account of genetic discoveries and the scientists who made them? The scrolling timeline on this module provides just that. Arranged in segments of time that begin in pre-1920's and end with post-2000, visitors can explore a range of videos, photographs, and personal accounts, as well as biographical information of scientists by clicking on their images. As visitors move their cursors over the images, they are prompted to click on pop-up windows for further information and additional interactive features. For instance, one image shows Linus Pauling?s proposed triple-stranded DNA. When visitors click on this image, they learn about the elementary mistake that Pauling made when proposing this structure. The timeline also incorporates notable world events that put the genetic discoveries into perspective. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Laboratory, Dolan D.



Microbial Interactions - student worksheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a downloadable Microsoft Word document containing a 10-question student assessment worksheet to accompany the Microbial Interactions video segment of the Unseen Life on Earth series from Annenberg Media. The questions mirror language used in the video and focus on clearly stated facts. Thus, the worksheet assesses listening skills more than concept comprehension. This assessment would be appropriate for the secondary or introductory undergraduate level.

Joanna Verran


BioInteractive Neuroscience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of lectures (the annual Holiday Lecture on Science series by leading neuroscientists) , animations, virtual labs, and images presented by nationally recognized neuroscientists. BioInteractive is a great resource for complex biological systems information. Particularly noteworthy is the Animations section, which presents high-quality movies of development of the human embryonic brain, molecular basis of early LTP, molecular mechanism of synaptic function, and many other dynamic phenomena. Provided by Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

HHMI (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)



Interactive epistemology I: Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Formal Interactive Epistemology deals with the logic of knowledge and belief when there is more than one agent or “player.”\\u000a One is interested not only in each person's knowledge about substantive matters, but also in his knowledge about the others'\\u000a knowledge. This paper examines two parallel approaches to the subject. The first is the semantic approach, in which knowledge

Robert J. Aumann



Interactive epistemology II: Probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Formal Interactive Epistemology deals with the logic of knowledge and belief when there is more than one agent or “player.”\\u000a One is interested not only in each person's knowledge and beliefs about substantive matters, but also in his knowledge and\\u000a beliefs about the others' knowledge and beliefs. This paper examines two parallel approaches to the subject. The first is

Robert J. Aumann



Interactive Particle Visualisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Particle-based simulation methods are used to model a wide range of complex phenomena and to solve time-dependent problems\\u000a of various scales. Effective visualizations of the resulting state will communicate subtle changes in the three-dimensional\\u000a structure, spatial organization, and qualitative trends within a simulation as it evolves. This chapter discusses two approaches\\u000a to interactive particle visualization that satisfy these goals: one

Christiaan P. Gribble


Interacting warm dark matter  

SciTech Connect

We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear ??{sub m}{sup ?}?{sub e}{sup ?} form, where ?{sub m} and ?{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters ? and ? are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (?,?,?) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ?CDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (?,?,?) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.

Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile); Avelino, Arturo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, DCI, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, CP. 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico)



Towards Learning by Interacting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional robotics has treated the question of learning as a one way process: learning algorithms, especially imitation\\u000a learning approaches, are based on observing and analysing the environment before carrying out the ‘learned’ action. In such\\u000a scenarios the learning situation is restricted to uni-directional communication.\\u000a \\u000a However, insights into the process of infant learning more and more reveal that interaction plays a

Britta Wrede; Katharina J. Rohlfing; Marc Hanheide; Gerhard Sagerer



Interacting with the System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Android operating system provides a number of useful services that applications can leverage. Many of these services are\\u000a designed to allow your application to function within the mobile system in ways beyond just interacting briefly with a user.\\u000a Applications can schedule themselves for alarms, run background services, and send messages to each other; all of which allows\\u000a an Android

Dave Smith; Jeff Friesen


Interactive Courseware for PC's  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Institute on Climate and Planets (ICP), a division of NASA, is host to a number of software curriculum modules. These interactive modules have been developed as teaching tools to help students learn basic physical concepts as well as several meteorological applications. The modules cover topics such as sunlight and latitude, albedo and distance, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Newton's laws of motion, the Coriolis effect, cloud formation, and the Greenhouse effect.

Borenstein, Samuel


Interactive collision detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collision detection and response can make a virtual-reality application seem more believable. Unfortunately, existing collision-detection algorithms are too slow for interactive use. The authors present a new algorithm that is not only fast but also interruptible, allowing an application to trade quality for more speed. The algorithm uses simple four-dimensional geometry to approximate motion, and sets of spheres to approximate

Philip M. Hubbard



Ozone depletion interactive lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the process by which CFCs destroy ozone? This informational piece, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, explores the destruction of the ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons. Here students view a four-step animation that shows how ultraviolet light breaks chlorine free from a CFC molecule. The chlorine then destroys an ozone molecule. Additional steps show how the process can be continuous. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)



British Interactive Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone in the world of exhibit design and "hands-on" learning will benefit from a online visit to the homepage of the British Interactive Group (BIG). The group is designed to support the endeavors of a broad constituency, including educators, students, artists, and archaeologists, among others. Visitors to the site can learn about a host of "best practice" techniques in the field of exhibit and museum design, along with information about recent case studies and relevant research that examines various interactive designs in detail. The core area that contains most of the content is the "Knowledgebase" area of the site. Here visitors can peruse articles that detail basic exhibit building "rules of thumb", visitor interactions with computer exhibits, and information on designing flow patterns through exhibits. The group's online newsletter is also a real find, as visitors can learn about current developments in the field and learn about new initiatives by various institutions in the arena of exhibit design. Finally, visitors may want to join the "Big-Chat e-mail list", which allows a diverse group of individuals to discuss these topics at length and of course, across great distances.


Molecular interactions of DNA-topoisomerase I and II inhibitor with DNA and topoisomerases and in ternary complexes: binding modes and biological effects for intoplicine derivatives.  


Molecular interactions of intoplicine, dual DNA-topoisomerases (Topo) I and II inhibitor, with topoisomerases, plasmid DNA, in ternary cleavable complexes with enzymes and plasmid DNA, and in the reversed cleavable complexes were examined by means of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and CD spectroscopy and by biochemical techniques. Detailed spectral analysis of intoplicine derivatives allowed us to assign SERS vibrational modes of chromophores and to propose the models for these complexes. Intoplicine was found to be able to interact specifically with the Topo II alone, but with Topo I only when in the presence of DNA. It shows at least two modes of binding to the DNA: the first was found to be dominant for its derivative 1c (most potent Topo I inhibitor), and the second was dominant for derivative 2a (most potent Topo II inhibitor). The possibility of forming these two types of complexes simultaneously is suggested to be one of the main factors enabling the drug to be a dual Topo I and Topo II inhibitor. The "deep intercalation mode" of the drug from the DNA minor groove with the long axis of the chromophore oriented roughly parallel to the dyad axis has been suggested to be responsible for induction of distortions of the DNA structure by the intercalating drug. Being involved in the formation of Topo I-mediated cleavable ternary complex, the molecules participating in the deep intercalation mode within the DNA do not change their molecular interactions as compared with their complex with the DNA alone. The stabilization of the Topo I-mediated cleavable complex was shown to be followed by the local denaturation of DNA in the AT-rich regions of the helix. When the ternary cleavable complex was reversed, the drug was shown to be in the complex with the plasmid. The "outside binding mode" from the DNA major groove via the hydroxyl group of the A-ring of the chromophore has been suggested to be responsible for Topo II inhibition. These molecules did not induce significant distortions of the DNA structure. Being involved in the formation of Topo II-mediated cleavable ternary complex, the drug changed its molecular interactions as compared with the complex with DNA alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8043587

Nabiev, I; Chourpa, I; Riou, J F; Nguyen, C H; Lavelle, F; Manfait, M



Modelling Interaction Dynamics during Face-to-Face Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During face to face interactions, the emotional state of each participant is greatly affected by the behavior of other participants\\u000a and how much this behavior conforms with common protocols of interaction in the society. Research in human to human interaction\\u000a in face to face situations has uncovered many forms of synchrony in the behavior of the interacting partners. This includes

Yasser Mohammad; Toyoaki Nishida


Interactivity Demystified page 1 Interactivity Demystified: A Structural Definition for  

