Science.gov

Sample records for c-terminal er membrane

  1. Characterization of the C-terminal ER membrane anchor of PTP1B

    SciTech Connect

    Anderie, Ines Schulz, Irene; Schmid, Andreas

    2007-09-10

    The tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is an important regulator of cell function. In living cells PTP1B activity is restricted to the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by post-translational C-terminal attachment of PTP1B to the ER membrane network. In our study we investigated the membrane anchor of PTP1B by use of EGFP fusion proteins. We demonstrate that the membrane anchor of PTP1B cannot be narrowed down to a unique amino acid sequence with a defined start and stop point but rather is moveable within several amino acids. Removal of up to seven amino acids from the C-terminus, as well as exchange of single amino acids in the putative transmembrane sequence did not influence subcellular localization of PTP1B. With the method of bimolecular fluorescence complementation we could demonstrate dimerization of PTP1B in vivo. Homodimerization was, in contrast to other tail-anchored proteins, not dependent on the membrane anchor. Our data demonstrate that the C-terminal membrane anchor of PTP1B is formed by a combination of a single stretch transmembrane domain (TMD) followed by a tail. TMD and tail length are variable and there are no sequence-specific features. Our data for PTP1B are consistent with a concept that explains the ER membrane anchor of tail-anchored proteins as a physicochemical structure.

  2. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S.

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  3. A C-terminal Membrane Anchor Affects the Interactions of Prion Proteins with Lipid Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Nam K.; Shabbir, Waheed; Bove-Fenderson, Erin; Araman, Can; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Harris, David A.; Becker, Christian F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane attachment via a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor is critical for conversion of PrPC into pathogenic PrPSc. Therefore the effects of the anchor on PrP structure and function need to be deciphered. Three PrP variants, including full-length PrP (residues 23–231, FL_PrP), N-terminally truncated PrP (residues 90–231, T_PrP), and PrP missing its central hydrophobic region (Δ105–125, ΔCR_PrP), were equipped with a C-terminal membrane anchor via a semisynthesis strategy. Analyses of the interactions of lipidated PrPs with phospholipid membranes demonstrated that C-terminal membrane attachment induces a different binding mode of PrP to membranes, distinct from that of non-lipidated PrPs, and influences the biochemical and conformational properties of PrPs. Additionally, fluorescence-based assays indicated pore formation by lipidated ΔCR_PrP, a variant that is known to be highly neurotoxic in transgenic mice. This finding was supported by using patch clamp electrophysiological measurements of cultured cells. These results provide new evidence for the role of the membrane anchor in PrP-lipid interactions, highlighting the importance of the N-terminal and the central hydrophobic domain in these interactions. PMID:25217642

  4. Analysis of the C-Terminal Membrane Anchor Domains of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoproteins E1 and E2: toward a Topological Model

    PubMed Central

    Charloteaux, Benoit; Lins, Laurence; Moereels, Henri; Brasseur, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins E1 and E2 should be anchored in the viral membrane by their C-terminal domains. During synthesis, they are translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen where they remain. The 31 C-terminal residues of the E1 protein and the 29 C-terminal residues of the E2 protein are implicated in the ER retention. Moreover, the E1 and E2 C termini are implicated in E1-E2 heterodimerization. We studied the E1 and E2 C-terminal sequences of 25 HCV strains in silico using molecular modeling techniques. We conclude that both C-terminal domains should adopt a similar and peculiar configuration: one amphipathic α-helix followed by a pair of transmembrane β-strands. Several three-dimensional (3-D) models were generated. After energy minimization, their ability to interact with membranes was studied using the molecular hydrophobicity potentials calculation and the IMPALA procedure. The latter simulates interactions with a membrane by a Monte Carlo minimization of energy. These methods suggest that the β-hairpins could anchor the glycoproteins in the ER membrane at least transiently. Anchoring could be stabilized by the adsorption of the nearby amphipathic α-helices at the membrane surface. The 3-D models correlate with experimental results which indicate that the E1-E2 transmembrane domains are involved in the heterodimerization and have ER retention properties. PMID:11799189

  5. Membrane fusion by the GTPase atlastin requires a conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic tail and dimerization through the middle domain

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Tyler J.; Andreazza, Camilla; Verma, Avani; Daga, Andrea; McNew, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The biogenesis and maintenance of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires membrane fusion. ER homotypic fusion is driven by the large GTPase atlastin. Domain analysis of atlastin shows that a conserved region of the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail is absolutely required for fusion activity. Atlastin in adjacent membranes must associate to bring the ER membranes into molecular contact. Drosophila atlastin dimerizes in the presence of GTPγS but is monomeric with GDP or without nucleotide. Oligomerization requires the juxtamembrane middle domain three-helix bundle, as does efficient GTPase activity. A soluble version of the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain that contains the GTPase domain and the middle domain three-helix bundle serves as a potent, concentration-dependent inhibitor of membrane fusion both in vitro and in vivo. However, atlastin domains lacking the middle domain are without effect. GTP-dependent dimerization of atlastin generates an enzymatically active protein that drives membrane fusion after nucleotide hydrolysis and conformational reorganization. PMID:21690399

  6. Membrane curvature sensing by the C-terminal domain of complexin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, David; Wragg, Rachel T.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Eliezer, David

    2014-09-01

    Complexin functions at presynaptic nerve terminals to inhibit spontaneous SNARE-mediated synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis, while enhancing stimulated neurotransmitter release. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of complexin is essential for its inhibitory function and has been implicated in localizing complexin to SVs via direct membrane interactions. Here we show that complexin’s CTD is highly sensitive to membrane curvature, which it senses via tandem motifs, a C-terminal motif containing a mix of bulky hydrophobic and positively charged residues, and an adjacent amphipathic region that can bind membranes in either a disordered or a helical conformation. Helix formation requires membrane packing defects found on highly curved membrane surfaces. Mutations that disrupt helix formation without disrupting membrane binding compromise complexin’s inhibitory function in vivo. Thus, this membrane curvature-dependent conformational transition, combined with curvature-sensitive binding by the adjacent C-terminal motif, constitute a novel mechanism for activating complexin’s inhibitory function on the surface of SVs.

  7. Role of the Cationic C-Terminal Segment of Melittin on Membrane Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Alexandre; Fournier, Alain; Lafleur, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The widespread distribution of cationic antimicrobial peptides capable of membrane fragmentation in nature underlines their importance to living organisms. In the present work, we determined the impact of the electrostatic interactions associated with the cationic C-terminal segment of melittin, a 26-amino acid peptide from bee venom (net charge +6), on its binding to model membranes and on the resulting fragmentation. In order to detail the role played by the C-terminal charges, we prepared a melittin analogue for which the four cationic amino acids in positions 21-24 were substituted with the polar residue citrulline, providing a peptide with the same length and amphiphilicity but with a lower net charge (+2). We compared the peptide bilayer affinity and the membrane fragmentation for bilayers prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DPPS) mixtures. It is shown that neutralization of the C-terminal considerably increased melittin affinity for zwitterionic membranes. The unfavorable contribution associated with transferring the cationic C-terminal in a less polar environment was reduced, leaving the hydrophobic interactions, which drive the peptide insertion in bilayers, with limited counterbalancing interactions. The presence of negatively charged lipids (DPPS) in bilayers increased melittin binding by introducing attractive electrostatic interactions, the augmentation being, as expected, greater for native melittin than for its citrullinated analogue. The membrane fragmentation power of the peptide was shown to be controlled by electrostatic interactions and could be modulated by the charge carried by both the membrane and the lytic peptide. The analysis of the lipid composition of the extracted fragments from DPPC/DPPS bilayers revealed no lipid specificity. It is proposed that extended phase separations are more susceptible to lead to the extraction of a lipid species in a specific manner

  8. Groundnut Bud Necrosis Virus Encoded NSm Associates with Membranes via Its C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pratibha; Indi, Shantinath S.; Savithri, Handanahal S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundnut Bud Necrosis Virus (GBNV) is a tripartite ambisense RNA plant virus that belongs to serogroup IV of Tospovirus genus. Non-Structural protein-m (NSm), which functions as movement protein in tospoviruses, is encoded by the M RNA. In this communication, we demonstrate that despite the absence of any putative transmembrane domain, GBNV NSm associates with membranes when expressed in E. coli as well as in N. benthamiana. Incubation of refolded NSm with liposomes ranging in size from 200–250 nm resulted in changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of NSm. A similar behaviour was observed in the presence of anionic and zwitterionic detergents. Furthermore, the morphology of the liposomes was found to be modified in the presence of NSm. Deletion of coiled coil domain resulted in the inability of in planta expressed NSm to interact with membranes. Further, when the C-terminal coiled coil domain alone was expressed, it was found to be associated with membrane. These results demonstrate that NSm associates with membranes via the C-terminal coiled coil domain and such an association may be important for movement of viral RNA from cell to cell. PMID:24919116

  9. PrP106-126 peptide disrupts lipid membranes: Influence of C-terminal amidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Wenfu; Wang Lijun; Hong Yuankai; Sha Yinlin

    2009-02-06

    PrP106-126 is located within the important domain concerning membrane related conformational conversion of human Prion protein (from cellular isoform PrP{sup C} to scrapie isoform PrP{sup Sc}). Recent advances reveal that the pathological and physicochemical properties of PrP106-126 peptide are very sensitive to its N-terminal amidation, however, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we studied the interactions of the PrP106-126 isoforms (PrP106-126{sub CONH2} and PrP106-126{sub COOH}) with the neutral lipid bilayers by atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy. The membrane structures were disturbed by the two isoforms in a similarly stepwise process. The distinct morphological changes of the membrane were characterized by formation of semi-penetrated defects and sigmoidal growth of flat high-rise domains on the supported lipid bilayers. However, PrP106-126{sub COOH} displayed a higher peptide-lipid binding affinity than PrP106-126{sub CONH2} ({approx}2.9 times) and facilitated the peptide-lipid interactions by shortening the lag time. These results indicate that the C-terminal amidation may influence the pathological actions of PrP106-126 by lowering the interaction potentials with lipid membranes.

  10. The role of C-terminal amidation in the membrane interactions of the anionic antimicrobial peptide, maximin H5.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sarah R; Mura, Manuela; Harris, Frederick; Morton, Leslie H G; Zvelindovsky, Andrei; Phoenix, David A

    2015-05-01

    Maximin H5 is an anionic antimicrobial peptide from amphibians, which carries a C-terminal amide moiety, and was found to be moderately haemolytic (20%). The α-helicity of the peptide was 42% in the presence of lipid mimics of erythrocyte membranes and was found able to penetrate (10.8 mN m(-1)) and lyse these model membranes (64 %). In contrast, the deaminated peptide exhibited lower levels of haemolysis (12%) and α-helicity (16%) along with a reduced ability to penetrate (7.8 m Nm(-1)) and lyse (55%) lipid mimics of erythrocyte membranes. Taken with molecular dynamic simulations and theoretical analysis, these data suggest that native maximin H5 primarily exerts its haemolytic action via the formation of an oblique orientated α-helical structure and tilted membrane insertion. However, the C-terminal deamination of maximin H5 induces a loss of tilted α-helical structure, which abolishes the ability of the peptide's N-terminal and C-terminal regions to H-bond and leads to a loss in haemolytic ability. Taken in combination, these observations strongly suggest that the C-terminal amide moiety carried by maximin H5 is required to stabilise the adoption of membrane interactive tilted structure by the peptide. Consistent with previous reports, these data show that the efficacy of interaction and specificity of maximin H5 for membranes can be attenuated by sequence modification and may assist in the development of variants of the peptide with the potential to serve as anti-infectives. PMID:25640709

  11. VIPP1 Has a Disordered C-Terminal Tail Necessary for Protecting Photosynthetic Membranes against Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingang; Kondo, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Integrity of biomembranes is vital to living organisms. In bacteria, PspA is considered to act as repairing damaged membrane by forming large supercomplexes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Vulnerable to oxidative stress, photosynthetic organisms also contain a PspA ortholog called VIPP1, which has an additional C-terminal tail (Vc). In this study, Vc was shown to coincide with an intrinsically disordered region, and the role of VIPP1 in membrane protection against stress was investigated. We visualized VIPP1 by fusing it to GFP (VIPP1-GFP that fully complemented lethal vipp1 mutations), and investigated its behavior in vivo with live imaging. The intrinsically disordered nature of Vc enabled VIPP1 to form what appeared to be functional particles along envelopes, whereas the deletion of Vc caused excessive association of the VIPP1 particles, preventing their active movement for membrane protection. Expression of VIPP1 lacking Vc complemented vipp1 mutation, but exhibited sensitivity to heat shock stress. Conversely, transgenic plants over-expressing VIPP1 showed enhanced tolerance against heat shock, suggesting that Vc negatively regulates VIPP1 particle association and acts in maintaining membrane integrity. Our data thus indicate that VIPP1 is involved in the maintenance of photosynthetic membranes. During evolution, chloroplasts have acquired enhanced tolerance against membrane stress by incorporating a disordered C-terminal tail into VIPP1. PMID:27208228

  12. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity, and membrane permeabilizing properties of C-terminally modified nisin conjugates accessed by CuAAC.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, Jack C; van der Wal, Steffen; Quarles van Ufford, H C; Breukink, Eefjan; Liskamp, Rob M J; Rijkers, Dirk T S

    2013-12-18

    Functionalization of the lantibiotic nisin with fluorescent reporter molecules is highly important for the understanding of its mode of action as a potent antimicrobial peptide. In addition to this, multimerization of nisin to obtain multivalent peptide constructs and conjugation of nisin to bioactive molecules or grafting it on surfaces can be attractive methods for interference with bacterial growth. Here, we report a convenient method for the synthesis of such nisin conjugates and show that these nisin derivatives retain both their antimicrobial activity and their membrane permeabilizing properties. The synthesis is based on the Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC) as a bioorthogonal ligation method for large and unprotected peptides in which nisin was C-terminally modified with propargylamine and subsequently efficiently conjugated to a series of functionalized azides. Two fluorescently labeled nisin conjugates together with a dimeric nisin construct were prepared while membrane insertion as well as antimicrobial activity were unaffected by these modifications. This study shows that C-terminal modification of nisin does not deteriorate biological activity in sharp contrast to N-terminal modification and therefore C-terminally modified nisin analogues are valuable tools to study the antibacterial mode of action of nisin. Furthermore, the ability to use stoichiometric amounts of the azide containing molecule opens up possibilities for surface tethering and more complex multivalent structures. PMID:24266643

  13. Complexin induces a conformational change at the membrane-proximal C-terminal end of the SNARE complex

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ucheor B; Zhao, Minglei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Lai, Ying; Brunger, Axel T

    2016-01-01

    Complexin regulates spontaneous and activates Ca2+-triggered neurotransmitter release, yet the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here we performed single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments and uncovered two conformations of complexin-1 bound to the ternary SNARE complex. In the cis conformation, complexin-1 induces a conformational change at the membrane-proximal C-terminal end of the ternary SNARE complex that specifically depends on the N-terminal, accessory, and central domains of complexin-1. The complexin-1 induced conformation of the ternary SNARE complex may be related to a conformation that is juxtaposing the synaptic vesicle and plasma membranes. In the trans conformation, complexin-1 can simultaneously interact with a ternary SNARE complex via the central domain and a binary SNARE complex consisting of syntaxin-1A and SNAP-25A via the accessory domain. The cis conformation may be involved in activation of synchronous neurotransmitter release, whereas both conformations may be involved in regulating spontaneous release. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16886.001 PMID:27253060

  14. Complexin induces a conformational change at the membrane-proximal C-terminal end of the SNARE complex.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ucheor B; Zhao, Minglei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Lai, Ying; Brunger, Axel T

    2016-01-01

    Complexin regulates spontaneous and activates Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release, yet the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here we performed single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments and uncovered two conformations of complexin-1 bound to the ternary SNARE complex. In the cis conformation, complexin-1 induces a conformational change at the membrane-proximal C-terminal end of the ternary SNARE complex that specifically depends on the N-terminal, accessory, and central domains of complexin-1. The complexin-1 induced conformation of the ternary SNARE complex may be related to a conformation that is juxtaposing the synaptic vesicle and plasma membranes. In the trans conformation, complexin-1 can simultaneously interact with a ternary SNARE complex via the central domain and a binary SNARE complex consisting of syntaxin-1A and SNAP-25A via the accessory domain. The cis conformation may be involved in activation of synchronous neurotransmitter release, whereas both conformations may be involved in regulating spontaneous release. PMID:27253060

  15. P13, an Integral Membrane Protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, Is C-Terminally Processed and Contains Surface-Exposed Domains

    PubMed Central

    Noppa, Laila; Östberg, Yngve; Lavrinovicha, Marija; Bergström, Sven

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate antigens present on the bacterial surface of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato that may be involved in pathogenesis, we characterized a protein, P13, with an apparent molecular mass of 13 kDa. The protein was immunogenic and was expressed in large amounts during in vitro cultivation compared to other known antigens. An immunofluorescence assay, immunoelectron microscopy, and protease sensitivity assays indicated that P13 is surface exposed. The deduced sequence of the P13 peptide revealed a possible signal peptidase type I cleavage site, and computer analysis predicted that P13 is an integral membrane protein with three transmembrane-spanning domains. Mass spectrometry, in vitro translation, and N- and C-terminal amino acid sequencing analyses indicated that P13 was posttranslationally processed at both ends and modified by an unknown mechanism. Furthermore, p13 belongs to a gene family with five additional members in B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. The p13 gene is located on the linear chromosome of the bacterium, in contrast to five paralogous genes, which are located on extrachromosomal plasmids. The size of the p13 transcript was consistent with a monocistronic transcript. This new gene family may be involved in functions that are specific for this spirochete and its pathogenesis. PMID:11292755

  16. Membrane curvature generation by a C-terminal amphipathic helix in peripherin-2/rds, a tetraspanin required for photoreceptor sensory cilium morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khattree, Nidhi; Ritter, Linda M.; Goldberg, Andrew F. X.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Vertebrate vision requires photon absorption by photoreceptor outer segments (OSs), structurally elaborate membranous organelles derived from non-motile sensory cilia. The structure and function of OSs depends on a precise stacking of hundreds of membranous disks. Each disk is fully (as in rods) or partially (as in cones) bounded by a rim, at which the membrane is distorted into an energetically unfavorable high-curvature bend; however, the mechanism(s) underlying disk rim structure is (are) not established. Here, we demonstrate that the intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic C-terminus of the photoreceptor tetraspanin peripherin-2/rds (P/rds) can directly generate membrane curvature. A P/rds C-terminal domain and a peptide mimetic of an amphipathic helix contained within it each generated curvature in liposomes with a composition similar to that of OS disks and in liposomes generated from native OS lipids. Association of the C-terminal domain with liposomes required conical phospholipids, and was promoted by membrane curvature and anionic surface charge, results suggesting that the P/rds C-terminal amphipathic helix can partition into the cytosolic membrane leaflet to generate curvature by a hydrophobic insertion (wedging) mechanism. This activity was evidenced in full-length P/rds by its induction of small-diameter tubulovesicular membrane foci in cultured cells. In sum, the findings suggest that curvature generation by the P/rds C-terminus contributes to the distinctive structure of OS disk rims, and provide insight into how inherited defects in P/rds can disrupt organelle structure to cause retinal disease. They also raise the possibility that tethered amphipathic helices can function for shaping cellular membranes more generally. PMID:23886945

  17. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit

    PubMed Central

    Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2010-01-01

    Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability.—Takanaga, H., Frommer, W. B. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit. PMID:20354141

  18. A Conserved Motif in the Membrane Proximal C-Terminal Tail of Human Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Affects Plasma Membrane Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ehlert, Frederick J.; Shults, Crystal A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the functional role of a conserved motif, F(x)6LL, in the membrane proximal C-tail of the human muscarinic M1 (hM1) receptor. By use of site-directed mutagenesis, several different point mutations were introduced into the C-tail sequence 423FRDTFRLLL431. Wild-type and mutant hM1 receptors were transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and the amount of plasma membrane-expressed receptor was determined by use of intact, whole-cell [3H]N-methylscopolamine binding assays. The plasma membrane expression of hM1 receptors possessing either L430A or L431A or both point mutations was significantly reduced compared with the wild type. The hM1 receptor possessing a L430A/L431A double-point mutation was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and atropine treatment caused the redistribution of the mutant receptor from the ER to the plasma membrane. Atropine treatment also caused an increase in the maximal response and potency of carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis elicited by the L430A/L431A mutant. The effect of atropine on the L430A/L431A receptor mutant suggests that L430 and L431 play a role in folding hM1 receptors, which is necessary for exit from the ER. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we also identified amino acid residues at the base of transmembrane-spanning domain 1 (TM1), V46 and L47, that, when mutated, reduce the plasma membrane expression of hM1 receptors in an atropine-reversible manner. Overall, these mutagenesis data show that amino acid residues in the membrane-proximal C-tail and base of TM1 are necessary for hM1 receptors to achieve a transport-competent state. PMID:19841475

  19. Localization of the N-terminal and C-terminal ends of triadin with respect to the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane of rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Marty, I; Robert, M; Ronjat, M; Bally, I; Arlaud, G; Villaz, M

    1995-01-01

    Antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to the N-terminal (residues 2-17) and C-terminal (residues 691-706) ends of rabbit skeletal muscle triadin, a 95 kDa protein located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane at the triad junction. The specificity of the antibodies generated was tested by ELISA and Western blot analysis. These tests demonstrated the ability of the antibodies to react specifically with the proteins. The anti-N-terminus antibodies bound to sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, indicating that the N-terminal end of the membrane-embedded triadin is exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the vesicles. In contrast, the anti-C-terminus antibodies were able to react with sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles only after permeabilization of the vesicles with a detergent, indicating that the C-terminal end is exposed on the luminal side of the vesicles. These immunological data were complemented by proteolysis experiments using carboxypeptidases and endoproteinase Arg C. A mixture of carboxypeptidases A, B and Y was used to induce degradation of the C-terminal end of triadin in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. This degradation, and a concomitant loss of reactivity of the anti-C-terminus antibodies in Western blots, was observed only when the vesicles were permeabilized, providing further evidence for the luminal localization of the C-terminal end of triadin. Treatment of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles with endoproteinase Arg C resulted in the removal of the N-terminal end of triadin, probably due to cleavage after Arg-34. This is a further indication of the cytoplasmic localization of the N-terminal end of triadin (and of its first 34 amino acids). When the proteolysis with endoproteinase Arg C was carried out with permeabilized vesicles, the cleavage occurred after Arg-141 or Arg-157, indicating that at least one of these residues is luminal. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7741707

  20. Eukaryotic N-Glycosylation Occurs via the Membrane-anchored C-terminal Domain of the Stt3p Subunit of Oligosaccharyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chengdong; Bhaskaran, Rajagopalan; Mohanty, Smita

    2012-01-01

    N-Glycosylation is an essential and highly conserved protein modification. In eukaryotes, it is catalyzed by a multisubunit membrane-associated enzyme, oligosaccharyltransferase (OT). We report the high resolution structure of the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic Stt3p. Unlike its soluble β-sheet-rich prokaryotic counterparts, our model reveals that the C-terminal domain of yeast Stt3p is highly helical and has an overall oblate spheroid-shaped structure containing a membrane-embedded region. Anchoring of this protein segment to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is likely to bring the membrane-embedded donor substrate closer, thus facilitating glycosylation efficiency. Structural comparison of the region near the WWDYG signature motif revealed that the acceptor substrate-binding site of yeast OT strikingly resembles its prokaryotic counterparts, suggesting a conserved mechanism of N-glycosylation from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Furthermore, comparison of the NMR and cryo-EM structures of yeast OT revealed that the molecular architecture of this acceptor substrate-recognizing domain has interesting spatial specificity for interactions with other essential OT subunits. PMID:22865878

  1. Coordination of Synthesis and Assembly of a Modular Membrane-Associated [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Is Determined by Cleavage of the C-Terminal Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Claudia; Muhr, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During biosynthesis of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 (Hyd-2) of Escherichia coli, a 15-amino-acid C-terminal peptide is cleaved from the catalytic large subunit precursor, pro-HybC. This peptide is removed only after NiFe(CN)2CO cofactor insertion by the Hyp accessory protein machinery has been completed, suggesting that it has a regulatory function during enzyme maturation. We show here that in hyp mutants that fail to synthesize and insert the NiFe cofactor, and therefore retain the peptide, the Tat (twin-arginine translocon) signal peptide on the small subunit HybO is not removed and the subunit is degraded. In a mutant lacking the large subunit, the Tat signal peptide was also not removed from pre-HybO, indicating that the mature large subunit must actively engage the small subunit to elicit Tat transport. We validated the proposed regulatory role of the C-terminal peptide in controlling enzyme assembly by genetically removing it from the precursor of HybC, which allowed assembly and Tat-dependent membrane association of a HybC-HybO heterodimer lacking the NiFe(CN)2CO cofactor. Finally, genetic transfer of the C-terminal peptide from pro-HyaB, the large subunit of Hyd-1, onto HybC did not influence its dependence on the accessory protein HybG, a HypC paralog, or the specific protease HybD. This indicates that the C-terminal peptide per se is not required for interaction with the Hyp machinery but rather suggests a role of the peptide in maintaining a conformation of the protein suitable for cofactor insertion. Together, our results demonstrate that the C-terminal peptide on the catalytic subunit controls biosynthesis, assembly, and membrane association of Hyd-2. IMPORTANCE [NiFe]-hydrogenases are multisubunit enzymes with a catalytic subunit containing a NiFe(CN)2CO cofactor. Results of previous studies suggested that after synthesis and insertion of the cofactor by the Hyp accessory proteins, this large subunit changes conformation upon proteolytic removal of

  2. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak and its interaction with model membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Senac, María del Mar; Corbalán-García, Senena; Gómez-Fernández, Juan C

    2002-01-01

    Bak is a pro-apoptotic protein widely distributed in different cell types that is associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane, apparently through a C-terminal hydrophobic domain. We used infrared spectroscopy to study the secondary structure of a synthetic peptide ((+)(3)HN-(188)ILNVLVVLGVVLLGQFVVRRFFKS(211)-COO(-)) with the same sequence as the C-terminal domain of Bak. The spectrum of this peptide in D(2)O buffer shows an amide I' band with a maximum at 1636 cm(-1), which clearly indicates the predominance of an extended beta-structure in aqueous solvent. However, the peptide incorporated in multilamellar dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes shows a different amide I' band spectrum, with a maximum at 1658 cm(-1), indicating a predominantly alpha-helical structure induced by its interaction with the membrane. It was observed that through differential scanning calorimetry the transition of the phospholipid model membrane was broadened in the presence of the peptide. Fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) in fluid DMPC vesicles showed that increasing concentrations of the peptide produced increased polarization values, which is compatible with the peptide being inserted into the membrane. High concentrations of the peptide considerably broaden the phase transition of DMPC multilamellar vesicles, and DPH polarization increased, especially at temperatures above the T(c) transition temperature of the pure phospholipid. The addition of peptide destabilized unilamellar vesicles and released encapsulated carboxyfluorescein. These results indicate that this domain is able to insert itself into membranes, where it adopts an alpha-helical structure and considerably perturbs the physical properties of the membrane. PMID:11751312

  3. Peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane protein Mep45 of rumen anaerobe Selenomonas ruminantium forms a non-specific diffusion pore via its C-terminal transmembrane domain.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Seiji; Hayashi, Kanako; Tochigi, Saeko; Kusano, Tomonobu; Kaneko, Jun; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    The major outer membrane protein Mep45 of Selenomonas ruminantium, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium, comprises two distinct domains: the N-terminal S-layer homologous (SLH) domain that protrudes into the periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan, and the remaining C-terminal transmembrane domain, whose function has been unknown. Here, we solubilized and purified Mep45 and characterized its function using proteoliposomes reconstituted with Mep45. We found that Mep45 forms a nonspecific diffusion channel via its C-terminal region. The channel was permeable to solutes smaller than a molecular weight of roughly 600, and the estimated pore radius was 0.58 nm. Truncation of the SLH domain did not affect the channel property. On the basis of the fact that Mep45 is the most abundant outer membrane protein in S. ruminantium, we conclude that Mep45 serves as a main pathway through which small solutes diffuse across the outer membrane of this bacterium. PMID:27310312

  4. Membrane-Induced Dichotomous Conformation of Amyloid β with the Disordered N-Terminal Segment Followed by the Stable C-Terminal β Structure

    PubMed Central

    Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Kato, Koichi; Nishimura, Katsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Various neurodegenerative disorders are ascribed to pathogenic molecular processes involving conformational transitions of amyloidogenic proteins into toxic aggregates characterized by their β structures. Accumulating evidence indicates that neuronal cell membranes provide platforms for such conformational transitions of pathogenic proteins as best exemplified by amyloid β (Aβ). Therefore, membrane-bound Aβ species can be promising targets for the development of novel drugs for Alzheimer’s disease. In the present study, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has elucidated the membrane-induced conformation of Aβ, in which the disordered N-terminal segment is followed by the stable C-terminal β strand. The data provides an insight into the molecular processes of the conformational transition of Aβ coupled with its assembly into parallel β structures. PMID:26731546

  5. Membrane localization of MinD is mediated by a C-terminal motif that is conserved across eubacteria, archaea, and chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Tim H; Rowland, Susan L; Rothfield, Lawrence I; King, Glenn F

    2002-11-26

    MinD is a widely conserved ATPase that has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in selection of the division site in eubacteria and chloroplasts. It is a member of the large ParA superfamily of ATPases that are characterized by a deviant Walker-type ATP-binding motif. MinD localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane in Escherichia coli, and its association with the inner membrane is a prerequisite for membrane recruitment of the septation inhibitor MinC. However, the mechanism by which MinD associates with the membrane has proved enigmatic; it seems to lack a transmembrane domain and the amino acid sequence is devoid of hydrophobic tracts that might predispose the protein to interaction with lipids. In this study, we show that the extreme C-terminal region of MinD contains a highly conserved 8- to 12-residue sequence motif that is essential for membrane localization of the protein. We provide evidence that this motif forms an amphipathic helix that most likely mediates a direct interaction between MinD and membrane phospholipids. A model is proposed whereby the membrane-targeting motif mediates the rapid cycles of membrane attachment-release-reattachment that are presumed to occur during pole-to-pole oscillation of MinD in E. coli. PMID:12424340

  6. C-terminal tail insertion of Bcl-xL in membrane occurs via partial unfolding and refolding cycle associating microsolvation.

    PubMed

    Maity, Atanu; Sinha, Souvik; Ganguly, Debabani; Ghosh Dastidar, Shubhra

    2016-08-24

    Bcl-xL, a member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, remains distributed over the cytosol and the mitochondrial membrane, maintaining a balance between apoptosis and the survival of the cell. Passage to the membrane is essential for its biological functions (e.g. to antagonize pro-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl2 family), which is known to be initiated by the insertion of the C-terminal segment into the membrane. This tail, composed of ∼24 residues, is reported to act as a pseudo-inhibitor of the protein itself, adapting a helical conformation. It gets released from the confinement when Bcl-xL approaches the membrane. This article reports the events associated with the insertion of the helical tail into an explicitly modeled all-atom membrane, which reveals a partial unfolding to refolding cycle of the peptide, correlating with the early insertion, to a fully inserted state. The polar interactions have been found to have a dominant role in steering the peptide towards the membrane at the desired orientation. The landscape of the potential of mean force (PMF) is consistent with the proposed mechanism. Molecular dynamics further brings the insight that the peptide insertion is associated with the encapsulation of a thin water layer around the peptide throughout the course of insertion, which motivates the protein to refold once the insertion is complete. PMID:27525987

  7. The solution structure of the C-terminal domain of NfeD reveals a novel membrane-anchored OB-fold.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Yohta; Ohno, Ayako; Morii, Taichi; Yokoyama, Hideshi; Matsui, Ikuo; Tochio, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2008-11-01

    Nodulation formation efficiency D (NfeD) is a member of a class of membrane-anchored ClpP-class proteases. There is a second class of NfeD homologs that lack the ClpP domain. The genes of both NfeD classes usually are part of an operon that also contains a gene for a prokaryotic homolog of stomatin. (Stomatin is a major integral-membrane protein of mammalian erythrocytes.) Such NfeD/stomatin homolog gene pairs are present in more than 290 bacterial and archaeal genomes, and their protein products may be part of the machinery used for quality control of membrane proteins. Herein, we report the structure of the isolated C-terminal domain of PH0471, a Pyrococcus horikoshii NfeD homolog, which lacks the ClpP domain. This C-terminal domain (termed NfeDC) contains a five-strand beta-barrel, which is structurally very similar to the OB-fold (oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide-binding fold) domain. However, there is little sequence similarity between it and previously characterized OB-fold domains. The NfeDC domain lacks the conserved surface residues that are necessary for the binding of an OB-fold domain to DNA/RNA, an ion. Instead, its surface is composed of residues that are uniquely conserved in NfeD homologs and that form the structurally conserved surface turns and beta-bulges. There is also a conserved tryptophan present on the surface. We propose that, in general, NfeDC domains may interact with other spatially proximal membrane proteins and thereby regulate their activities. PMID:18687870

  8. The C-terminal hypervariable domain targets Aradopsis ROP9 to the invaginated pollen tube plasma membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rop9 is a small GTPase of the Type II class, whereas the often studied type I Rops play roles during pollen tube growth. In pollen, Rop9 is located at the invaginated plasma membrane that surrounds the sperm cells, whereas type I Rops are located at the apical membrane of the pollen tube. The C-ter...

  9. C-terminal domain of rodent intestinal mucin Muc3 is proteolytically cleaved in the endoplasmic reticulum to generate extracellular and membrane components.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongquan; Khatri, Ismat A; Forstner, Janet F

    2002-01-01

    Although human MUC3 and rodent Muc3 are both membrane-associated intestinal mucins, the present study has explored the possibility that rodent Muc3 might exist in soluble as well as membrane forms. No evidence was obtained for the existence of soluble splice variants; however, experiments with heterologous cells transfected with cDNA encoding the 381-residue C-terminal domain of rodent Muc3 showed that a definitive proteolytic cleavage occurs during processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. The products consisted of a V5-tagged 30 kDa extracellular glycopeptide and a Myc-tagged 49 kDa membrane-associated glycopeptide. Throughout their cellular transport to the plasma membrane, the two fragments remained associated by non-covalent SDS-sensitive interactions. Site-specific mutagenesis pinpointed the need for glycine and serine residues in the cleavage sequence Leu-Ser-Lys-Gly-Ser-Ile-Val-Val, which is localized between the two epidermal-growth-factor-like motifs of the mucin. A similar cleavage sequence (Phe-Arg-Pro-Gly downward arrow Ser-Val-Val-Val, where downward arrow signifies the cleavage site) has been reported in human MUC1 and analogous sites are present in human MUC3, MUC12 and MUC17. Thus early proteolytic cleavage may be a conserved characteristic of many membrane-associated mucins, possibly as a prelude to later release of their large extracellular domains at cell surfaces. PMID:12027806

  10. C-Terminal Region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Outer Membrane Porin OprD Modulates Susceptibility to Meropenem

    PubMed Central

    Epp, Simone F.; Köhler, Thilo; Plésiat, Patrick; Michéa-Hamzehpour, Mehri; Frey, Joachim; Pechère, Jean-Claude

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the unusual susceptibility to meropenem observed for seven imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These strains were genetically closely related, expressed OprD, as determined by Western blot analyses, and were resistant to imipenem (>5 μg/ml) but susceptible to meropenem (<1 μg/ml). The oprD genes from two isolates were entirely sequenced, and their deduced protein sequences showed 93% identity with that of OprD of strain PAO1. The major alteration consisted of the replacement of a stretch of 12 amino acids, located in putative external loop L7 of OprD, by a divergent sequence of 10 amino acid residues. The oprD gene variants and the wild-type oprD gene were cloned and expressed in a defined oprD mutant. The meropenem MICs for strains carrying the oprD genes from clinical isolates were four times lower than that for the strain carrying the wild-type oprD gene. Imipenem activities, however, were comparable for all strains. Furthermore, meropenem hypersusceptibility was obtained with a hybrid OprD porin that consisted of the PAO1 oprD gene containing loop L7 from a clinical isolate. These results show that the C-terminal portion of OprD, in particular, loop L7, was responsible for the unusual meropenem hypersusceptibility. Competition experiments suggested that the observed OprD modifications in the clinical isolates did not affect antagonism between imipenem and the basic amino acid l-lysine. We further propose that shortening of putative loop L7 of the OprD porin by 2 amino acid residues sufficiently opens the porin channel to allow optimal penetration of meropenem and increase its activity. In contrast, this alteration would not affect susceptibility to a smaller carbapenem molecule, such as imipenem. PMID:11353625

  11. Structural and metal binding characterization of the C-terminal metallochaperone domain of membrane fusion protein SilB from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34.

    PubMed

    Bersch, Beate; Derfoufi, Kheiro-Mouna; De Angelis, Fabien; Auquier, Vanessa; Ekendé, Elisabeth Ngonlong; Mergeay, Max; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Vandenbussche, Guy

    2011-03-29

    Detoxification of heavy metal ions in Proteobacteria is tightly controlled by various systems regulating their sequestration and transport. In Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, a model organism for heavy metal resistance studies, the sil determinant is potentially involved in the efflux of silver and copper ions. Proteins SilA, SilB, and SilC form a resistance nodulation cell division (RND)-based transport system in which SilB is the periplasmic adaptor protein belonging to the membrane fusion protein (MFP) family. In addition to the four domains typical of known MFPs, SilB has a fifth additional C-terminal domain, called SilB(440-521), which is characterized here. Structure and backbone dynamics of SilB(440-521) have been investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance, and the residues of the metal site were identified from (15)N- and (13)C-edited HSQC spectra. The solution structure and additional metal binding experiments demonstrated that this C-terminal domain folds independently of the rest of the protein and has a conformation and a Ag(+) and Cu(+) binding specificity similar to those determined for CusF from Escherichia coli. The small protein CusF plays a role in metal trafficking in the periplasm. The similarity with CusF suggests a potential metallochaperone role for SilB(440-521) that is discussed in the context of simultaneous expression of different determinants involved in copper resistance in C. metallidurans CH34. PMID:21299248

  12. The outer-membrane export signal of Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a conserved C-terminal β-sandwich domain

    PubMed Central

    de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Mizgalska, Danuta; Koneru, Lahari; Golik, Przemyslaw; Szmigielski, Borys; Nowak, Magdalena; Nowakowska, Zuzanna; Potempa, Barbara; Houston, John A.; Enghild, Jan J.; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Gao, Jinlong; Kwan, Ann H.; Trewhella, Jill; Dubin, Grzegorz; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the recently characterized Type IX Secretion System (T9SS), the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) in secreted proteins functions as an outer membrane translocation signal for export of virulence factors to the cell surface in the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes phylum. In the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, the CTD is cleaved off by PorU sortase in a sequence-independent manner, and anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) is attached to many translocated proteins, thus anchoring them to the bacterial surface. Here, we solved the atomic structure of the CTD of gingipain B (RgpB) from P. gingivalis, alone and together with a preceding immunoglobulin-superfamily domain (IgSF). The CTD was found to possess a typical Ig-like fold encompassing seven antiparallel β-strands organized in two β-sheets, packed into a β-sandwich structure that can spontaneously dimerise through C-terminal strand swapping. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed no fixed orientation of the CTD with respect to the IgSF. By introducing insertion or substitution of residues within the inter-domain linker in the native protein, we were able to show that despite the region being unstructured, it nevertheless is resistant to general proteolysis. These data suggest structural motifs located in the two adjacent Ig-like domains dictate the processing of CTDs by the T9SS secretion pathway. PMID:27005013

  13. The outer-membrane export signal of Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a conserved C-terminal β-sandwich domain.

    PubMed

    de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Mizgalska, Danuta; Koneru, Lahari; Golik, Przemyslaw; Szmigielski, Borys; Nowak, Magdalena; Nowakowska, Zuzanna; Potempa, Barbara; Houston, John A; Enghild, Jan J; Thøgersen, Ida B; Gao, Jinlong; Kwan, Ann H; Trewhella, Jill; Dubin, Grzegorz; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the recently characterized Type IX Secretion System (T9SS), the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) in secreted proteins functions as an outer membrane translocation signal for export of virulence factors to the cell surface in the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes phylum. In the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, the CTD is cleaved off by PorU sortase in a sequence-independent manner, and anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) is attached to many translocated proteins, thus anchoring them to the bacterial surface. Here, we solved the atomic structure of the CTD of gingipain B (RgpB) from P. gingivalis, alone and together with a preceding immunoglobulin-superfamily domain (IgSF). The CTD was found to possess a typical Ig-like fold encompassing seven antiparallel β-strands organized in two β-sheets, packed into a β-sandwich structure that can spontaneously dimerise through C-terminal strand swapping. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed no fixed orientation of the CTD with respect to the IgSF. By introducing insertion or substitution of residues within the inter-domain linker in the native protein, we were able to show that despite the region being unstructured, it nevertheless is resistant to general proteolysis. These data suggest structural motifs located in the two adjacent Ig-like domains dictate the processing of CTDs by the T9SS secretion pathway. PMID:27005013

  14. FUSION-COMPETENT STATE INDUCED BY A C-TERMINAL HIV-1 FUSION PEPTIDE IN CHOLESTEROL-RICH MEMBRANES

    PubMed Central

    Apellániz, Beatriz; Nieva, José L.

    2015-01-01

    The replicative cycle of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 begins after fusion of the viral and target-cell membranes. The envelope glycoprotein gp41 transmembrane subunit contains conserved hydrophobic domains that engage and perturb the merging lipid bilayers. In this work, we have characterized the fusion-committed state generated in vesicles by CpreTM, a synthetic peptide derived from the sequence connecting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) and the transmembrane domain (TMD) of gp41. Pre-loading cholesterol-rich vesicles with CpreTM rendered them competent for subsequent lipid-mixing with fluorescently-labeled target vesicles. Highlighting the physiological relevance of the lasting fusion-competent state, the broadly neutralizing antibody 4E10 bound to the CpreTM-primed vesicles and inhibited lipid-mixing. Heterotypic fusion assays disclosed dependence on the lipid composition of the vesicles that acted either as virus or cell membrane surrogates. Lipid-mixing exhibited above all a critical dependence on the cholesterol content in those experiments. We infer that the fusion-competent state described herein resembles bona-fide perturbations generated by the pre-hairpin MPER-TMD connection within the viral membrane. PMID:25617671

  15. C-terminal anchoring of mid1p to membranes stabilizes cytokinetic ring position in early mitosis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Bordes, Nicole; Fraisier, Vincent; Tran, Phong T; Paoletti, Anne

    2004-12-01

    mid1p is a key factor for the central positioning of the cytokinetic ring in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In interphase and early mitosis, mid1p forms a medial cortical band overlying the nucleus, which may represent a landmark for cytokinetic ring assembly. It compacts before anaphase into a tight ring with other cytokinetic ring components. We show here that mid1p binds to the medial cortex by at least two independent means. First, mid1p C-terminus association with the cortex requires a putative amphipathic helix adjacent to mid1p nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is predicted to insert directly into the lipid bilayer. This association is stabilized by the polybasic NLS. mid1p mutated within the helix and the NLS forms abnormal filaments in early mitosis that are not properly anchored to the medial cortex. Misplaced rings assemble in late mitosis, indicating that mid1p C-terminus binding to membranes stabilizes cytokinetic ring position. Second, the N terminus of mid1p has the ability to associate faintly with the medial cortex and is sufficient to form tight rings. In addition, we show that mid1p oligomerizes. We propose that membrane-bound oligomers of mid1p assemble recruitment "platforms" for cytokinetic ring components at the medial cortex and stabilize the ring position during its compaction. PMID:15572668

  16. Conformational Changes and Association of Membrane-Interacting Peptides in Myelin Membrane Models: A Case of the C-Terminal Peptide of Proteolipid Protein and the Antimicrobial Peptide Melittin.

    PubMed

    Appadu, Ashtina; Jelokhani-Niaraki, Masoud; DeBruin, Lillian

    2015-11-25

    Model membranes composed of various lipid mixtures can segregate into liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases. In this study, lipid vesicles composed of mainly Lo or Ld phases as well as complex lipid systems representing the cytosolic leaflet of the myelin membrane were characterized by fluorescence resonance energy transfer with a donor/acceptor pair that preferentially partitioned into Lo or Ld phases, respectively. The fluidity of the lipid systems containing >30% cholesterol was modulated in the presence of the amphipathic peptide melittin. With all the studied lipid systems, melittin attained an α-helical conformation as determined by CD spectroscopy and attained varying degrees of membrane association and penetration as determined by intrinsic Trp fluorescence. The other protein domain utilized was a putative amphipathic helical peptide derived from the cytosolic C-terminal sequence of proteolipid protein (PLP) which is the most abundant protein in the myelin membrane. The C-terminal PLP peptide transitioned from a random coil to an α-helix in the presence of trifluoroethanol. Upon interacting with each of lipid vesicle system, the PLP peptide also folded into a helix; however, at high concentrations of the peptide with fluid lipid systems, associated helices transmuted into a β-sheet conformer. The membrane-associated aggregation of the cytosolic C-termini could be a mechanism by which the transmembrane PLP multimerizes in the myelin membrane. PMID:26561987

  17. Arv1 regulates PM and ER membrane structure and homeostasis but is dispensable for intracellular sterol transport

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander G.; Johansen, Jesper; Ramanathan, Vidhya D.; Sere, Yves Y.; Beh, Christopher T.; Menon, Anant K.

    2013-01-01

    The pan-eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein Arv1 has been suggested to play a role in intracellular sterol transport. We tested this proposal by comparing sterol traffic in wild-type and Arv1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We used fluorescence microscopy to track the retrograde movement of exogenously supplied dehydroergosterol (DHE) from the plasma membrane (PM) to the ER and lipid droplets and high performance liquid chromatography to quantify, in parallel, the transport-coupled formation of DHE esters. Metabolic labeling and subcellular fractionation were used to assay anterograde transport of ergosterol from the ER to the PM. We report that sterol transport between the ER and PM is unaffected by Arv1 deficiency. Instead, our results indicate differences in ER morphology and the organization of the PM lipid bilayer between wild-type and arv1Δ cells suggesting a distinct role for Arv1 in membrane homeostasis. In arv1Δ cells, specific defects affecting single C-terminal transmembrane domain proteins suggest that Arv1 might regulate membrane insertion of tail-anchored proteins involved in membrane homoeostasis. PMID:23668914

  18. Bipartite Topology of Treponema pallidum Repeat Proteins C/D and I: OUTER MEMBRANE INSERTION, TRIMERIZATION, AND PORIN FUNCTION REQUIRE A C-TERMINAL β-BARREL DOMAIN.

    PubMed

    Anand, Arvind; LeDoyt, Morgan; Karanian, Carson; Luthra, Amit; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G; Puthenveetil, Robbins; Vinogradova, Olga; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-05-01

    We previously identified Treponema pallidum repeat proteins TprC/D, TprF, and TprI as candidate outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and subsequently demonstrated that TprC is not only a rare OMP but also forms trimers and has porin activity. We also reported that TprC contains N- and C-terminal domains (TprC(N) and TprC(C)) orthologous to regions in the major outer sheath protein (MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)) of Treponema denticola and that TprC(C) is solely responsible for β-barrel formation, trimerization, and porin function by the full-length protein. Herein, we show that TprI also possesses bipartite architecture, trimeric structure, and porin function and that the MOSP(C)-like domains of native TprC and TprI are surface-exposed in T. pallidum, whereas their MOSP(N)-like domains are tethered within the periplasm. TprF, which does not contain a MOSP(C)-like domain, lacks amphiphilicity and porin activity, adopts an extended inflexible structure, and, in T. pallidum, is tightly bound to the protoplasmic cylinder. By thermal denaturation, the MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)-like domains of TprC and TprI are highly thermostable, endowing the full-length proteins with impressive conformational stability. When expressed in Escherichia coli with PelB signal sequences, TprC and TprI localize to the outer membrane, adopting bipartite topologies, whereas TprF is periplasmic. We propose that the MOSP(N)-like domains enhance the structural integrity of the cell envelope by anchoring the β-barrels within the periplasm. In addition to being bona fide T. pallidum rare outer membrane proteins, TprC/D and TprI represent a new class of dual function, bipartite bacterial OMP. PMID:25805501

  19. The C-terminal 165 amino acids of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase confer Ca2+/calmodulin sensitivity on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Takeyasu, K

    1995-01-01

    The C-terminal 165 amino acids of the rat brain plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+)-ATPase II containing the calmodulin binding auto-inhibitory domain was connected to the C-terminus of the ouabain sensitive chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit. Expression of this chimeric molecule in ouabain resistant mouse L cells was assured by the high-affinity binding of [3H]ouabain. In the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, this chimeric molecule exhibited ouabain inhibitable Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity; the putative chimeric ATPase activity was absent in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin and activated by Ca2+/calmodulin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this chimeric molecule could bind monoclonal IgG 5 specific to the chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit only in the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, suggesting that the epitope for IgG 5 in this chimera is masked in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin and uncovered in their presence. These results propose a direct interaction between the calmodulin binding auto-inhibitory domain of the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase and the specific regions of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit that are structurally homologous to the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed several possible regions within the Na+,K(+)-ATPase that might interact with the auto-inhibitory domain of the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase. Images PMID:7828596

  20. Phosphorylation of the C Terminus of RHD3 Has a Critical Role in Homotypic ER Membrane Fusion in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Haruko; Yokota, Etsuo; Kuwata, Keiko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Mano, Shoji; Shimada, Tomoo; Tamura, Kentaro; Fukao, Yoichiro; Brandizzi, Federica; Shimmen, Teruo; Nishimura, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of dynamically changing tubules and cisternae. In animals and yeast, homotypic ER membrane fusion is mediated by fusogens (atlastin and Sey1p, respectively) that are membrane-associated dynamin-like GTPases. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), another dynamin-like GTPase, ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3 (RHD3), has been proposed as an ER membrane fusogen, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we show that RHD3 has an ER membrane fusion activity that is enhanced by phosphorylation of its C terminus. The ER network was RHD3-dependently reconstituted from the cytosol and microsome fraction of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultured cells by exogenously adding GTP, ATP, and F-actin. We next established an in vitro assay system of ER tubule formation with Arabidopsis ER vesicles, in which addition of GTP caused ER sac formation from the ER vesicles. Subsequent application of a shearing force to this system triggered the formation of tubules from the ER sacs in an RHD-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, in the absence of a shearing force, Ser/Thr kinase treatment triggered RHD3-dependent tubule formation. Mass spectrometry showed that RHD3 was phosphorylated at multiple Ser and Thr residues in the C terminus. An antibody against the RHD3 C-terminal peptide abolished kinase-triggered tubule formation. When the Ser cluster was deleted or when the Ser residues were replaced with Ala residues, kinase treatment had no effect on tubule formation. Kinase treatment induced the oligomerization of RHD3. Neither phosphorylation-dependent modulation of membrane fusion nor oligomerization has been reported for atlastin or Sey1p. Taken together, we propose that phosphorylation-stimulated oligomerization of RHD3 enhances ER membrane fusion to form the ER network. PMID:26684656

  1. Inhibitors of Protein Translocation Across the ER Membrane.

    PubMed

    Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Römisch, Karin

    2015-10-01

    Protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) constitutes the first step of protein secretion. ER protein import is essential in all eukaryotic cells and is particularly critical in fast-growing tumour cells. Thus, the process can serve as target both for potential cancer drugs and for bacterial virulence factors. Inhibitors of protein transport across the ER membrane range from broad-spectrum to highly substrate-specific and can interfere with virtually any stage of this multistep process, and even with transport of endocytosed antigens into the cytosol for cross-presentation. PMID:26122014

  2. The C-terminal domain of 72 kDa gelatinase A is not required for catalysis, but is essential for membrane activation and modulates interactions with tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, G; Willenbrock, F; Ward, R V; Cockett, M I; Eaton, D; Docherty, A J

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant 72 kDa gelatinase A and a truncated form lacking the C-terminal domain were shown to be activated by organomercurials and to possess similar activities towards a number of substrates. The truncated proenzyme differed from the full-length gelatinase in that it could not be activated by a membrane activator and did not bind tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2. Kinetic studies also showed that the inhibition of the activated truncated enzyme, by both TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, was considerably decreased compared with the full-length enzyme. We conclude that the C-terminal domain plays an important role in the regulation of gelatinase A by a potential physiological activator and inhibitors. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1317162

  3. Clinical and Immunological Studies of 332 Japanese Patients Tentatively Diagnosed as Anti-BP180-type Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: A Novel BP180 C-terminal Domain Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Atsushi; Teye, Kwesi; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2016-08-23

    Diagnosis of anti-BP180-type mucous membrane pemphigoid (BP180-MMP) is frustrated by the difficulty of detecting BP180 reactivity. A total of 721 patients with suspected MMP, selected from a cohort of 4,698 patients with autoimmune bullous disease (AIBD), were included in this study. Of these, 332 patients were tentatively diagnosed as BP180-MMP if they showed IgG/IgA reactivity with the epidermal side of 1M NaCl-split-skin and/or positive reactivity with BP180 in at least one of our antigen detection methods. Clinically, a predominance of female patients was found. Oral mucosal and cutaneous lesions were found in 85.5% and 41.0% of patients, respectively, and frequent treatments were systemic steroids, tetracycline/minocycline and diaminodiphenyl sulfone. Various immunological methods, including a newly developed BP180 C-terminal domain enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), revealed frequent reactivity with BP180 C-terminal and NC16a domains. Some patients reacted with BP180 and other antigens, indicating that BP180-MMP tends to concur with other AIBDs. This large study of patients with suspected BP180-MMP indicates the difficulty of diagnosis of BP180-MMP and the diagnostic usefulness of BP180 C-terminal domain ELISA. PMID:26984589

  4. Dephosphorylation activates the purified plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase--possible function of phosphothreonine residues in a mechanism not involving the regulatory C-terminal domain of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Desbrosses, G; Stelling, J; Renaudin, J P

    1998-01-15

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase was purified from tobacco cells (line BY-2). After solubilization by lysophosphatidylcholine followed by separation on a glycerol gradient, a fraction with a high specific activity of 9 micromol ATP x min(-1) x mg protein(-1) was obtained, in which the H+-ATPase polypeptide represented at least 80% of the protein. The incubation of this fraction in the presence of alkaline phosphatase increased H+-ATPase activity by 40%, in a manner consistent with dephosphorylation of the enzyme itself. The hydrolytic activity of the solubilized enzyme and its proton translocating activity, after reconstitution into proteoliposomes, were stimulated to the same extent. Alkaline phosphatase treatment was also accompanied by a 92% decrease in the H+-ATPase phosphothreonine content, whereas the phosphoserine residues were almost unaffected. The dephosphorylation induced a slight decrease of the affinity of the enzyme towards ATP. The purified enzyme was not activated by lysophosphatidylcholine addition nor by trypsin-mediated proteolysis, two treatments reported to release the inhibitory control by the C-terminal domain of the H+-ATPase and to increase the affinity of the enzyme towards ATP. Based on these results, the regulatory phosphorylation evoked by alkaline phosphatase most likely differs from the autoinhibitory control of the H+-ATPase by its C-terminal domain. PMID:9492323

  5. Quality control of nonstop membrane proteins at the ER membrane and in the cytosol.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Shunsuke; Yunoki, Kaori; Izawa, Toshiaki; Tamura, Yasushi; Nishikawa, Shuh-Ichi; Endo, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Since messenger RNAs without a stop codon (nonstop mRNAs) for organelle-targeted proteins and their translation products (nonstop proteins) generate clogged translocon channels as well as stalled ribosomes, cells have mechanisms to degrade nonstop mRNAs and nonstop proteins and to clear the translocons (e.g. the Sec61 complex) by release of nonstop proteins into the organellar lumen. Here we followed the fate of nonstop endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins with different membrane topologies in yeast to evaluate the importance of the Ltn1-dependent cytosolic degradation and the Dom34-dependent release of the nonstop membrane proteins. Ltn1-dependent degradation differed for membrane proteins with different topologies and its failure did not affect ER protein import or cell growth. On the other hand, failure in the Dom34-dependent release of the nascent polypeptide from the ribosome led to the block of the Sec61 channel and resultant inhibition of other protein import into the ER caused cell growth defects. Therefore, the nascent chain release from the translation apparatus is more instrumental in clearance of the clogged ER translocon channel and thus maintenance of normal cellular functions. PMID:27481473

  6. Quality control of nonstop membrane proteins at the ER membrane and in the cytosol

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Shunsuke; Yunoki, Kaori; Izawa, Toshiaki; Tamura, Yasushi; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Endo, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Since messenger RNAs without a stop codon (nonstop mRNAs) for organelle-targeted proteins and their translation products (nonstop proteins) generate clogged translocon channels as well as stalled ribosomes, cells have mechanisms to degrade nonstop mRNAs and nonstop proteins and to clear the translocons (e.g. the Sec61 complex) by release of nonstop proteins into the organellar lumen. Here we followed the fate of nonstop endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins with different membrane topologies in yeast to evaluate the importance of the Ltn1-dependent cytosolic degradation and the Dom34-dependent release of the nonstop membrane proteins. Ltn1-dependent degradation differed for membrane proteins with different topologies and its failure did not affect ER protein import or cell growth. On the other hand, failure in the Dom34-dependent release of the nascent polypeptide from the ribosome led to the block of the Sec61 channel and resultant inhibition of other protein import into the ER caused cell growth defects. Therefore, the nascent chain release from the translation apparatus is more instrumental in clearance of the clogged ER translocon channel and thus maintenance of normal cellular functions. PMID:27481473

  7. Progressive Truncations C Terminal to the Membrane-Spanning Domain of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Env Reduce Fusogenicity and Increase Concentration Dependence of Env for Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaoxu; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Blumenthal, Robert; West, John; Hunter, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmembrane (TM) protein, gp41, has multiple functions, which include anchoring the glycoprotein complex in the lipid envelope of the virus and mediating fusion of the virus and host cell membranes. Recently, a series of mutants of the SIVmac239 TM protein that have truncations at the carboxyl terminus of the membrane-spanning domain (MSD) have been characterized (J. T. West, P. Johnston, S. R. Dubay, and E. Hunter, J. Virol. 75:9601-9612, 2001). These mutants retained membrane anchorage but demonstrated reduced fusogenicity and infectivity as the MSD length was shortened. We have established a novel three-color fluorescence assay, which allows qualitative confocal and quantitative flow cytometric analyses, to further characterize the nature of the fusion defect in five of the MSD mutants: TM185, TM186, TM187, TM188, and TM189. Our analysis showed that each mutant could mediate complete lipid and aqueous dye transfer at early time points after effector and target cell mixing. No hemifusion with only lipid dye flux was detected. However, another intermediate fusion stage, which appears to involve small-fusion-pore formation that allowed small aqueous dye transfer but prevented the exchange of large cytoplasmic components, was identified infrequently in mutant-Env-expressing cell and target cell mixtures. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis of these mutants demonstrated that the TM187, TM188, and TM189 mutants were significantly more fusogenic than TM185 and TM186 but remained significantly impaired compared to the wild type. Moreover, fusion efficiency showed an increased dependence on the expression level of glycoproteins, suggesting that, for these mutants, formation of an active fusion complex was an increasingly stochastic event. PMID:12768026

  8. Induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions by Kv2.1 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Fox, Philip D; Haberkorn, Christopher J; Akin, Elizabeth J; Seel, Peter J; Krapf, Diego; Tamkun, Michael M

    2015-06-01

    Junctions between cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) and the plasma membrane are a subtle but ubiquitous feature in mammalian cells; however, very little is known about the functions and molecular interactions that are associated with neuronal ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Here, we report that Kv2.1 (also known as KCNB1), the primary delayed-rectifier K(+) channel in the mammalian brain, induces the formation of ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Kv2.1 localizes to dense, cell-surface clusters that contain non-conducting channels, indicating that they have a function that is unrelated to membrane-potential regulation. Accordingly, Kv2.1 clusters function as membrane-trafficking hubs, providing platforms for delivery and retrieval of multiple membrane proteins. Using both total internal reflection fluorescence and electron microscopy we demonstrate that the clustered Kv2.1 plays a direct structural role in the induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions in both transfected HEK 293 cells and cultured hippocampal neurons. Glutamate exposure results in a loss of Kv2.1 clusters in neurons and subsequent retraction of the cER from the plasma membrane. We propose Kv2.1-induced ER-plasma-membrane junctions represent a new macromolecular plasma-membrane complex that is sensitive to excitotoxic insult and functions as a scaffolding site for both membrane trafficking and Ca(2+) signaling. PMID:25908859

  9. STIM1 Is a Novel Component of ER-Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane Contact Sites

    PubMed Central

    Agaisse, Hervé; Derré, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Productive developmental cycle of the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis depends on the interaction of the replicative vacuole, named the inclusion, with cellular organelles. We have recently reported the formation of ER-Inclusion membrane contact sites (MCSs), where the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is in apposition to the inclusion membrane. These platforms contain the C. trachomatis inclusion membrane protein IncD, the mammalian ceramide transfer protein CERT and the ER resident proteins VAPA/B and were proposed to play a role in the non-vesicular trafficking of lipids to the inclusion. Here, we identify STIM1 as a novel component of ER-Inclusion MCSs. STIM1, an ER calcium (Ca2+) sensor that relocate to ER-Plasma Membrane (PM) MCSs upon Ca2+ store depletion, associated with C. trachomatis inclusion. STIM1, but not the general ER markers Rtn3C and Sec61ß, was enriched at the inclusion membrane. Ultra-structural studies demonstrated that STIM1 localized to ER-Inclusion MCSs. Time-course experiments showed that STIM1, CERT and VAPB co-localized throughout the developmental cycle. By contrast, Orai1, the PM Ca2+ channel that interacts with STIM1 at ER-PM MCSs, did not associate with C. trachomatis inclusion. Upon ER Ca2+ store depletion, a pool of STIM1 relocated to ER-PM MCSs, while the existing ER-Inclusion MCSs remained enriched in STIM1. Finally, we have identified the CAD domain, which mediates STIM1-Orai1 interaction, as the minimal domain required for STIM1 enrichment at ER-Inclusion MCSs. Altogether this study identifies STIM1 as a novel component of ER-C. trachomatis inclusion MCSs. We discuss the potential role(s) of STIM1 during the infection process. PMID:25915399

  10. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 is expressed in intestinal ER.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Shadab A; Mahan, James; Siddiqi, Shahzad; Gorelick, Fred S; Mansbach, Charles M

    2006-03-01

    Intestinal dietary triacylglycerol absorption is a multi-step process. Triacylglycerol exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the rate-limiting step in the progress of the lipid from its apical absorption to its basolateral membrane export. Triacylglycerol is transported from the ER to the cis Golgi in a specialized vesicle, the pre-chylomicron transport vesicle (PCTV). The vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP7) was found to be more concentrated on PCTVs compared with ER membranes. VAMP7 has been previously identified associated with post-Golgi sites in eukaryotes. To examine the potential role of VAMP7 in PCTV trafficking, antibodies were generated that identified a 25 kDa band consistent with VAMP7 but did not crossreact with VAMP1,2. VAMP7 was concentrated on intestinal ER by immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the ER proteins Sar1 and rBet1 were present on PCTVs and colocalized with VAMP7. Iodixanol gradient centrifugation showed VAMP7 to be isodense with ER and endosomes. Although VAMP7 localized to intestinal ER, it was not present in the ER of liver and kidney. Anti-VAMP7 antibodies reduced the transfer of triacylglycerol, but not newly synthesized proteins, from the ER to the Golgi by 85%. We conclude that VAMP7 is enriched in intestinal ER and that it plays a functional role in the delivery of triacylglycerol from the ER to the Golgi. PMID:16495485

  11. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) C-terminal-activating region 3 contributes to LMP1-mediated cellular migration via its interaction with Ubc9.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Gretchen L; Whitehurst, Christopher B; Pagano, Joseph S

    2011-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the principal viral oncoprotein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is a constitutively active membrane signaling protein that regulates multiple signal transduction pathways via its C-terminal-activating region 1 (CTAR1) and CTAR2, and also the less-studied CTAR3. Because protein sumoylation among other posttranslational modifications may regulate many signaling pathways induced by LMP1, we investigated whether during EBV latency LMP1 regulates sumoylation processes that control cellular activation and cellular responses. By immunoprecipitation experiments, we show that LMP1 interacts with Ubc9, the single reported SUMO-conjugating enzyme. Requirements for LMP1-Ubc9 interactions include enzymatically active Ubc9: expression of inactive Ubc9 (Ubc9 C93S) inhibited the LMP1-Ubc9 interaction. LMP1 CTAR3, but not CTAR1 and CTAR2, participated in the LMP1-Ubc9 interaction, and amino acid sequences found in CTAR3, including the JAK-interacting motif, contributed to this interaction. Furthermore, LMP1 expression coincided with increased sumoylation of cellular proteins, and disruption of the Ubc9-LMP1 CTAR3 interaction almost completely abrogated LMP1-induced protein sumoylation, suggesting that this interaction promotes the sumoylation of downstream targets. Additional consequences of the disruption of the LMP1 CTAR3-Ubc9 interaction revealed effects on cellular migration, a hallmark of oncogenesis. Together, these data demonstrate that LMP1 CTAR3 does in fact function in intracellular signaling and leads to biological effects. We propose that LMP1, by interaction with Ubc9, modulates sumoylation processes, which regulate signal transduction pathways that affect phenotypic changes associated with oncogenesis. PMID:21795333

  12. When under pressure, get closer: PERKing up membrane contact sites during ER stress.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Alexander R; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2016-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main hub of cellular Ca(2+)signalling and protein synthesis and folding. The ER moreover is the central player in the formation of contact sites with other organelles and structures, including mitochondria, plasma membrane (PM) and endosomes. The most studied of these, the ER-mitochondria contact sites, are crucial regulators of cellular Ca(2+)homoeostasis, metabolism and cell death signalling. Protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), an ER stress kinase and crucial signalling protein in the unfolded protein response (UPR), was found to be able to orchestrate contact sites between the ER and mitochondria and to be indispensable for the pre-apoptotic trafficking of calreticulin (CRT) at the PM during immunogenic cell death (ICD). Furthermore, PERK has recently been linked with ER and PM contact sites through the mechanism of store-operated Ca(2+)entry (SOCE). Here we discuss emerging findings disclosing novel roles of the ER stress sensor PERK in orchestrating inter-organellar communication in the context of ER stress. PMID:27068961

  13. Plasma membrane localization and function of the estrogen receptor α variant (ER46) in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Haynes, M. Page; Bender, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) α variants have been identified in an array of nonendothelial cells. We previously demonstrated that estrogen rapidly induces nitric oxide release via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway in EA.hy926 cells (immortalized human endothelial cells), which express a 46-kDa ER. We now confirm that, due to alternative splicing, the 46-kDa endothelial cell protein (ER46) is an amino-terminal truncated product of full-length ERα (ER66). ER46 is expressed in the plasma membrane, cytosol, and nucleus of resting, estrogen-deprived cells. Flow cytometric and immunofluorescence microscopic analyses demonstrated that the ER46 C but not N terminus is Ab-accessible in the plasma membrane. Inhibition of palmitoylation with tunicamycin and [3H]palmitic acid labeling demonstrated an estrogen-induced, palmitoylation-dependent plasma membrane ER46 recruitment, with reorganization into caveolae. In reconstituted, estrogen-stimulated COS-7 (ER-null) cells, membrane ER46 more efficiently triggered membrane eNOS phosphorylation than ER66. Conversely, ER66 more efficiently mediated estrogen response element reporter-gene transactivation than ER46. These results demonstrate that ER46 is localized and further dynamically targeted to the plasma membrane in a palmitoylation-dependent manner. ER46 more efficiently modulates membrane-initiated estrogen actions, including eNOS activation, than full-length ER66. These findings may have important implications in vascular-specific targeting of estrogen receptor agonists. PMID:12682286

  14. Entangled in a membranous web: ER and lipid droplet reorganization during hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Nathan L; Fontaine, Krystal A; Kumar, G Renuka; Ott, Melanie

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. To establish and maintain chronic infection, HCV extensively rearranges cellular organelles to generate distinct compartments for viral RNA replication and virion assembly. Here, we review our current knowledge of how HCV proliferates and remodels ER-derived membranes while preserving and expanding associated lipid droplets during viral infection. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms responsible for HCV-induced membrane reorganization will enhance our understanding of the HCV life-cycle, the associated liver pathology, and the biology of the ER:lipid droplet interface in general. PMID:27240021

  15. Triggered Ca2+ influx is required for extended synaptotagmin 1-induced ER-plasma membrane tethering

    PubMed Central

    Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Lü, Alice; Xie, Beichen; De Camilli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) are ER proteins that act as Ca2+-regulated tethers between the ER and the plasma membrane (PM) and have a putative role in lipid transport between the two membranes. Ca2+ regulation of their tethering function, as well as the interplay of their different domains in such function, remains poorly understood. By exposing semi-intact cells to buffers of variable Ca2+ concentrations, we found that binding of E-Syt1 to the PI(4,5)P2-rich PM critically requires its C2C and C2E domains and that the EC50 of such binding is in the low micromolar Ca2+ range. Accordingly, E-Syt1 accumulation at ER-PM contact sites occurred only upon experimental manipulations known to achieve these levels of Ca2+ via its influx from the extracellular medium, such as store-operated Ca2+ entry in fibroblasts and membrane depolarization in β-cells. We also show that in spite of their very different physiological functions, membrane tethering by E-Syt1 (ER to PM) and by synaptotagmin (secretory vesicles to PM) undergo a similar regulation by plasma membrane lipids and cytosolic Ca2+. PMID:26202220

  16. Er:YAG delamination of immersed biological membranes using sealed flexible hollow waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi-Dolev, A. M.; Dror, Jacob; Inberg, Alexandra; Ferencz, J. R.; Croitoru, Nathan I.

    1996-04-01

    The radiation of Er-YAG laser ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometer) gives selective interaction with tissues. The extinction in soft tissues is only a few micrometers and in hard tissues is of the order of hundreds of micrometers. This makes this type of laser very suitable for treatments in dentistry, orthopedy, or ophthalmology. Because the usual silica fibers are not transmitting the radiation at lambda equals 2.94 micrometer of this laser, many applications cannot be presently performed. Fused silica hollow fibers for Er-YAG radiation were developed in our laboratory and several possible applications in dentistry, orthopedy and ophthalmology were indicated. Hole opening and implantation preparation of teeth were experimented, using Er-YAG laser and hollow plastic waveguide delivery systems. Hole drilling in cow bones was demonstrated for applications in orthopedy. A new procedure of delivering Er-YAG radiation on fibrotic membranes of inner eggshell as a model of the membranes in eyes was developed employing silica hollow waveguides of 0.5 and 0.7 mm ID or a plastic waveguide of 1.0 mm ID. For this purpose waveguides with sealed distal tip were employed to enable us to approach the delivery system through liquid media near to the membrane. This experiment demonstrates the possibility of surgical applications in vitectomy in ophthalmology using Er-YAG laser and silica hollow waveguides.

  17. Er:YAG delamination of dense biological membranes using flexible hollow waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi-Dolev, A. M.; Dror, Jacob; Inberg, Alexandra; Croitoru, Nathan I.

    1995-01-01

    Fused silica flexible hollow wave guides developed at TAU were used to deliver Er-YAG laser radiation to a biological membrane model. The model was composed of fibrotic (inner egg shell) membranes that were either brushed with or immersed in physiological saline solution. Waveguides used included fibers with an inner diameter of 0.7 mm and 0.5 mm. Membrane aperture size and fiber output power density were obtained. Results for the 0.5 mm waveguides yielded average apertures of 100 micrometer length at a power density of 5.35 W/cm2 and threshold fluence of 10 mJ/cm2 for exposed membranes and 35 mJ/cm2 for wet membranes. The results indicate that this waveguide can be used to cut dense membranes, finally, we have succeeded in delaminating immersed membranes using a sealed waveguide. These results show the applicability of using fused silica flexible hollow waveguides for Er-YAG surgical applications of dense membranes in aqueous surroundings such as vitrectomy and posterio-copsulectomy in ophthalmology, and possibly for procedures involving pleural membranes.

  18. ER network formation and membrane fusion by atlastin1/SPG3A disease variants

    PubMed Central

    Ulengin, Idil; Park, John J.; Lee, Tina H.

    2015-01-01

    At least 38 distinct missense mutations in the neuronal atlastin1/SPG3A GTPase are implicated in an autosomal dominant form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a motor-neurological disorder manifested by lower limb weakness and spasticity and length-dependent axonopathy of corticospinal motor neurons. Because the atlastin GTPase is sufficient to catalyze membrane fusion and required to form the ER network, at least in nonneuronal cells, it is logically assumed that defects in ER membrane morphogenesis due to impaired fusion activity are the primary drivers of SPG3A-associated HSP. Here we analyzed a subset of established atlastin1/SPG3A disease variants using cell-based assays for atlastin-mediated ER network formation and biochemical assays for atlastin-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis, dimer formation, and membrane fusion. As anticipated, some variants exhibited clear deficits. Surprisingly however, at least two disease variants, one of which represents that most frequently identified in SPG3A HSP patients, displayed wild-type levels of activity in all assays. The same variants were also capable of co-redistributing ER-localized REEP1, a recently identified function of atlastins that requires its catalytic activity. Taken together, these findings indicate that a deficit in the membrane fusion activity of atlastin1 may be a key contributor, but is not required, for HSP causation. PMID:25761634

  19. ER network formation and membrane fusion by atlastin1/SPG3A disease variants.

    PubMed

    Ulengin, Idil; Park, John J; Lee, Tina H

    2015-05-01

    At least 38 distinct missense mutations in the neuronal atlastin1/SPG3A GTPase are implicated in an autosomal dominant form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a motor-neurological disorder manifested by lower limb weakness and spasticity and length-dependent axonopathy of corticospinal motor neurons. Because the atlastin GTPase is sufficient to catalyze membrane fusion and required to form the ER network, at least in nonneuronal cells, it is logically assumed that defects in ER membrane morphogenesis due to impaired fusion activity are the primary drivers of SPG3A-associated HSP. Here we analyzed a subset of established atlastin1/SPG3A disease variants using cell-based assays for atlastin-mediated ER network formation and biochemical assays for atlastin-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis, dimer formation, and membrane fusion. As anticipated, some variants exhibited clear deficits. Surprisingly however, at least two disease variants, one of which represents that most frequently identified in SPG3A HSP patients, displayed wild-type levels of activity in all assays. The same variants were also capable of co-redistributing ER-localized REEP1, a recently identified function of atlastins that requires its catalytic activity. Taken together, these findings indicate that a deficit in the membrane fusion activity of atlastin1 may be a key contributor, but is not required, for HSP causation. PMID:25761634

  20. The ubiquitous and ancient ER membrane protein complex (EMC): tether or not?

    PubMed Central

    Wideman, Jeremy G.

