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Sample records for c-terminal telopeptide concentration

  1. Chinese Bone Turnover Marker Study: Reference Ranges for C-Terminal Telopeptide of Type I Collagen and Procollagen I N-Terminal Peptide by Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Li, Yan; Deng, Weimin; Zhang, Zhenlin; Deng, Zhongliang; Hu, Yingying; Xia, Weibo; Xu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone formation marker procollagen I N-terminal peptide (PINP) and resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) are useful biomarkers for differential diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation of osteoporosis, but reference values are required. Methods The multi-center, cross-sectional Chinese Bone Turnover Marker Study included 3800 healthy volunteers in 5 Chinese cities. Serum PINP, β-CTX, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25OHD levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum PINP and β-CTX levels were assessed by age, gender, weight, recruitment latitude, levels of PTH and 25OHD. Results Subjects (n = 1436, M∶F, 500∶936; mean age 50.6±19.6 years) exhibited non-normally distributed PINP and β-CTX peaking between 15–19 years, gradually declining throughout adulthood, elevating within 10 years of postmenopause, and then declining by age 70. In women between the age of 30 and menopause, median PINP and β-CTX levels were 40.42 (95% CI: 17.10–102.15) and 0.26 (95% CI: 0.08–0.72) ng/mL, respectively. β-CTX and PINP were positively linearly correlated (r = 0.599, P<0.001). β-CTX correlated positively (r = 0.054 and 0.093) and PINP correlated negatively (r = −0.012 and −0.053) with 25OHD and PTH (P<0.05). Conclusions We established Chinese reference ranges for PINP and CTX. Chinese individuals exhibited high serum PINP and β-CTX levels between 15 and 19 years of age and at menopause, which gradually declined after 70 years of age. PMID:25117452

  2. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus C-terminal LANA concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley-Clarke, Brenna; Ballestas, Mary E.; Komatsu, Takashi; Kaye, Kenneth M. . E-mail: kkaye@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    2007-01-20

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) tethers KSHV terminal repeat (TR) DNA to mitotic chromosomes to efficiently segregate episomes to progeny nuclei. LANA contains N- and C-terminal chromosome binding regions. We now show that C-terminal LANA preferentially concentrates to paired dots at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes through residues 996-1139. Deletions within C-terminal LANA abolished both self-association and chromosome binding, consistent with a requirement for self-association to bind chromosomes. A deletion abolishing TR DNA binding did not affect chromosome targeting, indicating LANA's localization is not due to binding its recognition sequence in chromosomal DNA. LANA distributed similarly on human and non-human mitotic chromosomes. These results are consistent with C-terminal LANA interacting with a cell factor that concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of mitotic chromosomes.

  3. An oral cathepsin K inhibitor ONO-5334 inhibits N-terminal and C-terminal collagen crosslinks in serum and urine at similar plasma concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Hasegawa, Chihiro

    2015-12-01

    Relationships between the plasma concentration of a cathepsin K inhibitor (ONO-5334) and inhibition of bone resorption markers N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in serum and urinary NTX/creatinine and CTX/creatinine were examined in 10 postmenopausal women. The subjects received slow-release tablets of 100mg ONO-5534 under fasted or fed conditions in a study with a crossover design. Inhibition of serum NTX and CTX levels and plasma concentrations of ONO-5334 were monitored at 0, 24, 48 and 168 h after dosing. Changes in urinary NTX/creatinine and CTX/creatinine levels in second morning urine were evaluated on 0, 1, 2 and 7 days after dosing. Data were analyzed using sigmoid maximal drug effect (Emax) models. The maximal inhibition, estimated Emax values, were -31.8% for serum NTX, -53.1% for serum CTX, -67.2% for urinary NTX/creatinine, and -95.2% for urinary CTX/creatinine. The estimated half maximal effective plasma concentrations (EC50) of ONO-5334 and confidence intervals were 1.79 (1.01 to 3.16) ng/mL for serum NTX, 2.07 (1.63 to 2.62) ng/mL for serum CTX, 1.85 (1.30 to 2.61) ng/mL for urinary NTX/creatinine, and 1.98 (0.94 to 3.76) ng/mL for urinary CTX/creatinine. EC50 values for the four crosslinks did not significantly differ, as indicated by the overlapping 95% confidence intervals. The highest signal-to-noise ratio was achieved with serum CTX, and was 2-fold higher than that on serum NTX. Inhibition for serum NTX and CTX, and urinary NTX/creatinine and CTX/creatinine by ONO-5334 were all correlated with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.55 to 0.80. In conclusion, data of ONO-5334 slow-releasing tablets in postmenopausal women were well fitted in Emax model. In all measured telopeptides, the maximal inhibition was obtained at urinary CTX/creatinine level, but serum CTX had the highest signal-to-noise ratio. Inhibition for all measured telopeptides by ONO-5334 were all correlated. The estimated half

  4. [Changes in blood concentrations of bone-specific biomarkers, osteocalcin and C-telopeptide, in third or higher parity sows after administration of calcium and vitamin D].

    PubMed

    Counotte, G H M; Groenland, G; Salden, N

    2009-03-15

    Changes in blood concentrations of bone-specific biomarkers, osteocalcin and C-telopeptide, in third or higher parity sows after administration of calcium and vitamin D The study had two objectives: 1, to measure levels of two bone-specific biomarkers, with a view to identifying sows with leg problems; 2, to evaluate the effect of additional vitamin D/ monocalcium phosphate on the two bone-specific biomarkers and the number of stillborn piglets. Of 272 third or higher parity sows, 136 were randomly selected to receive a high dose (33 times the normal dose) of vitamin D (as depot) 1 to 5 days before parturition plus 20 g monocalcium phosphate 3 days before and 3 days after parturition. The sows in the control group received no treatment. The housing and feeding conditions of the two groups of sows were identical. Blood samples were taken from five sows per group just before parturition, 2-3 days after parturition, 3 weeks after parturition, and 1 week after weaning for the measurement of osteocalcin (bone formation, osteoblastic activity) and C-telopeptide (CTX, bone degradation, osteoclast activity), calcium, and phosphorus. The total number of piglets born, stillborn piglets, and weaned piglets were registered per group. The bone metabolism of sows is comparable with that of mice, sheep, and goats. CTX levels increased and osteocalcin levels decreased after parturition, and the reverse pattern was seen after weaning, with a decrease in CRX levels and an increase in osteocalcin levels. Thus these two bone-specific biomarkers can be used to monitor bone metabolism in sows. Serum calcium and CTX levels were clearly correlated. Blood calcium levels increased significantly after treatment with vitamin D/monocalcium phosphate in sows with low calcium levels at the start of the study but not in sows with normal calcium levels at the start of the study. Treatment with vitamin D/monocalcium phosphate did not influence the number of stillborn piglets or the number of weaned

  5. Effects of a one year physical activity program on serum C Terminal Agrin Fragment (CAF) concentrations among mobility limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: C terminal Agrin Fragment (CAF) has been proposed as a potential circulating biomarker for predicting changes in physical function among older adults. To determine the effect of a one year PA intervention on changes in CAF concentrations and to evaluate baseline and longitudinal associat...

  6. Serum Concentrations of Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mondello, Stefania; Kobeissy, Firas; Vestri, Annarita; Hayes, Ronald L.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Berger, Rachel P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective reliable markers to assess traumatic brain injury (TBI) and predict outcome soon after injury are a highly needed tool for optimizing management of pediatric TBI. We assessed serum concentrations of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in a cohort of 45 children with clinical diagnosis of TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] 3–15) and 40 healthy subjects, evaluated their associations with clinical characteristics and outcomes, and compared their performance to previously published data on two well-studied blood biomarkers, S100B and MBP. We observed higher serum levels of GFAP and UCH-L1 in brain-injured children compared with controls and also demonstrated a step-wise increase of biomarker concentrations over the continuum of severity from mild to severe TBI. Furthermore, while we found that only the neuronal biomarker UCH-L1 holds potential to detect acute intracranial lesions as assessed by computed tomography (CT), both markers were substantially increased in TBI patients even with a normal CT suggesting the presence of undetected microstructural injuries. Serum UCH-L1 and GFAP concentrations also strongly predicted poor outcome and performed better than S100B and MBP. Our results point to a role of GFAP and UCH-L1 as candidate biomarkers for pediatric TBI. Further studies are warranted. PMID:27319802

  7. Serum Concentrations of Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Mondello, Stefania; Kobeissy, Firas; Vestri, Annarita; Hayes, Ronald L; Kochanek, Patrick M; Berger, Rachel P

    2016-01-01

    Objective reliable markers to assess traumatic brain injury (TBI) and predict outcome soon after injury are a highly needed tool for optimizing management of pediatric TBI. We assessed serum concentrations of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in a cohort of 45 children with clinical diagnosis of TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] 3-15) and 40 healthy subjects, evaluated their associations with clinical characteristics and outcomes, and compared their performance to previously published data on two well-studied blood biomarkers, S100B and MBP. We observed higher serum levels of GFAP and UCH-L1 in brain-injured children compared with controls and also demonstrated a step-wise increase of biomarker concentrations over the continuum of severity from mild to severe TBI. Furthermore, while we found that only the neuronal biomarker UCH-L1 holds potential to detect acute intracranial lesions as assessed by computed tomography (CT), both markers were substantially increased in TBI patients even with a normal CT suggesting the presence of undetected microstructural injuries. Serum UCH-L1 and GFAP concentrations also strongly predicted poor outcome and performed better than S100B and MBP. Our results point to a role of GFAP and UCH-L1 as candidate biomarkers for pediatric TBI. Further studies are warranted. PMID:27319802