E-print Network

to improve the human-ness and adaptivity of our interactions with computers will likely improve our ability) shows that humans use social rules as they interact with computers. As we combine these capabilities, 1997). Computer-Based Interaction In the future, we will have more opportunities to learn through

Yacci, Michael


Imitation, Interaction and Dialogue Using Intensive Interaction: Tea Party Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intensive Interaction has become widely used when building up communication with children with profound learning difficulties. Often practitioners understand Intensive Interaction to be primarily about imitation and Mark Barber shows how this can be a "mis"understanding that limits the kinds of interactions that can be enjoyed by conversation…

Barber, Mark



A Universe Without Weak Interactions  

E-print Network

Universe” 1 has big-bang nucleosynthesis, structure formation,Universe without weak interactions that undergoes BBN, matter domination, structure formation,universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and

Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad



corotating interaction cosmic noise absorption  

E-print Network

Keywords corotating interaction regions cosmic noise absorption electron precipitation high speed: Particle precipitation Magnetospheric Physics: Energetic particles: precipitating Magnetospheric Physics: Solar wind/magnetosphere interactions Magnetospheric Physics: Magnetic storms and substorms (4305, 7954

Ulich, Thomas


Dynamical interactions of galaxy pairs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Here the author briefly reviews the dynamics of sinking satellites and the effect of companions on elliptical galaxies. The author then discusses recent work on interacting disk systems, and finally focuses on a favorite interacting pair, NGC 5194/5195.

Athanassoula, E.



Stacking interactions in PUFÂRNA complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stacking interactions between amino acids and bases are common in RNA-protein interactions. Many proteins that regulate mRNAs interact with single-stranded RNA elements in the 3' UTR (3'-untranslated region) of their targets. PUF proteins are exemplary. Here we focus on complexes formed between a Caenorhabditis elegans PUF protein, FBF, and its cognate RNAs. Stacking interactions are particularly prominent and involve every

Yvonne Yiling Koh; Yeming Wang; Chen Qiu; Laura Opperman; Leah Gross; Traci M. Tanaka Hall; Marvin Wickens



Designing Poetic Interaction in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An amount of research has risen growing concern of designing aesthetics of interaction in addition to function, usability,\\u000a and pleasure of it. Beyond aesthetic interaction, we propose poetic interaction as a promising design genre. Based on Bachelard’s\\u000a phenomenological approach, we suggest that poetic interaction design begin with imagination and expression-making of both\\u000a material and computational things. The challenges include how

Yi-Chu Lin; Huang-Ming Chang; Rung-Huei Liang


Intelligently interactive combat simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.

Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.



Modeling Interaction and Media Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Interaction of users with computational devices has to meetthe users intention on one side and needs to be specified in a formalmanner which can be uniquely interpreted by computers. Thus, we needa model of interaction which meets the intensional understanding of usersand which has an extensional description that is directly implementable.In this paper we develop a model for interaction

Klaus-dieter Schewe; Bernhard Thalheim



The Interaction Lab Representations of  

E-print Network

" NordiCHI 2012 Workshop on Proxemics in Human-Computer Interaction 14 October 2012 ­ Copenhagen, Denmark on Proxemics in Human-Computer Interaction 14 October 2012 ­ Copenhagen, Denmark 3 18 #12;"Representations of Proxemic Behavior for Human-Machine Interaction" NordiCHI 2012 Workshop on Proxemics in Human-Computer

Deussen, Oliver


Reasoning about Interactions between Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates difficulties in thinking about interactions between variables and suggests remedial educational means. Reports that expert thinkers demonstrate thinking about interactions at both an operational and metastrategic level. Lay adults, however, encounter substantial difficulties in drawing valid interaction inferences while engaged in an…

Zohar, Anat



Dust-magnetospheric interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The important processes controlling the electrical potentials of dust grains in planetary magnetospheres are considered, and the quasi-equilibrium electric potentials acquired by them in the different plasma and radiative environments encountered are evaluated. The orbital dynamics of such charged grains is discussed, and their interaction with satellites within the planetary magnetospheres is considered. The possibility of magneto-gravitational capture of these gains by magnetospheres, to form dust rings around the planets, is also discussed. Finally, the possible break-up of grains charged to large electrical potentials and its consequences are briefly addressed.

Mendis, D. A.



Measuring gene interactions.  


Measurement is the assignment of numbers to reality, and valid measurement requires that these numbers represent relevant aspects of reality. I discuss epistatic gene interactions from a measurement-theoretical perspective and argue that the standard measurements of epistasis in classical quantitative genetics have failed to capture aspects of epistasis that are relevant to selection dynamics and adaptation. Instead, the use of statistically motivated measurements such as epistatic variance components has led to the misconception that epistasis is dynamically inert. Here, I review work showing that patterns of epistasis may have profound effects on evolutionary dynamics and discuss how these patterns can be measured. PMID:25403530

Hansen, Thomas F



Ziggy: Very Interactive Trigonometry  

E-print Network

Abstract. In this paper we describe a highly interactive touch-based application to teach the basics of trigonometry to secondary school students. The application, called Ziggy, lets students “touch ” and “push ” triangles, dynamically modifying the shape and size, and observe the effect on the angles, sides and the trigonometric ratios. We describe the pedagogical rationale behind Ziggy, the user interface and provide details on the implementation. An early version of Ziggy has been tested in small-scale experiments in the classroom. 1

Anjo Anjewierden; Ellen T. Kamp; Ton De Jong


Scattering with absorptive interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The S matrix for a wide class of complex and nonlocal potentials is studied, with special attention given to the motion of singularities in the complex k plane as a function of the imaginary coupling strength. Modifications of Levinson's theorem are obtained and discussed. Analytic approximations to the S matrix in the vicinity of narrow resonances are exhibited and compared to numerical results of resonating-group calculations. The problem of defining resonances in the case of complex interactions is discussed, making contact with the usual analysis of scattering in terms of Argand diagrams. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Scattering theory, S matrix for absorptive potentials.

Cassing, W.; Stingl, M.; Weiguny, A.



Mutual Funds Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mutual Funds Interactive is provided by Brill Editorial Services, Inc. The aim of the site is to provide independent financial advice to investors. The highlight of the site is the expert's corner, where leading mutual fund experts provide market analysis, opinions and recommendations. There are also profiles of mutual funds managers and columns on mutual funds. For new investors, there is Funds 101, which helps explain what a mutual fund is. The site also features discussion groups, a glossary of mutual fund terms and a list of mutual funds.



Bunyavirus-vector interactions.  


The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172

Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L



Flavivirus-mosquito interactions.  


The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations. PMID:25421894

Huang, Yan-Jang S; Higgs, Stephen; Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L



Lunar Phases Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts the moon's rotation around the Earth and the corresponding view from a single point on the Earth as time elapses. The representation has 4 animated components: 1) A view of rotating earth and moon, shown from above 2) A clock face showing the passage of time 3) An view from Earth of the of sky, sun and moon and changing to indicate day and night views 4) A 28-day calendar The four components interactively depict lunar phases over 28 day cycle.


Human-Web Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of human behavior in electronic environments is rapidly gaining eminent position in web research. The driving forces of this endeavor originate from both commercial and scientific spheres. The commercial sector is eagerly exploring the human web behavior characteristics for amplifying and expanding the revenue generating possibilities. Novel trends in web development, as well as internet business models, unavoidably incorporate the elements of human-web interactions. The scientific inquiry into human web behavior is fundamentally oriented toward exploring, analyzing, understanding, modeling, and applying the findings.

Géczy, Peter; Izumi, Noriaki; Akaho, Shotaro; Hasida, Kôiti


Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions  

PubMed Central

The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations. PMID:25421894

Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Higgs, Stephen; Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.



Interactive Classification Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigators upgraded a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the more effective use of the technologies in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project were: 1) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate a wider range of meaning; 2) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded; and 3) the development of an interpreter for SL that would handle representations of some basic cognitive acts and perspectives.

deBessonet, Cary



Visuo-Vestibular Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Session TA3 includes short reports covering: (1) Vestibulo-Oculomotor Interaction in Long-Term Microgravity; (2) Effects of Weightlessness on the Spatial Orientation of Visually Induced Eye Movements; (3) Adaptive Modification of the Three-Dimensional Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex during Prolonged Microgravity; (4) The Dynamic Change of Brain Potential Related to Selective Attention to Visual Signals from Left and Right Visual Fields; (5) Locomotor Errors Caused by Vestibular Suppression; and (6) A Novel, Image-Based Technique for Three-Dimensional Eye Measurement.