    2015-01-01

    The recently discovered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex (EMC) has been implicated in ER-associated degradation (ERAD), lipid transport and tethering between the ER and mitochondrial outer membranes, and assembly of multipass ER-membrane proteins. The EMC has been studied in both animals and fungi but its presence outside the Opisthokont clade (animals + fungi + related protists) has not been demonstrated. Here, using homology-searching algorithms, I show that the EMC is truly an ancient and conserved protein complex, present in every major eukaryotic lineage. Very few organisms have completely lost the EMC, and most, even over 2 billion years of eukaryote evolution, have retained a majority of the complex members. I identify Sop4 and YDR056C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Emc7 and Emc10, respectively, subunits previously thought to be specific to animals. This study demonstrates that the EMC was present in the last eukaryote common ancestor (LECA) and is an extremely important component of eukaryotic cells even though its primary function remains elusive. PMID:26512320

  1. Annexin A1 Tethers Membrane Contact Sites that Mediate ER to Endosome Cholesterol Transport.

    PubMed

    Eden, Emily R; Sanchez-Heras, Elena; Tsapara, Anna; Sobota, Andrzej; Levine, Tim P; Futter, Clare E

    2016-06-01

    Membrane contact sites between the ER and multivesicular endosomes/bodies (MVBs) play important roles in endosome positioning and fission and in neurite outgrowth. ER-MVB contacts additionally function in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase downregulation by providing sites where the ER-localized phosphatase, PTP1B, interacts with endocytosed EGFR before the receptor is sorted onto intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). Here we show that these contacts are tethered by annexin A1 and its Ca(2+)-dependent ligand, S100A11, and form a subpopulation of differentially regulated contact sites between the ER and endocytic organelles. Annexin A1-regulated contacts function in the transfer of ER-derived cholesterol to the MVB when low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in endosomes is low. This sterol traffic depends on interaction between ER-localized VAP and endosomal oxysterol-binding protein ORP1L, and is required for the formation of ILVs within the MVB and thus for the spatial regulation of EGFR signaling. PMID:27270042

  2. Physiological lipid composition is vital for homotypic ER membrane fusion mediated by the dynamin-related GTPase Sey1p

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Shintaro; Mima, Joji

    2016-01-01

    Homotypic fusion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is required for generating and maintaining the characteristic reticular ER membrane structures. This organelle membrane fusion process depends on the ER-bound dynamin-related GTPases, such as atlastins in animals and Sey1p in yeast. Here, to investigate whether specific lipid molecules facilitate GTPase-dependent ER membrane fusion directly, we comprehensively evaluated membrane docking and lipid mixing of reconstituted proteoliposomes bearing purified Sey1p and a set of ER-mimicking lipids, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and ergosterol. Remarkably, we revealed that each specific lipid species contributed little to membrane docking mediated by Sey1p. Nevertheless, Sey1p-dependent lipid mixing was strongly reduced by omitting three major acidic lipids from the ER-mimicking set and, moreover, was entirely abolished by omitting either phosphatidylethanolamine or ergosterol. Our reconstitution studies thus established that physiological lipid composition is vital for lipid bilayer rearrangements in GTPase-mediated homotypic ER membrane fusion. PMID:26838333

  3. Subcellular Fractionation Analysis of the Extraction of Ubiquitinated Polytopic Membrane Substrate during ER-Associated Degradation.

    PubMed

    Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Kamura, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    During ER-associated degradation (ERAD), misfolded polytopic membrane proteins are ubiquitinated and retrotranslocated to the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. However, our understanding as to how polytopic membrane proteins are extracted from the ER to the cytosol remains largely unclear. To better define the localization and physical properties of ubiquitinated polytopic membrane substrates in vivo, we performed subcellular fractionation analysis of Ste6*, a twelve transmembrane protein that is ubiquitinated primarily by Doa10 E3 ligase in yeast. Consistent with previous in vitro studies, ubiquitinated Ste6* was extracted from P20 (20,000 g pellet) fraction to S20 (20,000 g supernatant) fraction in a Cdc48/p97-dependent manner. Similarly, Ubx2p, which recruits Cdc48/p97 to the ER, facilitated the extraction of Ste6*. By contrast, lipid droplet formation, which was suggested to be dispensable for the degradation of Hrd1-substrates in yeast, was not required for the degradation of Ste6*. Intriguingly, we found that ubiquitinated Ste6* in the S20 fraction could be enriched by further centrifugation at 100,000 g. Although it is currently uncertain whether ubiquitinated Ste6* in P100 fraction is completely free from any lipids, membrane flotation analysis suggested the existence of two distinct populations of ubiquitinated Ste6* with different states of membrane association. Together, these results imply that ubiquitinated Ste6* may be sequestered into a putative quality control sub-structure by Cdc48/p97. Fractionation assays developed in the present study provide a means to further dissect the ill-defined post-ubiquitination step during ERAD of polytopic membrane substrates. PMID:26849222

  4. Geranylgeranyl-regulated transport of the prenyltransferase UBIAD1 between membranes of the ER and Golgi.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Marc M; Jun, Dong-Jae; Jo, Youngah; Seemann, Joachim; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A

    2016-07-01

    UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1) utilizes geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) to synthesize the vitamin K2 subtype menaquinone-4. Previously, we found that sterols trigger binding of UBIAD1 to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, including GGpp. This binding inhibits sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase, which contributes to feedback regulation of the enzyme. The addition to cells of geranylgeraniol (GGOH), which can become converted to GGpp, triggers release of UBIAD1 from reductase, allowing for its maximal degradation and permitting ER-to-Golgi transport of UBIAD1. Here, we further characterize geranylgeranyl-regulated transport of UBIAD1. Results of this characterization support a model in which UBIAD1 continuously cycles between the ER and medial-trans Golgi of isoprenoid-replete cells. Upon sensing a decline of GGpp in ER membranes, UBIAD1 becomes trapped in the organelle where it inhibits reductase degradation. Mutant forms of UBIAD1 associated with Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD), a human eye disease characterized by corneal accumulation of cholesterol, are sequestered in the ER and block reductase degradation. Collectively, these findings disclose a novel sensing mechanism that allows for stringent metabolic control of intracellular trafficking of UBIAD1, which directly modulates reductase degradation and becomes disrupted in SCD. PMID:27121042

  5. Transmembrane domain-dependent sorting of proteins to the ER and plasma membrane in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, J C; Pelham, H R

    1997-01-01

    Sorting of membrane proteins between compartments of the secretory pathway is mediated in part by their transmembrane domains (TMDs). In animal cells, TMD length is a major factor in Golgi retention. In yeast, the role of TMD signals is less clear; it has been proposed that membrane proteins travel by default to the vacuole, and are prevented from doing so by cytoplasmic signals. We have investigated the targeting of the yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER) t-SNARE Ufe1p. We show that the amino acid sequence of the Ufe1p TMD is important for both function and ER targeting, and that the requirements for each are distinct. Targeting is independent of Rer1p, the only candidate sorting receptor for TMD sequences currently known. Lengthening the Ufe1p TMD allows transport along the secretory pathway to the vacuole or plasma membrane. The choice between these destinations is determined by the length and composition of the TMD, but not by its precise sequence. A longer TMD is required to reach the plasma membrane in yeast than in animal cells, and shorter TMDs direct proteins to the vacuole. TMD-based sorting is therefore a general feature of the yeast secretory pathway, but occurs by different mechanisms at different points. PMID:9155009

  6. A Conserved C-terminal Element in the Yeast Doa10 and Human MARCH6 Ubiquitin Ligases Required for Selective Substrate Degradation.

    PubMed

    Zattas, Dimitrios; Berk, Jason M; Kreft, Stefan G; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Specific proteins are modified by ubiquitin at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are degraded by the proteasome, a process referred to as ER-associated protein degradation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two principal ER-associated protein degradation ubiquitin ligases (E3s) reside in the ER membrane, Doa10 and Hrd1. The membrane-embedded Doa10 functions in the degradation of substrates in the ER membrane, nuclear envelope, cytoplasm, and nucleoplasm. How most E3 ligases, including Doa10, recognize their protein substrates remains poorly understood. Here we describe a previously unappreciated but highly conserved C-terminal element (CTE) in Doa10; this cytosolically disposed 16-residue motif follows the final transmembrane helix. A conserved CTE asparagine residue is required for ubiquitylation and degradation of a subset of Doa10 substrates. Such selectivity suggests that the Doa10 CTE is involved in substrate discrimination and not general ligase function. Functional conservation of the CTE was investigated in the human ortholog of Doa10, MARCH6 (TEB4), by analyzing MARCH6 autoregulation of its own degradation. Mutation of the conserved Asn residue (N890A) in the MARCH6 CTE stabilized the normally short lived enzyme to the same degree as a catalytically inactivating mutation (C9A). We also report the localization of endogenous MARCH6 to the ER using epitope tagging of the genomic MARCH6 locus by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome editing. These localization and CTE analyses support the inference that MARCH6 and Doa10 are functionally similar. Moreover, our results with the yeast enzyme suggest that the CTE is involved in the recognition and/or ubiquitylation of specific protein substrates. PMID:27068744

  7. The formation and function of ER-endosome membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Eden, Emily R

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in membrane contact site (MCS) biology have revealed key roles for MCSs in inter-organellar exchange, the importance of which is becoming increasingly apparent. Roles for MCSs in many essential physiological processes including lipid transfer, calcium exchange, receptor tyrosine kinase signalling, lipid droplet formation, autophagosome formation, organelle dynamics and neurite outgrowth have been reported. The ER forms an extensive and dynamic network of MCSs with a diverse range of functionally distinct organelles. MCSs between the ER and endocytic pathway are particularly abundant, suggesting important physiological roles. Here, our current knowledge of the formation and function of ER contact sites with endocytic organelles from studies in mammalian systems is reviewed. Their relatively poorly defined molecular composition and recently identified functions are discussed. In addition, likely, but yet to be established, roles for these contacts in lipid transfer and calcium signalling are considered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. PMID:26898183

  8. Sec35p, a Novel Peripheral Membrane Protein, Is Required for ER to Golgi Vesicle Docking

    PubMed Central

    VanRheenen, Susan M.; Cao, Xiaochun; Lupashin, Vladimir V.; Barlowe, Charles; Gerard Waters, M.

    1998-01-01

    SEC35 was identified in a novel screen for temperature-sensitive mutants in the secretory pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Wuestehube et al., 1996. Genetics. 142:393–406). At the restrictive temperature, the sec35-1 strain exhibits a transport block between the ER and the Golgi apparatus and accumulates numerous vesicles. SEC35 encodes a novel cytosolic protein of 32 kD, peripherally associated with membranes. The temperature-sensitive phenotype of sec35-1 is efficiently suppressed by YPT1, which encodes the rab-like GTPase required early in the secretory pathway, or by SLY1-20, which encodes a dominant form of the ER to Golgi target -SNARE–associated protein Sly1p. Weaker suppression is evident upon overexpression of genes encoding the vesicle-SNAREs SEC22, BET1, or YKT6. The cold-sensitive lethality that results from deleting SEC35 is suppressed by YPT1 or SLY1-20. These genetic relationships suggest that Sec35p acts upstream of, or in conjunction with, Ypt1p and Sly1p as was previously found for Uso1p. Using a cell-free assay that measures distinct steps in vesicle transport from the ER to the Golgi, we find Sec35p is required for a vesicle docking stage catalyzed by Uso1p. These genetic and biochemical results suggest Sec35p acts with Uso1p to dock ER-derived vesicles to the Golgi complex. PMID:9606204

  9. An N-Terminal ER Export Signal Facilitates the Plasma Membrane Targeting of HCN1 Channels in Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuan; Laird, Joseph G.; Yamaguchi, David M.; Baker, Sheila A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated 1 (HCN1) channels are widely expressed in the retina. In photoreceptors, the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) carried by HCN1 is important for shaping the light response. It has been shown in multiple systems that trafficking HCN1 channels to specific compartments is key to their function. The localization of HCN1 in photoreceptors is concentrated in the plasma membrane of the inner segment (IS). The mechanisms controlling this localization are not understood. We previously identified a di-arginine endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention motif that negatively regulates the surface targeting of HCN1. In this study, we sought to identify a forward trafficking signal that could counter the function of the ER retention signal. Methods. We studied trafficking of HCN1 and several mutants by imaging their subcellular localization in transgenic X. laevis photoreceptors. Velocity sedimentation was used to assay the assembly state of HCN1 channels. Results. We found the HCN1 N-terminus can redirect a membrane reporter from outer segments (OS) to the plasma membrane of the IS. The sequence necessary for this behavior was mapped to a 20 amino acid region containing a leucine-based ER export motif. The ER export signal is necessary for forward trafficking but not channel oligomerization. Moreover, this ER export signal alone counteracted the di-arginine ER retention signal. Conclusions. We identified an ER export signal in HCN1 that functions with the ER retention signal to maintain equilibrium of HCN1 between the endomembrane system and the plasma membrane. PMID:26030105

  10. A Novel Signaling Pathway Mediated by the Nuclear Targeting of C-Terminal Fragments of Mammalian Patched 1

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, Hiroki; Shino, Yuka; Kobayashi, Daigo; Demizu, Syunsuke; Shimada, Masumi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Kawahara, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Patched 1 (Ptc1) is a polytopic receptor protein that is essential for growth and differentiation. Its extracellular domains accept its ligand, Sonic Hedgehog, while the function of its C-terminal intracellular domain is largely obscure. Principal Findings In this study, we stably expressed human Ptc1 protein in HeLa cells and found that it is subjected to proteolytic cleavage at the C-terminus, resulting in the generation of soluble C-terminal fragments. These fragments accumulated in the nucleus, while the N-terminal region of Ptc1 remained in the cytoplasmic membrane fractions. Using an anti-Ptc1 C-terminal domain antibody, we provide conclusive evidence that C-terminal fragments of endogenous Ptc1 accumulate in the nucleus of C3H10T1/2 cells. Similar nuclear accumulation of endogenous C-terminal fragments was observed not only in C3H10T1/2 cells but also in mouse embryonic primary cells. Importantly, the C-terminal fragments of Ptc1 modulate transcriptional activity of Gli1. Conclusions Although Ptc1 protein was originally thought to be restricted to cell membrane fractions, our findings suggest that its C-terminal fragments can function as an alternative signal transducer that is directly transported to the cell nucleus. PMID:21533246

  11. Macoilin, a Conserved Nervous System–Specific ER Membrane Protein That Regulates Neuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Africa; Cheung, Benny H. H.; Labouesse, Michel; de Bono, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Genome sequence comparisons have highlighted many novel gene families that are conserved across animal phyla but whose biological function is unknown. Here, we functionally characterize a member of one such family, the macoilins. Macoilins are characterized by several highly conserved predicted transmembrane domains towards the N-terminus and by coiled-coil regions C-terminally. They are found throughout Eumetazoa but not in other organisms. Mutants for the single Caenorhabditis elegans macoilin, maco-1, exhibit a constellation of behavioral phenotypes, including defects in aggregation, O2 responses, and swimming. MACO-1 protein is expressed broadly and specifically in the nervous system and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum; it is excluded from dendrites and axons. Apart from subtle synapse defects, nervous system development appears wild-type in maco-1 mutants. However, maco-1 animals are resistant to the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb and sensitive to levamisole, suggesting pre-synaptic defects. Using in vivo imaging, we show that macoilin is required to evoke Ca2+ transients, at least in some neurons: in maco-1 mutants the O2-sensing neuron PQR is unable to generate a Ca2+ response to a rise in O2. By genetically disrupting neurotransmission, we show that pre-synaptic input is not necessary for PQR to respond to O2, indicating that the response is mediated by cell-intrinsic sensory transduction and amplification. Disrupting the sodium leak channels NCA-1/NCA-2, or the N-,P/Q,R-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, also fails to disrupt Ca2+ responses in the PQR cell body to O2 stimuli. By contrast, mutations in egl-19, which encodes the only Caenorhabditis elegans L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel α1 subunit, recapitulate the Ca2+ response defect we see in maco-1 mutants, although we do not see defects in localization of EGL-19. Together, our data suggest that macoilin acts in the ER to regulate assembly or traffic of ion channels or ion channel

  12. Upregulated function of mitochondria-associated ER membranes in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Area-Gomez, Estela; del Carmen Lara Castillo, Maria; Tambini, Marc D; Guardia-Laguarta, Cristina; de Groof, Ad J C; Madra, Moneek; Ikenouchi, Junichi; Umeda, Masato; Bird, Thomas D; Sturley, Stephen L; Schon, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by γ-secretase, via an unknown mechanism. We recently showed that presenilin-1 and -2, the catalytic components of γ-secretase, and γ-secretase activity itself, are highly enriched in a subcompartment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is physically and biochemically connected to mitochondria, called mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). We now show that MAM function and ER–mitochondrial communication—as measured by cholesteryl ester and phospholipid synthesis, respectively—are increased significantly in presenilin-mutant cells and in fibroblasts from patients with both the familial and sporadic forms of AD. We also show that MAM is an intracellular detergent-resistant lipid raft (LR)-like domain, consistent with the known presence of presenilins and γ-secretase activity in rafts. These findings may help explain not only the aberrant APP processing but also a number of other biochemical features of AD, including altered lipid metabolism and calcium homeostasis. We propose that upregulated MAM function at the ER–mitochondrial interface, and increased cross-talk between these two organelles, may play a hitherto unrecognized role in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:22892566

  13. Biochemical requirements for the targeting and fusion of ER-derived transport vesicles with purified yeast Golgi membranes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In order for secretion to progress, ER-derived transport vesicles must target to, and fuse with the cis-Golgi compartment. These processes have been reconstituted using highly enriched membrane fractions and partially purified soluble components. The functionally active yeast Golgi membranes that have been purified are highly enriched in the cis- Golgi marker enzymes alpha 1,6 mannosyltransferase and GDPase. Fusion of transport vesicles with these membranes requires both GTP and ATP hydrolysis, and depends on cytosolic and peripheral membrane proteins. At least two protein fractions from yeast cytosol are required for the reconstitution of ER-derived vesicle fusion. Soluble fractions prepared from temperature-sensitive mutants revealed requirements for the Ypt1p, Sec19p, Sly1p, Sec7p, and Uso1 proteins. A model for the sequential involvement of these components in the targeting and fusion reaction is proposed. PMID:8636207

  14. Oligomerization of the UapA Purine Transporter Is Critical for ER-Exit, Plasma Membrane Localization and Turnover.

    PubMed

    Martzoukou, Olga; Karachaliou, Mayia; Yalelis, Vassilis; Leung, James; Byrne, Bernadette; Amillis, Sotiris; Diallinas, George

    2015-08-14

    Central to the process of transmembrane cargo trafficking is the successful folding and exit from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) through packaging in COPII vesicles. Here, we use the UapA purine transporter of Aspergillus nidulans to investigate the role of cargo oligomerization in membrane trafficking. We show that UapA oligomerizes (at least dimerizes) and that oligomerization persists upon UapA endocytosis and vacuolar sorting. Using a validated bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, we provide evidence that a UapA oligomerization is associated with ER-exit and turnover, as ER-retained mutants due to either modification of a Tyr-based N-terminal motif or partial misfolding physically associate but do not associate properly. Co-expression of ER-retained mutants with wild-type UapA leads to in trans plasma membrane localization of the former, confirming that oligomerization initiates in the ER. Genetic suppression of an N-terminal mutation in the Tyr motif and mutational analysis suggest that transmembrane α-helix 7 affects the oligomerization interface. Our results reveal that transporter oligomerization is essential for membrane trafficking and turnover and is a common theme in fungi and mammalian cells. PMID:26049015

  15. Site-specific Proteolysis Mobilizes TorsinA from the Membrane of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in Response to ER Stress and B Cell Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenguang; Brown, Rebecca S H; Tang, Chih-Hang Anthony; Hu, Chih-Chi Andrew; Schlieker, Christian

    2016-04-29

    Torsin ATPases are the only representatives of the AAA+ ATPase family that reside in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope. Two of these, TorsinA and TorsinB, are anchored to the ER membrane by virtue of an N-terminal hydrophobic domain. Here we demonstrate that the imposition of ER stress leads to a proteolytic cleavage event that selectively removes the hydrophobic domain from the AAA+ domain of TorsinA, which retains catalytic activity. Both the pharmacological inhibition profile and the identified cleavage site between two juxtaposed cysteine residues are distinct from those of presently known proteases, suggesting that a hitherto uncharacterized, membrane-associated protease accounts for TorsinA processing. This processing occurs not only in stress-exposed cell lines but also in primary cells from distinct organisms including stimulated B cells, indicating that Torsin conversion in response to physiologically relevant stimuli is an evolutionarily conserved process. By establishing 5-nitroisatin as a cell-permeable inhibitor for Torsin processing, we provide the methodological framework for interfering with Torsin processing in a wide range of primary cells without the need for genetic manipulation. PMID:26953341

  16. Distinct mechanisms regulating mechanical force-induced Ca2+ signals at the plasma membrane and the ER in human MSCs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Jin; Joo, Chirlmin; Seong, Jihye; Vafabakhsh, Reza; Botvinick, Elliot L; Berns, Michael W; Palmer, Amy E; Wang, Ning; Ha, Taekjip; Jakobsson, Eric; Sun, Jie; Wang, Yingxiao

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear that how subcellular organelles respond to external mechanical stimuli. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which mechanical force regulates Ca2+ signaling at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in human mesenchymal stem cells. Without extracellular Ca2+, ER Ca2+ release is the source of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations induced by laser-tweezer-traction at the plasma membrane, providing a model to study how mechanical stimuli can be transmitted deep inside the cell body. This ER Ca2+ release upon mechanical stimulation is mediated not only by the mechanical support of cytoskeleton and actomyosin contractility, but also by mechanosensitive Ca2+ permeable channels on the plasma membrane, specifically TRPM7. However, Ca2+ influx at the plasma membrane via mechanosensitive Ca2+ permeable channels is only mediated by the passive cytoskeletal structure but not active actomyosin contractility. Thus, active actomyosin contractility is essential for the response of ER to the external mechanical stimuli, distinct from the mechanical regulation at the plasma membrane. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04876.001 PMID:25667984

  17. Membrane contacts between endosomes and ER provide sites for PTP1B-epidermal growth factor receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Eden, Emily R; White, Ian J; Tsapara, Anna; Futter, Clare E

    2010-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a critical determinator of cell fate. Signalling from this receptor tyrosine kinase is spatially regulated by progression through the endocytic pathway, governing receptor half-life and accessibility to signalling proteins and phosphatases. Endocytosis of EGFR is required for interaction with the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B (ref. 1), which localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), raising the question of how PTP1B comes into contact with endosomal EGFR. We show that EGFR-PTP1B interaction occurs by means of direct membrane contacts between the perimeter membrane of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and the ER. The population of EGFR interacting with PTP1B is the same population that undergo ESCRT-mediated (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) sorting within MVBs, and PTP1B activity promotes the sequestration of EGFR on to MVB internal vesicles. Membrane contacts between endosomes and the ER form in both the presence and absence of stimulation by EGF. Thus membrane contacts between endosomes and the ER may represent a global mechanism for direct interaction between proteins on these two organelles. PMID:20118922

  18. Lipid-sorting by ceramide structure from plasma membrane to ER for the cholera toxin receptor ganglioside GM1

    PubMed Central

    Chinnapen, Daniel J.-F.; Hsieh, Wan-Ting; te Welscher, Yvonne M.; Saslowsky, David E.; Kaoutzani, Lydia; Brandsma, Eelke; D’Auria, Ludovic; Park, Hyejung; Wagner, Jessica S.; Drake, Kimberly R.; Kang, Minchul; Benjamin, Thomas; Ullman, M. David; Costello, Catherine E.; Kenworthy, Anne K.; Baumgart, Tobias; Massol, Ramiro H.; Lencer, Wayne I.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The glycosphingolipid GM1 binds cholera toxin (CT) on host cells and carries it retrograde from the plasma membrane (PM) through endosomes, the trans-Golgi (TGN), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to induce toxicity. To elucidate how a membrane lipid can specify trafficking in these pathways, we synthesized GM1 isoforms with alternate ceramide domains and imaged their trafficking in live cells. Only GM1 with unsaturated acyl chains sorted efficiently from PM to TGN and ER. Toxin binding, which effectively crosslinks GM1 lipids, was dispensable, but membrane cholesterol and the lipid raft-associated proteins actin and flotillin were required. The results implicate a protein-dependent mechanism of lipid-sorting by ceramide structure and provide a molecular explanation for the diversity and specificity of retrograde trafficking by CT in host cells. PMID:22975326

  19. Localization of the hydrophilic C terminal part of the ATP synthase subunit 8 of saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Velours, J.; Guerin, B.

    1986-07-16

    The hydrophobic subunit 8 of the yeast ATP synthase was modified using the non-penetrating amino reactive specific reagent: isethionylacetimidate. The polypeptide was modified when using the isolated ATP synthase and sodium bromide-treated submitochondrial particles. It is shown that the only lysine of the protein was modified by the reagent. It is concluded that the hydrophilic C terminal part of the protein containing lysine 47 is located on the inner side of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  20. Cysteine-rich toxins from Lachesana tarabaevi spider venom with amphiphilic C-terminal segments.

    PubMed

    Kuzmenkov, Alexey I; Fedorova, Irina M; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Grishin, Eugene V

    2013-02-01

    Venom of Lachesana tarabaevi (Zodariidae, "ant spiders") exhibits high insect toxicity and serves a rich source of potential insecticides. Five new peptide toxins active against insects were isolated from the venom by means of liquid chromatography and named latartoxins (LtTx). Complete amino acid sequences of LtTx (60-71 residues) were established by a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and selective proteolysis. Three toxins have eight cysteine residues that form four intramolecular disulfide bridges, and two other molecules contain an additional cystine; three LtTx are C-terminally amidated. Latartoxins can be allocated to two groups with members similar to CSTX and LSTX toxins from Cupiennius salei (Ctenidae) and Lycosa singoriensis (Lycosidae). The interesting feature of the new toxins is their modular organization: they contain an N-terminal cysteine-rich (knottin or ICK) region as in many neurotoxins from spider venoms and a C-terminal linear part alike some cytolytic peptides. The C-terminal fragment of one of the most abundant toxins LtTx-1a was synthesized and shown to possess membrane-binding activity. It was found to assume amphipathic α-helical conformation in membrane-mimicking environment and exert antimicrobial activity at micromolar concentrations. The tails endow latartoxins with the ability to bind and damage membranes; LtTx show cytolytic activity in fly larvae neuromuscular preparations. We suggest a membrane-dependent mode of action for latartoxins with their C-terminal linear modules acting as anchoring devices. PMID:23088912

  1. Degradation of C-terminal tag sequences on domain antibodies purified from E. coli supernatant.

    PubMed

    Lykkemark, Simon; Mandrup, Ole Aalund; Friis, Niels Anton; Kristensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Expression of recombinant proteins often takes advantage of peptide tags expressed in fusion to allow easy detection and purification of the expressed proteins. However, as the fusion peptides most often are flexible appendages at the N- or C-terminal, proteolytic cleavage may result in removal of the tag sequence. Here, we evaluated the functionality and stability of 14 different combinations of commonly used tags for purification and detection of recombinant antibody fragments. The tag sequences were inserted in fusion with the c-terminal end of a domain antibody based on the HEL4 scaffold in a phagemid vector. This particular antibody fragment was able to refold on the membrane after blotting, allowing us to detect c-terminal tag breakdown by use of protein A in combination with detection of the tags in the specific constructs. The degradation of the c-terminal tags suggested specific sites to be particularly prone to proteolytic cleavage, leaving some of the tag combinations partially or completely degraded. This specific work illustrates the importance of tag design with regard to recombinant antibody expression in E. coli, but also aids the more general understanding of protein expression. PMID:25426869

  2. Degradation of C-terminal tag sequences on domain antibodies purified from E. coli supernatant

    PubMed Central

    Lykkemark, Simon; Mandrup, Ole Aalund; Friis, Niels Anton; Kristensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Expression of recombinant proteins often takes advantage of peptide tags expressed in fusion to allow easy detection and purification of the expressed proteins. However, as the fusion peptides most often are flexible appendages at the N- or C-terminal, proteolytic cleavage may result in removal of the tag sequence. Here, we evaluated the functionality and stability of 14 different combinations of commonly used tags for purification and detection of recombinant antibody fragments. The tag sequences were inserted in fusion with the c-terminal end of a domain antibody based on the HEL4 scaffold in a phagemid vector. This particular antibody fragment was able to refold on the membrane after blotting, allowing us to detect c-terminal tag breakdown by use of protein A in combination with detection of the tags in the specific constructs. The degradation of the c-terminal tags suggested specific sites to be particularly prone to proteolytic cleavage, leaving some of the tag combinations partially or completely degraded. This specific work illustrates the importance of tag design with regard to recombinant antibody expression in E. coli, but also aids the more general understanding of protein expression. PMID:25426869

  3. Cooperation of the ER-shaping proteins atlastin, lunapark, and reticulons to generate a tubular membrane network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songyu; Tukachinsky, Hanna; Romano, Fabian B; Rapoport, Tom A

    2016-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contains a network of membrane tubules, which transitions into sheets during mitosis. Network formation involves curvature-stabilizing proteins, including the reticulons (Rtns), as well as the membrane-fusing GTPase atlastin (ATL) and the lunapark protein (Lnp). Here, we have analyzed how these proteins cooperate. ATL is needed to not only form, but also maintain, the ER network. Maintenance requires a balance between ATL and Rtn, as too little ATL activity or too high Rtn4a concentrations cause ER fragmentation. Lnp only affects the abundance of three-way junctions and tubules. We suggest a model in which ATL-mediated fusion counteracts the instability of free tubule ends. ATL tethers and fuses tubules stabilized by the Rtns, and transiently sits in newly formed three-way junctions. Lnp subsequently moves into the junctional sheets and forms oligomers. Lnp is inactivated by mitotic phosphorylation, which contributes to the tubule-to-sheet conversion of the ER. PMID:27619977

  4. Autophagy-Related Direct Membrane Import from ER/Cytoplasm into the Vacuole or Apoplast: A Hidden Gateway also for Secondary Metabolites and Phytohormones?

    PubMed Central

    Kulich, Ivan; Žárský, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Transportation of low molecular weight cargoes into the plant vacuole represents an essential plant cell function. Several lines of evidence indicate that autophagy-related direct endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to vacuole (and also, apoplast) transport plays here a more general role than expected. This route is regulated by autophagy proteins, including recently discovered involvement of the exocyst subcomplex. Traffic from ER into the vacuole bypassing Golgi apparatus (GA) acts not only in stress-related cytoplasm recycling or detoxification, but also in developmentally-regulated biopolymer and secondary metabolite import into the vacuole (or apoplast), exemplified by storage proteins and anthocyanins. We propose that this pathway is relevant also for some phytohormones’ (e.g., auxin, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA)) degradation. We hypothesize that SA is not only an autophagy inducer, but also a cargo for autophagy-related ER to vacuole membrane container delivery and catabolism. ER membrane localized enzymes will potentially enhance the area of biosynthetic reactive surfaces, and also, abundant ER localized membrane importers (e.g., ABC transporters) will internalize specific molecular species into the autophagosome biogenesis domain of ER. Such active ER domains may create tubular invaginations of tonoplast into the vacuoles as import intermediates. Packaging of cargos into the ER-derived autophagosome-like containers might be an important mechanism of vacuole and exosome biogenesis and cytoplasm protection against toxic metabolites. A new perspective on metabolic transformations intimately linked to membrane trafficking in plants is emerging. PMID:24786101

  5. Aberrant Accumulation of the Diabetes Autoantigen GAD65 in Golgi Membranes in Conditions of ER Stress and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Edward A; Cianciaruso, Chiara; Michael, Iacovos P; Pasquier, Miriella; Kanaani, Jamil; Nano, Rita; Lavallard, Vanessa; Billestrup, Nils; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Baekkeskov, Steinunn

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic islet β-cells are particularly susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is implicated in β-cell dysfunction and loss during the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The peripheral membrane protein GAD65 is an autoantigen in human T1D. GAD65 synthesizes γ-aminobutyric acid, an important autocrine and paracrine signaling molecule and a survival factor in islets. We show that ER stress in primary β-cells perturbs the palmitoylation cycle controlling GAD65 endomembrane distribution, resulting in aberrant accumulation of the palmitoylated form in trans-Golgi membranes. The palmitoylated form has heightened immunogenicity, exhibiting increased uptake by antigen-presenting cells and T-cell stimulation compared with the nonpalmitoylated form. Similar accumulation of GAD65 in Golgi membranes is observed in human β-cells in pancreatic sections from GAD65 autoantibody-positive individuals who have not yet progressed to clinical onset of T1D and from patients with T1D with residual β-cell mass and ongoing T-cell infiltration of islets. We propose that aberrant accumulation of immunogenic GAD65 in Golgi membranes facilitates inappropriate presentation to the immune system after release from stressed and/or damaged β-cells, triggering autoimmunity. PMID:27284108

  6. The ER-Membrane Transport System Is Critical for Intercellular Trafficking of the NSm Movement Protein and Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhike; Xue, Fan; Xu, Min; Chen, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Wenyang; Garcia-Murria, Maria J; Mingarro, Ismael; Liu, Yong; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Lei; Zhu, Min; Tao, Xiaorong

    2016-02-01

    Plant viruses move through plasmodesmata to infect new cells. The plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is interconnected among cells via the ER desmotubule in the plasmodesma across the cell wall, forming a continuous ER network throughout the entire plant. This ER continuity is unique to plants and has been postulated to serve as a platform for the intercellular trafficking of macromolecules. In the present study, the contribution of the plant ER membrane transport system to the intercellular trafficking of the NSm movement protein and Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) is investigated. We showed that TSWV NSm is physically associated with the ER membrane in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. An NSm-GFP fusion protein transiently expressed in single leaf cells was trafficked into neighboring cells. Mutations in NSm that impaired its association with the ER or caused its mis-localization to other subcellular sites inhibited cell-to-cell trafficking. Pharmacological disruption of the ER network severely inhibited NSm-GFP trafficking but not GFP diffusion. In the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant rhd3 with an impaired ER network, NSm-GFP trafficking was significantly reduced, whereas GFP diffusion was not affected. We also showed that the ER-to-Golgi secretion pathway and the cytoskeleton transport systems were not involved in the intercellular trafficking of TSWV NSm. Importantly, TSWV cell-to-cell spread was delayed in the ER-defective rhd3 mutant, and this reduced viral infection was not due to reduced replication. On the basis of robust biochemical, cellular and genetic analysis, we established that the ER membrane transport system serves as an important direct route for intercellular trafficking of NSm and TSWV. PMID:26863622

  7. The ER-Membrane Transport System Is Critical for Intercellular Trafficking of the NSm Movement Protein and Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhike; Xue, Fan; Xu, Min; Chen, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Wenyang; Garcia-Murria, Maria J.; Mingarro, Ismael; Liu, Yong; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Lei; Zhu, Min; Tao, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses move through plasmodesmata to infect new cells. The plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is interconnected among cells via the ER desmotubule in the plasmodesma across the cell wall, forming a continuous ER network throughout the entire plant. This ER continuity is unique to plants and has been postulated to serve as a platform for the intercellular trafficking of macromolecules. In the present study, the contribution of the plant ER membrane transport system to the intercellular trafficking of the NSm movement protein and Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) is investigated. We showed that TSWV NSm is physically associated with the ER membrane in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. An NSm-GFP fusion protein transiently expressed in single leaf cells was trafficked into neighboring cells. Mutations in NSm that impaired its association with the ER or caused its mis-localization to other subcellular sites inhibited cell-to-cell trafficking. Pharmacological disruption of the ER network severely inhibited NSm-GFP trafficking but not GFP diffusion. In the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant rhd3 with an impaired ER network, NSm-GFP trafficking was significantly reduced, whereas GFP diffusion was not affected. We also showed that the ER-to-Golgi secretion pathway and the cytoskeleton transport systems were not involved in the intercellular trafficking of TSWV NSm. Importantly, TSWV cell-to-cell spread was delayed in the ER-defective rhd3 mutant, and this reduced viral infection was not due to reduced replication. On the basis of robust biochemical, cellular and genetic analysis, we established that the ER membrane transport system serves as an important direct route for intercellular trafficking of NSm and TSWV. PMID:26863622

  8. Soluble tyrosinase is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation substrate retained in the ER by calreticulin and BiP/GRP78 and not calnexin.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Costin I; Paduraru, Crina; Dwek, Raymond A; Petrescu, Stefana M

    2005-04-01

    Tyrosinase is a type I membrane protein regulating the pigmentation process in humans. Mutations of the human tyrosinase gene cause the tyrosinase negative type I oculocutaneous albinism (OCAI). Some OCAI mutations were shown to delete the transmembrane domain or to affect its hydrophobic properties, resulting in soluble tyrosinase mutants that are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To understand the specific mechanisms involved in the ER retention of soluble tyrosinase, we have constructed a tyrosinase mutant truncated at its C-terminal end and investigated its maturation process. The mutant is retained in the ER, and it is degraded through the proteasomal pathway. We determined that the mannose trimming is required for an efficient degradation process. Moreover, this soluble ER-associated degradation substrate is stopped at the ER quality control checkpoint with no requirements for an ER-Golgi recycling pathway. Co-immmunoprecipitation experiments showed that soluble tyrosinase interacts with calreticulin and BiP/GRP78 (and not calnexin) during its ER transit. Expression of soluble tyrosinase in calreticulin-deficient cells resulted in the export of soluble tyrosinase of the ER, indicating the calreticulin role in ER retention. Taken together, these data show that OCAI soluble tyrosinase is an ER-associated degradation substrate that, unlike other albino tyrosinases, associates with calreticulin and BiP/GRP78. The lack of specificity for calnexin interaction reveals a novel role for calreticulin in OCAI albinism. PMID:15677452

  9. Evidence for the involvement of lipid rafts localized at the ER-mitochondria associated membranes in autophagosome formation.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Tina; Matarrese, Paola; Manganelli, Valeria; Marconi, Matteo; Tinari, Antonella; Gambardella, Lucrezia; Faggioni, Alberto; Misasi, Roberta; Sorice, Maurizio; Malorni, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) are subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that interact with mitochondria. This membrane scrambling between ER and mitochondria appears to play a critical role in the earliest steps of autophagy. Recently, lipid microdomains, i.e. lipid rafts, have been identified as further actors of the autophagic process. In the present work, a series of biochemical and molecular analyses has been carried out in human fibroblasts with the specific aim of characterizing lipid rafts in MAMs and to decipher their possible implication in the autophagosome formation. In fact, the presence of lipid microdomains in MAMs has been detected and, in these structures, a molecular interaction of the ganglioside GD3, a paradigmatic "brick" of lipid rafts, with core-initiator proteins of autophagy, such as AMBRA1 and WIPI1, was revealed. This association seems thus to take place in the early phases of autophagic process in which MAMs have been hypothesized to play a key role. The functional activity of GD3 was suggested by the experiments carried out by knocking down ST8SIA1 gene expression, i.e., the synthase that leads to the ganglioside formation. This experimental condition results in fact in the impairment of the ER-mitochondria crosstalk and the subsequent hindering of autophagosome nucleation. We thus hypothesize that MAM raft-like microdomains could be pivotal in the initial organelle scrambling activity that finally leads to the formation of autophagosome. PMID:27123544

  10. Reactivity of C-terminal cysteines with HNO.

    PubMed

    Keceli, Gizem; Toscano, John P

    2014-06-10

    Nitroxyl (HNO), a potential heart failure therapeutic, is known to target cysteine residues to form sulfinamides and/or disulfides. Because HNO-derived modifications may depend on their local environment, we have investigated the reactivity of HNO with cysteine derivatives and C-terminal cysteine-containing peptides at physiological pH and temperature. Our findings indicate that the nature of HNO-derived modifications of C-terminal cysteines is affected by the C-terminal carboxylate. Apart from the lack of sulfinamide formation, these studies have revealed the presence of new products, a sulfohydroxamic acid derivative (RS(O)2NHOH) and a thiosulfonate (RS(O)2SR), presumably produced under our experimental conditions via the intermediacy of a cyclic structure that is hydrolyzed to give a sulfenic acid (RSOH). Moreover, these modifications are formed independent of oxygen. PMID:24869490

  11. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the Zaire ebolavirus nucleoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Dziubańska, Paulina J.; Derewenda, Urszula; Ellena, Jeffrey F.; Engel, Daniel A.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2014-01-01

    Ebolavirus (EBOV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever with a mortality rate of up to 90%. EBOV is a member of the order Mononegavirales and, like other viruses in this taxonomic group, contains a negative-sense single-stranded (ss) RNA. The EBOV ssRNA encodes seven distinct proteins. One of them, the nucleoprotein (NP), is the most abundant viral protein in the infected cell and within the viral nucleocapsid. Like other EBOV proteins, NP is multifunctional. It is tightly associated with the viral genome and is essential for viral transcription, RNA replication, genome packaging and nucleocapsid assembly prior to membrane encapsulation. NP is unusual among the Mononegavirales in that it contains two distinct regions, or putative domains, the C-terminal of which shows no homology to any known proteins and is purported to be a hub for protein–protein interactions within the nucleocapsid. The atomic structure of NP remains unknown. Here, the boundaries of the N- and C-terminal domains of NP from Zaire EBOV are defined, it is shown that they can be expressed as highly stable recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, and the atomic structure of the C-terminal domain (residues 641–739) derived from analysis of two distinct crystal forms at 1.98 and 1.75 Å resolution is described. The structure reveals a novel tertiary fold that is distantly reminiscent of the β-grasp architecture. PMID:25195755

  12. Molecular Features of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) Regulation by C-terminal Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zan; Dempsey, Daniel R; Thomas, Stefani N; Hayward, Dawn; Bolduc, David M; Cole, Philip A

    2016-07-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor that functions to negatively regulate the PI3K/AKT pathway as the lipid phosphatase for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Phosphorylation of a cluster of Ser/Thr residues (amino acids 380-385) on the C-terminal tail serves to alter the conformational state of PTEN from an open active state to a closed inhibited state, resulting in a reduction of plasma membrane localization and inhibition of enzyme activity. The relative contribution of each phosphorylation site to PTEN autoinhibition and the structural basis for the conformational closure is still unclear. To further the structural understanding of PTEN regulation by C-terminal tail phosphorylation, we used protein semisynthesis to insert stoichiometric and site-specific phospho-Ser/Thr(s) in the C-terminal tail of PTEN. Additionally, we employed photo-cross-linking to map the intramolecular PTEN interactions of the phospho-tail. Systematic evaluation of the PTEN C-tail phospho-cluster showed autoinhibition, and conformational closure was influenced by the aggregate effect of multiple phospho-sites rather than dominated by a single phosphorylation site. Moreover, photo-cross-linking suggested a direct interaction between the PTEN C-tail and a segment in the N-terminal region of the catalytic domain. Mutagenesis experiments provided additional insights into how the PTEN phospho-tail interacts with both the C2 and catalytic domains. PMID:27226612

  13. The C-terminal domain of the transcriptional corepressor CtBP is intrinsically unstructured.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Marco; Svergun, Dmitri; Konarev, Peter V; Spanò, Stefania; Fasano, Mauro; Bracco, Chiara; Pesce, Alessandra; Donadini, Alessandra; Cericola, Claudia; Secundo, Francesco; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela; Bolognesi, Martino

    2006-05-01

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are moonlighting proteins involved in nuclear transcriptional corepression and in Golgi membrane tubule fission. Structural information on CtBPs is available for their substrate-binding domain, responsible for transcriptional repressor recognition/binding, and for the nucleotide-binding domain, involved in NAD(H)-binding and dimerization. On the contrary, little is known about the structure of CtBP C-terminal region ( approximately 90 residues), hosting sites for post-translational modifications. In the present communication we apply a combined approach based on bioinformatics, nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering, and we show that the CtBP C-terminal region is intrinsically unstructured in the full-length CtBP and in constructs lacking the substrate- and/or the nucleotide-binding domains. The flexible nature of this protein region, and its structural transitions, may be instrumental for CtBP recognition and binding to diverse molecular partners. PMID:16597837

  14. Effects of C-terminal deletions on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator function in cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Randak, Christoph; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Karp, Philip; Vermeer, Daniel; Ashbourne Excoffon, Katherine J; Welsh, Michael J

    2003-02-18

    To better understand the function of the conserved C terminus of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator, we studied constructs containing deletions in the C-terminal tail. When expressed in well differentiated CF airway epithelia, each construct localized predominantly to the apical membrane and generated transepithelial Cl(-) current. The results suggested that neither the C-terminal PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-interacting motif nor other C-terminal sequences were absolutely required for apical expression in airway epithelia. Surprisingly, deleting an acidic cluster near the C terminus reduced both channel opening rate and transepithelial Cl(-) transport, indicating that it influences channel gating. These results may help explain the relative paucity of CF-associated mutations in the C terminus. PMID:12578973

  15. Effects of C-terminal deletions on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator function in cystic fibrosis airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Randak, Christoph; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Karp, Philip; Vermeer, Daniel; Ashbourne Excoffon, Katherine J.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the function of the conserved C terminus of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator, we studied constructs containing deletions in the C-terminal tail. When expressed in well differentiated CF airway epithelia, each construct localized predominantly to the apical membrane and generated transepithelial Cl− current. The results suggested that neither the C-terminal PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-interacting motif nor other C-terminal sequences were absolutely required for apical expression in airway epithelia. Surprisingly, deleting an acidic cluster near the C terminus reduced both channel opening rate and transepithelial Cl− transport, indicating that it influences channel gating. These results may help explain the relative paucity of CF-associated mutations in the C terminus. PMID:12578973

  16. The code for directing proteins for translocation across ER membrane: SRP cotranslationally recognizes specific features of a signal sequence.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, IngMarie; Lara, Patricia; Hessa, Tara; Johnson, Arthur E; von Heijne, Gunnar; Karamyshev, Andrey L

    2015-03-27

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) cotranslationally recognizes signal sequences of secretory proteins and targets ribosome-nascent chain complexes to the SRP receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, initiating translocation of the nascent chain through the Sec61 translocon. Although signal sequences do not have homology, they have similar structural regions: a positively charged N-terminus, a hydrophobic core and a more polar C-terminal region that contains the cleavage site for the signal peptidase. Here, we have used site-specific photocrosslinking to study SRP-signal sequence interactions. A photoreactive probe was incorporated into the middle of wild-type or mutated signal sequences of the secretory protein preprolactin by in vitro translation of mRNAs containing an amber-stop codon in the signal peptide in the presence of the N(ε)-(5-azido-2 nitrobenzoyl)-Lys-tRNA(amb) amber suppressor. A homogeneous population of SRP-ribosome-nascent chain complexes was obtained by the use of truncated mRNAs in translations performed in the presence of purified canine SRP. Quantitative analysis of the photoadducts revealed that charged residues at the N-terminus of the signal sequence or in the early part of the mature protein have only a mild effect on the SRP-signal sequence association. However, deletions of amino acid residues in the hydrophobic portion of the signal sequence severely affect SRP binding. The photocrosslinking data correlate with targeting efficiency and translocation across the membrane. Thus, the hydrophobic core of the signal sequence is primarily responsible for its recognition and binding by SRP, while positive charges fine-tune the SRP-signal sequence affinity and targeting to the translocon. PMID:24979680

  17. Rhomboid intramembrane protease RHBDL4 triggers ER-export and non-canonical secretion of membrane-anchored TGFα

    PubMed Central

    Wunderle, Lina; Knopf, Julia D.; Kühnle, Nathalie; Morlé, Aymeric; Hehn, Beate; Adrain, Colin; Strisovsky, Kvido; Freeman, Matthew; Lemberg, Marius K.

    2016-01-01

    Rhomboid intramembrane proteases are the enzymes that release active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands in Drosophila and C. elegans, but little is known about their functions in mammals. Here we show that the mammalian rhomboid protease RHBDL4 (also known as Rhbdd1) promotes trafficking of several membrane proteins, including the EGFR ligand TGFα, from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus, thereby triggering their secretion by extracellular microvesicles. Our data also demonstrate that RHBDL4-dependent trafficking control is regulated by G-protein coupled receptors, suggesting a role for this rhomboid protease in pathological conditions, including EGFR signaling. We propose that RHBDL4 reorganizes trafficking events within the early secretory pathway in response to GPCR signaling. Our work identifies RHBDL4 as a rheostat that tunes secretion dynamics and abundance of specific membrane protein cargoes. PMID:27264103

  18. Rhomboid intramembrane protease RHBDL4 triggers ER-export and non-canonical secretion of membrane-anchored TGFα.

    PubMed

    Wunderle, Lina; Knopf, Julia D; Kühnle, Nathalie; Morlé, Aymeric; Hehn, Beate; Adrain, Colin; Strisovsky, Kvido; Freeman, Matthew; Lemberg, Marius K

    2016-01-01

    Rhomboid intramembrane proteases are the enzymes that release active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands in Drosophila and C. elegans, but little is known about their functions in mammals. Here we show that the mammalian rhomboid protease RHBDL4 (also known as Rhbdd1) promotes trafficking of several membrane proteins, including the EGFR ligand TGFα, from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus, thereby triggering their secretion by extracellular microvesicles. Our data also demonstrate that RHBDL4-dependent trafficking control is regulated by G-protein coupled receptors, suggesting a role for this rhomboid protease in pathological conditions, including EGFR signaling. We propose that RHBDL4 reorganizes trafficking events within the early secretory pathway in response to GPCR signaling. Our work identifies RHBDL4 as a rheostat that tunes secretion dynamics and abundance of specific membrane protein cargoes. PMID:27264103

  19. C-Terminal Protein Characterization by Mass Spectrometry: Isolation of C-Terminal Fragments from Cyanogen Bromide-Cleaved Protein

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2014-01-01

    A sample preparation method for protein C-terminal peptide isolation from cyanogen bromide (CNBr) digests has been developed. In this strategy, the analyte was reduced and carboxyamidomethylated, followed by CNBr cleavage in a one-pot reaction scheme. The digest was then adsorbed on ZipTipC18 pipette tips for conjugation of the homoserine lactone-terminated peptides with 2,2′-dithiobis (ethylamine) dihydrochloride, followed by reductive release of 2-aminoethanethiol from the derivatives. The thiol-functionalized internal and N-terminal peptides were scavenged on activated thiol sepharose, leaving the C-terminal peptide in the flow-through fraction. The use of reversed-phase supports as a venue for peptide derivatization enabled facile optimization of the individual reaction steps for throughput and completeness of reaction. Reagents were replaced directly on the support, allowing the reactions to proceed at minimal sample loss. By this sequence of solid-phase reactions, the C-terminal peptide could be recognized uniquely in mass spectra of unfractionated digests by its unaltered mass signature. The use of the sample preparation method was demonstrated with low-level amounts of a whole, intact model protein. The C-terminal fragments were retrieved selectively and efficiently from the affinity support. The use of covalent chromatography for C-terminal peptide purification enabled recovery of the depleted material for further chemical and/or enzymatic manipulation. The sample preparation method provides for robustness and simplicity of operation and is anticipated to be expanded to gel-separated proteins and in a scaled-up format to high-throughput protein profiling in complex biological mixtures. PMID:24688319

  20. Trafficking Dynamics of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation: Focus on Human PCSK9 Mutations and C-Terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Steve; Hamouda, Hocine Ait; Villeneuve, Louis; Demers, Annie; Mayer, Gaétan

    2016-01-01

    PCSK9 is a secreted ligand and negative post-translational regulator of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in hepatocytes. Gain-of-function (GOF) or loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in PCSK9 are directly correlated with high or low plasma LDL-cholesterol levels, respectively. Therefore, PCSK9 is a prevailing lipid-lowering target to prevent coronary heart diseases and stroke. Herein, we fused monomeric fluorescent proteins to PCSK9 and LDLR to visualize their intra- and extracellular trafficking dynamics by live confocal microscopy. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that PCSK9 LOF R46L mutant and GOF mutations S127R and D129G, but not the LDLR high-affinity mutant D374Y, significantly accelerate PCSK9 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Quantitative analysis of inverse FRAP revealed that only R46L presented a much slower trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane and a lower mobile fraction likely suggesting accumulation or delayed exit at the TGN as an underlying mechanism. While not primarily involved in LDLR binding, PCSK9 C-terminal domain (CTD) was found to be essential to induce LDLR degradation both upon its overexpression in cells or via the extracellular pathway. Our data revealed that PCSK9 CTD is required for the localization of PCSK9 at the TGN and increases its LDLR-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, intracellular lysosomal targeting of PCSK9-ΔCTD was able to rescue its capacity to induce LDLR degradation emphasizing a role of the CTD in the sorting of PCSK9-LDLR complex towards late endocytic compartments. Finally, we validated our dual fluorescence system as a cell based-assay by preventing PCSK9 internalization using a PCSK9-LDLR blocking antibody, which may be expended to identify protein, peptide or small molecule inhibitors of PCSK9. PMID:27280970

  1. Trafficking Dynamics of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation: Focus on Human PCSK9 Mutations and C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Louis; Demers, Annie; Mayer, Gaétan

    2016-01-01

    PCSK9 is a secreted ligand and negative post-translational regulator of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in hepatocytes. Gain-of-function (GOF) or loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in PCSK9 are directly correlated with high or low plasma LDL-cholesterol levels, respectively. Therefore, PCSK9 is a prevailing lipid-lowering target to prevent coronary heart diseases and stroke. Herein, we fused monomeric fluorescent proteins to PCSK9 and LDLR to visualize their intra- and extracellular trafficking dynamics by live confocal microscopy. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that PCSK9 LOF R46L mutant and GOF mutations S127R and D129G, but not the LDLR high-affinity mutant D374Y, significantly accelerate PCSK9 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Quantitative analysis of inverse FRAP revealed that only R46L presented a much slower trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane and a lower mobile fraction likely suggesting accumulation or delayed exit at the TGN as an underlying mechanism. While not primarily involved in LDLR binding, PCSK9 C-terminal domain (CTD) was found to be essential to induce LDLR degradation both upon its overexpression in cells or via the extracellular pathway. Our data revealed that PCSK9 CTD is required for the localization of PCSK9 at the TGN and increases its LDLR-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, intracellular lysosomal targeting of PCSK9-ΔCTD was able to rescue its capacity to induce LDLR degradation emphasizing a role of the CTD in the sorting of PCSK9-LDLR complex towards late endocytic compartments. Finally, we validated our dual fluorescence system as a cell based-assay by preventing PCSK9 internalization using a PCSK9-LDLR blocking antibody, which may be expended to identify protein, peptide or small molecule inhibitors of PCSK9. PMID:27280970

  2. Solid Phase Synthesis of C-Terminal Boronic Acid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Behnam, Mira A M; Sundermann, Tom R; Klein, Christian D

    2016-05-01

    Peptides and peptidomimetics with a C-terminal boronic acid group have prolific applications in numerous fields of research, but their synthetic accessibility remains problematic. A convenient, high yield synthesis of peptide-boronic acids on a solid support is described here, using commercially available 1-glycerol polystyrene resin. The method is compatible with Fmoc chemistry and offers a versatile approach to aryl and alkyl aminoboronic acids without additional purification steps. PMID:27104613

  3. A new family of StART domain proteins at membrane contact sites has a role in ER-PM sterol transport

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, Alberto T; Wong, Louise H; Sere, Yves Y; Calderón-Noreña, Diana M; Cockcroft, Shamshad; Menon, Anant K; Levine, Tim P

    2015-01-01

    Sterol traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane (PM) is a fundamental cellular process that occurs by a poorly understood non-vesicular mechanism. We identified a novel, evolutionarily diverse family of ER membrane proteins with StART-like lipid transfer domains and studied them in yeast. StART-like domains from Ysp2p and its paralog Lam4p specifically bind sterols, and Ysp2p, Lam4p and their homologs Ysp1p and Sip3p target punctate ER-PM contact sites distinct from those occupied by known ER-PM tethers. The activity of Ysp2p, reflected in amphotericin-sensitivity assays, requires its second StART-like domain to be positioned so that it can reach across ER-PM contacts. Absence of Ysp2p, Ysp1p or Sip3p reduces the rate at which exogenously supplied sterols traffic from the PM to the ER. Our data suggest that these StART-like proteins act in trans to mediate a step in sterol exchange between the PM and ER. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07253.001 PMID:26001273

  4. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  5. Er:YAG laser ablation of epiretinal membranes in perfluorocarbon fluid-filled eyeballs: a preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenz, Martin; Ith, Michael; Weber, Heinz P.; Wesendahl, Th.; Janknecht, P.

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: The Er:YAG laser emitting radiation at a wavelength of 2.94 micrometer has been shown to produce precise tissue ablation because of the high water absorption at this wavelength. These studies evaluated the effects of the Er:YAG laser on pig retina utilizing a perfluoro-carbon/retina interphase with the goal to precisely ablate epiretinal membranes. Method: Various laser pulse energies were applied to the surface of pig retinas in perfluorocarbon filled enucleated eyes using a specially designed rotating sample holder. Free running ((tau) equals 250 microseconds) Er:YAG laser pulses were transmitted through a zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) fiber guarded by a low OH-quartz fiber at its distal tip. The tip diameters measured 400 micrometers and 1 mm. The fiber probe was elevated 1 mm above the retinal surface. The laser energy was applied in a systematic fashion while alternating energy settings and probe diameters. Radiant exposures were set to 1 J/cm2, 3 J/cm2, 5 J/cm2, and 10 J/cm2. Results: Eight of ten eyes were treated with concentric circles of 3.5 mm, 6.5 mm, and 9.5 mm radius. The remaining two eyes were treated with a hand held probe. Tissue ablation increased with radiant exposure in a linear fashion. At a radiant exposure of 1 J/cm2, tissue ablation was minimal with a maximum tissue ablation depth of 10 micrometers and minimal thermal damage to adjacent tissue. A radiant exposure of 10 J/cm2 produced an ablation depth of 30 - 50 micrometers. As the ablation was performed under perfluorcarbon fluid, used as transmitting medium, no laser- induced pressure transients have been measured. Conclusion: The Er:YAG laser in combination with perfluorocarbon fluid produced precise and homogeneous tissue ablation of the pig retina. Such precise tissue ablation needs to be achieved in order to safely ablate epiretinal membranes in close proximity to the retina surface. Further in-vivo experiments will be done to examine the functionality of the retina after laser

  6. Deducing the functional characteristics of the human selenoprotein SELK from the structural properties of its intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Polo, Andrea; Colonna, Giovanni; Guariniello, Stefano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Costantini, Susan

    2016-03-01

    The intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) cannot be described by a single structural representation but, due to their high structural fluctuation, through conformational ensembles. Certainly, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations represent a useful tool to study their different conformations capturing the conformational distribution. Our group is focusing on the structural characterization of proteins belonging to the seleno-proteome due to their involvement in cancer. They present disordered domains central for their biological function, and, in particular, SELK is a single-pass transmembrane protein that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane (ER) with a C-terminal domain exposed to the cytoplasm that is known to interact with different components of the endoplasmic reticulum associated to the protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. This protein is found to be up-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and in other cancers. In this work we performed a detailed analysis of the C-terminal domain sequence of SELK and discovered that it is characterized by many prolines, and four negatively and eleven positively charged residues, which are crucial for its biological activity. This region can be considered as a weak polyelectrolyte and, specifically, a polycation, with high disordered propensity and different phosphorylation sites dislocated along the sequence. Then, we modeled its three-dimensional structure by performing MD simulations in water at neutral pH to analyze the structural stability as well as to identify the presence of HUB residues that play a key structural role as evidenced by the residue-residue interaction network analysis. Through this approach, we demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of SELK (i) presents a poor content of regular secondary structure elements, (ii) is dynamically stabilized by a network of intra-molecular H-bonds and H-bonds with water molecules, (iii) is highly fluctuating and, therefore, can be described only through a

  7. N-acetylation and phosphorylation of Sec complex subunits in the ER membrane

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Covalent modifications of proteins provide a mechanism to control protein function. Here, we have investigated modifications of the heptameric Sec complex which is responsible for post-translational protein import into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It consists of the Sec61 complex (Sec61p, Sbh1p, Sss1p) which on its own mediates cotranslational protein import into the ER and the Sec63 complex (Sec63p, Sec62p, Sec71p, Sec72p). Little is known about the biogenesis and regulation of individual Sec complex subunits. Results We show that Sbh1p when it is part of the Sec61 complex is phosphorylated on T5 which is flanked by proline residues. The phosphorylation site is conserved in mammalian Sec61ß, but only partially in birds, and not in other vertebrates or unicellular eukaryotes, suggesting convergent evolution. Mutation of T5 to A did not affect the ability of mutant Sbh1p to complement the growth defect in a Δsbh1Δsbh2 strain, and did not result in a hypophosphorylated protein which shows that alternate sites can be used by the T5 kinase. A survey of yeast phosphoproteome data shows that Sbh1p can be phosphorylated on multiple sites which are organized in two patches, one at the N-terminus of its cytosolic domain, the other proximal to the transmembrane domain. Surprisingly, although N-acetylation has been shown to interfere with ER targeting, we found that both Sbh1p and Sec62p are cotranslationally N-acetylated by NatA, and N-acetyl-proteome data indicate that Sec61p is modified by the same enzyme. Mutation of the N-acetylation site, however, did not affect Sec62p function in posttranslational protein import into the ER. Disabling NatA resulted in growth retardation, but not in co- or posttranslational translocation defects or instability of Sec62p or Sbh1p. Conclusions We conclude that N-acetylation of transmembrane and tail-anchored proteins does not interfere with their ER-targeting, and that Sbh1p phosphorylation on T5, which is not present in

  8. Interaction of the Tim44 C-terminal domain with negatively charged phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Marom, Milit; Safonov, Roman; Amram, Shay; Avneon, Yoav; Nachliel, Esther; Gutman, Menachem; Zohary, Keren; Azem, Abdussalam; Tsfadia, Yossi

    2009-12-01

    The translocation of proteins from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix is mediated by the coordinated action of the TOM complex in the outer membrane, as well as the TIM23 complex and its associated protein import motor in the inner membrane. The focus of this work is the peripheral inner membrane protein Tim44. Tim44 is a vital component of the mitochondrial protein translocation motor that anchors components of the motor to the TIM23 complex. For this purpose, Tim44 associates with the import channel by direct interaction with the Tim23 protein. Additionally, it was shown in vitro that Tim44 associates with acidic model membranes, in particular those containing cardiolipin. The latter interaction was shown to be mediated by the carboxy-terminal domain of Tim44 [Weiss, C., et al. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 8890-8894]. The aim of this study was to determine the precise recognition site for negative lipids in the C-terminal domain of Tim44. In particular, we wanted to examine the recently suggested hypothesis that acidic phospholipids associate with Tim44 via a hydrophobic cavity that is observed in the high-resolution structure of the C-terminal domain of the protein [Josyula, R., et al. (2006) J. Mol. Biol. 359, 798-804]. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that (i) the hydrophobic tail of lipids may interact with Tim44 via the latter's hydrophobic cavity and (ii) a region, located in the N-terminal alpha-helix of the C-terminal domain (helices A1 and A2), may serve as a membrane attachment site. To validate this assumption, N-terminal truncations of yeast Tim44 were examined for their ability to bind cardiolipin-containing phospholipid vesicles. The results indicate that removal of the N-terminal alpha-helix (helix A1) abolishes the capacity of Tim44 to associate with cardiolipin-containing liposomes. We suggest that helices A1 and A2, in Tim44, jointly promote the association of the protein with acidic phospholipids. PMID:19863062

  9. Phosphatidylserine-binding protein lactadherin inhibits protein translocation across the ER membrane.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Kida, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2013-05-10

    Secretory and membrane proteins are translocated across and inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane via translocon channels. To investigate the effect of the negatively-charged phospholipid phosphatidylserine on the translocation of nascent polypeptide chains through the translocon, we used the phosphatidylserine-binding protein lactadherin C2-domain. Lactadherin inhibited targeting of nascent chain to the translocon by signal sequence and the initiation of translocation. Moreover, lactadherin inhibited the movement of the translocating polypeptide chain regardless of the presence or absence of positively-charged residues. Phosphatidylserine might be critically involved in translocon function, but it is not a major determinant for translocation arrest of positively-charged residues. PMID:23583395

  10. Consequences of C-terminal domains and N-terminal signal peptide deletions on LEKTI secretion, stability, and subcellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Arumugam; Kang, Ya'an; Henderson, Ying; Mitsudo, Kenji; Liu, Xiaoling; Briggs, Katrina; Wang, Mary; Frederick, Mitchell J; El-Naggar, Adel K; Bebök, Zsuzsa; Clayman, Gary L

    2005-03-01

    The secretory lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-inhibitor (LEKTI) is synthesized as a pro-LEKTI protein containing an N-terminal signal peptide and 15 potentially inhibitory domains. This inhibitor is of special interest because of its pathophysiological importance for the severe congenital disease Netherton syndrome. We showed that LEKTI is a potent inhibitor of a family of serine proteinases involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and its expression is downregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. To assess the role of C-terminal domains and N-terminal signal peptide in LEKTI secretion, we constructed deletion mutants of LEKTI, expressed them in HEK 293T cells, and analyzed their secretion behavior, stability, subcellular distribution, and proteinase inhibitory function. Pro-LEKTI is processed and secreted into the medium. On the basis of partial N-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting, the cleavage products are ordered from amino- to carboxy-terminal as follows: 37, 40, and 60kDa. Inhibitors of furin lead to enhanced secretion of unprocessed LEKTI, suggesting that processing was not required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminal signal peptide of pro-LEKTI caused altered distribution of LEKTI from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cytoplasm and markedly reduced its stability, consistent with its failure to become secreted into the medium. Interestingly, when we deleted the C-terminal domains, stable partial LEKTI (LD-1-6) accumulated and still retained its association with ER but was not secreted. Recombinant LD-1-6 specifically inhibited the trypsin activity. We conclude that N-terminal signal peptide is required for LEKTI import into ER and elements present in C-terminal domains may have a role in regulating LEKTI secretion. PMID:15680911

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of C-terminal tails in cellular microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L.; Sataric, Bogdan M.; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N.; Sataric, Miljko V.

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano-electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C-terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C-terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink-waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of C-terminal tails in cellular microtubules.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Dalibor L; Sataric, Bogdan M; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N; Sataric, Miljko V

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano-electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C-terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C-terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink-waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process. PMID:27475079

  13. Regulation of retinal transducin by C-terminal peptides of rhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, D J; Takemoto, L J; Hansen, J; Morrison, D

    1985-01-01

    Transducin is a multi-subunit guanine-nucleotide-binding protein that mediates signal coupling between rhodopsin and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase in retinal rod outer segments. Whereas the T alpha subunit of transducin binds guanine nucleotides and is the activator of the phosphodiesterase, the T beta gamma subunit may function to link physically T alpha with photolysed rhodopsin. In order to determine the binding sites of rhodopsin to transducin, we have synthesized eight peptides (Rhod-1 etc.) that correspond to the C-terminal regions of rhodopsin and to several external and one internal loop region. These peptides were tested for their inhibition of restored GTPase activity of purified transducin reconstituted into depleted rod-outer-segment disc membranes. A marked inhibition of GTPase activity was observed when transducin was pre-incubated with peptides Rhod-1, Rhod-2 and Rhod-3. These peptides correspond to opsin amino acid residues 332-339, 324-331 and 317-321 respectively. Peptides corresponding to the three external loop regions or to the C-terminal residues 341-348 did not inhibit reconsituted GTPase activity. Likewise, Rhod-8, a peptide corresponding to an internal loop region of rhodopsin, did not inhibit GTPase activity. These findings support the concept that these specific regions of the C-terminus of rhodopsin serve as recognition sites for transducin. PMID:3867351

  14. Claws, Disorder, and Conformational Dynamics of the C-Terminal Region of Human Desmoplakin.

    PubMed

    McAnany, Charles E; Mura, Cameron

    2016-08-25

    Multicellular organisms consist of cells that interact via elaborate adhesion complexes. Desmosomes are membrane-associated adhesion complexes that mechanically tether the cytoskeletal intermediate filaments (IFs) between two adjacent cells, creating a network of tough connections in tissues such as skin and heart. Desmoplakin (DP) is the key desmosomal protein that binds IFs, and the DP·IF association poses a quandary: desmoplakin must stably and tightly bind IFs to maintain the structural integrity of the desmosome. Yet, newly synthesized DP must traffic along the cytoskeleton to the site of nascent desmosome assembly without "sticking" to the IF network, implying weak or transient DP···IF contacts. Recent work reveals that these contacts are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) in DP's C-terminal tail (DPCTT). Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have elucidated the structural basis of these PTM-induced effects. Our simulations, nearing 2 μs in aggregate, indicate that phosphorylation of S2849 induces an "arginine claw" in desmoplakin's C-terminal tail. If a key arginine, R2834, is methylated, the DPCTT preferentially samples conformations that are geometrically well-suited as substrates for processive phosphorylation by the cognate kinase GSK3. We suggest that DPCTT is a molecular switch that modulates, via its conformational dynamics, DP's overall efficacy as a substrate for GSK3. Finally, we show that the fluctuating DPCTT can contact other parts of DP, suggesting a competitive binding mechanism for the modulation of DP···IF interactions. PMID:27188911

  15. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the C-Terminal Domain of Mouse Peptide-N-glycanase Identify it as a Mannose-Binding Module

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou,X.; Zhao, G.; Truglio, J.; Wang, L.; Li, G.; Lennarz, W.; Schindelin, H.

    2006-01-01

    The inability of certain N-linked glycoproteins to adopt their native conformation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to their retrotranslocation into the cytosol and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In this pathway the cytosolic peptide-N-glycanase (PNGase) cleaves the N-linked glycan chains off denatured glycoproteins. PNGase is highly conserved in eukaryotes and plays an important role in ER-associated protein degradation. In higher eukaryotes, PNGase has an N-terminal and a C-terminal extension in addition to its central catalytic domain, which is structurally and functionally related to transglutaminases. Although the N-terminal domain of PNGase is involved in protein-protein interactions, the function of the C-terminal domain has not previously been characterized. Here, we describe biophysical, biochemical, and crystallographic studies of the mouse PNGase C-terminal domain, including visualization of a complex between this domain and mannopentaose. These studies demonstrate that the C-terminal domain binds to the mannose moieties of N-linked oligosaccharide chains, and we further show that it enhances the activity of the mouse PNGase core domain, presumably by increasing the affinity of mouse PNGase for the glycan chains of misfolded glycoproteins.