  8. Collagen telopeptides (cross-linking sites) play a role in collagen gel lattice contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodley, D. T.; Yamauchi, M.; Wynn, K. C.; Mechanic, G.; Briggaman, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Solubilized interstitial collagens will form a fibrillar, gel-like lattice when brought to physiologic conditions. In the presence of human dermal fibroblasts the collagen lattice will contract. The rate of contraction can be determined by computer-assisted planemetry. The mechanisms involved in contraction are as yet unknown. Using this system it was found that the rate of contraction was markedly decreased when collagen lacking telopeptides was substituted for native collagen. Histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL) is a major stable trifunctional collagen cross-link in mature skin that involves a carboxyl terminal, telopeptide site 16c, the sixteenth amino acid residue from the carboxy terminal of the telopeptide region of alpha 1 (I) in type I collagen. Little, if any, HHL was present in native, purified, reconstituted, soluble collagen fibrils from 1% acetic acid-extracted 2-year-old bovine skin. In contrast, HHL cross-links were present (0.22 moles of cross-link per mole of collagen) in lattices of the same collagen contracted by fibroblasts. However, rat tail tendon does not contain HHL cross-links, and collagen lattices made of rat tail tendon collagen are capable of contraction. This suggests that telopeptide sites, and not mature HHL cross-links per se, are essential for fibroblasts to contract collagen lattices. Beta-aminopropionitrile fumarate (BAPN), a potent lathyrogen that perturbs collagen cross-linking by inhibition of lysyl oxidase, also inhibited the rate of lattice cell contraction in lattices composed of native collagen. However, the concentrations of BAPN that were necessary to inhibit the contraction of collagen lattices also inhibited fibroblast growth suggestive of cellular toxicity. In accordance with other studies, we found no inhibition of the rate of lattice contraction when fibronectin-depleted serum was used. Electron microscopy of contracted gels revealed typical collagen fibers with a characteristic axial periodicity. The data

  9. Elevated Plasma C-Terminal Endothelin-1 Precursor Fragment Concentrations Are Associated with Less Anxiety in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Results from the Observational DIAST-CHF Study

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Herrrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Roggenthien, Maren; Nolte, Kathleen; Pieske, Burkert

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the neurobiology of anxiety is unknown, therefore, we assessed in the observational multicenter DIAST-CHF study whether the C-terminal ET-1 precursor fragment (CT-proET-1) is linked to anxiety. Methods Plasma concentrations of CT-proET-1 were measured in a total of 1,410 patients presenting with cardiovascular risk factors (mean age 66.91±8.2 years, 49.3% males, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 60.0±8.2%) who had completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. Results Among the total study cohort (n = 1,410), there were 118 subjects (8.4%) with an HADS anxiety score above the cut-off level of 11 suggestive of clinically relevant anxiety. Plasma CT-proET-1 levels were significantly lower in the group of anxious patients as compared to non-anxious patients (p = 0.013). In regression models adjusted for sex, age, systolic blood pressure, and diameters of left atrium and ventricle, plasma CT-proET-1 was again linked to anxiety (Exp(β) = 0.247, 95%-confidence interval [95%-CI] = 0.067–0.914, p = 0.036). Given the high prevalence of depressive disorders in anxious patients, we additionally included the HADS depression score as an independent variable in the models and found that CT-proET-1 remained a significant predictor of anxiety, independent of comorbid depression (Exp(β) = 0.114, 95%-CI = 0.023–0.566, p = 0.008). Conclusions Our data from a population-based study in outpatients with cardiovascular risk factors revealed that circulating CT-proET-1 levels are negatively associated with anxiety. Further investigations are required to clarify the putative anxiolytic effect of ET-1 or its precursor molecules in humans and to decipher its mechanistic pathways. PMID:26322793

  10. High serum circulating telopeptide type I in multinodular goiter.

    PubMed

    Loviselli, A; Rizzolo, E; Mastinu, R; Velluzzi, F; Secci, G; Taberlet, A; Mariotti, S

    2003-06-01

    Recently, concentrations of serum carboxy-terminal-1-telopeptide (ICTP), a marker of bone collagen resorption, were found to be more sensitive than sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in identifying peripheral overexposure to thyroid hormones in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. The aim of the present study was to assess serum ICTP and SHBG in multinodular goiter with (pretoxic goiter) or without biochemical evidence of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Forty-five women affected by multinodular goiter were enrolled in this study. They were subdivided into two groups: group 1, consisting of 27 patients affected by pretoxic goiter; group 2, consisting of 18 patients affected by non toxic goiter; group 3, consisting of thirty-six euthyroid women matched with the other groups for age and lifestyle. In group 1, serum ICTP (mean +/- SD: 5.8 +/- 2.9 microg/l) concentrations were significantly higher when compared either to group 2 (3.6 +/- 1.2 microg/l; p < 0.02) or controls (2.7 +/- 0.7 microg/l; p < 0.0001); serum ICTP concentrations were also slightly but significantly higher in patients of group 2 compared to controls (p < 0.003). In contrast, mean serum SHBG concentrations did not show any difference among the three groups. No significant correlation was found between serum TSH and ICTP concentrations, while a weak positive correlation (p < 0.05) was only found between serum FT 3 and ICTP concentrations when data from the two patient groups were analyzed together. Moreover, when we subdivided patients into pre- and postmenopausal patients, we observed that SHBG but not ICTP serum concentrations were influenced by estrogenic status. In summary, the measurement of serum ICTP seems to be more suitable than SHBG for identifying those with a higher degree of peripheral thyroid hormone exposure in women affected by endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. PMID:12920662

  11. Measurement of Urinary N-Telopeptides and Serum C-Telopeptides from Type I Collagen Using a Lateral Flow-Based Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Min Ho; Chung, Chin Youb; Seong, Woo Kyeong; Lee, Sang Dae; Park, Moon Seok

    2013-01-01

    Measuring bone turnover markers could detect early stages of osteoporosis and early responses to anti-osteoporotic treatments. Currently, commonly used bone turnover markers, N-telopeptides (NTx) and C-telopeptides (CTx), are measured using ELISA tests, which demands time and increases cost. Bone turnover markers need to be measured more easily for general use. Lateral flow-based immunoassay would be an appropriate method for this context. This study was performed to investigate the precision of a newly developed lateral flow-based immunoassay for measuring the urinary NTx and serum CTx, and their correlations with ELISA measurements. Urine NTx and serum CTx concentrations were determined by photoscan of newly developed strips, using a lateral flow-based immunoassay for 36 subjects (mean age 66.2 years, SD 7.5 years; four males and 32 females). Repeated measurement of urinary NTx and serum CTx were performed three times, using this technology for a precision test. The correlation of the lateral flow-based immunoassay with the ELISA measurements was analyzed. Precision of the newly developed lateral flow based immunoassay was 0.974 (ICC, 95% confidence interval, 0.955 to 0.986) and 0.995 (ICC, 95% confidence interval, 0.991 to 0.997) for urinary NTx and serum CTx, respectively. The correlation of lateral flow based immunoassay with ELISA was 0.913 for urinary NTx and 0.872 for serum CTx. These results suggest that measuring the urinary NTx and serum CTx, using a lateral flow-based immunoassay, is a relevant method for point-of-care testing and screening of bone resorption markers. PMID:23262480

  12. Reactivity of C-terminal cysteines with HNO.

    PubMed

    Keceli, Gizem; Toscano, John P

    2014-06-10

    Nitroxyl (HNO), a potential heart failure therapeutic, is known to target cysteine residues to form sulfinamides and/or disulfides. Because HNO-derived modifications may depend on their local environment, we have investigated the reactivity of HNO with cysteine derivatives and C-terminal cysteine-containing peptides at physiological pH and temperature. Our findings indicate that the nature of HNO-derived modifications of C-terminal cysteines is affected by the C-terminal carboxylate. Apart from the lack of sulfinamide formation, these studies have revealed the presence of new products, a sulfohydroxamic acid derivative (RS(O)2NHOH) and a thiosulfonate (RS(O)2SR), presumably produced under our experimental conditions via the intermediacy of a cyclic structure that is hydrolyzed to give a sulfenic acid (RSOH). Moreover, these modifications are formed independent of oxygen. PMID:24869490

  13. C-Terminal Protein Characterization by Mass Spectrometry: Isolation of C-Terminal Fragments from Cyanogen Bromide-Cleaved Protein

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2014-01-01

    A sample preparation method for protein C-terminal peptide isolation from cyanogen bromide (CNBr) digests has been developed. In this strategy, the analyte was reduced and carboxyamidomethylated, followed by CNBr cleavage in a one-pot reaction scheme. The digest was then adsorbed on ZipTipC18 pipette tips for conjugation of the homoserine lactone-terminated peptides with 2,2′-dithiobis (ethylamine) dihydrochloride, followed by reductive release of 2-aminoethanethiol from the derivatives. The thiol-functionalized internal and N-terminal peptides were scavenged on activated thiol sepharose, leaving the C-terminal peptide in the flow-through fraction. The use of reversed-phase supports as a venue for peptide derivatization enabled facile optimization of the individual reaction steps for throughput and completeness of reaction. Reagents were replaced directly on the support, allowing the reactions to proceed at minimal sample loss. By this sequence of solid-phase reactions, the C-terminal peptide could be recognized uniquely in mass spectra of unfractionated digests by its unaltered mass signature. The use of the sample preparation method was demonstrated with low-level amounts of a whole, intact model protein. The C-terminal fragments were retrieved selectively and efficiently from the affinity support. The use of covalent chromatography for C-terminal peptide purification enabled recovery of the depleted material for further chemical and/or enzymatic manipulation. The sample preparation method provides for robustness and simplicity of operation and is anticipated to be expanded to gel-separated proteins and in a scaled-up format to high-throughput protein profiling in complex biological mixtures. PMID:24688319

  14. Solid Phase Synthesis of C-Terminal Boronic Acid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Behnam, Mira A M; Sundermann, Tom R; Klein, Christian D

    2016-05-01

    Peptides and peptidomimetics with a C-terminal boronic acid group have prolific applications in numerous fields of research, but their synthetic accessibility remains problematic. A convenient, high yield synthesis of peptide-boronic acids on a solid support is described here, using commercially available 1-glycerol polystyrene resin. The method is compatible with Fmoc chemistry and offers a versatile approach to aryl and alkyl aminoboronic acids without additional purification steps. PMID:27104613

  15. Cysteine-rich toxins from Lachesana tarabaevi spider venom with amphiphilic C-terminal segments.

    PubMed

    Kuzmenkov, Alexey I; Fedorova, Irina M; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Grishin, Eugene V

    2013-02-01

    Venom of Lachesana tarabaevi (Zodariidae, "ant spiders") exhibits high insect toxicity and serves a rich source of potential insecticides. Five new peptide toxins active against insects were isolated from the venom by means of liquid chromatography and named latartoxins (LtTx). Complete amino acid sequences of LtTx (60-71 residues) were established by a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and selective proteolysis. Three toxins have eight cysteine residues that form four intramolecular disulfide bridges, and two other molecules contain an additional cystine; three LtTx are C-terminally amidated. Latartoxins can be allocated to two groups with members similar to CSTX and LSTX toxins from Cupiennius salei (Ctenidae) and Lycosa singoriensis (Lycosidae). The interesting feature of the new toxins is their modular organization: they contain an N-terminal cysteine-rich (knottin or ICK) region as in many neurotoxins from spider venoms and a C-terminal linear part alike some cytolytic peptides. The C-terminal fragment of one of the most abundant toxins LtTx-1a was synthesized and shown to possess membrane-binding activity. It was found to assume amphipathic α-helical conformation in membrane-mimicking environment and exert antimicrobial activity at micromolar concentrations. The tails endow latartoxins with the ability to bind and damage membranes; LtTx show cytolytic activity in fly larvae neuromuscular preparations. We suggest a membrane-dependent mode of action for latartoxins with their C-terminal linear modules acting as anchoring devices. PMID:23088912

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of C-terminal tails in cellular microtubules.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Dalibor L; Sataric, Bogdan M; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N; Sataric, Miljko V

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano-electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C-terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C-terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink-waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process. PMID:27475079

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of C-terminal tails in cellular microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L.; Sataric, Bogdan M.; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N.; Sataric, Miljko V.