CASSIS: Interactive spectrum analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CASSIS (Centre d'Analyse Scientifique de Spectres Infrarouges et Submillimetriques), written in Java, is suited for broad-band spectral surveys to speed up the scientific analysis of high spectral resolution observations. It uses a local spectroscopic database made of the two molecular spectroscopic databases JPL and CDMS, as well as the atomic spectroscopic database NIST. Its tools include a LTE model and the RADEX model connected to the LAMDA molecular collisional database. CASSIS can build a line list fitting the various transitions of a given species and to directly produce rotational diagrams from these lists. CASSIS is fully integrated into HIPE, the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment, as a plug-in.

Cassis Team At Cesr/Irap



Human Computer Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper basically deals with the study of HCI (Human computer interaction) or BCI(Brain-Computer-Interfaces) Technology that can be used for capturing brain signals and translating them into commands that allow humans to control (just by thinking) devices such as computers, robots, rehabilitation technology and virtual reality environments. The HCI is based as a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often aimed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.The paper also deals with many advantages of BCI Technology along with some of its applications and some major drawbacks.

Bhagwani, Akhilesh; Sengar, Chitransh; Talwaniper, Jyotsna; Sharma, Shaan



Obliquity's Interactive Astronomy Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by scientist David Harper and webmaster and mathematician Lynne Stockman, offers interactive modules about the sun, moon, and Earth. Users can calculate the distance between any two locations on Earth and determine latitudes and longitudes. The site displays the phases of the moon and lists the occurrences of eclipses. Visitors can learn about Blue Moons and when they are expected to occur. Although this site describes itself as being visually appealing without depending on any particular type of software or hardware so that it is viewable on any browser, Java is needed to convert between OSGB (the British National Grid), OSNI (the Irish Grid), and latitude/longitude.


Cellulose synthase interacting protein  

PubMed Central

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth. The great abundance of cellulose places it at the forefront as a primary source of biomass for renewable biofuels. However, the knowledge of how plant cells make cellulose remains very rudimentary. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by hexameric protein complexes, also known as cellulose synthase complexes. The only known components of cellulose synthase complexes are cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins until the recent identification of a novel component. CSI1, which encodes CESA interacting protein 1 (CSI1) in Arabidopsis. CSI1, as the first non-CESA proteins associated with cellulose synthase complexes, opens up many opportunities. PMID:21150290

Somerville, Chris



Cotton and Protein Interactions  

SciTech Connect

The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.



Interactives: Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conveying the dynamism of various geologic processes can be hard in the classroom or on the web, but this interactive feature from the Annenberg Media's site does quite a fine job of introducing students to plate tectonics, plate boundaries, and such perennial favorites as earthquakes and volcanoes. In the "Earth's Structure" section, visitors can roll the mouse over such features as the crust, the mantle, and the outer core of the Earth to learn about each feature. Moving on, the "Plate Tectonics" area includes the "Continents Over Time" interactive feature which asks visitors to place images of the continents in the correct geologic order. Perhaps the most dynamic area of the site (with good reason) is the "Slip, Slide & Collide" area. Here visitors will learn about what happens at different types of plate boundaries through the use of colorful graphics and explanations that are easy to understand. Overall, the site is a great overview of some basic principles of geology, and one that can be used with students of different ages.


Interactive Terascale Particle Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the methods used to produce an interactive visualization of a 2 TB computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data set using particle tracing (streaklines). We use the method introduced by Bruckschen et al. [2001] that pre-computes a large number of particles, stores them on disk using a space-filling curve ordering that minimizes seeks, and then retrieves and displays the particles according to the user's command. We describe how the particle computation can be performed using a PC cluster, how the algorithm can be adapted to work with a multi-block curvilinear mesh, and how the out-of-core visualization can be scaled to 296 billion particles while still achieving interactive performance on PG hardware. Compared to the earlier work, our data set size and total number of particles are an order of magnitude larger. We also describe a new compression technique that allows the lossless compression of the particles by 41% and speeds the particle retrieval by about 30%.

Ellsworth, David; Green, Bryan; Moran, Patrick



Metal-dielectric interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal direlectric surface interactions and dielectric films on metal substrates were investigated. Since interfacial interaction depends so heavily on the nature of the surfaces, analytical surface tools such as Auger emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field ion microscopy were used to assist in surface and interfacial characterization. The results indicate that with metals contacting certain glasses in the clean state interfacial, bonding produces fractures in the glasses while when a film such as water is present, fractures occur in the metal near the interface. Friction forces were used to measure the interfacial bond strengths. Studies with metals contacting polymers using field ion microscopy revealed that strong bonding forces could develop being between a metal and polymer surface with polymer transferring to the metal surface in various ways depending upon the forces applied to the surface in contact. With the deposition of refractory carbides, silicides and borides onto metal and alloy substrates the presence of oxides at the interface or active gases in the deposition plasma were shown to alter interfacial properties and chemistry. Auger ion depth profile analysis indicated the chemical composition at the interface and this could be related to the mechanical, friction, and wear behavior of the coating.

Buckley, D. H.



Interacting viscous dark fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revise the conditions for the physical viability of a cosmological model in which dark matter has bulk viscosity and also interacts with dark energy. We have also included radiation and baryonic matter components; all matter components are represented by perfect fluids, except for the dark matter one that is modeled as an imperfect fluid. We impose upon the model the condition of a complete cosmological dynamics that results in an either null or negative bulk viscosity, but the latter also disagrees with the local second law of thermodynamics (LSLT). The model is also compared with cosmological observations at different redshifts: type Ia supernova, the acoustic peak of baryon acoustic oscillation, the Hubble parameter H(z), and the angular scale of the cosmic microwave background encoded in the first peak. Taken together, observations consistently point to a negative value of the bulk viscous coefficient, that is in disagreement with the LSLT. From the different cases that we study, the best model that we find corresponds to the case of a dark matter with a null viscosity, interacting with a phantom dark energy. Also, overall the fitting procedure shows no preference for the model over the standard ?CDM model.

Avelino, Arturo; Leyva, Yoelsy; Ureña-López, L. Arturo



XEphem: Interactive Astronomical Ephemeris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XEphem is a scientific-grade interactive astronomical ephemeris package for UNIX-like systems. Written in C, X11 and Motif, it is easily ported to systems. Among other things, XEphem: computes heliocentric, geocentric and topocentric information for all objects; has built-in support for all planets; the moons of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Earth; central meridian longitude of Mars and Jupiter; Saturn's rings; and Jupiter's Great Red Spot; allows user-defined objects including stars, deepsky objects, asteroids, comets and Earth satellites; provides special efficient handling of large catalogs including Tycho, Hipparcos, GSC; displays data in configurable tabular formats in conjunction with several interactive graphical views; displays a night-at-a-glance 24 hour graphic showing when any selected objects are up; displays 3-D stereo Solar System views that are particularly well suited for visualizing comet trajectories; quickly finds all close pairs of objects in the sky; and sorts and prints all catalogs with very flexible criteria for creating custom observing lists. Its capabilities are listed more fully in the user manual introduction.

Downey, Elwood Charles



Strong-interaction nonuniversality  

SciTech Connect

The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3)/sub 1//direct product/SU(3)/sub 2//direct product/SU(3)/sub 3/ gauge theory, where quarks of the /ital i/th generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub /ital i// and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements.

Volkas, R. R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G. C.