  16. The C-terminal domain is sufficient for host-binding activity of the Mu phage tail-spike protein.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidetaka; Yamada, Seiko; Toyama, Yoshiharu; Takeda, Shigeki

    2010-09-01

    The Mu phage virion contains tail-spike proteins beneath the baseplate, which it uses to adsorb to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli during the infection process. The tail spikes are composed of gene product 45 (gp45), which contains 197 amino acid residues. In this study, we purified and characterized both the full-length and the C-terminal domains of recombinant gp45 to identify the functional and structural domains. Limited proteolysis resulted in a Ser64-Gln197 sequence, which was composed of a stable C-terminal domain. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the recombinant C-terminal domain (gp45-C) indicated that the molecular weight of gp45-C was about 58 kDa and formed a trimeric protomer in solution. Coprecipitation experiments and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) demonstrated that gp45-C irreversibly binds to the E. coli membrane. These results indicate that gp45 shows behaviors similar to tail-spike proteins of other phages; however, gp45 did not show significant sequence homology with the other phage tail-spike structures that have been identified. PMID:20478417

  17. The C-terminal tail of tetraspanin proteins regulates their intracellular distribution in the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Coceres, V M; Alonso, A M; Nievas, Y R; Midlej, V; Frontera, L; Benchimol, M; Johnson, P J; de Miguel, N

    2015-08-01

    The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Here, we report the cellular analysis of T.vaginalis tetraspanin family (TvTSPs). This family of membrane proteins has been implicated in cell adhesion, migration and proliferation in vertebrates. We found that the expression of several members of the family is up-regulated upon contact with vaginal ectocervical cells. We demonstrate that most TvTSPs are localized on the surface and intracellular vesicles and that the C-terminal intracellular tails of surface TvTSPs are necessary for proper localization. Analyses of full-length TvTSP8 and a mutant that lacks the C-terminal tail indicates that surface-localized TvTSP8 is involved in parasite aggregation, suggesting a role for this protein in parasite : parasite interaction. PMID:25703821

  18. Intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal domain of the Shaker voltage-activated K+ channel modulates its interaction with scaffold proteins

    PubMed Central

    Magidovich, Elhanan; Orr, Irit; Fass, Deborah; Abdu, Uri; Yifrach, Ofer

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of membrane-embedded voltage-activated potassium channels (Kv) with intracellular scaffold proteins, such as the postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) protein, is mediated by the channel C-terminal segment. This interaction underlies Kv channel clustering at unique membrane sites and is important for the proper assembly and functioning of the synapse. In the current study, we address the molecular mechanism underlying Kv/PSD-95 interaction. We provide experimental evidence, based on hydrodynamic and spectroscopic analyses, indicating that the isolated C-terminal segment of the archetypical Shaker Kv channel (ShB-C) is a random coil, suggesting that ShB-C belongs to the recently defined class of intrinsically disordered proteins. We show that isolated ShB-C is still able to bind its scaffold protein partner and support protein clustering in vivo, indicating that unfoldedness is compatible with ShB-C activity. Pulldown experiments involving C-terminal chains differing in flexibility or length further demonstrate that intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal segment of the Shaker channel modulates its interaction with the PSD-95 protein. Our results thus suggest that the C-terminal domain of the Shaker Kv channel behaves as an entropic chain and support a “fishing rod” molecular mechanism for Kv channel binding to scaffold proteins. The importance of intrinsically disordered protein segments to the complex processes of synapse assembly, maintenance, and function is discussed. PMID:17666528

  19. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Suggests the Novel Membrane Topology of B-Cell Receptor Associated Protein 31 on the Cell Surface of Embryonic Stem Cells: The Novel Membrane Topology of BAP31

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Tae; Choi, Hong Seo; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Han-Sung; Ryu, Chun Jeih

    2015-01-01

    When located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, B-cell receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31) is involved in the export of secreted proteins from the ER to the plasma membrane. In a previous study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 297-D4 and 144-A8, that bound to surface molecules on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but not to surface molecules on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Subsequent studies revealed that the mAbs recognized BAP31 on the surface of hESCs. To investigate the membrane topology of BAP31 on the cell surface, we first examined the epitope specificity of 297-D4 and 144-A8, as well as a polyclonal anti-BAP31 antibody (α-BAP31). We generated a series of GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins in which BAP31 was serially deleted at the C- terminus. GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitopes targeted by the antibodies. Both 297-D4 and 144-A8 recognized C-terminal residues 208–217, while α-BAP31 recognized C-terminal residues 165–246, of BAP31 on hESCs, suggesting that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is exposed on the cell surface. The polyclonal antibody α-BAP31 bound to mESCs, which confirmed that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is also exposed on the surface of these cells. Our results show for the first time the novel membrane topology of cell surface-expressed BAP31 as the extracellular exposure of the BAP31 C-terminal domain was not predicted from previous studies. PMID:26102500

  20. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Suggests the Novel Membrane Topology of B-Cell Receptor Associated Protein 31 on the Cell Surface of Embryonic Stem Cells: The Novel Membrane Topology of BAP31.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Tae; Choi, Hong Seo; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Han-Sung; Ryu, Chun Jeih

    2015-01-01

    When located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, B-cell receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31) is involved in the export of secreted proteins from the ER to the plasma membrane. In a previous study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 297-D4 and 144-A8, that bound to surface molecules on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but not to surface molecules on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Subsequent studies revealed that the mAbs recognized BAP31 on the surface of hESCs. To investigate the membrane topology of BAP31 on the cell surface, we first examined the epitope specificity of 297-D4 and 144-A8, as well as a polyclonal anti-BAP31 antibody (α-BAP31). We generated a series of GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins in which BAP31 was serially deleted at the C- terminus. GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitopes targeted by the antibodies. Both 297-D4 and 144-A8 recognized C-terminal residues 208-217, while α-BAP31 recognized C-terminal residues 165-246, of BAP31 on hESCs, suggesting that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is exposed on the cell surface. The polyclonal antibody α-BAP31 bound to mESCs, which confirmed that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is also exposed on the surface of these cells. Our results show for the first time the novel membrane topology of cell surface-expressed BAP31 as the extracellular exposure of the BAP31 C-terminal domain was not predicted from previous studies. PMID:26102500

  1. Structure of the human Tim44 C-terminal domain in complex with pentaethylene glycol: ligand-bound form

    SciTech Connect

    Handa, N.; Kishishita, S.; Morita, S.; Akasaka, R.; Jin, Z.; Chrzas, J.; Chen, L.; Liu, Z.-J.; Wang, B.-C.; Sugano, S.; Tanaka, A.; Terada, T.; Shirouzu, M.; Yokoyama, S.

    2008-06-23

    Familial oncocytic thyroid carcinoma is associated with a missense mutation, P308Q, in the C-terminal domain of Tim44. Tim44 is the mitochondrial inner-membrane translocase subunit and it functions as a membrane anchor for the mitochondrial heat-shock protein 70 (mtHsp70). Here, the crystal structure of the human Tim44 C-terminal domain complexed with pentaethylene glycol has been determined at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The overall structure resembles that of the nuclear transport factor 2-like domain. In the crystal structure, pentaethylene glycol molecules are associated at two potential membrane-binding sites: the large hydrophobic cavity and the highly conserved loop between the {alpha} 1 and {alpha} 2 helices near Pro308. A comparison with the yeast homolog revealed that lipid binding induces conformational changes around the {alpha} 1-{alpha} 2 loop, leading to slippage of the {alpha} 1 helix along the large {beta}-sheet. These changes may play important roles in the translocation of polypeptides across the mitochondrial inner membrane.

  2. Kar1 binding to Sfi1 C-terminal regions anchors the SPB bridge to the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Seybold, Christian; Elserafy, Menattallah; Rüthnick, Diana; Ozboyaci, Musa; Neuner, Annett; Flottmann, Benjamin; Heilemann, Mike; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    The yeast spindle pole body (SPB) is the functional equivalent of the mammalian centrosome. The half bridge is a SPB substructure on the nuclear envelope (NE), playing a key role in SPB duplication. Its cytoplasmic components are the membrane-anchored Kar1, the yeast centrin Cdc31, and the Cdc31-binding protein Sfi1. In G1, the half bridge expands into the bridge through Sfi1 C-terminal (Sfi1-CT) dimerization, the licensing step for SPB duplication. We exploited photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) to show that Kar1 localizes in the bridge center. Binding assays revealed direct interaction between Kar1 and C-terminal Sfi1 fragments. kar1Δ cells whose viability was maintained by the dominant CDC31-16 showed an arched bridge, indicating Kar1’s function in tethering Sfi1 to the NE. Cdc31-16 enhanced Cdc31–Cdc31 interactions between Sfi1–Cdc31 layers, as suggested by binding free energy calculations. In our model, Kar1 binding is restricted to Sfi1-CT and Sfi1 C-terminal centrin-binding repeats, and centrin and Kar1 provide cross-links, while Sfi1-CT stabilizes the bridge and ensures timely SPB separation. PMID:26076691

  3. The C-Terminal Acidic Region of Calreticulin Mediates Phosphatidylserine Binding and Apoptotic Cell Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva Joseph; Bedi, Sukhmani Kaur; Huynh, David; Raghavan, Malini

    2016-05-01

    Calreticulin is a calcium-binding chaperone that is normally localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Calreticulin is detectable on the surface of apoptotic cells under some apoptosis-inducing conditions, where it promotes the phagocytosis and immunogenicity of dying cells. However, the precise mechanism by which calreticulin, a soluble protein, localizes to the outer surface of the plasma membrane of dying cells is unknown, as are the molecular mechanisms that are relevant to calreticulin-induced cellular phagocytosis. Calreticulin comprises three distinct structural domains: a globular domain, an extended arm-like P-domain, and a C-terminal acidic region containing multiple low-affinity calcium binding sites. We show that calreticulin, via its C-terminal acidic region, preferentially interacts with phosphatidylserine (PS) compared with other phospholipids and that this interaction is calcium dependent. Additionally, exogenous calreticulin binds apoptotic cells via a higher-affinity calcium-dependent mode that is acidic region dependent. Exogenous calreticulin also binds live cells, including macrophages, via a second, lower-affinity P-domain and globular domain-dependent, but calcium-independent binding mode that likely involves its generic polypeptide binding site. Truncation constructs lacking the acidic region or arm-like P-domain of calreticulin are impaired in their abilities to induce apoptotic cell phagocytosis by murine peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, the results of this investigation provide the first molecular insights into the phospholipid binding site of calreticulin as a key anchor point for the cell surface expression of calreticulin on apoptotic cells. These findings also support a role for calreticulin as a PS-bridging molecule that cooperates with other PS-binding factors to promote the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. PMID:27036911

  4. Glycosylatable GFP as a compartment-specific membrane topology reporter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hunsang; Min, Jisoo; Heijne, Gunnar von; Kim, Hyun

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An N-linked glycosylation site is introduced near the GFP fluorophore. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer gGFP is not glycosylated and is fully fluorescent in the cytosol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer gGFP is glycosylated and non-fluorescent in the lumen of the ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer gGFP is fused to membrane proteins of known topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its applicability as a membrane topology reporter is demonstrated. -- Abstract: Determination of the membrane topology is an essential step in structural and functional studies of integral membrane proteins, yet the choices of membrane topology reporters are limited and the experimental analysis can be laborious, especially in eukaryotic cells. Here, we present a robust membrane topology reporter, glycosylatable green fluorescent protein (gGFP). gGFP is fully fluorescent in the yeast cytosol but becomes glycosylated and does not fluoresce in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Thus, by assaying fluorescence and the glycosylation status of C-terminal fusions of gGFP to target membrane proteins in whole-cell lysates, the localization of the gGFP moiety (and hence the fusion joint) relative to the ER membrane can be unambiguously determined.

  5. Chemical shift assignments of the C-terminal EF-hand domain of α-actinin-1.

    PubMed

    Turner, Matthew; Anderson, David E; Rajan, Sahana; Hell, Johannes W; Ames, James B

    2016-04-01

    The regulation and localization of the neuronal voltage gated Ca(2+) channel CaV1.2 is important for synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory. The cytoskeletal protein, α-actinin-1 is known to interact with CaV1.2 and stabilize its localization at the postsynaptic membrane. Here we report both backbone and sidechain NMR assignments for the C-terminal EF-hands (EF3 and EF4) of α-actinin-1 (residues 824-892, called ACTN_EF34) bound to the IQ-motif (residues 1644-1665) from CaV1.2 (BMRB accession no. 25902). PMID:26861220

  6. Structural differences between C-terminal regions of tropomyosin isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Śliwińska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Tropomyosins are actin-binding regulatory proteins which overlap end-to-end along the filament. High resolution structures of the overlap regions were determined for muscle and non-muscle tropomyosins in the absence of actin. Conformations of the junction regions bound to actin are unknown. In this work, orientation of the overlap on actin alone and on actin–myosin complex was evaluated by measuring FRET distances between a donor (AEDANS) attached to tropomyosin and an acceptor (DABMI) bound to actin’s Cys374. Donor was attached to the Cys residue introduced by site-directed mutagenesis near the C-terminal half of the overlap. The recombinant alpha-tropomyosin isoforms used in this study – skeletal muscle skTM, non-muscle TM2 and TM5a, and chimeric TM1b9a had various amino acid sequences of the N- and C-termini involved in the end-to-end overlap. The donor-acceptor distances calculated for each isoform varied between 36.4 Å and 48.1 Å. Rigor binding of myosin S1 increased the apparent FRET distances of skTM and TM2, but decreased the distances separating TM5a and TM1b9a from actin. The results show that isoform-specific sequences of the end-to-end overlaps determine orientations and dynamics of tropomyosin isoforms on actin. This can be important for specificity of tropomyosin in the regulation of actin filament diverse functions. PMID:24167776

  7. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P43. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions. PMID:19622868

  8. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, Brittany; Petko, Jessica; Woll, Matthew; Murakami, Shoko; Sokolina, Kate; Wong, Victoria; Stagljar, Igor; Lüscher, Bernhard; Levenson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC), a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443) of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C443 was deleted showed significantly reduced palmitoylation levels, plasma membrane expression, and protein stability compared to wild-type D2Rs. Rather, the C443 deletion mutant appeared to accumulate in the Golgi, indicating that palmitoylation of the D2R is important for cell surface expression of the receptor. Using the full-length D2R as bait in a membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) screen, we identified the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) zDHHC4 as a D2R interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that several other PATs, including zDHHC3 and zDHHC8, also interacted with the D2R and that each of the three PATs was capable of affecting the palmitoylation status of the D2R. Finally, biochemical analyses using D2R mutants and the palmitoylation blocker, 2-bromopalmitate indicate that palmitoylation of the receptor plays a role in stability of the D2R. PMID:26535572

  9. The C-terminal tail of the Hedgehog receptor Patched regulates both localization and turnover

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xingwu; Liu, Songmei; Kornberg, Thomas B.

    2006-01-01

    Patched (Ptc) is a membrane protein whose function in Hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction has been conserved among metazoans and whose malfunction has been implicated in human cancers. Genetic analysis has shown that Ptc negatively regulates Hh signal transduction, but its activity and structure are not known. We investigated the functional and structural properties of Drosophila Ptc and its C-terminal domain (CTD), 183 residues that are predicted to reside in the cytoplasm. Our results show that Ptc, as well as truncated Ptc deleted of its CTD, forms a stable trimer. This observation is consistent with the proposal that Ptc is structurally similar to trimeric transporters. The CTD itself trimerizes and is required for both Ptc internalization and turnover. Two mutant forms of the CTD, one that disrupts trimerization and the other that mutates the target sequence of the Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase, stabilize Ptc but do not prevent internalization and sequestration of Hh. Ptc deleted of its CTD is stable and localizes to the plasma membrane. These data show that degradation of Ptc is regulated at a step subsequent to endocytosis, although endocytosis is a likely prerequisite. We also show that the CTD of mouse Ptc regulates turnover. PMID:16980583

  10. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Brittany; Petko, Jessica; Woll, Matthew; Murakami, Shoko; Sokolina, Kate; Wong, Victoria; Stagljar, Igor; Lüscher, Bernhard; Levenson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC), a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443) of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C443 was deleted showed significantly reduced palmitoylation levels, plasma membrane expression, and protein stability compared to wild-type D2Rs. Rather, the C443 deletion mutant appeared to accumulate in the Golgi, indicating that palmitoylation of the D2R is important for cell surface expression of the receptor. Using the full-length D2R as bait in a membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) screen, we identified the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) zDHHC4 as a D2R interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that several other PATs, including zDHHC3 and zDHHC8, also interacted with the D2R and that each of the three PATs was capable of affecting the palmitoylation status of the D2R. Finally, biochemical analyses using D2R mutants and the palmitoylation blocker, 2-bromopalmitate indicate that palmitoylation of the receptor plays a role in stability of the D2R. PMID:26535572

  11. ER stress and basement membrane defects combine to cause glomerular and tubular renal disease resulting from Col4a1 mutations in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Frances E.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Murray, Lydia S.; Lu, Yinhui; McNeilly, Sarah; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Lennon, Rachel; Sado, Yoshikazu; Brownstein, David G.; Mullins, John J.; Kadler, Karl E.; Van Agtmael, Tom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Collagen IV is a major component of basement membranes, and mutations in COL4A1, which encodes collagen IV alpha chain 1, cause a multisystemic disease encompassing cerebrovascular, eye and kidney defects. However, COL4A1 renal disease remains poorly characterized and its pathomolecular mechanisms are unknown. We show that Col4a1 mutations in mice cause hypotension and renal disease, including proteinuria and defects in Bowman's capsule and the glomerular basement membrane, indicating a role for Col4a1 in glomerular filtration. Impaired sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle and distal nephron despite elevated aldosterone levels indicates that tubular defects contribute to the hypotension, highlighting a novel role for the basement membrane in vascular homeostasis by modulation of the tubular response to aldosterone. Col4a1 mutations also cause diabetes insipidus, whereby the tubular defects lead to polyuria associated with medullary atrophy and a subsequent reduction in the ability to upregulate aquaporin 2 and concentrate urine. Moreover, haematuria, haemorrhage and vascular basement membrane defects confirm an important vascular component. Interestingly, although structural and compositional basement membrane defects occurred in the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, no tubular basement membrane defects were detected. By contrast, medullary atrophy was associated with chronic ER stress, providing evidence for cell-type-dependent molecular mechanisms of Col4a1 mutations. These data show that both basement membrane defects and ER stress contribute to Col4a1 renal disease, which has important implications for the development of treatment strategies for collagenopathies. PMID:26839400

  12. G-protein-coupled receptors for neurotransmitter amino acids: C-terminal tails, crowded signalosomes.

    PubMed Central

    El Far, Oussama; Betz, Heinrich

    2002-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a superfamily of highly diverse integral membrane proteins that transduce external signals to different subcellular compartments, including nuclei, via trimeric G-proteins. By differential activation of diffusible G(alpha) and membrane-bound G(beta)gamma subunits, GPCRs might act on both cytoplasmic/intracellular and plasma-membrane-bound effector systems. The coupling efficiency and the plasma membrane localization of GPCRs are regulated by a variety of interacting proteins. In this review, we discuss recently disclosed protein interactions found with the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail regions of two types of presynaptic neurotransmitter receptors, the group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-B receptors (GABA(B)Rs). Calmodulin binding to mGluR7 and other group III mGluRs may provide a Ca(2+)-dependent switch for unidirectional (G(alpha)) versus bidirectional (G(alpha) and G(beta)gamma) signalling to downstream effector proteins. In addition, clustering of mGluR7 by PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1), a polyspecific PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg1/ZO-1) domain containing synaptic organizer protein, sheds light on how higher-order receptor complexes with regulatory enzymes (or 'signalosomes') could be formed. The interaction of GABA(B)Rs with the adaptor protein 14-3-3 and the transcription factor ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) suggests novel regulatory pathways for G-protein signalling, cytoskeletal reorganization and nuclear gene expression: processes that may all contribute to synaptic plasticity. PMID:12006104

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Mitochondrial-Associated ER Membranes (MAM) during RNA Virus Infection Reveals Dynamic Changes in Protein and Organelle Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Stacy M.; Wilkins, Courtney; Badil, Samantha; Iskarpatyoti, Jason; Gale, Michael

    2015-01-01

    RIG-I pathway signaling of innate immunity against RNA virus infection is organized between the ER and mitochondria on a subdomain of the ER called the mitochondrial-associated ER membrane (MAM). The RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS transmits downstream signaling of antiviral immunity, with signaling complexes assembling on the MAM in association with mitochondria and peroxisomes. To identify components that regulate MAVS signalosome assembly on the MAM, we characterized the proteome of MAM, ER, and cytosol from cells infected with either chronic (hepatitis C) or acute (Sendai) RNA virus infections, as well as mock-infected cells. Comparative analysis of protein trafficking dynamics during both chronic and acute viral infection reveals differential protein profiles in the MAM during RIG-I pathway activation. We identified proteins and biochemical pathways recruited into and out of the MAM in both chronic and acute RNA viral infections, representing proteins that drive immunity and/or regulate viral replication. In addition, by using this comparative proteomics approach, we identified 3 new MAVS-interacting proteins, RAB1B, VTN, and LONP1, and defined LONP1 as a positive regulator of the RIG-I pathway. Our proteomic analysis also reveals a dynamic cross-talk between subcellular compartments during both acute and chronic RNA virus infection, and demonstrates the importance of the MAM as a central platform that coordinates innate immune signaling to initiate immunity against RNA virus infection. PMID:25734423

  14. Contribution of Chitinase A’s C-Terminal Vacuolar Sorting Determinant to the Study of Soluble Protein Compartmentation

    PubMed Central

    Stigliano, Egidio; Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Plant chitinases have been studied for their importance in the defense of crop plants from pathogen attacks and for their peculiar vacuolar sorting determinants. A peculiarity of the sequence of many family 19 chitinases is the presence of a C-terminal extension that seems to be important for their correct recognition by the vacuole sorting machinery. The 7 amino acids long C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant (CtVSD) of tobacco chitinase A is necessary and sufficient for the transport to the vacuole. This VSD shares no homology with other CtVSDs such as the phaseolin’s tetrapeptide AFVY (AlaPheValTyr) and it is also sorted by different mechanisms. While a receptor for this signal has not yet been convincingly identified, the research using the chitinase CtVSD has been very informative, leading to the observation of phenomena otherwise difficult to observe such as the presence of separate vacuoles in differentiating cells and the existence of a Golgi-independent route to the vacuole. Thanks to these new insights in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-vacuole transport, GFPChi (Green Fluorescent Protein carrying the chitinase A CtVSD) and other markers based on chitinase signals will continue to help the investigation of vacuolar biogenesis in plants. PMID:24945312

  15. Skin-Derived C-Terminal Filaggrin-2 Fragments Are Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Directed Antimicrobials Targeting Bacterial Replication.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Britta; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Gerstel, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2), a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin's antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials. PMID:26371476

  16. A conserved amphipathic helix is required for membrane tubule formation by Yop1p

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Jacob P.; Claridge, Jolyon K.; Smith, Peter G.; Schnell, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    The integral membrane proteins of the DP1 (deleted in polyposis) and reticulon families are responsible for maintaining the high membrane curvature required for both smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules and the edges of ER sheets, and mutations in these proteins lead to motor neuron diseases, such as hereditary spastic paraplegia. Reticulon/DP1 proteins contain reticulon homology domains (RHDs) that have unusually long hydrophobic segments and are proposed to adopt intramembrane helical hairpins that stabilize membrane curvature. We have characterized the secondary structure and dynamics of the DP1 family protein produced from the YOP1 gene (Yop1p) and identified a C-terminal conserved amphipathic helix (APH) that, on its own, interacts strongly with negatively charged membranes and is necessary for membrane tubule formation. Analyses of DP1 and reticulon family members indicate that most, if not all, contain C-terminal sequences capable of forming APHs. Together, these results indicate that APHs play a previously unrecognized role in RHD membrane curvature stabilization. PMID:25646439

  17. The C-terminal kinase fragment of Arabidopsis phototropin 2 triggers constitutive phototropin responses.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Shimazaki, Ken-Ichiro; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Nagatani, Akira

    2007-09-01

    Phototropins mediate various blue-light responses such as phototropism, chloroplast relocation, stomatal opening and leaf flattening in plants. Phototropins are hydrophilic chromoproteins that are mainly bound to the plasma membrane. One of two phototropins in Arabidopsis thaliana, phot2, associates with the Golgi apparatus in a light-dependent manner. In this study, we analyzed the biological activities of the N-terminal photosensory and C-terminal kinase domains of phot2. For this purpose, these domains were fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ectopically expressed in the wild-type and a phot1 phot2 double mutant of Arabidopsis. The kinase domain fused to GFP (P2CG) was localized to the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus, whereas the photosensory domain fused to GFP (P2NG) was uniformly localized in the cytosol. Hence, the kinase domain rather than the photosensory domain is responsible for the membrane association. Interestingly, the P2CG plants exhibited constitutive blue-light responses even in dark conditions, i.e. stomata were open and chloroplasts were in the avoidance position. By contrast, P2CG with a mutation that abolishes the kinase activity (P2C[D720/N]G) failed to exhibit these responses. phot2 kinase is therefore suggested to be correctly localized to functional sites in the cell and to trigger light signal transduction through its kinase activity. In contrast to P2CG, P2NG did not affect the phot2 responses, except for partial inhibition of the phototropic response caused by the endogenous phototropins. PMID:17662032

  18. Reconstitution of the targeting of Rab6A to the Golgi apparatus in semi-intact HeLa cells: A role of BICD2 in stabilizing Rab6A on Golgi membranes and a concerted role of Rab6A/BICD2 interactions in Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport.

    PubMed

    Matsuto, Mariko; Kano, Fumi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-10-01

    Rab is a small GTP-binding protein family that regulates various pathways of vesicular transport. Although more than 60 Rab proteins are targeted to specific organelles in mammalian cells, the mechanisms underlying the specificity of Rab proteins for the respective organelles remain unknown. In this study, we reconstituted the Golgi targeting of Rab6A in streptolysin O (SLO)-permeabilized HeLa cells in a cytosol-dependent manner and investigated the biochemical requirements of targeting. Golgi-targeting assays identified Bicaudal-D (BICD)2, which is reportedly involved in the dynein-mediated transport of mRNAs during oogenesis and embryogenesis in Drosophila, as a cytosolic factor for the Golgi targeting of Rab6A in SLO-permeabilized HeLa cells. Subsequent immunofluorescence analyses indicated decreased amounts of the GTP-bound active form of Rab6 in BICD2-knockdown cells. In addition, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analyses revealed that overexpression of the C-terminal region of BICD2 decreased the exchange rate of GFP-Rab6A between the Golgi membrane and the cytosol. Collectively, these results indicated that BICD2 facilitates the binding of Rab6A to the Golgi by stabilizing its GTP-bound form. Moreover, several analyses of vesicular transport demonstrated that Rab6A and BICD2 play crucial roles in Golgi tubule fusion with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in brefeldin A (BFA)-treated cells, indicating that BICD2 is involved in coat protein I (COPI)-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde vesicular transport. PMID:25962623

  19. Export of autotransported proteins proceeds through an oligomeric ring shaped by C-terminal domains.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Esteban; Sugawara, Etsuko; Nikaido, Hiroshi; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Fernández, Luis Angel

    2002-05-01

    An investigation was made into the oligomerization, the ability to form pores and the secretion-related properties of the 45 kDa C-terminal domain of the IgA protease (C-IgAP) from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This protease is the best studied example of the autotransporters (ATs), a large family of exoproteins from Gram-negative bacteria that includes numerous virulence factors from human pathogens. These proteins contain an N-terminal passenger domain that em bodies the secreted polypeptide, while the C-domain inserts into the outer membrane (OM) and trans locates the linked N-module into the extracellular medium. Here we report that purified C-IgAP forms an oligomeric complex of approximately 500 kDa with a ring-like structure containing a central cavity of approximately 2 nm diameter that is the conduit for the export of the N-domains. These data overcome the previous model for ATs, which postulated the passage of the N-module through the hydrophilic channel of the beta-barrel of each monomeric C-domain. Our results advocate a secretion mechanism not unlike other bacterial export systems, such as the secretins or fimbrial ushers, which rely on multimeric complexes assembled in the OM. PMID:11980709

  20. Amyloid β-Protein C-Terminal Fragments: Formation of Cylindrins and β-Barrels.

    PubMed

    Do, Thanh D; LaPointe, Nichole E; Nelson, Rebecca; Krotee, Pascal; Hayden, Eric Y; Ulrich, Brittany; Quan, Sarah; Feinstein, Stuart C; Teplow, David B; Eisenberg, David; Shea, Joan-Emma; Bowers, Michael T

    2016-01-20

    In order to evaluate potential therapeutic targets for treatment of amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is essential to determine the structures of toxic amyloid oligomers. However, for the amyloid β-protein peptide (Aβ), thought to be the seminal neuropathogenetic agent in AD, its fast aggregation kinetics and the rapid equilibrium dynamics among oligomers of different size pose significant experimental challenges. Here we use ion-mobility mass spectrometry, in combination with electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and computational modeling, to test the hypothesis that Aβ peptides can form oligomeric structures resembling cylindrins and β-barrels. These structures are hypothesized to cause neuronal injury and death through perturbation of plasma membrane integrity. We show that hexamers of C-terminal Aβ fragments, including Aβ(24-34), Aβ(25-35) and Aβ(26-36), have collision cross sections similar to those of cylindrins. We also show that linking two identical fragments head-to-tail using diglycine increases the proportion of cylindrin-sized oligomers. In addition, we find that larger oligomers of these fragments may adopt β-barrel structures and that β-barrels can be formed by folding an out-of-register β-sheet, a common type of structure found in amyloid proteins. PMID:26700445

  1. Structural and functional roles of the N- and C-terminal extended modules in channelrhodopsin-1.

    PubMed

    Doi, Satoko; Mori, Arisa; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Reissig, Louisa; Ihara, Kunio; Sudo, Yuki

    2015-09-26

    Channelrhodopsins have become a focus of interest because of their ability to control neural activity by light, used in a technology called optogenetics. The channelrhodopsin in the eukaryote Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrChR-1) is a light-gated cation channel responsible for motility changes upon photo-illumination and a member of the membrane-embedded retinal protein family. Recent crystal structure analysis revealed that CrChR-1 has unique extended modules both at its N- and C-termini compared to other microbial retinal proteins. This study reports the first successful expression of a ChR-1 variant in Escherichia coli as a holoprotein: the ChR-1 variant lacking both the N- and C-termini (CrChR-1_82-308). However, compared to ChR-1 having the extended modules (CrChR-1_1-357), truncation of the termini greatly altered the absorption maximum and photochemical properties, including the pKa values of its charged residues around the chromophore, the reaction rates in the photocycle and the photo-induced ion channeling activity. The results of some experiments regarding ion transport activity suggest that CrChR-1_82-308 has a proton channeling activity even in the dark. On the basis of these results, we discuss the structural and functional roles of the N- and C-terminal extended modules in CrChR-1. PMID:26098533

  2. Age-dependent loss of the C-terminal amino acid from alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, T.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Antiserum made against the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin was used to monitor the purification of a tryptic peptide containing the C-terminus of the molecule from fetal versus adult bovine lenses. Mass spectral analysis of the peptide preparations obtained from these lenses demonstrated the presence of a peptide (T20) containing an intact C-terminus from fetal lenses and the presence of an additional peptide (T20') from older lenses that contained a cleaved C-terminal serine. These results demonstrate an age-dependent processing of alpha-A crystallin in the bovine lens, resulting in removal of the C-terminal amino acid residue.

  3. Two Distinct Binding Modes Define the Interaction of Brox with the C-Terminal Tails of CHMP5 and CHMP4B

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Ruiling; Dussupt, Vincent; Jiang, Jiansheng; Sette, Paola; Rudd, Victoria; Chuenchor, Watchalee; Bello, Nana F.; Bouamr, Fadila; Xiao, Tsan Sam

    2012-05-21

    Interactions of the CHMP protein carboxyl terminal tails with effector proteins play important roles in retroviral budding, cytokinesis, and multivesicular body biogenesis. Here we demonstrate that hydrophobic residues at the CHMP4B C-terminal amphipathic {alpha} helix bind a concave surface of Brox, a mammalian paralog of Alix. Unexpectedly, CHMP5 was also found to bind Brox and specifically recruit endogenous Brox to detergent-resistant membrane fractions through its C-terminal 20 residues. Instead of an {alpha} helix, the CHMP5 C-terminal tail adopts a tandem {beta}-hairpin structure that binds Brox at the same site as CHMP4B. Additional Brox:CHMP5 interface is furnished by a unique CHMP5 hydrophobic pocket engaging the Brox residue Y348 that is not conserved among the Bro1 domains. Our studies thus unveil a {beta}-hairpin conformation of the CHMP5 protein C-terminal tail, and provide insights into the overlapping but distinct binding profiles of ESCRT-III and the Bro1 domain proteins.

  4. Identifying possible sites for antibody neutralization escape: Implications for unique functional properties of the C-terminal tail of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp41.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhifeng; Huang, Yushen; Tan, Yue; Yu, Yang; Wang, Junyi; Chen, Ying-Hua

    2016-07-01

    A previous amino acid sequence analyses from our laboratory reported nine potential sites in gp41 glycoprotein of HIV-1 that may contribute to virus escape from antibody neutralization. Besides four sites found outside the membrane of HIV-1 virus, five located in the C-terminal tail of gp41 specifically in the lentivirus lytic peptides motifs (LLPs). To further study the bioinformatical results, the virus infectivity assay and the standard neutralization assay were conducted on conservatively mutated virus. Two sites in the LLP3 domain stood out with the ability to alter the resistance of HIV-1 virus to certain broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). While the glycoprotein incorporation on the viral membrane and the interaction of the LLP3 domain with the lipid membrane remained unaltered, the increase in neutralization resistance of the mutant virus was associated with the changes on Env conformation. Our findings demonstrate different sensibility of bNAbs to mutations in the C-terminal tail and indicate an unrecognized potential role for even minor sequence variation in the C-terminal tail in modulating the antigenicity of the ectodomain of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex. PMID:27157128

  5. Identification of a new scaffold for hsp90 C-terminal inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiping; Moroni, Elisabetta; Colombo, Giorgio; Blagg, Brian S J

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Hsp90 C-terminal function is an advantageous therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of cancer. Currently, the majority of Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors are derived from novobiocin, a natural product traditionally used as an antibiotic. Assisted by molecular docking studies, a scaffold containing a biphenyl moiety in lieu of the coumarin ring system found in novobiocin was identified for development of new Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors. Initial structure-activity studies led to derivatives that manifest good antiproliferative activity against two breast cancer cell lines through Hsp90 inhibition. This platform serves as a scaffold upon which new Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors can be readily assembled for further investigation. PMID:24900777

  6. C-Terminal Modification of Fully Unprotected Peptide Hydrazides via in Situ Generation of Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander A; Simon, Mark D; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2016-03-18

    A method for chemo- and regioselective conjugation of nucleophiles to fully unprotected peptides and proteins via in situ generation of C-terminal isocyanates is reported. Oxidation of C-terminal peptide hydrazides in aqueous media followed by Curtius rearrangement of acyl azides reliably generates isocyanates, which react with a variety of external nucleophiles, such as hydrazines, hydrazides, aromatic thiols, and hydroxylamines. Multiple peptides and a 53 kDa protein hydrazide were conjugated to different nucleophiles using this reaction. PMID:26948719

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the C-terminal domain of Chlamydia trachomatis CdsD.

    PubMed

    Meriläinen, Gitte; Wierenga, Rik K

    2014-10-01

    The inner membrane ring of the bacterial type III secretion system (TTSS) is composed of two proteins. In Chlamydia trachomatis this ring is formed by CdsD (gene name CT_664) and CdsJ (gene name CTA_0609). CdsD consists of 829 amino acids. The last 400 amino acids at its C-terminal end relate it to the type III secretion system YscD/HrpQ protein family. The C-terminal domain, consisting of amino acids 558-771, of C. trachomatis CdsD was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size-exclusion chromatography. The protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A data set was collected to 2.26 Å resolution. The crystals have the symmetry of space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.60, b = 23.91, c = 118.65 Å, β = 104.95°. According to the data analysis there is expected to be one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a Matthews coefficient of 3.0 Å(3) Da(-1). PMID:25286957

  8. Intracellular Cleavage of the Cx43 C-Terminal Domain by Matrix-Metalloproteases: A Novel Contributor to Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    De Bock, Marijke; Wang, Nan; Decrock, Elke; Bultynck, Geert; Leybaert, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs) that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexin (Cx) proteins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms nonjunctional hemichannels (HCs) in the plasma membrane that mediate the release of paracrine signaling molecules in the extracellular environment. Both HC and GJ channel function are regulated by protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications that predominantly take place in the C-terminal domain of Cx43. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a major group of zinc-dependent proteases, known to regulate not only extracellular matrix remodeling, but also processing of intracellular proteins. Together with Cx43 channels, both GJs and HCs, MMPs contribute to acute inflammation and a small number of studies reports on an MMP-Cx43 link. Here, we build further on these reports and present a novel hypothesis that describes proteolytic cleavage of the Cx43 C-terminal domain by MMPs and explores possibilities of how such cleavage events may affect Cx43 channel function. Finally, we set out how aberrant channel function resulting from cleavage can contribute to the acute inflammatory response during tissue injury. PMID:26424967

  9. Characterization of a Synaptic Vesicle Binding Motif on the Distal CaV2.2 Channel C-terminal

    PubMed Central

    Gardezi, Sabiha R.; Nath, Arup R.; Li, Qi; Stanley, Elise F.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles (SVs) that are gated to fuse with the presynaptic membrane by calcium ions that enter through voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs). There is compelling evidence that SVs associate closely with the CaVs but the molecular linking mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using a cell-free, synaptic vesicle-pull-down assay method (SV-PD) we have recently demonstrated that SVs can bind both to the intact CaV2.2 channel and also to a fusion protein comprising the distal third, C3 segment, of its long C-terminal. This site was localized to a 49 amino acid region just proximal to the C-terminal tip. To further restrict the SV binding site we generated five, 10 amino acid mimetic blocking peptides spanning this region. Of these, HQARRVPNGY effectively inhibited SV-PD and also inhibited SV recycling when cryoloaded into chick brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). Further, SV-PD was markedly reduced using a C3 fusion protein that lacked the HQARRVPNGY sequence, C3HQless. We zeroed in on the SV binding motif within HQARRVPNGY by means of a palette of mutant blocking peptides. To our surprise, peptides that lacked the highly conserved VPNGY sequence still blocked SV-PD. However, substitution of the HQ and RR amino acids markedly reduced block. Of these, the RR pair was essential but not sufficient as the full block was not observed without H suggesting a CaV2.2 SV binding motif of HxxRR. Interestingly, CaV2.1, the other primary presynaptic calcium channel, exhibits a similar motif, RHxRR, that likely serves the same function. Bioinformatic analysis showed that variations of this binding motif, +(+) xRR (where + is a positively charged aa H or R), are conserved from lung-fish to man. Further studies will be necessary to identify the C terminal motif binding partner on the SV itself and to determine the role of this molecular interaction in synaptic transmission. We hypothesize that the distal C-terminal participates in the capture

  10. ZipA-Induced Bundling of FtsZ Polymers Mediated by an Interaction between C-Terminal Domains†

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Cynthia A.; Rhee, Amy C.; de Boer, Piet A. J.

    2000-01-01

    FtsZ and ZipA are essential components of the septal ring apparatus, which mediates cell division in Escherichia coli. FtsZ is a cytoplasmic tubulin-like GTPase that forms protofilament-like homopolymers in vitro. In the cell, the protein assembles into a ring structure at the prospective division site early in the division cycle, and this marks the first recognized event in the assembly of the septal ring. ZipA is an inner membrane protein which is recruited to the nascent septal ring at a very early stage through a direct interaction with FtsZ. Using affinity blotting and protein localization techniques, we have determined which domain on each protein is both sufficient and required for the interaction between the two proteins in vitro as well as in vivo. The results show that ZipA binds to residues confined to the 20 C-terminal amino acids of FtsZ. The FtsZ binding (FZB) domain of ZipA is significantly larger and encompasses the C-terminal 143 residues of ZipA. Significantly, we find that the FZB domain of ZipA is also required and sufficient to induce dramatic bundling of FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. Consistent with the notion that the ability to bind and bundle FtsZ polymers is essential to the function of ZipA, we find that ZipA derivatives lacking an intact FZB domain fail to support cell division in cells depleted for the native protein. Interestingly, ZipA derivatives which do contain an intact FZB domain but which lack the N-terminal membrane anchor or in which this anchor is replaced with the heterologous anchor of the DjlA protein also fail to rescue ZipA− cells. Thus, in addition to the C-terminal FZB domain, the N-terminal domain of ZipA is required for ZipA function. Furthermore, the essential properties of the N domain may be more specific than merely acting as a membrane anchor. PMID:10960100

  11. Differential Roles of C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain Proteins as Vesiculators and Tubulators of Recycling Endosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Bishuang; Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Zhang, Jing; Saxena, Sugandha; Bahl, Kriti; Schmidt, John A.; Sorgen, Paul L.; Guo, Wei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Endocytic recycling involves the return of membranes and receptors to the plasma membrane following their internalization into the cell. Recycling generally occurs from a series of vesicular and tubular membranes localized to the perinuclear region, collectively known as the endocytic recycling compartment. Within this compartment, receptors are sorted into tubular extensions that later undergo vesiculation, allowing transport vesicles to move along microtubules and return to the cell surface where they ultimately undergo fusion with the plasma membrane. Recent studies have led to the hypothesis that the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EHD) ATPase proteins are involved in the vesiculation process. Here, we address the functional roles of the four EHD proteins. We developed a novel semipermeabilized cell system in which addition of purified EHD proteins to reconstitute vesiculation allows us to assess the ability of each protein to vesiculate MICAL-L1-decorated tubular recycling endosomes (TREs). Using this assay, we show that EHD1 vesiculates membranes, consistent with enhanced TRE generation observed upon EHD1 depletion. EHD4 serves a role similar to that of EHD1 in TRE vesiculation, whereas EHD2, despite being capable of vesiculating TREs in the semipermeabilized cells, fails to do so in vivo. Surprisingly, the addition of EHD3 causes tubulation of endocytic membranes in our semipermeabilized cell system, consistent with the lack of tubulation observed upon EHD3 depletion. Our novel vesiculation assay and in vitro electron microscopy analysis, combined with in vivo data, provide evidence that the functions of both EHD1 and EHD4 are primarily in TRE membrane vesiculation, whereas EHD3 is a membrane-tubulating protein. PMID:24019528

  12. The C-Terminal Sequence of IFITM1 Regulates Its Anti-HIV-1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qinghua; Liu, Shan-Lu; Qiao, Wentao; Liang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins inhibit a wide range of viruses. We previously reported the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain BH10 by human IFITM1, 2 and 3. It is unknown whether other HIV-1 strains are similarly inhibited by IFITMs and whether there exists viral countermeasure to overcome IFITM inhibition. We report here that the HIV-1 NL4-3 strain (HIV-1NL4-3) is not restricted by IFITM1 and its viral envelope glycoprotein is partly responsible for this insensitivity. However, HIV-1NL4-3 is profoundly inhibited by an IFITM1 mutant, known as Δ(117–125), which is deleted of 9 amino acids at the C-terminus. In contrast to the wild type IFITM1, which does not affect HIV-1 entry, the Δ(117–125) mutant diminishes HIV-1NL4-3 entry by 3-fold. This inhibition correlates with the predominant localization of Δ(117–125) to the plasma membrane where HIV-1 entry occurs. In spite of strong conservation of IFITM1 among most species, mouse IFITM1 is 19 amino acids shorter at its C-terminus as compared to human IFITM1 and, like the human IFITM1 mutant Δ(117–125), mouse IFITM1 also inhibits HIV-1 entry. This is the first report illustrating the role of viral envelope protein in overcoming IFITM1 restriction. The results also demonstrate the importance of the C-terminal region of IFITM1 in modulating the antiviral function through controlling protein subcellular localization. PMID:25738301

  13. δ-COP contains a helix C-terminal to its longin domain key to COPI dynamics and function

    PubMed Central

    Arakel, Eric C.; Richter, Kora P.; Clancy, Anne; Schwappach, Blanche

    2016-01-01

    Membrane recruitment of coatomer and formation of coat protein I (COPI)-coated vesicles is crucial to homeostasis in the early secretory pathway. The conformational dynamics of COPI during cargo capture and vesicle formation is incompletely understood. By scanning the length of δ-COP via functional complementation in yeast, we dissect the domains of the δ-COP subunit. We show that the μ-homology domain is dispensable for COPI function in the early secretory pathway, whereas the N-terminal longin domain is essential. We map a previously uncharacterized helix, C-terminal to the longin domain, that is specifically required for the retrieval of HDEL-bearing endoplasmic reticulum-luminal residents. It is positionally analogous to an unstructured linker that becomes helical and membrane-facing in the open form of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex. Based on the amphipathic nature of the critical helix it may probe the membrane for lipid packing defects or mediate interaction with cargo and thus contribute to stabilizing membrane-associated coatomer. PMID:27298352

  14. δ-COP contains a helix C-terminal to its longin domain key to COPI dynamics and function.

    PubMed

    Arakel, Eric C; Richter, Kora P; Clancy, Anne; Schwappach, Blanche

    2016-06-21

    Membrane recruitment of coatomer and formation of coat protein I (COPI)-coated vesicles is crucial to homeostasis in the early secretory pathway. The conformational dynamics of COPI during cargo capture and vesicle formation is incompletely understood. By scanning the length of δ-COP via functional complementation in yeast, we dissect the domains of the δ-COP subunit. We show that the μ-homology domain is dispensable for COPI function in the early secretory pathway, whereas the N-terminal longin domain is essential. We map a previously uncharacterized helix, C-terminal to the longin domain, that is specifically required for the retrieval of HDEL-bearing endoplasmic reticulum-luminal residents. It is positionally analogous to an unstructured linker that becomes helical and membrane-facing in the open form of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex. Based on the amphipathic nature of the critical helix it may probe the membrane for lipid packing defects or mediate interaction with cargo and thus contribute to stabilizing membrane-associated coatomer. PMID:27298352

  15. Protective immunity against Eimeria tenella infection in chickens induced by immunization with a recombinant C-terminal derivative of EtIMP1.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Lin, Qian; Wei, Wenjun; Qin, Mei; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Huang, Zhijian

    2014-12-15

    Immune mapped protein-1 (IMP1) is a new protective protein in apicomplexan parasites, and exits in Eimeria tenella. Cloning and sequence analysis has predicted the antigen to be a novel membrane protein of apicomplexan parasites. In order to assess the immunogenicity of EtIMP1, a C-terminal derivative of EtIMP1 was expressed in a bacterial host system and was used to immunize chickens. The protective efficacy against a homologous challenge was evaluated by body weight gains, lesion scores and fecal oocyst shedding. The results showed that the subunit vaccine can improve weight gains, reduced cecal pathology and lower oocyst fecal shedding compared with non immunized controls. The results suggested that the C-terminal derivative of EtIMP1 might be considered as a candidate in the development of subunit vaccines against Eimeria infection. PMID:25464823

  16. A C-terminally truncated mouse Best3 splice variant targets and alters the ion balance in lysosome-endosome hybrids and the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lichang; Sun, Yu; Ma, Liqiao; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Baoxia; Pan, Qingjie; Li, Yuyin; Liu, Huanqi; Diao, Aipo; Li, Yinchuan

    2016-01-01

    The Bestrophin family has been characterized as Cl− channels in mammals and Na+ channels in bacteria, but their exact physiological roles remian unknown. In this study, a natural C-terminally truncated variant of mouse Bestrophin 3 (Best3V2) expression in myoblasts and muscles is demonstrated. Unlike full-length Best3, Best3V2 targets the two important intracellular Ca stores: the lysosome and the ER. Heterologous overexpression leads to lysosome swelling and renders it less acidic. Best3V2 overexpression also results in compromised Ca2+ release from the ER. Knocking down endogenous Best3 expression in myoblasts makes these cells more excitable in response to Ca2+ mobilizing reagents, such as caffeine. We propose that Best3V2 in myoblasts may work as a tuner to control Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores. PMID:27265833

  17. A C-terminally truncated mouse Best3 splice variant targets and alters the ion balance in lysosome-endosome hybrids and the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lichang; Sun, Yu; Ma, Liqiao; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Baoxia; Pan, Qingjie; Li, Yuyin; Liu, Huanqi; Diao, Aipo; Li, Yinchuan

    2016-01-01

    The Bestrophin family has been characterized as Cl(-) channels in mammals and Na(+) channels in bacteria, but their exact physiological roles remian unknown. In this study, a natural C-terminally truncated variant of mouse Bestrophin 3 (Best3V2) expression in myoblasts and muscles is demonstrated. Unlike full-length Best3, Best3V2 targets the two important intracellular Ca stores: the lysosome and the ER. Heterologous overexpression leads to lysosome swelling and renders it less acidic. Best3V2 overexpression also results in compromised Ca(2+) release from the ER. Knocking down endogenous Best3 expression in myoblasts makes these cells more excitable in response to Ca(2+) mobilizing reagents, such as caffeine. We propose that Best3V2 in myoblasts may work as a tuner to control Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. PMID:27265833

  18. Oligomerization and Ca2+/calmodulin control binding of the ER Ca2+-sensors STIM1 and STIM2 to plasma membrane lipids

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Rajesh; Müller, Hans-Michael; Nickel, Walter; Seedorf, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ (calcium) homoeostasis and signalling rely on physical contacts between Ca2+ sensors in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and Ca2+ channels in the PM (plasma membrane). STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) and STIM2 Ca2+ sensors oligomerize upon Ca2+ depletion in the ER lumen, contact phosphoinositides at the PM via their cytosolic lysine (K)-rich domains, and activate Ca2+ channels. Differential sensitivities of STIM1 and STIM2 towards ER luminal Ca2+ have been studied but responses towards elevated cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and the mechanism of lipid binding remain unclear. We found that tetramerization of the STIM1 K-rich domain is necessary for efficient binding to PI(4,5)P2-containing PM-like liposomes consistent with an oligomerization-driven STIM1 activation. In contrast, dimerization of STIM2 K-rich domain was sufficient for lipid binding. Furthermore, the K-rich domain of STIM2, but not of STIM1, forms an amphipathic α-helix. These distinct features of the STIM2 K-rich domain cause an increased affinity for PI(4,5)P2, consistent with the lower activation threshold of STIM2 and a function as regulator of basal Ca2+ levels. Concomitant with higher affinity for PM lipids, binding of CaM (calmodulin) inhibited the interaction of the STIM2 K-rich domain with liposomes in a Ca2+ and PI(4,5)P2 concentration-dependent manner. Therefore we suggest that elevated cytosolic Ca2+ concentration down-regulates STIM2-mediated ER–PM contacts via CaM binding. PMID:24044355

  19. Multifunctional role of the Pitx2 homeodomain protein C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Amendt, B A; Sutherland, L B; Russo, A F

    1999-10-01

    Pitx2 is a newly described bicoid-like homeodomain transcription factor that is defective in Rieger syndrome and shows a striking leftward developmental asymmetry. We have previously shown that Pitx2 (also called Ptx2 and RIEG) transactivates a reporter gene containing a bicoid enhancer and synergistically transactivates the prolactin promoter in the presence of the POU homeodomain protein Pit-1. In this report, we focused on the C-terminal region which is mutated in some Rieger patients and contains a highly conserved 14-amino-acid element. Deletion analysis of Pitx2 revealed that the C-terminal 39-amino-acid tail represses DNA binding activity and is required for Pitx2-Pit-1 interaction and Pit-1 synergism. Pit-1 interaction with the Pitx2 C terminus masks the inhibitory effect and promotes increased DNA binding activity. Interestingly, cotransfection of an expression vector encoding the C-terminal 39 amino acids of Pitx2 specifically inhibits Pitx2 transactivation activity. In contrast, the C-terminal 39-amino-acid peptide interacts with Pitx2 to increase its DNA binding activity. These data suggest that the C-terminal tail intrinsically inhibits the Pitx2 protein and that this inhibition can be overcome by interaction with other transcription factors to allow activation during development. PMID:10490637

  20. Multifunctional Role of the Pitx2 Homeodomain Protein C-Terminal Tail

    PubMed Central

    Amendt, Brad A.; Sutherland, Lillian B.; Russo, Andrew F.

    1999-01-01

    Pitx2 is a newly described bicoid-like homeodomain transcription factor that is defective in Rieger syndrome and shows a striking leftward developmental asymmetry. We have previously shown that Pitx2 (also called Ptx2 and RIEG) transactivates a reporter gene containing a bicoid enhancer and synergistically transactivates the prolactin promoter in the presence of the POU homeodomain protein Pit-1. In this report, we focused on the C-terminal region which is mutated in some Rieger patients and contains a highly conserved 14-amino-acid element. Deletion analysis of Pitx2 revealed that the C-terminal 39-amino-acid tail represses DNA binding activity and is required for Pitx2-Pit-1 interaction and Pit-1 synergism. Pit-1 interaction with the Pitx2 C terminus masks the inhibitory effect and promotes increased DNA binding activity. Interestingly, cotransfection of an expression vector encoding the C-terminal 39 amino acids of Pitx2 specifically inhibits Pitx2 transactivation activity. In contrast, the C-terminal 39-amino-acid peptide interacts with Pitx2 to increase its DNA binding activity. These data suggest that the C-terminal tail intrinsically inhibits the Pitx2 protein and that this inhibition can be overcome by interaction with other transcription factors to allow activation during development. PMID:10490637

  1. Targeting of OSBP-related protein 3 (ORP3) to endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane is controlled by multiple determinants

    SciTech Connect

    Lehto, Markku; Hynynen, Riikka; Karjalainen, Katja; Kuismanen, Esa; Hyvaerinen, Kati; Olkkonen, Vesa M. . E-mail: vesa.olkkonen@ktl.fi

    2005-11-01

    The intracellular targeting determinants of oxysterol binding protein (OSBP)-related protein 3 (ORP3) were studied using a series of truncated and point mutated constructs. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of ORP3 binds the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) products, PI(3,4)P{sub 2} and PI(3,4,5)P{sub 3}. A functional PH domain and flanking sequences are crucial for the plasma membrane (PM) targeting of ORP3. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting of ORP3 is regulated the by a FFAT motif (EFFDAxE), which mediates interaction with VAMP-associated protein (VAP)-A. The targeting function of the FFAT motif dominates over that of the PH domain. In addition, the exon 10/11 region modulates interaction of ORP3 with the ER and the nuclear membrane. Analysis of a chimeric ORP3:OSBP protein suggests that ligand binding by the C-terminal domain of OSBP induces allosteric changes that activate the N-terminal targeting modules of ORP3. Notably, over-expression of ORP3 together with VAP-A induces stacked ER membrane structures also known as organized smooth ER (OSER). Moreover, lipid starvation promotes formation of dilated peripheral ER (DPER) structures dependent on the ORP3 protein. Based on the present data, we introduce a model for the inter-relationships of the functional domains of ORP3 in the membrane targeting of the protein.

  2. GlyGly-CTERM and Rhombosortase: A C-Terminal Protein Processing Signal in a Many-to-One Pairing with a Rhomboid Family Intramembrane Serine Protease

    PubMed Central

    Haft, Daniel H.; Varghese, Neha

    2011-01-01

    The rhomboid family of serine proteases occurs in all domains of life. Its members contain at least six hydrophobic membrane-spanning helices, with an active site serine located deep within the hydrophobic interior of the plasma membrane. The model member GlpG from Escherichia coli is heavily studied through engineered mutant forms, varied model substrates, and multiple X-ray crystal studies, yet its relationship to endogenous substrates is not well understood. Here we describe an apparent membrane anchoring C-terminal homology domain that appears in numerous genera including Shewanella, Vibrio, Acinetobacter, and Ralstonia, but excluding Escherichia and Haemophilus. Individual genomes encode up to thirteen members, usually homologous to each other only in this C-terminal region. The domain's tripartite architecture consists of motif, transmembrane helix, and cluster of basic residues at the protein C-terminus, as also seen with the LPXTG recognition sequence for sortase A and the PEP-CTERM recognition sequence for exosortase. Partial Phylogenetic Profiling identifies a distinctive rhomboid-like protease subfamily almost perfectly co-distributed with this recognition sequence. This protease subfamily and its putative target domain are hereby renamed rhombosortase and GlyGly-CTERM, respectively. The protease and target are encoded by consecutive genes in most genomes with just a single target, but far apart otherwise. The signature motif of the Rhombo-CTERM domain, often SGGS, only partially resembles known cleavage sites of rhomboid protease family model substrates. Some protein families that have several members with C-terminal GlyGly-CTERM domains also have additional members with LPXTG or PEP-CTERM domains instead, suggesting there may be common themes to the post-translational processing of these proteins by three different membrane protein superfamilies. PMID:22194940

  3. Verprolin function in endocytosis and actin organization. Roles of the Las17p (yeast WASP)-binding domain and a novel C-terminal actin-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Thanabalu, Thirumaran; Rajmohan, Rajamuthiah; Meng, Lei; Ren, Gang; Vajjhala, Parimala R; Munn, Alan L

    2007-08-01

    Vrp1p (verprolin, End5p) is the yeast ortholog of human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-interacting protein (WIP). Vrp1p localizes to the cortical actin cytoskeleton, is necessary for its polarization to sites of growth and is also essential for endocytosis. At elevated temperature, Vrp1p becomes essential for growth. A C-terminal Vrp1p fragment (C-Vrp1p) retains the ability to localize to the cortical actin cytoskeleton and function in actin-cytoskeleton polarization, endocytosis and growth. Here, we demonstrate that two submodules in C-Vrp1p are required for actin-cytoskeleton polarization: a novel C-terminal actin-binding submodule (CABS) that contains a novel G-actin-binding domain, which we call a verprolin homology 2 C-terminal (VH2-C) domain; and a second submodule comprising the Las17p-binding domain (LBD) that binds Las17p (yeast WASP). The LBD localizes C-Vrp1p to membranes and the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Intriguingly, the LBD is sufficient to restore endocytosis and growth at elevated temperature to Vrp1p-deficient cells. The CABS also restores these functions, but only if modified by a lipid anchor to provide membrane association. Our findings highlight the role of Las17p binding for Vrp1p membrane association, suggest general membrane association may be more important than specific targeting to the cortical actin cytoskeleton for Vrp1p function in endocytosis and cell growth, and suggest that Vrp1p binding to individual effectors may alter their physiological activity. PMID:17635585

  4. Full-length Gα(q)-phospholipase C-β3 structure reveals interfaces of the C-terminal coiled-coil domain.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Angeline M; Dutta, Somnath; Boguth, Cassandra A; Skiniotis, Georgios; Tesmer, John J G

    2013-03-01

    Phospholipase C-β (PLCβ) is directly activated by Gαq, but the molecular basis for how its distal C-terminal domain (CTD) contributes to maximal activity is poorly understood. Herein we present both the crystal structure and cryo-EM three-dimensional reconstructions of human full-length PLCβ3 in complex with mouse Gαq. The distal CTD forms an extended monomeric helical bundle consisting of three antiparallel segments with structural similarity to membrane-binding bin-amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domains. Sequence conservation of the distal CTD suggests putative membrane and protein interaction sites, the latter of which bind the N-terminal helix of Gαq in both the crystal structure and cryo-EM reconstructions. Functional analysis suggests that the distal CTD has roles in membrane targeting and in optimizing the orientation of the catalytic core at the membrane for maximal rates of lipid hydrolysis. PMID:23377541

  5. Full-length Gαq-phospholipase C-β3 structure reveals interfaces of the C-terminal coiled-coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Angeline M.; Dutta, Somnath; Boguth, Cassandra A.; Skiniotis, Georgios; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2014-08-21

    Phospholipase C-β (PLCβ) is directly activated by Gαq, but the molecular basis for how its distal C-terminal domain (CTD) contributes to maximal activity is poorly understood. Herein we present both the crystal structure and cryo-EM three-dimensional reconstructions of human full-length PLCβ3 in complex with mouse Gαq. The distal CTD forms an extended monomeric helical bundle consisting of three antiparallel segments with structural similarity to membrane-binding bin-amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domains. Sequence conservation of the distal CTD suggests putative membrane and protein interaction sites, the latter of which bind the N-terminal helix of Gαq in both the crystal structure and cryo-EM reconstructions. Functional analysis suggests that the distal CTD has roles in membrane targeting and in optimizing the orientation of the catalytic core at the membrane for maximal rates of lipid hydrolysis.

  6. Ergosterol content specifies targeting of tail-anchored proteins to mitochondrial outer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Krumpe, Katrin; Frumkin, Idan; Herzig, Yonatan; Rimon, Nitzan; Özbalci, Cagakan; Brügger, Britta; Rapaport, Doron; Schuldiner, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins have a single C-terminal transmembrane domain, making their biogenesis dependent on posttranslational translocation. Despite their importance, no dedicated insertion machinery has been uncovered for mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) TA proteins. To decipher the molecular mechanisms guiding MOM TA protein insertion, we performed two independent systematic microscopic screens in which we visualized the localization of model MOM TA proteins on the background of mutants in all yeast genes. We could find no mutant in which insertion was completely blocked. However, both screens demonstrated that MOM TA proteins were partially localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in ∆spf1 cells. Spf1, an ER ATPase with unknown function, is the first protein shown to affect MOM TA protein insertion. We found that ER membranes in ∆spf1 cells become similar in their ergosterol content to mitochondrial membranes. Indeed, when we visualized MOM TA protein distribution in yeast strains with reduced ergosterol content, they phenocopied the loss of Spf1. We therefore suggest that the inherent differences in membrane composition between organelle membranes are sufficient to determine membrane integration specificity in a eukaryotic cell. PMID:22918956

  7. Phytoplasma infection in tomato is associated with re-organization of plasma membrane, ER stacks, and actin filaments in sieve elements

    PubMed Central

    Buxa, Stefanie V.; Degola, Francesca; Polizzotto, Rachele; De Marco, Federica; Loschi, Alberto; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; di Toppi, Luigi Sanità; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Musetti, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplasmas, biotrophic wall-less prokaryotes, only reside in sieve elements of their host plants. The essentials of the intimate interaction between phytoplasmas and their hosts are poorly understood, which calls for research on potential ultrastructural modifications. We investigated modifications of the sieve-element ultrastructure induced in tomato plants by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani,’ the pathogen associated with the stolbur disease. Phytoplasma infection induces a drastic re-organization of sieve-element substructures including changes in plasma membrane surface and distortion of the sieve-element reticulum. Observations of healthy and stolbur-diseased plants provided evidence for the emergence of structural links between sieve-element plasma membrane and phytoplasmas. One-sided actin aggregates on the phytoplasma surface also inferred a connection between phytoplasma and sieve-element cytoskeleton. Actin filaments displaced from the sieve-element mictoplasm to the surface of the phytoplasmas in infected sieve elements. Western blot analysis revealed a decrease of actin and an increase of ER-resident chaperone luminal binding protein (BiP) in midribs of phytoplasma-infected plants. Collectively, the studies provided novel insights into ultrastructural responses of host sieve elements to phloem-restricted prokaryotes. PMID:26347766

  8. Yeast membrane proteomics using leucine metabolic labelling: Bioinformatic data processing and exemplary application to the ER-intramembrane protease Ypf1.

    PubMed

    Nilse, Lars; Avci, Dönem; Heisterkamp, Patrick; Serang, Oliver; Lemberg, Marius K; Schilling, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    We describe in detail the usage of leucine metabolic labelling in yeast in order to monitor quantitative proteome alterations, e.g. upon removal of a protease. Since laboratory yeast strains are typically leucine auxotroph, metabolic labelling with trideuterated leucine (d3-leucine) is a straightforward, cost-effective, and ubiquitously applicable strategy for quantitative proteomic studies, similar to the widely used arginine/lysine metabolic labelling method for mammalian cells. We showcase the usage of advanced peptide quantification using the FeatureFinderMultiplex algorithm (part of the OpenMS software package) for robust and reliable quantification. Furthermore, we present an OpenMS bioinformatics data analysis workflow that combines accurate quantification with high proteome coverage. In order to enable visualization, peptide-mapping, and sharing of quantitative proteomic data, especially for membrane-spanning and cell-surface proteins, we further developed the web-application Proteator (http://proteator.appspot.com). Due to its simplicity and robustness, we expect metabolic leucine labelling in yeast to be of great interest to the research community. As an exemplary application, we show the identification of the copper transporter Ctr1 as a putative substrate of the ER-intramembrane protease Ypf1 by yeast membrane proteomics using d3-leucine isotopic labelling. PMID:27426920

  9. Ion channel activity of the CSFV p7 viroporin in surrogates of the ER lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Largo, Eneko; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Aguilella, Vicente M; Nieva, José L; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Viroporins comprise a family of non-structural proteins that play significant and diverse roles during the replication cycle of many animal viruses. Consequently, they have become promising targets for inhibitory drug and vaccine development. Structure–function traits common to all members of the family are their small size (ca. 60–120 aa), high hydrophobicity, and the presence of helical domains that transverse the membrane and assemble into oligomeric-permeating structures therein. The possibility that viroporins show in particular conditions any kind of specificity in the transport of ions and small solutes remains a point of contention in the field. Here we have approached this issue using the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) protein p7 viroporin as a model. We have previously reported that CSFV-p7 induces release of ANTS (MW: 427.33) from lipid vesicles that emulate the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) membrane, and that this process is dependent on pH, modulated by the lipid composition, and recreated by a C-terminal transmembrane helix. Here we have assayed CSFV-p7 for its capacity to form ion-conducting channels in ER-like planar lipid membranes, and established whether this activity is subject to regulation by the same factors. The analysis of electrophysiological recordings in ER membrane surrogates suggests that CSFV-p7 forms pores wide enough to allow ANTS release. Moreover, we were able to discriminate between two pore structures with slightly different sizes and opposite ion selectivities. The fact that the relative abundances of each pore type depend crucially on membrane composition strengthens the view that the physicochemical properties of the lipid bilayers present in the cell endomembrane system modulate viroporin activity. PMID:26464198

  10. Runx transcription factors repress human and murine c-Myc expression in a DNA-binding and C-terminally dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Paejonette T; Cao, Li; Samon, Jeremy B; Kane, Christyne A; Hedblom, Emmett E; Bowcock, Anne; Telfer, Janice C

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factors Runx1 and c-Myc have individually been shown to regulate important gene targets as well as to collaborate in oncogenesis. However, it is unknown whether there is a regulatory relationship between the two genes. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of endogenous c-Myc by Runx1 in the human T cell line Jurkat and murine primary hematopoietic cells. Endogenous Runx1 binds to multiple sites in the c-Myc locus upstream of the c-Myc transcriptional start site. Cells transduced with a C-terminally truncated Runx1 (Runx1.d190), which lacks important cofactor interaction sites and can block C-terminal-dependent functions of all Runx transcription factors, showed increased transcription of c-Myc. In order to monitor c-Myc expression in response to early and transiently-acting Runx1.d190, we generated a cell membrane-permeable TAT-Runx1.d190 fusion protein. Murine splenocytes treated with TAT-Runx1.d190 showed an increase in the transcription of c-Myc within 2 hours, peaking at 4 hours post-treatment and declining thereafter. This effect is dependent on the ability of Runx1.d190 to bind to DNA. The increase in c-Myc transcripts is correlated with increased c-Myc protein levels. Collectively, these data show that Runx1 directly regulates c-Myc transcription in a C-terminal- and DNA-binding-dependent manner. PMID:23874874

  11. Runx Transcription Factors Repress Human and Murine c-Myc Expression in a DNA-Binding and C-Terminally Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Paejonette T.; Cao, Li; Samon, Jeremy B.; Kane, Christyne A.; Hedblom, Emmett E.; Bowcock, Anne; Telfer, Janice C.

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factors Runx1 and c-Myc have individually been shown to regulate important gene targets as well as to collaborate in oncogenesis. However, it is unknown whether there is a regulatory relationship between the two genes. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of endogenous c-Myc by Runx1 in the human T cell line Jurkat and murine primary hematopoietic cells. Endogenous Runx1 binds to multiple sites in the c-Myc locus upstream of the c-Myc transcriptional start site. Cells transduced with a C-terminally truncated Runx1 (Runx1.d190), which lacks important cofactor interaction sites and can block C-terminal-dependent functions of all Runx transcription factors, showed increased transcription of c-Myc. In order to monitor c-Myc expression in response to early and transiently-acting Runx1.d190, we generated a cell membrane-permeable TAT-Runx1.d190 fusion protein. Murine splenocytes treated with TAT-Runx1.d190 showed an increase in the transcription of c-Myc within 2 hours, peaking at 4 hours post-treatment and declining thereafter. This effect is dependent on the ability of Runx1.d190 to bind to DNA. The increase in c-Myc transcripts is correlated with increased c-Myc protein levels. Collectively, these data show that Runx1 directly regulates c-Myc transcription in a C-terminal- and DNA-binding-dependent manner. PMID:23874874

  12. TRIP8b regulates HCN1 channel trafficking and gating through two distinct C-terminal interaction sites

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Bina; Hu, Lei; Liu, Haiying; Saponaro, Andrea; Pian, Phillip; Piskorowski, Rebecca A.; Moroni, Anna; Siegelbaum, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-regulated (HCN) channels in the brain associate with their auxiliary subunit TRIP8b (also known as PEX5R), a cytoplasmic protein expressed as a family of alternatively spliced isoforms. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that association of TRIP8b with HCN subunits both inhibits channel opening and alters channel membrane trafficking, with some splice variants increasing and others decreasing channel surface expression. Here, we address the structural bases of the regulatory interactions between mouse TRIP8b and HCN1. We find that HCN1 and TRIP8b interact at two distinct sites: an upstream site where the C-linker/cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of HCN1 interacts with an 80 amino acid domain in the conserved central core of TRIP8b, and a downstream site where the C-terminal -SNL tripeptide of the channel interacts with the tetratricopeptide repeat domain of TRIP8b. These two interaction sites play distinct functional roles in the effects of TRIP8b on HCN1 trafficking and gating. Binding at the upstream site is both necessary and sufficient for TRIP8b to inhibit channel opening. It is also sufficient to mediate the trafficking effects of those TRIP8b isoforms that downregulate channel surface expression, in combination with the trafficking motifs present in the N-terminal region of TRIP8b. In contrast, binding at the downstream interaction site serves to stabilize the C-terminal domain of TRIP8b, allowing for optimal interaction between HCN1 and TRIP8b as well as for proper assembly of the molecular complexes that mediate the effects of TRIP8b on HCN1 channel trafficking. PMID:21411649

  13. Effect of C-terminal truncation on enzyme properties of recombinant amylopullulanase from Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Pang; Ho, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Lin, Hui-Ju

    2012-05-01

    The smallest and enzymatically active molecule, TetApuQ818, was localized within the C-terminal Q818 amino acid residue after serial C-terminal truncation analysis of the recombinant amylopullulanase molecule (TetApuM955) from Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus. Kinetic analyses indicated that the overall catalytic efficiency, k (cat)/K (m), of TetApuQ818 was 8-32% decreased for the pullulan and the soluble starch substrate, respectively. Changes to the substrate affinity, K (m), and the turnover rate, k (cat), were decreased significantly in both enzymatic activities of TetApuQ818. TetApuQ818 exhibited less thermostability than TetApuM955 when the temperature was raised above 85°C, but it had similar substrate-binding ability and hydrolysis products toward various substrates as TetApuM955 did. Both enzymes showed similar spectroscopies of fluorescence and circular dichroism, suggesting the active folding conformation was maintained after this C-terminal Q818 deletion. This study suggested that the binding ability of insoluble starch by TetApuM955 did not rely on the putative C-terminal carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) and two FnIII regions of TetApu, though the integrity of the AamyC module of TetApuQ818 was required for the enzyme activity. PMID:22392283

  14. MscCG from Corynebacterium glutamicum: functional significance of the C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Michael; Krämer, Reinhard

    2015-10-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is used in microbial biotechnology for the production of amino acids, e.g., glutamate and lysine. Excretion of glutamate into the surrounding medium under production conditions is mediated by MscCG, an MscS-type mechanosensitive channel. In difference to most other MscS-type channel proteins, MscCG carries, in addition to the N-terminal pore domain, a long C-terminal domain that amounts to about half of the size of the protein and harbors an additional transmembrane segment. Here we study the impact of the C-terminal domain on both functions of MscCG as mechanosensitive channel and as glutamate exporter. Sequential truncations of the C-terminal domain were applied, as well as deletion of particular subdomains, replacement of these segments by other amino acid sequences, and sequence randomization. Several parameters of cell physiology and bioenergetics of the obtained mutants related to both glutamate excretion and response to osmotic stress were quantified. All three subdomains of the C-terminal domain, i.e., the periplasmic loop, the fourth transmembrane segment, and the cytoplasmic loop, proved to be of core significance for MscCG function, in particular for glutamate excretion. PMID:26033538

  15. Defining the Intrinsically Disordered C-Terminal Domain of SSB Reveals DNA-Mediated Compaction.

    PubMed

    Green, Matthew; Hatter, Louise; Brookes, Emre; Soultanas, Panos; Scott, David J

    2016-01-29

    The bacterial single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein SSB is a strictly conserved and essential protein involved in diverse functions of DNA metabolism, including replication and repair. SSB comprises a well-characterized tetrameric core of N-terminal oligonucleotide binding OB folds that bind ssDNA and four intrinsically disordered C-terminal domains of unknown structure that interact with partner proteins. The generally accepted, albeit speculative, mechanistic model in the field postulates that binding of ssDNA to the OB core induces the flexible, undefined C-terminal arms to expand outwards encouraging functional interactions with partner proteins. In this structural study, we show that the opposite is true. Combined small-angle scattering with X-rays and neutrons coupled to coarse-grained modeling reveal that the intrinsically disordered C-terminal arms are relatively collapsed around the tetrameric OB core and collapse further upon ssDNA binding. This implies a mechanism of action, in which the disordered C-terminal domain collapse traps the ssDNA and pulls functional partners onto the ssDNA. PMID:26707201

  16. A summary of staphylococcal C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcal peptidoglycan hydrolases are a potential new source of antimicrobials. A large subset of these proteins contain a C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domain that has been shown for some to be essential for accurate cell wall recognition and subsequent staphylolytic activity, propert...

  17. Alpha-A crystallin: quantitation of C-terminal modification during lens aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is susceptible to age-dependent, posttranslational modification. To quantitate the amount of modification, alpha-A crystallin was purified from total proteins of the aging bovine lens, then digested with lys-C endoproteinase. Reverse phase, high pressure liquid chromatography was used to resolve and quantitate the resulting peptides, to determine the amount of C-terminal peptide relative to peptides from other regions of the protein that have not been reported to undergo modification. The results indicate that relative to alpha-A crystallin from newborn lens, posttranslational modification has occurred in approximately 45-55% of the C-terminal region from mature lens. These results demonstrate extensive modification of the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin from the mature lens, indicating that during the aging process, posttranslational modifications in this region may make significant contributions to the aggregated state and/or molecular chaperone properties of the molecule.

  18. IMPLICATION OF C-TERMINAL DELETION ON THE STRUCTURE AND STABILITY OF BOVINE B-CASEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The properties of bovine Beta-casein with its C-terminal 20 residues removed by chymosin digestion, 1-192 fragment (f1-192), were examined and compared to the parent protein (Beta-casein). The f1-192 molecule could not form a complex with the hydrophobic probe ANS; this convincingly illustrates that...

  19. A C-terminal aldehyde analog of the insect kinins inhibits diuresis in the housefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect kinins are present in a wide variety of insects and function as potent diuretic peptides in flies. A C-terminal aldehyde insect kinin analog, Fmoc-RFFPWG-H (R-LK-CHO), demonstrates stimulation of Malpighian tubule fluid secretion in crickets, but shows inhibition of both in vitro and in v...

  20. Pannexin 1, an ATP Release Channel, Is Activated by Caspase Cleavage of Its Pore-associated C-terminal Autoinhibitory Region*♦

    PubMed Central

    Sandilos, Joanna K.; Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Chekeni, Faraaz B.; Armstrong, Allison J.; Walk, Scott F.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Pannexin 1 (PANX1) channels mediate release of ATP, a “find-me” signal that recruits macrophages to apoptotic cells; PANX1 activation during apoptosis requires caspase-mediated cleavage of PANX1 at its C terminus, but how the C terminus inhibits basal channel activity is not understood. Here, we provide evidence suggesting that the C terminus interacts with the human PANX1 (hPANX1) pore and that cleavage-mediated channel activation requires disruption of this inhibitory interaction. Basally silent hPANX1 channels localized on the cell membrane could be activated directly by protease-mediated C-terminal cleavage, without additional apoptotic effectors. By serial deletion, we identified a C-terminal region just distal to the caspase cleavage site that is required for inhibition of hPANX1; point mutations within this small region resulted in partial activation of full-length hPANX1. Consistent with the C-terminal tail functioning as a pore blocker, we found that truncated and constitutively active hPANX1 channels could be inhibited, in trans, by the isolated hPANX1 C terminus either in cells or when applied directly as a purified peptide in inside-out patch recordings. Furthermore, using a cysteine cross-linking approach, we showed that relief of inhibition following cleavage requires dissociation of the C terminus from the channel pore. Collectively, these data suggest a mechanism of hPANX1 channel regulation whereby the intact, pore-associated C terminus inhibits the full-length hPANX1 channel and a remarkably well placed caspase cleavage site allows effective removal of key inhibitory C-terminal determinants to activate hPANX1. PMID:22311983

  1. Elliptocytosis in patients with C-terminal domain mutations of protein 4.1 correlates with encoded messenger RNA levels rather than with alterations in primary protein structure.