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano-electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C-terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C-terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink-waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process.

  18. FRET-Aptamer Assays for Bone Marker Assessment, C-Telopeptide, Creatinine, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1.0 to 1.5% of their bone mass per month on long-duration spaceflights. NASA wishes to monitor the bone loss onboard spacecraft to develop nutritional and exercise countermeasures, and make adjustments during long space missions. On Earth, the same technology could be used to monitor osteoporosis and its therapy. Aptamers bind to targets against which they are developed, much like antibodies. However, aptamers do not require animal hosts or cell culture and are therefore easier, faster, and less expensive to produce. In addition, aptamers sometimes exhibit greater affinity and specificity vs. comparable antibodies. In this work, fluorescent dyes and quenchers were added to the aptamers to enable pushbutton, one-step, bind-and-detect fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays or tests that can be freeze-dried, rehydrated with body fluids, and used to quantitate bone loss of vitamin D levels with a handheld fluorometer in the spacecraft environment. This work generated specific, rapid, one-step FRET assays for the bone loss marker C-telopeptide (CTx) when extracted from urine, creatinine from urine, and vitamin D congeners in diluted serum. The assays were quantified in nanograms/mL using a handheld fluorometer connected to a laptop computer to convert the raw fluorescence values into concentrations of each analyte according to linear standard curves. DNA aptamers were selected and amplified for several rounds against a 26- amino acid form of CTx, creatinine, and vitamin D. The commonalities between loop structures were studied, and several common loop structures were converted into aptamer beacons with a fluorophore and quencher on each end. In theory, when the aptamer beacon binds its cognate target (CTx bone peptide, creatinine, or vitamin D), it is forced open and no longer quenched, so it gives off fluorescent light (when excited) in proportion to the amount of target present in a sample. This proportional increase in fluorescence is

  19. Amine modification of digested peptide at C-terminal end during protein digestion by protease.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiyuki; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Takao, Koichi; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Shirahata, Akira

    2007-10-01

    We recently reported that C-terminal polyamine modification occurs when proteins are digested with trypsin in the presence of polyamine [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 356, 159-162 (2007)]. In the present study, the characteristics of this C-terminal modification in the presence of protease and amine were investigated. When hemoglobin (HB) was digested with trypsin in the presence of N-(2-pyridyl)-1,4-diaminobutane (Py4), formation of the modified peptide was dependent on time and on HB or Py4 concentration. When synthetic peptide was treated with trypsin in the presence of Py4, ca. 0.1% of the peptide was modified with Py4. When HB or cytochrome C was treated with a range of serine proteases in the presence of various amines (Py4, N-(2-pyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, tranexamic acid, isonicotinic acid hydrazide and ampicillin), the modified peptide was detected in all cases tested, thus suggesting that amine modification widely accompanies digestion by proteases. PMID:17917247

  20. Age-related changes in the content of the C-terminal region of aggrecan in human articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Dudhia, J; Davidson, C M; Wells, T M; Vynios, D H; Hardingham, T E; Bayliss, M T

    1996-01-01

    The content of the C-terminal region of aggrecan was investigated in samples of articular cartilage from individuals ranging in age from newborn to 65 years. This region contains the globular G3 domain which is known to be removed from aggrecan in mature cartilage, probably by proteolytic cleavage, but the age-related changes in its abundance in human cartilage have not been described previously. The analysis was performed by immunosorbant assay using an antiserum (JD5) against recombinant amino acid residues of human aggrecan, on crude extracts of cartilage without further purification of aggrecan. The results showed that the content of the C-terminal region decreased with age relative to the G1 domain content (correlation coefficient = 0.463). This represented a 92% fall in the content of this region of the molecule from newborn to 65 years of age. furthermore, when the G1 content of the cartilage extracts was corrected to only include the G1 attached to aggrecan and to exclude the G1 fragments which accumulate as a by-product of normal aggrecan turnover (free G1), the age-related decrease in the C-terminal region remained very pronounced. Analysis by composite agarose/PAGE showed that the number of subpopulations of aggrecan resolved increased from one in newborn to three in adult cartilage. All of these reacted with an antiserum to the human G1 domain, but only the slowest migrating species reacted with the C-terminal region antiserum (JD5). Similar analysis by SDS/PAGE confirmed the presence of high-molecular-mass (200 kDa) proteins reactive with JD5, but no reactive fragments of lower electrophoretic mobility were detected. In contrast, when probed with the antiserum to the human G1 domain, the immunoblots showed protein species corresponding to the free G1 and G1-G2 fragments, which were present at high concentrations in adult cartilage. The results suggest that the loss of the C-terminal region is not directly part of the process of aggrecan turnover, but

  1. Influence of telopeptides, fibrils and crosslinking on physicochemical properties of type I collagen films.

    PubMed

    Walton, Robin S; Brand, David D; Czernuszka, Jan T

    2010-02-01

    Type I collagen is widely used in various different forms for research and commercial applications. Different forms of collagen may be classified according to their source, extraction method, crosslinking and resultant ultrastructure. In this study, afibrillar and reconstituted fibrillar films, derived from acid soluble and pepsin digested Type I collagen, were analysed using Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and enzymatic stability assays to asses the influence of telopeptides, fibrils and crosslinking. LFM proved to be a useful technique to confirm an afibrillar/fibrillar ultrastructure and to elucidate fibril diameters. FTIR has proved insensitive to ultrastructural differences involving telopeptides and fibrils. DSC results showed a significant increase in T(d) for crosslinked samples (+22-28 degrees C), and demonstrated that the thermal behaviour of hydrated, afibrillar films is more akin to reconstituted fibrillar films than monomeric solutions. The enzymatic stability assay has provided new evidence to show that afibrillar films of Type I collagen can be significantly more resistant to collagenase (by up to 3.5 times), than reconstituted fibrillar films, as a direct consequence of the different spatial arrangement of collagen molecules. A novel mechanism for this phenomenon is proposed and discussed. Additionally, the presence of telopeptide regions in afibrillar tropocollagen samples has been shown to increase resistance to collagenase by greater than 3.5 times compared to counterpart afibrillar atelocollagen samples. One-factor ANOVA analysis, with Fisher's LSD post-hoc test, confirms these key findings to be of statistical significance (P < 0.05). The profound physicochemical effects of collagen ultrastructure demonstrated in this study reiterates the need for comprehensive materials disclosure and classification when using these biomaterials. PMID:19851839

  2. Structural differences between C-terminal regions of tropomyosin isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Śliwińska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Tropomyosins are actin-binding regulatory proteins which overlap end-to-end along the filament. High resolution structures of the overlap regions were determined for muscle and non-muscle tropomyosins in the absence of actin. Conformations of the junction regions bound to actin are unknown. In this work, orientation of the overlap on actin alone and on actin–myosin complex was evaluated by measuring FRET distances between a donor (AEDANS) attached to tropomyosin and an acceptor (DABMI) bound to actin’s Cys374. Donor was attached to the Cys residue introduced by site-directed mutagenesis near the C-terminal half of the overlap. The recombinant alpha-tropomyosin isoforms used in this study – skeletal muscle skTM, non-muscle TM2 and TM5a, and chimeric TM1b9a had various amino acid sequences of the N- and C-termini involved in the end-to-end overlap. The donor-acceptor distances calculated for each isoform varied between 36.4 Å and 48.1 Å. Rigor binding of myosin S1 increased the apparent FRET distances of skTM and TM2, but decreased the distances separating TM5a and TM1b9a from actin. The results show that isoform-specific sequences of the end-to-end overlaps determine orientations and dynamics of tropomyosin isoforms on actin. This can be important for specificity of tropomyosin in the regulation of actin filament diverse functions. PMID:24167776

  3. Plasma levels of N-telopeptide of Type I collagen in periodontal health, disease and after treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aruna, Ganganna

    2016-01-01

    Background: To determine plasma concentrations of bone resorption marker cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide (NTx) of Type I collagen in periodontal health, disease and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis group. In addition, to know the association between plasma NTx levels and the different clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects were divided on the basis of their periodontal status and were categorized as Group I: Healthy, Group II: Gingivitis, and Group III: Chronic periodontitis. Group III subjects were treated with scaling and root planing, 6-8 weeks later blood samples were analyzed, and they constituted Group IV. NTx levels in plasma were analyzed by competitive - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All data were analyzed using statistical software (SPSS) (α = 0.05). Results: All the samples tested positive for the presence of NTx. The mean NTx concentration was highest in Group III (18.77 nanomole Bone Collagen Equivalent [nm BCE]) and the lowest in Group IV (16.02 nm BCE). The values of Group I and Group II fell between the highest and the lowest values (16.23 nm BCE and 16.70 nm BCE, respectively). The difference in mean NTx levels in Group III and Group IV were statistically significant. NTx levels in all the groups positively correlated with the clinical parameters. All data were analyzed using statistical software (SPSS) (α = 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it may be suggested that plasma NTx levels may provide distinguishing data between periodontally healthy diseased sites and after nonsurgical therapy of diseased sites. PMID:26962311