MINT: the Molecular INTeraction database  

PubMed Central

The Molecular INTeraction database (MINT, ) aims at storing, in a structured format, information about molecular interactions (MIs) by extracting experimental details from work published in peer-reviewed journals. At present the MINT team focuses the curation work on physical interactions between proteins. Genetic or computationally inferred interactions are not included in the database. Over the past four years MINT has undergone extensive revision. The new version of MINT is based on a completely remodeled database structure, which offers more efficient data exploration and analysis, and is characterized by entries with a richer annotation. Over the past few years the number of curated physical interactions has soared to over 95 000. The whole dataset can be freely accessed online in both interactive and batch modes through web-based interfaces and an FTP server. MINT now includes, as an integrated addition, HomoMINT, a database of interactions between human proteins inferred from experiments with ortholog proteins in model organisms (). PMID:17135203

Chatr-aryamontri, Andrew; Ceol, Arnaud; Palazzi, Luisa Montecchi; Nardelli, Giuliano; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni



Human-Robot Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera frame of reference. The first study investigated the effects of inclusion and exclusion of the robot chassis along with superimposing a simple arrow overlay onto the video feed of operator task performance during teleoperation of a mobile robot in a driving task. In this study, the front half of the robot chassis was made visible through the use of three cameras, two side-facing and one forward-facing. The purpose of the second study was to compare operator performance when teleoperating a robot from an egocentric-only and combined (egocentric plus exocentric camera) view. Camera view parameters that are found to be beneficial in these laboratory experiments can be implemented on NASA rovers and tested in a real-world driving and navigation scenario on-site at the Johnson Space Center.

Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee



MIDOS : Multimodal Interactive DialOgue System  

E-print Network

Interactions between people are typically conversational, multimodal, and symmetric. In conversational interactions, information flows in both directions. In multimodal interactions, people use multiple channels. In symmetric ...

Adler, Aaron D. (Aaron Daniel), 1979-



Independent Lens: Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, Independent Lens has produced a number of well-received documentaries that have aired on PBS and other places. They have also created some very nice websites in an attempt to enhance the viewing experience of their programs. The Independent Lens: Interactive site offers some additional web-original projects for the interested public. Some of these features include Beyond the Fire, which introduces visitors to the stories of fifteen teenagers living in the US, who have survived war in seven different regions. One very compelling highlight of the site is the Off the Map feature. Here visitors can learn about the visionary art produced by a selection of persons working in various media, such as bottle caps, matchsticks, and chewing gum. For those looking for something with a unique perspective on the world and its inhabitants, this website will definitely bring a smile to their eyes.



DNA interactive applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers four interactive modules that investigate the applications of DNA science to improve medicine and society. The modules focus on forensic analysis, such as DNA fingerprinting, solving the mystery of Anastasia Romanov, and using DNA to determine human origins, as well as using DNA to advance human health. Each module is subdivided into additional parts. These parts include videos of scientists, computer simulations, and tutorials. One tutorial covers The Innocence Project,a non-profit legal clinic that uses DNA evidence to help convicted criminals prove their innocence. In one simulation, visitors can match DNA samples between a convicted criminal and those collected from the scene of the crime. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Laboratory, Dolan D.



Fluid structure interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few nonflow field problems are considered, taking into account mainly fluid-shell dynamic interaction and fluid-solid impact. Fluid-shell systems are used as models for sloshing and POGO (structure-propulsion coupling oscillation) in liquid rockets, floating lids of oil tanks, large tanks containing fluid, nuclear containment vessels, and head injury studies in biomechanics. The study of structure-water impact finds applications in the problems associated with water landings of reentry vehicles, water entry of torpedoes, and slamming of ships in heavy seas. At least three different methods can be used in handling wet structures. Attention is given to the method which treats fluid by boundary elements and structure by finite elements.

Komatsu, K.


Interactive Ancient Mediterranean Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Ancient Mediterranean (IAM) Project is an online atlas of the ancient Mediterranean world designed to support the instruction of the classics, ancient history, archaeology, and related disciplines. Currently, IAM's Map Room has an index of over 50 maps of ten regions of the Mediterranean basin and northern Europe available for downloading and printing. Most maps are high-resolution .pdf files and the remainder are large, high-quality JPEG files. Users may also search the atlas by keyword, place name, cultural object, or ancient author. IAM is an ongoing joint effort of the American Philological Association's Classical Atlas Project and the departments of Classics and History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


Montana Maps Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Montana Maps Interactive is a new tool provided by the state's Natural Resource Information System (NRIS). The program shows a variety of geographic information layers for the state of Montana. Users can view cities, natural and political features, national parks and forests, and various types of land use, among other features. Maps can be zoomed in or out. The feature query allows users to locate features from a layer (e.g. streams or land use) by selecting the layer and then identifying the feature on the map or by letting the program find the feature given its name. The map is then redrawn with the selected feature highlighted in yellow and its attributes listed above the map.


Metal-dielectric interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a wide variety of situations wherein metals are in solid state contact with dielectric materials. The paper reviews some of the factors that influence solid state interactions for metals in contact with dielectric surfaces. Since surfaces play an important part in these reactions, the use of analytical tools in characterizing surfaces is discussed. Adhesion, friction, and wear are utilized as indicators of the nature of interfacial bonding between metals and dielectrics can be effectively determined with adhesion and friction force measurements. Films present on the surface, such as oxygen or water vapor, markedly alter adhesive bond strength which in turn affects friction force and interfacial fracture when attempts are made to separate the contact regions. Analytical surface tools such as the field ion microscope, Auger emission spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are very effective in providing insight into the effect of contact on the surfaces of metals and dielectrics.

Buckley, D. H.



Interactive reflection editing  

E-print Network

Effective digital content creation tools must be both efficient in the interactions they provide but also allow full user control. There may be occasions, when art direction requires changes that contradict physical laws. In particular, it is known that physical correctness of reflections for the human observer is hard to assess. For many centuries, traditional artists have exploited this fact to depict reflections that lie outside the realm of physical possibility. However, a system that gives explicit control of this effect to digital artists has not yet been described. This paper introduces a system that transforms physically correct reflections into art-directed reflections, as specified by reflection constraints. The system introduces a taxonomy of reflection editing operations, using an intuitive user interface, that works directly on the reflecting surfaces with real-time visual feedback using a GPU. A user study shows how such a system can allow users to quickly manipulate reflections according to an art direction task.

Tobias Ritschel; Makoto Okabe; Thorsten Thormählen; Hans-peter Seidel; Mpi Informatik



Causal electromagnetic interaction equations  

SciTech Connect

For the electromagnetic interaction of two particles the relativistic causal quantum mechanics equations are proposed. These equations are solved for the case when the second particle moves freely. The initial wave functions are supposed to be smooth and rapidly decreasing at the infinity. This condition is important for the convergence of the integrals similar to the integrals of quantum electrodynamics. We also consider the singular initial wave functions in the particular case when the second particle mass is equal to zero. The discrete energy spectrum of the first particle wave function is defined by the initial wave function of the free-moving second particle. Choosing the initial wave functions of the free-moving second particle it is possible to obtain a practically arbitrary discrete energy spectrum.

Zinoviev, Yury M. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Gubkin Street 8, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)



Gallery of Interactive Geometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Center for the Computation and Visualization of Geometric Structures, a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center at the University of Minnesota, the Gallery of Interactive Geometry offers users ten web-based applications that explore different aspects of geometry. "Build a Rainbow," for example, allows users to manipulate the light entering a prism to see the effects of changes in angle and wavelength, while "QuasiTiler" draws Penrose tilings and their generalizations. The user interface is as consistent as can be expected given the range of subjects covered; most applications present the user with a form, and return .gif files based on the parameters entered. Each application also offers background lessons on the concepts involved, as well as help with the application itself. The site is a good example of how powerful computing can be brought to the desktop through the web.


Interactive Dig: El Carrizal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in south-central Veracruz state, the El Carrizal site in Mexico is one of the latest archaeological excavation sites profiled on the Archaeology magazine website. Offered as part of their "Interactive Dig" series, this particular dig started in 2009, and the team leading the work here includes dedicated archaeologists from Mexico and other parts of Latin America, and a clutch of local high school students. The site includes updates in the "From the Field" area, an introductory section ("Beyond The Trenches"), and frequent posts on the progress of their work. One rather nice feature here is that almost all of the material is available in Spanish, as well as English. Visitors are encouraged to leave comments on the site, and there's also a search engine here on the left-hand side of the homepage.


Leukocyte-epithelial interactions.  