    PubMed

    Morinière, M; Ribeiro, L; Dalla Venezia, N; Deguillien, M; Maillet, P; Cynober, T; Delhommeau, F; Almeida, H; Tamagnini, G; Delaunay, J; Baklouti, F

    2000-03-01

    Early biochemical studies defined 4 functional domains of the erythroid protein 4.1 (4.1R). From amino-terminal to carboxy-terminal, these are 30 kd, 16 kd, 10 kd, and 22/24 kd in size. Although the functional properties of both the 30-kd and the 10-kd domain have been demonstrated in red cells, no functional activities have been assigned to either the 16-kd or the 22/24-kd domain in these cells. We here describe new mutations in the sequence encoding the C-terminal 22/24-kd domain that are associated with hereditary elliptocytosis. An unusually mild phenotype observed in heterozygous and homozygous members of 1 family suggested heterogeneity in the pattern of expression of 4.1R deficiency. Using a variety of protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) quantification strategies, we showed that, regardless of the alteration in the C-terminal primary sequence, when the protein is produced, it assembles at the cell membrane. In addition, we found that alterations in red cell morphologic features and membrane function correlate with the amount of membrane-associated protein-and therefore with the amount of mRNA accumulated-rather than with the primary structure of the variant proteins. These data suggest that an intact sequence at exons 19 through 21 encoding part of the C-terminal 22/24-kd region is not required for proper protein 4.1R assembly in mature red cells. (Blood. 2000;95:1834-1841) PMID:10688845

  2. Cell surface-mediated activation of progelatinase A: demonstration of the involvement of the C-terminal domain of progelatinase A in cell surface binding and activation of progelatinase A by primary fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R V; Atkinson, S J; Reynolds, J J; Murphy, G

    1994-01-01

    We report that the isolated C-terminal domain of progelatinase A is inhibitory to the activation of this proenzyme by primary skin fibroblast plasma membranes but is unable to inhibit organomercurial-induced self-cleavage and activation. Ligand binding studies demonstrate that fibroblasts stimulated with concanavalin A to activate progelatinase A have a significantly enhanced level of cell surface-associated progelatinase A. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), an effective inhibitor of membrane-mediated progelatinase A activation, is able to abolish the enhanced level of cell surface-associated progelatinase A that occurs following stimulation. TIMP-1, a poor inhibitor of membrane activation, is unable to inhibit the cell surface binding of progelatinase A. The enhancement in the binding of 125I-progelatinase A to fibroblasts following concanavalin A stimulation can be blocked by the inclusion of excess C-terminal gelatinase A but not by a truncated form of gelatinase A lacking the C-terminal domain. Scatchard analysis of the binding of 125I-progelatinase A to concanavalin A-stimulated fibroblasts has identified 950,000 gelatinase binding sites per cell with a Kd of 1.3 x 10(-8) M. Analysis of non-stimulated fibroblasts has identified 500,000 sites per cell with a Kd of 2.6 x 10(-8) M. We propose that membrane-mediated activation of progelatinase A involves binding of the proenzyme through its C-terminal domain to the cell surface and that TIMP-2 can inhibit activation by interaction with progelatinase A through the C-terminal domain, thus preventing binding of the proenzyme. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7998943

  3. The C-terminal loop of aldehyde reductase determines the substrate and inhibitor specificity.

    PubMed

    Barski, O A; Gabbay, K H; Bohren, K M

    1996-11-12

    Human aldehyde reductase has a preference for carboxyl group-containing negatively charged substrates. It belongs to the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase superfamily whose members are in part distinguished by unique C-terminal loops. To probe the role of the C-terminal loops in determining substrate specificities in these enzymes, two arginine residues, Arg308 and Arg311, located in the C-terminal loop of aldehyde reductase, and not found in any other C-terminal loop, were replaced with alanine residues. The catalytic efficiency of the R311A mutant for aldehydes containing a carboxyl group is reduced 150-250-fold in comparison to that of the wild-type enzyme, while substrates not containing a negative charge are unaffected. The R311A mutant is also significantly less sensitive to inhibition by dicarboxylic acids, indicating that Arg311 interacts with one of the carboxyl groups. The inhibition pattern indicates that the other carboxyl group binds to the anion binding site formed by Tyr49, His112, and the nicotinamide moiety of NADP+. The correlation between inhibitor potency and the length of the dicarboxylic acid molecules suggests a distance of approximately 10 A between the amino group of Arg311 and the anion binding site in the aldehyde reductase molecule. The sensitivity of inhibition of the R311A mutant by several commercially available aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) was variable, with tolrestat and zopolrestat becoming more potent inhibitors (30- and 5-fold, respectively), while others remained the same or became less potent. The catalytic properties, substrate specificity, and susceptibility to inhibition of the R308A mutant remained similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. The data provide direct evidence for C-terminal loop participation in determining substrate and inhibitor specificity of aldo-keto reductases and specifically identifies Arg311 as the basis for the carboxyl-containing substrate preference of aldehyde reductase. PMID:8916913

  4. Evidence for new C-terminally truncated variants of α- and β-tubulins

    PubMed Central

    Aillaud, Chrystelle; Bosc, Christophe; Saoudi, Yasmina; Denarier, Eric; Peris, Leticia; Sago, Laila; Taulet, Nicolas; Cieren, Adeline; Tort, Olivia; Magiera, Maria M.; Janke, Carsten; Redeker, Virginie; Andrieux, Annie; Moutin, Marie-Jo

    2016-01-01

    Cellular α-tubulin can bear various carboxy-terminal sequences: full-length tubulin arising from gene neosynthesis is tyrosinated, and two truncated variants, corresponding to detyrosinated and Δ2 α‑tubulin, result from the sequential cleavage of one or two C-terminal residues, respectively. Here, by using a novel antibody named 3EG that is highly specific to the –EEEG C-terminal sequence, we demonstrate the occurrence in neuronal tissues of a new αΔ3‑tubulin variant corresponding to α1A/B‑tubulin deleted of its last three residues (EEY). αΔ3‑tubulin has a specific distribution pattern: its quantity in the brain is similar to that of αΔ2-tubulin around birth but is much lower in adult tissue. This truncated α1A/B-tubulin variant can be generated from αΔ2-tubulin by the deglutamylases CCP1, CCP4, CCP5, and CCP6 but not by CCP2 and CCP3. Moreover, using 3EG antibody, we identify a C‑terminally truncated β-tubulin form with the same –EEEG C-terminal sequence. Using mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that β2A/B-tubulin is modified by truncation of the four C-terminal residues (EDEA). We show that this newly identified βΔ4-tubulin is ubiquitously present in cells and tissues and that its level is constant throughout the cell cycle. These new C-terminally truncated α- and β-tubulin variants, both ending with –EEEG sequence, are expected to regulate microtubule physiology. Of interest, the αΔ3-tubulin seems to be related to dynamic microtubules, resembling tyrosinated-tubulin rather than the other truncated variants, and may have critical function(s) in neuronal development. PMID:26739754

  5. Evidence for new C-terminally truncated variants of α- and β-tubulins.

    PubMed

    Aillaud, Chrystelle; Bosc, Christophe; Saoudi, Yasmina; Denarier, Eric; Peris, Leticia; Sago, Laila; Taulet, Nicolas; Cieren, Adeline; Tort, Olivia; Magiera, Maria M; Janke, Carsten; Redeker, Virginie; Andrieux, Annie; Moutin, Marie-Jo

    2016-02-15

    Cellular α-tubulin can bear various carboxy-terminal sequences: full-length tubulin arising from gene neosynthesis is tyrosinated, and two truncated variants, corresponding to detyrosinated and Δ2 α‑tubulin, result from the sequential cleavage of one or two C-terminal residues, respectively. Here, by using a novel antibody named 3EG that is highly specific to the -EEEG C-terminal sequence, we demonstrate the occurrence in neuronal tissues of a new αΔ3‑tubulin variant corresponding to α1A/B‑tubulin deleted of its last three residues (EEY). αΔ3‑tubulin has a specific distribution pattern: its quantity in the brain is similar to that of αΔ2-tubulin around birth but is much lower in adult tissue. This truncated α1A/B-tubulin variant can be generated from αΔ2-tubulin by the deglutamylases CCP1, CCP4, CCP5, and CCP6 but not by CCP2 and CCP3. Moreover, using 3EG antibody, we identify a C‑terminally truncated β-tubulin form with the same -EEEG C-terminal sequence. Using mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that β2A/B-tubulin is modified by truncation of the four C-terminal residues (EDEA). We show that this newly identified βΔ4-tubulin is ubiquitously present in cells and tissues and that its level is constant throughout the cell cycle. These new C-terminally truncated α- and β-tubulin variants, both ending with -EEEG sequence, are expected to regulate microtubule physiology. Of interest, the αΔ3-tubulin seems to be related to dynamic microtubules, resembling tyrosinated-tubulin rather than the other truncated variants, and may have critical function(s) in neuronal development. PMID:26739754

  6. Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of C-terminal modified peptides by formation of a backbone cyclic urethane moiety.

    PubMed

    Elashal, Hader E; Cohen, Ryan D; Raj, Monika

    2016-08-11

    C-terminally modified peptides are of high significance due to the therapeutic properties that accompany various C-terminal functional groups and the ability to manipulate them for further applications. Thus, there is a great necessity for an effective solid phase technique for the synthesis of C-terminally modified peptides. Here, we report a universal solid phase strategy for the synthesis of various C-terminal modified peptides which is independent of the type of resins, linkers, and unnatural moieties typically needed for C-terminal modifications. The technique proceeds by the modification of C-terminal serine to a cyclic urethane moiety which results in the activation of the backbone amide chain for nucleophilic displacement by various nucleophiles to generate C-terminally modified acids, esters, N-aryl amides, and alcohols. This cyclic urethane technique (CUT) also provides a general strategy for synthesis of C-terminal protected peptides that can be used for convergent synthesis of large peptides. The C-terminal protecting groups are cleaved by facile hydrolysis to release the free peptide. PMID:27407005

  7. The C-terminal tail inhibitory phosphorylation sites of PTEN regulate its intrinsic catalytic activity and the kinetics of its binding to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yeong-Chit Joel; Catimel, Bruno; Lio, Daisy Sio Seng; Ang, Ching-Seng; Peng, Benjamin; Wu, Hong; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Cheng, Heung-Chin

    2015-12-01

    Dephosphorylation of four major C-terminal tail sites and occupancy of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]-binding site of PTEN cooperate to activate its phospholipid phosphatase activity and facilitate its recruitment to plasma membrane. Our investigation of the mechanism by which phosphorylation of these C-terminal sites controls the PI(4,5)P2-binding affinity and catalytic activity of PTEN resulted in the following findings. First, dephosphorylation of all four sites leads to full activation; and phosphorylation of any one site significantly reduces the intrinsic catalytic activity of PTEN. These findings suggest that coordinated inhibition of the upstream protein kinases and activation of the protein phosphatases targeting the four sites are needed to fully activate PTEN phosphatase activity. Second, PI(4,5)P2 cannot activate the phosphopeptide phosphatase activity of PTEN, suggesting that PI(4,5)P2 can only activate the phospholipid phosphatase activity but not the phosphoprotein phosphatase activity of PTEN. Third, dephosphorylation of all four sites significantly decreases the affinity of PTEN for PI(4,5)P2. Since PI(4,5)P2 is a major phospholipid co-localizing with the phospholipid- and phosphoprotein-substrates in plasma membrane, we hypothesise that the reduced affinity facilitates PTEN to "hop" on the plasma membrane to dephosphorylate these substrates. PMID:26471078

  8. The Crystal Structures of Yeast Get3 Suggest a Mechanism for Tail-Anchored Protein Membrane Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Junbin; Li, Jingzhi; Qian, Xinguo; Denic, Vlad; Sha, Bingdong

    2010-08-16

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins represent a unique class of membrane proteins that contain a single C-terminal transmembrane helix. The post-translational insertion of the yeast TA proteins into the ER membrane requires the Golgi ER trafficking (GET) complex which contains Get1, Get2 and Get3. Get3 is an ATPase that recognizes and binds the C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) of the TA proteins. We have determined the crystal structures of Get3 from two yeast species, S. cerevisiae and D. hansenii, respectively. These high resolution crystal structures show that Get3 contains a nucleotide-binding domain and a 'finger' domain for binding the TA protein TMD. A large hydrophobic groove on the finger domain of S. cerevisiae Get3 structure might represent the binding site for TMD of TA proteins. A hydrophobic helix from a symmetry-related Get3 molecule sits in the TMD-binding groove and mimics the TA binding scenario. Interestingly, the crystal structures of the Get3 dimers from S. cerevisiae and D. hansenii exhibit distinct conformations. The S. cerevisiae Get3 dimer structure does not contain nucleotides and maintains an 'open' conformation, while the D. hansenii Get3 dimer structure binds ADP and stays in a 'closed' conformation. We propose that the conformational changes to switch the Get3 between the open and closed conformations may facilitate the membrane insertions for TA proteins.

  9. BST-2 is rapidly down-regulated from the cell surface by the HIV-1 protein Vpu: evidence for a post-ER mechanism of Vpu-action

    PubMed Central

    Skasko, Mark; Tokarev, Andrey; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Fischer, Wolfgang B.; Pillai, Satish K.; Guatelli, John

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that transmembrane domain (TMD) interactions are essential for HIV-1 Vpu-mediated antagonism of the restriction factor BST-2/tetherin. We made Vpu TMD mutants to study the mechanism of BST-2 antagonism. Vpu-I17A, -A18F, - W22L, and -S23L co-localized with BST-2 within endosomal membranes while effectively enhancing virion release and down-regulating surface BST-2. However, Vpu-A18H was confined to an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like distribution, resulting in impaired down-regulation of BST-2 and reduced virion release. Brefeldin A confined wild type Vpu to the ER, resulting in a similarly impaired phenotype, as did the addition of a C-terminal ER-retention signal to Vpu. We determined the half-life of cell-surface BST-2 to be ~8 hours, whereas Vpu mediated an ~80% reduction of surface BST-2 within 6 hours, suggesting that TMD interactions between Vpu and BST-2 occur within post-ER membranes to directly and rapidly remove BST-2 from the cell surface and relieve restricted virion release. PMID:21237475

  10. Sec1p and Mso1p C-terminal tails cooperate with the SNAREs and Sec4p in polarized exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Aro, Nina; Chernov, Konstantin G.; Nyman, Tuula; Jäntti, Jussi

    2011-01-01

    The Sec1/Munc18 protein family members perform an essential, albeit poorly understood, function in association with soluble n-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) complexes in membrane fusion. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec1p has a C-terminal tail that is missing in its mammalian homologues. Here we show that deletion of the Sec1p tail (amino acids 658–724) renders cells temperature sensitive for growth, reduces sporulation efficiency, causes a secretion defect, and abolishes Sec1p-SNARE component coimmunoprecipitation. The results show that the Sec1p tail binds preferentially ternary Sso1p-Sec9p-Snc2p complexes and it enhances ternary SNARE complex formation in vitro. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay results suggest that, in the SNARE-deficient sso2–1 Δsso1 cells, Mso1p, a Sec1p binding protein, helps to target Sec1p(1–657) lacking the C-terminal tail to the sites of secretion. The results suggest that the Mso1p C terminus is important for Sec1p(1–657) targeting. We show that, in addition to Sec1p, Mso1p can bind the Rab-GTPase Sec4p in vitro. The BiFC results suggest that Mso1p acts in close association with Sec4p on intracellular membranes in the bud. This association depends on the Sec4p guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec2p. Our results reveal a novel binding mode between the Sec1p C-terminal tail and the SNARE complex, and suggest a role for Mso1p as an effector of Sec4p. PMID:21119007

  11. Sec1p and Mso1p C-terminal tails cooperate with the SNAREs and Sec4p in polarized exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Aro, Nina; Chernov, Konstantin G; Nyman, Tuula; Jäntti, Jussi

    2011-01-15

    The Sec1/Munc18 protein family members perform an essential, albeit poorly understood, function in association with soluble n-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) complexes in membrane fusion. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec1p has a C-terminal tail that is missing in its mammalian homologues. Here we show that deletion of the Sec1p tail (amino acids 658-724) renders cells temperature sensitive for growth, reduces sporulation efficiency, causes a secretion defect, and abolishes Sec1p-SNARE component coimmunoprecipitation. The results show that the Sec1p tail binds preferentially ternary Sso1p-Sec9p-Snc2p complexes and it enhances ternary SNARE complex formation in vitro. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay results suggest that, in the SNARE-deficient sso2-1 Δsso1 cells, Mso1p, a Sec1p binding protein, helps to target Sec1p(1-657) lacking the C-terminal tail to the sites of secretion. The results suggest that the Mso1p C terminus is important for Sec1p(1-657) targeting. We show that, in addition to Sec1p, Mso1p can bind the Rab-GTPase Sec4p in vitro. The BiFC results suggest that Mso1p acts in close association with Sec4p on intracellular membranes in the bud. This association depends on the Sec4p guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec2p. Our results reveal a novel binding mode between the Sec1p C-terminal tail and the SNARE complex, and suggest a role for Mso1p as an effector of Sec4p. PMID:21119007

  12. A C-TERMINAL INSECT KININ ANALOG ENHANCES INHIBITION OF WEIGHT GAIN AND INDUCES SIGNIFICANT MORTALITY IN HELICOVERPA ZEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first reported examples of C-terminal aldehyde analogs of an insect neuropeptide are described. They are hexapeptide insect kinin analogs Boc-VFFPWG-H and Fmoc-RFFPWG-H. Activity observed for these modified analogs in an in vitro insect diuretic assay confirms that the C-terminal aldehyde group...

  13. The N-terminal to C-terminal motif in protein folding and function.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Mallela M G; Englander, S Walter

    2005-01-25

    Essentially all proteins known to fold kinetically in a two-state manner have their N- and C-terminal secondary structural elements in contact, and the terminal elements often dock as part of the experimentally measurable initial folding step. Conversely, all N-C no-contact proteins studied so far fold by non-two-state kinetics. By comparison, about half of the single domain proteins in the Protein Data Bank have their N- and C-terminal elements in contact, more than expected on a random probability basis but not nearly enough to account for the bias in protein folding. Possible reasons for this bias relate to the mechanisms for initial protein folding, native state stability, and final turnover. PMID:15657118

  14. Structure of a C-terminal [alpha]-helix cap in a synthetic peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.X.; Kallenbach, N.R. ); Lyu, P.C.; Wemmer, D.E. )

    1994-02-09

    We report here a novel C-terminal capping structure in a peptide helix, in which the NH of the side chain of asparagine forms an H-bond with the helix main chain CO four residues away. The backbone forms a local 3[sub 10] helix at the C-terminus, with the side chain contributing an additional H-bonded loop. This structure reveals formation of H-bonds by the side chain and main chain of a single residue that serve as a fundamental signal at the C-terminus of helices. The structure formed in this way blocks continuation of the [alpha]helix, hence providing a stronger C-termination signal than Pro 19, as seen in the relative CD values. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371–553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P212121 (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C2221 (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. PMID:22297990

  16. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371-553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C222(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. PMID:22297990

  17. TMEM115 is an integral membrane protein of the Golgi complex involved in retrograde transport

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Yan Shan; Tran, Ton Hoai Thi; Gounko, Natalia V.; Hong, Wanjin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Searching and evaluating the Human Protein Atlas for transmembrane proteins enabled us to identify an integral membrane protein, TMEM115, that is enriched in the Golgi complex. Biochemical and cell biological analysis suggested that TMEM115 has four candidate transmembrane domains located in the N-terminal region. Both the N- and C-terminal domains are oriented towards the cytoplasm. Immunofluorescence analysis supports that TMEM115 is enriched in the Golgi cisternae. Functionally, TMEM115 knockdown or overexpression delays Brefeldin-A-induced Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport, phenocopying cells with mutations or silencing of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. Co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding experiments reveals that TMEM115 interacts with the COG complex, and might self-interact to form dimers or oligomers. A short region (residues 206–229) immediately to the C-terminal side of the fourth transmembrane domain is both necessary and sufficient for Golgi targeting. Knockdown of TMEM115 also reduces the binding of the lectins peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), suggesting an altered O-linked glycosylation profile. These results establish that TMEM115 is an integral membrane protein of the Golgi stack regulating Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport and is likely to be part of the machinery of the COG complex. PMID:24806965

  18. Viral suppression function of intracellular antibody against C-terminal domain of rabies virus phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Lina; Yu, Pengcheng; Li, Aqian; Li, Chuan; Tang, Qing; Li, Dexin; Liang, Mifang

    2015-10-01

    Rabies virus (RV) causes a fatal disease in both human and animals. The disease can be prevented by post-exposure prophylaxis in individuals exposed to RV. However, the neutralization effect is limited after the virus enters into the host cells. So, it is important to identify new targets for rabies therapy. In this study, a human antibody RV1A2 specific to RV phosphoprotein (RV-P) was generated from a human naïve immune antibody library. The antibody recognized all forms of the phosphoproteins including the full length (P1) and short length of the P proteins (P2, P3, P4, and P5). The epitope mapping and the molecular docking of antigen-antibody complex showed that the antibody targets at a conserved epitope of 'VLGWV' ranging from amino acid (aa) 262 to 266 at C-terminal domain of the P protein, which locates at a hydrophobic pocket region in the C-terminal of the RV-P. The aa W265 within the epitope is on the flat surface of the domain, suggesting that it may be a critical amino acid for the functions of the P protein. Our results further showed that intracellular antibody RV1A2 which targets at the C-terminal domain of the P protein could effectively inhibit RV propagation 2-4 days post infection. These results suggest that the conserved C-terminal domain may be used as a new target for drug discovery, which highlights an intracellular inhibition of RV propagation and provides a potential novel way to treat RV infection. PMID:26188200

  19. The C-terminal CGHC motif of protein disulfide isomerase supports thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junsong; Wu, Yi; Wang, Lu; Rauova, Lubica; Hayes, Vincent M.; Poncz, Mortimer; Essex, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has two distinct CGHC redox-active sites; however, the contribution of these sites during different physiologic reactions, including thrombosis, is unknown. Here, we evaluated the role of PDI and redox-active sites of PDI in thrombosis by generating mice with blood cells and vessel wall cells lacking PDI (Mx1-Cre Pdifl/fl mice) and transgenic mice harboring PDI that lacks a functional C-terminal CGHC motif [PDI(ss-oo) mice]. Both mouse models showed decreased fibrin deposition and platelet accumulation in laser-induced cremaster arteriole injury, and PDI(ss-oo) mice had attenuated platelet accumulation in FeCl3-induced mesenteric arterial injury. These defects were rescued by infusion of recombinant PDI containing only a functional C-terminal CGHC motif [PDI(oo-ss)]. PDI infusion restored fibrin formation, but not platelet accumulation, in eptifibatide-treated wild-type mice, suggesting a direct role of PDI in coagulation. In vitro aggregation of platelets from PDI(ss-oo) mice and PDI-null platelets was reduced; however, this defect was rescued by recombinant PDI(oo-ss). In human platelets, recombinant PDI(ss-oo) inhibited aggregation, while recombinant PDI(oo-ss) potentiated aggregation. Platelet secretion assays demonstrated that the C-terminal CGHC motif of PDI is important for P-selectin expression and ATP secretion through a non-αIIbβ3 substrate. In summary, our results indicate that the C-terminal CGHC motif of PDI is important for platelet function and coagulation. PMID:26529254

  20. Dual Thermosensitive Hydrogels Assembled from the Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Dragline Silk.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Ming-Liang; Song, Wen-Wen; Xia, Xiao-Xia

    2015-11-01

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have great potentials in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Due to the advantages of precise control over molecular weight and being biodegradable, protein-based hydrogels and their applications have been extensively studied. However, protein hydrogels with dual thermosensitive properties are rarely reported. Here we present the first report of dual thermosensitive hydrogels assembled from the conserved C-terminal domain of spider dragline silk. First, we found that recombinant C-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) of the spider Nephila clavipes formed hydrogels when cooled to approximately 2 °C or heated to 65 °C. The conformational changes and self-assembly of the recombinant protein were studied to understand the mechanism of the gelation processes using multiple methods. It was proposed that the gelation in the low-temperature regime was dominated by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between folded protein molecules, whereas the gelation in the high-temperature regime was due to cross-linking of the exposed hydrophobic patches resulting from partial unfolding of the protein upon heating. More interestingly, genetic fusion of the C-terminal domain to a short repetitive region of N. clavipes MaSp1 resulted in a chimeric protein that formed a hydrogel with significantly improved mechanical properties at low temperatures between 2 and 10 °C. Furthermore, the formation of similar hydrogels was observed for the recombinant C-terminal domains of dragline silk of different spider species, thus demonstrating the conserved ability to form dual thermosensitive hydrogels. These findings may be useful in the design and construction of novel protein hydrogels with tunable multiple thermosensitivity for applications in the future. PMID:26457360

  1. The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papazyan, Romeo; Rozengurt, Enrique; Rey, Osvaldo . E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-14

    We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

  2. Mutagenic Analysis of the C-Terminal Extension of Lsm1

    PubMed Central

    Tharun, Sundaresan

    2016-01-01

    The Sm-like proteins (also known as Lsm proteins) are ubiquitous in nature and exist as hexa or heptameric RNA binding complexes. They are characterized by the presence of the Sm-domain. The Lsm1 through Lsm7 proteins are highly conserved in eukaryotes and they form a hetero-octameric complex together with the protein Pat1. The Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex plays a key role in mRNA decapping and 3’-end protection and therefore is required for normal mRNA decay rates in vivo. Lsm1 is a key subunit that is critical for the unique RNA binding properties of this complex. We showed earlier that unlike most Sm-like proteins, Lsm1 uniquely requires both its Sm domain and its C-terminal extension to contribute to the function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex and that the C-terminal segment can associate with the rest of the complex and support the function even in trans. The studies presented here identify a set of residues at the very C-terminal end of Lsm1 to be functionally important and suggest that these residues support the function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex by facilitating RNA binding either directly or indirectly. PMID:27434131

  3. Structure of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase α subunit C-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-González, Samuel; Birktoft, Jens J.; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-07-01

    The crystal structure of the dimethyllysine derivative of the E. coli RNA polymerase α subunit C-terminal domain is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. The α subunit C-terminal domain (αCTD) of RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a key element in transcription activation in Escherichia coli, possessing determinants responsible for the interaction of RNAP with DNA and with transcription factors. Here, the crystal structure of E. coli αCTD (α subunit residues 245–329) determined to 2.0 Å resolution is reported. Crystals were obtained after reductive methylation of the recombinantly expressed domain. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and possessed both pseudo-translational symmetry and pseudo-merohedral twinning. The refined coordinate model (R factor = 0.193, R{sub free} = 0.236) has improved geometry compared with prior lower resolution determinations of the αCTD structure [Jeon et al. (1995 ▶), Science, 270, 1495–1497; Benoff et al. (2002 ▶), Science, 297, 1562–1566]. An extensive dimerization interface formed primarily by N- and C-terminal residues is also observed. The new coordinates will facilitate the improved modeling of αCTD-containing multi-component complexes visualized at lower resolution using X-ray crystallography and electron-microscopy reconstruction.

  4. Delineation of the core aggregation sequences of TDP-43 C-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Saini, Akash; Chauhan, Virander Singh

    2011-11-01

    Ubiquitinated cytoplasmic inclusions of TDP-43 and its C-terminal cleavage products are the pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions. The C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of TDP-43 are increasingly considered to play an important role in its aggregation and in disease. Here, we employed a set of synthetic peptides spanning the length of the TDP-43 CTF (220-414) in order to find out its core aggregation domains. Two regions, one in the RRM-2 domain (246-255) and the other in the C-terminal domain (311-320) of TDP-43, stand out as highly aggregation prone. Studies done on recombinant purified TDP-43 CTF and its three mutants, in which these sequences were deleted individually and together, suggested that the 311-320 region has a more crucial role to play than the 246-255 in its aggregation. The study helps in defining specific peptide sequences that might form the core of TDP-43 aggregation. Identification of these sequences could help in designing peptide based inhibitors of TDP-43 aggregation. PMID:21905193

  5. Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Tubuliform Spidroin 1 Contributes to Extensibility in Synthetic Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Gnesa, Eric; Hsia, Yang; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Weber, Warner; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff; Tang, Simon; Agari, Kimiko; Vierra, Craig

    2012-05-24

    Spider silk is renowned for its extraordinary mechanical properties, having a balance of high tensile strength and extensibility. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the production of dragline silks from synthetic spider silk gene products. Here we report the first mechanical analysis of synthetic egg case silk fibers spun from the Latrodectus hesperus tubuliform silk proteins, TuSp1 and ECP-2. We provide evidence that recombinant ECP-2 proteins can be spun into fibers that display mechanical properties similar to other synthetic spider silks. We also demonstrate that silks spun from recombinant thioredoxin-TuSp1 fusion proteins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain exhibit increased extensibility and toughness when compared to the identical fibers spun from fusion proteins lacking the C-terminus. Mechanical analyses reveal that the properties of synthetic tubuliform silks can be modulated by altering the postspin draw ratios of the fibers. Fibers subject to increased draw ratios showed elevated tensile strength and decreased extensibility but maintained constant toughness. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction studies indicate that postdrawn fibers containing the C-terminal domain of TuSp1 have more amorphous content when compared to fibers lacking the C-terminus. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that recombinant tubuliform spidroins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain with embedded protein tags can be effectively spun into fibers, resulting in similar tensile strength but increased extensibility relative to nontagged recombinant dragline silk proteins spun from equivalently sized proteins.

  6. Akt kinase C-terminal modifications control activation loop dephosphorylation and enhance insulin response

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tung O.; Zhang, Jin; Tiegs, Brian C.; Blumhof, Brian; Yan, Linda; Keny, Nikhil; Penny, Morgan; Li, Xue; Pascal, John M.; Armen, Roger S.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Penn, Raymond B.

    2015-01-01

    The Akt protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in insulin receptor signalling and regulates cell growth, survival and metabolism. Recently, we described a mechanism to enhance Akt phosphorylation that restricts access of cellular phosphatases to the Akt activation loop (Thr308 in Akt1 or protein kinase B isoform alpha) in an ATP-dependent manner. In the present paper, we describe a distinct mechanism to control Thr308 dephosphorylation and thus Akt deactivation that depends on intramolecular interactions of Akt C-terminal sequences with its kinase domain. Modifications of amino acids surrounding the Akt1 C-terminal mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) phosphorylation site (Ser473) increased phosphatase resistance of the phosphorylated activation loop (pThr308) and amplified Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the phosphatase-resistant Akt was refractory to ceramide-dependent dephosphorylation and amplified insulin-dependent Thr308 phosphorylation in a regulated fashion. Collectively, these results suggest that the Akt C-terminal hydrophobic groove is a target for the development of agents that enhance Akt phosphorylation by insulin. PMID:26201515

  7. Are Wnts Retrogradely Transported to the ER?

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-11-01

    A recent report showed that Drosophila miR-307a initiates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in wingless (wg)-expressing cells by suppression of the evolutionarily conserve Wnt secretion factor Wntless (Wls). Interestingly, the authors noted that wg has a putative C-terminal dilysine motif (KKVY), which is required for its apparent retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport. Wls suppression resulted in ER stress, which was phenocopied by several other manipulations that impaired wg secretion in flies, as well as Wnt5a secretion in mammalian cells. The authors surmised that their data "reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress." However, there are obvious caveats to this interpretation, as ER stress resulting from Wnt secretion impairment could be readily explained by its inability to leave the ER, and not resulting from Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2315-2316, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26916992

  8. Serine-scanning mutagenesis studies of the C-terminal heptad repeats in the SARS coronavirus S glycoprotein highlight the important role of the short helical region

    SciTech Connect

    Follis, Kathryn E.; York, Joanne; Nunberg, Jack H. . E-mail: jack.nunberg@umontana.edu

    2005-10-10

    The fusion subunit of the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein contains two regions of hydrophobic heptad-repeat amino acid sequences that have been shown in biophysical studies to form a six-helix bundle structure typical of the fusion-active core found in Class I viral fusion proteins. Here, we have applied serine-scanning mutagenesis to the C-terminal-most heptad-repeat region in the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein to investigate the functional role of this region in membrane fusion. We show that hydrophobic sidechains at a and d positions only within the short helical segment of the C-terminal heptad-repeat region (I1161, I1165, L1168, A1172, and L1175) are critical for cell-cell fusion. Serine mutations at outlying heptad-repeat residues that form an extended chain in the core structure (V1158, L1179, and L1182) do not affect fusogenicity. Our study provides genetic evidence for the important role of {alpha}-helical packing in promoting S glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion.

  9. Stress-triggered Activation of the Metalloprotease Oma1 Involves Its C-terminal Region and Is Important for Mitochondrial Stress Protection in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Bohovych, Iryna; Donaldson, Garrett; Christianson, Sara; Zahayko, Nataliya; Khalimonchuk, Oleh

    2014-01-01

    Functional integrity of mitochondria is critical for optimal cellular physiology. A suite of conserved mitochondrial proteases known as intramitochondrial quality control represents one of the mechanisms assuring normal mitochondrial function. We previously demonstrated that ATP-independent metalloprotease Oma1 mediates degradation of hypohemylated Cox1 subunit of cytochrome c oxidase and is active in cytochrome c oxidase-deficient mitochondria. Here we show that Oma1 is important for adaptive responses to various homeostatic insults and preservation of normal mitochondrial function under damage-eliciting conditions. Changes in membrane potential, oxidative stress, or chronic hyperpolarization lead to increased Oma1-mediated proteolysis. The stress-triggered induction of Oma1 proteolytic activity appears to be associated with conformational changes within the Oma1 homo-oligomeric complex, and these alterations likely involve C-terminal residues of the protease. Substitutions in the conserved C-terminal region of Oma1 impair its ability to form a labile proteolytically active complex in response to stress stimuli. We demonstrate that Oma1 genetically interacts with other inner membrane-bound quality control proteases. These findings indicate that yeast Oma1 is an important player in IM protein homeostasis and integrity by acting in concert with other intramitochondrial quality control components. PMID:24648523

  10. Probing the Impact of the EchinT C-Terminal Domain on Structure and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    S Bardaweel; J Pace; T Chou; V Cody; C Wagner

    2011-12-31

    Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein (Hint) is considered as the ancestor of the histidine triad protein superfamily and is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. Prokaryote genomes, including a wide array of both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, typically encode one Hint gene. The cellular function of Hint and the rationale for its evolutionary conservation in bacteria have remained a mystery. Despite its ubiquity and high sequence similarity to eukaryote Hint1 [Escherichia coli Hint (echinT) is 48% identical with human Hint1], prokaryote Hint has been reported in only a few studies. Here we report the first conformational information on the full-length N-terminal and C-terminal residues of Hint from the E. coli complex with GMP. Structural analysis of the echinT-GMP complex reveals that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with four homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of electron density for both the N-terminal residues and the C-terminal residues of the echinT-GMP complex indicates that the loops in some monomers can adopt more than one conformation. The observation of conformational flexibility in terminal loop regions could explain the presence of multiple homodimers in the asymmetric unit of this structure. To explore the impact of the echinT C-terminus on protein structure and catalysis, we conducted a series of catalytic radiolabeling and kinetic experiments on the C-terminal deletion mutants of echinT. In this study, we show that sequential deletion of the C-terminus likely has no effect on homodimerization and a modest effect on the secondary structure of echinT. However, we observed a significant impact on the folding structure, as reflected by a significant lowering of the T{sub m} value. Kinetic analysis reveals that the C-terminal deletion mutants are within an order of magnitude less efficient in catalysis compared to wild type, while the overall kinetic mechanism that proceeds through a fast step

  11. Analysis of the Role of the C-Terminal Tail in the Regulation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Erika; Das, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Collier, Timothy S; Cantor, Aaron; Huang, Yongjian; Wong, Kathryn; Mirza, Amar; Barros, Tiago; Grob, Patricia; Jura, Natalia; Bose, Ron; Kuriyan, John

    2015-09-01

    The ∼230-residue C-terminal tail of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is phosphorylated upon activation. We examined whether this phosphorylation is affected by deletions within the tail and whether the two tails in the asymmetric active EGFR dimer are phosphorylated differently. We monitored autophosphorylation in cells using flow cytometry and found that the first ∼80 residues of the tail are inhibitory, as demonstrated previously. The entire ∼80-residue span is important for autoinhibition and needs to be released from both kinases that form the dimer. These results are interpreted in terms of crystal structures of the inactive kinase domain, including two new ones presented here. Deletions in the remaining portion of the tail do not affect autophosphorylation, except for a six-residue segment spanning Tyr 1086 that is critical for activation loop phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of the two tails in the dimer is asymmetric, with the activator tail being phosphorylated somewhat more strongly. Unexpectedly, we found that reconstitution of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of EGFR in vesicles leads to a peculiar phenomenon in which kinase domains appear to be trapped between stacks of lipid bilayers. This artifactual trapping of kinases between membranes enhances an intrinsic functional asymmetry in the two tails in a dimer. PMID:26124280

  12. Crystal structure of the magnetobacterial protein MtxA C-terminal domain reveals a new sequence-structure relationship

    PubMed Central

    Davidov, Geula; Müller, Frank D.; Baumgartner, Jens; Bitton, Ronit; Faivre, Damien; Schüler, Dirk; Zarivach, Raz

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a diverse group of aquatic bacteria that have the magnetotaxis ability to align themselves along the geomagnetic field lines and to navigate to a microoxic zone at the bottom of chemically stratified natural water. This special navigation is the result of a unique linear assembly of a specialized organelle, the magnetosome, which contains a biomineralized magnetic nanocrystal enveloped by a cytoplasmic membrane. The Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MtxA protein (MGR_0208) was suggested to play a role in bacterial magnetotaxis due to its gene location in an operon together with putative signal transduction genes. Since no homology is found for MtxA, and to better understand the role and function of MtxA in MTBés magnetotaxis, we initiated structural and functional studies of MtxA via X-ray crystallography and deletion mutagenesis. Here, we present the crystal structure of the MtxA C-terminal domain and provide new insights into its sequence-structure relationship. PMID:26052516

  13. The impact of the C-terminal domain on the gating properties of MscCG from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Becker, Michael; Ebrahimian, Haleh; Konishi, Tomoyuki; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Krämer, Reinhard; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The mechanosensitive (MS) channel MscCG from the soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum functions as a major glutamate exporter. MscCG belongs to a subfamily of the bacterial MscS-like channels, which play an important role in osmoregulation. To understand the structural and functional features of MscCG, we investigated the role of the carboxyl-terminal domain, whose relevance for the channel gating has been unknown. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG), which is a fusion protein between the carboxyl terminal domain of MscCG and the MscS channel, was examined by the patch clamp technique. We found that the chimeric channel exhibited MS channel activity in Escherichia coli spheroplasts characterized by a lower activation threshold and slow closing compared to MscS. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG) was successfully reconstituted into azolectin liposomes and exhibited gating hysteresis in a voltage-dependent manner, especially at high pipette voltages. Moreover, the channel remained open after releasing pipette pressure at membrane potentials physiologically relevant for C. glutamicum. This contribution to the gating hysteresis of the C-terminal domain of MscCG confers to the channel gating properties highly suitable for release of intracellular solutes. PMID:26494188

  14. Autoproteolysis and Intramolecular Dissociation of Yersinia YscU Precedes Secretion of Its C-Terminal Polypeptide YscUCC

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Stefan; Ho, Oanh; Login, Frédéric H.; Weise, Christoph F.; Wolf-Watz, Hans; Wolf-Watz, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Type III secretion system mediated secretion and translocation of Yop-effector proteins across the eukaryotic target cell membrane by pathogenic Yersinia is highly organized and is dependent on a switching event from secretion of early structural substrates to late effector substrates (Yops). Substrate switching can be mimicked in vitro by modulating the calcium levels in the growth medium. YscU that is essential for regulation of this switch undergoes autoproteolysis at a conserved N↑PTH motif, resulting in a 10 kDa C-terminal polypeptide fragment denoted YscUCC. Here we show that depletion of calcium induces intramolecular dissociation of YscUCC from YscU followed by secretion of the YscUCC polypeptide. Thus, YscUCC behaved in vivo as a Yop protein with respect to secretion properties. Further, destabilized yscU mutants displayed increased rates of dissociation of YscUCC in vitro resulting in enhanced Yop secretion in vivo at 30°C relative to the wild-type strain.These findings provide strong support to the relevance of YscUCC dissociation for Yop secretion. We propose that YscUCC orchestrates a block in the secretion channel that is eliminated by calcium depletion. Further, the striking homology between different members of the YscU/FlhB family suggests that this protein family possess regulatory functions also in other bacteria using comparable mechanisms. PMID:23185318

  15. Analysis of the Role of the C-Terminal Tail in the Regulation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Erika; Das, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Collier, Timothy S.; Cantor, Aaron; Huang, Yongjian; Wong, Kathryn; Mirza, Amar; Barros, Tiago; Grob, Patricia; Jura, Natalia; Bose, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The ∼230-residue C-terminal tail of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is phosphorylated upon activation. We examined whether this phosphorylation is affected by deletions within the tail and whether the two tails in the asymmetric active EGFR dimer are phosphorylated differently. We monitored autophosphorylation in cells using flow cytometry and found that the first ∼80 residues of the tail are inhibitory, as demonstrated previously. The entire ∼80-residue span is important for autoinhibition and needs to be released from both kinases that form the dimer. These results are interpreted in terms of crystal structures of the inactive kinase domain, including two new ones presented here. Deletions in the remaining portion of the tail do not affect autophosphorylation, except for a six-residue segment spanning Tyr 1086 that is critical for activation loop phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of the two tails in the dimer is asymmetric, with the activator tail being phosphorylated somewhat more strongly. Unexpectedly, we found that reconstitution of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of EGFR in vesicles leads to a peculiar phenomenon in which kinase domains appear to be trapped between stacks of lipid bilayers. This artifactual trapping of kinases between membranes enhances an intrinsic functional asymmetry in the two tails in a dimer. PMID:26124280

  16. Demonstration of N- and C-terminal domain intramolecular interactions in rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 that determine its degree of malonyl-CoA sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Audrey; Borthwick, Karen; Esnous, Catherine; Price, Nigel T.; Gobin, Stéphanie; Jackson, Vicky N.; Zammit, Victor A.; Girard, Jean; Prip-Buus, Carina

    2004-01-01

    We have previously proposed that changes in malonyl-CoA sensitivity of rat L-CPT1 (liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) might occur through modulation of interactions between its cytosolic N- and C-terminal domains. By using a cross-linking strategy based on the trypsin-resistant folded state of L-CPT1, we have now shown the existence of such N–C (N- and C-terminal domain) intramolecular interactions both in wild-type L-CPT1 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the native L-CPT1 in fed rat liver mitochondria. These N–C intramolecular interactions were found to be either totally (48-h starvation) or partially abolished (streptozotocin-induced diabetes) in mitochondria isolated from animals in which the enzyme displays decreased malonyl-CoA sensitivity. Moreover, increasing the outer membrane fluidity of fed rat liver mitochondria with benzyl alcohol in vitro, which induced malonyl-CoA desensitization, attenuated the N–C interactions. This indicates that the changes in malonyl-CoA sens-itivity of L-CPT1 observed in mitochondria from starved and diabetic rats, previously shown to be associated with altered membrane composition in vivo, are partly due to the disruption of N–C interactions. Finally, we show that mutations in the regulatory regions of the N-terminal domain affect the ability of the N terminus to interact physically with the C-terminal domain, irrespective of whether they increased [S24A (Ser24→Ala)/Q30A] or abrogated (E3A) malonyl-CoA sensitivity. Moreover, we have identified the region immediately N-terminal to transmembrane domain 1 (residues 40–47) as being involved in the chemical N–C cross-linking. These observations provide the first demonstration by a physico-chemical method that L-CPT1 adopts different conformational states that differ in their degree of proximity between the cytosolic N-terminal and the C-terminal domains, and that this determines its degree of malonyl-CoA sensitivity depending on the physiological state

  17. Structure of a C-terminal fragment of its Vps53 subunit suggests similarity of Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex to a family of tethering complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Vasan, Neil; Hutagalung, Alex; Novick, Peter; Reinisch, Karin M.

    2010-08-13

    The Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex is a membrane-tethering complex that functions in traffic from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Here we present the structure of a C-terminal fragment of the Vps53 subunit, important for binding endosome-derived vesicles, at a resolution of 2.9 {angstrom}. We show that the C terminus consists of two {alpha}-helical bundles arranged in tandem, and we identify a highly conserved surface patch, which may play a role in vesicle recognition. Mutations of the surface result in defects in membrane traffic. The fold of the Vps53 C terminus is strongly reminiscent of proteins that belong to three other tethering complexes - Dsl1, conserved oligomeric Golgi, and the exocyst - thought to share a common evolutionary origin. Thus, the structure of the Vps53 C terminus suggests that GARP belongs to this family of complexes.

  18. Deletion of extra C-terminal segment and its effect on the function and structure of artemin.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Fatemeh; Sajedi, Reza H; Shahangian, S Shirin; Rasti, Behnam; Mosadegh, Bita; Taghdir, Majid; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2011-10-01

    Artemin acts as a molecular chaperone by protecting Artemia embryos undergoing encystment from damage, caused by heat or other forms of stress. According to the amino acid sequence alignment, although artemin shows a fair amount of homology with ferritin, it also contains an extra C-terminal. Analysis of the C-terminal extension of artemin model in previous studies has shown that there are some favorable interactions between this region and its surrounding cleft. In the current study we tried to investigate the role of this C-terminal in chaperone activity of artemin. This extra C-terminal (39 residues) was deleted and the truncated gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. According to in vivo chaperone-like activity studies, both full-length and C-terminal truncated artemin conferred thermotolerance on transfected E. coli cells. However, bacteria expressing truncated derivative of artemin was less resistant than those producing native artemin against heat. Moreover, the activity recovery on carbonic anhydrase (CA), as protein substrate, was less in the presence of truncated artemin than that of full-length artemin. The results demonstrated that C-terminal deletion decreases the ability of artemin for chaperone-like activity. Theoretical investigations showed that deletion of artemin C-terminal extension makes substantial structural alterations in a way that structural stability and overall integrity of artemin decrease. PMID:21600915

  19. Carboxypeptidase D is the only enzyme responsible for antibody C-terminal lysine cleavage in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhilan; Zhang, Henry; Haley, Benjamin; Macchi, Frank; Yang, Feng; Misaghi, Shahram; Elich, Joseph; Yang, Renee; Tang, Yun; Joly, John C; Snedecor, Bradley R; Shen, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Heterogeneity of C-terminal lysine levels often observed in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is believed to result from the proteolysis by endogenous carboxypeptidase(s) during cell culture production. Identifying the responsible carboxypeptidase(s) for C-terminal lysine cleavage in CHO cells would provide valuable insights for antibody production cell culture processes development and optimization. In this study, five carboxypeptidases, CpD, CpM, CpN, CpB, and CpE, were studied for message RNA (mRNA) expression by qRT-PCR analysis in two most commonly used blank hosts (DUXB-11 derived DHFR-deficient DP12 host and DHFR-positive CHOK1 host), used for therapeutic antibody production, as well an antibody-expressing cell line derived from each host. Our results showed that CpD had the highest mRNA expression. When CpD mRNA levels were reduced by RNAi (RNA interference) technology, C-terminal lysine levels increased, whereas there was no obvious change in C-terminal lysine levels when a different carboxypeptidase mRNA level was knocked down suggesting that carboxypeptidase D is the main contributor for C-terminal lysine processing. Most importantly, when CpD expression was knocked out by CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology, C-terminal lysine cleavage was completely abolished in CpD knockout cells based on mass spectrometry analysis, demonstrating that CpD is the only endogenous carboxypeptidase that cleaves antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine in CHO cells. Hence, our work showed for the first time that the cleavage of antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine is solely mediated by the carboxypeptidase D in CHO cells and our finding provides one solution to eliminating C-terminal lysine heterogeneity for therapeutic antibody production by knocking out CpD gene expression. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2100-2106. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26989081

  20. Structure and interactions of the C-terminal metal binding domain of Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, S.; Hong, D.; Desai, N.K.; H.Sazinsky, M.; Argüello, J.M.; Rosenzweig, A.C.

    2010-08-13

    The Cu(+)-ATPase CopA from Archaeoglobus fulgidus belongs to the P(1B) family of the P-type ATPases. These integral membrane proteins couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to heavy metal ion translocation across membranes. A defining feature of P(1B-1)-type ATPases is the presence of soluble metal binding domains at the N-terminus (N-MBDs). The N-MBDs exhibit a conserved ferredoxin-like fold, similar to that of soluble copper chaperones, and bind metal ions via a conserved CXXC motif. The N-MBDs enable Cu(+) regulation of turnover rates apparently through Cu-sensitive interactions with catalytic domains. A. fulgidus CopA is unusual in that it contains both an N-terminal MBD and a C-terminal MBD (C-MBD). The functional role of the unique C-MBD has not been established. Here, we report the crystal structure of the apo, oxidized C-MBD to 2.0 A resolution. In the structure, two C-MBD monomers form a domain-swapped dimer, which has not been observed previously for similar domains. In addition, the interaction of the C-MBD with the other cytoplasmic domains of CopA, the ATP binding domain (ATPBD) and actuator domain (A-domain), has been investigated. Interestingly, the C-MBD interacts specifically with both of these domains, independent of the presence of Cu(+) or nucleotides. These data reinforce the uniqueness of the C-MBD and suggest a distinct structural role for the C-MBD in CopA transport.

  1. Functional analysis of the C-terminal boundary of the second nucleotide binding domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and structural implications.

    PubMed

    Gentzsch, Martina; Aleksandrov, Andrei; Aleksandrov, Luba; Riordan, John R

    2002-09-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contains two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) or ATP-binding cassettes (ABCs) that characterize a large family of membrane transporters. Although the three-dimensional structures of these domains from several ABC proteins have been determined, this is not the case for CFTR, and hence the domains are defined simply on the basis of sequence alignment. The functional C-terminal boundary of NBD1 of CFTR was located by analysis of chloride channel function [Chan, Csanady, Seto-Young, Nairn and Gadsby (2000) J. Gen. Physiol. 116, 163-180]. However, the boundary between the C-terminal end of NBD2 and sequences further downstream in the whole protein, that are important for its cellular localization and endocytotic turnover, has not been defined. We have now done this by assaying the influence of progressive C-terminal truncations on photolabelling of NBD2 by 8-azido-ATP, which reflects hydrolysis, as well as binding, at that domain, and on NBD2-dependent channel gating itself. The boundary defined in this way is between residues 1420 and 1424, which corresponds to the final beta-strand in aligned NBDs whose structures have been determined. Utilization of this information should facilitate the generation of monodisperse NBD2 polypeptides for structural analysis, which until now has not been possible. The established boundary includes within NBD2 a hydrophobic patch of four residues (1413-1416) previously shown to be essential for CFTR maturation and stability [Gentzsch and Riordan (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 1291-1298]. This hydrophobic cluster is conserved in most ABC proteins, and on alignment with ones of known structure constitutes the penultimate beta-strand of the domain which is likely to participate in essential structure-stabilizing beta-sheet formation. PMID:12020354

  2. Functional analysis of the C-terminal boundary of the second nucleotide binding domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and structural implications.

    PubMed Central

    Gentzsch, Martina; Aleksandrov, Andrei; Aleksandrov, Luba; Riordan, John R

    2002-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contains two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) or ATP-binding cassettes (ABCs) that characterize a large family of membrane transporters. Although the three-dimensional structures of these domains from several ABC proteins have been determined, this is not the case for CFTR, and hence the domains are defined simply on the basis of sequence alignment. The functional C-terminal boundary of NBD1 of CFTR was located by analysis of chloride channel function [Chan, Csanady, Seto-Young, Nairn and Gadsby (2000) J. Gen. Physiol. 116, 163-180]. However, the boundary between the C-terminal end of NBD2 and sequences further downstream in the whole protein, that are important for its cellular localization and endocytotic turnover, has not been defined. We have now done this by assaying the influence of progressive C-terminal truncations on photolabelling of NBD2 by 8-azido-ATP, which reflects hydrolysis, as well as binding, at that domain, and on NBD2-dependent channel gating itself. The boundary defined in this way is between residues 1420 and 1424, which corresponds to the final beta-strand in aligned NBDs whose structures have been determined. Utilization of this information should facilitate the generation of monodisperse NBD2 polypeptides for structural analysis, which until now has not been possible. The established boundary includes within NBD2 a hydrophobic patch of four residues (1413-1416) previously shown to be essential for CFTR maturation and stability [Gentzsch and Riordan (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 1291-1298]. This hydrophobic cluster is conserved in most ABC proteins, and on alignment with ones of known structure constitutes the penultimate beta-strand of the domain which is likely to participate in essential structure-stabilizing beta-sheet formation. PMID:12020354

  3. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Raaij, Mark J. van; Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Fox, Gavin C.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2005-07-01

    Partial proteolysis of the avian reovirus cell-attachment protein σC yields a major homotrimeric C-terminal fragment that presumably contains the receptor-binding domain. This fragment has been crystallized in the presence and absence of zinc sulfate and cadmium sulfate. One of the crystal forms diffracts synchrotron X-rays to 2.2–2.3 Å. Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6{sub 3}22 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the Zn{sup II}- and Cd{sup II}-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine.

  4. BS69/ZMYND11 C-Terminal Domains Bind and Inhibit EBNA2

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Xu, Muyu; Martinez, Ernest; Peng, Chih-Wen; Song, Jikui

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) plays an important role in driving immortalization of EBV-infected B cells through regulating the expression of many viral and cellular genes. We report a structural study of the tumor suppressor BS69/ZMYND11 C-terminal region, comprised of tandem coiled-coil-MYND domains (BS69CC-MYND), in complex with an EBNA2 peptide containing a PXLXP motif. The coiled-coil domain of BS69 self-associates to bring two separate MYND domains in close proximity, thereby enhancing the BS69 MYND-EBNA2 interaction. ITC analysis of BS69CC-MYND with a C-terminal fragment of EBNA2 further suggests that the BS69CC-MYND homodimer synergistically binds to the two EBNA2 PXLXP motifs that are respectively located in the conserved regions CR7 and CR8. Furthermore, we showed that EBNA2 interacts with BS69 and down-regulates its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in EBV-infected B cells. Ectopic BS69CC-MYND is recruited to viral target promoters through interactions with EBNA2, inhibits EBNA2-mediated transcription activation, and impairs proliferation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Substitution of critical residues in the MYND domain impairs the BS69-EBNA2 interaction and abolishes the BS69 inhibition of the EBNA2-mediated transactivation and LCL proliferation. This study identifies the BS69 C-terminal domains as an inhibitor of EBNA2, which may have important implications in development of novel therapeutic strategies against EBV infection. PMID:26845565

  5. Characterization of peptides cleaved by plasmin from the C-terminal polymerization domain of human fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Southan, C; Thompson, E; Panico, M; Etienne, T; Morris, H R; Lane, D A

    1985-10-25

    The C-terminal region of the fibrinogen gamma chain is known to participate in several functional interactions including fibrin polymerization. This part of the molecule is retained on the gamma chain of fragment D (FgD) when fibrinogen is digested by plasmin in the presence of calcium to produce the fragment D-fragment E (FgD X FgE) complex but is lost if FgD is prepared in the absence of calcium. In an attempt to characterize the C-terminal polymerization domain we have used three techniques to examine this further degradation of FgD following the addition of EDTA and plasmin. Analysis of the digestion by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a progressive cleavage of the gamma chain to two small remnants. The polymerization-inhibitory activity of the whole digest was studied using acid-solubilized fibrin. A progressive loss of inhibitory activity was associated with gamma chain shortening, reaching greater than a 120-fold reduction at the end of digestion. The cleavage of peptides was followed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and the release of a characteristic peptide triplet was associated with gamma chain cleavage. Manual sequencing, amino acid analysis, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry established the three peptides as gamma 303-356, 357-373, and 374-405. These peptides have sequences in common with those peptides recently reported by other investigators to be potent polymerization inhibitors. However, when a mixture of the three peptides was added in a 200-fold molar excess to polymerizing fibrin, no inhibitory activity could be demonstrated. It is concluded that the C-terminal polymerization domain of fibrinogen may be an extended region which includes the sequence gamma 303-405, when this is contiguous with the remainder of the gamma chain. PMID:2932434

  6. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Mehler, Vera J.; Mueller, Christina; Vonhoff, Fernando; White, Robin; Duch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X), a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80) and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2. PMID:27442528

  7. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alison A; Mehler, Vera J; Mueller, Christina; Vonhoff, Fernando; White, Robin; Duch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X), a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80) and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2. PMID:27442528

  8. The human SNARE protein Ykt6 mediates its own palmitoylation at C-terminal cysteine residues

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The yeast SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor) protein Ykt6 was shown to mediate palmitoylation of the fusion factor Vac8 in a reaction essential for the fusion of vacuoles. Here I present evidence that hYkt6 (human Ykt6) has self-palmitoylating activity. Incubation of recombinant hYkt6 with [3H]Pal-CoA ([3H]palmitoyl-CoA) leads to covalent attachment of palmitate to C-terminal cysteine residues. The N-terminal domain of human Ykt6 contains a Pal-CoA binding site and is required for the reaction. PMID:15479160

  9. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-10-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family.

  10. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-01-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family. PMID:26515753

  11. Antibacterial activity of peptides derived from the C-terminal region of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Suenaga, Tomoko; Eto, Seiichiro; Niidome, Takuro; Aoyagi, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    Several synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal domain sequence of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, were examined as to their action on bacteria and artificial lipid membranes. Peptide P332 (KGVIFAKASVSVKVTASLSK-NH(2)), corresponding to the sequence from residue 332, exhibited strong antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive bacteria. Replacement of each Lys in P332 by Ala markedly decreased the activity. However, when all Lys were replaced by Arg, the antibacterial activity increased, indicating the importance of positively charged residues at these positions. Replacement of Val by Leu also led to higher antibacterial activity, especially toward Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of these peptides was correlated with their membrane-permeabilizing activity toward the bacterial inner membrane and artificial lipid vesicles, indicating that the antibacterial action is due to perturbation of bacterial cell membranes, leading to enhancement of their permeability. These results also suggest that the hydrophobic region of CEL-III, from which P332 and its analogs were derived, may play some role in the interaction with target cell membranes to trigger hemolysis. PMID:14999010

  12. Induction of the C-terminal proteolytic cleavage of AβPP by statins.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Olivier; Zhang, Qiang; John, Varghese; Bredesen, Dale E

    2011-01-01

    Statins are drugs commonly used to inhibit cholesterol synthesis, with the goal of reducing vascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Statins have also been suggested as a therapeutic option for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although their benefit in AD remains controversial. We have previously shown that the intracellular C-terminal cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) is a major contributor to the neuronal toxicity seen in AD, and that this cleavage can be induced by amyloid-β. We now report that certain brain permeable statins are also able to induce the C-terminal cleavage of AβPP and associated cell death, whereas other statins do not. This statin effect on AβPP exceeded the effects of all other FDA-approved drugs in a library composed of these compounds, suggesting that this effect on AβPP cleavage is unique to a subset of the statins. Furthermore, the greatest effect occurred with cerivastatin, which has previously been shown to be the statin associated with the greatest risk of rhabdomyolysis. These results may have implications for the choice of which statins to evaluate in AD therapeutic trials; furthermore, the results may inform statin choice in individuals who are at high risk for the development of AD, such as those with an apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. PMID:21422530

  13. C-terminal low-complexity sequence repeats of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku modulate DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Ambuj K.; Grove, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Ku protein is an integral component of the NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) pathway of DSB (double-strand break) repair. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ku homologues have been characterized and shown to bind DNA ends. A unique feature of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku is its basic C-terminal tail that contains several lysine-rich low-complexity PAKKA repeats that are absent from homologues encoded by obligate parasitic mycobacteria. Such PAKKA repeats are also characteristic of mycobacterial Hlp (histone-like protein) for which they have been shown to confer the ability to appose DNA ends. Unexpectedly, removal of the lysine-rich extension enhances DNA-binding affinity, but an interaction between DNA and the PAKKA repeats is indicated by the observation that only full-length Ku forms multiple complexes with a short stem-loop-containing DNA previously designed to accommodate only one Ku dimer. The C-terminal extension promotes DNA end-joining by T4 DNA ligase, suggesting that the PAKKA repeats also contribute to efficient end-joining. We suggest that low-complexity lysine-rich sequences have evolved repeatedly to modulate the function of unrelated DNA-binding proteins. PMID:23167261

  14. Structure of a plant β-galactosidase C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Rimlumduan, Thipwarin; Hua, Yan-Ling; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2016-10-01

    Most plant β-galactosidases, which belong to glycoside hydrolase family 35, have a C-terminal domain homologous to animal galactose and rhamnose-binding lectins. To investigate the structure and function of this domain, the C-terminal domain of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) β-galactosidase 1 (OsBGal1 Cter) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The free OsBGal1 Cter is monomeric with a native molecular weight of 15kDa. NMR spectroscopy indicated that OsBGal1 Cter comprises five β-strands and one α-helix. The structure of this domain is similar to lectin domains from animals, but loops A and C of OsBGal1 Cter are longer than the corresponding loops from related animal lectins with known structures. In addition, loop A of OsBGal1 Cter was not well defined, suggesting it is flexible. Although OsBGal1 Cter was predicted to be a galactose/rhamnose-binding domain, binding with rhamnose, galactose, glucose, β-1,4-d-galactobiose and raffinose could not be observed in NMR experiments. PMID:27451952

  15. Phosphorylation of a C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain increases SMARCAL1 activity.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Clinton; Bansbach, Carol E; Zhao, Runxiang; Jung, Sung Yun; Qin, Jun; Cortez, David

    2014-01-01

    SMARCAL1 promotes the repair and restart of damaged replication forks. Either overexpression or silencing SMARCAL1 causes the accumulation of replication-associated DNA damage. SMARCAL1 is heavily phosphorylated. Here we identify multiple phosphorylation sites, including S889, which is phosphorylated even in undamaged cells. S889 is highly conserved through evolution and it regulates SMARCAL1 activity. Specifically, S889 phosphorylation increases the DNA-stimulated ATPase activity of SMARCAL1 and increases its ability to catalyze replication fork regression. A phosphomimetic S889 mutant is also hyperactive when expressed in cells, while a non-phosphorylatable mutant is less active. S889 lies within a C-terminal region of the SMARCAL1 protein. Deletion of the C-terminal region also creates a hyperactive SMARCAL1 protein suggesting that S889 phosphorylation relieves an auto-inhibitory function of this SMARCAL1 domain. Thus, S889 phosphorylation is one mechanism by which SMARCAL1 activity is regulated to ensure the proper level of fork remodeling needed to maintain genome integrity during DNA synthesis. PMID:24150942

  16. Structure of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase a Subunit C-terminal Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Gonzalez, S.; Birktoft, J; Lawson, C

    2010-01-01

    The {alpha} subunit C-terminal domain ({alpha}CTD) of RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a key element in transcription activation in Escherichia coli, possessing determinants responsible for the interaction of RNAP with DNA and with transcription factors. Here, the crystal structure of E. coli {alpha}CTD ({alpha} subunit residues 245-329) determined to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution is reported. Crystals were obtained after reductive methylation of the recombinantly expressed domain. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and possessed both pseudo-translational symmetry and pseudo-merohedral twinning. The refined coordinate model (R factor = 0.193, R{sub free} = 0.236) has improved geometry compared with prior lower resolution determinations of the {alpha}CTD structure [Jeon et al. (1995), Science, 270, 1495-1497; Benoff et al. (2002), Science, 297, 1562-1566]. An extensive dimerization interface formed primarily by N- and C-terminal residues is also observed. The new coordinates will facilitate the improved modeling of {alpha}CTD-containing multi-component complexes visualized at lower resolution using X-ray crystallography and electron-microscopy reconstruction.

  17. Cell surface nucleolin interacts with CXCR4 receptor via the 212 c-terminal portion.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongxin; Yang, Xiangshan; Xu, Zhongfa; Du, Tong; Wang, Ruogu

    2015-02-01

    Previously, we reported that CXCR4 receptor interacted with cell surface nucleolin, and the synergy of CXCR4 and nucleolin plays an essential role in malignant transformation. Here, we continued to conduct a structure-function analysis of nucleolin to identify which portion can efficaciously bind to CXCR4. In the present study, the expression of CXCR4 and nucleolin in 100 cases of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) samples was investigated through immunohistochemistry (IHC). Subsequently, using nucleolin mutants and pull-down assay, we investigated precise interactions between CXCR4 and nucleolin in HEK-293 cells. A previous study demonstrated CXCR4 and nucleolin co-expressed in cell lines, and the present study further identified that CXCR4 and nucleolin co-expressed in PTC tissues, instead of normal tissues. The nucleolin mutant analysis revealed that nucleolin can efficaciously bind CXCR4 to activate CXCR4 signaling by 212 C-terminal domain. Conversely, N-terminal, RBD and GAR mutants of nucleolin showed no sign of activation of CXCR4 signaling, and differences were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggested nucleolin is essential to activate CXCR4 signaling via 212 C-terminal domain, which is required for cell growth, migration, and invasiveness. Furthermore, nucleolin may interact with more G protein-coupled receptors, at least chemokine receptor. Our study will lay a new foundation for cancer therapy by antagonizing nucleolin and CXCR4. PMID:25326811

  18. Amine modification of digested peptide at C-terminal end during protein digestion by protease.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiyuki; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Takao, Koichi; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Shirahata, Akira

    2007-10-01

    We recently reported that C-terminal polyamine modification occurs when proteins are digested with trypsin in the presence of polyamine [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 356, 159-162 (2007)]. In the present study, the characteristics of this C-terminal modification in the presence of protease and amine were investigated. When hemoglobin (HB) was digested with trypsin in the presence of N-(2-pyridyl)-1,4-diaminobutane (Py4), formation of the modified peptide was dependent on time and on HB or Py4 concentration. When synthetic peptide was treated with trypsin in the presence of Py4, ca. 0.1% of the peptide was modified with Py4. When HB or cytochrome C was treated with a range of serine proteases in the presence of various amines (Py4, N-(2-pyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, tranexamic acid, isonicotinic acid hydrazide and ampicillin), the modified peptide was detected in all cases tested, thus suggesting that amine modification widely accompanies digestion by proteases. PMID:17917247

  19. Molecular Understanding of USP7 Substrate Recognition and C-Terminal Activation.

    PubMed

    Rougé, Lionel; Bainbridge, Travis W; Kwok, Michael; Tong, Raymond; Di Lello, Paola; Wertz, Ingrid E; Maurer, Till; Ernst, James A; Murray, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    The deubiquitinating enzyme USP7 has a pivotal role in regulating the stability of proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes of normal biology and disease. Despite the importance of USP7, the mechanisms underlying substrate recognition and catalytic activation are poorly understood. Here we present structural, biochemical, and biophysical analyses elucidating the molecular mechanism by which the C-terminal 19 amino acids of USP7 (residues 1084-1102) enhance the ubiquitin cleavage activity of the deubiquitinase (DUB) domain. Our data demonstrate that the C-terminal peptide binds the activation cleft in the catalytic domain and stabilizes the catalytically competent conformation of USP7. Additional structures of longer fragments of USP7, as well as solution studies, provide insight into full-length USP7, the role of the UBL domains, and demonstrate that both substrate recognition and deubiquitinase activity are highly regulated by the catalytic and noncatalytic domains of USP7, a feature that could be essential for the proper function of multi-domain DUBs. PMID:27452404

  20. An inhibitory C-terminal region dictates the specificity of A-adding enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Tretbar, Sandy; Neuenfeldt, Anne; Betat, Heike; Mörl, Mario

    2011-01-01

    For efficient aminoacylation, tRNAs carry the conserved 3′-terminal sequence C-C-A, which is synthesized by highly specific tRNA nucleotidyltransferases (CCA-adding enzymes). In several prokaryotes, this function is accomplished by separate enzymes for CC- and A-addition. As A-adding enzymes carry an N-terminal catalytic core identical to that of CCA-adding enzymes, it is unclear why their activity is restricted. Here, it is shown that C-terminal deletion variants of A-adding enzymes acquire full and precise CCA-incorporating activity. The deleted region seems to be responsible for tRNA primer selection, restricting the enzyme’s specificity to tRNAs ending with CC. The data suggest that A-adding enzymes carry an intrinsic CCA-adding activity that can be reactivated by the introduction of deletions in the C-terminal domain. Furthermore, a unique subtype of CCA-adding enzymes could be identified that evolved out of A-adding enzymes, suggesting that mutations and deletions in nucleotidyltransferases can lead to altered and even more complex activities, as a simple A-incorporation is converted into sequence-specific addition of C and A residues. Such activity-modifying events may have had an important role in the evolution of tRNA nucleotidyltransferases. PMID:22167803

  1. Alzheimer's Amyloid-β Sequesters Caspase-3 in Vitro via Its C-Terminal Tail.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Jen; Linh, Nguyen Hoang; Shih, Yao Hsiang; Yu, Hui-Ming; Li, Mai Suan; Chen, Yun-Ru

    2016-08-17

    Amyloid-β (Aβ), the main constituent in senile plaques found in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), is considered as a causative factor in AD pathogenesis. The clinical examination of the brains of patients with AD has demonstrated that caspase-3 colocalizes with senile plaques. Cellular studies have shown that Aβ can induce neuronal apoptosis via caspase-3 activation. Here, we performed biochemical and in silico studies to investigate possible direct effect of Aβ on caspase-3 to understand the molecular mechanism of the interaction between Aβ and caspase-3. We found that Aβ conformers can specifically and directly sequester caspase-3 activity in which freshly prepared Aβ42 is the most potent. The inhibition is noncompetitive, and the C-terminal region of Aβ plays an important role in sequestration. The binding of Aβ to caspase-3 was examined by cross-linking and proteolysis and by docking and all-atom molecular dynamic simulations. Experimental and in silico results revealed that Aβ42 exhibits a higher binding affinity than Aβ40 and the hydrophobic C-terminal region plays a key role in the caspase-Aβ interaction. Overall, our study describes a novel mechanism demonstrating that Aβ sequesters caspase-3 activity via direct interaction and facilitates future therapeutic development in AD. PMID:27227450

  2. Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Transcription Facto IIB from Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, B.; Kanneganti, N; Rieckhof, G; Das, A; Laurents, D; Palenchar, J; Bellofatto, V; Wah, D

    2009-01-01

    In trypanosomes, the production of mRNA relies on the synthesis of the spliced leader (SL) RNA. Expression of the SL RNA is initiated at the only known RNA polymerase II promoter in these parasites. In the pathogenic trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, transcription factor IIB (tTFIIB) is essential for SL RNA gene transcription and cell viability, but has a highly divergent primary sequence in comparison to TFIIB in well-studied eukaryotes. Here we describe the 2.3 A resolution structure of the C-terminal domain of tTFIIB (tTFIIBC). The tTFIIBC structure consists of 2 closely packed helical modules followed by a C-terminal extension of 32 aa. Using the structure as a guide, alanine substitutions of basic residues in regions analogous to functionally important regions of the well-studied eukaryotic TFIIB support conservation of a general mechanism of TFIIB function in eukaryotes. Strikingly, tTFIIBC contains additional loops and helices, and, in contrast to the highly basic DNA binding surface of human TFIIB, contains a neutral surface in the corresponding region. These attributes probably mediate trypanosome-specific interactions and have implications for the apparent bidirectional transcription by RNA polymerase II in protein-encoding gene expression in these organisms.

  3. Functional analysis of the C-terminal extension of telomerase reverse transcriptase. A putative "thumb" domain.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Shabbir; Singh, Sunitha; Lue, Neal F

    2002-09-27

    Telomerase is an RNA-protein complex responsible for the extension of one strand of telomere terminal repeats. The catalytic protein subunit of telomerase, known generically as telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), exhibits significant homology to reverse transcriptases (RTs) encoded by retroviruses and retroelements. The mechanisms of telomerase may therefore be similar to those of the conventional reverse transcriptases. In this report, we explore potential similarity between these two classes of proteins in a region with no evident sequence similarity. Previous analysis has implicated a C-terminal domain of retroviral RTs (known as the "thumb" domain) in template-primer binding and in processivity control. The equivalent region of TERTs, although similar to one another, does not exhibit significant sequence homology to retroviral RTs. However, we found that removal of this region of yeast TERT similarly resulted in a decrease in the stability of telomerase-DNA complex and in the processivity of telomerase-mediated nucleotide addition. Moreover, the C-terminal domain of TERT exhibits a nucleic acid binding activity when recombinantly expressed and purified. Finally, amino acid substitutions of conserved residues in this region of TERT were found to impair telomerase activity and processivity. We suggest that mechanistic similarity between telomerase and retroviral RTs may extend beyond the regions with apparent sequence similarity. PMID:12151386

  4. The C-terminal region of OVGP1 remodels the zona pellucida and modifies fertility parameters

    PubMed Central

    Algarra, B.; Han, L.; Soriano-Úbeda, C.; Avilés, M.; Coy, P.; Jovine, L.; Jiménez-Movilla, M.