  4. A TRPV4 Channel C-terminal Folding Recognition Domain Critical for Trafficking and Function*

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Cao, Xu; Yang, Fan; Shi, Di-Jing; Tang, Yi-Quan; Zheng, Jie; Wang, KeWei

    2013-01-01

    The Ca2+-permeable transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) channel mediates crucial physiological functions, such as calcium signaling, temperature sensing, and maintaining cell volume and energy homeostasis. Noticeably, most disease-causing genetic mutations are concentrated in the cytoplasmic domains. In the present study, we focused on the role of the TRPV4 C terminus in modulating protein folding, trafficking, and activity. By examining a series of C-terminal deletions, we identified a 20-amino acid distal region covering residues 838–857 that is critical for channel folding, maturation, and trafficking. Surface biotinylation, confocal imaging, and fluorescence-based calcium influx assay demonstrated that mutant proteins missing this region were trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum and unglycosylated, leading to accelerated degradation and loss of channel activity. Rosetta de novo structural modeling indicated that residues 838–857 assume a defined conformation, with Gly849 and Pro851 located at critical positions. Patch clamp recordings confirmed that lowering the temperature from 37 to 30 °C rescued channel activity of folding-defective mutants. Moreover, biochemical tests demonstrated that, in addition to participating in C-C interaction, the C terminus also interacts with the N terminus. Taken together, our findings indicate that the C-terminal region of TRPV4 is critical for channel protein folding and maturation, and the short distal segment plays an essential role in this process. Therefore, selectively disrupting the folding-sensitive region may present therapeutic potential for treating overactive TRPV4-mediated diseases, such as pain and skeletal dysplasias. PMID:23457335

  5. Cyclopeptides containing the DEKS motif as conformationally restricted collagen telopeptide analogues: synthesis and conformational analysis.

    PubMed

    Wodtke, Robert; Ruiz-Gómez, Gloria; Kuchar, Manuela; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Novotná, Pavlina; Urbanová, Marie; Steinbach, Jörg; Pietzsch, Jens; Löser, Reik

    2015-02-14

    The collagen telopeptides play an important role for lysyl oxidase-mediated crosslinking, a process which is deregulated during tumour progression. The DEKS motif which is located within the N-terminal telopeptide of the α1 chain of type I collagen has been suggested to adopt a βI-turn conformation upon docking to its triple-helical receptor domain, which seems to be critical for lysyl oxidase-catalysed deamination and subsequent crosslinking by Schiff-base formation. Herein, the design and synthesis of cyclic peptides which constrain the DEKS sequence in a β-turn conformation will be described. Lysine-side chain attachment to 2-chlorotrityl chloride-modified polystyrene resin followed by microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis and on-resin cyclisation allowed for an efficient access to head-to-tail cyclised DEKS-derived cyclic penta- and hexapeptides. An N(ε)-(4-fluorobenzoyl)lysine residue was included in the cyclopeptides to allow their potential radiolabelling with fluorine-18 for PET imaging of lysyl oxidase. Conformational analysis by (1)H NMR and chiroptical (electronic and vibrational CD) spectroscopy together with MD simulations demonstrated that the concomitant incorporation of a D-proline and an additional lysine for potential radiolabel attachment accounts for a reliable induction of the desired βI-turn structure in the DEKS motif in both DMSO and water as solvents. The stabilised conformation of the cyclohexapeptide is further reflected by its resistance to trypsin-mediated degradation. In addition, the deaminated analogue containing allysine in place of lysine has been synthesised via the corresponding ε-hydroxynorleucine containing cyclohexapeptide. Both ε-hydroxynorleucine and allysine containing cyclic hexapeptides have been subjected to conformational analysis in the same manner as the lysine-based parent structure. Thus, both a conformationally restricted lysyl oxidase substrate and product have been synthetically accessed, which

  6. Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to liver and kidney function and bone metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Moller, S; Hansen, M; Hillingso, J; Jensen, J; Henriksen, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. 
AIMS—To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction, bone metabolism, and fibrosis. 
METHODS—In 15 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 controls, hepatic venous, renal venous, and femoral arterial concentrations of ICTP, and bone mass and metabolism were measured. 
RESULTS—Circulating ICTP was higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls. No overall significant hepatic disposal or production was found in the patient or control groups but slightly increased production was found in a subset of patients with advanced disease. Significant renal extraction was observed in the controls, whereas only a borderline significant extraction was observed in the patients. Measurements of bone mass and metabolism indicated only a mild degree of osteodystrophy in the patients with cirrhosis. ICTP correlated significantly in the cirrhotic patients with hepatic and renal dysfunction and fibrosis, but not with measurements of bone mass or metabolism. 
CONCLUSIONS—ICTP is highly elevated in patients with cirrhosis, with no detectable hepatic net production or disposal. No relation between ICTP and markers of bone metabolism was identified, but there was a relation to indicators of liver dysfunction and fibrosis. As the cirrhotic patients conceivably only had mild osteopenia, the elevated ICTP in cirrhosis may therefore primarily reflect liver failure and hepatic fibrosis. 

 Keywords: bone mineral density; carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen; chronic liver disease; fibrosis; hepatic osteodystrophy; portal hypertension PMID:10026331

  7. Age-dependent loss of the C-terminal amino acid from alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, T.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Antiserum made against the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin was used to monitor the purification of a tryptic peptide containing the C-terminus of the molecule from fetal versus adult bovine lenses. Mass spectral analysis of the peptide preparations obtained from these lenses demonstrated the presence of a peptide (T20) containing an intact C-terminus from fetal lenses and the presence of an additional peptide (T20') from older lenses that contained a cleaved C-terminal serine. These results demonstrate an age-dependent processing of alpha-A crystallin in the bovine lens, resulting in removal of the C-terminal amino acid residue.

  8. Predictors of intact and C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 in Gambian children

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Vickie; Jones, Kerry S; Assar, Shima; Schoenmakers, Inez; Prentice, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Elevated C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 (C-FGF23) concentrations have been reported in Gambian children with and without putative Ca-deficiency rickets. The aims of this study were to investigate whether i) elevated C-FGF23 concentrations in Gambian children persist long term; ii) they are associated with higher intact FGF23 concentrations (I-FGF23), poor iron status and shorter 25-hydroxyvitamin D half-life (25OHD-t1/2); and iii) the persistence and predictors of elevated FGF23 concentrations differ between children with and without a history of rickets. Children (8–16 years, n=64) with a history of rickets and a C-FGF23 concentration >125 RU/ml (bone deformity (BD), n=20) and local community children with a previously measured elevated C-FGF23 concentration (LC+, n=20) or a previously measured C-FGF23 concentration within the normal range (LC−, n=24) participated. BD children had no remaining signs of bone deformities. C-FGF23 concentration had normalised in BD children, but remained elevated in LC+ children. All the children had I-FGF23 concentration within the normal range, but I-FGF23 concentration was higher and iron status poorer in LC+ children. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was the strongest negative predictor of I-FGF23 concentration (R2=18%; P=0.0006) and soluble transferrin receptor was the strongest positive predictor of C-FGF23 concentration (R2=33%; P≤0.0001). C-FGF23 and I-FGF23 concentrations were poorly correlated with each other (R2=5.3%; P=0.07). 25OHD-t1/2 was shorter in BD children than in LC− children (mean (s.d.): 24.5 (6.1) and 31.5 (11.5) days respectively; P=0.05). This study demonstrated that elevated C-FGF23 concentrations normalised over time in Gambian children with a history of rickets but not in local children, suggesting a different aetiology; that children with resolved rickets had a shorter 25OHD-t1/2, suggesting a long-standing increased expenditure of 25OHD, and that iron deficiency is a predictor of elevated C

  9. Identification of a new scaffold for hsp90 C-terminal inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiping; Moroni, Elisabetta; Colombo, Giorgio; Blagg, Brian S J

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Hsp90 C-terminal function is an advantageous therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of cancer. Currently, the majority of Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors are derived from novobiocin, a natural product traditionally used as an antibiotic. Assisted by molecular docking studies, a scaffold containing a biphenyl moiety in lieu of the coumarin ring system found in novobiocin was identified for development of new Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors. Initial structure-activity studies led to derivatives that manifest good antiproliferative activity against two breast cancer cell lines through Hsp90 inhibition. This platform serves as a scaffold upon which new Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors can be readily assembled for further investigation. PMID:24900777

  10. C-Terminal Modification of Fully Unprotected Peptide Hydrazides via in Situ Generation of Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander A; Simon, Mark D; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2016-03-18

    A method for chemo- and regioselective conjugation of nucleophiles to fully unprotected peptides and proteins via in situ generation of C-terminal isocyanates is reported. Oxidation of C-terminal peptide hydrazides in aqueous media followed by Curtius rearrangement of acyl azides reliably generates isocyanates, which react with a variety of external nucleophiles, such as hydrazines, hydrazides, aromatic thiols, and hydroxylamines. Multiple peptides and a 53 kDa protein hydrazide were conjugated to different nucleophiles using this reaction. PMID:26948719

  11. Human Frataxin Folds Via an Intermediate State. Role of the C-Terminal Region

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, Santiago E.; González-Lebrero, Rodolfo M.; Roman, Ernesto A.; Santos, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the folding reaction of human frataxin, whose deficiency causes the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich’s Ataxia (FRDA). The characterization of different conformational states would provide knowledge about how frataxin can be stabilized without altering its functionality. Wild-type human frataxin and a set of mutants, including two highly destabilized FRDA-associated variants were studied by urea-induced folding/unfolding in a rapid mixing device and followed by circular dichroism. The analysis clearly indicates the existence of an intermediate state (I) in the folding route with significant secondary structure content but relatively low compactness, compared with the native ensemble. However, at high NaCl concentrations I-state gains substantial compaction, and the unfolding barrier is strongly affected, revealing the importance of electrostatics in the folding mechanism. The role of the C-terminal region (CTR), the key determinant of frataxin stability, was also studied. Simulations consistently with experiments revealed that this stretch is essentially unstructured, in the most compact transition state ensemble (TSE2). The complete truncation of the CTR drastically destabilizes the native state without altering TSE2. Results presented here shed light on the folding mechanism of frataxin, opening the possibility of mutating it to generate hyperstable variants without altering their folding kinetics. PMID:26856628