As a 'double-edged sword', neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte) migration across epithelial-lined organs is an important component of host defense, but it also results in epithelial pathophysiology and disease symptoms. There have been significant advances in better understanding the mechanisms of how leukocytes cross the vascular endothelium to exit the bloodstream; however, many of the mechanisms that govern polymorphonuclear leukocyte transepithelial migration are different and we are only just beginning to understand them. Recent findings include new junctional adhesion molecules and carbohydrate moieties as receptors for migrating neutrophils. In addition, new insights into leukocyte-epithelial signaling events have emerged that are beginning to shed light on the role of SIRP-CD47 interactions in regulating the rate of neutrophil transepithelial migration and how neutrophils modulate epithelial barrier function. PMID:14519390

Zen, Ke; Parkos, Charles A



Lincoln Memorial Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is hard not be moved by the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., and this engaging and interactive exhibit captures the essence of this moving tribute to the nation's 16th president. The site is divided into two areas, "Reflections" and "Memorial". In the "Reflections" area, visitors can listen and watch park rangers talk about their own memories and remembrances of this august and somber place. There are seven separate profiles here, and it's a good idea to start with Kawther Elmi's thoughts on her childhood in East Africa. The "Memorial" area includes dramatic and multi-perspective views of the Lincoln statue and the Memorial grounds. Visitors may also use the "Downloads" area to download audio files of the ranger's talks, along with images of the Memorial.


Interlayer interactions in graphites  

PubMed Central

Based on ab initio calculations of both the ABC- and AB-stacked graphites, interlayer potentials (i.e., graphene-graphene interaction) are obtained as a function of the interlayer spacing using a modified Möbius inversion method, and are used to calculate basic physical properties of graphite. Excellent consistency is observed between the calculated and experimental phonon dispersions of AB-stacked graphite, showing the validity of the interlayer potentials. More importantly, layer-related properties for nonideal structures (e.g., the exfoliation energy, cleave energy, stacking fault energy, surface energy, etc.) can be easily predicted from the interlayer potentials, which promise to be extremely efficient and helpful in studying van der Waals structures. PMID:24192753

Chen, Xiaobin; Tian, Fuyang; Persson, Clas; Duan, Wenhui; Chen, Nan-xian



Wave-vortex interaction.  


We present an experimental study of the effect of an electromagnetically generated vortex flow on parametrically amplified waves at the surface of a vertically vibrated fluid layer. The underlying vortex flow, generated by a periodic Lorentz force, creates spatiotemporal fluctuations that nonlinearly interact with the standing surface waves. We measure the power spectral density of the surface wave amplitude and we characterize the bifurcation diagram by recording the subharmonic response of the surface to the external vibration. We show that the parametric instability is delayed in the presence of spatiotemporal fluctuations due to the vortex flow. In addition, the dependence of the amplitude of the subharmonic response on the distance to the instability threshold is modified. This shows that the nonlinear saturation mechanism of the waves is modified by the vortex flow. PMID:20365066

Falcón, Claudio; Fauve, Stéphan



DNA interactive manipulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers three interactive modules that treat teachers to a direct look at scientists who worked to unlock the mysteries of genes and the technological advancements that aided their discoveries. The modules are arranged by topics that focus on how to manipulate genes, how enzymes are used in manipulation, and the possibilities inherent in recombinant DNA technology. Each module is subdivided into additional parts. These parts include images of scientists who contributed to the history of gene discoveries. By clicking on the images, teachers are taken to a new window to watch short videos by or about the scientists. Teachers can also click on links to computer simulations, such as a tutorial to see how yeast is used to make human insulin. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Laboratory, Dolan D.



Strongly interacting astrophysical neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin and chemical composition of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays is still an open question in astroparticle physics. The observed large-scale isotropy and also direct composition measurements can be interpreted as an extragalactic proton dominance above the ankle at about 1010 GeV. Photopion production of extragalactic protons in the cosmic microwave background predicts a cut-off at about 5×1010 GeV in conflict with excesses reported by some experiments. In this report we will outline a recent statistical analysis [M. Ahlers, A. Ringwald, H. Tu, Astropart. Phys. (in press). Preprint astro-ph/0506698] of cosmic ray data using strongly interacting neutrinos as primaries for these excesses.

Ahlers, Markus



Three dimensional interactive display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional (3-D) interactive display and method of forming the same, includes a transparent capaciflector (TC) camera formed on a transparent shield layer on the screen surface. A first dielectric layer is formed on the shield layer. A first wire layer is formed on the first dielectric layer. A second dielectric layer is formed on the first wire layer. A second wire layer is formed on the second dielectric layer. Wires on the first wire layer and second wire layer are grouped into groups of parallel wires with a turnaround at one end of each group and a sensor pad at the opposite end. An operational amplifier is connected to each of the sensor pads and the shield pad biases the pads and receives a signal from connected sensor pads in response to intrusion of a probe. The signal is proportional to probe location with respect to the monitor screen.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)



Water-protein interactions  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of macromolecules with solvent water is an important determinant of their properties, but this relationship has not yet been described satisfactorily. The following experiments focus on the process of protein hydration - the addition of water to dry protein to obtain the solution state. A detailed description of the sequence of hydration events is expected to produce a fuller understanding of the protein in dilute solution. This approach is analogous to the use of studies of protein unfolding for understanding the folded state. Heat capacity measurements (1) are of particular interest. These can be carried out over the full range of system composition, from dry protein to the dilute solution, and they serve to correlate information obtained by other techniques that can be applied only to solution or solid state but not both. The dependence of the heat capacity on water activity defines stages in the hydration process and suggests the following simple picture of it: water at the lowest activity, 0-0.07 h (g of water/g of protein), bound principally to ionizable groups; in the mid-range of water activity, 0.07 to 0.25 h, surface clusters form, probably centered on polar surface elements; these clusters are mobile, with heat capacity greater than bulk water, and grow with increased water activity until after the polar sites are saturated at 0.25 h. There is a condensation of water over the most weakly interacting portions of the surface, resulting in completion of a water monolayer containing approx. 300 molecules. From this hydration level, 0.38 h, to the dilute solution there are no changes in thermal properties of the protein.

Rupley, J.A.; Yang, P.H.; Tollin, G.



Drug interactions with alcohol.  


Ethanol and drugs can affect each other's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. When ingested together, ethanol can increase drug absorption by enhancing the gastric solubility of drugs and by increasing gastrointestinal blood flow. However, high concentrations of ethanol induce gastric irritation causing a pyloric spasm which in turn may delay drug absorption and/or reduce bioavailability. The 'quality' of the alcoholic beverage, independent of its ethanol content, can contribute to altered absorption of a drug. Ethanol is not bound to plasma proteins extensively enough to modify drug distribution. However, serum albumin levels in chronic alcoholics may be abnormally low so that some drugs, e.g. diazepam, have an increased volume of distribution. In addition to the amount ingested, the duration of regular intake determines the effect of ethanol on drug metabolism. Acute intake of ethanol inhibits the metabolism of many drugs but long term intake of ethanol at a high level (greater than 200g of pure ethanol per day) can induce liver enzymes to metabolise drugs more efficiently. At the present time there are no accurate means, with the possible exception of liver biopsy, to clinically predict the capacity of an alcoholic to metabolise drugs. Several drugs can inhibit the metabolism of ethanol at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase. Individual predisposition determines the severity of this drug-ethanol interaction. During its absorption phase, ethanol inhibits the secretion of antidiuretic hormone and is also able to induce increased excretion of a drug through the kidneys. However, chronic alcoholics with water retention may show reduced excretion of drugs via this route. At the pharmacodynamic level, ethanol can enhance the deleterious effects of sedatives, certain anxiolytics, sedative antidepressants and antipsychotics and anticholinergic agents, on performance. Mechanisms of lethal interactions between moderate overdoses of ethanol and anxiolytics/opiates/sedatives are poorly understood. On the other hand, certain peptides, 'nonspecific' stimulants, dopaminergic agents and opiate antagonists can antagonise alcohol-induced inebriation to a significant degree. PMID:387374

Linnoila, M; Mattila, M J; Kitchell, B S



Mother – infant group psychotherapy as an intensive treatment in early interaction among mothers with substance abuse problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we present a novel method of outpatient care: brief, dynamic mother – infant group psychotherapy with mothers who have substance use problems. In this therapy, substance abuse treatment is part of mental health and parenting interventions. The focus is on preventing disturbance in the mother – infant relationship in this high-risk group. The clinical material is taken from 16 mother – infant dyads

Ritva Belt; Raija-Leena Punamäki



Threshold facilitations of interacting species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of species interactions are of central importance for the understanding of ecological coexistence, community\\u000a structure and the effects of biological invasions. Using bark beetles that colonize the same habitat as an example, we explore\\u000a species interactions in a resource-based model system with positive feedback between insect abundance and resource availability.\\u000a The net interspecies interaction was found to be

Bjørn Økland; Olav Skarpaas; Kyrre Kausrud



Scale Interactions and Galaxy Evolution  

E-print Network

To understand galaxies and their evolution, it is necessary to describe how the different scales interact: how the microscopic physics, such as star formation, or the large scale physics, such as galaxy interactions may modify the galaxy global shapes. The purpose of this review is to point out some general or recent topics related to such scale interactions, both observational and theoretical, which are relevant in the present understanding of galaxies.