    2016-01-01

    OVGP1 is the major non-serum glycoprotein in the oviduct fluid at the time of fertilization and early embryo development. Its activity differs among species. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of recombinant OVGP1 regulates its binding to the extracellular zona pellucida and affects its activity during fertilization. While porcine OVGP1 penetrates two-thirds of the thickness of the zona pellucida, shorter OVGP1 glycoproteins, including rabbit OVGP1, are restricted to the outer one-third of the zona matrix. Deletion of the C-terminal region reduces the ability of the glycoprotein to penetrate through the zona pellucida and prevents OVGP1 endocytosis. This affects the structure of the zona matrix and increases its resistance to protease digestion. However, only full-length porcine OVGP1 is able to increase the efficiency rate of in vitro fertilization. Thus, our findings document that the presence or absence of conserved regions in the C-terminus of OVGP1 modify its association with the zona pellucida that affects matrix structure and renders the zona matrix permissive to sperm penetration and OVGP1 endocytosis into the egg. PMID:27601270

  5. Investigating the Roles of the C-Terminal Domain of Plasmodium falciparum GyrA

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Soshichiro; Seki, Eiko; Lin, Ting-Yu; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Heddle, Jonathan G.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains as one of the most deadly diseases in developing countries. The Plasmodium causative agents of human malaria such as Plasmodium falciparum possess an organelle, the apicoplast, which is the result of secondary endosymbiosis and retains its own circular DNA. A type II topoisomerase, DNA gyrase, is present in the apicoplast. In prokaryotes this enzyme is a proven, effective target for antibacterial agents, and its discovery in P. falciparum opens up the prospect of exploiting it as a drug target. Basic characterisation of P. falciparum gyrase is important because there are significant sequence differences between it and the prokaryotic enzyme. However, it has proved difficult to obtain soluble protein. Here we have predicted a new domain boundary in P. falciparum GyrA that corresponds to the C-terminal domain of prokaryotic GyrA and successfully purified it in a soluble form. Biochemical analyses revealed many similarities between the C-terminal domains of GyrA from E. coli and P. falciparum, suggesting that despite its considerably larger size, the malarial protein carries out a similar DNA wrapping function. Removal of a unique Asn-rich region in the P. falciparum protein did not result in a significant change, suggesting it is dispensable for DNA wrapping. PMID:26566222

  6. The C-terminal region of OVGP1 remodels the zona pellucida and modifies fertility parameters.

    PubMed

    Algarra, B; Han, L; Soriano-Úbeda, C; Avilés, M; Coy, P; Jovine, L; Jiménez-Movilla, M

    2016-01-01

    OVGP1 is the major non-serum glycoprotein in the oviduct fluid at the time of fertilization and early embryo development. Its activity differs among species. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of recombinant OVGP1 regulates its binding to the extracellular zona pellucida and affects its activity during fertilization. While porcine OVGP1 penetrates two-thirds of the thickness of the zona pellucida, shorter OVGP1 glycoproteins, including rabbit OVGP1, are restricted to the outer one-third of the zona matrix. Deletion of the C-terminal region reduces the ability of the glycoprotein to penetrate through the zona pellucida and prevents OVGP1 endocytosis. This affects the structure of the zona matrix and increases its resistance to protease digestion. However, only full-length porcine OVGP1 is able to increase the efficiency rate of in vitro fertilization. Thus, our findings document that the presence or absence of conserved regions in the C-terminus of OVGP1 modify its association with the zona pellucida that affects matrix structure and renders the zona matrix permissive to sperm penetration and OVGP1 endocytosis into the egg. PMID:27601270

  7. Structure of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase α subunit C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Lara-González, Samuel; Birktoft, Jens J.; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    The α subunit C-terminal domain (αCTD) of RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a key element in transcription activation in Escherichia coli, possessing determinants responsible for the interaction of RNAP with DNA and with transcription factors. Here, the crystal structure of E. coli αCTD (α subunit residues 245–329) determined to 2.0 Å resolution is reported. Crystals were obtained after reductive methylation of the recombinantly expressed domain. The crystals belonged to space group P21 and possessed both pseudo-translational symmetry and pseudo-merohedral twinning. The refined coordinate model (R factor = 0.193, R free = 0.236) has improved geometry compared with prior lower resolution determinations of the αCTD structure [Jeon et al. (1995 ▶), Science, 270, 1495–1497; Benoff et al. (2002 ▶), Science, 297, 1562–1566]. An extensive dimerization interface formed primarily by N- and C-terminal residues is also observed. The new coordinates will facilitate the improved modeling of αCTD-containing multi-component complexes visualized at lower resolution using X-ray crystallo­graphy and electron-microscopy reconstruction. PMID:20606261

  8. The C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA topoisomerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Caron, P R; Watt, P; Wang, J C

    1994-01-01

    A set of carboxy-terminal deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA topoisomerase II were constructed for studying the functions of the carboxyl domain in vitro and in vivo. The wild-type yeast enzyme is a homodimer with 1,429 amino acid residues in each of the two polypeptides; truncation of the C terminus to Ile-1220 has little effect on the function of the enzyme in vitro or in vivo, whereas truncations extending beyond Gln-1138 yield completely inactive proteins. Several mutant enzymes with C termini in between these two residues were found to be catalytically active but unable to complement a top2-4 temperature-sensitive mutation. Immunomicroscopy results suggest that the removal of a nuclear localization signal in the C-terminal domain is likely to contribute to the physiological dysfunction of these proteins; the ability of these mutant proteins to relax supercoiled DNA in vivo shows, however, that at least some of the mutant proteins are present in the nuclei in a catalytically active form. In contrast to the ability of the catalytically active mutant proteins to relax supercoiled intracellular DNA, all mutants that do not complement the temperature-dependent lethality and high frequency of chromosomal nondisjunction of top2-4 were found to lack decatenation activity in vivo. The plausible roles of the DNA topoisomerase II C-terminal domain, in addition to providing a signal for nuclear localization, are discussed in the light of these results. Images PMID:8164675

  9. The distinct C-terminal acidic domains of HMGB proteins are functionally relevant in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    de Abreu da Silva, Isabel Caetano; Carneiro, Vitor Coutinho; Vicentino, Amanda Roberta Revoredo; Aguilera, Estefania Anahi; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Thiengo, Silvana; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado

    2016-04-01

    The Schistosoma mansoni High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) proteins SmHMGB1, SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 share highly conserved HMG box DNA binding domains but have significantly different C-terminal acidic tails. Here, we used three full-length and tailless forms of the S. mansoni HMGB proteins to examine the functional roles of their acidic tails. DNA binding assays revealed that the different lengths of the acidic tails among the three SmHMGB proteins significantly and distinctively influenced their DNA transactions. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that the longest acidic tail of SmHMGB3 contributes to the structural stabilisation of this protein. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we showed distinct patterns of SmHMGB1, SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 expression in different tissues of adult worms. RNA interference approaches indicated a role for SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 in the reproductive system of female worms, whereas for SmHMGB1 no clear phenotype was observed. Schistosome HMGB proteins can be phosphorylated, acetylated and methylated. Importantly, the acetylation and methylation of schistosome HMGBs were greatly enhanced upon removal of the acidic tail. These data support the notion that the C-terminal acidic tails dictate the differences in the structure, expression and function of schistosome HMGB proteins. PMID:26820302

  10. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Type 1 (CRHR1) Clustering with MAGUKs Is Mediated via Its C-Terminal PDZ Binding Motif

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Julia; Engeholm, Maik; Ederer, Marion S.; Breu, Johannes; Møller, Thor C.; Michalakis, Stylianos; Rasko, Tamas; Wanker, Erich E.; Biel, Martin; Martinez, Karen L.; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) plays an important role in orchestrating neuroendocrine, behavioral, and autonomic responses to stress. To identify molecules capable of directly modulating CRHR1 signaling, we performed a yeast-two-hybrid screen using the C-terminal intracellular tail of the receptor as bait. We identified several members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family: postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97), SAP102 and membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 2 (MAGI2). CRHR1 is co-expressed with the identified MAGUKs and with the additionally investigated PSD93 in neurons of the adult mouse brain and in primary hippocampal neurons, supporting the probability of a physiological interaction in vivo. The C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95, discs large, zona occludens 1) binding motif of CRHR1 is essential for its physical interaction with MAGUKs, as revealed by the CRHR1-STAVA mutant, which harbors a functionally impaired PDZ binding motif. The imitation of a phosphorylation at Thr413 within the PDZ binding motif also disrupted the interaction with MAGUKs. In contrast, distinct PDZ domains within the identified MAGUKs are involved in the interactions. Expression of CRHR1 in primary neurons demonstrated its localization throughout the neuronal plasma membrane, including the excitatory post synapse, where the receptor co-localized with PSD95 and SAP97. The co-expression of CRHR1 and respective interacting MAGUKs in HEK293 cells resulted in a clustered subcellular co-localization which required an intact PDZ binding motif. In conclusion, our study characterized the PDZ binding motif-mediated interaction of CRHR1 with multiple MAGUKs, which directly affects receptor function. PMID:26352593

  11. Elucidating the role of C-terminal post-translational modifications using protein semisynthesis strategies: α-synuclein phosphorylation at tyrosine 125

    PubMed Central

    Hejjaoui, Mirva; Butterfield, Sara; Fauvet, Bruno; Vercruysse, Filip; Cui, Jia; Dikiy, Igor; Prudent, Michel; Olschewski, Diana; Zhang, Yan; Eliezer, David; Lashuel, Hilal A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that supports the role of different post-translational modifications (PTMs) in modulating α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation and toxicity, relatively little is known about the functional consequences of each modification and whether or not these modifications are regulated by each other. This lack of knowledge arises primarily from the current lack of tools and methodologies for the site-specific introduction of PTMs in α-syn. More specifically, the kinases that mediate selective and efficient phosphorylation of C-terminal tyrosine residues of α-syn remain to be identified. Unlike phospho-serine and phospho-threonine residues, which in some cases can be mimicked by serine/threonine → glutamate or aspartate substitutions, there are no natural amino acids that can mimic phosphor-tyrosine. To address these challenges, we developed a general and efficient semisynthetic strategy that enables the site-specific introduction of single or multiple PTMs and the preparation of homogeneously C-terminal modified forms of α-syn in milligram quantities. These advances have allowed us to investigate, for the first time, the effects of selective phosphorylation at Y125 on the structure, aggregation, membrane binding and subcellular localization of α-syn. The development of semisynthetic methods for the site-specific introduction of single or PTMs represents an important advance toward determining the roles of such modifications in α-syn structure, aggregation and functions in heath and disease. PMID:22339654

  12. Enhanced expression of human prostaglandin H synthase-2 in the yeast Pichia pastoris and removal of the C-terminal tag with bovine carboxypeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Kukk, Kaia; Samel, Nigulas

    2016-08-10

    Vertebrate prostaglandin H synthases (PGHSs) are membrane-bound disulphide-containing hemoglycoproteins. Therefore, eukaryotic expression systems are required for the production of recombinant PGHSs. Recently we announced the expression of human PGHS-2 (hPGHS-2) in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Here we report improved production of hPGHS-2 in P. pastoris and a convenient method for the purification and de-tagging of the protein. An affinity tag comprised of a proline, a glycine and eight histidines was introduced into the C-terminal end of hPGHS-2. The tagged hPGHS-2 was expressed intracellularly in P. pastoris under the control of a constitutive or methanol-inducible promoter. Compared to constitutive expression, methanol-induced expression yielded approximately four times more protein. The analysis of high and low gene copy number recombinants revealed a positive correlation between the gene copy number and the expression level of hPGHS-2. The recombinant hPGHS-2 was purified using immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography. A novel elution method, treatment of the affinity resin with bovine carboxypeptidase A, was employed. The yield of pure de-tagged hPGHS-2 from 1l of yeast culture was approximately 3mg. The protein purification process with simultaneous removal of the C-terminal polyhistidine tag could be easily applied for the affinity purification of other proteins. PMID:27316830

  13. Clathrin interactions with C-terminal regions of the yeast AP-1 beta and gamma subunits are important for AP-1 association with clathrin coats.

    PubMed

    Yeung, B G; Payne, G S

    2001-08-01

    Heterotetrameric adaptor (AP) complexes are thought to coordinate cargo recruitment and clathrin assembly during clathrin-coated vesicle biogenesis. We have identified, and characterized the physiological significance of clathrin-binding activities in the two large subunits of the AP-1 complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using GST-fusion chromatography, two clathrin-binding sites were defined in the beta1 subunit that match consensus clathrin-binding sequences in other mammalian and yeast clathrin-binding proteins. Clathrin interactions were also identified with the C-terminal region of the gamma subunit. When introduced into chromosomal genes, point mutations in the beta1 clathrin-binding motifs, or deletion of the gamma C-terminal region, reduced association of AP-1 with clathrin in coimmunoprecipitation assays. The beta1 mutations or the gamma truncation individually produced minor effects on AP-1 distribution by subcellular fractionation. However, when beta1 and gamma mutations were combined, severe defects were observed in AP-1 association with membranes and incorporation into clathrin-coated vesicles. The combination of subunit mutations accentuated growth and alpha-factor pheromone maturation defects in chc1-ts cells, though not to the extent caused by complete loss of AP-1 activity. Our results suggest that both the beta1 and gamma subunits contribute interactions with clathrin that are important for stable assembly of AP-1 complexes into clathrin coats in vivo. PMID:11489214

  14. Protein folding in the ER.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F. J.; Argon, Y.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-10-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major protein folding compartment for secreted, plasma membrane and organelle proteins. Each of these newly-synthesized polypeptides folds in a deterministic process, affected by the unique conditions that exist in the ER. An understanding of protein folding in the ER is a fundamental biomolecular challenge at two levels. The first level addresses how the amino acid sequence programs that polypeptide to efficiently arrive at a particular fold out of a multitude of alternatives, and how different sequences obtain similar folds. At the second level are the issues introduced by folding not in the cytosol, but in the ER, including the risk of aggregation in a molecularly crowded environment, accommodation of post-translational modifications and the compatibility with subsequent intracellular trafficking. This review discusses both the physicochemical and cell biological constraints of folding, which are the challenges that the ER molecular chaperones help overcome.

  15. Extreme C-terminal sites are posttranslocationally glycosylated by the STT3B isoform of the OST

    PubMed Central

    Shrimal, Shiteshu; Trueman, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Metazoan organisms assemble two isoforms of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) that have different catalytic subunits (STT3A or STT3B) and partially nonoverlapping roles in asparagine-linked glycosylation. The STT3A isoform of the OST is primarily responsible for co-translational glycosylation of the nascent polypeptide as it enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The C-terminal 65–75 residues of a glycoprotein will not contact the translocation channel–associated STT3A isoform of the OST complex before chain termination. Biosynthetic pulse labeling of five human glycoproteins showed that extreme C-terminal glycosylation sites were modified by an STT3B-dependent posttranslocational mechanism. The boundary for STT3B-dependent glycosylation of C-terminal sites was determined to fall between 50 and 55 residues from the C terminus of a protein. C-terminal NXT sites were glycosylated more rapidly and efficiently than C-terminal NXS sites. Bioinformatics analysis of glycopeptide databases from metazoan organisms revealed a lower density of C-terminal acceptor sites in glycoproteins because of reduced positive selection of NXT sites and negative selection of NXS sites. PMID:23530066

  16. C-terminal Src kinase-mediated EPIYA phosphorylation of Pragmin creates a feed-forward C-terminal Src kinase activation loop that promotes cell motility.

    PubMed

    Senda, Yoshie; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2016-07-01

    Pragmin is one of the few mammalian proteins containing the Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) tyrosine-phosphorylation motif that was originally discovered in the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein. Following delivery into gastric epithelial cells by type IV secretion and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation at the EPIYA motifs, CagA serves as an oncogenic scaffold/adaptor that promiscuously interacts with SH2 domain-containing mammalian proteins such as the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), a negative regulator of Src family kinases. Like CagA, Pragmin also forms a physical complex with Csk. In the present study, we found that Pragmin directly binds to Csk by the tyrosine-phosphorylated EPIYA motif. The complex formation potentiates kinase activity of Csk, which in turn phosphorylates Pragmin on tyrosine-238 (Y238), Y343, and Y391. As Y391 of Pragmin comprises the EPIYA motif, Pragmin-Csk interaction creates a feed-forward regulatory loop of Csk activation. Together with the finding that Pragmin and Csk are colocalized to focal adhesions, these observations indicate that the Pragmin-Csk interaction, triggered by Pragmin EPIYA phosphorylation, robustly stimulates the kinase activity of Csk at focal adhesions, which direct cell-matrix adhesion that regulates cell morphology and cell motility. As a consequence, expression of Pragmin and/or Csk in epithelial cells induces an elongated cell shape with elevated cell scattering in a manner that is mutually dependent on Pragmin and Csk. Deregulation of the Pragmin-Csk axis may therefore induce aberrant cell migration that contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:27116701

  17. Topology of 1-Acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferases SLC1 and ALE1 and Related Membrane-bound O-Acyltransferases (MBOATs) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Pagac, Martin; de la Mora, Hector Vazquez; Duperrex, Cécile; Roubaty, Carole; Vionnet, Christine; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In yeast, phosphatidic acid, the biosynthetic precursor for all glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols, is made de novo by the 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases Ale1p and Slc1p. Ale1p belongs to the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, which contains many enzymes acylating lipids but also others that acylate secretory proteins residing in the lumen of the ER. A histidine present in a very short loop between two predicted transmembrane domains is the only residue that is conserved throughout the MBOAT gene family. The yeast MBOAT proteins of known function comprise Ale1p, the ergosterol acyltransferases Are1p and Are2p, and Gup1p, the last of which acylates lysophosphatidylinositol moieties of GPI anchors on ER lumenal GPI proteins. C-terminal topology reporters added to truncated versions of Gup1p yield a topology predicting a lumenal location of its uniquely conserved histidine 447 residue. The same approach shows that Ale1p and Are2p also have the uniquely conserved histidine residing in the ER lumen. Because these data raised the possibility that phosphatidic acid could be made in the lumen of the ER, we further investigated the topology of the second yeast 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, Slc1p. The location of C-terminal topology reporters, microsomal assays probing the protease sensitivity of inserted tags, and the accessibility of natural or artificially inserted cysteines to membrane-impermeant alkylating agents all indicate that the most conserved motif containing the presumed active site histidine of Slc1p is oriented toward the ER lumen, whereas other conserved motifs are cytosolic. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21849510

  18. A Fluorescently Tagged C-Terminal Fragment of p47phox Detects NADPH Oxidase Dynamics during Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing Jun; Tian, Wei; Stull, Natalie D.; Grinstein, Sergio; Atkinson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The assembly of cytosolic p47phox and p67phox with flavocytochrome b558 at the membrane is crucial for activating the leukocyte NADPH oxidase that generates superoxide for microbial killing. p47phox and p67phox are linked via a high-affinity, tail-to-tail interaction involving a proline-rich region (PRR) and a C-terminal SH3 domain (SH3b), respectively, in their C-termini. This interaction mediates p67phox translocation in neutrophils, but is not required for oxidase activity in model systems. Here we examined phagocytosis-induced NADPH oxidase assembly, showing the sequential recruitment of YFP-tagged p67phox to the phagosomal cup, and, after phagosome internalization, a probe for PI(3)P followed by a YFP-tagged fragment derived from the p47phox PRR. This fragment was recruited in a flavocytochrome b558-dependent, p67phox-specific, and PI(3)P-independent manner. These findings indicate that p47PRR fragment probes the status of the p67phox SH3b domain and suggest that the p47phox/p67phox tail-to-tail interaction is disrupted after oxidase assembly such that the p67phox-SH3b domain becomes accessible. Superoxide generation was sustained within phagosomes, indicating that this change does not correlate with loss of enzyme activity. This study defines a sequence of events during phagocytosis-induced NADPH oxidase assembly and provides experimental evidence that intermolecular interactions within this complex are dynamic and modulated after assembly on phagosomes. PMID:19129478

  19. Recombinant expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal DUF490963–1138 domain of TamB from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Josts, Inokentijs; Grinter, Rhys; Kelly, Sharon M.; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Roszak, Aleksander; Cogdell, Richard; Smith, Brian O.; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    TamB is a recently described inner membrane protein that, together with its partner protein TamA, is required for the efficient secretion of a subset of autotransporter proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the C-terminal DUF490963–1138 domain of TamB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli K-12, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the primitive trigonal space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.34, c = 220.74 Å, and diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. Preliminary secondary-structure and X-ray diffraction analyses are reported. Two molecules are predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit. Experimental phasing using selenomethionine-labelled protein will be undertaken in the future. PMID:25195908

  20. C-terminal peptides of rhodopsin. Determination of the optimum sequence for recognition of retinal transducin.

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, D J; Morrison, D; Davis, L C; Takemoto, L J

    1986-01-01

    In vertebrate retinal rod outer segments, transducin, a guanine-nucleotide-binding protein, mediates signal coupling between rhodopsin and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. Whereas the T alpha subunit (39 kDa) of transducin binds guanine nucleotides and is the activator of the phosphodiesterase, the T beta gamma subunits (35 and 10 kDa) may function to physically link T alpha with photolysed rhodopsin. We have previously reported that a site of binding of transducin is on the C-terminus of bovine rhodopsin. By using competition with synthetic peptides, the recognition region was localized to bovine opsin amino acid residues 317-339. Further studies are detailed which determine the boundaries of this binding site on rhodopsin, as well as some of the critical amino acids needed for transducin binding. These results suggest that the serine and threonine residues in the rhodopsin C-terminal peptides Rhod-1 and Rhod-3 are critical for reconstitution of transducin GTPase activity. PMID:3461782

  1. Folding of the C-terminal bacterial binding domain in statherin upon adsorption onto hydroxyapatite crystals

    PubMed Central

    Goobes, Gil; Goobes, Rivka; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Baker, David; Stayton, Patrick S.; Drobny, Gary P.

    2006-01-01

    Statherin is an enamel pellicle protein that inhibits hydroxyapatite (HAP) nucleation and growth, lubricates the enamel surface, and is recognized by oral bacteria in periodontal diseases. We report here from solid-state NMR measurements that the protein's C-terminal region folds into an α-helix upon adsorption to HAP crystals. This region contains the binding sites for bacterial fimbriae that mediate bacterial cell adhesion to the surface of the tooth. The helical segment is shown through long-range distance measurements to fold back onto the intermediate region (residues Y16–P28) defining the global fold of the protein. Statherin, previously shown to be unstructured in solution, undergoes conformation selection on its substrate mineral surface. This surface-induced folding of statherin can be related to its functionality in inhibiting HAP crystal growth and can explain how oral pathogens selectively recognize HAP-bound statherin. PMID:17060618

  2. Potential Clinical Utility of Copeptin (C-terminal provasopressin) measurements in clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, K C; Brabant, G

    2016-03-01

    Copeptin is a 39-amino-acids containing glycosylated peptide derived from the C-terminal part of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) precursor. In the process of proteolysis the AVP precursor is processed to AVP, neurophysin II, and copeptin in equimolar amounts. In contrast to AVP, copeptin remains stable for several days at room temperature in serum or plasma. Hence, copeptin serves as a bona fide biomarker of AVP release. We briefly summarise clinical utility of copeptin in the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus. We also discuss potential applications of copeptin measurements in hyponatraemic states, assessment of an anterior pituitary function, as well as a wide range of several acute and chronic medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction, stroke or diabetes mellitus. PMID:27008633

  3. C-terminal phosphorylation is essential for regulation of ethylene synthesizing ACC synthase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2013-02-01

    The genetic and molecular biological studies mainly in Arabidopsis and in some other plants have begun to uncover the various components of ripening signaling pathway in plants. Although transcriptional regulation of major ripening genes have been studied in detail, information on role of phosphorylation in regulating the activity and stability of core ripening pathway associated proteins in relation to ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening is still limited. Recently we have demonstrated the evidence for post-translational regulation of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1), the rate limiting step enzyme regulating ripening ethylene production in banana, through phosphorylation at the C-terminal Ser 476 and 479 residues by a 41-kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase. (1) Here we have further discussed role of protein phosphorylation in regulation of stability and activity of ACS enzymes and the mechanistic and evolutionary perspective of phosphorylation pattern of Type I ACC synthase enzymes. PMID:23221778

  4. Requirement for the E1 Helicase C-Terminal Domain in Papillomavirus DNA Replication In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bergvall, Monika; Gagnon, David; Titolo, Steve; Lehoux, Michaël; D'Abramo, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The papillomavirus (PV) E1 helicase contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), located next to its ATP-binding site, whose function in vivo is still poorly understood. The CTD is comprised of an alpha helix followed by an acidic region (AR) and a C-terminal extension termed the C-tail. Recent biochemical studies on bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) E1 showed that the AR and C-tail regulate the oligomerization of the protein into a double hexamer at the origin. In this study, we assessed the importance of the CTD of human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) E1 in vivo, using a cell-based DNA replication assay. Our results indicate that combined deletion of the AR and C-tail drastically reduces DNA replication, by 85%, and that further truncation into the alpha-helical region compromises the structural integrity of the E1 helicase domain and its interaction with E2. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail alone or mutation of highly conserved residues within the domain still allows significant levels of DNA replication (55%). This is in contrast to the absolute requirement for the C-tail reported for BPV1 E1 in vitro and confirmed here in vivo. Characterization of chimeric proteins in which the AR and C-tail from HPV11 E1 were replaced by those of BPV1 indicated that while the function of the AR is transferable, that of the C-tail is not. Collectively, these findings define the contribution of the three CTD subdomains to the DNA replication activity of E1 in vivo and suggest that the function of the C-tail has evolved in a PV type-specific manner. IMPORTANCE While much is known about hexameric DNA helicases from superfamily 3, the papillomavirus E1 helicase contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) adjacent to its ATP-binding site. We show here that this CTD is important for the DNA replication activity of HPV11 E1 in vivo and that it can be divided into three functional subdomains that roughly correspond to the three conserved regions of the CTD: an alpha helix, needed

  5. Control of cytoplasmic dynein force production and processivity by its C-terminal domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Höök, Peter; Brenner, Sibylle; Wynne, Caitlin L.; Vallee, Richard B.; Gennerich, Arne

    2015-02-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule motor involved in cargo transport, nuclear migration and cell division. Despite structural conservation of the dynein motor domain from yeast to higher eukaryotes, the extensively studied S. cerevisiae dynein behaves distinctly from mammalian dyneins, which produce far less force and travel over shorter distances. However, isolated reports of yeast-like force production by mammalian dynein have called interspecies differences into question. We report that functional differences between yeast and mammalian dynein are real and attributable to a C-terminal motor element absent in yeast, which resembles a ‘cap’ over the central pore of the mammalian dynein motor domain. Removal of this cap increases the force generation of rat dynein from 1 pN to a yeast-like 6 pN and greatly increases its travel distance. Our findings identify the CT-cap as a novel regulator of dynein function.

  6. The C-terminal domain of Cernunnos/XLF is dispensable for DNA repair in vivo.

    PubMed

    Malivert, Laurent; Callebaut, Isabelle; Rivera-Munoz, Paola; Fischer, Alain; Mornon, Jean-Paul; Revy, Patrick; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre

    2009-03-01

    The core nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway is composed of seven factors: Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Artemis, XRCC4 (X4), DNA ligase IV (L4), and Cernunnos/XLF (Cernunnos). Although Cernunnos and X4 are structurally related and participate in the same complex together with L4, they have distinct functions during DNA repair. L4 relies on X4 but not on Cernunnos for its stability, and L4 is required for optimal interaction of Cernunnos with X4. We demonstrate here, using in vitro-generated Cernunnos mutants and a series of functional assays in vivo, that the C-terminal region of Cernunnos is dispensable for its activity during DNA repair. PMID:19103754

  7. Conformationally restricted C-terminal peptides of substance P. Synthesis, mass spectral analysis and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulos, D; Poulos, C; Gatos, D; Cordopatis, P; Escher, E; Mizrahi, J; Regoli, D; Dalietos, D; Furst, A; Lee, T D

    1985-10-01

    Four cyclic analogues of the C-terminal hepta- or hexapeptide of substance P were prepared by the solution method. The cyclizations were obtained by substituting with cysteine the residues normally present in positions 5 or 6 or 11 of substance P and by subsequent disulfide bond formation. The final products were identified by ordinary analytical procedures and advanced mass spectroscopy. The biological activities were determined on three bioassays: the guinea pig ileum, the guinea pig trachea and the rabbit mesenteric vein. Results obtained with these assays indicate that all peptides with a disulfide bridgehead in position 11 are inactive and that a cycle between positions 5 and 6 already strongly reduces the biological activity. The acyclic precursors containing thiol protection groups display weak biological activities. These results further underline the importance of the side chain in position 11 of substance P and suggest that optimal biological activities may require a linear peptide sequence. PMID:2413208

  8. C-Terminal-oriented Immobilization of Enzymes Using Sortase A-mediated Technique.

    PubMed

    Hata, Yuto; Matsumoto, Takuya; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, sortase A-mediated immobilization of enzymes was used for the preparation of immobilized enzymes. Thermobifida fusca YX β-glucosidase (BGL) or Streptococcus bovis 148 α-amylase (AmyA) were produced with C-terminal sortase A recognition sequences. The resulting fusion proteins were successfully immobilized on nanoparticle surfaces using sortase A. Some properties (activity, stability, and reusability) of the immobilized fusion proteins were evaluated. Both immobilized BGL and immobilized AmyA prepared by the sortase A-mediated technique retained their catalytic activity, exhibiting activities 3.0- or 1.5-fold (respectively) of those seen with the same enzymes immobilized by chemical crosslinking. Immobilized enzymes prepared by the sortase A-mediated technique did not undergo dramatic changes in stability compared with the respective free enzymes. Thus, the sortase A-mediated technique provides a promising method for immobilization of active, stable enzymes. PMID:26098063

  9. Chelation of cadmium ions by phytochelatin synthase: role of the cysteine-rich C-terminal.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Mun'delanji; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Nishikori, Shingo; Shiraki, Kentaro; Hirata, Kazumasa; Takagi, Masahiro

    2008-02-01

    The interactions between Cd(2+) and the C-terminal region of phytochelatin (PC) synthase using recombinant wild-type and mutant PC synthase were studied. We show that site-directed mutagenesis of Cys residues at C(358)C(359)XXXC(363)XXC(366) motif decreases the number of Cd(2+) and other heavy metal ions interacting with the enzyme, and that the motif binds the metals discriminatingly. The optimum binding ratio of PC synthase to Cd(2+) was also determined. The findings indicate that Cys exists as a free SH residue and that it is involved in the regulation of PC enzyme activity by transferring the metals into closer proximity with the catalytic domain. These results are important in understanding heavy metal detoxification mechanisms in higher plants, a step towards phytoremediated-applications. PMID:18270423

  10. Affinity labelling of proteinases with tryptic specificity by peptides with C-terminal lysine chloromethyl ketone

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, John R.; Kray, William; Shaw, Elliott

    1974-01-01

    Methods are described for the synthesis of peptides terminating in Lys-CH2Cl. The products were examined as affinity labels for several enzymes of trypsin-like specificity which are resistant to Tos-Lys-CH2Cl. In part, the inertness of the latter may be due to the sulphonamide group, since Z-Lys-CH2Cl was more effective. However, a number of tripeptides with C-terminal Lys-CH2Cl were superior in their ability to inactivate subtilisin, thrombin and plasma kallikrein. The possibility of developing enzyme-specific reagents selective for members within the trypsin-like group is demonstrated by Ala-Phe-Lys-CH2Cl, which readily inactivates plasma kallikrein but not thrombin. PMID:4422496

  11. Expression and purification of the C-terminal fragments of TRPV5/6 channels.

    PubMed

    Kovalevskaya, Nadezda V; Schilderink, Nathalie; Vuister, Geerten W

    2011-11-01

    The transient receptor potential vanniloid 5 and 6 (TRPV5 and TRPV6) Ca(2+)-ion channels are crucial for the regulation of minute-to-minute whole body calcium homeostasis. They act as the gatekeepers of active Ca(2+) reabsorption in kidney and intestine, respectively. In spite of the great progress in the TRP channels characterization, very little is known at the atomic level about their structure and interactions with other proteins. To the major extent it is caused by difficulties in obtaining suitable samples. Here, we report expression and purification of 36 intracellular C-terminal fragments of TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels, for which no structural information is reported thus far. We demonstrate that these proteins contain intrinsically disordered regions and identify fragments suitable for biophysical characterization. By combining bioinformatic predictions and experimental results, we propose several criteria that may aid in designing a scheme for large-scale production of difficult proteins. PMID:21664972

  12. Dimeric peptides of the C-terminal region of CXCL14 function as CXCL12 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Tsuji, Kohei; Suzuki, Kenji; Shigenaga, Akira; Otaka, Akira; Hara, Takahiko

    2013-11-29

    We recently reported that CXCL14 binds to CXCR4 with high affinity and inhibits CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis. Here we found that the C-terminal 51-77 amino acid residues of CXCL14 are responsible for CXCR4 binding. A disulfide dimer peptide of CXCL14(51-77) bound to CXCR4 with comparable affinity to full length CXCL14, and exhibited CXCL12 inhibitor activity. CXCR4 was efficiently internalized upon binding of dimeric CXCL14(51-77), thereby being reduced on the cell surface. Substitution of 5 amino acid residues in combination with the use of an oxime linker for dimerization increased the solubility and chemical stability of the dimeric CXCL14(51-77). PMID:24161674

  13. Molecular and functional consequences of Smad4 C-terminal missense mutations in colorectal tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    De Bosscher, Karolien; Hill, Caroline S; Nicolás, Francisco J

    2004-01-01

    Smad4 is an essential signal transducer of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signalling pathway and has been identified as a tumour suppressor, being mutated in approx. 50% of pancreatic cancers and approx. 15% of colorectal cancers. Two missense mutations in the C-terminal domain of Smad4, D351H (Asp351-->His) and D537Y (Asp537-->Tyr), have been described recently in the human colorectal cancer cell lines CACO-2 and SW948 respectively [Woodford-Richens, Rowan, Gorman, Halford, Bicknell, Wasan, Roylance, Bodmer and Tomlinson (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 9719-9723]. Previous work in vitro suggested that only Asp-351 was required for interaction with Smad2 [Wu, Fairman, Penry and Shi (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 20688-20694]. In the present study, we investigate the functional consequences of these point mutations in vivo. We demonstrate that neither of these colorectal cancer cells undergo growth arrest in response to TGF-beta, which can be explained, at least in part, by their inability to up-regulate cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 (CIP1 ) or p15 ( INK4b) after TGF-beta stimulation. Although the point-mutated Smad4s are expressed at normal levels in these colorectal cancer cells, they cannot interact with either TGF-beta-induced phosphorylated Smad2 or Smad3. As a result, these Smad4 mutants do not accumulate in the nucleus after TGF-beta stimulation, are not recruited to DNA by relevant Smad-binding transcription factors and cannot generate transcriptionally active DNA-bound complexes. Therefore both these colorectal tumour cells completely lack functional Smad4 activity owing to the missense mutations. Given the location of these mutations in the three-dimensional structure of the Smad4 C-terminal domain, the results also give us significant insights into Smad complex formation. PMID:14715079

  14. Temperature dependence of C-terminal carboxylic group IR absorptions in the amide I‧ region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin A.; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins using IR spectroscopy often rely on subtle changes in the amide I‧ band as a function of temperature. However, these changes can be obscured by the overlap with other absorptions, namely the side-chain and terminal carboxylic groups. The former were the subject of our previous report (Anderson et al., 2014). In this paper we investigate the IR spectra of the asymmetric stretch of α-carboxylic groups for amino acids representing all major types (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, Glu, Lys, Asn, His, Trp, Pro) as well as the C-terminal groups of three dipeptides (Gly-Gly, Gly-Ala, Ala-Gly) in D2O at neutral pH. Experimental temperature dependent IR spectra were analyzed by fitting of both symmetric and asymmetric pseudo-Voigt functions. Qualitatively the spectra exhibit shifts to higher frequency, loss in intensity and narrowing with increased temperature, similar to that observed previously for the side-chain carboxylic groups of Asp. The observed dependence of the band parameters (frequency, intensity, width and shape) on temperature is in all cases linear: simple linear regression is therefore used to describe the spectral changes. The spectral parameters vary between individual amino acids and show systematic differences between the free amino acids and dipeptides, particularly in the absolute peak frequencies, but the temperature variations are comparable. The relative variations between the dipeptide spectral parameters are most sensitive to the C-terminal amino acid, and follow the trends observed in the free amino acid spectra. General rules for modeling the α-carboxylic IR absorption bands in peptides and proteins as the function of temperature are proposed.

  15. Properties of the C-terminal domain of 4.1 proteins.

    PubMed

    Scott, C; Phillips, G W; Baines, A J

    2001-07-01

    At the C-terminus of all known 4.1 proteins is a sequence domain unique to these proteins, known as the C-terminal domain (CTD). Mammalian CTDs are associated with a growing number of protein-protein interactions, although such activities have yet to be associated with invertebrate CTDs. Mammalian CTDs are generally defined by sequence alignment as encoded by exons 18-21. Comparison of known vertebrate 4.1 proteins with invertebrate (Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster) 4.1 proteins indicates that mammalian 4.1 exon 19 represents a vertebrate adaptation that extends the sequence of the CTD with a Ser/Thr-rich sequence. The CTD was first described as a 22/24-kDa domain by chymotryptic digestion of erythrocyte 4.1 (4.1R) [Leto, T.L. & Marchesi, V.T. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 4603-4608]. Here we show that in 4.1R the 22/24-kDa fragment is not stable but rapidly processed to a 15-kDa fragment by chymotrypsin. The 15-kDa fragment is extremely stable, being resistant to overnight digestion in chymotrypsin on ice. Analysis of this fragment indicates that it is derived from residues 709-858 (SwissProt accession no. P48193), and represents the CTD of 4.1R. The fragment behaves as a globular monomer in solution. Secondary-structure predictions indicate that this domain is composed of five or six beta strands with an alpha helix before the most C-terminal of these. Together these data indicate that the CTD probably represents an independent folding structure which has gained function since the divergence of vertebrates from invertebrates. PMID:11432737

  16. Structure of the nisin leader peptidase NisP revealing a C-terminal autocleavage activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yueyang; Li, Xin; Li, Ruiqing; Li, Shanshan; Ni, Hongqian; Wang, Hui; Xu, Haijin; Zhou, Weihong; Saris, Per E J; Yang, Wen; Qiao, Mingqiang; Rao, Zihe

    2014-06-01

    Nisin is a widely used antibacterial lantibiotic polypeptide produced by Lactococcus lactis. NisP belongs to the subtilase family and functions in the last step of nisin maturation as the leader-peptide peptidase. Deletion of the nisP gene in LAC71 results in the production of a non-active precursor peptide with the leader peptide unremoved. Here, the 1.1 Å resolution crystal structure of NisP is reported. The structure shows similarity to other subtilases, which can bind varying numbers of Ca atoms. However, no calcium was found in this NisP structure, and the predicted calcium-chelating residues were placed so as to not allow NisP to bind a calcium ion in this conformation. Interestingly, a short peptide corresponding to its own 635-647 sequence was found to bind to the active site of NisP. Biochemical assays and native mass-spectrometric analysis confirmed that NisP possesses an auto-cleavage site between residues Arg647 and Ser648. Further, it was shown that NisP mutated at the auto-cleavage site (R647P/S648P) had full catalytic activity for nisin leader-peptide cleavage, although the C-terminal region of NisP was no longer cleaved. Expressing this mutant in L. lactis LAC71 did not affect the production of nisin but did decrease the proliferation rate of the bacteria, suggesting the biological significance of the C-terminal auto-cleavage of NisP. PMID:24914961

  17. Autoinhibition of Bacteriophage T4 Mre11 by Its C-terminal Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Nelson, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    Mre11 and Rad50 form a stable complex (MR) and work cooperatively in repairing DNA double strand breaks. In the bacteriophage T4, Rad50 (gene product 46) enhances the nuclease activity of Mre11 (gene product 47), and Mre11 and DNA in combination stimulate the ATPase activity of Rad50. The structural basis for the cross-activation of the MR complex has been elusive. Various crystal structures of the MR complex display limited protein-protein interfaces that mainly exist between the C terminus of Mre11 and the coiled-coil domain of Rad50. To test the role of the C-terminal Rad50 binding domain (RBD) in Mre11 activation, we constructed a series of C-terminal deletions and mutations in bacteriophage T4 Mre11. Deletion of the RBD in Mre11 eliminates Rad50 binding but only has moderate effect on its intrinsic nuclease activity; however, the additional deletion of the highly acidic flexible linker that lies between RBD and the main body of Mre11 increases the nuclease activity of Mre11 by 20-fold. Replacement of the acidic residues in the flexible linker with alanine elevates the Mre11 activity to the level of the MR complex when combined with deletion of RBD. Nuclease activity kinetics indicate that Rad50 association and deletion of the C terminus of Mre11 both enhance DNA substrate binding. Additionally, a short peptide that contains the flexible linker and RBD of Mre11 acts as an inhibitor of Mre11 nuclease activity. These results support a model where the Mre11 RBD and linker domain act as an autoinhibitory domain when not in complex with Rad50. Complex formation with Rad50 alleviates this inhibition due to the tight association of the RBD and the Rad50 coiled-coil. PMID:25077970

  18. A TRPV4 Channel C-terminal Folding Recognition Domain Critical for Trafficking and Function*

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Cao, Xu; Yang, Fan; Shi, Di-Jing; Tang, Yi-Quan; Zheng, Jie; Wang, KeWei

    2013-01-01

    The Ca2+-permeable transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) channel mediates crucial physiological functions, such as calcium signaling, temperature sensing, and maintaining cell volume and energy homeostasis. Noticeably, most disease-causing genetic mutations are concentrated in the cytoplasmic domains. In the present study, we focused on the role of the TRPV4 C terminus in modulating protein folding, trafficking, and activity. By examining a series of C-terminal deletions, we identified a 20-amino acid distal region covering residues 838–857 that is critical for channel folding, maturation, and trafficking. Surface biotinylation, confocal imaging, and fluorescence-based calcium influx assay demonstrated that mutant proteins missing this region were trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum and unglycosylated, leading to accelerated degradation and loss of channel activity. Rosetta de novo structural modeling indicated that residues 838–857 assume a defined conformation, with Gly849 and Pro851 located at critical positions. Patch clamp recordings confirmed that lowering the temperature from 37 to 30 °C rescued channel activity of folding-defective mutants. Moreover, biochemical tests demonstrated that, in addition to participating in C-C interaction, the C terminus also interacts with the N terminus. Taken together, our findings indicate that the C-terminal region of TRPV4 is critical for channel protein folding and maturation, and the short distal segment plays an essential role in this process. Therefore, selectively disrupting the folding-sensitive region may present therapeutic potential for treating overactive TRPV4-mediated diseases, such as pain and skeletal dysplasias. PMID:23457335

  19. N- and C-terminal Transactivation Domains of GATA1 Protein Coordinate Hematopoietic Program*

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eri; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ritsuko

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA1 regulates the expression of a cluster of genes important for hematopoietic cell differentiation toward erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. Three functional domains have been identified in GATA1, a transactivation domain located in the N terminus (N-TAD) and two zinc finger domains located in the middle of the molecule. Although N-TAD is known as a solitary transactivation domain for GATA1, clinical observations in Down syndrome leukemia suggest that there may be additional transactivation domains. In this study, we found in reporter co-transfection assays that transactivation activity of GATA1 was markedly reduced by deletion of the C-terminal 95 amino acids without significant attenuation of the DNA binding activity or self-association potential. We therefore generated transgenic mouse lines that expressed GATA1 lacking the C-terminal region (GATA1-ΔCT). When we crossed these transgenic mouse lines to the Gata1-deficient mouse, we found that the GATA1-ΔCT transgene rescued Gata1-deficient mice from embryonic lethality. The embryos rescued with an almost similar level of GATA1-ΔCT to endogenous GATA1 developed beyond embryonic 13.5 days, showing severe anemia with accumulation of immature erythroid cells, as was the case for the embryos rescued by endogenous levels of GATA1 lacking N-TAD (GATA1-ΔNT). Distinct sets of target genes were affected in the embryos rescued by GATA1-ΔCT and GATA1-ΔNT. We also found attenuated GATA1 function in cell cycle control of immature megakaryocytes in both lines of rescued embryos. These results thus demonstrate that GATA1 has two independent transactivation domains, N-TAD and C-TAD. Both N-TAD and C-TAD retain redundant as well as specific activities for proper hematopoiesis in vivo. PMID:22556427

  20. Dysfunction of Wntless triggers the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of Wingless and induces ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Lujun; Pei, Chunli; Lin, Xinhua; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Secreted Wnts play diverse roles in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. However, the cell-autonomous effect of unsecreted Wnts remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in specialized secretory cells and participates in pathophysiological processes. The correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that Drosophila miR-307a initiates ER stress specifically in wingless (wg)-expressing cells through targeting wntless (wls/evi). This phenotype could be mimicked by retromer loss-of-function or porcupine (porc) depletion, and rescued by wg knockdown, arguing that unsecreted Wg triggers ER stress. Consistently, we found that disrupting the secretion of human Wnt5a also induced ER stress in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we showed that a C-terminal KKVY-motif of Wg is required for its retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport, thus inducing ER stress. Next, we investigated if COPI, the regulator of retrograde transport, is responsible for unsecreted Wg to induce ER stress. To our surprise, we found that COPI acts as a novel regulator of Wg secretion. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of Wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress during development. PMID:26887613

  1. YscU/FlhB of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Harbors a C-terminal Type III Secretion Signal.

    PubMed

    Login, Frédéric H; Wolf-Watz, Hans

    2015-10-23

    All type III secretion systems (T3SS) harbor a member of the YscU/FlhB family of proteins that is characterized by an auto-proteolytic process that occurs at a conserved cytoplasmic NPTH motif. We have previously demonstrated that YscUCC, the C-terminal peptide generated by auto-proteolysis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YscU, is secreted by the T3SS when bacteria are grown in Ca(2+)-depleted medium at 37 °C. Here, we investigated the secretion of this early T3S-substrate and showed that YscUCC encompasses a specific C-terminal T3S signal within the 15 last residues (U15). U15 promoted C-terminal secretion of reporter proteins like GST and YopE lacking its native secretion signal. Similar to the "classical" N-terminal secretion signal, U15 interacted with the ATPase YscN. Although U15 is critical for YscUCC secretion, deletion of the C-terminal secretion signal of YscUCC did neither affect Yop secretion nor Yop translocation. However, these deletions resulted in increased secretion of YscF, the needle subunit. Thus, these results suggest that YscU via its C-terminal secretion signal is involved in regulation of the YscF secretion. PMID:26338709

  2. The C-terminal helix in subdomain 4 of the regulatory light chain is essential for myosin regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, T; Kendrick-Jones, J

    1993-01-01

    In vertebrate smooth/non-muscle myosins, phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains by a specific calmodulin-activated kinase controls both myosin head interaction with actin and assembly of the myosin into filaments. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal domain of the regulatory light chain is crucial for the regulation of these myosin functions. To further dissect the role of this region of the light chain in myosin regulation, a series of chicken smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain mutants has been constructed with successive C-terminal deletions. These mutants were synthesized in Escherichia coli and analysed by their ability to restore Ca2+ regulation to scallop myosin that had been stripped of its native regulatory light chains ('desensitized'). The results show that regulatory light chain mutants with deletions in the C-terminal helix in subdomain 4 were able to reform the regulatory Ca2+ binding site on the scallop myosin head, but had lost the ability to suppress scallop myosin filament assembly and interaction with actin in the absence of Ca2+. Further deletions in the C-terminal domain led to a gradual loss of ability to restore the regulatory Ca2+ binding site. Thus, the regions in the C-terminal half of the regulatory light chain responsible for myosin regulation can be identified. Images PMID:8223496

  3. The C-terminal region of alpha-crystallin: involvement in protection against heat-induced denaturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Horwitz, J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the alpha-crystallins can protect other proteins against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation. To determine the possible involvement of the C-terminal region in this activity, the alpha-crystallins were subjected to limited tryptic digestion, and the amount of cleavage from the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the alpha-A and alpha-B crystallin chains was assessed using antisera specific for these regions. Limited tryptic digestion resulted in cleavage only from the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin. This trypsin-treated alpha-A crystallin preparation showed a decreased ability to protect proteins from heat-induced aggregation using an in vitro assay. Together, these results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is important for its ability to protect against heat-induced aggregation, which is consistent with the hypothesis that post-translational changes that are known to occur at the C-terminal region may have significant effects on the ability of alpha-A crystallin to protect against protein denaturation in vivo.

  4. Crystal structure of yeast Sis1 peptide-binding fragment and Hsp70 Ssa1 C-terminal complex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingzhi; Wu, Yunkun; Qian, Xinguo; Sha, Bingdong

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 40 facilitates the critical role of Hsp70 in a number of cellular processes such as protein folding, assembly, degradation and translocation in vivo. Hsp40 and Hsp70 stay in close contact to achieve these diverse functions. The conserved C-terminal EEVD motif in Hsp70 has been shown to regulate Hsp40–Hsp70 interaction by an unknown mechanism. Here, we provide a structural basis for this regulation by determining the crystal structure of yeast Hsp40 Sis1 peptide-binding fragment complexed with the Hsp70 Ssa1 C-terminal. The Ssa1 extreme C-terminal eight residues, G634PTVEEVD641, form a β-strand with the domain I of Sis1 peptide-binding fragment. Surprisingly, the Ssa1 C-terminal binds Sis1 at the site where Sis1 interacts with the non-native polypeptides. The negatively charged residues within the EEVD motif in Ssa1 C-terminal form extensive charge–charge interactions with the positively charged residues in Sis1. The structure-based mutagenesis data support the structural observations. PMID:16737444

  5. The C-terminal region of Drosophila heat shock factor (HSF) contains a constitutively functional transactivation domain.

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, J; Orosz, A; Allada, R; Wu, C

    1996-01-01

    The heat shock transcription factor (HSF) is constitutively expressed in Drosophila cells as an inactive monomer. Upon heat shock HSF undergoes trimerization and acquires high affinity DNA binding ability leading to specific interaction with its cognate elements in heat shock promoters. Here we show that the transactivation function of HSF is conferred by the extreme C-terminal region of the protein. Deletion analysis of HSF fragments fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain demonstrates that transactivation is dependent on HSF residues 610-691. This domain is located beyond the C-terminal heptad repeat (leucine zipper 4) whose presence or integrity is dispensable for transactivation. The transactivation domain is functional in the absence of heat shock and can be replaced by the extreme C-terminal region of human HSF1. The Drosophila and human HSF transactivation domains are both rich in hydrophobic and acidic residues and may be structurally conserved, despite limited sequence identity. PMID:8628664

  6. LRP130, a single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding protein, localizes at the outer nuclear and endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and interacts with mRNA in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Naoto; Fukuda, Hirokazu; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Nagao, Minako; Sugimura, Takashi; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2004-05-01

    LRP130 (also known as a LRPPRC) is an RNA and single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and recently identified as a candidate gene responsible for the Leigh syndrome, a French-Canadian type cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. However, the biological function of LRP130 still remains largely unresolved. In the present study, we found that the C-terminal half of the mouse LRP130 located within a 120 amino acid sequence (a.a. 845-964) binds to synthetic RNA homopolymers, poly(G), poly(U), and poly(C), as well as r(CUGCC)(6). Assessment of the subcellular localization indicated both nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial fractions to be positive. To further analyze the subcellular localization of LRP130, a nuclear/ER fraction was fractionated into the nucleoplasm (NP) and nuclear envelope (NE)/ER, and the latter was further separated into outer nuclear membrane (ONM)/ER and inner nuclear membrane (INM) by treatment with Triton X-100. LRP130 was detectable in all three fractions, and the distribution pattern was in good accordance with that known for ONM/ER proteins. Interestingly, immunostaining of HeLa cells demonstrated nuclear rim staining of LRP130, specifically at the outside of the NE and also at ER, and association of LRP130 with poly(A)(+) RNA was restricted only to the ONM/ER fraction. Overexpression of full-length mouse LRP130 fused with EGFP resulted in nuclear accumulation of poly(A)(+) RNA in HeLa cells. Taking all these results together, it is suggested that LRP130, a novel type of RNA-binding protein, associates with mRNA/mRNP complexes at the outside of NE and ER, and plays a role in control of mRNA metabolisms. PMID:15081402

  7. C-terminal domain of CagX is responsible for its interaction with CagT protein of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Gopal Jee; Pal, Jagannath; Kumar, Awanish; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are the well known human pathogen associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Pathogenesis is mainly due to the presence of 40 kb cagPAI (cag Pathogenicity Island) region that encodes the type IV secretion system (TFSS) consisting of a cytoplasmic part, a middle part/core complex (spans from inner membrane to outer membrane), and an outer membrane associated part. CagX and CagT are two important proteins of TFSS that have homology with virB9 and virB7 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens TFSS. In this study, we have shown that the CagX and CagT interact directly by using co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous CagX and CagT and MBP pull down assay. We further authenticate this observation using yeast two-hybrid assay and co-expression of both the protein coding gene in Escherichia coli. We also observed that the C-terminal region of CagX is important for CagT interaction. We reconfirm that CagT depends on CagX for its stabilization. These observations could contribute in overall visualization of assembly and architecture of TFSS because protein-protein interactions among Cag proteins are likely to have an important role in assembly. Thorough understanding about architecture and mechanism of action of cag-TFSS may lead to design controlled drug delivery system. PMID:25446105

  8. The p55 tumour necrosis factor receptor TNFR1 contains a trans-Golgi network localization signal in the C-terminal region of its cytoplasmic tail.

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Helen; Stewart, Abigail; Vandenabeele, Peter; Luzio, J Paul

    2002-01-01

    It has been reported in some human cells that, in addition to a plasma membrane localization, members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily may be localized to the Golgi complex. We have shown by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy that the p55 tumour necrosis factor receptor, TNFR1, is principally localized to the trans-Golgi network in the human breast carcinoma cell line, MCF7. Chimaeras consisting of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CD8 together with the cytoplasmic tail of TNFR1 were targeted to the trans-Golgi network in stably transfected rat fibroblastic cells. Deletions in the cytoplasmic tails of these chimaeras demonstrated the requirement for the C-terminal sequence of 23 amino acids for this targeting. The 23 amino acid sequence is mostly outside the death domain and contains both an acid patch and a dileucine motif. Interaction of this sequence with membrane traffic adaptor proteins may play an important role in controlling the responses of cells to tumour necrosis factor, since binding of signalling adaptor proteins has only been demonstrated for plasma membrane, and not Golgi-localized, TNFR1. PMID:11985495

  9. The C-terminal domain of NifL is sufficient to inhibit NifA activity.

    PubMed Central

    Narberhaus, F; Lee, H S; Schmitz, R A; He, L; Kustu, S

    1995-01-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae, transcription of all nif (nitrogen fixation) operons except the regulatory nifLA operon itself is regulated by the proteins NifA and NifL. NifA, an enhancer-binding protein, activates transcription by RNA polymerase containing the alternative sigma factor sigma 54. The central catalytic domain of NifA is sufficient for transcriptional activation, which can occur from solution. In vivo, NifL antagonizes the action of NifA in the presence of molecular oxygen or combined nitrogen. Inhibition has also been shown in vitro, but it was not responsive to environmental signals. Assuming a two-domain structure of NifL, we localized inhibition by NifL to its carboxy (C)-terminal domain, which is more soluble than the intact protein. The first line of evidence for this is that internal deletions of NifL containing an intact C-terminal domain were able to inhibit transcriptional activation by NifA in a coupled transcription-translation system. The second line of evidence is that the isolated C-terminal domain of NifL (assayed as a fusion to the soluble maltose-binding protein [MBP]) was sufficient to inhibit transcriptional activation by the central domain of NifA in a purified transcription system. The final line of evidence is that an MBP fusion to the C-terminal domain of NifL inhibited transcriptional activation by NifA in vivo. On the basis of these data, we postulate that the inhibitory function of NifL lies in its C-terminal domain and hence infer that this domain is responsible for interaction with NifA. Gel filtration experiments with MBP-NifL fusion derivatives lacking portions of the N- or C-terminal domain of the protein revealed that the C-terminal domain is the most soluble part of NifL. Up to 50% of two MBP-NifL truncations containing only the C-terminal domain appeared to be in a defined dimeric state. PMID:7665487

  10. Solution structure and dynamics of C-terminal regulatory domain of Vibrio vulnificus extracellular metalloprotease

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Heeyoun; Park, Jung Eun; Lee, Jung Sup; Lee, Weontae

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have determined solution structures of vEP C-terminal regulatory domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 has a compact {beta}-barrel structure with eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution structure of vEP C-ter100 shares its molecular topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residues in the {beta}3 region of vEP C-ter100 might be important in putative ligand/receptor binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron ion. -- Abstract: An extracellular metalloprotease (vEP) secreted by Vibrio vulnificus ATCC29307 is a 45-kDa proteolytic enzyme that has prothrombin activation and fibrinolytic activities during bacterial infection. The action of vEP could result in clotting that could serve to protect the bacteria from the host defense machinery. Very recently, we showed that the C-terminal propeptide (C-ter100), which is unique to vEP, is involved in regulation of vEP activity. To understand the structural basis of this function of vEP C-ter100, we have determined the solution structure and backbone dynamics using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solution structure shows that vEP C-ter100 is composed of eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands with a unique fold that has a compact {beta}-barrel formation which stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding networks. Protein dynamics shows that the overall structure, including loops, is very rigid and stabilized. By structural database analysis, we found that vEP C-ter100 shares its topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase, despite low sequence homology between the two domains. Fluorescence assay reveals that vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron (Fe{sup 3+}). These findings suggest that vEP protease might recruit substrate molecules, such as collagen, by binding at C-ter100 and that vEP participates

  11. Biochemical and virological analysis of the 18-residue C-terminal tail of HIV-1 integrase

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Mohd J; Monel, Blandine; Krishnan, Lavanya; Shun, Ming-Chieh; Di Nunzio, Francesca; Helland, Dag E; Engelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background The 18 residue tail abutting the SH3 fold that comprises the heart of the C-terminal domain is the only part of HIV-1 integrase yet to be visualized by structural biology. To ascertain the role of the tail region in integrase function and HIV-1 replication, a set of deletion mutants that successively lacked three amino acids was constructed and analyzed in a variety of biochemical and virus infection assays. HIV-1/2 chimers, which harbored the analogous 23-mer HIV-2 tail in place of the HIV-1 sequence, were also studied. Because integrase mutations can affect steps in the replication cycle other than integration, defective mutant viruses were tested for integrase protein content and reverse transcription in addition to integration. The F185K core domain mutation, which increases integrase protein solubility, was furthermore analyzed in a subset of mutants. Results Purified proteins were assessed for in vitro levels of 3' processing and DNA strand transfer activities whereas HIV-1 infectivity was measured using luciferase reporter viruses. Deletions lacking up to 9 amino acids (1-285, 1-282, and 1-279) displayed near wild-type activities in vitro and during infection. Further deletion yielded two viruses, HIV-11-276 and HIV-11-273, that displayed approximately two and 5-fold infectivity defects, respectively, due to reduced integrase function. Deletion mutant HIV-11-270 and the HIV-1/2 chimera were non-infectious and displayed approximately 3 to 4-fold reverse transcription in addition to severe integration defects. Removal of four additional residues, which encompassed the C-terminal β strand of the SH3 fold, further compromised integrase incorporation into virions and reverse transcription. Conclusion HIV-11-270, HIV-11-266, and the HIV-1/2 chimera were typed as class II mutant viruses due to their pleiotropic replication defects. We speculate that residues 271-273 might play a role in mediating the known integrase-reverse transcriptase interaction, as

  12. Structural and Functional Significance of the N- and C-Terminal Appendages in Arabidopsis Truncated Hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Mukhi, Nitika; Dhindwal, Sonali; Uppal, Sheetal; Kapoor, Abhijeet; Arya, Richa; Kumar, Pravindra; Kaur, Jagreet; Kundu, Suman

    2016-03-29

    Plant hemoglobins constitute three distinct groups: symbiotic, nonsymbiotic, and truncated hemoglobins. Structural investigation of symbiotic and nonsymbiotic (class I) hemoglobins revealed the presence of a vertebrate-like 3/3 globin fold in these proteins. In contrast, plant truncated hemoglobins are similar to bacterial truncated hemoglobins with a putative 2/2 α-helical globin fold. While multiple structures have been reported for plant hemoglobins of the first two categories, for plant truncated globins only one structure has been reported of late. Here, we report yet another crystal structure of the truncated hemoglobin from Arabidopsis thaliana (AHb3) with two water molecules in the heme pocket, of which one is distinctly coordinated to the heme iron, unlike the only available crystal structure of AHb3 with a hydroxyl ligand. AHb3 was monomeric in its crystallographic asymmetric unit; however, dimer was evident in the crystallographic symmetry, and the globin indeed existed as a stable dimer in solution. The tertiary structure of the protein exhibited a bacterial-like 2/2 α-helical globin fold with an additional N-terminal α-helical extension and disordered C-termini. To address the role of these extended termini in AHb3, which is yet unknown, N- and C-terminal deletion mutants were created and characterized and molecular dynamics simulations performed. The C-terminal deletion had an insignificant effect on most properties but perturbed the dimeric equilibrium of AHb3 and significantly influenced azide binding kinetics in the ferric state. These results along with the disordered nature of the C-terminus indicated its putative role in intramolecular or intermolecular interactions probably regulating protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. While the N-terminal deletion did not change the overall globin fold, stability, or ligand binding kinetics, it seemed to have influenced coordination at the heme iron, the hydration status of the active site

  13. Human Frataxin Folds Via an Intermediate State. Role of the C-Terminal Region

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, Santiago E.; González-Lebrero, Rodolfo M.; Roman, Ernesto A.; Santos, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the folding reaction of human frataxin, whose deficiency causes the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich’s Ataxia (FRDA). The characterization of different conformational states would provide knowledge about how frataxin can be stabilized without altering its functionality. Wild-type human frataxin and a set of mutants, including two highly destabilized FRDA-associated variants were studied by urea-induced folding/unfolding in a rapid mixing device and followed by circular dichroism. The analysis clearly indicates the existence of an intermediate state (I) in the folding route with significant secondary structure content but relatively low compactness, compared with the native ensemble. However, at high NaCl concentrations I-state gains substantial compaction, and the unfolding barrier is strongly affected, revealing the importance of electrostatics in the folding mechanism. The role of the C-terminal region (CTR), the key determinant of frataxin stability, was also studied. Simulations consistently with experiments revealed that this stretch is essentially unstructured, in the most compact transition state ensemble (TSE2). The complete truncation of the CTR drastically destabilizes the native state without altering TSE2. Results presented here shed light on the folding mechanism of frataxin, opening the possibility of mutating it to generate hyperstable variants without altering their folding kinetics. PMID:26856628

  14. Effects of Sorafenib on C-Terminally Truncated Androgen Receptor Variants in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zengerling, Friedemann; Streicher, Wolfgang; Schrader, Andres J.; Schrader, Mark; Nitzsche, Bianca; Cronauer, Marcus V.; Höpfner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the development of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPCa) is commonly associated with an aberrant, ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor (AR). A putative mechanism allowing prostate cancer (PCa) cells to grow under low levels of androgens, is the expression of constitutively active, C-terminally truncated AR lacking the AR-ligand binding domain (LBD). Due to the absence of a LBD, these receptors, termed ARΔLBD, are unable to respond to any form of anti-hormonal therapies. In this study we demonstrate that the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib inhibits AR as well as ARΔLBD-signalling in CRPCa cells. This inhibition was paralleled by proteasomal degradation of the AR- and ARΔLBD-molecules. In line with these observations, maximal antiproliferative effects of sorafenib were achieved in AR and ARΔLBD-positive PCa cells. The present findings warrant further investigations on sorafenib as an option for the treatment of advanced AR-positive PCa. PMID:23109869

  15. Effects of sorafenib on C-terminally truncated androgen receptor variants in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zengerling, Friedemann; Streicher, Wolfgang; Schrader, Andres J; Schrader, Mark; Nitzsche, Bianca; Cronauer, Marcus V; Höpfner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the development of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPCa) is commonly associated with an aberrant, ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor (AR). A putative mechanism allowing prostate cancer (PCa) cells to grow under low levels of androgens, is the expression of constitutively active, C-terminally truncated AR lacking the AR-ligand binding domain (LBD). Due to the absence of a LBD, these receptors, termed ARΔLBD, are unable to respond to any form of anti-hormonal therapies. In this study we demonstrate that the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib inhibits AR as well as ARΔLBD-signalling in CRPCa cells. This inhibition was paralleled by proteasomal degradation of the AR- and ARΔLBD-molecules. In line with these observations, maximal antiproliferative effects of sorafenib were achieved in AR and ARΔLBD-positive PCa cells. The present findings warrant further investigations on sorafenib as an option for the treatment of advanced AR-positive PCa. PMID:23109869

  16. C-Terminal Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Peptide: A New Sepsis Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Function

    PubMed Central

    Blaurock, Nancy; Schmerler, Diana; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Ludewig, Katrin; Baier, Michael; Brunkhorst, Frank Martin; Imhof, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a life threatening condition and the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Although single aspects of pathophysiology have been described in detail, numerous unknown mediators contribute to the progression of this complex disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of CAAP48, a C-terminal alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment, that we found to be elevated in septic patients and to apply this peptide as diagnostic marker for infectious and noninfectious etiologies of SIRS. Incubation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with synthetic CAAP48, the SNP-variant CAAP47, and several control peptides revealed intense neutrophil activation, induction of neutrophil chemotaxis, reduction of neutrophil viability, and release of cytokines. We determined the abundance of CAAP48 in patients with severe sepsis, severe SIRS of noninfectious origin, and viral infection. CAAP48 levels were 3-4-fold higher in patients with sepsis compared to SIRS of noninfectious origin and allowed discrimination of those patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that CAAP48 is a promising discriminatory sepsis biomarker with immunomodulatory functions, particularly on human neutrophils, supporting its important role in the host response and pathophysiology of sepsis. PMID:27382189

  17. C-Terminal Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin-Mediated Antigen Delivery for Nasal Pneumococcal Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hidehiko; Watari, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Eri; Yonemitsu, Miki; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kondoh, Masuo; Kunisawa, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Efficient vaccine delivery to mucosal tissues including mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues is essential for the development of mucosal vaccine. We previously reported that claudin-4 was highly expressed on the epithelium of nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and thus claudin-4-targeting using C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) effectively delivered fused antigen to NALT and consequently induced antigen-specific immune responses. In this study, we applied the C-CPE-based vaccine delivery system to develop a nasal pneumococcal vaccine. We fused C-CPE with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), an important antigen for the induction of protective immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, (PspA-C-CPE). PspA-C-CPE binds to claudin-4 and thus efficiently attaches to NALT epithelium, including antigen-sampling M cells. Nasal immunization with PspA-C-CPE induced PspA-specific IgG in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as IgA in the nasal wash and BALF. These immune responses were sufficient to protect against pneumococcal infection. These results suggest that C-CPE is an efficient vaccine delivery system for the development of nasal vaccines against pneumococcal infection. PMID:26018248

  18. Human Frataxin Folds Via an Intermediate State. Role of the C-Terminal Region.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Santiago E; González-Lebrero, Rodolfo M; Roman, Ernesto A; Santos, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the folding reaction of human frataxin, whose deficiency causes the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA). The characterization of different conformational states would provide knowledge about how frataxin can be stabilized without altering its functionality. Wild-type human frataxin and a set of mutants, including two highly destabilized FRDA-associated variants were studied by urea-induced folding/unfolding in a rapid mixing device and followed by circular dichroism. The analysis clearly indicates the existence of an intermediate state (I) in the folding route with significant secondary structure content but relatively low compactness, compared with the native ensemble. However, at high NaCl concentrations I-state gains substantial compaction, and the unfolding barrier is strongly affected, revealing the importance of electrostatics in the folding mechanism. The role of the C-terminal region (CTR), the key determinant of frataxin stability, was also studied. Simulations consistently with experiments revealed that this stretch is essentially unstructured, in the most compact transition state ensemble (TSE2). The complete truncation of the CTR drastically destabilizes the native state without altering TSE2. Results presented here shed light on the folding mechanism of frataxin, opening the possibility of mutating it to generate hyperstable variants without altering their folding kinetics. PMID:26856628

  19. C-terminal amino acids are essential for human heat shock protein 70 dimerization.

    PubMed

    Marcion, Guillaume; Seigneuric, Renaud; Chavanne, Evelyne; Artur, Yves; Briand, Loïc; Hadi, Tarik; Gobbo, Jessica; Garrido, Carmen; Neiers, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The human inducible heat shock protein 70 (hHsp70), which is involved in several major pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, is a key molecular chaperone and contributes to the proper protein folding and maintenance of a large number of protein structures. Despite its role in disease, the current structural knowledge of hHsp70 is almost exclusively based on its Escherichia coli homolog, DnaK, even though these two proteins only share ~50 % amino acid identity. For the first time, we describe a complete heterologous production and purification strategy that allowed us to obtain a large amount of soluble, full-length, and non-tagged hHsp70. The protein displayed both an ATPase and a refolding activity when combined to the human Hsp40. Multi-angle light scattering and bio-layer interferometry analyses demonstrated the ability of hHsp70 to homodimerize. The role of the C-terminal part of hHsp70 was identified and confirmed by a study of a truncated version of hHsp70 that could neither dimerize nor present refolding activity. PMID:25030382

  20. Identification and characterization of the role of c-terminal Src kinase in dengue virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rinki; Agrawal, Tanvi; Khan, Naseem Ahmed; Nakayama, Yuji; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R.

    2016-01-01

    We screened a siRNA library targeting human tyrosine kinases in Huh-7 cells and identified c-terminal Src kinase (Csk) as one of the kinases involved in dengue virus replication. Knock-down of Csk expression by siRNAs or inhibition of Csk by an inhibitor reduced dengue virus RNA levels but did not affect viral entry. Csk partially colocalized with viral replication compartments. Dengue infection was drastically reduced in cells lacking the three ubiquitous src family kinases, Src, Fyn and Yes. Csk knock-down in these cells failed to block dengue virus replication suggesting that the effect of Csk is via regulation of Src family kinases. Csk was found to be hyper-phosphorylated during dengue infection and inhibition of protein kinase A led to a block in Csk phosphorylation and dengue virus replication. Overexpression studies suggest an important role for the kinase and SH3 domains in this process. Our results identified a novel role for Csk as a host tyrosine kinase involved in dengue virus replication and provide further insights into the role of host factors in dengue replication. PMID:27457684

  1. TMAO promotes fibrillization and microtubule assembly activity in the C-terminal repeat region of tau.

    PubMed

    Scaramozzino, Francesca; Peterson, Dylan W; Farmer, Patrick; Gerig, J T; Graves, Donald J; Lew, John

    2006-03-21

    Alzheimer's disease most closely correlates with the appearance of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), intracellular fibrous aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein, tau. Under native conditions, tau is an unstructured protein, and its physical characterization has revealed no clues about the three-dimensional structural determinants essential for aggregation or microtubule binding. We have found that the natural osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) induces secondary structure in a C-terminal fragment of tau (tau(187)) and greatly promotes both self-aggregation and microtubule (MT) assembly activity. These processes could be distinguished, however, by a single-amino acid substitution (Tyr(310) --> Ala), which severely inhibited aggregation but had no effect on MT assembly activity. The inability of this mutant to aggregate could be completely reversed by TMAO. We propose a model in which TMAO induces partial order in tau(187), resulting in conformers that may correspond to on-pathway intermediates of either aggregation or tau-dependent MT assembly or both. These studies set the stage for future high-resolution structural characterization of these intermediates and the basis by which Tyr(310) may direct pathologic versus normal tau function. PMID:16533051

  2. Peptide library approach to uncover phosphomimetic inhibitors of the BRCA1 C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    White, E Railey; Sun, Luxin; Ma, Zhong; Beckta, Jason M; Danzig, Brittany A; Hacker, David E; Huie, Melissa; Williams, David C; Edwards, Ross A; Valerie, Kristoffer; Glover, J N Mark; Hartman, Matthew C T

    2015-05-15

    Many intracellular protein-protein interactions are mediated by the phosphorylation of serine, and phosphoserine-containing peptides can inhibit these interactions. However, hydrolysis of the phosphate by phosphatases, and the poor cell permeability associated with phosphorylated peptides has limited their utility in cellular and in vivo contexts. Compounding the problem, strategies to replace phosphoserine in peptide inhibitors with easily accessible mimetics (such as Glu or Asp) routinely fail. Here, we present an in vitro selection strategy for replacement of phosphoserine. Using mRNA display, we created a 10 trillion member structurally diverse unnatural peptide library. From this library, we found a peptide that specifically binds to the C-terminal domain (BRCT)2 of breast cancer associated protein 1 (BRCA1) with an affinity comparable to phosphorylated peptides. A crystal structure of the peptide bound reveals that the pSer-x-x-Phe motif normally found in BRCA1 (BRCT)2 binding partners is replaced by a Glu-x-x-4-fluoroPhe and that the peptide picks up additional contacts on the protein surface not observed in cognate phosphopeptide binding. Expression of the peptide in human cells led to defects in DNA repair by homologous recombination, a process BRCA1 is known to coordinate. Overall, this work validates a new in vitro selection approach for the development of inhibitors of protein-protein interactions mediated by serine phosphorylation. PMID:25654734

  3. β-Catenin C-terminal signals suppress p53 and are essential for artery formation.