  12. Human Frataxin Folds Via an Intermediate State. Role of the C-Terminal Region.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Santiago E; González-Lebrero, Rodolfo M; Roman, Ernesto A; Santos, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the folding reaction of human frataxin, whose deficiency causes the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA). The characterization of different conformational states would provide knowledge about how frataxin can be stabilized without altering its functionality. Wild-type human frataxin and a set of mutants, including two highly destabilized FRDA-associated variants were studied by urea-induced folding/unfolding in a rapid mixing device and followed by circular dichroism. The analysis clearly indicates the existence of an intermediate state (I) in the folding route with significant secondary structure content but relatively low compactness, compared with the native ensemble. However, at high NaCl concentrations I-state gains substantial compaction, and the unfolding barrier is strongly affected, revealing the importance of electrostatics in the folding mechanism. The role of the C-terminal region (CTR), the key determinant of frataxin stability, was also studied. Simulations consistently with experiments revealed that this stretch is essentially unstructured, in the most compact transition state ensemble (TSE2). The complete truncation of the CTR drastically destabilizes the native state without altering TSE2. Results presented here shed light on the folding mechanism of frataxin, opening the possibility of mutating it to generate hyperstable variants without altering their folding kinetics. PMID:26856628

  13. Serpin A1 C-Terminal Peptides as Collagen Turnover Modulators.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Simona; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Nuti, Francesca; Papini, Anna Maria; Giovannelli, Lisa; Rovero, Paolo

    2016-08-19

    The modulation of collagen turnover can be a relevant pharmacological target in the context of treating either pathological or pathophysiological conditions, such as collagen-related diseases and skin aging. Our recent work has focused on the search for short-chain peptides as lead compounds for further development of compounds that enhance the production of type I collagen. In this study we selected and synthesized overlapping peptides of the C-terminal portion of serpin A1 (residues 393-418), the impact of which on collagen production has been reported previously, in order to identify shorter and still active fragments and to provide insight on the mechanisms involved. The biological activity of each fragment was evaluated with cultured normal human dermal fibroblasts, and changes in the amounts of collagen were monitored in collected culture media by a sandwich ELISA technique developed in house. Interestingly, we identified a decapeptide, termed SA1-III (Ac-MGKVVNPTQK-NH2 ), as a promising candidate for our purposes; it is able to induce a significant increase in type I collagen levels in the culture medium of treated cells at micromolar concentrations. PMID:26615979

  14. Human Frataxin Folds Via an Intermediate State. Role of the C-Terminal Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraj, Santiago E.; González-Lebrero, Rodolfo M.; Roman, Ernesto A.; Santos, Javier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the folding reaction of human frataxin, whose deficiency causes the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich’s Ataxia (FRDA). The characterization of different conformational states would provide knowledge about how frataxin can be stabilized without altering its functionality. Wild-type human frataxin and a set of mutants, including two highly destabilized FRDA-associated variants were studied by urea-induced folding/unfolding in a rapid mixing device and followed by circular dichroism. The analysis clearly indicates the existence of an intermediate state (I) in the folding route with significant secondary structure content but relatively low compactness, compared with the native ensemble. However, at high NaCl concentrations I-state gains substantial compaction, and the unfolding barrier is strongly affected, revealing the importance of electrostatics in the folding mechanism. The role of the C-terminal region (CTR), the key determinant of frataxin stability, was also studied. Simulations consistently with experiments revealed that this stretch is essentially unstructured, in the most compact transition state ensemble (TSE2). The complete truncation of the CTR drastically destabilizes the native state without altering TSE2. Results presented here shed light on the folding mechanism of frataxin, opening the possibility of mutating it to generate hyperstable variants without altering their folding kinetics.

  15. C-terminal region of bacterial Ku controls DNA bridging, DNA threading and recruitment of DNA ligase D for double strand breaks repair

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Stephen; Baconnais, Sonia; Roblin, Pierre; Nicolas, Pierre; Drevet, Pascal; Simonson, Héloïse; Piétrement, Olivier; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Le Cam, Eric; Noirot, Philippe; Lecointe, François

    2016-01-01

    Non-homologous end joining is a ligation process repairing DNA double strand breaks in eukaryotes and many prokaryotes. The ring structured eukaryotic Ku binds DNA ends and recruits other factors which can access DNA ends through the threading of Ku inward the DNA, making this protein a key ingredient for the scaffolding of the NHEJ machinery. However, this threading ability seems unevenly conserved among bacterial Ku. As bacterial Ku differ mainly by their C-terminus, we evaluate the role of this region in the loading and the threading abilities of Bacillus subtilis Ku and the stimulation of the DNA ligase LigD. We identify two distinct sub-regions: a ubiquitous minimal C-terminal region and a frequent basic C-terminal extension. We show that truncation of one or both of these sub-regions in Bacillus subtilis Ku impairs the stimulation of the LigD end joining activity in vitro. We further demonstrate that the minimal C-terminus is required for the Ku-LigD interaction, whereas the basic extension controls the threading and DNA bridging abilities of Ku. We propose that the Ku basic C-terminal extension increases the concentration of Ku near DNA ends, favoring the recruitment of LigD at the break, thanks to the minimal C-terminal sub-region. PMID:26961308

  16. Multifunctional role of the Pitx2 homeodomain protein C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Amendt, B A; Sutherland, L B; Russo, A F

    1999-10-01

    Pitx2 is a newly described bicoid-like homeodomain transcription factor that is defective in Rieger syndrome and shows a striking leftward developmental asymmetry. We have previously shown that Pitx2 (also called Ptx2 and RIEG) transactivates a reporter gene containing a bicoid enhancer and synergistically transactivates the prolactin promoter in the presence of the POU homeodomain protein Pit-1. In this report, we focused on the C-terminal region which is mutated in some Rieger patients and contains a highly conserved 14-amino-acid element. Deletion analysis of Pitx2 revealed that the C-terminal 39-amino-acid tail represses DNA binding activity and is required for Pitx2-Pit-1 interaction and Pit-1 synergism. Pit-1 interaction with the Pitx2 C terminus masks the inhibitory effect and promotes increased DNA binding activity. Interestingly, cotransfection of an expression vector encoding the C-terminal 39 amino acids of Pitx2 specifically inhibits Pitx2 transactivation activity. In contrast, the C-terminal 39-amino-acid peptide interacts with Pitx2 to increase its DNA binding activity. These data suggest that the C-terminal tail intrinsically inhibits the Pitx2 protein and that this inhibition can be overcome by interaction with other transcription factors to allow activation during development. PMID:10490637

  17. Multifunctional Role of the Pitx2 Homeodomain Protein C-Terminal Tail

    PubMed Central

    Amendt, Brad A.; Sutherland, Lillian B.; Russo, Andrew F.

    1999-01-01

    Pitx2 is a newly described bicoid-like homeodomain transcription factor that is defective in Rieger syndrome and shows a striking leftward developmental asymmetry. We have previously shown that Pitx2 (also called Ptx2 and RIEG) transactivates a reporter gene containing a bicoid enhancer and synergistically transactivates the prolactin promoter in the presence of the POU homeodomain protein Pit-1. In this report, we focused on the C-terminal region which is mutated in some Rieger patients and contains a highly conserved 14-amino-acid element. Deletion analysis of Pitx2 revealed that the C-terminal 39-amino-acid tail represses DNA binding activity and is required for Pitx2-Pit-1 interaction and Pit-1 synergism. Pit-1 interaction with the Pitx2 C terminus masks the inhibitory effect and promotes increased DNA binding activity. Interestingly, cotransfection of an expression vector encoding the C-terminal 39 amino acids of Pitx2 specifically inhibits Pitx2 transactivation activity. In contrast, the C-terminal 39-amino-acid peptide interacts with Pitx2 to increase its DNA binding activity. These data suggest that the C-terminal tail intrinsically inhibits the Pitx2 protein and that this inhibition can be overcome by interaction with other transcription factors to allow activation during development. PMID:10490637

  18. Structure of the C-terminal domain of the arginine repressor protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, Leonid T.; Cherney, Maia M.; Garen, Craig R.; Lu, George J.; James, Michael N. G.

    2008-09-01

    The structure of the core domain of the arginine repressor protein from M. tuberculosis has been determined with (1.85 Å resolution) and without (2.15 Å resolution) the arginine corepressor bound. Three additional arginine molecules have been found to bind to the core domain hexamer at high (0.2 M) arginine concentration. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gene product encoded by open reading frame Rv1657 is an arginine repressor (ArgR). All genes involved in the l-arginine (hereafter arginine) biosynthetic pathway are essential for optimal growth of the Mtb pathogen, thus making MtbArgR a potential target for drug design. The C-terminal domains of arginine repressors (CArgR) participate in oligomerization and arginine binding. Several crystal forms of CArgR from Mtb (MtbCArgR) have been obtained. The X-ray crystal structures of MtbCArgR were determined at 1.85 Å resolution with bound arginine and at 2.15 Å resolution in the unliganded form. These structures show that six molecules of MtbCArgR are arranged into a hexamer having approximate 32 point symmetry that is formed from two trimers. The trimers rotate relative to each other by about 11° upon binding arginine. All residues in MtbCArgR deemed to be important for hexamer formation and for arginine binding have been identified from the experimentally determined structures presented. The hexamer contains six regular sites in which the arginine molecules have one common binding mode and three sites in which the arginine molecules have two overlapping binding modes. The latter sites only bind the ligand at high (200 mM) arginine concentrations.