Daniel Pfenniger



Tax evasion and social interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper extends the standard tax evasion model by allowing for social interactions. In Manski's [Manski, C.F. (1993). Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: The Reflection Problem. Review of Economic Studies 60(3), 531–542.] nomenclature, our model takes into account endogenous interactions, i.e., social conformity effects, exogenous interactions, i.e., fairness effects, and correlated effects. Our model is tested using experimental data. Participants

Bernard Fortin; Guy Lacroix; Marie-Claire Villeval



Arc electrode interaction study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project consisted of two parts: (1) the cathode interaction studies which were a continuation of previous work and had the objective of increasing our understanding of the microscopic phenomena controlling cathode erosion in arc jet thrusters, and (2) the studies of the anode attachment in arc jet thrusters. The cathode interaction studies consisted of (1) a continuation of some modeling work in which the previously derived model for the cathode heating was applied to some specific gases and electrode materials, and (2) experimental work in which various diagnostics was applied to the cathode. The specific diagnostics used were observation of the cathode tip during arcing using a Laser Strobe Video system in conjunction with a tele-microscope, a monochromator with an optical multichannel analyzer for the determination of the cathode temperature distribution, and various ex situ materials analysis methods. The emphasis of our effort was shifted to the cathode materials analysis because a parallel project was in place during the second half of 1993 with a visiting scientist pursuing arc electrode materials studies. As a consequence, the diagnostic investigations of the arc in front of the cathode had to be postponed to the first half of 1994, and we are presently preparing these measurements. The results of last year's study showed some unexpected effects influencing the cathode erosion behavior, such as increased erosion away from the cathode tip, and our understanding of these effects should improve our ability to control cathode erosion. The arc jet anode attachment studies concentrated on diagnostics of the instabilities in subsonic anode attachment arc jet thrusters, and were supplemental measurements to work which was performed by one of the authors who spent the summer as an intern at NASA Lewis Research Center. A summary of the results obtained during the internship are included because they formed an integral part of the study. Two tasks for 1994, the diagnostics of the anode closure phenomenon, and the use of arc jet thrusters for the deposition of c-BN, are being prepared.

Zhou, X.; Berns, D.; Heberlein, J.



Self-interacting dark matter  

SciTech Connect

The particle physics nature of dark matter (DM) can leave an imprint on the structure of Universe. If DM has a sizable cross section for self-interactions (much larger than the typical weak scale cross section), this can affect the density profiles of DM halos. Moreover, there exist long-standing discrepancies on small scales between astrophysical observations and predictions from N-body simulations of collisionless DM, which suggests that DM may be self-interacting. Here, we review these discrepancies, we discuss the particle physics implications of self-interacting DM, and we show that DM self-interactions have interesting implications for direct and indirect detection searches.

Tulin, Sean [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)



Interactive TV on parliament session  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new interactive mobile TV application related to parliament session. This application aims to provide additional information to mobile TV users by inserting automatically and in real-time interactive contents (complementary information, subject of the current session...) into original TV program, using MPEG-4 streaming video and extra real time information (news, events, databases... from RSS streams, Internet links...). Here, we propose an architecture based on plug-in multimedia analyzers to generate the contextual description of the media and on an interactive scene generator to dynamically create related interactive scenes. Description is implemented according to the MPEG-7 standard.

Royer, J.; Nguyen, H.; Martinot, O.; Preda, M.; Preteux, F.; Zaharia, T.



The Ontogenesis of Telephone Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study of the acquisition of telephone skills among five preschool children analyzed play telephone interactions and real telephone conversations for similarities and changes in performance. (MSE)

Mininni, Giuseppe



Plasma interactions with large spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space is playing a rapidly expanding role in the conduct of the Air Force mission. Larger, more complex, high-power space platforms are planned and military astronauts will provide a new capability in spacecraft servicing. Interactions of operational satellites with the environment have been shown to degrade space sensors and electronics and to constrain systems operations. The environmental interaction effects grow nonlinearly with increasing size and power. Quantification of the interactions and development of mitigation techniques for systems-limiting interactions is essential to the success of future Air Force space operations.

Sagalyn, Rita C.; Maynard, Nelson C.



Theoretical studies of molecular interactions  

SciTech Connect

This research program is directed at extending fundamental knowledge of atoms and molecules including their electronic structure, mutual interaction, collision dynamics, and interaction with radiation. The approach combines the use of ab initio methods--Hartree-Fock (HF) multiconfiguration HF, configuration interaction, and the recently developed quantum Monte Carlo (MC)--to describe electronic structure, intermolecular interactions, and other properties, with various methods of characterizing inelastic and reaction collision processes, and photodissociation dynamics. Present activity is focused on the development and application of the QMC method, surface catalyzed reactions, and reorientation cross sections.

Lester, W.A. Jr. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)



Aesthetic interaction: a pragmatist's aesthetics of interactive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in considering aesthetic aspects in the design of interactive systems. A set of approaches are emerging each representing different applications of the terminology as well as different inherent assumptions on the role of the user, designer and interaction ideals. In this paper, we use the concept of Pragmatist Aesthetics to provide a framework for distinguishing

Marianne Graves Petersen; Ole Sejer Iversen; Peter Gall Krogh; Martin Ludvigsen



Hydrogen interactions with metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the literature on the nature and extent of hydrogen interactions with metals and the role of hydrogen in metal failure. The classification of hydrogen-containing systems is discussed, including such categories as covalent hydrides, volatile hydrides, polymeric hydrides, and transition metal hydride complexes. The use of electronegativity as a correlating parameter in determining hydride type is evaluated. A detailed study is made of the thermodynamics of metal-hydrogen systems, touching upon such aspects as hydrogen solubility, the positions occupied by hydrogen atoms within the solvent metal lattice, the derivation of thermodynamic functions of solid solutions from solubility data, and the construction of statistical models for hydrogen-metal solutions. A number of theories of hydrogen-metal bonding are reviewed, including the rigid-band model, the screened-proton model, and an approach employing the augmented plane wave method to solve the one-electron energy band problem. Finally, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is investigated on the basis of literature data concerning stress effects and the kinetics of hydrogen transport to critical sites.

Mclellan, R. B.; Harkins, C. G.



Influenza-Sediment Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical water fowl can secrete 1012 influenza virions per day. Therefore it is not unexpected that influenza virions interact with sediments in the water column. The influence of sediments on avian influenza virions is not known. With the threat of avian influenza emerging into the human population, it is crucial to understand virus survivability and residence time in a body of water. Influenza and clay sediments are colloidal particles and thus aggregate as explained by DLVO (Derjaguin & Landau, Verwey & Overbeek) theory. Of great importance is an understanding of the types of particulate or macromolecular components that bind the virus particles, and whether the virus remains biologically active. We present results of hetero-aggregation and transmission electron microscopy experiments performed with influenza A/PR8/38. Influenza particles are suspended with sediment and minimal nutrients for several days, after which the components are evaluated to determine influenza concentration and survivability. Transmission electron microscopy results are reported on the influenza-sediment aggregates to elucidate structure and morphology of the components.

Trusiak, A.; Block, K. A.; Katz, A.; Gottlieb, P.; Alimova, A.; Galarza, J.; Wei, H.; Steiner, J. C.