    PubMed

    Riascos-Bernal, Dario F; Chinnasamy, Prameladevi; Cao, Longyue Lily; Dunaway, Charlene M; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad; Sibinga, Nicholas E S

    2016-01-01

    Increased activity of the tumour suppressor p53 is incompatible with embryogenesis, but how p53 is controlled is not fully understood. Differential requirements for p53 inhibitors Mdm2 and Mdm4 during development suggest that these control mechanisms are context-dependent. Artery formation requires investment of nascent endothelial tubes by smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Here, we find that embryos lacking SMC β-catenin suffer impaired arterial maturation and die by E12.5, with increased vascular wall p53 activity. β-Catenin-deficient SMCs show no change in p53 levels, but greater p53 acetylation and activity, plus impaired growth and survival. In vivo, SMC p53 inactivation suppresses phenotypes caused by loss of β-catenin. Mechanistically, β-catenin C-terminal interactions inhibit Creb-binding protein-dependent p53 acetylation and p53 transcriptional activity, and are required for artery formation. Thus in SMCs, the β-catenin C-terminus indirectly represses p53, and this function is essential for embryogenesis. These findings have implications for angiogenesis, tissue engineering and vascular disease. PMID:27499244

  4. Cathepsin X Cleaves Profilin 1 C-Terminal Tyr139 and Influences Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Pečar Fonović, Urša; Kos, Janko

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin X, a cysteine carboxypeptidase, is upregulated in several types of cancer. Its molecular target in tumor cells is profilin 1, a known tumor suppressor and regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cathepsin X cleaves off the C-terminal Tyr139 of profilin 1, affecting binding of poly-L-proline ligands and, consequently, tumor cell migration and invasion. Profilin 1 with mutations at the C-terminus, transiently expressed in prostate cancer cells PC-3, showed that Tyr139 is important for proper function of profilin 1 as a tumor suppressor. Cleaving off Tyr139 prevents the binding of clathrin, a poly-L-proline ligand involved in endocytosis. More profilin 1—clathrin complexes were present in PC-3 cells when cathepsin X was inhibited by its specific inhibitor AMS36 or silenced by siRNA. As a consequence, the endocytosis of FITC-labeled dextran and transferrin conjugate was significantly increased. These results constitute the first report of the regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in tumor cells through proteolytic processing of profilin 1. PMID:26325675

  5. Piezo1 ion channel pore properties are dictated by C-terminal region

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Bertrand; Murthy, Swetha E.; Mathur, Jayanti; Schmidt, Manuela; Mechioukhi, Yasmine; Delmas, Patrick; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Piezo1 and Piezo2 encode mechanically activated cation channels that function as mechanotransducers involved in vascular system development and touch sensing, respectively. Structural features of Piezos remain unknown. Mouse Piezo1 is bioinformatically predicted to have 30–40 transmembrane (TM) domains. Here, we find that nine of the putative inter-transmembrane regions are accessible from the extracellular side. We use chimeras between mPiezo1 and dPiezo to show that ion-permeation properties are conferred by C-terminal region. We further identify a glutamate residue within a conserved region adjacent to the last two putative TM domains of the protein, that when mutated, affects unitary conductance and ion selectivity, and modulates pore block. We propose that this amino acid is either in the pore or closely associates with the pore. Our results describe important structural motifs of this channel family and lay the groundwork for a mechanistic understanding of how Piezos are mechanically gated and conduct ions. PMID:26008989

  6. The C-terminal region of Trypanosoma cruzi MASPs is antigenic and secreted via exovesicles.

    PubMed

    De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Díaz Lozano, Isabel María; Jercic, Maria Isabel; Quinzada, Markela; Giménez, Maria José; Calabuig, Eva; Espino, Ana Margarita; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Osuna, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a neglected and emerging tropical disease, endemic to South America and present in non-endemic regions due to human migration. The MASP multigene family is specific to T. cruzi, accounting for 6% of the parasite's genome and plays a key role in immune evasion. A common feature of MASPs is the presence of two conserved regions: an N-terminal region codifying for signal peptide and a C-terminal (C-term) region, which potentially acts as GPI-addition signal peptide. Our aim was the analysis of the presence of an immune response against the MASP C-term region. We found that this region is highly conserved, released via exovesicles (EVs) and has an associated immune response as revealed by epitope affinity mapping, IFA and inhibition of the complement lysis assays. We also demonstrate the presence of a fast IgM response in Balb/c mice infected with T. cruzi. Our results reveal the presence of non-canonical secreted peptides in EVs, which can subsequently be exposed to the immune system with a potential role in evading immune system targets in the parasite. PMID:27270330

  7. Evolutionary diversification of an ancient gene family (rhs) through C-terminal displacement

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Rhs genes are prominent features of bacterial genomes that have previously been implicated in genomic rearrangements in E. coli. By comparing rhs repertoires across the Enterobacteriaceae, this study provides a robust explanation of rhs diversification and evolution, and a mechanistic model of how rhs diversity is gained and lost. Results Rhs genes are ubiquitous and comprise six structurally distinct lineages within the Enterobacteriaceae. There is considerable intergenomic variation in rhs repertoire; for instance, in Salmonella enterica, rhs are restricted to mobile elements, while in Escherichia coli one rhs lineage has diversified through transposition as older lineages have been deleted. Overall, comparative genomics reveals frequent, independent gene gains and losses, as well as occasional lateral gene transfer, in different genera. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rhs 'core' domains and variable C-termini are evolutionarily decoupled, and propose that rhs diversity is driven by homologous recombination with circular intermediates. Existing C-termini are displaced by laterally acquired alternatives, creating long arrays of dissociated 'tips' that characterize the appearance of rhs loci. Conclusion Rhs repertoires are highly dynamic among Enterobacterial genomes, due to repeated gene gains and losses. In contrast, the primary structures of Rhs genes are evolutionarily conserved, indicating that rhs sequence diversity is driven, not by rapid mutation, but by the relatively slow evolution of novel core/tip combinations. Hence, we predict that a large pool of dissociated rhs C-terminal tips exists episomally and these are potentially transmitted across taxonomic boundaries. PMID:19968874

  8. The E. coli thioredoxin folding mechanism: the key role of the C-terminal helix.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Diego S; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Garrote, Ana; Sica, Mauricio P; Santos, Javier

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the unfolding mechanism of oxidized Escherichia coli thioredoxin (EcTRX) was investigated experimentally and computationally. We characterized seven point mutants distributed along the C-terminal α-helix (CTH) and the preceding loop. The mutations destabilized the protein against global unfolding while leaving the native structure unchanged. Global analysis of the unfolding kinetics of all variants revealed a linear unfolding route with a high-energy on-pathway intermediate state flanked by two transition state ensembles TSE1 and TSE2. The experiments show that CTH is mainly unfolded in TSE1 and the intermediate and becomes structured in TSE2. Structure-based molecular dynamics are in agreement with these experiments and provide protein-wide structural information on transient states. In our model, EcTRX folding starts with structure formation in the β-sheet, while the protein helices coalesce later. As a whole, our results indicate that the CTH is a critical module in the folding process, restraining a heterogeneous intermediate ensemble into a biologically active native state and providing the native protein with thermodynamic and kinetic stability. PMID:25463044

  9. Human Frataxin Folds Via an Intermediate State. Role of the C-Terminal Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraj, Santiago E.; González-Lebrero, Rodolfo M.; Roman, Ernesto A.; Santos, Javier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the folding reaction of human frataxin, whose deficiency causes the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich’s Ataxia (FRDA). The characterization of different conformational states would provide knowledge about how frataxin can be stabilized without altering its functionality. Wild-type human frataxin and a set of mutants, including two highly destabilized FRDA-associated variants were studied by urea-induced folding/unfolding in a rapid mixing device and followed by circular dichroism. The analysis clearly indicates the existence of an intermediate state (I) in the folding route with significant secondary structure content but relatively low compactness, compared with the native ensemble. However, at high NaCl concentrations I-state gains substantial compaction, and the unfolding barrier is strongly affected, revealing the importance of electrostatics in the folding mechanism. The role of the C-terminal region (CTR), the key determinant of frataxin stability, was also studied. Simulations consistently with experiments revealed that this stretch is essentially unstructured, in the most compact transition state ensemble (TSE2). The complete truncation of the CTR drastically destabilizes the native state without altering TSE2. Results presented here shed light on the folding mechanism of frataxin, opening the possibility of mutating it to generate hyperstable variants without altering their folding kinetics.

  10. Structure and inhibition analysis of the mouse SAD-B C-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Wu, Jing-Xiang; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2016-10-01

    The SAD (synapses of amphids defective) kinases, including SAD-A and SAD-B, play important roles in the regulation of neuronal development, cell cycle, and energy metabolism. Our recent study of mouse SAD-A identified a unique autoinhibitory sequence (AIS), which binds at the junction of the kinase domain (KD) and the ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain and exerts autoregulation in cooperation with UBA. Here, we report the crystal structure of the mouse SAD-B C-terminal fragment including the AIS and the kinase-associated domain 1 (KA1) at 2.8 Å resolution. The KA1 domain is structurally conserved, while the isolated AIS sequence is highly flexible and solvent-accessible. Our biochemical studies indicated that the SAD-B AIS exerts the same autoinhibitory role as that in SAD-A. We believe that the flexible isolated AIS sequence is readily available for interaction with KD-UBA and thus inhibits SAD-B activity. PMID:27251228

  11. Physical association of GPR54 C-terminal with protein phosphatase 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Barry J.; Wang Zixuan; Mobley, La'Tonya; Khosravi, Davood; Fujii, Nobutaka; Navenot, Jean-Marc; Peiper, Stephen C.

    2008-12-26

    KiSS1 was discovered as a metastasis suppressor gene and subsequently found to encode kisspeptins (KP), ligands for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR54. This ligand-receptor pair was later shown to play a critical role in the neuro-endocrine regulation of puberty. The C-terminal cytoplasmic (C-ter) domain of GPR54 contains a segment rich in proline and arginine residues that corresponds to the primary structure of four overlapping SH3 binding motifs. Yeast two hybrid experiments identified the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-C) as an interacting protein. Pull-down experiments with GST fusion proteins containing the GPR54 C-ter confirmed binding to PP2A-C in cell lysates and these complexes contained phosphatase activity. The proline arginine rich segment is necessary for these interactions. The GPR54 C-ter bound directly to purified recombinant PP2A-C, indicating the GPR54 C-ter may form complexes involving the catalytic subunit of PP2A that regulate phosphorylation of critical signaling intermediates.

  12. Segmental expression and C-terminal labeling of protein ERp44 through protein trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xudong; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Meng, Qing

    2015-08-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44 (ERp44) is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family and functions in oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. A structurally flexible C-terminal tail (C-tail) of ERp44 plays critical roles in dynamically regulating ERp44's function in protein folding quality control. The structure-function dynamics of ERp44's C-tail may be studied further using fluorescence and other techniques, if methods are found to label the C-tail site-specifically with a fluorescent group or segmentally with other desired labels. Here we have developed such methods, employing split inteins capable of protein trans-splicing, and identifying atypical S1 split inteins able to function efficiently at a suitable split site in the ERp44 sequence. One method demonstrated segmental expression of ERp44 for segmental labeling of the C-tail, another method efficiently added a commercially available fluorescent group to the C-terminus of ERp44, and both methods may also be generally useful for studying other proteins. PMID:25907381

  13. Microtubule C-Terminal Tails Can Change Characteristics of Motor Force Production.

    PubMed

    Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra; Janakaloti Narayanareddy, Babu Reddy; Vadpey, Omid; Jun, Yonggun; Chapman, Dail; Rosenfeld, Steven; Gross, Steven P

    2015-10-01

    Control of intracellular transport is poorly understood, and functional ramifications of tubulin isoform differences between cell types are mostly unexplored. Motors' force production and detachment kinetics are critical for their group function, but how microtubule (MT) details affect these properties--if at all--is unknown. We investigated these questions using both a vesicular transport human kinesin, kinesin-1, and also a mitotic kinesin likely optimized for group function, kinesin-5, moving along either bovine brain or MCF7(breast cancer) MTs. We found that kinesin-1 functioned similarly on the two sets of MTs--in particular, its mean force production was approximately the same, though due to its previously reported decreased processivity, the mean duration of kinesin-1 force production was slightly decreased on MCF7 MTs. In contrast, kinesin-5's function changed dramatically on MCF7 MTs: its average detachment force was reduced and its force-velocity curve was different. In spite of the reduced detachment force, the force-velocity alteration surprisingly improved high-load group function for kinesin-5 on the cancer-cell MTs, potentially contributing to functions such as spindle-mediated chromosome separation. Significant differences were previously reported for C-terminal tubulin tails in MCF7 versus bovine brain tubulin. Consistent with this difference being functionally important, elimination of the tails made transport along the two sets of MTs similar. PMID:26094820

  14. Identification and characterization of the role of c-terminal Src kinase in dengue virus replication.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rinki; Agrawal, Tanvi; Khan, Naseem Ahmed; Nakayama, Yuji; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R

    2016-01-01

    We screened a siRNA library targeting human tyrosine kinases in Huh-7 cells and identified c-terminal Src kinase (Csk) as one of the kinases involved in dengue virus replication. Knock-down of Csk expression by siRNAs or inhibition of Csk by an inhibitor reduced dengue virus RNA levels but did not affect viral entry. Csk partially colocalized with viral replication compartments. Dengue infection was drastically reduced in cells lacking the three ubiquitous src family kinases, Src, Fyn and Yes. Csk knock-down in these cells failed to block dengue virus replication suggesting that the effect of Csk is via regulation of Src family kinases. Csk was found to be hyper-phosphorylated during dengue infection and inhibition of protein kinase A led to a block in Csk phosphorylation and dengue virus replication. Overexpression studies suggest an important role for the kinase and SH3 domains in this process. Our results identified a novel role for Csk as a host tyrosine kinase involved in dengue virus replication and provide further insights into the role of host factors in dengue replication. PMID:27457684

  15. β-Catenin C-terminal signals suppress p53 and are essential for artery formation

    PubMed Central

    Riascos-Bernal, Dario F.; Chinnasamy, Prameladevi; Cao, Longyue (Lily); Dunaway, Charlene M.; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad; Sibinga, Nicholas E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Increased activity of the tumour suppressor p53 is incompatible with embryogenesis, but how p53 is controlled is not fully understood. Differential requirements for p53 inhibitors Mdm2 and Mdm4 during development suggest that these control mechanisms are context-dependent. Artery formation requires investment of nascent endothelial tubes by smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Here, we find that embryos lacking SMC β-catenin suffer impaired arterial maturation and die by E12.5, with increased vascular wall p53 activity. β-Catenin-deficient SMCs show no change in p53 levels, but greater p53 acetylation and activity, plus impaired growth and survival. In vivo, SMC p53 inactivation suppresses phenotypes caused by loss of β-catenin. Mechanistically, β-catenin C-terminal interactions inhibit Creb-binding protein-dependent p53 acetylation and p53 transcriptional activity, and are required for artery formation. Thus in SMCs, the β-catenin C-terminus indirectly represses p53, and this function is essential for embryogenesis. These findings have implications for angiogenesis, tissue engineering and vascular disease. PMID:27499244

  16. The C-terminal amyloidogenic peptide contributes to self-assembly of Avibirnavirus viral protease

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaojuan; Jia, Lu; Hu, Boli; Sun, Yanting; Zhang, Yina; Gao, Xiangxiang; Deng, Tingjuan; Bao, Shengjun; Xu, Li; Zhou, Jiyong

    2015-01-01

    Unlike other viral protease, Avibirnavirus infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-encoded viral protease VP4 forms unusual intracellular tubule-like structures during viral infection. However, the formation mechanism and potential biological functions of intracellular VP4 tubules remain largely elusive. Here, we show that VP4 can assemble into tubules in diverse IBDV-infected cells. Dynamic analysis show that VP4 initiates the assembly at early stage of IBDV infection, and gradually assembles into larger size of fibrils within the cytoplasm and nucleus. Intracellular assembly of VP4 doesn’t involve the host cytoskeleton, other IBDV-encoded viral proteins or vital subcellular organelles. Interestingly, the last C-terminal hydrophobic and amyloidogenic stretch 238YHLAMA243 with two “aggregation-prone” alanine residues was found to be essential for its intracellular self-assembly. The assembled VP4 fibrils show significantly low solubility, subsequently, the deposition of highly assembled VP4 structures ultimately deformed the host cytoskeleton and nucleus, which was potentially associated with IBDV lytic infection. Importantly, the assembly of VP4 significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of protease activity in host cells which potentially prevent the premature cell death and facilitate viral replication. This study provides novel insights into the formation mechanism and biological functions of the Avibirnavirus protease-related fibrils. PMID:26440769

  17. Serpin A1 C-Terminal Peptides as Collagen Turnover Modulators.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Simona; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Nuti, Francesca; Papini, Anna Maria; Giovannelli, Lisa; Rovero, Paolo

    2016-08-19

    The modulation of collagen turnover can be a relevant pharmacological target in the context of treating either pathological or pathophysiological conditions, such as collagen-related diseases and skin aging. Our recent work has focused on the search for short-chain peptides as lead compounds for further development of compounds that enhance the production of type I collagen. In this study we selected and synthesized overlapping peptides of the C-terminal portion of serpin A1 (residues 393-418), the impact of which on collagen production has been reported previously, in order to identify shorter and still active fragments and to provide insight on the mechanisms involved. The biological activity of each fragment was evaluated with cultured normal human dermal fibroblasts, and changes in the amounts of collagen were monitored in collected culture media by a sandwich ELISA technique developed in house. Interestingly, we identified a decapeptide, termed SA1-III (Ac-MGKVVNPTQK-NH2 ), as a promising candidate for our purposes; it is able to induce a significant increase in type I collagen levels in the culture medium of treated cells at micromolar concentrations. PMID:26615979

  18. The C-terminal region of Trypanosoma cruzi MASPs is antigenic and secreted via exovesicles

    PubMed Central

    De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Díaz Lozano, Isabel María; Jercic, Maria Isabel; Quinzada, Markela; Giménez, Maria José; Calabuig, Eva; Espino, Ana Margarita; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Osuna, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a neglected and emerging tropical disease, endemic to South America and present in non-endemic regions due to human migration. The MASP multigene family is specific to T. cruzi, accounting for 6% of the parasite’s genome and plays a key role in immune evasion. A common feature of MASPs is the presence of two conserved regions: an N-terminal region codifying for signal peptide and a C-terminal (C-term) region, which potentially acts as GPI-addition signal peptide. Our aim was the analysis of the presence of an immune response against the MASP C-term region. We found that this region is highly conserved, released via exovesicles (EVs) and has an associated immune response as revealed by epitope affinity mapping, IFA and inhibition of the complement lysis assays. We also demonstrate the presence of a fast IgM response in Balb/c mice infected with T. cruzi. Our results reveal the presence of non-canonical secreted peptides in EVs, which can subsequently be exposed to the immune system with a potential role in evading immune system targets in the parasite. PMID:27270330

  19. Interaction of chromatin with a histone H1 containing swapped N- and C-terminal domains

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Jordana B.; Cheema, Manjinder S.; Wang, Jason; Missiaen, Krystal; Finn, Ron; Gonzalez Romero, Rodrigo; Th’ng, John P. H.; Hendzel, Michael; Ausió, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Although the details of the structural involvement of histone H1 in the organization of the nucleosome are quite well understood, the sequential events involved in the recognition of its binding site are not as well known. We have used a recombinant human histone H1 (H1.1) in which the N- and C-terminal domains (NTD/CTD) have been swapped and we have reconstituted it on to a 208-bp nucleosome. We have shown that the swapped version of the protein is still able to bind to nucleosomes through its structurally folded wing helix domain (WHD); however, analytical ultracentrifuge analysis demonstrates its ability to properly fold the chromatin fibre is impaired. Furthermore, FRAP analysis shows that the highly dynamic binding association of histone H1 with the chromatin fibre is altered, with a severely decreased half time of residence. All of this suggests that proper binding of histone H1 to chromatin is determined by the simultaneous and synergistic binding of its WHD–CTD to the nucleosome. PMID:26182371

  20. A C-terminal domain of GAP is sufficient to stimulate ras p21 GTPase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M S; Hill, W S; Ng, A S; Vogel, U S; Schaber, M D; Scolnick, E M; Dixon, R A; Sigal, I S; Gibbs, J B

    1989-01-01

    The cDNA for bovine ras p21 GTPase activating protein (GAP) has been cloned and the 1044 amino acid polypeptide encoded by the clone has been shown to bind the GTP complexes of both normal and oncogenic Harvey (Ha) ras p21. To identify the regions of GAP critical for the catalytic stimulation of ras p21 GTPase activity, a series of truncated forms of GAP protein were expressed in Escherichia coli. The C-terminal 343 amino acids of GAP (residues 702-1044) were observed to bind Ha ras p21-GTP and stimulate Ha ras p21 GTPase activity with the same efficiency (kcat/KM congruent to 1 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 at 24 degrees C) as GAP purified from bovine brain or full-length GAP expressed in E. coli. Deletion of the final 61 amino acid residues of GAP (residues 986-1044) rendered the protein insoluble upon expression in E. coli. These results define a distinct catalytic domain at the C terminus of GAP. In addition, GAP contains amino acid similarity with the B and C box domains conserved among phospholipase C-II, the crk oncogene product, and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase oncogene products. This homologous region is located in the N-terminal half of GAP outside of the catalytic domain that stimulates ras p21 GTPase activity and may constitute a distinct structural or functional domain within the GAP protein. Images PMID:2545441

  1. Impedance Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cells upon Challenge with C-terminal Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Geoffrey; Lo, Chun-Min

    2007-03-01

    Both in vitro and animal studies in breast, prostate, and ovarian cancers have shown that clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), which binds to CLDN4, may have an important therapeutic benefit, as it is rapidly cytotoxic in tissues overexpressing CLDN4. This study sought to evaluate the ability of C-terminal clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), a CLDN4-targetting molecule, to disrupt tight junction barrier function. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was used to measure both junctional resistance and average cell-substrate separation of ovarian cancer cell lines after exposure to C-CPE. A total of 14 ovarian cancer cell lines were used, and included cell lines derived from serous, mucinous, and clear cells. Our results showed that junctional resistance increases as CLDN4 expression increases. In addition, C-CPE is non-cytotoxic in ovarian cancer cells expressing CLDN4. However, exposure to C-CPE results in a significant (p<0.05) dose- and CLDN4-dependent decrease in junctional resistance and an increase in cell-substrate separation. Treatment of ovarian cancer cell lines with C-CPE disrupts tight junction barrier function.

  2. Cathepsin L Mediates the Degradation of Novel APP C-Terminal Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haizhi; Sang, Nianli; Zhang, Can; Raghupathi, Ramesh; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Saunders, Aleister

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ), a peptide generated from proteolytic processing of its precursor, amyloid precursor protein (APP). Canonical APP proteolysis occurs via α-, β-, and γ-secretases. APP is also actively degraded by protein degradation systems. By pharmacologically inhibiting protein degradation with ALLN, we observed an accumulation of several novel APP C-terminal fragments (CTFs). The two major novel CTFs migrated around 15 and 25 kDa and can be observed across multiple cell types. The process was independent of cytotoxicity or protein synthesis. We further determine that the accumulation of the novel CTFs is not mediated by proteasome or calpain inhibition, but by cathepsin L inhibition. Moreover, these novel CTFs are not generated by an increased amount of BACE. Here, we name the CTF of 25 kDa as η-CTF (eta-CTF). Our data suggest that under physiological conditions, a subset of APP undergoes alternative processing and the intermediate products, the 15 kDa CTFs, and the η-CTFs aret rapidly degraded and/or processed via the protein degradation machinery, specifically, cathepsin L. PMID:25910068

  3. Peptide Library Approach to Uncover Phosphomimetic Inhibitors of the BRCA1 C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    White, E. Railey; Sun, Luxin; Ma, Zhong; Beckta, Jason M.; Danzig, Brittany A.; Hacker, David E.; Huie, Melissa; Williams, David C.; Edwards, Ross A.; Valerie, Kristoffer; Mark Glover, J. N.; Hartman, Matthew C. T.

    2015-01-01

    Many intracellular protein–protein interactions are mediated by the phosphorylation of serine, and phosphoserine-containing peptides can inhibit these interactions. However, hydrolysis of the phosphate by phosphatases, and the poor cell permeability associated with phosphorylated peptides has limited their utility in cellular and in vivo contexts. Compounding the problem, strategies to replace phosphoserine in peptide inhibitors with easily accessible mimetics (such as Glu or Asp) routinely fail. Here, we present an in vitro selection strategy for replacement of phosphoserine. Using mRNA display, we created a 10 trillion member structurally diverse unnatural peptide library. From this library, we found a peptide that specifically binds to the C-terminal domain (BRCT)2 of breast cancer associated protein 1 (BRCA1) with an affinity comparable to phosphorylated peptides. A crystal structure of the peptide bound reveals that the pSer-x-x-Phe motif normally found in BRCA1 (BRCT)2 binding partners is replaced by a Glu-x-x-4-fluoroPhe and that the peptide picks up additional contacts on the protein surface not observed in cognate phosphopeptide binding. Expression of the peptide in human cells led to defects in DNA repair by homologous recombination, a process BRCA1 is known to coordinate. Overall, this work validates a new in vitro selection approach for the development of inhibitors of protein–protein interactions mediated by serine phosphorylation. PMID:25654734

  4. C-Terminal Engineering of CXCL12 and CCL5 Chemokines: Functional Characterization by Electrophysiological Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Petit-Hartlein, Isabelle; Sadir, Rabia; Revilloud, Jean; Caro, Lydia; Vivaudou, Michel; Fieschi, Franck; Moreau, Christophe; Vivès, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines comprised of 70–100 amino acids. The chemokines CXCL12 and CCL5 are the endogenous ligands of the CXCR4 and CCR5 G protein-coupled receptors that are also HIV co-receptors. Biochemical, structural and functional studies of receptors are ligand-consuming and the cost of commercial chemokines hinders their use in such studies. Here, we describe methods for the expression, refolding, purification, and functional characterization of CXCL12 and CCL5 constructs incorporating C-terminal epitope tags. The model tags used were hexahistidines and Strep-Tag for affinity purification, and the double lanthanoid binding tag for fluorescence imaging and crystal structure resolution. The ability of modified and purified chemokines to bind and activate CXCR4 and CCR5 receptors was tested in Xenopus oocytes expressing the receptors, together with a Kir3 G-protein activated K+ channel that served as a reporter of receptor activation. Results demonstrate that tags greatly influence the biochemical properties of the recombinant chemokines. Besides, despite the absence of any evidence for CXCL12 or CCL5 C-terminus involvement in receptor binding and activation, we demonstrated unpredictable effects of tag insertion on the ligand apparent affinity and efficacy or on the ligand dissociation. These tagged chemokines should constitute useful tools for the selective purification of properly-folded chemokines receptors and the study of their native quaternary structures. PMID:24498095

  5. Possible paraneoplastic syndrome case of bullous pemphigoid with immunoglobulin G anti-BP180 C-terminal domain antibodies associated with psoriasis and primary macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Maki, Nobuki; Demitsu, Toshio; Umemoto, Naoka; Nagashima, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Kakurai, Maki; Nakamura, Satoshi; Yamada, Tomoko; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    A 61-year-old Japanese man developed bullous skin lesions during topical therapy for psoriasis vulgaris. Physical examination demonstrated numerous tense bullae and scaly erythemas on the trunk and extremities. Histopathology of the skin biopsy demonstrated subepidermal bullae and lymphocytic infiltration with eosinophils in the dermis. Direct immunofluorescence revealed linear deposits of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA and C3 along the basement membrane zone. Indirect immunofluorescence of 1 mol/L NaCl-split skin showed IgG reactivity with both epidermal and the dermal sides. IgM reactivity with both the epidermal and dermal sides was also detected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed negative results for both BP180 and BP230. Immunoelectrophoresis of serum and bone marrow aspiration revealed underlying primary macroglobulinemia with M-proteinemia of IgM-κ type. Immunoblot analysis revealed IgG, but not IgM, antibodies to recombinant protein of BP180 C-terminal domain. We diagnosed the present case as bullous pemphigoid with IgG anti-BP180 C-terminal domain autoantibodies associated with primary macroglobulinemia and psoriasis vulgaris. Systemic administration of prednisolone 30 mg/day resulted in dramatic improvement of both bullous and psoriatic skin lesions. When the bullous and psoriatic lesions relapsed, DRC chemotherapy (dexamethasone, rituximab and cyclophosphamide) for macroglobulinemia was performed. Then, the psoriatic lesions improved and the bullous lesions disappeared. We suggested that the present case may be paraneoplastic syndrome of bullous pemphigoid associated with primary macroglobulinemia and psoriasis vulgaris. PMID:26507447

  6. Ezrin self-association involves binding of an N-terminal domain to a normally masked C-terminal domain that includes the F-actin binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Gary, R; Bretscher, A

    1995-01-01

    Ezrin is a membrane-cytoskeletal linking protein that is concentrated in actin-rich surface structures. It is closely related to the microvillar proteins radixin and moesin and to the tumor suppressor merlin/schwannomin. Cell extracts contain ezrin dimers and ezrin-moesin heterodimers in addition to monomers. Truncated ezrin fusion proteins were assayed by blot overlay to determine which regions mediate self-association. Here we report that ezrin self-association occurs by head-to-tail joining of distinct N-terminal and C-terminal domains. It is likely that these domains, termed N- and C-ERMADs (ezrin-radixin-moesin association domain), are responsible for homotypic and heterotypic associations among ERM family members. The N-ERMAD of ezrin resided within amino acids 1-296; deletion of 10 additional residues resulted in loss of activity. The C-ERMAD was mapped to the last 107 amino acids of ezrin, residues 479-585. The two residues at the C-terminus were required for activity, and the region from 530-585 was insufficient. The C-ERMAD was masked in the native monomer. Exposure of this domain required unfolding ezrin with sodium dodecyl sulfate or expressing the domain as part of a truncated protein. Intermolecular association could not occur unless the C-ERMAD had been made accessible to its N-terminal partner. It can be inferred that dimerization in vivo requires an activation step that exposes this masked domain. The conformationally inaccessible C-terminal region included the F-actin binding site, suggesting that this activity is likewise regulated by masking. Images PMID:7579708

  7. C-terminal extension of calmodulin-like 3 protein from Oryza sativa L.: interaction with a high mobility group target protein.

    PubMed

    Chinpongpanich, Aumnart; Phean-O-Pas, Srivilai; Thongchuang, Mayura; Qu, Li-Jia; Buaboocha, Teerapong

    2015-11-01

    A large number of calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are present in plants, but there is little detailed information on the functions of these proteins in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, the CML3 protein from rice (OsCML3) and its truncated form lacking the C-terminal extension (OsCML3m) were found to exhibit a Ca2+-binding property and subsequent conformational change, but the ability to bind the CaM kinase II peptide was only observed for OsCML3m. Changes in their secondary structure upon Ca2+-binding measured by circular dichroism revealed that OsCML3m had a higher helical content than OsCML3. Moreover, OsCML3 was mainly localized in the plasma membrane, whereas OsCML3m was found in the nucleus. The rice high mobility group B1 (OsHMGB1) protein was identified as one of the putative OsCML3 target proteins. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis revealed that OsHMGB1 bound OsCML3, OsCML3m or OsCML3s (cysteine to serine mutation at the prenylation site) in the nucleus presumably through the methionine and phenylalanine-rich hydrophobic patches, confirming that OsHMGB1 is a target protein in planta. The effect of OsCML3 or OsCML3m on the DNA-binding ability of OsHMGB1 was measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. OsCML3m decreased the level of OsHMGB1 binding to pUC19 double-stranded DNA whereas OsCML3 did not. Taken together, OsCML3 probably provides a mechanism for manipulating the DNA-binding ability of OsHMGB1 in the nucleus and its C-terminal extension provides an intracellular Ca2+ regulatory switch. PMID:26423116

  8. The C-terminal domain of the Arabinosyltransferase Mycobacterium tuberculosis EmbC is a lectin-like carbohydrate binding module.

    PubMed

    Alderwick, Luke J; Lloyd, Georgina S; Ghadbane, Hemza; May, John W; Bhatt, Apoorva; Eggeling, Lothar; Fütterer, Klaus; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2011-02-01

    The D-arabinan-containing polymers arabinogalactan (AG) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) are essential components of the unique cell envelope of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biosynthesis of AG and LAM involves a series of membrane-embedded arabinofuranosyl (Araf) transferases whose structures are largely uncharacterised, despite the fact that several of them are pharmacological targets of ethambutol, a frontline drug in tuberculosis therapy. Herein, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal hydrophilic domain of the ethambutol-sensitive Araf transferase M. tuberculosis EmbC, which is essential for LAM synthesis. The structure of the C-terminal domain of EmbC (EmbC(CT)) encompasses two sub-domains of different folds, of which subdomain II shows distinct similarity to lectin-like carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM). Co-crystallisation with a cell wall-derived di-arabinoside acceptor analogue and structural comparison with ligand-bound CBMs suggest that EmbC(CT) contains two separate carbohydrate binding sites, associated with subdomains I and II, respectively. Single-residue substitution of conserved tryptophan residues (Trp868, Trp985) at these respective sites inhibited EmbC-catalysed extension of LAM. The same substitutions differentially abrogated binding of di- and penta-arabinofuranoside acceptor analogues to EmbC(CT), linking the loss of activity to compromised acceptor substrate binding, indicating the presence of two separate carbohydrate binding sites, and demonstrating that subdomain II indeed functions as a carbohydrate-binding module. This work provides the first step towards unravelling the structure and function of a GT-C-type glycosyltransferase that is essential in M. tuberculosis. PMID:21383969

  9. N- and C-terminal structure-activity study of angiotensin II on the angiotensin AT2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Bouley, R; Pérodin, J; Plante, H; Rihakova, L; Bernier, S G; Maletínská, L; Guillemette, G; Escher, E

    1998-02-19

    ]angiotensin II. Aliphatic residues, especially those of reduced size, caused a significant decrease in affinity especially [Sarcosine1, Gly8]angiotensin II who showed a 30-fold decrease. Introduction of a positive charge (Lys) at position 8 reduced the affinity even further. Stereoisomers in position 8 (L-->D configuration) also induced lower affinities. The angiotensin AT2 receptor display a structure-activity relationship similar to that observed on the AT1 receptor for the C-terminal position of the peptide hormone. Position 1 structure-activity relationships are however fundamentally different between the angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptor. PMID:9570482

  10. C-Terminal Domain Residues Important for Secretion and Attachment of RgpB in Porphyromonas gingivalis▿

    PubMed Central

    Slakeski, Nada; Seers, Christine A.; Ng, Kaiting; Moore, Caroline; Cleal, Steven M.; Veith, Paul D.; Lo, Alvin W.; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, expresses a group of surface proteins with a common C-terminal domain (CTD) that are exported by a novel secretion system to the surface, where they are covalently attached. Using RgpB as a model CTD protein, we have produced a series of site-directed mutations in the CTD sequence at conserved residues and at residues that may be modified and, hence, surface attached. The mutant RgpB proteins were expressed in a P. gingivalis host lacking functional RgpB and RgpA Arg-specific proteases. The RgpB mutants produced were Y674F, Y674F Y718F, T675Q S679Q T682Q T684Q, T693Q, F695A, D696A, N698A, G699P, G716P, T724Q, T728Q T730Q, and K732Q and a protein with a deletion of residues 692 to 702 (Δ692-702). The mutants were characterized for cell-associated Arg-specific protease activity and for cellular distribution using anti-Rgp antibodies and Western blotting of culture fractions. All the mutants exhibited cell-associated Arg-specific activity similar to that of the positive control except for the D696A and Δ692-702 mutants. For all mutants, except D696A and Δ692-702, the RgpB proteins were found modified and attached to the cell surface, which was the same profile found in the positive-control strain. Only trace amounts of the precursor form of the Δ692-702 mutant were detected in the outer membrane, with none detected in the periplasm or culture fluid although cell transcript levels were normal. The results suggest that residues 692 to 702 of the CTD, in particular, residue D696, have an important role in the attachment of RgpB at the cell surface and that without attachment secretion does not occur. PMID:20971915

  11. C-terminal 13-residue truncation induces compact trigger factor conformation and severely impairs its dimerization ability.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi; Yu, Ling; Kihara, Hiroshi; Zhou, Jun-Mei

    2014-05-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is the first chaperone to interact with nascent chains and facilitate their folding within bacteria. TF possesses a three-state equilibrium in vivo: monomeric TF bound to ribosome, free monomeric, and dimeric TF in cytoplasm. TF consists of an N-terminal ribosome binding domain, a middle peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) domain and a C-terminal domain involved in substrate binding and dimerization. Investigation of the effect of C-terminal 13 region on TF structure and function will help to further the understanding of its mechanism as a chaperone in vitro and in vivo. Here we present TF419, a TF mutant from which the C-terminal 13 residues were deleted to investigate the role of these residues in the structure stability and function of intact molecules. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), fluorescence measurements and limited proteolysis results suggested that TF transitioned to a compact conformation when the Cterminal 13 residues were truncated. Further biochemical results reveal that TF dimerization was decreased as a result of the truncation. These results suggested that the C-terminal 13 residues play an important role in structural stability and chaperone function of TF. PMID:24555433

  12. C-Terminal Protein Characterization by Mass Spectrometry using Combined Micro Scale Liquid and Solid-Phase Derivatization

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    A sample preparation method for protein C-terminal peptide isolation has been developed. In this strategy, protein carboxylate glycinamidation was preceded by carboxyamidomethylation and optional α- and ϵ-amine acetylation in a one-pot reaction, followed by tryptic digestion of the modified protein. The digest was adsorbed on ZipTipC18 pipette tips for sequential peptide α- and ϵ-amine acetylation and 1-ethyl-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide-mediated carboxylate condensation with ethylenediamine. Amino group-functionalized peptides were scavenged on N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated agarose, leaving the C-terminal peptide in the flow-through fraction. The use of reversed-phase supports as a venue for peptide derivatization enabled facile optimization of the individual reaction steps for throughput and completeness of reaction. Reagents were exchanged directly on the support, eliminating sample transfer between the reaction steps. By this sequence of solid-phase reactions, the C-terminal peptide could be uniquely recognized in mass spectra of unfractionated digests of moderate complexity. The use of the sample preparation method was demonstrated with low-level amounts of a model protein. The C-terminal peptides were selectively retrieved from the affinity support and proved highly suitable for structural characterization by collisionally induced dissociation. The sample preparation method provides for robustness and simplicity of operation using standard equipment readily available in most biological laboratories and is expected to be readily expanded to gel-separated proteins. PMID:23543807

  13. NMR assignments of the C-terminal domain of human polypeptide release factor eRF1.

    PubMed

    Mantsyzov, Alexey B; Ivanova, Elena V; Birdsall, Berry; Kolosov, Petr M; Kisselev, Lev L; Polshakov, Vladimir I

    2007-12-01

    We report NMR assignments of the protein backbone of the C-terminal domain (163 a.a.) of human class 1 translation termination factor eRF1. It was found that several protein loop residues exist in two slowly interconverting conformational states. PMID:19636860

  14. The sea urchin mitochondrial transcription factor A binds and bends DNA efficiently despite its unusually short C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Malarkey, Christopher S; Lionetti, Claudia; Deceglie, Stefania; Roberti, Marina; Churchill, Mair E A; Cantatore, Palmiro; Loguercio Polosa, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a key component for the protection and transcription of the mitochondrial genome. TFAM belongs to the high mobility group (HMG) box family of DNA binding proteins that are able to bind to and bend DNA. Human TFAM (huTFAM) contains two HMG box domains separated by a linker region, and a 26 amino acid C-terminal tail distal to the second HMG box. Previous studies on huTFAM have shown that requisites for proper DNA bending and specific binding to the mitochondrial genome are specific intercalating residues and the C-terminal tail. We have characterized TFAM from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (suTFAM). Differently from human, suTFAM contains a short 9 amino acid C-terminal tail, yet it still has the ability to specifically bind to mtDNA. To provide information on the mode of binding of the protein we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays and found that, in spite of the absence of a canonical C-terminal tail, suTFAM distorts DNA at a great extent and recognizes specific target with high affinity. Site directed mutagenesis showed that the two Phe residues placed in corresponding position of the two intercalating Leu of huTFAM are responsible for the strong bending and the great binding affinity of suTFAM. PMID:27101895

  15. Age-related changes in the content of the C-terminal region of aggrecan in human articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Dudhia, J; Davidson, C M; Wells, T M; Vynios, D H; Hardingham, T E; Bayliss, M T

    1996-01-01

    The content of the C-terminal region of aggrecan was investigated in samples of articular cartilage from individuals ranging in age from newborn to 65 years. This region contains the globular G3 domain which is known to be removed from aggrecan in mature cartilage, probably by proteolytic cleavage, but the age-related changes in its abundance in human cartilage have not been described previously. The analysis was performed by immunosorbant assay using an antiserum (JD5) against recombinant amino acid residues of human aggrecan, on crude extracts of cartilage without further purification of aggrecan. The results showed that the content of the C-terminal region decreased with age relative to the G1 domain content (correlation coefficient = 0.463). This represented a 92% fall in the content of this region of the molecule from newborn to 65 years of age. furthermore, when the G1 content of the cartilage extracts was corrected to only include the G1 attached to aggrecan and to exclude the G1 fragments which accumulate as a by-product of normal aggrecan turnover (free G1), the age-related decrease in the C-terminal region remained very pronounced. Analysis by composite agarose/PAGE showed that the number of subpopulations of aggrecan resolved increased from one in newborn to three in adult cartilage. All of these reacted with an antiserum to the human G1 domain, but only the slowest migrating species reacted with the C-terminal region antiserum (JD5). Similar analysis by SDS/PAGE confirmed the presence of high-molecular-mass (200 kDa) proteins reactive with JD5, but no reactive fragments of lower electrophoretic mobility were detected. In contrast, when probed with the antiserum to the human G1 domain, the immunoblots showed protein species corresponding to the free G1 and G1-G2 fragments, which were present at high concentrations in adult cartilage. The results suggest that the loss of the C-terminal region is not directly part of the process of aggrecan turnover, but

  16. Occurrence of C-Terminal Residue Exclusion in Peptide Fragmentation by ESI and MALDI Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2012-02-01

    By screening a data set of 392 synthetic peptides MS/MS spectra, we found that a known C-terminal rearrangement was unexpectedly frequently occurring from monoprotonated molecular ions in both ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry upon low and high energy collision activated dissociations with QqTOF and TOF/TOF mass analyzer configuration, respectively. Any residue localized at the C-terminal carboxylic acid end, even a basic one, was lost, provided that a basic amino acid such arginine and to a lesser extent histidine and lysine was present in the sequence leading to a fragment ion, usually depicted as (bn-1 + H2O) ion, corresponding to a shortened non-scrambled peptide chain. Far from being an epiphenomenon, such a residue exclusion from the peptide chain C-terminal extremity gave a fragment ion that was the base peak of the MS/MS spectrum in certain cases. Within the frame of the mobile proton model, the ionizing proton being sequestered onto the basic amino acid side chain, it is known that the charge directed fragmentation mechanism involved the C-terminal carboxylic acid function forming an anhydride intermediate structure. The same mechanism was also demonstrated from cationized peptides. To confirm such assessment, we have prepared some of the peptides that displayed such C-terminal residue exclusion as a C-terminal backbone amide. As expected in this peptide amide series, the production of truncated chains was completely suppressed. Besides, multiply charged molecular ions of all peptides recorded in ESI mass spectrometry did not undergo such fragmentation validating that any mobile ionizing proton will prevent such a competitive C-terminal backbone rearrangement. Among all well-known nondirect sequence fragment ions issued from non specific loss of neutral molecules (mainly H2O and NH3) and multiple backbone amide ruptures (b-type internal ions), the described C-terminal residue exclusion is highly identifiable giving raise to a single fragment ion in

  17. Structure Predictions of Two Bauhinia variegata Lectins Reveal Patterns of C-Terminal Properties in Single Chain Legume Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Gustavo M. S. G.; Conceição, Fabricio R.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Pinto, Luciano da S.

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and –II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins. PMID:24260572

  18. The C-terminal propeptide of a plant defensin confers cytoprotective and subcellular targeting functions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant defensins are small (45–54 amino acids), basic, cysteine-rich proteins that have a major role in innate immunity in plants. Many defensins are potent antifungal molecules and are being evaluated for their potential to create crop plants with sustainable disease resistance. Defensins are produced as precursor molecules which are directed into the secretory pathway and are divided into two classes based on the absence (class I) or presence (class II) of an acidic C-terminal propeptide (CTPP) of about 33 amino acids. The function of this CTPP had not been defined. Results By transgenically expressing the class II plant defensin NaD1 with and without its cognate CTPP we have demonstrated that NaD1 is phytotoxic to cotton plants when expressed without its CTPP. Transgenic cotton plants expressing constructs encoding the NaD1 precursor with the CTPP had the same morphology as non-transgenic plants but expression of NaD1 without the CTPP led to plants that were stunted, had crinkled leaves and were less viable. Immunofluorescence microscopy and transient expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CTPP chimera were used to confirm that the CTPP is sufficient for vacuolar targeting. Finally circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy were used to show that the CTPP adopts a helical confirmation. Conclusions In this report we have described the role of the CTPP on NaD1, a class II defensin from Nicotiana alata flowers. The CTPP of NaD1 is sufficient for vacuolar targeting and plays an important role in detoxification of the defensin as it moves through the plant secretory pathway. This work may have important implications for the use of defensins for disease protection in transgenic crops. PMID:24495600

  19. Prediction of bacterial type IV secreted effectors by C-terminal features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many bacteria can deliver pathogenic proteins (effectors) through type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to eukaryotic cytoplasm, causing host diseases. The inherent property, such as sequence diversity and global scattering throughout the whole genome, makes it a big challenge to effectively identify the full set of T4SS effectors. Therefore, an effective inter-species T4SS effector prediction tool is urgently needed to help discover new effectors in a variety of bacterial species, especially those with few known effectors, e.g., Helicobacter pylori. Results In this research, we first manually annotated a full list of validated T4SS effectors from different bacteria and then carefully compared their C-terminal sequential and position-specific amino acid compositions, possible motifs and structural features. Based on the observed features, we set up several models to automatically recognize T4SS effectors. Three of the models performed strikingly better than the others and T4SEpre_Joint had the best performance, which could distinguish the T4SS effectors from non-effectors with a 5-fold cross-validation sensitivity of 89% at a specificity of 97%, based on the training datasets. An inter-species cross prediction showed that T4SEpre_Joint could recall most known effectors from a variety of species. The inter-species prediction tool package, T4SEpre, was further used to predict new T4SS effectors from H. pylori, an important human pathogen associated with gastritis, ulcer and cancer. In total, 24 new highly possible H. pylori T4S effector genes were computationally identified. Conclusions We conclude that T4SEpre, as an effective inter-species T4SS effector prediction software package, will help find new pathogenic T4SS effectors efficiently in a variety of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24447430

  20. Structure of the C-terminal domain of the arginine repressor protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, Leonid T.; Cherney, Maia M.; Garen, Craig R.; Lu, George J.; James, Michael N. G.

    2008-09-01

    The structure of the core domain of the arginine repressor protein from M. tuberculosis has been determined with (1.85 Å resolution) and without (2.15 Å resolution) the arginine corepressor bound. Three additional arginine molecules have been found to bind to the core domain hexamer at high (0.2 M) arginine concentration. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gene product encoded by open reading frame Rv1657 is an arginine repressor (ArgR). All genes involved in the l-arginine (hereafter arginine) biosynthetic pathway are essential for optimal growth of the Mtb pathogen, thus making MtbArgR a potential target for drug design. The C-terminal domains of arginine repressors (CArgR) participate in oligomerization and arginine binding. Several crystal forms of CArgR from Mtb (MtbCArgR) have been obtained. The X-ray crystal structures of MtbCArgR were determined at 1.85 Å resolution with bound arginine and at 2.15 Å resolution in the unliganded form. These structures show that six molecules of MtbCArgR are arranged into a hexamer having approximate 32 point symmetry that is formed from two trimers. The trimers rotate relative to each other by about 11° upon binding arginine. All residues in MtbCArgR deemed to be important for hexamer formation and for arginine binding have been identified from the experimentally determined structures presented. The hexamer contains six regular sites in which the arginine molecules have one common binding mode and three sites in which the arginine molecules have two overlapping binding modes. The latter sites only bind the ligand at high (200 mM) arginine concentrations.

  1. Evolutionary Origins of C-Terminal (GPP)n 3-Hydroxyproline Formation in Vertebrate Tendon Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, David M.; Werther, Rachel; Weis, MaryAnn; Wu, Jiann-Jiu; Eyre, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half the proline residues in fibrillar collagen are hydroxylated. The predominant form is 4-hydroxyproline, which helps fold and stabilize the triple helix. A minor form, 3-hydroxyproline, still has no clear function. Using peptide mass spectrometry, we recently revealed several previously unknown molecular sites of 3-hydroxyproline in fibrillar collagen chains. In fibril-forming A-clade collagen chains, four new partially occupied 3-hydroxyproline sites were found (A2, A3, A4 and (GPP)n) in addition to the fully occupied A1 site at Pro986. The C-terminal (GPP)n motif has five consecutive GPP triplets in α1(I), four in α2(I) and three in α1(II), all subject to 3-hydroxylation. The evolutionary origins of this substrate sequence were investigated by surveying the pattern of its 3-hydroxyproline occupancy from early chordates through amphibians, birds and mammals. Different tissue sources of type I collagen (tendon, bone and skin) and type II collagen (cartilage and notochord) were examined by mass spectrometry. The (GPP)n domain was found to be a major substrate for 3-hydroxylation only in vertebrate fibrillar collagens. In higher vertebrates (mouse, bovine and human), up to five 3-hydroxyproline residues per (GPP)n motif were found in α1(I) and four in α2(I), with an average of two residues per chain. In vertebrate type I collagen the modification exhibited clear tissue specificity, with 3-hydroxyproline prominent only in tendon. The occupancy also showed developmental changes in Achilles tendon, with increasing 3-hydroxyproline levels with age. The biological significance is unclear but the level of 3-hydroxylation at the (GPP)n site appears to have increased as tendons evolved and shows both tendon type and developmental variations within a species. PMID:24695516

  2. DNA Instability Maintains the Repeat Length of the Yeast RNA Polymerase II C-terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Summer A; Exner, Alexandra E; Babokhov, Michael; Reinfeld, Bradley I; Fuchs, Stephen M

    2016-05-27

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes is comprised of tandemly repeating units of a conserved seven-amino acid sequence. The number of repeats is, however, quite variable across different organisms. Furthermore, previous studies have identified evidence of rearrangements within the CTD coding region, suggesting that DNA instability may play a role in regulating or maintaining CTD repeat number. The work described here establishes a clear connection between DNA instability and CTD repeat number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae First, analysis of 36 diverse S. cerevisiae isolates revealed evidence of numerous past rearrangements within the DNA sequence that encodes the CTD. Interestingly, the total number of CTD repeats was relatively static (24-26 repeats in all strains), suggesting a balancing act between repeat expansion and contraction. In an effort to explore the genetic plasticity within this region, we measured the rates of repeat expansion and contraction using novel reporters and a doxycycline-regulated expression system for RPB1 In efforts to determine the mechanisms leading to CTD repeat variability, we identified the presence of DNA secondary structures, specifically G-quadruplex-like DNA, within the CTD coding region. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mutating PIF1, a G-quadruplex-specific helicase, results in increased CTD repeat length polymorphisms. We also determined that RAD52 is necessary for CTD repeat expansion but not contraction, identifying a role for recombination in repeat expansion. Results from these DNA rearrangements may help explain the CTD copy number variation seen across eukaryotes, as well as support a model of CTD expansion and contraction to maintain CTD integrity and overall length. PMID:27026700

  3. MAS C-Terminal Tail Interacting Proteins Identified by Mass Spectrometry- Based Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tirupula, Kalyan C.; Zhang, Dongmei; Osbourne, Appledene; Chatterjee, Arunachal; Desnoyer, Russ; Willard, Belinda; Karnik, Sadashiva S.

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of signals from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in cells is primarily mediated by protein-protein interactions. MAS is a GPCR that was initially discovered as an oncogene and is now known to play an important role in cardiovascular physiology. Current literature suggests that MAS interacts with common heterotrimeric G-proteins, but MAS interaction with proteins which might mediate G protein-independent or atypical signaling is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that MAS C-terminal tail (Ct) is a major determinant of receptor-scaffold protein interactions mediating MAS signaling. Mass-spectrometry based proteomic analysis was used to comprehensively identify the proteins that interact with MAS Ct comprising the PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM). We identified both PDZ and non-PDZ proteins from human embryonic kidney cell line, mouse atrial cardiomyocyte cell line and human heart tissue to interact specifically with MAS Ct. For the first time our study provides a panel of PDZ and other proteins that potentially interact with MAS with high significance. A ‘cardiac-specific finger print’ of MAS interacting PDZ proteins was identified which includes DLG1, MAGI1 and SNTA. Cell based experiments with wild-type and mutant MAS lacking the PDZ-BM validated MAS interaction with PDZ proteins DLG1 and TJP2. Bioinformatics analysis suggested well-known multi-protein scaffold complexes involved in nitric oxide signaling (NOS), cell-cell signaling of neuromuscular junctions, synapses and epithelial cells. Majority of these protein hits were predicted to be part of disease categories comprising cancers and malignant tumors. We propose a ‘MAS-signalosome’ model to stimulate further research in understanding the molecular mechanism of MAS function. Identifying hierarchy of interactions of ‘signalosome’ components with MAS will be a necessary step in future to fully understand the physiological and pathological functions of this enigmatic receptor. PMID

  4. Evolutionary origins of C-terminal (GPP)n 3-hydroxyproline formation in vertebrate tendon collagen.

    PubMed

    Hudson, David M; Werther, Rachel; Weis, MaryAnn; Wu, Jiann-Jiu; Eyre, David R

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half the proline residues in fibrillar collagen are hydroxylated. The predominant form is 4-hydroxyproline, which helps fold and stabilize the triple helix. A minor form, 3-hydroxyproline, still has no clear function. Using peptide mass spectrometry, we recently revealed several previously unknown molecular sites of 3-hydroxyproline in fibrillar collagen chains. In fibril-forming A-clade collagen chains, four new partially occupied 3-hydroxyproline sites were found (A2, A3, A4 and (GPP)n) in addition to the fully occupied A1 site at Pro986. The C-terminal (GPP)n motif has five consecutive GPP triplets in α1(I), four in α2(I) and three in α1(II), all subject to 3-hydroxylation. The evolutionary origins of this substrate sequence were investigated by surveying the pattern of its 3-hydroxyproline occupancy from early chordates through amphibians, birds and mammals. Different tissue sources of type I collagen (tendon, bone and skin) and type II collagen (cartilage and notochord) were examined by mass spectrometry. The (GPP)n domain was found to be a major substrate for 3-hydroxylation only in vertebrate fibrillar collagens. In higher vertebrates (mouse, bovine and human), up to five 3-hydroxyproline residues per (GPP)n motif were found in α1(I) and four in α2(I), with an average of two residues per chain. In vertebrate type I collagen the modification exhibited clear tissue specificity, with 3-hydroxyproline prominent only in tendon. The occupancy also showed developmental changes in Achilles tendon, with increasing 3-hydroxyproline levels with age. The biological significance is unclear but the level of 3-hydroxylation at the (GPP)n site appears to have increased as tendons evolved and shows both tendon type and developmental variations within a species. PMID:24695516

  5. DNA Instability Maintains the Repeat Length of the Yeast RNA Polymerase II C-terminal Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Morrill, Summer A.; Exner, Alexandra E.; Babokhov, Michael; Reinfeld, Bradley I.

    2016-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes is comprised of tandemly repeating units of a conserved seven-amino acid sequence. The number of repeats is, however, quite variable across different organisms. Furthermore, previous studies have identified evidence of rearrangements within the CTD coding region, suggesting that DNA instability may play a role in regulating or maintaining CTD repeat number. The work described here establishes a clear connection between DNA instability and CTD repeat number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, analysis of 36 diverse S. cerevisiae isolates revealed evidence of numerous past rearrangements within the DNA sequence that encodes the CTD. Interestingly, the total number of CTD repeats was relatively static (24–26 repeats in all strains), suggesting a balancing act between repeat expansion and contraction. In an effort to explore the genetic plasticity within this region, we measured the rates of repeat expansion and contraction using novel reporters and a doxycycline-regulated expression system for RPB1. In efforts to determine the mechanisms leading to CTD repeat variability, we identified the presence of DNA secondary structures, specifically G-quadruplex-like DNA, within the CTD coding region. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mutating PIF1, a G-quadruplex-specific helicase, results in increased CTD repeat length polymorphisms. We also determined that RAD52 is necessary for CTD repeat expansion but not contraction, identifying a role for recombination in repeat expansion. Results from these DNA rearrangements may help explain the CTD copy number variation seen across eukaryotes, as well as support a model of CTD expansion and contraction to maintain CTD integrity and overall length. PMID:27026700

  6. C-terminal turn stability determines assembly: differences between Aβ40 and Aβ42

    PubMed Central

    Roychaudhuri, Robin; Yang, Mingfeng; Deshpande, Atul; Cole, Gregory M.; Frautschy, Sally; Lomakin, Aleksey; Benedek, George B.; Teplow, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Oligomerization of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is a seminal event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ42, which is only two amino acids longer than Aβ40, is particularly pathogenic. Why this is so has not been elucidated fully. We report here results of computational and experimental studies revealing a C-terminal turn at Val36-Gly37 in Aβ42 that is not present in Aβ40. The dihedral angles of residues 36 and 37 in an Ile31–Ala42 peptide were consistent with β-turns, and a β-hairpin-like structure was indeed observed that was stabilized by hydrogen bonds and by hydrophobic interactions between residues 31–35 and residues 38–42. In contrast, Aβ(31–40) mainly existed as a statistical coil. To study the system experimentally, Aβ peptides containing amino acid substitutions designed to stabilize or destabilize the hairpin were chemically synthesized. The triple substitution Gly33Val–Val36Pro–Gly38Val (“VPV”) facilitated Aβ42 hexamer and nonamer formation, while inhibiting formation of classical amyloid-type fibrils. These assemblies were as toxic as were assemblies from wild type Aβ42. When substituted into Aβ40, the VPV substitution caused the peptide to oligomerize similarly to Aβ42. The modified Aβ40 was significantly more toxic than Aβ40. The double substitution D-Pro36-L-Pro37 abolished hexamer and dodecamer formation by Aβ42 and produced an oligomer size distribution similar to that of Aβ40. Our data suggest that the Val36-Gly37 turn could be the sine qua non of Aβ42. If true, this structure would be an exceptionally important therapeutic target. PMID:23154165

  7. Identification of a C-terminal cdc25 sequence required for promotion of germinal vesicle breakdown.

    PubMed Central

    Powers, E A; Thompson, D P; Garner-Hamrick, P A; He, W; Yem, A W; Bannow, C A; Staples, D J; Waszak, G A; Smith, C W; Deibel, M R; Fisher, C

    2000-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-cdc25B(31-566) induced germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) when microinjected into Xenopus oocytes. Purified, N-terminally truncated forms of cdc25B did not induce GVBD, even though many had phosphatase activity and activated cdc2 in vitro. N-terminally truncated forms of cdc25B inhibited induction of GVBD by longer forms of the enzyme suggesting a direct interaction in vivo. cdc25B(356-556), but not cdc25B(364-529), inhibited GVBD induction by GST-cdc25B(31-566) suggesting that a region of cdc25B near to the C-terminus was responsible for the inhibition. To determine the region of peptide sequence that was inhibitory, cdc25B(356-556) was subjected to proteolysis with endoproteinase lys-C. Following a demonstration that the resulting peptide mixture inhibited GST-cdc25B-dependent GVBD, a series of peptides spanning amino acids at the C-terminus were synthesized. The peptide TRSWAGERSR inhibited GVBD induced by GST-cdc25B. An alanine scan of the peptide revealed residues critical for GVBD inhibition, and site-directed mutagenesis of the corresponding residues in GST-cdc25B(31-566) eliminated its ability to induce GVBD. These results demonstrate that a cdc25B C-terminal domain, involved in dominant-negative inhibition of GVBD-competent cdc25B, is required for induction of GVBD following microinjection into oocytes. PMID:10769167

  8. Structure of metabotropic glutamate receptor C-terminal domains in contact with interacting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Enz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate intracellular signal pathways that control several physiological tasks, including neuronal excitability, learning, and memory. This is achieved by the formation of synaptic signal complexes, in which mGluRs assemble with functionally related proteins such as enzymes, scaffolds, and cytoskeletal anchor proteins. Thus, mGluR associated proteins actively participate in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Importantly, dysfunction of mGluRs and interacting proteins may lead to impaired signal transduction and finally result in neurological disorders, e.g., night blindness, addiction, epilepsy, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson's disease. In contrast to solved crystal structures of extracellular N-terminal domains of some mGluR types, only a few studies analyzed the conformation of intracellular receptor domains. Intracellular C-termini of most mGluR types are subject to alternative splicing and can be further modified by phosphorylation and SUMOylation. In this way, diverse interaction sites for intracellular proteins that bind to and regulate the glutamate receptors are generated. Indeed, most of the known mGluR binding partners interact with the receptors' C-terminal domains. Within the last years, different laboratories analyzed the structure of these domains and described the geometry of the contact surface between mGluR C-termini and interacting proteins. Here, I will review recent progress in the structure characterization of mGluR C-termini and provide an up-to-date summary of the geometry of these domains in contact with binding partners. PMID:22536173

  9. Interaction of CheY with the C-terminal peptide of CheZ

    SciTech Connect

    Guhaniyogi,J.; Wu, T.; Patel, S.; Stock, A.

    2008-01-01

    Chemotaxis, a means for motile bacteria to sense the environment and achieve directed swimming, is controlled by flagellar rotation. The primary output of the chemotaxis machinery is the phosphorylated form of the response regulator CheY (P{approx}CheY). The steady-state level of P{approx}CheY dictates the direction of rotation of the flagellar motor. The chemotaxis signal in the form of P{approx}CheY is terminated by the phosphatase CheZ. Efficient dephosphorylation of CheY by CheZ requires two distinct protein-protein interfaces: one involving the strongly conserved C-terminal helix of CheZ (CheZC) tethering the two proteins together and the other constituting an active site for catalytic dephosphorylation. In a previous work, we presented high-resolution crystal structures of CheY in complex with the CheZC peptide that revealed alternate binding modes subject to the conformational state of CheY. In this study, we report biochemical and structural data that support the alternate-binding-mode hypothesis and identify key recognition elements in the CheY-CheZC interaction. In addition, we present kinetic studies of the CheZC-associated effect on CheY phosphorylation with its physiologically relevant phosphodonor, the histidine kinase CheA. Our results indicate mechanistic differences in phosphotransfer from the kinase CheA versus that from small-molecule phosphodonors, explaining a modest twofold increase of CheY phosphorylation with the former, observed in this study, relative to a 10-fold increase previously documented with the latter.

  10. A helix-turn motif in the C-terminal domain of histone H1.

    PubMed

    Vila, R; Ponte, I; Jiménez, M A; Rico, M; Suau, P

    2000-04-01

    The structural study of peptides belonging to the terminal domains of histone H1 can be considered as a step toward the understanding of the function of H1 in chromatin. The conformational properties of the peptide Ac-EPKRSVAFKKTKKEVKKVATPKK (CH-1), which belongs to the C-terminal domain of histone H1(o) (residues 99-121) and is adjacent to the central globular domain of the protein, were examined by means of 1H-NMR and circular dichroism. In aqueous solution, CH-1 behaved as a mainly unstructured peptide, although turn-like conformations in rapid equilibrium with the unfolded state could be present. Addition of trifluoroethanol resulted in a substantial increase of the helical content. The helical limits, as indicated by (i,i + 3) nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) cross correlations and significant up-field conformational shifts of the C(alpha) protons, span from Pro100 to Val116, with Glu99 and Ala117 as N- and C-caps. A structure calculation performed on the basis of distance constraints derived from NOE cross peaks in 90% trifluoroethanol confirmed the helical structure of this region. The helical region has a marked amphipathic character, due to the location of all positively charged residues on one face of the helix and all the hydrophobic residues on the opposite face. The peptide has a TPKK motif at the C-terminus, following the alpha-helical region. The observed NOE connectivities suggest that the TPKK sequence adopts a type (I) beta-turn conformation, a sigma-turn conformation or a combination of both, in fast equilibrium with unfolded states. Sequences of the kind (S/T)P(K/R)(K/R) have been proposed as DNA binding motifs. The CH-1 peptide, thus, combines a positively charged amphipathic helix and a turn as potential DNA-binding motifs. PMID:10794405

  11. Properties of Rab5 N-terminal domain dictate prenylation of C-terminal cysteines.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, J C; Pan, Y; Wessling-Resnick, M

    1995-01-01

    Rab5 is a Ras-related GTP-binding protein that is post-translationally modified by prenylation. We report here that an N-terminal domain contained within the first 22 amino acids of Rab5 is critical for efficient geranylgeranylation of the protein's C-terminal cysteines. This domain is immediately upstream from the "phosphate binding loop" common to all GTP-binding proteins and contains a highly conserved sequence recognized among members of the Rab family, referred to here as the YXYLFK motif. A truncation mutant that lacks this domain (Rab5(23-215) fails to become prenylated. However, a chimeric peptide with the conserved motif replacing cognate Rab5 sequence (MAYDYLFKRab5(23-215) does become post-translationally modified, demonstrating that the presence of this simple six amino acid N-terminal element enables prenylation at Rab5's C-terminus. H-Ras/Rab5 chimeras that include the conserved YXYLFK motif at the N-terminus do not become prenylated, indicating that, while this element may be necessary for prenylation of Rab proteins, it alone is not sufficient to confer properties to a heterologous protein to enable substrate recognition by the Rab geranylgeranyl transferase. Deletion analysis and studies of point mutants further reveal that the lysine residue of the YXYLFK motif is an absolute requirement to enable geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins. Functional studies support the idea that this domain is not required for guanine nucleotide binding since prenylation-defective mutants still bind GDP and are protected from protease digestion in the presence of GTP gamma S. We conclude that the mechanism of Rab geranylgeranylation involves key elements of the protein's tertiary structure including a conserved N-terminal amino acid motif (YXYLFK) that incorporates a critical lysine residue. Images PMID:7749197

  12. Disturbed Neuronal ER-Golgi Sorting of Unassembled Glycine Receptors Suggests Altered Subcellular Processing Is a Cause of Human Hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Natascha; Kluck, Christoph J.; Price, Kerry L.; Meiselbach, Heike; Vornberger, Nadine; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Hartmann, Stephanie; Langlhofer, Georg; Schulz, Solveig; Schlegel, Nadja; Brockmann, Knut; Lynch, Bryan; Becker, Cord-Michael; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the pathogenic mechanisms of recessive hyperekplexia indicate disturbances in glycine receptor (GlyR) α1 biogenesis. Here, we examine the properties of a range of novel glycine receptor mutants identified in human hyperekplexia patients using expression in transfected cell lines and primary neurons. All of the novel mutants localized in the large extracellular domain of the GlyR α1 have reduced cell surface expression with a high proportion of receptors being retained in the ER, although there is forward trafficking of glycosylated subpopulations into the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi compartment. CD spectroscopy revealed that the mutant receptors have proportions of secondary structural elements similar to wild-type receptors. Two mutants in loop B (G160R, T162M) were functional, but none of those in loop D/β2–3 were. One nonfunctional truncated mutant (R316X) could be rescued by coexpression with the lacking C-terminal domain. We conclude that a proportion of GlyR α1 mutants can be transported to the plasma membrane but do not necessarily form functional ion channels. We suggest that loop D/β2–3 is an important determinant for GlyR trafficking and functionality, whereas alterations to loop B alter agonist potencies, indicating that residues here are critical elements in ligand binding. PMID:25568133

  13. Oligomerization, Conformational Stability and Thermal Unfolding of Harpin, HrpZPss and Its Hypersensitive Response-Inducing C-Terminal Fragment, C-214-HrpZPss

    PubMed Central

    Tarafdar, Pradip K.; Vedantam, Lakshmi Vasudev; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Purushotham, Pallinti; Podile, Appa Rao; Swamy, Musti J.

    2014-01-01

    HrpZ—a harpin from Pseudomonas syringae—is a highly thermostable protein that exhibits multifunctional abilities e.g., it elicits hypersensitive response (HR), enhances plant growth, acts as a virulence factor, and forms pores in plant plasma membranes as well as artificial membranes. However, the molecular mechanism of its biological activity and high thermal stability remained poorly understood. HR inducing abilities of non-overlapping short deletion mutants of harpins put further constraints on the ability to establish structure-activity relationships. We characterized HrpZPss from Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and its HR inducing C-terminal fragment with 214 amino acids (C-214-HrpZPss) using calorimetric, spectroscopic and microscopic approaches. Both C-214-HrpZPss and HrpZPss were found to form oligomers. We propose that leucine-zipper-like motifs may take part in the formation of oligomeric aggregates, and oligomerization could be related to HR elicitation. CD, DSC and fluorescence studies showed that the thermal unfolding of these proteins is complex and involves multiple steps. The comparable conformational stability at 25°C (∼10.0 kcal/mol) of HrpZPss and C-214-HrpZPss further suggest that their structures are flexible, and the flexibility allows them to adopt proper conformation for multifunctional abilities. PMID:25502017

  14. HC fragment (C-terminal portion of the heavy chain) of tetanus toxin activates protein kinase C isoforms and phosphoproteins involved in signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, C; Chaib-Oukadour, I; Blasi, J; Aguilera, J

    2001-01-01

    A recent report [Gil, Chaib-Oukadour, Pelliccioni and Aguilera (2000) FEBS Lett. 481, 177-182] describes activation of signal transduction pathways by tetanus toxin (TeTx), a Zn(2+)-dependent endopeptidase synthesized by the Clostridium tetani bacillus, which is responsible for tetanus disease. In the present work, specific activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and of intracellular signal-transduction pathways, which include nerve-growth-factor (NGF) receptor trkA, phospholipase C(PLC)gamma-1 and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, by the recombinant C-terminal portion of the TeTx heavy chain (H(C)-TeTx) is reported. The activation of PKC isoforms was assessed through their translocation from the soluble (cytosolic) compartment to the membranous compartment, showing that clear translocation of PKC-alpha, -beta, -gamma and -delta isoforms exists, whereas PKC-epsilon showed a slight decrease in its soluble fraction immunoreactivity. The PKC-zeta isoform showed no consistent response. Using immunoprecipitation assays against phosphotyrosine residues, time- and dose-dependent increases in tyrosine phosphorylation were observed in the trkA receptor, PLCgamma-1 and ERK-1/2. The effects shown by the H(C)-TeTx fragment on tyrosine phosphorylation were compared with the effects produced by NGF. The trkA and ERK-1/2 activation were corroborated using phospho-specific antibodies against trkA phosphorylated on Tyr(490), and antibodies against Thr/Tyr phosphorylated ERK-1/2. Moreover, PLCgamma-1 phosphorylation was supported by its H(C)-TeTx-induced translocation to the membranous compartment, an event related to PLCgamma-1 activation. Since H(C)-TeTx is the domain responsible for membrane binding and lacks catalytic activity, the activations described here must be exclusively triggered by the interaction of TeTx with a membrane component. PMID:11336640

  15. Poxvirus Membrane Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses differ from most DNA viruses by replicating entirely within the cytoplasm. The first discernible viral structures are crescents and spherical immature virions containing a single lipoprotein membrane bilayer with an external honeycomb lattice. Because this viral membrane displays no obvious continuity with a cellular organelle, a de novo origin was suggested. Nevertheless, transient connections between viral and cellular membranes could be difficult to resolve. Despite the absence of direct evidence, the intermediate compartment (ERGIC) between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus and the ER itself were considered possible sources of crescent membranes. A break-through in understanding poxvirus membrane biogenesis has come from recent studies of the abortive replication of several vaccinia virus null mutants. Novel images showing continuity between viral crescents and the ER and the accumulation of immature virions in the expanded ER lumen provide the first direct evidence for a cellular origin of this poxvirus membrane. PMID:25728299

  16. Poxvirus membrane biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moss, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Poxviruses differ from most DNA viruses by replicating entirely within the cytoplasm. The first discernible viral structures are crescents and spherical immature virions containing a single lipoprotein membrane bilayer with an external honeycomb lattice. Because this viral membrane displays no obvious continuity with a cellular organelle, a de novo origin was suggested. Nevertheless, transient connections between viral and cellular membranes could be difficult to resolve. Despite the absence of direct evidence, the intermediate compartment (ERGIC) between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus and the ER itself were considered possible sources of crescent membranes. A break-through in understanding poxvirus membrane biogenesis has come from recent studies of the abortive replication of several vaccinia virus null mutants. Novel images showing continuity between viral crescents and the ER and the accumulation of immature virions in the expanded ER lumen provide the first direct evidence for a cellular origin of this poxvirus membrane. PMID:25728299

  17. Differential Contributions of Tacaribe Arenavirus Nucleoprotein N-Terminal and C-Terminal Residues to Nucleocapsid Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    D'Antuono, Alejandra; Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; Foscaldi, Sabrina; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) is the main protein component of viral nucleocapsids and is strictly required for viral genome replication mediated by the L polymerase. Homo-oligomerization of NP is presumed to play an important role in nucleocapsid assembly, albeit the underlying mechanism and the relevance of NP-NP interaction in nucleocapsid activity are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the contribution of the New World Tacaribe virus (TCRV) NP self-interaction to nucleocapsid functional activity. We show that alanine substitution of N-terminal residues predicted to be available for NP-NP interaction strongly affected NP self-association, as determined by coimmunoprecipitation assays, produced a drastic inhibition of transcription and replication of a TCRV minigenome RNA, and impaired NP binding to RNA. Mutagenesis and functional analysis also revealed that, while dispensable for NP self-interaction, key amino acids at the C-terminal domain were essential for RNA synthesis. Furthermore, mutations at these C-terminal residues rendered NP unable to bind RNA both in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on the interaction with the L polymerase. In addition, while all oligomerization-defective variants tested exhibited unaltered capacities to sustain NP-L interaction, NP deletion mutants were fully incompetent to bind L, suggesting that, whereas NP self-association is dispensable, the integrity of both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains is required for binding the L polymerase. Overall, our results suggest that NP self-interaction mediated by the N-terminal domain may play a critical role in TCRV nucleocapsid assembly and activity and that the C-terminal domain of NP is implicated in RNA binding. IMPORTANCE The mechanism of arenavirus functional nucleocapsid assembly is still poorly understood. No detailed information is available on the nucleocapsid structure, and the regions of full-length NP involved in binding to viral RNA remain to be

  18. Cell Cycle-dependent Changes in Localization and Phosphorylation of the Plasma Membrane Kv2.1 K+ Channel Impact Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Contact Sites in COS-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Melanie M; Austin, Daniel C; Sack, Jon T; Trimmer, James S

    2015-12-01

    The plasma membrane (PM) comprises distinct subcellular domains with diverse functions that need to be dynamically coordinated with intracellular events, one of the most impactful being mitosis. The Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channel is conditionally localized to large PM clusters that represent specialized PM:endoplasmic reticulum membrane contact sites (PM:ER MCS), and overexpression of Kv2.1 induces more exuberant PM:ER MCS in neurons and in certain heterologous cell types. Localization of Kv2.1 at these contact sites is dynamically regulated by changes in phosphorylation at one or more sites located on its large cytoplasmic C terminus. Here, we show that Kv2.1 expressed in COS-1 cells undergoes dramatic cell cycle-dependent changes in its PM localization, having diffuse localization in interphase cells, and robust clustering during M phase. The mitosis-specific clusters of Kv2.1 are localized to PM:ER MCS, and M phase clustering of Kv2.1 induces more extensive PM:ER MCS. These cell cycle-dependent changes in Kv2.1 localization and the induction of PM:ER MCS are accompanied by increased mitotic Kv2.1 phosphorylation at several C-terminal phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv2.1 is significantly increased upon metaphase arrest in COS-1 and CHO cells, and in a pancreatic β cell line that express endogenous Kv2.1. The M phase clustering of Kv2.1 at PM:ER MCS in COS-1 cells requires the same C-terminal targeting motif needed for conditional Kv2.1 clustering in neurons. The cell cycle-dependent changes in localization and phosphorylation of Kv2.1 were not accompanied by changes in the electrophysiological properties of Kv2.1 expressed in CHO cells. Together, these results provide novel insights into the cell cycle-dependent changes in PM protein localization and phosphorylation. PMID:26442584

  19. Predictors of intact and C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 in Gambian children

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Vickie; Jones, Kerry S; Assar, Shima; Schoenmakers, Inez; Prentice, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Elevated C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 (C-FGF23) concentrations have been reported in Gambian children with and without putative Ca-deficiency rickets. The aims of this study were to investigate whether i) elevated C-FGF23 concentrations in Gambian children persist long term; ii) they are associated with higher intact FGF23 concentrations (I-FGF23), poor iron status and shorter 25-hydroxyvitamin D half-life (25OHD-t1/2); and iii) the persistence and predictors of elevated FGF23 concentrations differ between children with and without a history of rickets. Children (8–16 years, n=64) with a history of rickets and a C-FGF23 concentration >125 RU/ml (bone deformity (BD), n=20) and local community children with a previously measured elevated C-FGF23 concentration (LC+, n=20) or a previously measured C-FGF23 concentration within the normal range (LC−, n=24) participated. BD children had no remaining signs of bone deformities. C-FGF23 concentration had normalised in BD children, but remained elevated in LC+ children. All the children had I-FGF23 concentration within the normal range, but I-FGF23 concentration was higher and iron status poorer in LC+ children. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was the strongest negative predictor of I-FGF23 concentration (R2=18%; P=0.0006) and soluble transferrin receptor was the strongest positive predictor of C-FGF23 concentration (R2=33%; P≤0.0001). C-FGF23 and I-FGF23 concentrations were poorly correlated with each other (R2=5.3%; P=0.07). 25OHD-t1/2 was shorter in BD children than in LC− children (mean (s.d.): 24.5 (6.1) and 31.5 (11.5) days respectively; P=0.05). This study demonstrated that elevated C-FGF23 concentrations normalised over time in Gambian children with a history of rickets but not in local children, suggesting a different aetiology; that children with resolved rickets had a shorter 25OHD-t1/2, suggesting a long-standing increased expenditure of 25OHD, and that iron deficiency is a predictor of elevated C

  20. Solution structure, hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the UvrB C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Alexandrovich, A; Czisch, M; Frenkiel, T A; Kelly, G P; Goosen, N; Moolenaar, G F; Chowdhry, B Z; Sanderson, M R; Lane, A N

    2001-10-01

    The solution structure, thermodynamic stability and hydrodynamic properties of the 55-residue C-terminal domain of UvrB that interacts with UvrC during excision repair in E. coli have been determined using a combination of high resolution NMR, ultracentrifugation, 15N NMR relaxation, gel permeation, NMR diffusion, circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry. The subunit molecular weight is 7,438 kDa., compared with 14.5+/-1.0 kDa. determined by equilibrium sedimentation, indicating a dimeric structure. The structure determined from NMR showed a stable dimer of anti-parallel helical hairpins that associate in an unusual manner, with a small and hydrophobic interface. The Stokes radius of the protein decreases from a high plateau value (ca. 22 A) at protein concentrations greater than 4 microM to about 18 A at concentrations less than 0.1 microM. The concentration and temperature-dependence of the far UV circular dichroism show that the protein is thermally stable (Tm ca. 71.5 degrees C at 36 microM). The simplest model consistent with these data was a dimer dissociating into folded monomers that then unfolds co-operatively. The van't Hoff enthalpy and dissociation constant for both transition was derived by fitting, with deltaH1=23 kJ mol(-1). K1(298)=0.4 microM and deltaH2= 184 kJ mol(-1). This is in good agreement with direct calorimetric analysis of the thermal unfolding of the protein, which gave a calorimetric enthalpy change of 181 kJ mol(-1) and a van't Hoff enthalpy change of 354 kJ mol(-1), confirming the dimer to monomer unfolding. The thermodynamic data can be reconciled with the observed mode of dimerisation. 15N NMR relaxation measurements at 14.1 T and 11.75 T confirmed that the protein behaves as an asymmetric dimer at mM concentrations, with a flexible N-terminal linker for attachment to the remainder of the UvrB protein. The role of dimerisation of this domain in the excision repair mechanism is discussed. PMID:11697728

  1. The C-terminal domain controls the mobility of Crumbs 3 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Ivona; Siebrasse, Jan Peter; Schulze, Ulf; Granado, Daniel; Schlüter, Marc A; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Weide, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The physiological function of epithelia depends on an asymmetric distribution of their membrane domains. Polarity proteins play a crucial role for distribution processes, however, little is known about their mobility in epithelial cells. In this study, we analyzed the intracellular and plasma-membrane-associated mobility of fluorescence-labeled Crb3A and Crb3B. Both variants belong to the Crumbs protein family, which control size and identity of apical membranes in epithelial cells. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching measurements revealed different mobilities for the two Crb3 variants. They also differentially affected mobility and localization of the Pals1/Mpp5 protein, which binds to Crb3A but not to Crb3B. In addition, tracking of intracellular vesicles indicated that Crb3A containing vesicles are slightly more immobile than Crb3B ones. Taken together, our data revealed different intracellular mobility patterns for Crb3A and Crb3B. PMID:26975581

  2. Design and Synthesis of Peptide YY Analogues with C-terminal Backbone Amide-to-Ester Modifications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) is a gut hormone that activates the G protein-coupled neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors, and because of its appetite reducing actions, it is evaluated as an antiobesity drug candidate. The C-terminal tail of PYY is crucial for activation of the NPY receptors. Here, we describe the design and preparation of a series of PYY(3–36) depsipeptide analogues, in which backbone amide-to-ester modifications were systematically introduced in the C-terminal. Functional NPY receptor assays and circular dichroism revealed that the ψ(CONH) bonds at positions 30–31 and 33–34 are particularly important for receptor interaction and that the latter is implicated in Y2 receptor selectivity. PMID:24900634

  3. Crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the RAP74 subunit of human transcription factor IIF

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, Katsuhiko; De Angelis, Jacqueline; Roeder, Robert G.; Burley, Stephen K.