  19. Exploiting conformational dynamics in drug discovery: design of C-terminal inhibitors of Hsp90 with improved activities

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Elisabetta; Zhao, Huiping; Blagg, Brian S.J.; Colombo, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The interaction that occurs between molecules is a dynamic process that impacts both structural and conformational properties of the ligand and the ligand binding site. Herein, we investigate the dynamic cross-talk between a protein and the ligand as a source for new opportunities in ligand design. Analysis of the formation/disappearance of protein pockets produced in response to a first-generation inhibitor assisted in the identification of functional groups that could be introduced onto scaffolds to facilitate optimal binding, which allowed for increased binding with previously uncharacterized regions. MD simulations were used to elucidate primary changes that occur in the Hsp90 C-terminal binding pocket in the presence of first-generation ligands. This data was then used to design ligands that adapt to these receptor conformations, which provides access to an energy landscape that is not visible in a static model. The newly synthesized compounds demonstrated anti-proliferative activity at ~150 nanomolar concentration. The method identified herein may be used to design chemical probes that provide additional information on structural variations of Hsp90 C-terminal binding site. PMID:24397468

  20. Serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Endo, Itsuro; Aihara, Ken-Ichi; Onishi, Yukiyo; Dong, Bingzi; Ohguro, Yukari; Kurahashi, Kiyoe; Yoshida, Sumiko; Fujinaka, Yuichi; Kuroda, Akio; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Fukumoto, Seiji; Matsumoto, Toshio; Abe, Masahiro

    2016-04-25

    Carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) is generated through matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-dependent type I collagen digestion, and has been widely utilized as a biomarker for bone turnover. The fact that atherosclerotic lesions are rich in both type I collagen and MMP-producing macrophages led to the hypothesis that serum ICTP concentrations may serve as a non-invasive clinical biomarker for atherosclerosis. Therefore, the association of serum ICTP concentrations with the maximum intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries, a surrogate index of systemic atherosclerosis, or brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in patients with atherosclerotic risk factors was evaluated. A total of 52 male and 65 female (mean age: 62.8 yrs) patients without renal failure, malignancies or bone diseases known to affect serum ICTP concentrations were recruited. Patients with max IMTs ≥1.1 mm showed significantly higher serum ICTP concentrations compared with patients with max IMTs <1.1 mm (3.33 ± 0.97 vs 2.82 ± 0.65 ng/mL, p<0.05). Serum ICTP concentration was also positively correlated with max IMT (p<0.001) or baPWV values (p<0.05). Multivariate analyses also revealed that serum ICTP concentrations were correlated with max IMT (p<0.001; 95% CI 0.200 to 0.454). These results suggest that serum ICTP concentrations can be used as a non-invasive biomarker for systemic atherosclerosis. PMID:26877258

  1. Solution structure, hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the UvrB C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Alexandrovich, A; Czisch, M; Frenkiel, T A; Kelly, G P; Goosen, N; Moolenaar, G F; Chowdhry, B Z; Sanderson, M R; Lane, A N

    2001-10-01

    The solution structure, thermodynamic stability and hydrodynamic properties of the 55-residue C-terminal domain of UvrB that interacts with UvrC during excision repair in E. coli have been determined using a combination of high resolution NMR, ultracentrifugation, 15N NMR relaxation, gel permeation, NMR diffusion, circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry. The subunit molecular weight is 7,438 kDa., compared with 14.5+/-1.0 kDa. determined by equilibrium sedimentation, indicating a dimeric structure. The structure determined from NMR showed a stable dimer of anti-parallel helical hairpins that associate in an unusual manner, with a small and hydrophobic interface. The Stokes radius of the protein decreases from a high plateau value (ca. 22 A) at protein concentrations greater than 4 microM to about 18 A at concentrations less than 0.1 microM. The concentration and temperature-dependence of the far UV circular dichroism show that the protein is thermally stable (Tm ca. 71.5 degrees C at 36 microM). The simplest model consistent with these data was a dimer dissociating into folded monomers that then unfolds co-operatively. The van't Hoff enthalpy and dissociation constant for both transition was derived by fitting, with deltaH1=23 kJ mol(-1). K1(298)=0.4 microM and deltaH2= 184 kJ mol(-1). This is in good agreement with direct calorimetric analysis of the thermal unfolding of the protein, which gave a calorimetric enthalpy change of 181 kJ mol(-1) and a van't Hoff enthalpy change of 354 kJ mol(-1), confirming the dimer to monomer unfolding. The thermodynamic data can be reconciled with the observed mode of dimerisation. 15N NMR relaxation measurements at 14.1 T and 11.75 T confirmed that the protein behaves as an asymmetric dimer at mM concentrations, with a flexible N-terminal linker for attachment to the remainder of the UvrB protein. The role of dimerisation of this domain in the excision repair mechanism is discussed. PMID:11697728

  2. A C-terminal aldehyde analog of the insect kinins inhibits diuresis in the housefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect kinins are present in a wide variety of insects and function as potent diuretic peptides in flies. A C-terminal aldehyde insect kinin analog, Fmoc-RFFPWG-H (R-LK-CHO), demonstrates stimulation of Malpighian tubule fluid secretion in crickets, but shows inhibition of both in vitro and in v...

  3. Degradation of C-terminal tag sequences on domain antibodies purified from E. coli supernatant

    PubMed Central

    Lykkemark, Simon; Mandrup, Ole Aalund; Friis, Niels Anton; Kristensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Expression of recombinant proteins often takes advantage of peptide tags expressed in fusion to allow easy detection and purification of the expressed proteins. However, as the fusion peptides most often are flexible appendages at the N- or C-terminal, proteolytic cleavage may result in removal of the tag sequence. Here, we evaluated the functionality and stability of 14 different combinations of commonly used tags for purification and detection of recombinant antibody fragments. The tag sequences were inserted in fusion with the c-terminal end of a domain antibody based on the HEL4 scaffold in a phagemid vector. This particular antibody fragment was able to refold on the membrane after blotting, allowing us to detect c-terminal tag breakdown by use of protein A in combination with detection of the tags in the specific constructs. The degradation of the c-terminal tags suggested specific sites to be particularly prone to proteolytic cleavage, leaving some of the tag combinations partially or completely degraded. This specific work illustrates the importance of tag design with regard to recombinant antibody expression in E. coli, but also aids the more general understanding of protein expression. PMID:25426869

  4. Effect of C-terminal truncation on enzyme properties of recombinant amylopullulanase from Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Pang; Ho, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Lin, Hui-Ju

    2012-05-01

    The smallest and enzymatically active molecule, TetApuQ818, was localized within the C-terminal Q818 amino acid residue after serial C-terminal truncation analysis of the recombinant amylopullulanase molecule (TetApuM955) from Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus. Kinetic analyses indicated that the overall catalytic efficiency, k (cat)/K (m), of TetApuQ818 was 8-32% decreased for the pullulan and the soluble starch substrate, respectively. Changes to the substrate affinity, K (m), and the turnover rate, k (cat), were decreased significantly in both enzymatic activities of TetApuQ818. TetApuQ818 exhibited less thermostability than TetApuM955 when the temperature was raised above 85°C, but it had similar substrate-binding ability and hydrolysis products toward various substrates as TetApuM955 did. Both enzymes showed similar spectroscopies of fluorescence and circular dichroism, suggesting the active folding conformation was maintained after this C-terminal Q818 deletion. This study suggested that the binding ability of insoluble starch by TetApuM955 did not rely on the putative C-terminal carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) and two FnIII regions of TetApu, though the integrity of the AamyC module of TetApuQ818 was required for the enzyme activity. PMID:22392283

  5. MscCG from Corynebacterium glutamicum: functional significance of the C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Michael; Krämer, Reinhard

    2015-10-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is used in microbial biotechnology for the production of amino acids, e.g., glutamate and lysine. Excretion of glutamate into the surrounding medium under production conditions is mediated by MscCG, an MscS-type mechanosensitive channel. In difference to most other MscS-type channel proteins, MscCG carries, in addition to the N-terminal pore domain, a long C-terminal domain that amounts to about half of the size of the protein and harbors an additional transmembrane segment. Here we study the impact of the C-terminal domain on both functions of MscCG as mechanosensitive channel and as glutamate exporter. Sequential truncations of the C-terminal domain were applied, as well as deletion of particular subdomains, replacement of these segments by other amino acid sequences, and sequence randomization. Several parameters of cell physiology and bioenergetics of the obtained mutants related to both glutamate excretion and response to osmotic stress were quantified. All three subdomains of the C-terminal domain, i.e., the periplasmic loop, the fourth transmembrane segment, and the cytoplasmic loop, proved to be of core significance for MscCG function, in particular for glutamate excretion. PMID:26033538

  6. Degradation of C-terminal tag sequences on domain antibodies purified from E. coli supernatant.

    PubMed

    Lykkemark, Simon; Mandrup, Ole Aalund; Friis, Niels Anton; Kristensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Expression of recombinant proteins often takes advantage of peptide tags expressed in fusion to allow easy detection and purification of the expressed proteins. However, as the fusion peptides most often are flexible appendages at the N- or C-terminal, proteolytic cleavage may result in removal of the tag sequence. Here, we evaluated the functionality and stability of 14 different combinations of commonly used tags for purification and detection of recombinant antibody fragments. The tag sequences were inserted in fusion with the c-terminal end of a domain antibody based on the HEL4 scaffold in a phagemid vector. This particular antibody fragment was able to refold on the membrane after blotting, allowing us to detect c-terminal tag breakdown by use of protein A in combination with detection of the tags in the specific constructs. The degradation of the c-terminal tags suggested specific sites to be particularly prone to proteolytic cleavage, leaving some of the tag combinations partially or completely degraded. This specific work illustrates the importance of tag design with regard to recombinant antibody expression in E. coli, but also aids the more general understanding of protein expression. PMID:25426869

  7. Defining the Intrinsically Disordered C-Terminal Domain of SSB Reveals DNA-Mediated Compaction.

    PubMed

    Green, Matthew; Hatter, Louise; Brookes, Emre; Soultanas, Panos; Scott, David J

    2016-01-29

    The bacterial single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein SSB is a strictly conserved and essential protein involved in diverse functions of DNA metabolism, including replication and repair. SSB comprises a well-characterized tetrameric core of N-terminal oligonucleotide binding OB folds that bind ssDNA and four intrinsically disordered C-terminal domains of unknown structure that interact with partner proteins. The generally accepted, albeit speculative, mechanistic model in the field postulates that binding of ssDNA to the OB core induces the flexible, undefined C-terminal arms to expand outwards encouraging functional interactions with partner proteins. In this structural study, we show that the opposite is true. Combined small-angle scattering with X-rays and neutrons coupled to coarse-grained modeling reveal that the intrinsically disordered C-terminal arms are relatively collapsed around the tetrameric OB core and collapse further upon ssDNA binding. This implies a mechanism of action, in which the disordered C-terminal domain collapse traps the ssDNA and pulls functional partners onto the ssDNA. PMID:26707201

  8. A summary of staphylococcal C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcal peptidoglycan hydrolases are a potential new source of antimicrobials. A large subset of these proteins contain a C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domain that has been shown for some to be essential for accurate cell wall recognition and subsequent staphylolytic activity, propert...