Educational interactive multimedia software: The impact of interactivity on learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation discusses the design, development, deployment and testing of two versions of educational interactive multimedia software. Both versions of the software are focused on teaching mechanical engineering undergraduates about the fundamentals of direct-current (DC) motor physics and selection. The two versions of Motor Workshop software cover the same basic materials on motors, but differ in the level of interactivity between the students and the software. Here, the level of interactivity refers to the particular role of the computer in the interaction between the user and the software. In one version, the students navigate through information that is organized by topic, reading text, and viewing embedded video clips; this is referred to as "low-level interactivity" software because the computer simply presents the content. In the other version, the students are given a task to accomplish---they must design a small motor-driven 'virtual' vehicle that competes against computer-generated opponents. The interaction is guided by the software which offers advice from 'experts' and provides contextual information; we refer to this as "high-level interactivity" software because the computer is actively participating in the interaction. The software was used in two sets of experiments, where students using the low-level interactivity software served as the 'control group,' and students using the highly interactive software were the 'treatment group.' Data, including pre- and post-performance tests, questionnaire responses, learning style characterizations, activity tracking logs and videotapes were collected for analysis. Statistical and observational research methods were applied to the various data to test the hypothesis that the level of interactivity effects the learning situation, with higher levels of interactivity being more effective for learning. The results show that both the low-level and high-level interactive versions of the software were effective in promoting learning about the subject of motors. The focus of learning varied between users of the two versions, however. The low-level version was more effective for teaching concepts and terminology, while the high-level version seemed to be more effective for teaching engineering applications.

Reamon, Derek Trent



NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed to provide a user friendly environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control systems. INCA is designed for use with both small and large order systems. Using the interactive graphics capability, the INCA user can quickly plot a root locus, frequency response, or time response of either a continuous time system or a sampled data system. The system configuration and parameters can be easily changed, allowing the INCA user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in a very convenient manner. A journal file capability is included. This stores an entire sequence of commands, generated during an INCA session into a file which can be accessed later. Also included in INCA are a context-sensitive help library, a screen editor, and plot windows. INCA is robust to VAX-specific overflow problems. The transfer function is the basic unit of INCA. Transfer functions are automatically saved and are available to the INCA user at any time. A powerful, user friendly transfer function manipulation and editing capability is built into the INCA program. The user can do all transfer function manipulations and plotting without leaving INCA, although provisions are made to input transfer functions from data files. By using a small set of commands, the user may compute and edit transfer functions, and then examine these functions by using the ROOT_LOCUS, FREQUENCY_RESPONSE, and TIME_RESPONSE capabilities. Basic input data, including gains, are handled as single-input single-output transfer functions. These functions can be developed using the function editor or by using FORTRAN- like arithmetic expressions. In addition to the arithmetic functions, special functions are available to 1) compute step, ramp, and sinusoid functions, 2) compute closed loop transfer functions, 3) convert from S plane to Z plane with optional advanced Z transform, and 4) convert from Z plane to W plane and back. These capabilities allow the INCA user to perform block diagram algebraic manipulations quickly for functions in the S, Z, and W domains. Additionally, a versatile digital control capability has been included in INCA. Special plane transformations allow the user to easily convert functions from one domain to another. Other digital control capabilities include: 1) totally independent open loop frequency response analyses on a continuous plant, discrete control system with a delay, 2) advanced Z-transform capability for systems with delays, and 3) multirate sampling analyses. The current version of INCA includes Dynamic Functions (which change when a parameter changes), standard filter generation, PD and PID controller generation, incorporation of the QZ-algorithm (function addition, inverse Laplace), and describing functions that allow the user to calculate the gain and phase characteristics of a nonlinear device. The INCA graphic modes provide the user with a convenient means to document and study frequency response, time response, and root locus analyses. General graphics features include: 1) zooming and dezooming, 2) plot documentation, 3) a table of analytic computation results, 4) multiple curves on the same plot, and 5) displaying frequency and gain information for a specific point on a curve. Additional capabilities in the frequency response mode include: 1) a full complement of graphical methods Bode magnitude, Bode phase, Bode combined magnitude and phase, Bode strip plots, root contour plots, Nyquist, Nichols, and Popov plots; 2) user selected plot scaling; and 3) gain and phase margin calculation and display. In the time response mode, additional capabilities include: 1) support for inverse Laplace and inverse Z transforms, 2) support for various input functions, 3) closed loop response evaluation, 4) loop gain sensitivity analyses, 5) intersample time response for discrete systems using the advanced Z transform, and 6) closed loop time response using mixed plane (S, Z, W) operations with delay. A Graphics mode command was a

Bauer, F. H.




PubMed Central

In a medium of high ionic strength, rat liver rough microsomes can be nondestructively disassembled into ribosomes and stripped membranes if nascent polypeptides are discharged from the bound ribosomes by reaction with puromycin. At 750 mM KCl, 5 mM MgCl2, 50 mM Tris·HCl, pH 7 5, up to 85% of all bound ribosomes are released from the membranes after incubation at room temperature with 1 mM puromycin. The ribosomes are released as subunits which are active in peptide synthesis if programmed with polyuridylic acid. The ribosome-denuded, or stripped, rough microsomes (RM) can be recovered as intact, essentially unaltered membranous vesicles Judging from the incorporation of [3H]puromycin into hot acid-insoluble material and from the release of [3H]leucine-labeled nascent polypeptide chains from bound ribosomes, puromycin coupling occurs almost as well at low (25–100 mM) as at high (500–1000 mM) KCl concentrations. Since puromycin-dependent ribosome release only occurs at high ionic strength, it appears that ribosomes are bound to membranes via two types of interactions: a direct one between the membrane and the large ribosomal subunit (labile at high KCl concentration) and an indirect one in which the nascent chain anchors the ribosome to the membrane (puromycin labile). The nascent chains of ribosomes specifically released by puromycin remain tightly associated with the stripped membranes. Some membrane-bound ribosomes (up to 40%) can be nondestructively released in high ionic strength media without puromycin; these appear to consist of a mixture of inactive ribosomes and ribosomes containing relatively short nascent chains. A fraction (?15%) of the bound ribosomes can only be released from membranes by exposure of RM to ionic conditions which cause extensive unfolding of ribosomal subunits, the nature and significance of these ribosomes is not clear. PMID:4682341

Adelman, M. R.; Sabatini, David D.; Blobel, Günter



OddJPairing Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider in the g9/2 shell an interaction which acts only when a neutron and proton act in a state with J=Jmax=2j =9. We uses the abbreviated notation for a unitary 9j-symbol U(Jx Jp Jn J)= <(jj)9 (jj)Jx | (jj)Jp (jj)Jn >J . The Pauli principle demands that J p and Jn are both even. The matrix element of the hamiltonian is E(9) * SJx U(Jx, Jp Jn J) U(Jx Jp Jn J). For J=0 and 1 the Hamiltonian is a single separable term and the lowest eigenfunctions are the components of unitary 9j symbols, 2 U(9 Jp Jn 0) for J=0 and 2 U(8 Jp Jn 1) for J=1. These states have isospin T=0 . For J=2 and higher the Hamiltonian is no longer separable but there still some simple states. For J=2 there is a T=1 state 2U(8 Jp Jn 2 ) and for J=3 T=0 , 2U (7 Jp Jn 3) . For all these Jx serves as a good quantum number. The 2 lowest J=2 T=0 states are admixtures of 2 U(9 Jp Jn 2) and 2 U(7 Jp Jn 2) but the coupling is so weak that these are almost separate eigenstates with quantum numbers Jx=9 and Jx=7 respectively. The coupling matrix element is -1/2 U (9 9 7 2)= 0.00009113. The normalizations of the 2 admixed states are respectively such that N-2 =1/2- U(9 9 9 2) = 0.499993950935 and 1/4- 1/2 U(7 9 7 2)= 0.250376267385.

Zamick, Larry; Escuderos, Alberrto



Interactive Video Cubism Sidney Fels  

E-print Network

Interactive Video Cubism Sidney Fels Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering ABSTRACT This paper presents an interactive video visualization system. In this visualization video data is considered to be a block of three dimensional data where frames of video data comprise the third dimension

Fels, Sidney S.