    2012-12-13

    The x-ray structure of a C-terminal fragment of the RAP74 subunit of human transcription factor (TF) IIF has been determined at 1.02-{angstrom} resolution. The {alpha}/{beta} structure is strikingly similar to the globular domain of linker histone H5 and the DNA-binding domain of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3{gamma} (HNF-3{gamma}), making it a winged-helix protein. The surface electrostatic properties of this compact domain differ significantly from those of bona fide winged-helix transcription factors (HNF-3{gamma} and RFX1) and from the winged-helix domains found within the RAP30 subunit of TFIIF and the {beta} subunit of TFIIE. RAP74 has been shown to interact with the TFIIF-associated C-terminal domain phosphatase FCP1, and a putative phosphatase binding site has been identified within the RAP74 winged-helix domain.

  4. Crystal Structure in the Vivo-Assembled Bacillus subtilis Spx/RNA Polymerase alpha Subunit C-Terminal Domain Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Lamour, V.; Westblade, L; Campbell, E; Darst, S

    2009-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis Spx protein is a global transcription factor that interacts with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase {alpha} subunit ({alpha}CTD) and regulates transcription of genes involved in thiol-oxidative stress, sporulation, competence, and organosulfur metabolism. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the Spx/{alpha}CTD complex from an entirely new crystal form than previously reported [Newberry, K.J., Nakano, S., Zuber, P., Brennan, R.G., 2005. Crystal structure of the Bacillus subtilis anti-alpha, global transcriptional regulator, Spx, in complex with the alpha C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15839-15844]. Comparison of the previously reported sulfate-bound complex and our sulfate-free complex reveals subtle conformational changes that may be important for the role of Spx in regulating organosulfur metabolism.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of Ski7 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Si Hoon; Jeong, Byung-Cheon; Song, Hyun Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Ski7 (superkiller protein 7) plays a critical role in the mRNA surveillance pathway. The C-terminal fragment of Ski7 (residues 520–747) from Saccharo­myces cerevisiae was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. It was successfully crystallized and preliminary X-ray data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to a trigonal space group, either P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.5, c = 83.6 Å. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of the C-terminal fragment of Ski7 with a corresponding crystal volume per protein mass (V M) of 2.61 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 52.8% by volume. The merging R factor is 6.6%. Structure determination by MAD phasing is under way. PMID:25195903

  6. Transcription initiation complexes and upstream activation with RNA polymerase II lacking the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Buratowski, S; Sharp, P A

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II assembles with other factors on the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter to generate pairs of transcription initiation complexes resolvable by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. The pairing of the complexes is caused by the presence or absence of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit. This domain is not required for transcription stimulation by the major late transcription factor in vitro. Images PMID:2398901

  7. Identification of a potential hydrophobic peptide binding site in the C-terminal arm of trigger factor

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yi; Fan, Dong-Jie; Li, Shu-Xin; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Perrett, Sarah; Zhou, Jun-Mei

    2007-01-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is the first chaperone to interact with nascent chains and facilitate their folding in bacteria. Escherichia coli TF is 432 residues in length and contains three domains with distinct structural and functional properties. The N-terminal domain of TF is important for ribosome binding, and the M-domain carries the PPIase activity. However, the function of the C-terminal domain remains unclear, and the residues or regions directly involved in substrate binding have not yet been identified. Here, a hydrophobic probe, bis-ANS, was used to characterize potential substrate-binding regions. Results showed that bis-ANS binds TF with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a Kd of 16 μM, and it can be covalently incorporated into TF by UV-light irradiation. A single bis-ANS–labeled peptide was obtained by tryptic digestion and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Asn391-Lys392. In silico docking analysis identified a single potential binding site for bis-ANS on the TF molecule, which is adjacent to this dipeptide and lies in the pocket formed by the C-terminal arms. The bis-ANS-labeled TF completely lost the ability to assist GAPDH or lysozyme refolding and showed increased protection toward cleavage by α-chymotrypsin, suggesting blocking of hydrophobic residues. The C-terminal truncation mutant TF389 also showed no chaperone activity and could not bind bis-ANS. These results suggest that bis-ANS binding may mimic binding of a substrate peptide and that the C-terminal region of TF plays an important role in hydrophobic binding and chaperone function. PMID:17525465

  8. Evidence against extracellular exposure of a highly immunogenic region in the C-terminal domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus gp41 transmembrane protein.

    PubMed

    Postler, Thomas S; Martinez-Navio, José M; Yuste, Eloísa; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2012-01-01

    The generally accepted model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein topology includes a single membrane-spanning domain. An alternate model has been proposed which features multiple membrane-spanning domains. Consistent with the alternate model, a high percentage of HIV-1-infected individuals produce unusually robust antibody responses to a region of envelope, the so-called "Kennedy epitope," that in the conventional model should be in the cytoplasm. Here we show analogous, robust antibody responses in simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques to a region of SIVmac239 envelope located in the C-terminal domain, which in the conventional model should be inside the cell. Sera from SIV-infected rhesus macaques consistently reacted with overlapping oligopeptides corresponding to a region located within the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 by the generally accepted model, at intensities comparable to those observed for immunodominant areas of the surface component gp120. Rabbit serum raised against this highly immunogenic region (HIR) reacted with SIV envelope in cell surface-staining experiments, as did monoclonal anti-HIR antibodies isolated from an SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaque. However, control experiments demonstrated that this surface staining could be explained in whole or in part by the release of envelope protein from expressing cells into the supernatant and the subsequent attachment to the surfaces of cells in the culture. Serum and monoclonal antibodies directed against the HIR failed to neutralize even the highly neutralization-sensitive strain SIVmac316. Furthermore, a potential N-linked glycosylation site located close to the HIR and postulated to be outside the cell in the alternate model was not glycosylated. An artificially introduced glycosylation site within the HIR was also not utilized for glycosylation. Together, these data support the conventional model of SIV envelope as a type Ia transmembrane

  9. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Splicing Factor Prp8 Carrying Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,L.; Shen, J.; Guarnieri, M.; Heroux, A.; Yang, K.; Zhao, R.

    2007-01-01

    Prp8 is a critical pre-mRNA splicing factor. Prp8 is proposed to help form and stabilize the spliceosome catalytic core and to be an important regulator of spliceosome activation. Mutations in human Prp8 (hPrp8) cause a severe form of the genetic disorder retinitis pigmentosa, RP13. Understanding the molecular mechanism of Prp8's function in pre-mRNA splicing and RP13 has been hindered by its large size (over 2000 amino acids) and remarkably low-sequence similarity with other proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (the last 273 residues) of Caenorhabditis elegans Prp8 (cPrp8). The core of the C-terminal domain is an / structure that forms the MPN (Mpr1, Pad1 N-terminal) fold but without Zn{sup 2+} coordination. We propose that the C-terminal domain is a protein interaction domain instead of a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent metalloenzyme as proposed for some MPN proteins. Mapping of RP13 mutants on the Prp8 structure suggests that these residues constitute a binding surface between Prp8 and other partner(s), and the disruption of this interaction provides a plausible molecular mechanism for RP13.

  10. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novologues as C-Terminal Hsp90 Inhibitors with Cytoprotective Activity against Sensory Neuron Glucotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kusuma, Bhaskar Reddy; Zhang, Liang; Sundstrom, Teather; Peterson, Laura B.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Compound 2 (KU-32) is a first-generation novologue (a novobiocin-based, C-terminal, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor), that decreases glucose-induced death of primary sensory neurons and reverses numerous clinical indices of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in mice. The current study sought to exploit the C-terminal binding site of Hsp90 to determine whether the optimization of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions of second generation novologues could enhance neuroprotective activity. Using a series of substituted phenylboronic acids to replace the coumarin lactone of 2, we identified electronegative atoms placed at the meta-position of the B-ring exhibit improved cytoprotective activity, which is believed to result from favorable interactions with Lys539 in the Hsp90 C-terminal binding pocket. Consistent with these results, a meta-3-fluorophenyl substituted novologue (13b) exhibited a 14-fold lower ED50 compared to 2 for protection against glucose-induced toxicity of primary sensory neurons. PMID:22702513

  11. The C-terminal domains of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 promote association with N-TIMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Troeberg, Linda; Fushimi, Kazunari; Scilabra, Simone D.; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Dive, Vincent; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Nagase, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the affinity of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3 for adamalysins with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 and ADAMTS-5 is affected by the non-catalytic ancillary domains of the enzymes. For this purpose, we first established a novel method of purifying recombinant FLAG-tagged TIMP-3 and its inhibitory N-terminal domain (N-TIMP-3) by treating transfected HEK293 cells with sodium chlorate to prevent heparan sulfate proteoglycan-mediated TIMP-3 internalization. TIMP-3 and N-TIMP-3 affinity for selected matrix metalloproteinases and forms of ADAMTS-4 and -5 lacking sequential C-terminal domains was determined. TIMP-3 and N-TIMP-3 displayed similar affinity for various matrix metalloproteinases as has been previously reported for E. coli-expressed N-TIMP-3. ADAMTS-4 and -5 were inhibited more strongly by N-TIMP-3 than by full-length TIMP-3. The C-terminal domains of the enzymes enhanced interaction with N-TIMP-3 and to a lesser extent with the full-length inhibitor. For example, N-TIMP-3 had 7.5-fold better Ki value for full-length ADAMTS-5 than for the catalytic and disintegrin domain alone. We propose that the C-terminal domains of the enzymes affect the structure around the active site, favouring interaction with TIMP-3. PMID:19643179

  12. Mutations in the C-terminal region affect subcellular localization of crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) GPCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Gui, Lang; Chen, Zong-Yan; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2016-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known as seven transmembrane domain receptors and consequently can mediate diverse biological functions via regulation of their subcellular localization. Crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) was recently isolated from infected fish with acute gill hemorrhage. CaHV GPCR of 349 amino acids (aa) was identified based on amino acid identity. A series of variants with truncation/deletion/substitution mutation in the C-terminal (aa 315-349) were constructed and expressed in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. The roles of three key C-terminal regions in subcellular localization of CaHV GPCR were determined. Lysine-315 (K-315) directed the aggregation of the protein preferentially at the nuclear side. Predicted N-myristoylation site (GGGWTR, aa 335-340) was responsible for punctate distribution in periplasm or throughout the cytoplasm. Predicted phosphorylation site (SSR, aa 327-329) and GGGWTR together determined the punctate distribution in cytoplasm. Detection of organelles localization by specific markers showed that the protein retaining K-315 colocalized with the Golgi apparatus. These experiments provided first evidence that different mutations of CaHV GPCR C-terminals have different affects on the subcellular localization of fish herpesvirus-encoded GPCRs. The study provided valuable information and new insights into the precise interactions between herpesvirus and fish cells, and could also provide useful targets for antiviral agents in aquaculture. PMID:27059239

  13. Deletion of the N- or C-Terminal Helix of Apolipophorin III To Create a Four-Helix Bundle Protein.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Pankaj; Rodriguez, Johana; Ibe, Nnejiuwa U; Weers, Paul M M

    2016-07-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is an exchangeable apolipoprotein found in insects and plays an important function in lipid transport. The protein has an unusual five-helix bundle architecture, deviating from the common four-helix bundle motif. To understand the role of the additional helix in apoLp-III, the N-terminal or C-terminal helix was deleted to create a putative four-helix bundle protein. While the protein lacking helix-1 could be expressed in bacteria albeit at reduced yields, apoLp-III lacking helix-5 could not be produced. Mutational analysis by truncating helix-5 showed that a minimum segment of approximately one-third of the C-terminal helix is required for protein expression. The variant lacking helix-5 was produced by inserting a methionine residue between helix-4 and -5; subsequent cyanogenbromide cleavage generated the four-helix variant. Both N- and C-terminal helix deletion variants displayed significantly reduced helical content, protein stability, and tertiary structure. Despite the significantly altered structure, the variants were still fully functional. The rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicle solubilization was enhanced 4-5-fold compared to the wild-type protein, and the deletion variants were effective in binding to lipolyzed low density lipoprotein thereby preventing lipoprotein aggregation. These results show that the additional helix of apoLp-III is not essential for lipid binding but is required for proper folding to keep the protein into a stable conformation. PMID:27280697

  14. Structure and regulatory role of the C-terminal winged helix domain of the archaeal minichromosome maintenance complex

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Christoph; Szambowska, Anna; Häfner, Sabine; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Gührs, Karl-Heinz; Görlach, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) represents the replicative DNA helicase both in eukaryotes and archaea. Here, we describe the solution structure of the C-terminal domains of the archaeal MCMs of Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Mth). Those domains consist of a structurally conserved truncated winged helix (WH) domain lacking the two typical ‘wings’ of canonical WH domains. A less conserved N-terminal extension links this WH module to the MCM AAA+ domain forming the ATPase center. In the Sso MCM this linker contains a short α-helical element. Using Sso MCM mutants, including chimeric constructs containing Mth C-terminal domain elements, we show that the ATPase and helicase activity of the Sso MCM is significantly modulated by the short α-helical linker element and by N-terminal residues of the first α-helix of the truncated WH module. Finally, based on our structural and functional data, we present a docking-derived model of the Sso MCM, which implies an allosteric control of the ATPase center by the C-terminal domain. PMID:25712103

  15. Collision-Induced Dissociation Fragmentation Inside Disulfide C-Terminal Loops of Natural Non-Tryptic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samgina, Tatiana Y.; Vorontsov, Egor A.; Gorshkov, Vladimir A.; Artemenko, Konstantin A.; Zubarev, Roman A.; Ytterberg, Jimmy A.; Lebedev, Albert T.

    2013-07-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of long non-tryptic peptides are usually quite complicated and rather difficult to interpret. Disulfide bond formed by two cysteine residues at C-terminus of frog skin peptides precludes one to determine sequence inside the forming loop. Thereby, chemical modification of S-S bonds is often used in "bottom up" sequencing approach. However, low-energy CID spectra of natural non-tryptic peptides with C-terminal disulfide cycle demonstrate an unusual fragmentation route, which may be used to elucidate the "hidden" C-terminal sequence. Low charge state protonated molecules experience peptide bond cleavage at the N-terminus of C-terminal cysteine. The forming isomeric acyclic ions serve as precursors for a series of b-type ions revealing sequence inside former disulfide cycle. The reaction is preferable for peptides with basic lysine residues inside the cycle. It may also be activated by acidic protons of Asp and Glu residues neighboring the loop. The observed cleavages may be quite competitive, revealing the sequence inside disulfide cycle, although S-S bond rupture does not occur in this case.

  16. Synthesis of histone proteins by CPE ligation using a recombinant peptide as the C-terminal building block.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Toru; Yoshikawa, Ryo; Fujiyoshi, Yuki; Mishima, Yuichi; Hojo, Hironobu; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2015-11-01

    The post-translational modification of histones plays an important role in gene expression. We report herein on a method for synthesizing such modified histones by ligating chemically prepared N-terminal peptides and C-terminal recombinant peptide building blocks. Based on their chemical synthesis, core histones can be categorized as two types; histones H2A, H2B and H4 which contain no Cys residues, and histone H3 which contains a Cys residue(s) in the C-terminal region. A combination of native chemical ligation and desulphurization can be simply used to prepare histones without Cys residues. For the synthesis of histone H3, the endogenous Cys residue(s) must be selectively protected, while keeping the N-terminal Cys residue of the C-terminal building block that is introduced for purposes of chemical ligation unprotected. To this end, a phenacyl group was successfully utilized to protect endogenous Cys residue(s), and the recombinant peptide was ligated with a peptide containing a Cys-Pro ester (CPE) sequence as a thioester precursor. Using this approach it was possible to prepare all of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 with any modifications. The resulting proteins could then be used to prepare a core histone library of proteins that have been post-translationally modified. PMID:26002961

  17. The C-terminal domains of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 promote association with N-TIMP-3.

    PubMed

    Troeberg, Linda; Fushimi, Kazunari; Scilabra, Simone D; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Dive, Vincent; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J; Nagase, Hideaki

    2009-10-01

    We investigated whether the affinity of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3 for adamalysins with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 and ADAMTS-5 is affected by the non-catalytic ancillary domains of the enzymes. For this purpose, we first established a novel method of purifying recombinant FLAG-tagged TIMP-3 and its inhibitory N-terminal domain (N-TIMP-3) by treating transfected HEK293 cells with sodium chlorate to prevent heparan sulfate proteoglycan-mediated TIMP-3 internalization. TIMP-3 and N-TIMP-3 affinity for selected matrix metalloproteinases and forms of ADAMTS-4 and -5 lacking sequential C-terminal domains was determined. TIMP-3 and N-TIMP-3 displayed similar affinity for various matrix metalloproteinases as has been previously reported for E. coli-expressed N-TIMP-3. ADAMTS-4 and -5 were inhibited more strongly by N-TIMP-3 than by full-length TIMP-3. The C-terminal domains of the enzymes enhanced interaction with N-TIMP-3 and to a lesser extent with the full-length inhibitor. For example, N-TIMP-3 had 7.5-fold better K(i) value for full-length ADAMTS-5 than for the catalytic and disintegrin domain alone. We propose that the C-terminal domains of the enzymes affect the structure around the active site, favouring interaction with TIMP-3. PMID:19643179

  18. Characterization of RNA binding and chaperoning activities of HIV-1 Vif protein. Importance of the C-terminal unstructured tail.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Dona; Bernacchi, Serena; Xavier Guerrero, Santiago; Brachet, Franck; Larue, Valéry; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Tisne, Carine

    2014-01-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells, containing the cellular anti-HIV defense cytosine deaminases APOBEC3 (A3G and A3F). Vif neutralizes the antiviral activities of the APOBEC3G/F by diverse mechanisms including their degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and their translational inhibition. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by interacting with Pr55(Gag), reverse transcriptase and genomic RNA. Here, we expressed and purified full-length and truncated Vif proteins, and analyzed their RNA binding and chaperone properties. First, we showed by CD and NMR spectroscopies that the N-terminal domain of Vif is highly structured in solution, whereas the C-terminal domain remains mainly unfolded. Both domains exhibited substantial RNA binding capacities with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, whereas the basic unfolded C-terminal domain of Vif was responsible in part for its RNA chaperone activity. Second, we showed by NMR chemical shift mapping that Vif and NCp7 share the same binding sites on tRNA(Lys) 3, the primer of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Finally, our results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity. PMID:25144404

  19. Comparative evaluation of recombinant HSP70 (N & C-terminal) fragments in the detection of equine trypanosomosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jaideep; Chaudhury, A; Yadav, S C

    2016-06-15

    Trypanosomosis (Surra) is an economically important disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi which is an extracellular parasite present in the plasma, tissues and other body fluids of a wide range of hosts including domesticated animals. Currently, serological reports are based on detection of antibodies by ELISA using whole cell lysate (WCL) antigen, which has a limitation of persistence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies after successful treatment of the disease. Moreover, it has some ethical issues also like requirement of mice for in vivo maintenance of parasite for preparing the antigen. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the in vitro production of recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) for detection of antibodies in experimentally infected ponies. The amino acid sequence analysis of HSP70 revealed that N-terminal region of the protein was highly conserved while the C-terminal region was most divergent. The four different regions of HSP70 protein viz. HSP-1, HSP-2, HSP-3 and HSP-4 were cloned and expressed, among which HSP-1 (N-terminal region) & HSP-2 (C-terminal region) were truncated while HSP-3 & HSP-4 were complete C-terminal proteins. The recombinant fragments were probed with sequentially pooled experimental serum samples where antibodies were detected in these fragments from 10(th) day post infection till the termination of the experiment. Further, these recombinant fragments were also comparatively evaluated with WCL antigen in ELISA using experimental as well as field serum samples. It was observed that after successful treatment of infected ponies, there was a sharp fall in antibodies (within 90 days) when tested with recombinant HSP's fragments, while antibodies persisted even after 469 days when tested against WCL antigen. The sensitivity and specificity of all HSP70 fragments were also estimated from field serum samples with reference to WCL antigen ELISA. The HSP-1 showed minimum sensitivity (41.03%) among all the

  20. Recombinant expression of soluble murine prion protein for C-terminal modification.

    PubMed

    Chu, Nam Ky; Becker, Christian F W

    2013-03-01

    Membrane attachment of prion protein (PrP) via its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor plays a key role during conversion of cellular PrP(C) into its pathogenic isoform PrP(Sc). Strategies to access homogenous lipidated PrP via expressed protein ligation (EPL) are required to fully decipher the effect of membrane attachment. Such strategies suffer from insoluble expression of PrP-intein fusion constructs and low folding efficiencies that severely limit the available amount of homogeneous lipidated PrP. Here, we describe an alternative method for expression of soluble PrP-intein fusion proteins in Escherichia coli that provides access to natively folded PrP ready to use in EPL. PMID:23337878

  1. Functional synergy between the Munc13 C-terminal C1 and C2 domains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Seven, Alpay Burak; Camacho, Marcial; Esser, Victoria; Xu, Junjie; Trimbuch, Thorsten; Quade, Bradley; Su, Lijing; Ma, Cong; Rosenmund, Christian; Rizo, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release requires SNARE complexes to bring membranes together, NSF-SNAPs to recycle the SNAREs, Munc18-1 and Munc13s to orchestrate SNARE complex assembly, and Synaptotagmin-1 to trigger fast Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion. However, it is unclear whether Munc13s function upstream and/or downstream of SNARE complex assembly, and how the actions of their multiple domains are integrated. Reconstitution, liposome-clustering and electrophysiological experiments now reveal a functional synergy between the C1, C2B and C2C domains of Munc13-1, indicating that these domains help bridging the vesicle and plasma membranes to facilitate stimulation of SNARE complex assembly by the Munc13-1 MUN domain. Our reconstitution data also suggest that Munc18-1, Munc13-1, NSF, αSNAP and the SNAREs are critical to form a ‘primed’ state that does not fuse but is ready for fast fusion upon Ca2+ influx. Overall, our results support a model whereby the multiple domains of Munc13s cooperate to coordinate synaptic vesicle docking, priming and fusion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13696.001 PMID:27213521

  2. Functional synergy between the Munc13 C-terminal C1 and C2 domains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Seven, Alpay Burak; Camacho, Marcial; Esser, Victoria; Xu, Junjie; Trimbuch, Thorsten; Quade, Bradley; Su, Lijing; Ma, Cong; Rosenmund, Christian; Rizo, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release requires SNARE complexes to bring membranes together, NSF-SNAPs to recycle the SNAREs, Munc18-1 and Munc13s to orchestrate SNARE complex assembly, and Synaptotagmin-1 to trigger fast Ca(2+)-dependent membrane fusion. However, it is unclear whether Munc13s function upstream and/or downstream of SNARE complex assembly, and how the actions of their multiple domains are integrated. Reconstitution, liposome-clustering and electrophysiological experiments now reveal a functional synergy between the C1, C2B and C2C domains of Munc13-1, indicating that these domains help bridging the vesicle and plasma membranes to facilitate stimulation of SNARE complex assembly by the Munc13-1 MUN domain. Our reconstitution data also suggest that Munc18-1, Munc13-1, NSF, αSNAP and the SNAREs are critical to form a 'primed' state that does not fuse but is ready for fast fusion upon Ca(2+) influx. Overall, our results support a model whereby the multiple domains of Munc13s cooperate to coordinate synaptic vesicle docking, priming and fusion. PMID:27213521

  3. Membrane topology of human monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 and identification of regions important for its localization to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    McFie, Pamela J; Izzard, Sabrina; Vu, Huyen; Jin, Youzhi; Beauchamp, Erwan; Berthiaume, Luc G; Stone, Scot J

    2016-09-01

    Acyl CoA:2-monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT)-2 has an important role in dietary fat absorption in the intestine. MGAT2 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol which is then utilized as a substrate for triacylglycerol synthesis. This triacylglycerol is then incorporated into chylomicrons which are released into the circulation. In this study, we determined the membrane topology of human MGAT2. Protease protection experiments showed that the C-terminus is exposed to the cytosol, while the N-terminus is partially buried in the ER membrane. MGAT2, like murine DGAT2, was found to have two transmembrane domains. We also identified a region of MGAT2 associated with the ER membrane that contains the histidine-proline-histidine-glycine sequence present in all DGAT2 family members that is thought to comprise the active site. Proteolysis experiments demonstrated that digestion of total cellular membranes from cells expressing MGAT2 with trypsin abolished MGAT activity, indicating that domains that are important for catalysis face the cytosol. We also explored the role that the five cysteines residues present in MGAT2 have in catalysis. MGAT activity was sensitive to two thiol modifiers, N-ethylmaleimide and 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Furthermore, mutation of four cysteines resulted in a reduction in MGAT activity. However, when the C-terminal cysteine (C334) was mutated, MGAT activity was actually higher than that of wild-type FL-MGAT2. Lastly, we determined that both transmembrane domains of MGAT2 are important for its ER localization, and that MGAT2 is present in mitochondrial-associated membranes. PMID:27373844

  4. Autoproteolysis and intramolecular dissociation of Yersinia YscU precedes secretion of its C-terminal polypeptide YscU(CC).

    PubMed

    Frost, Stefan; Ho, Oanh; Login, Frédéric H; Weise, Christoph F; Wolf-Watz, Hans; Wolf-Watz, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Type III secretion system mediated secretion and translocation of Yop-effector proteins across the eukaryotic target cell membrane by pathogenic Yersinia is highly organized and is dependent on a switching event from secretion of early structural substrates to late effector substrates (Yops). Substrate switching can be mimicked in vitro by modulating the calcium levels in the growth medium. YscU that is essential for regulation of this switch undergoes autoproteolysis at a conserved N↑PTH motif, resulting in a 10 kDa C-terminal polypeptide fragment denoted YscU(CC). Here we show that depletion of calcium induces intramolecular dissociation of YscU(CC) from YscU followed by secretion of the YscU(CC) polypeptide. Thus, YscU(CC) behaved in vivo as a Yop protein with respect to secretion properties. Further, destabilized yscU mutants displayed increased rates of dissociation of YscU(CC)in vitro resulting in enhanced Yop secretion in vivo at 30°C relative to the wild-type strain.These findings provide strong support to the relevance of YscU(CC) dissociation for Yop secretion. We propose that YscU(CC) orchestrates a block in the secretion channel that is eliminated by calcium depletion. Further, the striking homology between different members of the YscU/FlhB family suggests that this protein family possess regulatory functions also in other bacteria using comparable mechanisms. PMID:23185318

  5. A phospholipase A1 antibacterial Type VI secretion effector interacts directly with the C-terminal domain of the VgrG spike protein for delivery.

    PubMed

    Flaugnatti, Nicolas; Le, Thi Thu Hang; Canaan, Stéphane; Aschtgen, Marie-Stéphanie; Nguyen, Van Son; Blangy, Stéphanie; Kellenberger, Christine; Roussel, Alain; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Journet, Laure

    2016-03-01

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a multiprotein machine that delivers protein effectors in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, allowing interbacterial competition and virulence. The mechanism of action of the T6SS requires the contraction of a sheath-like structure that propels a needle towards target cells, allowing the delivery of protein effectors. Here, we provide evidence that the entero-aggregative Escherichia coli Sci-1 T6SS is required to eliminate competitor bacteria. We further identify Tle1, a toxin effector encoded by this cluster and showed that Tle1 possesses phospholipase A1 and A2 activities required for the interbacterial competition. Self-protection of the attacker cell is secured by an outer membrane lipoprotein, Tli1, which binds Tle1 in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with nanomolar affinity, and inhibits its phospholipase activity. Tle1 is delivered into the periplasm of the prey cells using the VgrG1 needle spike protein as carrier. Further analyses demonstrate that the C-terminal extension domain of VgrG1, including a transthyretin-like domain, is responsible for the interaction with Tle1 and its subsequent delivery into target cells. Based on these results, we propose an additional mechanism of transport of T6SS effectors in which cognate effectors are selected by specific motifs located at the C-terminus of VgrG proteins. PMID:26714038

  6. Replacement of glycine with dicarbonyl and related moieties in analogues of the C-terminal pentapeptide of cholecystokinin: CCK(2) agonists displaying a novel binding mode.

    PubMed

    Bellier, B; Million, M E; DaNascimento, S; Meudal, H; Kellou, S; Maigret, B; Garbay, C

    2000-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of cholecystokinin have indicated the possible occurrence of multiple affinity states of the CCK(2) receptor. Besides, numerous pharmacological experiments performed "in vitro" and "in vivo" support the eventuality of different pharmacological profiles associated to CCK(2) ligands. Indeed, some agonists are essentially anxiogenic and uneffective in memory tests, whereas others are not anxiogenic and appear as able to reinforce memory. The reference compound for the latter profile is the CCK-8 analogue BC 264 (Boc-Tyr(SO(3)H)-gNle-mGly-Trp-(NMe)Nle-Asp-Phe-NH(2)). However, although tetrapeptide ligands based on CCK-4 (Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2)) are known to possess sufficient structural features for CCK(2) recognition, none shares the properties of BC 264. Hence we have developed new short peptidic or pseudo-peptidic derivatives containing the C-terminal tetrapeptide of BC 264. Our results indicate that some compounds characterized by the presence of two carbonyl groups at the N-terminus, as in 2b (HO(2)C-CH(2)-CONH-Trp-(NMe)Nle-Asp-Phe-NH(2)), are likely to show a BC 264-like profile, bind to the CCK(2) receptor in a specific way, and display remarkable affinities (2b: 0.28 nM on guinea-pig cortex membrane preparations). This original binding mode is discussed and further enlightened by NMR and molecular modeling studies. PMID:11020275

  7. The C-terminal part of the surface-associated protein MopE of the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is secreted into the growth medium.

    PubMed

    Fjellbirkeland, A; Kruger, P G; Bemanian, V; Høgh, B T; Murrell, J C; Jensen, H B

    2001-09-01

    A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 46 kDa was detected as the major polypeptide in the culture medium of the biotechnologically important methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). The protein cross-reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against the outer-membrane-associated protein MopE. The antiserum was used to identify a positive clone from a lambda gt11 library. The nucleotide sequence determined for the clone demonstrated that MopE and the secreted protein are encoded by the same gene, and that the secreted protein represents an N-terminally truncated form of MopE. By using monospecific antibodies against MopE in immunogold electron microscopy, the protein was localized at the cell surface and cell periphery. The mopE gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. The MopE protein synthesized was found in the periplasmic space of E. coli. No protein with sequence similarity over the entire length of MopE was detected in the databases, but some sequence similarity to the copper-repressible CorA protein of the methanotroph Methylomicrobium albus (Berson and Lidstrom 1997) was observed for the C-terminal region of MopE. PMID:11511867

  8. Grain setting defect1 (GSD1) function in rice depends on S-acylation and interacts with actin 1 (OsACT1) at its C-terminal

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Jinshan; Zheng, Shuai; Shen, Junhui; Li, Laigeng

    2015-01-01

    Grain setting defect1 (GSD1), a plant-specific remorin protein specifically localized at the plasma membrane (PM) and plasmodesmata of phloem companion cells, affects grain setting in rice through regulating the transport of photoassimilates. Here, we show new evidence demonstrating that GSD1 is localized at the cytoplasmic face of the PM and a stretch of 45 amino acid residues at its C-terminal is required for its localization. Association with the PM is mediated by S-acylation of cysteine residues Cys-524 and Cys-527, in a sequence of 45 amino acid residues essential for GSD1 function in rice. Furthermore, the coiled-coil domain in GSD1 is necessary for sufficient interaction with OsACT1. Together, these results reveal that GSD1 attaches to the PM through S-acylation and interacts with OsACT1 through its coiled-coil domain structure to regulate plasmodesmata conductance for photoassimilate transport in rice. PMID:26483819

  9. C-terminal tail phosphorylation of N-formyl peptide receptor: differential recognition of two neutrophil chemoattractant receptors by monoclonal antibodies NFPR1 and NFPR2.

    PubMed

    Riesselman, Marcia; Miettinen, Heini M; Gripentrog, Jeannie M; Lord, Connie I; Mumey, Brendan; Dratz, Edward A; Stie, Jamal; Taylor, Ross M; Jesaitis, Algirdas J

    2007-08-15

    The N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR), a G protein-coupled receptor that binds proinflammatory chemoattractant peptides, serves as a model receptor for leukocyte chemotaxis. Recombinant histidine-tagged FPR (rHis-FPR) was purified in lysophosphatidyl glycerol (LPG) by Ni(2+)-NTA agarose chromatography to >95% purity with high yield. MALDI-TOF mass analysis (>36% sequence coverage) and immunoblotting confirmed the identity as FPR. The rHis-FPR served as an immunogen for the production of 2 mAbs, NFPR1 and NFPR2, that epitope map to the FPR C-terminal tail sequences, 305-GQDFRERLI-313 and 337-NSTLPSAEVE-346, respectively. Both mAbs specifically immunoblotted rHis-FPR and recombinant FPR (rFPR) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. NFPR1 also recognized recombinant FPRL1, specifically expressed in mouse L fibroblasts. In human neutrophil membranes, both Abs labeled a 45-75 kDa species (peak M(r) approximately 60 kDa) localized primarily in the plasma membrane with a minor component in the lactoferrin-enriched intracellular fractions, consistent with FPR size and localization. NFPR1 also recognized a band of M(r) approximately 40 kDa localized, in equal proportions to the plasma membrane and lactoferrin-enriched fractions, consistent with FPRL1 size and localization. Only NFPR2 was capable of immunoprecipitation of rFPR in detergent extracts. The recognition of rFPR by NFPR2 is lost after exposure of cellular rFPR to f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) and regained after alkaline phosphatase treatment of rFPR-bearing membranes. In neutrophils, NFPR2 immunofluorescence was lost upon fMLF stimulation. Immunoblotting approximately 60 kDa species, after phosphatase treatment of fMLF-stimulated neutrophil membranes, was also enhanced. We conclude that the region 337-346 of FPR becomes phosphorylated after fMLF activation of rFPR-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells and neutrophils. PMID:17675514

  10. A global topology map of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun; Melén, Karin; Österberg, Marie; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2006-07-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is, arguably, the best understood eukaryotic model organism, yet comparatively little is known about its membrane proteome. Here, we report the cloning and expression of 617 S. cerevisiae membrane proteins as fusions to a C-terminal topology reporter and present experimentally constrained topology models for 546 proteins. By homology, the experimental topology information can be extended to 15,000 membrane proteins from 38 fully sequenced eukaryotic genomes. membrane proteins | membrane proteomics | yeast

  11. Structural Studies of the Transmembrane C-Terminal Domain of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP): Does APP Function as a Cholesterol Sensor?†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Beel, Andrew J.; Mobley, Charles K.; Kim, Hak Jun; Tian, Fang; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Jap, Bing; Prestegard, James H.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is subject to alternative pathways of proteolytic processing, leading either to production of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides or to non-amyloidogenic fragments. Here, we report the first structural study of C99, the 99-residue transmembrane C-terminal domain of APP liberated by β-secretase cleavage. We also show that cholesterol, an agent that promotes the amyloidogenic pathway, specifically binds to this protein. C99 was purified into model membranes where it was observed to homodimerize. NMR data show that the transmembrane domain of C99 is an α-helix that is flanked on both sides by mostly disordered extramembrane domains, with two exceptions. First, there is a short extracellular surface-associated helix located just after the site of α-secretase cleavage that helps to organize the connecting loop to the transmembrane domain, which is known to be essential for Aβ production. Second, there is a surface-associated helix located at the cytosolic C-terminus, adjacent to the YENPTY motif that plays critical roles in APP trafficking and protein–protein interactions. Cholesterol was seen to participate in saturable interactions with C99 that are centered at the critical loop connecting the extracellular helix to the transmembrane domain. Binding of cholesterol to C99 and, most likely, to APP may be critical for the trafficking of these proteins to cholesterol-rich membrane domains, which leads to cleavage by β- and γ-secretase and resulting amyloid-β production. It is proposed that APP may serve as a cellular cholesterol sensor that is linked to mechanisms for suppressing cellular cholesterol uptake. PMID:18702528

  12. Functional analyses of the plant-specific C-terminal region of VPS9a: the activating factor for RAB5 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sunada, Mariko; Goh, Tatsuaki; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that endosomal transport played important roles in various plant functions. The RAB GTPase regulates the tethering and fusion steps of vesicle trafficking to target membranes in each trafficking pathway by acting as a molecular switch. RAB GTPase activation is catalyzed by specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that promote the exchange of GDP on the RAB GTPase with GTP. RAB5 is a key regulator of endosomal trafficking and is uniquely diversified in plants; the plant-unique RAB5 group ARA6 was acquired in addition to conventional RAB5 during evolution. In Arabidopsis thaliana, conventional RAB5, ARA7 and RHA1 regulate the endosomal/vacuolar trafficking pathways, whereas ARA6 acts in the pathway from the endosome to the plasma membrane. Despite their distinct functions, all RAB5 members are activated by the common GEF VACUOLAR PROTEIN SORTING 9a (VPS9a). VPS9a consists of an N-terminal conserved domain and C-terminal region (CTR) with no similarity to known functional domains. In this study, we investigated the function of the CTR by generating truncated versions of VPS9a and found that it was specifically responsible for ARA6 regulation; moreover, the CTR was required for the oligomerization and correct localization of VPS9a. The oligomerization of VPS9a was mediated by a distinctive region consisting of 36 amino acids in the CTR that was conserved in plant RAB5 GEFs. Thus the VPS9a CTR plays an important role in the regulation of the two RAB5 groups in plants. PMID:26493488

  13. Helix insertion into bilayers and the evolution of membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Polytopic α-helical membrane proteins cannot spontaneously insert into lipid bilayers without assistance from polytopic α-helical membrane proteins that already reside in the membrane. This raises the question of how these proteins evolved. Our current knowledge of the insertion of α-helices into natural and model membranes is reviewed with the goal of gaining insight into the evolution of membrane proteins. Topics include: translocon-dependent membrane protein insertion, antibiotic peptides and proteins, in vitro insertion of membrane proteins, chaperone-mediated insertion of transmembrane helices, and C-terminal tail-anchored (TA) proteins. Analysis of the E. coli genome reveals several predicted C-terminal TA proteins that may be descendents of proteins involved in pre-cellular membrane protein insertion. Mechanisms of pre-translocon polytopic α-helical membrane protein insertion are discussed. PMID:20039094

  14. The C-terminal extension of bacterial flavodoxin-reductases: involvement in the hydride transfer mechanism from the coenzyme.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Ana; Sánchez-Azqueta, Ana; Maya, Celia M; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Hermoso, Juan A; Medina, Milagros; Cortez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    To study the role of the mobile C-terminal extension present in bacterial class of plant type NADP(H):ferredoxin reductases during catalysis, we generated a series of mutants of the Rhodobacter capsulatus enzyme (RcFPR). Deletion of the six C-terminal amino acids beyond alanine 266 was combined with the replacement A266Y, emulating the structure present in plastidic versions of this flavoenzyme. Analysis of absorbance and fluorescence spectra suggests that deletion does not modify the general geometry of FAD itself, but increases exposure of the flavin to the solvent, prevents a productive geometry of FAD:NADP(H) complex and decreases the protein thermal stability. Although the replacement A266Y partially coats the isoalloxazine from solvent and slightly restores protein stability, this single change does not allow formation of active charge-transfer complexes commonly present in the wild-type FPR, probably due to restraints of C-terminus pliability. A proton exchange process is deduced from ITC measurements during coenzyme binding. All studied RcFPR variants display higher affinity for NADP(+) than wild-type, evidencing the contribution of the C-terminus in tempering a non-productive strong (rigid) interaction with the coenzyme. The decreased catalytic rate parameters confirm that the hydride transfer from NADPH to the flavin ring is considerably hampered in the mutants. Although the involvement of the C-terminal extension from bacterial FPRs in stabilizing overall folding and bent-FAD geometry has been stated, the most relevant contributions to catalysis are modulation of coenzyme entrance and affinity, promotion of the optimal geometry of an active complex and supply of a proton acceptor acting during coenzyme binding. PMID:24016470

  15. C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Adachi, Noritaka; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Chromatin binding of XRCC4 is dependent on the presence of DNA ligase IV. •C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV alone can recruit itself and XRCC4 to chromatin. •Two BRCT domains of DNA ligase IV are essential for the chromatin binding of XRCC4. -- Abstract: DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ.

  16. The Last C-Terminal Residue of VP3, Glutamic Acid 257, Controls Capsid Assembly of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Christophe; Lepault, Jean; Da Costa, Bruno; Delmas, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a nonenveloped virus with an icosahedral capsid composed of two proteins, VP2 and VP3, that derive from the processing of the polyprotein NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH. The virion contains VP1, the viral polymerase, which is both free and covalently linked to the two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomic segments. In this study, the virus assembly process was studied further with the baculovirus expression system. While expression of the wild-type polyprotein was not found to be self-sufficient to give rise to virus-like particles (VLPs), deletion or replacement of the five C-terminal residues of VP3 was observed to promote capsid assembly. Indeed, the single deletion of the C-terminal glutamic acid was sufficient to induce VLP formation. Moreover, fusion of various peptides or small proteins (a green fluorescent protein or a truncated form of ovalbumin) at the C terminus of VP3 also promoted capsid assembly, suggesting that assembly required screening of the negative charges at the C terminus of VP3. The fused polypeptides mimicked the effect of VP1, which interacts with VP3 to promote VLP assembly. The C-terminal segment of VP3 was found to contain two functional domains. While the very last five residues of VP3 mainly controlled both assembly and capsid architecture, the five preceding residues constituted the VP1 (and possibly the pVP2/VP2) binding domain. Finally, we showed that capsid formation is associated with VP2 maturation, demonstrating that the protease VP4 is involved in the virus assembly process. PMID:15016850

  17. Structural implications of the C-terminal tail in the catalytic and stability properties of manganese peroxidases from ligninolytic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Acebes, Sandra; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Martínez, María Jesús; Romero, Antonio; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T.

    2014-01-01

    The genome of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora includes 13 manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes representative of the three subfamilies described in ligninolytic fungi, which share an Mn2+-oxidation site and have varying lengths of the C-terminal tail. Short, long and extralong MnPs were heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized, and the first structure of an extralong MnP was solved. Its C-terminal tail surrounds the haem-propionate access channel, contributing to Mn2+ oxidation by the internal propionate, but prevents the oxidation of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), which is only oxidized by short MnPs and by shortened-tail variants from site-directed mutagenesis. The tail, which is anchored by numerous contacts, not only affects the catalytic properties of long/extralong MnPs but is also associated with their high acidic stability. Cd2+ binds at the Mn2+-oxidation site and competitively inhibits oxidation of both Mn2+ and ABTS. Moreover, mutations blocking the haem-propionate channel prevent substrate oxidation. This agrees with molecular simulations that position ABTS at an electron-transfer distance from the haem propionates of an in silico shortened-tail form, while it cannot reach this position in the extralong MnP crystal structure. Only small differences exist between the long and the extralong MnPs, which do not justify their classification as two different subfamilies, but they significantly differ from the short MnPs, with the presence/absence of the C-terminal tail extension being implicated in these differences. PMID:25478843

  18. Asparagine 326 in the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is essential for the cell survival after irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wanotayan, Rujira; Fukuchi, Mikoto; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-02-20

    XRCC4 is one of the crucial proteins in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). As XRCC4 consists of 336 amino acids, N-terminal 200 amino acids include domains for dimerization and for association with DNA ligase IV and XLF and shown to be essential for XRCC4 function in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. On the other hand, the role of the remaining C-terminal region of XRCC4 is not well understood. In the present study, we noticed that a stretch of ∼20 amino acids located at the extreme C-terminus of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. To explore its possible importance, series of mutants in this region were constructed and assessed for the functionality in terms of ability to rescue radiosensitivity of M10 cells lacking XRCC4. Among 13 mutants, M10 transfectant with N326L mutant (M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}) showed elevated radiosensitivity. N326L protein showed defective nuclear localization. N326L sequence matched the consensus sequence of nuclear export signal. Leptomycin B treatment accumulated XRCC4{sup N326L} in the nucleus but only partially rescued radiosensitivity of M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}. These results collectively indicated that the functional defects of XRCC4{sup N326L} might be partially, but not solely, due to its exclusion from nucleus by synthetic nuclear export signal. Further mutation of XRCC4 Asn326 to other amino acids, i.e., alanine, aspartic acid or glutamine did not affect the nuclear localization but still exhibited radiosensitivity. The present results indicated the importance of the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 and, especially, Asn326 therein. - Highlights: • Extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. • XRCC4 C-terminal point mutants, R325F and N326L, are functionally deficient in terms of survival after irradiation. • N326L localizes to the cytoplasm because of synthetic nuclear export signal. • Leptomycin B restores the

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase cleaves a C-terminal peptide from human thrombin that inhibits host inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, Mariena J. A.; Bhongir, Ravi K. V.; Kjellström, Sven; Siller, Helena; Kasetty, Gopinath; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen known for its immune evasive abilities amongst others by degradation of a large variety of host proteins. Here we show that digestion of thrombin by P. aeruginosa elastase leads to the release of the C-terminal thrombin-derived peptide FYT21, which inhibits pro-inflammatory responses to several pathogen-associated molecular patterns in vitro and in vivo by preventing toll-like receptor dimerization and subsequent activation of down-stream signalling pathways. Thus, P. aeruginosa ‘hijacks' an endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide-based mechanism, thereby enabling modulation and circumvention of host responses. PMID:27181065

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase cleaves a C-terminal peptide from human thrombin that inhibits host inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Mariena J A; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Kjellström, Sven; Siller, Helena; Kasetty, Gopinath; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen known for its immune evasive abilities amongst others by degradation of a large variety of host proteins. Here we show that digestion of thrombin by P. aeruginosa elastase leads to the release of the C-terminal thrombin-derived peptide FYT21, which inhibits pro-inflammatory responses to several pathogen-associated molecular patterns in vitro and in vivo by preventing toll-like receptor dimerization and subsequent activation of down-stream signalling pathways. Thus, P. aeruginosa 'hijacks' an endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide-based mechanism, thereby enabling modulation and circumvention of host responses. PMID:27181065

  1. Incorporation of Acid-Labile Masking Groups for the Traceless Synthesis of C-Terminal Peptide α-Ketoacids.

    PubMed

    Thuaud, Frédéric; Rohrbacher, Florian; Zwicky, André; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2016-08-01

    An optimized protocol for the masking of α-ketoacids with acid-labile cyclic acetal protecting groups is reported. Unlike prior approaches, these new conditions allow the synthesis of protected α-ketoacids bearing aromatic, hindered alkyl, and protected polar side chains. Attachment to a Wang-type linker and solid support provides a resin that delivers fully unprotected C-terminal peptide α-ketoacids upon resin cleavage. These peptides are the key starting materials for chemical protein synthesis using the α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine ligation. PMID:27439001

  2. Structural implications of the C-terminal tail in the catalytic and stability properties of manganese peroxidases from ligninolytic fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Acebes, Sandra; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Martínez, María Jesús; Romero, Antonio; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T.

    2014-12-01

    The variable C-terminal tail of manganese peroxidases, a group of enzymes involved in lignin degradation, is implicated in their catalytic and stability properties, as shown by new crystal structures, molecular-simulation and directed-mutagenesis data. Based on this structural–functional evaluation, short and long/extralong manganese peroxidase subfamilies have been accepted; the latter are characterized by exceptional stability, while it is shown for the first time that the former are able to oxidize other substrates at the same site where manganese(II) is oxidized. The genome of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora includes 13 manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes representative of the three subfamilies described in ligninolytic fungi, which share an Mn{sup 2+}-oxidation site and have varying lengths of the C-terminal tail. Short, long and extralong MnPs were heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized, and the first structure of an extralong MnP was solved. Its C-terminal tail surrounds the haem-propionate access channel, contributing to Mn{sup 2+} oxidation by the internal propionate, but prevents the oxidation of 2, 2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), which is only oxidized by short MnPs and by shortened-tail variants from site-directed mutagenesis. The tail, which is anchored by numerous contacts, not only affects the catalytic properties of long/extralong MnPs but is also associated with their high acidic stability. Cd{sup 2+} binds at the Mn{sup 2+}-oxidation site and competitively inhibits oxidation of both Mn{sup 2+} and ABTS. Moreover, mutations blocking the haem-propionate channel prevent substrate oxidation. This agrees with molecular simulations that position ABTS at an electron-transfer distance from the haem propionates of an in silico shortened-tail form, while it cannot reach this position in the extralong MnP crystal structure. Only small differences exist between the long and the extralong MnPs, which do not justify their

  3. ER-phagy mediates selective degradation of endoplasmic reticulum independently of the core autophagy machinery

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Sebastian; Gallagher, Ciara M.; Walter, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Selective autophagy of damaged or redundant organelles is an important mechanism for maintaining cell homeostasis. We found previously that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes massive ER expansion and triggers the formation of large ER whorls. Here, we show that stress-induced ER whorls are selectively taken up into the vacuole, the yeast lysosome, by a process termed ER-phagy. Import into the vacuole does not involve autophagosomes but occurs through invagination of the vacuolar membrane, indicating that ER-phagy is topologically equivalent to microautophagy. Even so, ER-phagy requires neither the core autophagy machinery nor several other proteins specifically implicated in microautophagy. Thus, autophagy of ER whorls represents a distinct type of organelle-selective autophagy. Finally, we provide evidence that ER-phagy degrades excess ER membrane, suggesting that it contributes to cell homeostasis by controlling organelle size. PMID:25052096

  4. Prolonged activation of phospholipase D in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing platelet-activating-factor receptor lacking cytoplasmic C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Nakashima, S; Adachi, T; Ito, Y; Takano, T; Shimizu, T; Nozawa, Y

    1997-10-01

    The mechanism and role of phospholipase D (PLD) activation by platelet-activating factor (PAF) were examined with Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing wild-type PAF receptor (WT-H cells) and truncated PAF receptor lacking the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail (D-H cells). Treatment of D-H cells with PAF resulted in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, which was followed by a sustained phase for more than 10 min. In these cells, PAF-induced PLD activation lasted for more than 20 min. In contrast, PLD activation in WT-H cells was transient. PAF stimulation caused the biphasic formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DG) in both types of cell. The first phase was rapid and transient, coinciding with the Ins(1,4,5)P3 peak. The second sustained phase of DG formation was attenuated by butanol, which produces phosphatidylbutanol at the expense of phosphatidic acid (PA) by transphosphatidylation activity of PLD, and by propranolol, a selective inhibitor for PA phosphohydrolase catalysing the conversion of PA into DG. The DG level returned nearly to basal at 20 min after PAF stimulation in WT-H cells, whereas in D-H cells the elevated DG level was sustained for more than 20 min. The profile of translocation of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) to membrane was similar to that of DG formation. In WT-H cells, PKCalpha was transiently associated with membranes and then returned to the cytosol. However, in D-H cells PKCalpha was rapidly translocated to and remained in membranes for more than 20 min. Butanol suppressed this sustained translocation of PKCalpha. Furthermore the mRNA levels of c-fos and c-jun by PAF in WT-H cells were much lower than those in D-H cells. Propranolol and butanol at concentrations that inhibited the formation of DG suppressed the PAF-induced mRNA expression of c-fos and c-jun. Taken together, the prolonged PLD activation in D-H cells confirmed a primary role for phospholipase C/PKC in PLD activation by PAF. Furthermore the results obtained here suggest that

  5. Final Report for DE-FG02-04ER15626: P-type ATPases in Plants – Role of Lipid Flippases in Membrane Biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jeffrey F.

    2015-02-24

    The long-range goal of the research is to understand the structure and biological functions of different P-type ATPases (ion pumps) in plant cells, and to use that knowledge to enhance the production of bioenergy from plants, or plant-research inspired technologies. Ptype ATPases include ion pumps that specifically transport H+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, K+, or Na+, as well as at least one unusual subfamily that appears to function as lipid flippases, flipping specific lipids from one side of a membrane bilayer to the other. As a group, P-type ATPases are thought to consume more than 1/3 of the cellular ATP in typical eukaryotic cells. Recent research in the Harper lab focused on understanding the biochemical and biological functions of P-type ATPases that flip lipids. These flippases belong to the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases. The activity of lipid flippases is thought to induce membrane curvature and/or create an asymmetry in which certain lipid head groups are preferential exposed to one surface or the other. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are 12 members of this family referred to as Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA) 1 to ALA12. Using genetic knockouts, the Harper lab has established that this unusual subfamily of P-type ATPases are critical for plants to cope with even modest changes in temperature (e.g., down to 15°C, or up to 30°C). In addition, members of one subclade are critical for cell expansion, and loss of function mutants result in severe dwarfism. Other members of this same sub-clade are critical for pollen tube growth, and loss of function mutants are sterile under conditions of hot days and cold nights. While the cellular processes that depend on lipid flippases are still unclear, the genetic analysis of loss of function mutants clearly show they are of fundamental importance to plant growth and response to the environment.

  6. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus C-terminal LANA concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley-Clarke, Brenna; Ballestas, Mary E.; Komatsu, Takashi; Kaye, Kenneth M. . E-mail: kkaye@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    2007-01-20

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) tethers KSHV terminal repeat (TR) DNA to mitotic chromosomes to efficiently segregate episomes to progeny nuclei. LANA contains N- and C-terminal chromosome binding regions. We now show that C-terminal LANA preferentially concentrates to paired dots at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes through residues 996-1139. Deletions within C-terminal LANA abolished both self-association and chromosome binding, consistent with a requirement for self-association to bind chromosomes. A deletion abolishing TR DNA binding did not affect chromosome targeting, indicating LANA's localization is not due to binding its recognition sequence in chromosomal DNA. LANA distributed similarly on human and non-human mitotic chromosomes. These results are consistent with C-terminal LANA interacting with a cell factor that concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of mitotic chromosomes.

  7. The C-Terminal Region Mesd Peptide Mimics Full-Length Mesd and Acts as an Inhibitor of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cuihong; Lu, Wenyan; Zhang, Wei; Londoño-Joshi, Angelina I.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Bu, Guojun; Li, Yonghe

    2013-01-01

    While Mesd was discovered as a specialized molecular endoplasmic reticulum chaperone for the Wnt co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6, recombinant Mesd protein is able to bind to mature LRP5 and LRP6 on the cell surface and acts as a universal antagonist of LRP5/6 modulators. In our previous study, we found that the C-terminal region of Mesd, which is absent in sequences from invertebrates, is necessary and sufficient for binding to mature LRP6 on the cell surface. In the present studies, we further characterized the interaction between the C-terminal region Mesd peptide and LRP5/6. We found that Mesd C-terminal region-derived peptides block Mesd binding to LRP5 at the cell surface too. We also showed that there are two LRP5/6 binding sites within Mesd C-terminal region which contain several positively charged residues. Moreover, we demonstrated that the Mesd C-terminal region peptide, like the full-length Mesd protein, blocked Wnt 3A- and Rspodin1-induced Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LRP5- and LRP6- expressing cells, suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human breast HS578T cells and prostate cancer PC-3 cells, and inhibited cancer cell proliferation, although the full-length Mesd protein is more potent than its peptide. Finally, we found that treatment of the full-length Mesd protein and its C-terminal region peptide significantly increased chemotherapy agent Adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity in HS578T and PC-3 cells. Together, our results suggest that Mesd C-terminal region constitutes the major LRP5/6-binding domain, and that Mesd protein and its C-terminal region peptide have a potential therapeutic value in cancer. PMID:23469146

  8. Insights into the Functional Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains of Helicobacter pylori DprA

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Gajendradhar R.; Srikanth, Kolluru D.; Anand, Praveen; Naikoo, Javed; Srilatha, N. S.; Rao, Desirazu N.

    2015-01-01

    DNA processing protein A (DprA) plays a crucial role in the process of natural transformation. This is accomplished through binding and subsequent protection of incoming foreign DNA during the process of internalization. DprA along with Single stranded DNA binding protein A (SsbA) acts as an accessory factor for RecA mediated DNA strand exchange. H. pylori DprA (HpDprA) is divided into an N-terminal domain and a C- terminal domain. In the present study, individual domains of HpDprA have been characterized for their ability to bind single stranded (ssDNA) and double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Oligomeric studies revealed that HpDprA possesses two sites for dimerization which enables HpDprA to form large and tightly packed complexes with ss and dsDNA. While the N-terminal domain was found to be sufficient for binding with ss or ds DNA, C-terminal domain has an important role in the assembly of poly-nucleoprotein complex. Using site directed mutagenesis approach, we show that a pocket comprising positively charged amino acids in the N-terminal domain has an important role in the binding of ss and dsDNA. Together, a functional cross talk between the two domains of HpDprA facilitating the binding and formation of higher order complex with DNA is discussed. PMID:26135134

  9. C-terminal domain of MEIS1 converts PKNOX1 (PREP1) into a HOXA9-collaborating oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bisaillon, Richard; Wilhelm, Brian T; Krosl, Jana; Sauvageau, Guy

    2011-10-27

    The three-amino-acid loop extension (TALE) class homeodomain proteins MEIS1 and PKNOX1 (PREP1) share the ability to interact with PBX and HOX family members and bind similar DNA sequences but appear to play opposing roles in tumor development. Elevated levels of MEIS1 accelerate development of HOX- and MLL-induced leukemias, and this pro-tumorigenic property has been associated with transcriptional activity of MEIS1. In contrast, reduction of PKNOX1 levels has been linked with cancer development despite the absence of an identifiable transactivating domain. In this report, we show that a chimeric protein generated by fusion of the MEIS1 C-terminal region encompassing the transactivating domain with the full-length PKNOX1 (PKNOX1-MC) acquired the ability to accelerate the onset of Hoxa9-induced leukemia in the mouse bone marrow transduction/transplantation model. Gene expression profiling of primary bone marrow cells transduced with Hoxa9 plus Meis1, or Hoxa9 plus Pknox1-MC revealed perturbations in overlapping functional gene subsets implicated in DNA packaging, chromosome organization, and in cell cycle regulation. Together, results presented in this report suggest that the C-terminal domain of MEIS1 confers to PKNOX1 an ectopic transactivating function that promotes leukemogenesis by regulating expression of genes involved in chromatin accessibility and cell cycle progression. PMID:21900201

  10. NMR and computational evidence that high-affinity bradykinin receptor antagonists adopt C-terminal beta-turns.

    PubMed

    Kyle, D J; Blake, P R; Smithwick, D; Green, L M; Martin, J A; Sinsko, J A; Summers, M F

    1993-05-14

    Three tetrapeptides were prepared, each corresponding to the four C-terminal amino acid residues of highly potent, second-generation bradykinin receptor antagonists. The tetrapeptides are (IA) Ser-D-Phe-Oic-Arg, (IIA) Ser-D-Tic-Oic-Arg, and (IIIA) Ser-D-Hype(trans-propyl)-Oic-Arg. Solution conformations for each were determined by incorporating interproton distance restraints, determined by 2D NMR experiments performed in water at neutral pH, into a series of distance geometry/simulated annealing model building calculations. Similarly, systematic conformational analyses were performed for each using molecular mechanics calculations. Both the NMR-derived structures, as well as the calculated structures, are shown to adopt a beta-turn as the primary conformation. Excellent agreement between the predicted structures and the NMR-derived structures is demonstrated. Aside from being the first examples of linear tetrapeptides reported to be ordered in aqueous solvent, the results presented support the hypothesis that high-affinity bradykinin receptor antagonists must adopt C-terminal beta-turn conformations. PMID:8388469

  11. An isoform of Arabidopsis myosin XI interacts with small GTPases in its C-terminal tail region

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kohsuke; Igarashi, Hisako; Mano, Shoji; Takenaka, Chikako; Shiina, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Demura, Taku; Nishimura, Mikio; Shimmen, Teruo; Yokota, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    Myosin XI, a class of myosins expressed in plants is believed to be responsible for cytoplasmic streaming and the translocation of organelles and vesicles. To gain further insight into the translocation of organelles and vesicles by myosin XI, an isoform of Arabidopsis myosin XI, MYA2, was chosen and its role in peroxisome targeting was examined. Using the yeast two-hybrid screening method, two small GTPases, AtRabD1 and AtRabC2a, were identified as factors that interact with the C-terminal tail region of MYA2. Both recombinant AtRabs tagged with His bound to the recombinant C-terminal tail region of MYA2 tagged with GST in a GTP-dependent manner. Furthermore, AtRabC2a was localized on peroxisomes, when its CFP-tagged form was expressed transiently in protoplasts prepared from Arabidopsis leaf tissue. It is suggested that MYA2 targets the peroxisome through an interaction with AtRabC2a. PMID:18703495

  12. Post-translational modifications to Toxoplasma gondii α- and β-tubulins include novel C-terminal methylation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hui; Bissati, Kamal El; Verdier-Pinard, Pascal; Burd, Berta; Zhang, Hongshan; Kim, Kami; Fiser, Andras; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Weiss, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan of both medical and veterinary importance which is classified as an NIH Category B priority pathogen. It is best known for its ability to cause congenital infection in immune competent hosts and encephalitis in immune compromised hosts. The highly stable and specialized microtubule-based cytoskeleton participates in the invasion process. The genome encodes three isoforms of both α- and β-tubulin and we show that the tubulin is extensively altered by specific post-translational modifications (PTMs) in this paper. T. gondii tubulin PTMs were analyzed by mass spectrometry and immunolabeling using specific antibodies. The PTMs identified on α-tubulin included acetylation of Lys40, removal of the last C-terminal amino acid residue Tyr453 (detyrosinated tubulin) and truncation of the last five amino acid residues. Polyglutamylation was detected on both α- and β-tubulins. An antibody directed against mammalian α-tubulin lacking the last two C-terminal residues (Δ2-tubulin) labeled the apical region of this parasite. Detyrosinated tubulin was diffusely present in subpellicular microtubules and displayed an apparent accumulation at the basal end. Methylation, a PTM not previously described on tubulin, was also detected. Methylated tubulins were not detected in the host cells, human foreskin fibroblasts, suggesting that this may be a modification specific to the Apicomplexa. PMID:19886702

  13. Hevea brasiliensis prohevein possesses a conserved C-terminal domain with amyloid-like properties in vitro.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Peruch, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Prohevein is a wound-induced protein and a main allergen from latex of Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). This 187 amino-acid protein is cleaved in two fragments: a N-terminal 43 amino-acids called hevein, a lectin bearing a chitin-binding motif with antifungal properties and a C-terminal domain (C-ter) far less characterized. We provide here new insights on the characteristics of prohevein, hevein and C-terminal domain. Using complementary biochemical (ThT/CR/chitin binding, agglutination) and structural (modeling, ATR-FTIR, TEM, WAXS) approaches, we show that this domain clearly displays all the characteristics of an amyloid-like proteins in vitro, that could confer agglutination activity in synergy with its chitin-binding activity. Additionally, this C-ter domain is highly conserved and present in numerous plant prohevein-like proteins or pathogenesis-related (PR and WIN) proteins. This could be the hallmark of the eventual presence of proteins with amyloid properties in plants, that could potentially play a role in defense through aggregation properties. PMID:26805576

  14. Crystal structure of the lambda repressor C-terminal domain provides a model for cooperative operator binding.

    PubMed

    Bell, C E; Frescura, P; Hochschild, A; Lewis, M

    2000-06-23

    Interactions between transcription factors bound to separate operator sites commonly play an important role in gene regulation by mediating cooperative binding to the DNA. However, few detailed structural models for understanding the molecular basis of such cooperativity are available. The c1 repressor of bacteriophage lambda is a classic example of a protein that binds to its operator sites cooperatively. The C-terminal domain of the repressor mediates dimerization as well as a dimer-dimer interaction that results in the cooperative binding of two repressor dimers to adjacent operator sites. Here, we present the x-ray crystal structure of the lambda repressor C-terminal domain determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction. Remarkably, the interactions that mediate cooperativity are captured in the crystal, where two dimers associate about a 2-fold axis of symmetry. Based on the structure and previous genetic and biochemical data, we present a model for the cooperative binding of two lambda repressor dimers at adjacent operator sites. PMID:10892750

  15. C-terminal activating and inhibitory domains determine the transactivation potential of BSAP (Pax-5), Pax-2 and Pax-8.

    PubMed Central

    Dörfler, P; Busslinger, M

    1996-01-01

    Pax-5 encodes the transcription factor BSAP which plays an essential role in early B cell development and midbrain patterning. In this study we have analysed the structural requirements for transcriptional activation by BSAP. In vitro mutagenesis and transient transfection experiments indicate that the C-terminal serine/threonine/proline-rich region of BSAP contains a potent transactivation domain of 55 amino acids which is active from promoter and enhancer positions. This transactivation domain was found to be inactivated by a naturally occurring frameshift mutation in one PAX-5 allele of the acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line REH. The function of the transactivation domain is negatively regulated by adjacent sequences from the extreme C-terminus. The activating and inhibitory domains function together as an independent regulatory module in different cell types as shown by fusion to the GAL4 DNA binding domain. The same arrangement of positively and negatively acting sequences has been conserved in the mammalian Pax-2 and Pax-8, the zebrafish Pax-b as well as the sea urchin Pax-258 proteins. These data demonstrate that the transcriptional competence of a subfamily of Pax proteins is determined by a C-terminal regulatory module composed of activating and inhibitory sequences. Images PMID:8617244

  16. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic studies of the C-terminal SH3 domain of human Tks4.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuxin; Qian, Huolian; Wang, Xiaoying; Cheng, Zhong; Ren, Jixia; Zhao, Weichen; Xie, Yong

    2014-03-01

    The Src homology 3 (SH3) domain is a small, noncatalytic domain with a conserved sequence of about 60 amino-acid residues that interacts with proline-rich peptides to form a protein complex. In this study, the C-terminal SH3 domain of human Tks4 (residues 853-911) was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the trigonal space group P3121 (or P3221), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 83.87, c = 108.44 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Calculating the self-rotation and the native Patterson function did not lead to the detection of any noncrystallographic translational symmetry. Six, seven or eight protein molecules are likely to be present in the asymmetric unit, resulting in a Matthews coefficient and approximate solvent content of 2.71 Å(3) Da(-1) and 55%, 2.32 Å(3) Da(-1) and 47%, and 2.03 Å(3) Da(-1) and 39%, respectively. To solve the crystal structure of the C-terminal SH3 domain of human Tks4, the isomorphous replacement method is presently being utilized. PMID:24598923

  17. Contribution of the C-Terminal Region of a Group II Chaperonin to its Interaction with Prefoldin and Substrate Transfer.

    PubMed

    Zako, Tamotsu; Sahlan, Muhamad; Fujii, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Yohei Y; Tai, Phan The; Sakai, Kotaro; Maeda, Mizuo; Yohda, Masafumi

    2016-06-01

    Prefoldin is a molecular chaperone that captures an unfolded protein substrate and transfers it to a group II chaperonin. Previous studies have shown that the interaction sites for prefoldin are located in the helical protrusions of group II chaperonins. However, it does not exclude the possibility of the existence of other interaction sites. In this study, we constructed C-terminal truncation mutants of a group II chaperonin and examined the effects of these mutations on the chaperone's function and interaction with prefoldin. Whereas the mutants with up to 6 aa truncation from the C-terminus retained more than 90% chaperone activities for protecting citrate synthase from thermal aggregation and refolding of green fluorescent protein and isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, the truncation mutants showed decreased affinities for prefoldin. Consequently, the truncation mutants showed reduced transfer efficiency of the denatured substrate protein from prefoldin and subsequent chaperonin-dependent refolding. The results clearly show that the C-terminal region of group II chaperonins contributes to their interactions with prefoldin, the transfer of the substrate protein from prefoldin and its refolding. PMID:27079363

  18. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the mouse brain cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Serek, Robert; Forwood, Jade K.; Hume, David A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2006-02-01

    The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids, contains two fused 4HBT (4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase) motifs. The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot7) has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion using PEG 2000 MME as precipitant at pH 7.0 and 290 K. The crystals have the symmetry of space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.83, c = 99.82 Å, γ = 120°). Two molecules are expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution using the laboratory X-ray source and are suitable for crystal structure determination.