  9. IMPLICATION OF C-TERMINAL DELETION ON THE STRUCTURE AND STABILITY OF BOVINE B-CASEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The properties of bovine Beta-casein with its C-terminal 20 residues removed by chymosin digestion, 1-192 fragment (f1-192), were examined and compared to the parent protein (Beta-casein). The f1-192 molecule could not form a complex with the hydrophobic probe ANS; this convincingly illustrates that...

  10. Alpha-A crystallin: quantitation of C-terminal modification during lens aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is susceptible to age-dependent, posttranslational modification. To quantitate the amount of modification, alpha-A crystallin was purified from total proteins of the aging bovine lens, then digested with lys-C endoproteinase. Reverse phase, high pressure liquid chromatography was used to resolve and quantitate the resulting peptides, to determine the amount of C-terminal peptide relative to peptides from other regions of the protein that have not been reported to undergo modification. The results indicate that relative to alpha-A crystallin from newborn lens, posttranslational modification has occurred in approximately 45-55% of the C-terminal region from mature lens. These results demonstrate extensive modification of the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin from the mature lens, indicating that during the aging process, posttranslational modifications in this region may make significant contributions to the aggregated state and/or molecular chaperone properties of the molecule.

  11. Evidence for new C-terminally truncated variants of α- and β-tubulins

    PubMed Central

    Aillaud, Chrystelle; Bosc, Christophe; Saoudi, Yasmina; Denarier, Eric; Peris, Leticia; Sago, Laila; Taulet, Nicolas; Cieren, Adeline; Tort, Olivia; Magiera, Maria M.; Janke, Carsten; Redeker, Virginie; Andrieux, Annie; Moutin, Marie-Jo

    2016-01-01

    Cellular α-tubulin can bear various carboxy-terminal sequences: full-length tubulin arising from gene neosynthesis is tyrosinated, and two truncated variants, corresponding to detyrosinated and Δ2 α‑tubulin, result from the sequential cleavage of one or two C-terminal residues, respectively. Here, by using a novel antibody named 3EG that is highly specific to the –EEEG C-terminal sequence, we demonstrate the occurrence in neuronal tissues of a new αΔ3‑tubulin variant corresponding to α1A/B‑tubulin deleted of its last three residues (EEY). αΔ3‑tubulin has a specific distribution pattern: its quantity in the brain is similar to that of αΔ2-tubulin around birth but is much lower in adult tissue. This truncated α1A/B-tubulin variant can be generated from αΔ2-tubulin by the deglutamylases CCP1, CCP4, CCP5, and CCP6 but not by CCP2 and CCP3. Moreover, using 3EG antibody, we identify a C‑terminally truncated β-tubulin form with the same –EEEG C-terminal sequence. Using mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that β2A/B-tubulin is modified by truncation of the four C-terminal residues (EDEA). We show that this newly identified βΔ4-tubulin is ubiquitously present in cells and tissues and that its level is constant throughout the cell cycle. These new C-terminally truncated α- and β-tubulin variants, both ending with –EEEG sequence, are expected to regulate microtubule physiology. Of interest, the αΔ3-tubulin seems to be related to dynamic microtubules, resembling tyrosinated-tubulin rather than the other truncated variants, and may have critical function(s) in neuronal development. PMID:26739754

  12. Evidence for new C-terminally truncated variants of α- and β-tubulins.

    PubMed

    Aillaud, Chrystelle; Bosc, Christophe; Saoudi, Yasmina; Denarier, Eric; Peris, Leticia; Sago, Laila; Taulet, Nicolas; Cieren, Adeline; Tort, Olivia; Magiera, Maria M; Janke, Carsten; Redeker, Virginie; Andrieux, Annie; Moutin, Marie-Jo

    2016-02-15

    Cellular α-tubulin can bear various carboxy-terminal sequences: full-length tubulin arising from gene neosynthesis is tyrosinated, and two truncated variants, corresponding to detyrosinated and Δ2 α‑tubulin, result from the sequential cleavage of one or two C-terminal residues, respectively. Here, by using a novel antibody named 3EG that is highly specific to the -EEEG C-terminal sequence, we demonstrate the occurrence in neuronal tissues of a new αΔ3‑tubulin variant corresponding to α1A/B‑tubulin deleted of its last three residues (EEY). αΔ3‑tubulin has a specific distribution pattern: its quantity in the brain is similar to that of αΔ2-tubulin around birth but is much lower in adult tissue. This truncated α1A/B-tubulin variant can be generated from αΔ2-tubulin by the deglutamylases CCP1, CCP4, CCP5, and CCP6 but not by CCP2 and CCP3. Moreover, using 3EG antibody, we identify a C‑terminally truncated β-tubulin form with the same -EEEG C-terminal sequence. Using mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that β2A/B-tubulin is modified by truncation of the four C-terminal residues (EDEA). We show that this newly identified βΔ4-tubulin is ubiquitously present in cells and tissues and that its level is constant throughout the cell cycle. These new C-terminally truncated α- and β-tubulin variants, both ending with -EEEG sequence, are expected to regulate microtubule physiology. Of interest, the αΔ3-tubulin seems to be related to dynamic microtubules, resembling tyrosinated-tubulin rather than the other truncated variants, and may have critical function(s) in neuronal development. PMID:26739754

  13. The C-terminal loop of aldehyde reductase determines the substrate and inhibitor specificity.

    PubMed

    Barski, O A; Gabbay, K H; Bohren, K M

    1996-11-12

    Human aldehyde reductase has a preference for carboxyl group-containing negatively charged substrates. It belongs to the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase superfamily whose members are in part distinguished by unique C-terminal loops. To probe the role of the C-terminal loops in determining substrate specificities in these enzymes, two arginine residues, Arg308 and Arg311, located in the C-terminal loop of aldehyde reductase, and not found in any other C-terminal loop, were replaced with alanine residues. The catalytic efficiency of the R311A mutant for aldehydes containing a carboxyl group is reduced 150-250-fold in comparison to that of the wild-type enzyme, while substrates not containing a negative charge are unaffected. The R311A mutant is also significantly less sensitive to inhibition by dicarboxylic acids, indicating that Arg311 interacts with one of the carboxyl groups. The inhibition pattern indicates that the other carboxyl group binds to the anion binding site formed by Tyr49, His112, and the nicotinamide moiety of NADP+. The correlation between inhibitor potency and the length of the dicarboxylic acid molecules suggests a distance of approximately 10 A between the amino group of Arg311 and the anion binding site in the aldehyde reductase molecule. The sensitivity of inhibition of the R311A mutant by several commercially available aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) was variable, with tolrestat and zopolrestat becoming more potent inhibitors (30- and 5-fold, respectively), while others remained the same or became less potent. The catalytic properties, substrate specificity, and susceptibility to inhibition of the R308A mutant remained similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. The data provide direct evidence for C-terminal loop participation in determining substrate and inhibitor specificity of aldo-keto reductases and specifically identifies Arg311 as the basis for the carboxyl-containing substrate preference of aldehyde reductase. PMID:8916913

  14. Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of C-terminal modified peptides by formation of a backbone cyclic urethane moiety.

    PubMed

    Elashal, Hader E; Cohen, Ryan D; Raj, Monika

    2016-08-11

    C-terminally modified peptides are of high significance due to the therapeutic properties that accompany various C-terminal functional groups and the ability to manipulate them for further applications. Thus, there is a great necessity for an effective solid phase technique for the synthesis of C-terminally modified peptides. Here, we report a universal solid phase strategy for the synthesis of various C-terminal modified peptides which is independent of the type of resins, linkers, and unnatural moieties typically needed for C-terminal modifications. The technique proceeds by the modification of C-terminal serine to a cyclic urethane moiety which results in the activation of the backbone amide chain for nucleophilic displacement by various nucleophiles to generate C-terminally modified acids, esters, N-aryl amides, and alcohols. This cyclic urethane technique (CUT) also provides a general strategy for synthesis of C-terminal protected peptides that can be used for convergent synthesis of large peptides. The C-terminal protecting groups are cleaved by facile hydrolysis to release the free peptide. PMID:27407005

  15. Specific Inhibitors of HIV Capsid Assembly Binding to the C-Terminal Domain of the Capsid Protein: Evaluation of 2-Arylquinazolines as Potential Antiviral Compounds.

    PubMed

    Machara, Aleš; Lux, Vanda; Kožíšek, Milan; Grantz Šašková, Klára; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Kotora, Martin; Parkan, Kamil; Pávová, Marcela; Glass, Bärbel; Sehr, Peter; Lewis, Joe; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Konvalinka, Jan

    2016-01-28

    Assembly of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) represents an attractive target for antiretroviral therapy which is not exploited by currently available drugs. We established high-throughput screening for assembly inhibitors based on competition of small molecules for the binding of a known dodecapeptide assembly inhibitor to the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA (capsid). Screening of >70000 compounds from different libraries identified 2-arylquinazolines as low micromolecular inhibitors of HIV-1 capsid assembly. We prepared focused libraries of modified 2-arylquinazolines and tested their capacity to bind HIV-1 CA to compete with the known peptide inhibitor and to prevent the replication of HIV-1 in tissue culture. Some of the compounds showed potent binding to the C-terminal domain of CA and were found to block viral replication at low micromolar concentrations. PMID:26685880

  16. Biological Activity and Antidiabetic Potential of C-Terminal Octapeptide Fragments of the Gut-Derived Hormone Xenin

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christine M.; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hasib, Annie; Ng, Ming T.; McClean, Stephen; Flatt, Peter R.; Gault, Victor A.; Irwin, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Xenin is a peptide that is co-secreted with the incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), from intestinal K-cells in response to feeding. Studies demonstrate that xenin has appetite suppressive effects and modulates glucose-induced insulin secretion. The present study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and antidiabetic properties of two C-terminal fragment xenin peptides, namely xenin 18–25 and xenin 18–25 Gln. In BRIN-BD11 cells, both xenin fragment peptides concentration-dependently stimulated insulin secretion, with similar efficacy as the parent peptide. Neither fragment peptide had any effect on acute feeding behaviour at elevated doses of 500 nmol/kg bw. When administered together with glucose to normal mice at 25 nmol/kg bw, the overall insulin secretory effect was significantly enhanced in both xenin 18–25 and xenin 18–25 Gln treated mice, with better moderation of blood glucose levels. Twice daily administration of xenin 18–25 or xenin 18–25 Gln for 21 days in high fat fed mice did not affect energy intake, body weight, circulating blood glucose or body fat stores. However, circulating plasma insulin concentrations had a tendency to be elevated, particularly in xenin 18–25 Gln mice. Both treatment regimens significantly improved insulin sensitivity by the end of the treatment period. In addition, sustained treatment with xenin 18–25 Gln significantly reduced the overall glycaemic excursion and augmented the insulinotropic response to an exogenous glucose challenge on day 21. In harmony with this, GIP-mediated glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing effects were substantially improved by twice daily xenin 18–25 Gln treatment. Overall, these data provide evidence that C-terminal octapeptide fragments of xenin, such as xenin 18–25 Gln, have potential therapeutic utility for type 2 diabetes. PMID:27032106

  17. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S.