Spectroscopy Interaction of electromagnetic radiation  

E-print Network

Spectroscopy 691 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms or molecules #12;Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump 486 #12;Electromagnetic Radiation 692 harmonic wave (Maxwell): y;Spectroscopy 691 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms or molecules two processes: emission

Gerwert, Klaus


Interactive Machine Learning Mustafa Bilgic  

E-print Network

Interactive Machine Learning Mustafa Bilgic "Who We Are" Seminars IIT 9/24/2013 #12;Bio Bachelor Komurlu 2 #12;Research Interests Machine learning Interactive machine learning Statistical relational Diagnosis Recommender Systems Search Engines 4 #12;How Does a Machine Learn? There are many approaches

Heller, Barbara


Hard scattering in ?p interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the investigation of the final state in interactions of quasi-real photons with protons. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. Evidence for hard interactions is seen in both single particle spectra and jet formation. The data can best be described by inclusion of resolved photon processess as predicted by QCD.

Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Arpagaus, M.; Babayev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Ban, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Berthon, U.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besancon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, C.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; DelBuono, L.; Devel, M.; DeRoeck, A.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Feng, Y.; Fensome, I. F.; Ference, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Gensch, U.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Gillespie, D.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Goldberg, M.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Handschuh, D.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Hartz, P.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Hedgecock, R.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladky, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kasarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurca, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Lenhardt, U.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levin, D.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindström, G.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Morton, J. M.; Müller, K.; Murin, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newton, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prosi, R.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Ryseck, E.; Sacton, J.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Seman, M.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Smolik, L.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steiner, H.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, R. J.; Tichomirov, I.; Trenkel, C.; Truöl, P.; Tchernyshov, V.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; VanEsch, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vasdik, J.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Vick, R.; Villet, G.; Vogel, E.; Wacker, K.; Walker, I. W.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.



Determining Literariness in Interactive Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions whether the world presented in interactive fiction is a "literary one." Defines "literariness" as quality of "making strange" that which is linguistically familiar. Randall presents study of: "Mindwheel,""Brimstone,""Breakers,""A Mind Forever Voyaging,""Portal," and "Trinity." Suggests that the literariness of interactive fiction comes…

Randall, Neil



Sensing techniques for mobile interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe sensing techniques motivated by unique aspects of human-computer interaction with handheld devices in mobile settings. Special features of mobile interaction include changing orientation and position, changing venues, the use of computing as auxiliary to ongoing, real-world activities like talking to a colleague, and the general intimacy of use for such devices. We introduce and integrate a set of

Ken Hinckley; Jeffrey S. Pierce; Mike Sinclair; Eric Horvitz



A JOINT PROGRAM OF Interactive  

E-print Network

TECHNOLOGY #12;Specialist areas in the multimedia sectors are growing rapidly in North America, Asia, imagination, fun and technology. The Interactive Multimedia and Design (IMD) program providesA JOINT PROGRAM OF Interactive Multimedia and Design BACHELOR OF INFORMATION

Dawson, Jeff W.


On spin 2 electromagnetic interactions  

E-print Network

In this paper we (re)consider the problem of electromagnetic interactions for massless spin 2 particles and show that in $(A)dS$ spaces with non-zero cosmological constant it is indeed possible (at least in linear approximation) to switch on minimal electromagnetic interactions supplemented by third derivative non-minimal ones which are necessary to restore gauge invariance.

Yu. M. Zinoviev



Genesis Cleanroom Interactive Field Trip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive field trip features interviews with scientists and technicians who work in the Genesis cleanroom at NASA Johnson Space Center. The field trip includes an interactive diagram of the laboratory with photos of various areas. Video shows scientists donning cleanroom clothing, washing samples, and assembling sampling wafers onto the array frame of the Genesis probe.


Human-Computer Interaction Design  

E-print Network

1 Human-Computer Interaction Design Master of Science Program Handbook School of Informatics This handbook details the Master of Science (MS) program in Human-Computer Interaction Design (HCI & Computing Indiana University, Bloomington IN USA 2011/2012 | Version 0.3 #12;2 3 Top right: Jennifer

Indiana University


Interchannel interaction of optical solitons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study interaction between two solitons from different frequency channels propagating in an optical fiber. The interaction may be viewed as an inelastic collision, in which energy is lost to continuous radiation due to small but finite third order dispersion. We develop a perturbation theory with two small parameters: the third order dispersion coefficient d3, and the reciprocal of the

Avner Peleg; Misha Chertkov; Ildar Gabitov



Whole-proteome interaction mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Am ajor post-genomic scientific and techno- logical pursuit is to describe the functions performed by the proteins encoded by the genome. One strategy is to first identify the protein-protein interactions in a proteome, then determine pathways and overall structure relating these interactions, and finally to statistically infer functional roles of individual proteins. Although huge amounts of genomic data are

Joel R. Bock; David A. Gough



Sexual Interaction in Nonclinical Couples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the sexual functioning and interaction of 58 nonclinical heterosexual couples as measured by the Sexual Interaction System Scale (SISS). On all five SISS factors, the nonclinical sample scored significantly better than persons in therapy for sexual dysfunction; they also reported satisfactory relationship adjustment and high levels of…

Woody, Jane D.; D'Souza, Henry J.



Hadronic interactions and nuclear physics  

E-print Network

I give an overview of efforts in the last year to calculate interactions among hadrons using lattice QCD. Results discussed include the extraction of low-energy phase shifts and three-body interactions, and the study of pion and kaon condensation. A critical appraisal is offered of recent attempts to calculate nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-hyperon potentials on the lattice.

Silas R. Beane



Quark interactions and colour chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between quarks, according to the current theory of quantum chromo-dynamics, is formally rather similar to the electromagnetic interaction between electrons and nucleons, both being governed by locally gauge-invariant field theories. It is tempting therefore to discuss the spectroscopy of hadrons, which are quark composites bound by colour forces, in the same language as the spectroscopy of atoms and

Chan Hong-Mo



Results-Based Interaction Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interaction design is a user-centered approach to development in which users and their goals are the driving force behind a project's design. Interaction design principles are fundamental to the design and implementation of effective websites, but they are not sufficient. This article argues that, to reach its full potential, a website should also…

Weiss, Meredith




E-print Network

CONDUCTANCE OF NANOSYSTEMS WITH INTERACTION A. Ramsak1,2 and T. Rejec1 1Jozef Stefan Abstract The zero-temperature linear response conductance through an interacting meso- scopic region attached to noninteracting leads is investigated. We present a set of formulas expressing the conductance

Ramsak, Anton


Evaluating Human-Robot Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of interacting with a robot has been shown to be very different in comparison to people’s interaction experience with other technologies and artifacts, and often has a strong social or emotional component—a difference that poses potential challenges related to the design and evaluation of HRI. In this paper we explore this difference, and its implications on evaluating HRI.

James Everett Young; Ja-Young Sung; Amy Voida; Ehud Sharlin; Takeo Igarashi; Henrik I. Christensen; Rebecca E. Grinter



Distinguishing Ordinal and Disordinal Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Re-parameterized regression models may enable tests of crucial theoretical predictions involving interactive effects of predictors that cannot be tested directly using standard approaches. First, we present a re-parameterized regression model for the Linear x Linear interaction of 2 quantitative predictors that yields point and interval estimates…

Widaman, Keith F.; Helm, Jonathan L.; Castro-Schilo, Laura; Pluess, Michael; Stallings, Michael C.; Belsky, Jay



Noncovalent interaction of carbon nanostructures.  


The potential application of carbon nanomaterials in biology and medicine increases the necessity to understand the nature of their interactions with living organisms and the environment. The primary forces of interaction at the nano-bio interface are mostly noncovalent in nature. Quantifying such interactions and identifying various factors that influence such interactions is a question of outstanding fundamental interest in academia and industry. In this Account, we have summarized our recent studies in understanding the noncovalent interactions of carbon nanostructures (CNSs), which were obtained by employing first-principles calculations on various model systems representing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene. Bestowed with an extended sp(2) carbon network, which is a common feature in all of these nanostructures, they exhibit ?-? interactions with aromatic molecules (benzene, naphthalene, nucleobases, amino acids), cation-? type of interactions