  19. Insights into the Functional Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains of Helicobacter pylori DprA.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Gajendradhar R; Srikanth, Kolluru D; Anand, Praveen; Naikoo, Javed; Srilatha, N S; Rao, Desirazu N

    2015-01-01

    DNA processing protein A (DprA) plays a crucial role in the process of natural transformation. This is accomplished through binding and subsequent protection of incoming foreign DNA during the process of internalization. DprA along with Single stranded DNA binding protein A (SsbA) acts as an accessory factor for RecA mediated DNA strand exchange. H. pylori DprA (HpDprA) is divided into an N-terminal domain and a C- terminal domain. In the present study, individual domains of HpDprA have been characterized for their ability to bind single stranded (ssDNA) and double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Oligomeric studies revealed that HpDprA possesses two sites for dimerization which enables HpDprA to form large and tightly packed complexes with ss and dsDNA. While the N-terminal domain was found to be sufficient for binding with ss or ds DNA, C-terminal domain has an important role in the assembly of poly-nucleoprotein complex. Using site directed mutagenesis approach, we show that a pocket comprising positively charged amino acids in the N-terminal domain has an important role in the binding of ss and dsDNA. Together, a functional cross talk between the two domains of HpDprA facilitating the binding and formation of higher order complex with DNA is discussed. PMID:26135134

  20. Structure of a bacterial putative acetyltransferase defines the fold of the human O-GlcNAcase C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Francesco V.; Schüttelkopf, Alexander W.; Dorfmueller, Helge C.; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; Navratilova, Iva; van Aalten, Daan M. F.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is an essential posttranslational modification present in higher eukaryotes. Removal of O-GlcNAc is catalysed by O-GlcNAcase, a multi-domain enzyme that has been reported to be bifunctional, possessing both glycoside hydrolase and histone acetyltransferase (AT) activity. Insights into the mechanism, protein substrate recognition and inhibition of the hydrolase domain of human OGA (hOGA) have been obtained via the use of the structures of bacterial homologues. However, the molecular basis of AT activity of OGA, which has only been reported in vitro, is not presently understood. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a putative acetyltransferase (OgpAT) that we identified in the genome of the marine bacterium Oceanicola granulosus, showing homology to the hOGA C-terminal AT domain (hOGA-AT). The structure of OgpAT in complex with acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) reveals that, by homology modelling, hOGA-AT adopts a variant AT fold with a unique loop creating a deep tunnel. The structures, together with mutagenesis and surface plasmon resonance data, reveal that while the bacterial OgpAT binds AcCoA, the hOGA-AT does not, as explained by the lack of key residues normally required to bind AcCoA. Thus, the C-terminal domain of hOGA is a catalytically incompetent ‘pseudo’-AT. PMID:24088714

  1. Cell-type-specific tuning of Cav1.3 Ca2+-channels by a C-terminal automodulatory domain

    PubMed Central

    Scharinger, Anja; Eckrich, Stephanie; Vandael, David H.; Schönig, Kai; Koschak, Alexandra; Hecker, Dietmar; Kaur, Gurjot; Lee, Amy; Sah, Anupam; Bartsch, Dusan; Benedetti, Bruno; Lieb, Andreas; Schick, Bernhard; Singewald, Nicolas; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J.; Carbone, Emilio; Engel, Jutta; Striessnig, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+-channel function is regulated by a C-terminal automodulatory domain (CTM). It affects channel binding of calmodulin and thereby tunes channel activity by interfering with Ca2+- and voltage-dependent gating. Alternative splicing generates short C-terminal channel variants lacking the CTM resulting in enhanced Ca2+-dependent inactivation and stronger voltage-sensitivity upon heterologous expression. However, the role of this modulatory domain for channel function in its native environment is unkown. To determine its functional significance in vivo, we interrupted the CTM with a hemagglutinin tag in mutant mice (Cav1.3DCRDHA/HA). Using these mice we provide biochemical evidence for the existence of long (CTM-containing) and short (CTM-deficient) Cav1.3 α1-subunits in brain. The long (HA-labeled) Cav1.3 isoform was present in all ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells. CTM-elimination impaired Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca2+-currents in hair cells but increased it in chromaffin cells, resulting in hyperpolarized resting potentials and reduced pacemaking. CTM disruption did not affect hearing thresholds. We show that the modulatory function of the CTM is affected by its native environment in different cells and thus occurs in a cell-type specific manner in vivo. It stabilizes gating properties of Cav1.3 channels required for normal electrical excitability. PMID:26379493

  2. Crystallization of the C-terminal redox domain of the sulfur-assimilatory enzyme APR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Chang, Yu-Yung; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Plant-type APS reductase (APR), which catalyzes the reduction of activated sulfate to sulfite in plants, consists of a reductase domain and a C-terminal redox domain showing sequence homology to thioredoxin but possessing the activity of glutaredoxin. In order to understand the structural and biochemical properties of the redox domain of plant-type APS reductase, the C-terminal domain of APR1 (APR1C) from Arabidopsis thaliana was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.70 Å on the SPXF beamline BL13B1 at the NSRRC, Taiwan. The crystals belonged to space group P43212 or P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 58.2, c = 86.7 Å. With one molecule per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (V M) is 2.64 Å3 Da−1, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 53.49%. Further structure-based functional studies of APR1C would extend knowledge of the molecular mechanism and regulation of APR. PMID:25195893

  3. Novel pppGpp binding site at the C-terminal region of the Rel enzyme from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Syal, Kirtimaan; Joshi, Himanshu; Chatterji, Dipankar; Jain, Vikas

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis elicits the stringent response under unfavorable growth conditions, such as those encountered by the pathogen inside the host. The hallmark of this response is production of guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphates, collectively termed (p)ppGpp, which have pleiotropic effects on the bacterial physiology. As the stringent response is connected to survival under stress, it is now being targeted for developing inhibitors against bacterial persistence. The Rel enzyme in mycobacteria has two catalytic domains at its N-terminus that are involved in the synthesis and hydrolysis of (p)ppGpp, respectively. However, the function of the C-terminal region of the protein remained unknown. Here, we have identified a binding site for pppGpp in the C-terminal region of Rel. The binding affinity of pppGpp was quantified by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding site was determined by crosslinking using the nucleotide analog azido-pppGpp, and examining the crosslink product by mass spectrometry. Additionally, mutations in the Rel protein were created to confirm the site of pppGpp binding by isothermal titration calorimetry. These mutants showed increased pppGpp synthesis and reduced hydrolytic activity. We believe that binding of pppGpp to Rel provides a feedback mechanism that allows the protein to detect and adjust the (p)ppGpp level in the cell. Our work suggests that such sites should also be considered while designing inhibitors to target the stringent response. PMID:26179484

  4. The C-Terminal Domain of Yeast PCNA Is Required for Physical And Functional Interactions With Cdc9 DNA Ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, S.; Chapados, B.R.; Schmidt, K.H.; Kolodner, R.D.; Tainer, J.A.; Tomkinson, A.E.

    2007-07-13

    There is compelling evidence that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA sliding clamp, co-ordinates the processing and joining of Okazaki fragments during eukaryotic DNA replication. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of functional PCNA:ligase I interactions has been incomplete. Here we present the co-crystal structure of yeast PCNA with a peptide encompassing the conserved PCNA interaction motif of Cdc9, yeast DNA ligase I. The Cdc9 peptide contacts both the inter-domain connector loop (IDCL) and residues near the C-terminus of PCNA. Complementary mutational and biochemical results demonstrate that these two interaction interfaces are required for complex formation both in the absence of DNA and when PCNA is topologically linked to DNA. Similar to the functionally homologous human proteins, yeast RFC interacts with and inhibits Cdc9 DNA ligase whereas the addition of PCNA alleviates inhibition by RFC. Here we show that the ability of PCNA to overcome RFC-mediated inhibition of Cdc9 is dependent upon both the IDCL and the C-terminal interaction interfaces of PCNA. Together these results demonstrate the functional significance of the {beta}-zipper structure formed between the C-terminal domain of PCNA and Cdc9 and reveal differences in the interactions of FEN-1 and Cdc9 with the two PCNA interfaces that may contribute to the coordinated, sequential action of these enzymes.

  5. Evaluation of Heavy-Chain C-Terminal Deletion on Product Quality and Pharmacokinetics of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoying; Yu, Christopher; Yadav, Daniela B; Hu, Zhilan; Amurao, Annamarie; Duenas, Eileen; Wong, Marc; Iverson, Mark; Zheng, Kai; Lam, Xanthe; Chen, Jia; Vega, Roxanne; Ulufatu, Sheila; Leddy, Cecilia; Davis, Helen; Shen, Amy; Wong, Pin Y; Harris, Reed; Wang, Y John; Li, Dongwei

    2016-07-01

    Due to their potential influence on stability, pharmacokinetics, and product consistency, antibody charge variants have attracted considerable attention in the biotechnology industry. Subtle to significant differences in the level of charge variants and new charge variants under various cell culture conditions are often observed during routine manufacturing or process changes and pose a challenge when demonstrating product comparability. To explore potential solutions to control charge heterogeneity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with native, wild-type C-termini, and mutants with C-terminal deletions of either lysine or lysine and glycine were constructed, expressed, purified, and characterized in vitro and in vivo. Analytical and physiological characterization demonstrated that the mAb mutants had greatly reduced levels of basic variants without decreasing antibody biologic activity, structural stability, pharmacokinetics, or subcutaneous bioavailability in rats. This study provides a possible solution to mitigate mAb heterogeneity in C-terminal processing, improve batch-to-batch consistency, and facilitate the comparability study during process changes. PMID:27262204

  6. Exploiting conformational dynamics in drug discovery: design of C-terminal inhibitors of Hsp90 with improved activities

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Elisabetta; Zhao, Huiping; Blagg, Brian S.J.; Colombo, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The interaction that occurs between molecules is a dynamic process that impacts both structural and conformational properties of the ligand and the ligand binding site. Herein, we investigate the dynamic cross-talk between a protein and the ligand as a source for new opportunities in ligand design. Analysis of the formation/disappearance of protein pockets produced in response to a first-generation inhibitor assisted in the identification of functional groups that could be introduced onto scaffolds to facilitate optimal binding, which allowed for increased binding with previously uncharacterized regions. MD simulations were used to elucidate primary changes that occur in the Hsp90 C-terminal binding pocket in the presence of first-generation ligands. This data was then used to design ligands that adapt to these receptor conformations, which provides access to an energy landscape that is not visible in a static model. The newly synthesized compounds demonstrated anti-proliferative activity at ~150 nanomolar concentration. The method identified herein may be used to design chemical probes that provide additional information on structural variations of Hsp90 C-terminal binding site. PMID:24397468

  7. The C-terminal aqueous-exposed domain of the 45 kDa subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a Cu(I) sponge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Steve S-F; Ji, Cheng-Zhi; Wu, Ya Ping; Lee, Tsu-Lin; Lai, Chien-Hung; Lin, Su-Ching; Yang, Zong-Lin; Wang, Vincent C-C; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Chan, Sunney I

    2007-12-01

    The crystal structure of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been reported recently [Lieberman, R. L., and Rosenzweig, A. C. (2005) Crystal structure of a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that catalyses the biological oxidation of methane, Nature 434, 177-182]. Subsequent work has shown that the preparation on which the X-ray analysis is based might be missing many of the important metal cofactors, including the putative trinuclear copper cluster at the active site as well as ca. 10 copper ions (E-clusters) that have been proposed to serve as a buffer of reducing equivalents to re-reduce the copper atoms at the active site following the catalytic chemistry [Chan, S. I., Wang, V. C.-C., Lai, J. C.-H., Yu, S. S.-F., Chen, P. P.-Y., Chen, K. H.-C., Chen, C.-L., and Chan, M. K. (2007) Redox potentiometry studies of particulate methane monooxygenase: Support for a trinuclear copper cluster active site, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 46, 1992-1994]. Since the aqueous-exposed domains of the 45 kDa subunit (PmoB) have been suggested to be the putative binding domains for the E-cluster copper ions, we have cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli the two aqueous-exposed subdomains toward the N- and C-termini of the subunit: the N-terminal subdomain (residues 54-178) and the C-terminal subdomain (residues 257-394 and 282-414). The recombinant C-terminal water-exposed subdomain is shown to behave like a Cu(I) sponge, taking up to ca. 10 Cu(I) ions cooperatively when cupric ions are added to the protein fragment in the presence of dithiothreitol or ascorbate. In addition, circular dichroism measurements reveal that the C-terminal subdomain folds into a beta-sheet structure in the presence of Cu(I). The propensity for the C-terminal subdomain to bind Cu(I) is consistent with the high redox potential(s) determined for the E-cluster copper ions in the pMMO. These properties of the E-clusters are in accordance with the function proposed

  8. Human IgG is produced in a pro-form that requires clipping of C-terminal lysines for maximal complement activation

    PubMed Central

    van den Bremer, Ewald TJ; Beurskens, Frank J; Voorhorst, Marleen; Engelberts, Patrick J; de Jong, Rob N; van der Boom, Burt G; Cook, Erika M; Lindorfer, Margaret A; Taylor, Ronald P; van Berkel, Patrick HC; Parren, Paul WHI

    2015-01-01

    Human IgG is produced with C-terminal lysines that are cleaved off in circulation. The function of this modification was unknown and generally thought not to affect antibody function. We recently reported that efficient C1q binding and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) requires IgG hexamerization at the cell surface. Here we demonstrate that C-terminal lysines may interfere with this process, leading to suboptimal C1q binding and CDC of cells opsonized with C-terminal lysine-containing IgG. After we removed these lysines with a carboxypeptidase, maximal complement activation was observed. Interestingly, IgG1 mutants containing either a negative C-terminal charge or multiple positive charges lost CDC almost completely; however, CDC was fully restored by mixing C-terminal mutants of opposite charge. Our data indicate a novel post-translational control mechanism of human IgG: human IgG molecules are produced in a pro-form in which charged C-termini interfere with IgG hexamer formation, C1q binding and CDC. To allow maximal complement activation, C-terminal lysine processing is required to release the antibody's full cytotoxic potential. PMID:26037225

  9. Amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region plays a crucial role in antibacterial activity of HMGB1

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antibacterial activity is a novel function of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). However, the functional site for this new effect is presently unknown. Methods and Results In this study, recombinant human HMGB1 A box and B box (rHMGB1 A box, rHMGB1 B box), recombinant human HMGB1 (rHMGB1) and the truncated C-terminal acidic tail mutant (tHMGB1) were prepared by the prokaryotic expression system. The C-terminal acidic tail (C peptide) was synthesized, which was composed of 30 amino acid residues. Antibacterial assays showed that both the full length rHMGB1 and the synthetic C peptide alone could efficiently inhibit bacteria proliferation, but rHMGB1 A box and B box, and tHMGB1 lacking the C-terminal acidic tail had no antibacterial function. These results suggest that C-terminal acidic tail is the key region for the antibacterial activity of HMGB1. Furthermore, we prepared eleven different deleted mutants lacking several amino acid residues in C-terminal acidic tail of HMGB1. Antibacterial assays of these mutants demonstrate that the amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region is the core functional site for the antibacterial activity of the molecule. Conclusion In sum, these results define the key region and the crucial site in HMGB1 for its antibacterial function, which is helpful to illustrating the antibacterial mechanisms of HMGB1. PMID:19751520

  10. Intracellular spermine blocks TRPC4 channel via electrostatic interaction with C-terminal negative amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinsung; Moon, Sang Hui; Shin, Young-Cheul; Jeon, Ju-Hong; Park, Kyu Joo; Lee, Kyu Pil; So, Insuk

    2016-04-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 4 channels are calcium-permeable, nonselective cation channels and are widely expressed in mammalian tissue, especially in the GI tract and brain. TRPC4 channels are known to be involved in neurogenic contraction of ileal smooth muscle cells via generating cationic current after muscarinic stimulation (muscarinic cationic current (mIcat)). Polyamines exist in numerous tissues and are believed to be involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, scar formation, wound healing, and carcinogenesis. Besides, physiological polyamines are essential to maintain inward rectification of cardiac potassium channels (Kir2.1). At membrane potentials more positive than equilibrium potential, intracellular polyamines plug the cytosolic surface of the Kir2.1 so that potassium ions cannot pass through the pore. Recently, it was reported that polyamines inhibit not only cardiac potassium channels but also nonselective cation channels that mediate the generation of mIcat. Here, we report that TRPC4, a definite mIcat mediator, is inhibited by intracellular spermine with great extent. The inhibition was specific to TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels but was not effective to TRPC1/4, TRPC1/5, and TRPC3 channels. For this inhibition to occur, we found that glutamates at 728th and 729th position of TRPC4 channels are essential whereby we conclude that spermine blocks the TRPC4 channel with electrostatic interaction between negative amino acids at the C-terminus of the channel. PMID:26631167

  11. Ca2+-dependent conformational changes in a C-terminal cytosolic domain of polycystin-2.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Frank; Hoffmeister, Helen; Bader, Reto; Schmidt, Maren; Witzgall, Ralph; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2009-09-01

    The PKD1 and PKD2 genes are the genes that are mutated in patients suffering from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. The human PKD2 gene codes for a 968-amino acid long membrane protein called polycystin-2 that represents a cation channel whose activity can be regulated by Ca(2+) ions. By CD, fluorescence, and NMR spectroscopy, we have studied a 117-amino acid-long fragment of the cytoplasmic domain of polycystin-2, polycystin-2-(680-796) that was proposed to contain a Ca(2+)-binding site. NMR structure determination reveals the existence of two Ca(2+)-binding sites in polycystin-2-(680-796) arranged in a typical and an atypical EF-hand motif. In the absence of Ca(2+) the protein forms a dimer that is dissociated by Ca(2+) binding. This dissociation may be related to the Ca(2+) inactivation observed earlier. The calcium affinity of the protein was determined by fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. At 293 K, the K(D) values for the high and low affinity sites are 55 mum and 179 mum, respectively. PMID:19546223

  12. XCTK1: A Xenopus C-terminal Kinesin-like Protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, Seth; Wilhelm, Heike; Sawyer, Alan; Karsenti, Eric; Mitchison, Tim; Walczak, Claire; Reinsch, Sigrid; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    XCTK1 is 97kDa kinesin-like protein homologous to FKIF2 and KIFC3. XCTK1 is present at picomolar levels in eggs, embryos and cultured cells in a soluble high-molecular weight complex that is not associated with membranes. XCKT1 localizes to centrosomes in Xenopus A6 cells. Anti-XCTK1 antibodies also localize to spindle poles when injected into A6 cells or when added to extracts during in vitro spindle assembly reactions. XCTK1 is associated with the center of taxol-induced microtubule asters in extracts. Therefore its localization to poles is dependent on microtubule minus-ends and not on centrosomes per se. Overexpression of XCTK1 leads to centrosome destruction in cultured cells. XCTK1 was tagged at either the N- or C-terminus and transfected into Xenopus A6 cells At low expression levels, XCTK1 associated with centrosomes. At higher levels, the protein localized to insoluble cytoplasmic structures. Gamma-tubulin staining was dramatically decreased from centrosomes or altogether absent. The centrosomal SPJ antigen colocalized with XCTK1-containing structures. Upon nocodozole treatment, microtubules failed to regrow from the centrosomes indicating that overexpression of XCTK1 severely compromises centrosomal function. Current studies are aimed at determining whether XCTK1 interacts directly with centrosomal proteins and to determine the effects of XCTK1 depletion on oocyte maturation and embryogenesis.

  13. The Human Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter (hSGLT1) Is a Disulfide-Bridged Homodimer with a Re-Entrant C-Terminal Loop.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Louis J; Morin, Michael; Coady, Michael J; Blunck, Rikard; Lapointe, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Na-coupled cotransporters are proteins that use the trans-membrane electrochemical gradient of Na to activate the transport of a second solute. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) constitutes a well-studied prototype of this transport mechanism but essential molecular characteristics, namely its quaternary structure and the exact arrangement of the C-terminal transmembrane segments, are still debated. After expression in Xenopus oocytes, human SGLT1 molecules (hSGLT1) were labelled on an externally accessible cysteine residue with a thiol-reactive fluorophore (tetramethylrhodamine-C5-maleimide, TMR). Addition of dipicrylamine (DPA, a negatively-charged amphiphatic fluorescence "quencher") to the fluorescently-labelled oocytes is used to quench the fluorescence originating from hSGLT1 in a voltage-dependent manner. Using this arrangement with a cysteine residue introduced at position 624 in the loop between transmembrane segments 12 and 13, the voltage-dependent fluorescence signal clearly indicated that this portion of the 12-13 loop is located on the external side of the membrane. As the 12-13 loop begins on the intracellular side of the membrane, this suggests that the 12-13 loop is re-entrant. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we observed that different hSGLT1 molecules are within molecular distances from each other suggesting a multimeric complex arrangement. In agreement with this conclusion, a western blot analysis showed that hSGLT1 migrates as either a monomer or a dimer in reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively. A systematic mutational study of endogenous cysteine residues in hSGLT1 showed that a disulfide bridge is formed between the C355 residues of two neighbouring hSGLT1 molecules. It is concluded that, 1) hSGLT1 is expressed as a disulfide bridged homodimer via C355 and that 2) a portion of the intracellular 12-13 loop is re-entrant and readily accessible from the extracellular milieu. PMID:27137918

  14. The Human Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter (hSGLT1) Is a Disulfide-Bridged Homodimer with a Re-Entrant C-Terminal Loop

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, Louis J.; Morin, Michael; Coady, Michael J.; Blunck, Rikard; Lapointe, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Na-coupled cotransporters are proteins that use the trans-membrane electrochemical gradient of Na to activate the transport of a second solute. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) constitutes a well-studied prototype of this transport mechanism but essential molecular characteristics, namely its quaternary structure and the exact arrangement of the C-terminal transmembrane segments, are still debated. After expression in Xenopus oocytes, human SGLT1 molecules (hSGLT1) were labelled on an externally accessible cysteine residue with a thiol-reactive fluorophore (tetramethylrhodamine-C5-maleimide, TMR). Addition of dipicrylamine (DPA, a negatively-charged amphiphatic fluorescence “quencher”) to the fluorescently-labelled oocytes is used to quench the fluorescence originating from hSGLT1 in a voltage-dependent manner. Using this arrangement with a cysteine residue introduced at position 624 in the loop between transmembrane segments 12 and 13, the voltage-dependent fluorescence signal clearly indicated that this portion of the 12–13 loop is located on the external side of the membrane. As the 12–13 loop begins on the intracellular side of the membrane, this suggests that the 12–13 loop is re-entrant. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we observed that different hSGLT1 molecules are within molecular distances from each other suggesting a multimeric complex arrangement. In agreement with this conclusion, a western blot analysis showed that hSGLT1 migrates as either a monomer or a dimer in reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively. A systematic mutational study of endogenous cysteine residues in hSGLT1 showed that a disulfide bridge is formed between the C355 residues of two neighbouring hSGLT1 molecules. It is concluded that, 1) hSGLT1 is expressed as a disulfide bridged homodimer via C355 and that 2) a portion of the intracellular 12–13 loop is re-entrant and readily accessible from the extracellular milieu. PMID:27137918

  15. A Chlamydia trachomatis OmcB C-Terminal Fragment Is Released into the Host Cell Cytoplasm and Is Immunogenic in Humans ▿

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Manli; Gong, Siqi; Lei, Lei; Liu, Quanzhong; Zhong, Guangming

    2011-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) is an antigen with diagnostic and vaccine relevance. To further characterize OmcB, we generated antibodies against OmcB C-terminal (OmcBc) and N-terminal (OmcBn) fragments. Surprisingly, the anti-OmcBc antibody detected dominant signals in the host cell cytosol, while the anti-OmcBn antibody exclusively labeled intrainclusion signals in C. trachomatis-infected cells permeabilized with saponin. Western blot analyses revealed that OmcB was partially processed into OmcBc and OmcBn fragments. The processed OmcBc was released into host cell cytosol, while the OmcBn and remaining full-length OmcB were retained within the chlamydial inclusions. The organism-associated OmcB epitopes became detectable only after the C. trachomatis-infected cells were permeabilized with strong detergents such as SDS. However, the harsh permeabilization conditions also led to the leakage of the already secreted OmcBc and chlamydia-secreted protease (CPAF) out of the host cells. The OmcBc processing and release occurred in all biovars of C. trachomatis. Moreover, the released OmcBc but not the retained OmcBn was highly immunogenic in C. trachomatis-infected women, which is consistent with the concept that exposure of chlamydial proteins to host cell cytosol is accompanied by increased immunogenicity. These observations have provided important information for further exploring/optimizing OmcB as a target for the development of diagnosis methods and vaccines. PMID:21422182

  16. Cellulose microfibril crystallinity is reduced by mutating C-terminal transmembrane region residues CESA1A903V and CESA3T942I of cellulose synthase

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Darby M.; Corbin, Kendall; Wang, Tuo; Gutierrez, Ryan; Bertolo, Ana L.; Petti, Carloalberto; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Estevez, José Manuel; Bonetta, Dario; Urbanowicz, Breeanna R.; Ehrhardt, David W.; Somerville, Chris R.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Hong, Mei; DeBolt, Seth

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants are complex and still poorly understood. A central question concerns the mechanism of microfibril structure and how this is linked to the catalytic polymerization action of cellulose synthase (CESA). Furthermore, it remains unclear whether modification of cellulose microfibril structure can be achieved genetically, which could be transformative in a bio-based economy. To explore these processes in planta, we developed a chemical genetic toolbox of pharmacological inhibitors and corresponding resistance-conferring point mutations in the C-terminal transmembrane domain region of CESA1A903V and CESA3T942I in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we show that the cellulose microfibrils displayed reduced width and an additional cellulose C4 peak indicative of a degree of crystallinity that is intermediate between the surface and interior glucans of wild type, suggesting a difference in glucan chain association during microfibril formation. Consistent with measurements of lower microfibril crystallinity, cellulose extracts from mutated CESA1A903V and CESA3T942I displayed greater saccharification efficiency than wild type. Using live-cell imaging to track fluorescently labeled CESA, we found that these mutants show increased CESA velocities in the plasma membrane, an indication of increased polymerization rate. Collectively, these data suggest that CESA1A903V and CESA3T942I have modified microfibril structure in terms of crystallinity and suggest that in plants, as in bacteria, crystallization biophysically limits polymerization. PMID:22375033

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor facilitates in vivo internalization of tetanus neurotoxin C-terminal fragment fusion proteins in mature mouse motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Roux, Sylvie; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Curie, Thomas; Girard, Emmanuelle; Miana Mena, Francisco-Javier; Barbier, Julien; Osta, Rosario; Molgó, Jordi; Brûlet, Philippe

    2006-09-01

    In a previous study it was reported that fusion proteins composed of the atoxic C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) and green fluorescent protein or beta-galactosidase (GFP-TTC and beta-gal-TTC, respectively) rapidly cluster at motor nerve terminals of the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Because this traffic involves presynaptic activity, probably via the secretion of active molecules, we examined whether it is affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Quantitative confocal microscopy and a fluorimetric assay for beta-gal activity revealed that co-injecting BDNF and the fusion proteins significantly increased the kinetics and amount of the proteins' localization at the NMJ and their internalization by motor nerve terminals. The observed increases were independent of synaptic vesicle recycling because BDNF did not affect spontaneous quantal acetylcholine release. In addition, injecting anti-BDNF antibody shortly before injecting GFP-TTC, and before co-injecting GFP-TTC and BDNF, significantly reduced the fusion protein's localization at the NMJ. Co-injecting GFP-TTC with neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) or glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), but not with nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 or ciliary neurotrophic factor, also significantly increased the fusion protein's localization at the NMJ. Thus, TTC probes may use for their neuronal internalization endocytic pathways normally stimulated by BDNF, NT-4 and GDNF binding. Different tyrosine kinase receptors with similar signalling pathways are activated by BDNF/NT-4 and GDNF binding. Thus, activated components of these signalling pathways may be involved in the TTC probes' internalization, perhaps by facilitating localization of receptors of TTC in specific membrane microdomains or by recruiting various factors needed for internalization of TTC. PMID:17004918

  18. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF) aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Obayashi, Masato; Ishiguro, Taro; Sato, Nozomu; Niimi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Kokoro; Mogushi, Kaoru; Mahmut, Yasen; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Dolmetsch, Ricardo; Yamada, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takeo; Mori, Osamu; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Ishikawa, Kinya

    2013-01-01

    The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1) is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C)-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q) tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF) containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (r)CTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range) than with Q13 (normal-length). Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei. PMID:23505410

  19. Structural characterization of the C-terminal coiled-coil domains of wild-type and kidney disease-associated mutants of apolipoprotein L1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok K; Friedman, David J; Pollak, Martin R; Alper, Seth L

    2016-05-01

    Trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness endocytose apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1)-containing trypanolytic factors from human serum, leading to trypanolytic death through generation of APOL1-associated lytic pores in trypanosomal membranes. The trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense counteracts trypanolysis by expressing the surface protein serum response-associated (SRA), which can bind APOL1 common variant G0 to block its trypanolytic activity. However, two missense variants in the C terminal predicted coiled-coil (CC) domains of human APOL1 G1 (S342G/I384M) and G2 (ΔN388Y389) decrease or abrogate APOL1 binding to T. brucei rhodesiense SRA, thus preserving APOL1 trypanolytic activity. These evolutionarily selected APOL1 missense variants, found at a high frequency in some populations of African descent, also confer elevated risk of kidney disease. Understanding the SRA-APOL1 interaction and the role of APOL1 G1 and G2 variants in kidney disease demands structural characterization of the APOL1 CC domain. Using CD, heteronuclear NMR, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation on structural homology models, we report here unique and dynamic solution conformations of nephropathy variants G1 and G2 as compared with the common variant G0. Conformational plasticity in G1 and G2 CC domains led to interhelical α1-α2 approximation coupled with secondary structural changes and delimited motional properties absent in the G0 CC domain. The G1 substitutions conferred local structural changes principally along helix α1, whereas the G2 deletion altered the structure of both helix α2 and helix α1. These dynamic features of APOL1 CC variants likely reflect their intrinsic structural properties, and should help interpret future APOL1 structural studies and define the contribution of APOL1 risk variants to kidney disease. PMID:26945671

  20. The Coxiella burnetii Ankyrin Repeat Domain-Containing Protein Family Is Heterogeneous, with C-Terminal Truncations That Influence Dot/Icm-Mediated Secretion ▿

    PubMed Central

    Voth, Daniel E.; Howe, Dale; Beare, Paul A.; Vogel, Joseph P.; Unsworth, Nathan; Samuel, James E.; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that directs biogenesis of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) for replication. Effectors of PV maturation are likely translocated into the host cytosol by a type IV secretion system (T4SS) with homology to the Dot/Icm apparatus of Legionella pneumophila. Since secreted bacterial virulence factors often functionally mimic the activities of host proteins, prokaryotic proteins with eukaryotic features are considered candidate T4SS substrates. Genes encoding proteins with eukaryotic-type ankyrin repeat domains (Anks) were identified upon genome sequencing of the C. burnetii Nine Mile reference isolate, which is associated with a case of human acute Q fever. Interestingly, recent genome sequencing of the G and K isolates, derived from human chronic endocarditis patients, and of the Dugway rodent isolate revealed remarkable heterogeneity in the Ank gene family, with the Dugway isolate harboring the largest number of full-length Ank genes. Using L. pneumophila as a surrogate host, we identified 10 Dugway Anks and 1 Ank specific to the G and K endocarditis isolates translocated into the host cytosol in a Dot/Icm-dependent fashion. A 10-amino-acid C-terminal region appeared to be necessary for translocation, with some Anks also requiring the chaperone IcmS for secretion. Ectopically expressed Anks localized to a variety of subcellular regions in mammalian cells, including microtubules, mitochondria, and the PV membrane. Collectively, these data suggest that C. burnetii isolates translocate distinct subsets of the Ank protein family into the host cytosol, where they modulate diverse functions, some of which may be unique to C. burnetii pathotypes. PMID:19411324

  1. Crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of the third paralog of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus oligosaccharyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein N-glycosylation occurs in the three domains of life. Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) transfers an oligosaccharide chain to the asparagine residue in the N-glycosylation sequons. The catalytic subunits of the OST enzyme are STT3 in eukaryotes, AglB in archaea and PglB in eubacteria. The genome of a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, encodes three paralogous AglB proteins. We previously solved the crystal structures of the C-terminal globular domains of two paralogs, AglB-Short 1 and AglB-Short 2. Results We determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of the third AglB paralog, AglB-Long, at 1.9 Å resolutions. The crystallization of the fusion protein with maltose binding protein (MBP) afforded high quality protein crystals. Two MBP-AglB-L molecules formed a swapped dimer in the crystal. Since the fusion protein behaved as a monomer upon gel filtration, we reconstituted the monomer structure from the swapped dimer by exchanging the swapped segments. The C-terminal domain of A. fulgidus AglB-L includes a structural unit common to AglB-S1 and AglB-S2. This structural unit contains the evolutionally conserved WWDYG and DK motifs. The present structure revealed that A. fulgidus AglB-L contained a variant type of the DK motif with a short insertion, and confirmed that the second signature residue, Lys, of the DK motif participates in the formation of a pocket that binds to the serine and threonine residues at the +2 position of the N-glycosylation sequon. Conclusions The structure of A. fulgidus AglB-L, together with the two previously solved structures of AglB-S1 and AglB-S2, provides a complete overview of the three AglB paralogs encoded in the A. fulgidus genome. All three AglBs contain a variant type of the DK motif. This finding supports a previously proposed rule: The STT3/AglB/PglB paralogs in one organism always contain the same type of Ser/Thr-binding pocket. The present structure will be useful as a

  2. Ethylene Perception by the ERS1 Protein in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Anne E.; Findell, Jennifer L.; Schaller, G. Eric; Sisler, Edward C.; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2000-01-01

    Ethylene perception in Arabidopsis is controlled by a family of five genes, including ETR1, ERS1 (ethylene response sensor 1), ERS2, ETR2, and EIN4. ERS1, the most highly conserved gene with ETR1, encodes a protein with 67% identity to ETR1. To clarify the role of ERS1 in ethylene sensing, we biochemically characterized the ERS1 protein by heterologous expression in yeast. ERS1, like ETR1, forms a membrane-associated, disulfide-linked dimer. In addition, yeast expressing the ERS1 protein contains ethylene-binding sites, indicating ERS1 is also an ethylene-binding protein. This finding supports previous genetic evidence that isoforms of ETR1 also function in plants as ethylene receptors. Further, we used the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to characterize the ethylene-binding sites of ERS1 and ETR1. We found 1-MCP to be both a potent inhibitor of the ethylene-induced seedling triple response, as well as ethylene binding by yeast expressing ETR1 and ERS1. Yeast expressing ETR1 and ERS1 showed nearly identical sensitivity to 1-MCP, suggesting that the ethylene-binding sites of ETR1 and ERS1 have similar affinities for ethylene. PMID:10938361

  3. Insights into structural and regulatory roles of Sec16 in COPII vesicle formation at ER exit sites

    PubMed Central

    Yorimitsu, Tomohiro; Sato, Ken

    2012-01-01

    COPII-coated buds are formed at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES) to mediate ER-to-Golgi transport. Sec16 is an essential factor in ERES formation, as well as in COPII-mediated traffic in vivo. Sec16 interacts with multiple COPII proteins, although the functional significance of these interactions remains unknown. Here we present evidence that full-length Sec16 plays an important role in regulating Sar1 GTPase activity at the late steps of COPII vesicle formation. We show that Sec16 interacts with Sec23 and Sar1 through its C-terminal conserved region and hinders the ability of Sec31 to stimulate Sec23 GAP activity toward Sar1. We also find that purified Sec16 alone can self-assemble into homo-oligomeric complexes on a planar lipid membrane. These features ensure prolonged COPII coat association within a preformed Sec16 cluster, which may lead to the formation of ERES. Our results indicate a mechanistic relationship between COPII coat assembly and ERES formation. PMID:22675024

  4. Spin transport in epitaxial graphene on the C-terminated ( 000 1 ¯ )-face of silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, J. J.; Yakimova, R.; van Wees, B. J.

    2016-07-01

    We performed a temperature dependent study of the charge and spin transport properties of epitaxial graphene on the C-terminated ( 000 1 ¯ ) face of silicon carbide (SiC), a system without a carbon buffer layer between the graphene and the SiC. Using spin Hanle precession in the nonlocal geometry, we measured a spin relaxation length of λS = 0.7 μm at room temperature, lower than in exfoliated graphene. We show that the charge and spin diffusion coefficient, DC and DS, respectively, increasingly deviate from each other during electrical measurements up to a difference of a factor 4. Thus, we show that a model of localized states that was previously used to explain DC ≠ DS, can also be applied to epitaxial graphene systems without a carbon buffer layer. We attribute the effect to charge trap states in the interface between the graphene and the SiC.

  5. C-terminal domain of SMYD3 serves as a unique HSP90-regulated motif in oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Harriss, June; Das, Chhaya; Zhu, Li; Edwards, Melissa; Shaaban, Salam; Tucker, Haley

    2015-01-01

    The SMYD3 histone methyl transferase (HMTase) and the nuclear chaperone, HSP90, have been independently implicated as proto-oncogenes in several human malignancies. We show that a degenerate tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-like domain encoded in the SMYD3 C-terminal domain (CTD) mediates physical interaction with HSP90. We further demonstrate that the CTD of SMYD3 is essential for its basal HMTase activity and that the TPR-like structure is required for HSP90-enhanced enzyme activity. Loss of SMYD3-HSP90 interaction leads to SMYD3 mislocalization within the nucleus, thereby losing its chromatin association. This results in reduction of SMYD3-mediated cell proliferation and, potentially, impairment of SMYD3′s oncogenic activity. These results suggest a novel approach for blocking HSP90-driven malignancy in SMYD3-overexpressing cells with a reduced toxicity profile over current HSP90 inhibitors. PMID:25738358

  6. Triptonide Effectively Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling via C-terminal Transactivation Domain of β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Chinison, Jessica; Aguilar, Jose S; Avalos, Alan; Huang, Ying; Wang, Zhijun; Cameron, D Joshua; Hao, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is implicated in many diseases including cancer. As a result, therapeutic agents that disrupt this signaling pathway have been highly sought after. Triptonide is a key bioactive small molecule identified in a traditional Chinese medicine named Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., and it has a broad spectrum of biological functions. Here we show that triptonide can effectively inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting the downstream C-terminal transcription domain of β-catenin or a nuclear component associated with β-catenin. In addition, triptonide treatment robustly rescued the zebrafish "eyeless" phenotype induced by GSK-3β antagonist 6-bromoindirubin-30-oxime (BIO) for Wnt signaling activation during embryonic gastrulation. Finally, triptonide effectively induced apoptosis of Wnt-dependent cancer cells, supporting the therapeutic potential of triptonide. PMID:27596363

  7. Solution structure of the calmodulin-like C-terminal domain of Entamoeba α-actinin2.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Göran; Persson, Cecilia; Mayzel, Maxim; Hedenström, Mattias; Backman, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Cell motility is dependent on a dynamic meshwork of actin filaments that is remodelled continuously. A large number of associated proteins that are severs, cross-links, or caps the filament ends have been identified and the actin cross-linker α-actinin has been implied in several important cellular processes. In Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of human amoebiasis, α-actinin is believed to be required for infection. To better understand the role of α-actinin in the infectious process we have determined the solution structure of the C-terminal calmodulin-like domain using NMR. The final structure ensemble of the apo form shows two lobes, that both resemble other pairs of calcium-binding EF-hand motifs, connected with a mobile linker. PMID:26800385

  8. Triptonide Effectively Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling via C-terminal Transactivation Domain of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Chinison, Jessica; Aguilar, Jose S.; Avalos, Alan; Huang, Ying; Wang, Zhijun; Cameron, D. Joshua; Hao, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is implicated in many diseases including cancer. As a result, therapeutic agents that disrupt this signaling pathway have been highly sought after. Triptonide is a key bioactive small molecule identified in a traditional Chinese medicine named Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., and it has a broad spectrum of biological functions. Here we show that triptonide can effectively inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting the downstream C-terminal transcription domain of β-catenin or a nuclear component associated with β-catenin. In addition, triptonide treatment robustly rescued the zebrafish “eyeless” phenotype induced by GSK-3β antagonist 6-bromoindirubin-30-oxime (BIO) for Wnt signaling activation during embryonic gastrulation. Finally, triptonide effectively induced apoptosis of Wnt-dependent cancer cells, supporting the therapeutic potential of triptonide. PMID:27596363

  9. α-Helical to β-Helical Conformation Change in the C-Terminal of the Mammalian Prion Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jesse; Whitford, Paul; Hayre, Natha; Cox, Daniel; Onuchic, José.

    2011-03-01

    We employ all-atom structure-based models with mixed basis contact maps to explore whether there are any significant geometric or energetic constraints limiting conjectured conformational transitions between the alpha-helical (α H) and the left handed beta helical (LHBH) conformations for the C-terminal (residues 166-226) of the mammalian prion protein. The LHBH structure has been proposed to describe infectious oligomers and one class of in vitro grown fibrils, as well as possibly self- templating the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to the infectious form. Our results confirm that the kinetics of the conformation change are not strongely limited by large scale geometry modification and there exists an overall preference for the LHBH conformation.

  10. Ligand-induced Ordering of the C-terminal Tail Primes STING for Phosphorylation by TBK1.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yuko; Jounai, Nao; Takeshita, Fumihiko; Ishii, Ken J; Mizuguchi, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    The innate immune protein Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) promotes the induction of interferon beta (IFN-β) production via the phosphorylation of its C-terminal tail (CTT) by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Potent ligands of STING are, therefore, promising candidates for novel anti-cancer drugs or vaccine adjuvants. However, the intrinsically flexible CTT poses serious problems in in silico drug discovery. Here, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the STING fragment containing the CTT in ligand-bound and unbound forms and observed that the binding of a potent ligand cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) induced a local structure in the CTT, reminiscent of the known structure of a TBK1 substrate. The subsequent molecular biological experiments confirmed the observed dynamics of the CTT and identified essential residues for the activation of the IFN-β promoter, leading us to propose a new mechanism of STING activation. PMID:27333035

  11. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the fibre protein from snake adenovirus 1, an atadenovirus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhimanyu K; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; San Martín, Carmen; van Raaij, Mark J

    2013-12-01

    Adenovirus fibre proteins play an important role in determining viral tropism. The C-terminal domain of the fibre protein from snake adenovirus type 1, a member of the Atadenovirus genus, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained belonging to space groups P2(1)2(1)2(1) (two different forms), I2(1)3 and F23. The best of these diffracted synchrotron radiation to a resolution of 1.4 Å. As the protein lacks methionines or cysteines, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to change two leucine residues to methionines. Crystals of selenomethionine-derivatized crystals of the I2(1)3 form were also obtained and a multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion data set was collected. PMID:24316834

  12. Elastase inhibition by the C-terminal domains of alpha-crystallin and small heat-shock protein.

    PubMed

    Voorter, C E; de Haard-Hoekman, W; Merck, K B; Bloemendal, H; de Jong, W W

    1994-01-11

    alpha-Crystallin, an abundant eye-lens protein and a stress protein in other tissues, shows structural and functional similarities with the small heat-shock proteins. One of the properties in common is the inhibition of elastase. We now report that the separated subunits of alpha-crystallin, alpha A and alpha B, also exhibit elastase inhibition, whereas phosphorylation of these subunits apparently has no influence on the inhibitory capacity. Furthermore, for both alpha A-crystallin and mouse HSP25 the putative C-terminal structural domain, comprising the major region of homology between these proteins, is sufficient to give elastase inhibition. With database search no homology could be found between the three proteins under investigation and any of the known consensus sequences of proteinase inhibitor families. PMID:8305474

  13. Graphene on C-terminated face of 4H-SiC observed by noncontact scanning nonlinear dielectric potentiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasue, Kohei; Fukidome, Hirokazu; Tashima, Keiichiro; Suemitsu, Maki; Cho, Yasuo

    2016-08-01

    We studied graphene synthesized on the C-terminated face (C-face) of a 4H-SiC substrate by noncontact scanning nonlinear dielectric potentiometry. As already reported by other researchers, multilayer graphene sheets with moiré patterns were observed in our sample, which indicates the existence of rotational disorder between adjacent layers. We found that the potentials of graphene on the C-face are almost neutral and significantly smaller than those observed on the Si-terminated face (Si-face). In addition, the neutrality of potentials is not affected by various topographic features underlying the multilayer graphene sheets. These results indicate that graphene on the C-face of SiC is decoupled or screened from the underlying structures and substrate, unlike graphene on the Si-face.

  14. Release of DR molecules from complexes with invariant chain through the formation of a C-terminal 25 kDa invariant chain fragment.

    PubMed

    Demotz, S; Danieli, C

    1993-12-01

    To investigate how class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are released from complexes with invariant chain (Ii), we studied a 25 kDa Ii fragment (p25) detected by Western blotting in affinity chromatographed DR preparations. The p25 species corresponds to the non-transmembrane, C-terminal Ii fragment 107-232. It was determined by gel filtration chromatography that the p25 fragment has a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 46 kDa, indicating that this Ii fragment is present as dimers in B cell lysate. Two independent approaches were followed to demonstrate that generation of the p25 fragment takes place shortly before, or concomitantly to, loading of class II MHC molecules with antigen fragments. First, it was shown that a fraction of the p25 molecules is resistant to endoglycosidase H digestion, indicating that the p25 polypeptide can exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is transported at least to the cis-Golgi compartment. Second, treatment of class II MHC-positive B cells with leupeptin blocks the formation of p25, further indicating that this Ii fragment is generated in the endosomal compartment. The role of the p25 Ii species in the assembly of complexes between peptides and DR molecules was then investigated. While the p25 fragment was totally unable to prevent binding of a synthetic tetanus toxin peptide to DR molecules, the full-length Ii species (p33/35) effectively inhibited peptide binding, indicating that, by contrast with the p33/35 species, the p25 fragment does not occlude the peptide binding site of DR molecules. We concluded that the p25 fragment, which is produced by proteolytic cleavage at the N-terminal side of Methionine 107, has a decreased affinity for DR molecules as compared with the p33/35 species. Dissociation of the p25 fragment from DR molecules exposes the peptide binding site, which is thus made accessible for antigen fragments. This model of the complexes between DR and antigen fragments proposes that a stretch of

  15. Biochemical characterization of Yarrowia lipolytica LIP8, a secreted lipase with a cleavable C-terminal region.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, Jannet; Schué, Mathieu; Messaoud, Wala; Baignol, Justine; Point, Vanessa; Mateos-Diaz, Eduardo; Mansuelle, Pascal; Gargouri, Youssef; Parsiegla, Goetz; Cavalier, Jean-François; Carrière, Frédéric; Aloulou, Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a lipolytic yeast possessing 16 paralog genes coding for lipases. Little information on these lipases has been obtained and only the major secreted lipase, namely YLLIP2, had been biochemically and structurally characterized. Another secreted lipase, YLLIP8, was isolated from Y. lipolytica culture medium and compared with the recombinant enzyme produced in Pichia pastoris. N-terminal sequencing showed that YLLIP8 is produced in its active form after the cleavage of a signal peptide. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that YLLIP8 recovered from culture medium lacks a C-terminal part of 33 amino acids which are present in the coding sequence. A 3D model of YLLIP8 built from the X-ray structure of the homologous YLLIP2 lipase shows that these truncated amino acids in YLLIP8 belong to an additional C-terminal region predicted to be mainly helical. Western blot analysis shows that YLLIP8 C-tail is rapidly cleaved upon enzyme secretion since both cell-bound and culture supernatant lipases lack this extension. Mature recombinant YLLIP8 displays a true lipase activity on short-, medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), with an optimum activity at alkaline pH on medium chain TAG. It has no apparent regioselectivity in TAG hydrolysis, thus generating glycerol and FFAs as final lipolysis products. YLLIP8 properties are distinct from those of the 1,3-regioselective YLLIP2, acting optimally at acidic pH. These lipases are tailored for complementary roles in fatty acid uptake by Y. lipolytica. PMID:25449652

  16. NMR solution structure and function of the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor.

    PubMed

    Mantsyzov, Alexey B; Ivanova, Elena V; Birdsall, Berry; Alkalaeva, Elena Z; Kryuchkova, Polina N; Kelly, Geoff; Frolova, Ludmila Y; Polshakov, Vladimir I

    2010-06-01

    Termination of translation in eukaryotes is triggered by two polypeptide chain release factors, eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor (eRF1) and eukaryotic class 2 polypeptide chain release factor 3. eRF1 is a three-domain protein that interacts with eukaryotic class 2 polypeptide chain release factor 3 via its C-terminal domain (C-domain). The high-resolution NMR structure of the human C-domain (residues 277-437) has been determined in solution. The overall fold and the structure of the beta-strand core of the protein in solution are similar to those found in the crystal structure. The structure of the minidomain (residues 329-372), which was ill-defined in the crystal structure, has been determined in solution. The protein backbone dynamics, studied using (15)N-relaxation experiments, showed that the C-terminal tail 414-437 and the minidomain are the most flexible parts of the human C-domain. The minidomain exists in solution in two conformational states, slowly interconverting on the NMR timescale. Superposition of this NMR solution structure of the human C-domain onto the available crystal structure of full-length human eRF1 shows that the minidomain is close to the stop codon-recognizing N-terminal domain. Mutations in the tip of the minidomain were found to affect the stop codon specificity of the factor. The results provide new insights into the possible role of the C-domain in the process of translation termination. PMID:20553496

  17. Clustered-charge to alanine scanning mutagenesis of the Mal63 MAL-activator C-terminal regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Danzi, Sara E; Bali, Mehtap; Michels, Corinne A

    2003-12-01

    The MAL-activator genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode regulatory proteins required for the expression of the structural genes encoding maltose permease and maltase. Residues within the C-terminal region of the Mal63 protein required for negative regulation were previously identified. Evidence suggested that the C-terminal domain is also involved in positive regulatory functions, such as inducer responsiveness and transactivation in the context of a full-length protein. Charged-cluster to alanine scanning mutagenesis of the regulatory domain of MAL63 and the constitutive MAL43-C were undertaken to identify distinct regions within Mal63p involved in positive functions and to define their roles in induction. Mutations that affect the ability to activate transcription in the inducible MAL63 but have no effect in the constitutive MAL43-C define regions that function in induction. Those that affect both the inducible and constitutive alleles define regions involved in activation more generally. Mutations in MAL63 fell into three classes, those that have little or no impact on activity, those that decrease activity, and those that enhance function. Mutations from these classes mapped to distinct regions of the protein, identifying a region of approximately 90 residues (residues 331-423) involved in maltose sensing and an approximately 50-residue region at the extreme C-terminus (residues 420-470) required for activation, such as the formation and/or maintenance of an active state. These studies support a model for MAL-activator function which involves complex protein-protein interactions and overlapping negative and positive regulatory regions. PMID:14508602

  18. Cysteine-free non-canonical C-intein for versatile protein C-terminal labeling through trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xudong; Xun, Qijing; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Meng, Qing

    2015-10-01

    Site-specific protein labeling are powerful means of protein research and engineering; however, new and improved labeling methods are greatly needed. Split inteins catalyze a protein trans-splicing reaction that can be used for enzymatic and nearly seamless protein labeling. Non-canonical S11 split intein has been used in an earlier method of protein C-terminal labeling; however, its relatively large (~150 aa) N-intein fused to the target protein often hindered protein expression, folding, and solubility. To solve this problem, here, we have designed and demonstrated a new method of protein C-terminal labeling, by first engineering a functional non-canonical S1 split intein that has an extremely small (12 aa) N-intein and a cysteine-free C-intein. An engineered Rma DnaB S1 split intein was modified to have a cysteine-free C-intein, while still retaining its robust trans-splicing function, which permitted the C-extein in a C-precursor to have a single cysteine for easy and specific linkage with desired labeling groups. The resulting new and generally useful method has two unique advantages: (1) The extremely small (12 aa) N-intein, which must be fused to the C terminus of the target protein, is less likely to hinder the protein expression, folding, and solubility; and (2) the single cysteine in the C-extein may be readily linked to a variety of labeling or modification groups using commercially available reagents. PMID:26227407

  19. Redox-dependent 1H NMR spectral features and tertiary structural constraints on the C-terminal region of putidaredoxin.

    PubMed

    Pochapsky, T C; Ratnaswamy, G; Patera, A

    1994-05-31

    Putidaredoxin (Pdx) is a 106-residue Fe2S2 ferredoxin which acts as the physiological reductant and effector of cytochrome P-450cam. Pdx has two accessible oxidation states, Fe+3-Fe+3 (oxidized) and Fe+3-Fe+2 (reduced), and exhibits redox-dependent binding affinities for cytochrome P-450cam, with reduced Pdx binding over 100-fold more tightly than oxidized Pdx to the oxidized cytochrome P-450cam [Hintz, M. J., Mock, D. M., Peterson, L. L., Tuttle, K., & Peterson, J. A. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 14324-14332]. The analysis of two-dimensional 1H NMR experiments has yielded sequential 1H resonance assignments for the diamagnetic regions of the reduced form of Pdx, which are compared to those of oxidized Pdx, described previously [Ye, X. M., Pochapsky, T. C., & Pochapsky, S. S. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1961-1968]. Increased unpaired electron-spin density on the metal cluster in reduced relative to oxidized Pdx increases the number of 1H resonances which are broadened by the metal cluster, and the pattern of paramagnetic broadening provides information concerning the placement of the metal cluster within the protein. Two-dimensional exchange experiments on half-reduced samples of Pdx indicate that electron self-exchange is slow on the chemical shift time scale, with a second-order rate constant < or = 66 M-1 s-1 at 290 K. Spectral changes unrelated to increases in unpaired electron-spin density are also observed. The largest changes of this type are observed for features structurally contiguous with the C-terminal region Pro 102-Trp 106. The C-terminal residue Trp 106 has been implicated in binding to cytochrome P-450cam.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8204576

  20. Biological Activity and Antidiabetic Potential of C-Terminal Octapeptide Fragments of the Gut-Derived Hormone Xenin

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christine M.; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hasib, Annie; Ng, Ming T.; McClean, Stephen; Flatt, Peter R.; Gault, Victor A.; Irwin, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Xenin is a peptide that is co-secreted with the incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), from intestinal K-cells in response to feeding. Studies demonstrate that xenin has appetite suppressive effects and modulates glucose-induced insulin secretion. The present study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and antidiabetic properties of two C-terminal fragment xenin peptides, namely xenin 18–25 and xenin 18–25 Gln. In BRIN-BD11 cells, both xenin fragment peptides concentration-dependently stimulated insulin secretion, with similar efficacy as the parent peptide. Neither fragment peptide had any effect on acute feeding behaviour at elevated doses of 500 nmol/kg bw. When administered together with glucose to normal mice at 25 nmol/kg bw, the overall insulin secretory effect was significantly enhanced in both xenin 18–25 and xenin 18–25 Gln treated mice, with better moderation of blood glucose levels. Twice daily administration of xenin 18–25 or xenin 18–25 Gln for 21 days in high fat fed mice did not affect energy intake, body weight, circulating blood glucose or body fat stores. However, circulating plasma insulin concentrations had a tendency to be elevated, particularly in xenin 18–25 Gln mice. Both treatment regimens significantly improved insulin sensitivity by the end of the treatment period. In addition, sustained treatment with xenin 18–25 Gln significantly reduced the overall glycaemic excursion and augmented the insulinotropic response to an exogenous glucose challenge on day 21. In harmony with this, GIP-mediated glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing effects were substantially improved by twice daily xenin 18–25 Gln treatment. Overall, these data provide evidence that C-terminal octapeptide fragments of xenin, such as xenin 18–25 Gln, have potential therapeutic utility for type 2 diabetes. PMID:27032106

  1. Dual-tagged amyloid-β precursor protein reveals distinct transport pathways of its N- and C-terminal fragments.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Christine; Muresan, Virgil; Ladescu Muresan, Zoia

    2014-03-15

    The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), a type I transmembrane protein genetically associated with Alzheimer's disease, has a complex biology that includes proteolytic processing into potentially toxic fragments, extensive trafficking and multiple, yet poorly-defined functions. We recently proposed that a significant fraction of APP is proteolytically cleaved in the neuronal soma into N- and C-terminal fragments (NTFs and CTFs), which then target independently of each other to separate destinations in the cell. Here, we prove this concept with live imaging and immunolocalization of two dual, N- and C-termini-tagged APP constructs: CFP-APP-YFP [containing the fluorescent tags, cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)] and FLAG-APP-Myc. When expressed at low levels in neuronal cells, these constructs are processed into differently tagged NTFs and CTFs that reveal distinct distributions and characteristics of transport. Like the endogenous N- and C-terminal epitopes of APP, the FLAG-tagged NTFs are present in trains of vesicles and tubules that localize to short filaments, which often immunostain for acetylated tubulin, whereas the Myc-tagged CTFs are detected on randomly distributed vesicle-like structures. The experimental treatments that selectively destabilize the acetylated microtubules abrogate the distribution of NTFs along filaments, without altering the random distribution of CTFs. These results indicate that the NTFs and CTFs are recruited to distinct transport pathways and reach separate destinations in neurons, where they likely accomplish functions independent of the parental, full-length APP. They also point to a compartment associated with acetylated microtubules in the neuronal soma--not the neurite terminals--as a major site of APP cleavage, and segregation of NTFs from CTFs. PMID:24203698

  2. Thermodynamics of the binding of the C-terminal repeat domain of Streptococcus sobrinus glucosyltransferase-I to dextran.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hideyuki; Katayama, Motoki; Sawada, Masaki; Hirata, Yukie; Mori, Miyuki; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Fukui, Kazuhiro; Fukada, Harumi; Kodama, Takao

    2007-07-17

    Glucosyltransferases (GTFs) secreted by mutans streptococci and some other lactic acid bacteria catalyze glucan synthesis from sucrose, and possess a C-terminal glucan-binding domain (GBD) containing homologous, directly repeating units. We prepared a series of C-terminal truncated forms of the GBD of Streptococcus sobrinus GTF-I and studied their binding to dextran by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of all truncates was strongly exothermic. Their titration curves were analyzed assuming that the GBD recognizes and binds to a stretch of dextran chain, not to a whole dextran molecule. Both the number of glucose units constituting the dextran stretch (n) and the accompanying enthalpy change (DeltaH degrees ) are proportional to the molecular mass of the GBD truncate, with which the Gibbs energy change calculated by the relation DeltaG degrees = -RT ln K (R, the gas constant; T, the absolute temperature; K, the binding constant of a truncate for a dextran stretch of n glucose units) also increases linearly. For the full-length GBD (508 amino acid residues), n = 33.9, K = 4.88 x 10(7) M-1, and DeltaH degrees = -289 kJ mol-1 at 25 degrees C. These results suggest that identical, independent glucose-binding subsites, each comprising 14 amino acid residues on average, are arranged consecutively from the GBD N-terminus. Thus, the GBD binds tightly to a stretch of dextran chain through the adding up of individually weak subsite/glucose interactions. Furthermore, the entropy change accompanying the GBD/dextran interaction as given by the relation DeltaS degrees = (DeltaG degrees - DeltaH degrees)/T has a very large negative value, probably because of a loss of the conformational freedom of dextran and GBD after binding. PMID:17580962

  3. Characterization of C-terminal Splice Variants of Cav1.4 Ca2+ Channels in Human Retina.

    PubMed

    Haeseleer, Françoise; Williams, Brittany; Lee, Amy

    2016-07-22

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (Cav) undergo extensive alternative splicing that greatly enhances their functional diversity in excitable cells. Here, we characterized novel splice variants of the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain of Cav1.4 Ca(2+) channels that regulate neurotransmitter release in photoreceptors in the retina. These variants lack a portion of exon 45 and/or the entire exon 47 (Cav1.4Δex p45, Cav1.4Δex 47, Cav1.4Δex p45,47) and are expressed in the retina of primates but not mice. Although the electrophysiological properties of Cav1.4Δex p45 are similar to those of full-length channels (Cav1.4FL), skipping of exon 47 dramatically alters Cav1.4 function. Deletion of exon 47 removes part of a C-terminal automodulatory domain (CTM) previously shown to suppress Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation (CDI) and to cause a positive shift in the voltage dependence of channel activation. Exon 47 is crucial for these effects of the CTM because variants lacking this exon show intense CDI and activate at more hyperpolarized voltages than Cav1.4FL The robust CDI of Cav1.4Δex 47 is suppressed by CaBP4, a regulator of Cav1.4 channels in photoreceptors. Although CaBP4 enhances activation of Cav1.4FL, Cav1.4Δex 47 shows similar voltage-dependent activation in the presence and absence of CaBP4. We conclude that exon 47 encodes structural determinants that regulate CDI and voltage-dependent activation of Cav1.4, and is necessary for modulation of channel activation by CaBP4. PMID:27226626

  4. NMR Determines Transient Structure and Dynamics in the Disordered C-Terminal Domain of WASp Interacting Protein

    PubMed Central

    Haba, Noam Y.; Gross, Renana; Novacek, Jiri; Shaked, Hadassa; Zidek, Lukas; Barda-Saad, Mira; Chill, Jordan H.

    2013-01-01

    WASp-interacting protein (WIP) is a 503-residue proline-rich polypeptide expressed in human T cells. The WIP C-terminal domain binds to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and regulates its activation and degradation, and the WIP-WASp interaction has been shown to be critical for actin polymerization and implicated in the onset of WAS and X-linked thrombocytopenia. WIP is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein, a class of polypeptides that are of great interest because they violate the traditional structure-function paradigm. In this first (to our knowledge) study of WIP in its unbound state, we used NMR to investigate the biophysical behavior of WIPC, a C-terminal domain fragment of WIP that includes residues 407–503 and contains the WASp-binding site. In light of the poor spectral dispersion exhibited by WIPC and the high occurrence (25%) of proline residues, we employed 5D-NMR13C-detected NMR experiments with nonuniform sampling to accomplish full resonance assignment. Secondary chemical-shift analysis, 15N relaxation rates, and protection from solvent exchange all concurred in detecting transient structure located in motifs that span the WASp-binding site. Residues 446–456 exhibited a propensity for helical conformation, and an extended conformation followed by a short, capped helix was observed for residues 468–478. The 13C-detected approach allows chemical-shift assignment in the WIPC polyproline stretches and thus sheds light on their conformation and dynamics. The effects of temperature on chemical shifts referenced to a denatured sample of the polypeptide demonstrate that heating reduces the structural character of WIPC. Thus, we conclude that the disordered WIPC fragment is comprised of regions with latent structure connected by flexible loops, an architecture with implications for binding affinity and function. PMID:23870269

  5. The C-terminal tail of the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 clades A, B, C, and D may exist in two conformations: an analysis of sequence, structure, and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hollier, Mark J.; Dimmock, Nigel J. . E-mail: n.j.dimmock@warwick.ac.uk

    2005-07-05

    In addition to the major ectodomain, the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein of HIV-1 is now known to have a minor ectodomain that is part of the long C-terminal tail. Both ectodomains are highly antigenic, carry neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes, and are involved in virus-mediated fusion activity. However, data have so far been biologically based, and derived solely from T cell line-adapted (TCLA), B clade viruses. Here we have carried out sequence and theoretically based structural analyses of 357 gp41 C-terminal sequences of mainly primary isolates of HIV-1 clades A, B, C, and D. Data show that all these viruses have the potential to form a tail loop structure (the minor ectodomain) supported by three, {beta}-sheet, membrane-spanning domains (MSDs). This means that the first (N-terminal) tyrosine-based sorting signal of the gp41 tail is situated outside the cell membrane and is non-functional, and that gp41 that reaches the cell surface may be recycled back into the cytoplasm through the activity of the second tyrosine-sorting signal. However, we suggest that only a minority of cell-associated gp41 molecules - those destined for incorporation into virions - has 3 MSDs and the minor ectodomain. Most intracellular gp41 has the conventional single MSD, no minor ectodomain, a functional first tyrosine-based sorting signal, and in line with current thinking is degraded intracellularly. The gp41 structural diversity suggested here can be viewed as an evolutionary strategy to minimize HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein expression on the cell surface, and hence possible cytotoxicity and immune attack on the infected cell.

  6. Role of C-terminal domain and transmembrane helices 5 and 6 in function and quaternary structure of major intrinsic proteins: analysis of aquaporin/glycerol facilitator chimeric proteins.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Laurence; Pellerin, Isabelle; Delamarche, Christian; Deschamps, Stephane; Lagree, Valerie; Froger, Alexandrine; Bonnec, Georgette; Thomas, Daniel; Hubert, Jean-Francois

    2002-06-01

    We previously observed that aquaporins and glycerol facilitators exhibit different oligomeric states when studied by sedimentation on density gradients following nondenaturing detergent solubilization. To determine the domains of major intrinsic protein (MIP) family proteins involved in oligomerization, we constructed protein chimeras corresponding to the aquaporin AQPcic substituted in the loop E (including the proximal part of transmembrane domain (TM) 5) and/or the C-terminal part (including the distal part of TM 6) by the equivalent domain of the glycerol channel aquaglyceroporin (GlpF) (chimeras called AGA, AAG, and AGG). The analogous chimeras of GlpF were also constructed (chimeras GAG, GGA, and GAA). cRNA corresponding to all constructs were injected into Xenopus oocytes. AQPcic, GlpF, AAG, AGG, and GAG were targeted to plasma membranes. Water or glycerol membrane permeability measurements demonstrated that only the AAG chimera exhibited a channel function corresponding to water transport. Analysis of all proteins expressed either in oocytes or in yeast by velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients following solubilization by 2% n-octyl glucoside indicated that only AQPcic and AAG exist in tetrameric forms. GlpF, GAG, and GAA sediment in a monomeric form, whereas GGA and AGG were found mono/dimeric. These data bring new evidence that, within the MIP family, aquaporins and GlpFs behave differently toward nondenaturing detergents. We demonstrate that the C-terminal part of AQPcic, including the distal half of TM 6, can be substituted by the equivalent domain of GlpF (AAG chimera) without modifying the transport specificity. Our results also suggest that interactions of TM 5 of one monomer with TM 1 of the adjacent monomer are crucial for aquaporin tetramer stability. PMID:11927589

  7. Taming C-terminal peptides of Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxin M for B-cell response: Implication in improved subclinical bovine mastitis diagnosis and protective efficacy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Padmaja, Radhakrishnan Jayasree; Halami, Prakash Motiram

    2016-09-01

    Leukotoxin M/F'-PV (LukM/F'-PV) produced by bovine mastitis causing Staphylococcus aureus structurally comprises three domains, the β-sandwich, rim and stem domain. The rim and stem domains interacting with target cell membrane lipid rafts contributes to the virulent trait of the toxin. In the present study, two facts were hypothesized that neutralization of these domains will ebb LukM/F'-PV leukotoxicity. Secondly, the neutralizing antibodies can improve the leukotoxin detection sensitivity in bovine mastitis milk samples. The in silico mapping of S. aureus LukM C-termini comprising these domains predicted seven linear B-cell antigenic epitopes. The immune response of C-terminal truncated recombinant peptides rCtM19 (19 kDa; near carboxy-terminal) having four epitopes and rCtM15 (15 kDa; C-terminal) with three epitopes were evaluated for their diagnostic and neutralization potential. Anti-rCtM19 and anti-rCtM15 antibodies with enhanced immunogenicity had the most striking outcome in IgG-ELISA for detecting native determinants of leukotoxin. For the obtained ELISA values, ROC curve inferred a cut-off score of >0.102 OD405. The assay sensitivity in the range of 90-96% along with 100% specificity and AUC of 0.93-0.98 categorized subclinical and clinical from healthy bovine milk samples. As observed through in vitro neutralization and LDH assays, C-terminus specific antibodies (1:42 titer) deactivating leukotoxicity abolished LukM from interacting with lipid bilayer and LukF for forming pores on bovine neutrophil membrane. As a proof of concept, it was proved that peptide antibodies can be a more specific serodiagnostic and passive therapeutic molecules. PMID:27242043

  8. Role of the C-terminal domains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) bZIP proteins RF2a and RF2b in regulating transcription

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Shunhong; Beachy, Roger N.

    2007-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) transcription factors RF2a and RF2b are bZIP (basic leucine zipper) proteins that interact with, and activate transcription from the RTBV (rice tungro bacilliform virus) promoter. Here we characterize the C-terminal domains of RF2a and RF2b: these domains are rich in glutamine and proline/glutamine, respectively. Affinity pull-down assays demonstrated that the C-terminal domains of RF2a and RF2b can associate to form either homodimers or heterodimers; however, they do not interact with other domains of RF2a or RF2b. Results of in vitro transcription assays using a rice whole-cell extract demonstrate that the C-terminal domains of both RF2a and RF2b activate transcription from the RTBV promoter. In addition, dimerization of the RF2a C-terminal domain is involved in regulating the transcription activation function of RF2a. The predicted helical region within the RF2a C-terminal glutamine-rich domain was determined to be involved in inter-molecular dimerization, and contributed to the regulatory functions of RF2a in these assays. PMID:17371296

  9. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the largest editosome interaction protein and its role in promoting RNA binding by RNA-editing ligase L2

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Jun; Budiarto, Tanya; Wu, Meiting; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomatids, such as the sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei, contain a ∼20S RNA-editing complex, also called the editosome, which is required for U-insertion/deletion editing of mitochondrial mRNAs. The editosome contains a core of 12 proteins including the large interaction protein A1, the small interaction protein A6, and the editing RNA ligase L2. Using biochemical and structural data, we identified distinct domains of T. brucei A1 which specifically recognize A6 and L2. We provide evidence that an N-terminal domain of A1 interacts with the C-terminal domain of L2. The C-terminal domain of A1 appears to be required for the interaction with A6 and also plays a key role in RNA binding by the RNA-editing ligase L2 in trans. Three crystal structures of the C-terminal domain of A1 have been elucidated, each in complex with a nanobody as a crystallization chaperone. These structures permitted the identification of putative dsRNA recognition sites. Mutational analysis of conserved residues of the C-terminal domain identified Arg703, Arg731 and Arg734 as key requirements for RNA binding. The data show that the editing RNA ligase activity is modulated by a novel mechanism, i.e. by the trans-acting RNA binding C-terminal domain of A1. PMID:22561373

  10. In vitro pharmacological evaluation of the radiolabeled C-terminal substance P analogue Lys-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2: Does a specific binding site exist?

    PubMed

    Tomczyszyn, Aleksandra; Csibrany, Balazs; Keresztes, Attila; Mallareddy, Jayapal Reddy; Dyniewicz, Jolanta; Misicka, Aleksandra; Toth, Geza; Lipkowski, Andrzej W

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis, radiolabeling and comprehensive pharmacological evaluation of a C-terminally truncated tachykinin derivative, 3H-KFFGLM-NH2. The C-terminal fragments of endogenous tachykinins are pharmacophores responsible for interaction with the tachykinin receptors NK1, NK2 and NK3. The N-terminal fragments are responsible for modulation of receptor selectivity and interactions with other receptor systems. To evaluate and separate the function of an NK-pharmacophore from the activity of its parent neurokinin, KFFGLM-NH2 was synthesized in both tritiated and unlabeled forms. It has been proposed that the obtained NK-binding profiles of specific reference ligands and KFFGLM-NH2 differentiate monomeric and dimeric forms of NK receptors. We hypothesize that dimers of NK receptors could be specific receptor(s) for C-terminal fragments of all neurokinins as well as their C-terminal fragments, including H-KFFGLM-NH2. Dissociation of dimers into monomers opens access to additional allosteric binding sites. Fully elongated undecapeptide substance P interacts with both the "tachykinin pocket" and the "allosteric pocket" on the monomeric NK1 receptor, resulting in high and selective activation. However, C-terminal hexapeptide fragment analogues, recognizing only the "tachykinin pocket", may have less specific interactions with all tachykinin receptors in both monomeric and dimeric forms. PMID:25574743

  11. Structure-function analysis of the human TFIIB-related factor II protein reveals an essential role for the C-terminal domain in RNA polymerase III transcription.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ashish; Ma, Beicong; Schramm, Laura; Hernandez, Nouria

    2005-11-01

    The transcription factors TFIIB, Brf1, and Brf2 share related N-terminal zinc ribbon and core domains. TFIIB bridges RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with the promoter-bound preinitiation complex, whereas Brf1 and Brf2 are involved, as part of activities also containing TBP and Bdp1 and referred to here as Brf1-TFIIIB and Brf2-TFIIIB, in the recruitment of Pol III. Brf1-TFIIIB recruits Pol III to type 1 and 2 promoters and Brf2-TFIIIB to type 3 promoters such as the human U6 promoter. Brf1 and Brf2 both have a C-terminal extension absent in TFIIB, but their C-terminal extensions are unrelated. In yeast Brf1, the C-terminal extension interacts with the TBP/TATA box complex and contributes to the recruitment of Bdp1. Here we have tested truncated Brf2, as well as Brf2/TFIIB chimeric proteins for U6 transcription and for assembly of U6 preinitiation complexes. Our results characterize functions of various human Brf2 domains and reveal that the C-terminal domain is required for efficient association of the protein with U6 promoter-bound TBP and SNAP(c), a type 3 promoter-specific transcription factor, and for efficient recruitment of Bdp1. This in turn suggests that the C-terminal extensions in Brf1 and Brf2 are crucial to specific recruitment of Pol III over Pol II. PMID:16227591

  12. Structure-Function Analysis of the Human TFIIB-Related Factor II Protein Reveals an Essential Role for the C-Terminal Domain in RNA Polymerase III Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ashish; Ma, Beicong; Schramm, Laura; Hernandez, Nouria

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factors TFIIB, Brf1, and Brf2 share related N-terminal zinc ribbon and core domains. TFIIB bridges RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with the promoter-bound preinitiation complex, whereas Brf1 and Brf2 are involved, as part of activities also containing TBP and Bdp1 and referred to here as Brf1-TFIIIB and Brf2-TFIIIB, in the recruitment of Pol III. Brf1-TFIIIB recruits Pol III to type 1 and 2 promoters and Brf2-TFIIIB to type 3 promoters such as the human U6 promoter. Brf1 and Brf2 both have a C-terminal extension absent in TFIIB, but their C-terminal extensions are unrelated. In yeast Brf1, the C-terminal extension interacts with the TBP/TATA box complex and contributes to the recruitment of Bdp1. Here we have tested truncated Brf2, as well as Brf2/TFIIB chimeric proteins for U6 transcription and for assembly of U6 preinitiation complexes. Our results characterize functions of various human Brf2 domains and reveal that the C-terminal domain is required f