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  18. A C-TERMINAL INSECT KININ ANALOG ENHANCES INHIBITION OF WEIGHT GAIN AND INDUCES SIGNIFICANT MORTALITY IN HELICOVERPA ZEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first reported examples of C-terminal aldehyde analogs of an insect neuropeptide are described. They are hexapeptide insect kinin analogs Boc-VFFPWG-H and Fmoc-RFFPWG-H. Activity observed for these modified analogs in an in vitro insect diuretic assay confirms that the C-terminal aldehyde group...

  19. Structure of a C-terminal [alpha]-helix cap in a synthetic peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.X.; Kallenbach, N.R. ); Lyu, P.C.; Wemmer, D.E. )

    1994-02-09

    We report here a novel C-terminal capping structure in a peptide helix, in which the NH of the side chain of asparagine forms an H-bond with the helix main chain CO four residues away. The backbone forms a local 3[sub 10] helix at the C-terminus, with the side chain contributing an additional H-bonded loop. This structure reveals formation of H-bonds by the side chain and main chain of a single residue that serve as a fundamental signal at the C-terminus of helices. The structure formed in this way blocks continuation of the [alpha]helix, hence providing a stronger C-termination signal than Pro 19, as seen in the relative CD values. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The N-terminal to C-terminal motif in protein folding and function.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Mallela M G; Englander, S Walter

    2005-01-25

    Essentially all proteins known to fold kinetically in a two-state manner have their N- and C-terminal secondary structural elements in contact, and the terminal elements often dock as part of the experimentally measurable initial folding step. Conversely, all N-C no-contact proteins studied so far fold by non-two-state kinetics. By comparison, about half of the single domain proteins in the Protein Data Bank have their N- and C-terminal elements in contact, more than expected on a random probability basis but not nearly enough to account for the bias in protein folding. Possible reasons for this bias relate to the mechanisms for initial protein folding, native state stability, and final turnover. PMID:15657118

  1. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371–553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P212121 (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C2221 (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. PMID:22297990

  2. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371-553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C222(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. PMID:22297990

  3. N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and bone mineral density for early diagnosis of nonunion: An experimental study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-Ping; Shi, Zhan-Jun; Shen, Ning-Jiang; Wang, Jian; Li, Zao-Min; Xiao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis and treatment of bone nonunion have been studied extensively. Diagnosis and treatment of nonunion are mainly performed based on the interpretation of clinico-radiographic findings, which depend on the clinician's experience and the degree of bone callus formation during the fracture-healing process. However, resolution may be compromised when the bone mineral content is <25%. A feasible method of monitoring bone-healing is therefore needed. We monitored a rabbit model of bone nonunion by regular radiographic examinations, QCT detection, and biomarker concentrations. Materials and Methods: Twenty purebred New Zealand rabbits (10 male and 10 female, 5–6 months of age, 2.5–3.0 kg) were divided into bone defect Group (I) that 10 left radius bones underwent resection of 1.5 cm of mid-radius bone and bone fracture Group (II) that another 10 left radius bones underwent only mid-radius fracture. Quantitative computed tomography detection of bone mineral density (BMD) and serum markers of bone formation (osteocalcin [OC], bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) and bone resorption (C- and N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) were assayed. There are twenty rabbits (10 male and 10 females). The age was 5–6 months weighing 2.5–3.0 kg). The defect was created in middle 1/3 radius in 10 rabbits and fracture was created in middle 1/3 radius of 10 rabbits. Results: BMD and NTX concentrations were significantly lower at 5 weeks postoperatively compared to the preoperative values and were significantly different between the two groups. OC showed no significant difference before and after surgery. Conclusions: BMD and NTX concentrations may be useful for early detection of bone nonunion in rabbits. PMID:27512225

  4. Localization of the hydrophilic C terminal part of the ATP synthase subunit 8 of saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Velours, J.; Guerin, B.

    1986-07-16

    The hydrophobic subunit 8 of the yeast ATP synthase was modified using the non-penetrating amino reactive specific reagent: isethionylacetimidate. The polypeptide was modified when using the isolated ATP synthase and sodium bromide-treated submitochondrial particles. It is shown that the only lysine of the protein was modified by the reagent. It is concluded that the hydrophilic C terminal part of the protein containing lysine 47 is located on the inner side of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  5. Viral suppression function of intracellular antibody against C-terminal domain of rabies virus phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Lina; Yu, Pengcheng; Li, Aqian; Li, Chuan; Tang, Qing; Li, Dexin; Liang, Mifang

    2015-10-01

    Rabies virus (RV) causes a fatal disease in both human and animals. The disease can be prevented by post-exposure prophylaxis in individuals exposed to RV. However, the neutralization effect is limited after the virus enters into the host cells. So, it is important to identify new targets for rabies therapy. In this study, a human antibody RV1A2 specific to RV phosphoprotein (RV-P) was generated from a human naïve immune antibody library. The antibody recognized all forms of the phosphoproteins including the full length (P1) and short length of the P proteins (P2, P3, P4, and P5). The epitope mapping and the molecular docking of antigen-antibody complex showed that the antibody targets at a conserved epitope of 'VLGWV' ranging from amino acid (aa) 262 to 266 at C-terminal domain of the P protein, which locates at a hydrophobic pocket region in the C-terminal of the RV-P. The aa W265 within the epitope is on the flat surface of the domain, suggesting that it may be a critical amino acid for the functions of the P protein. Our results further showed that intracellular antibody RV1A2 which targets at the C-terminal domain of the P protein could effectively inhibit RV propagation 2-4 days post infection. These results suggest that the conserved C-terminal domain may be used as a new target for drug discovery, which highlights an intracellular inhibition of RV propagation and provides a potential novel way to treat RV infection. PMID:26188200

  6. The C-terminal CGHC motif of protein disulfide isomerase supports thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junsong; Wu, Yi; Wang, Lu; Rauova, Lubica; Hayes, Vincent M.; Poncz, Mortimer; Essex, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has two distinct CGHC redox-active sites; however, the contribution of these sites during different physiologic reactions, including thrombosis, is unknown. Here, we evaluated the role of PDI and redox-active sites of PDI in thrombosis by generating mice with blood cells and vessel wall cells lacking PDI (Mx1-Cre Pdifl/fl mice) and transgenic mice harboring PDI that lacks a functional C-terminal CGHC motif [PDI(ss-oo) mice]. Both mouse models showed decreased fibrin deposition and platelet accumulation in laser-induced cremaster arteriole injury, and PDI(ss-oo) mice had attenuated platelet accumulation in FeCl3-induced mesenteric arterial injury. These defects were rescued by infusion of recombinant PDI containing only a functional C-terminal CGHC motif [PDI(oo-ss)]. PDI infusion restored fibrin formation, but not platelet accumulation, in eptifibatide-treated wild-type mice, suggesting a direct role of PDI in coagulation. In vitro aggregation of platelets from PDI(ss-oo) mice and PDI-null platelets was reduced; however, this defect was rescued by recombinant PDI(oo-ss). In human platelets, recombinant PDI(ss-oo) inhibited aggregation, while recombinant PDI(oo-ss) potentiated aggregation. Platelet secretion assays demonstrated that the C-terminal CGHC motif of PDI is important for P-selectin expression and ATP secretion through a non-αIIbβ3 substrate. In summary, our results indicate that the C-terminal CGHC motif of PDI is important for platelet function and coagulation. PMID:26529254

  7. Dual Thermosensitive Hydrogels Assembled from the Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Dragline Silk.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Ming-Liang; Song, Wen-Wen; Xia, Xiao-Xia

    2015-11-01

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have great potentials in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Due to the advantages of precise control over molecular weight and being biodegradable, protein-based hydrogels and their applications have been extensively studied. However, protein hydrogels with dual thermosensitive properties are rarely reported. Here we present the first report of dual thermosensitive hydrogels assembled from the conserved C-terminal domain of spider dragline silk. First, we found that recombinant C-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) of the spider Nephila clavipes formed hydrogels when cooled to approximately 2 °C or heated to 65 °C. The conformational changes and self-assembly of the recombinant protein were studied to understand the mechanism of the gelation processes using multiple methods. It was proposed that the gelation in the low-temperature regime was dominated by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between folded protein molecules, whereas the gelation in the high-temperature regime was due to cross-linking of the exposed hydrophobic patches resulting from partial unfolding of the protein upon heating. More interestingly, genetic fusion of the C-terminal domain to a short repetitive region of N. clavipes MaSp1 resulted in a chimeric protein that formed a hydrogel with significantly improved mechanical properties at low temperatures between 2 and 10 °C. Furthermore, the formation of similar hydrogels was observed for the recombinant C-terminal domains of dragline silk of different spider species, thus demonstrating the conserved ability to form dual thermosensitive hydrogels. These findings may be useful in the design and construction of novel protein hydrogels with tunable multiple thermosensitivity for applications in the future. PMID:26457360

  8. The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papazyan, Romeo; Rozengurt, Enrique; Rey, Osvaldo . E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-14

    We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

  9. Delineation of the core aggregation sequences of TDP-43 C-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Saini, Akash; Chauhan, Virander Singh

    2011-11-01

    Ubiquitinated cytoplasmic inclusions of TDP-43 and its C-terminal cleavage products are the pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions. The C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of TDP-43 are increasingly considered to play an important role in its aggregation and in disease. Here, we employed a set of synthetic peptides spanning the length of the TDP-43 CTF (220-414) in order to find out its core aggregation domains. Two regions, one in the RRM-2 domain (246-255) and the other in the C-terminal domain (311-320) of TDP-43, stand out as highly aggregation prone. Studies done on recombinant purified TDP-43 CTF and its three mutants, in which these sequences were deleted individually and together, suggested that the 311-320 region has a more crucial role to play than the 246-255 in its aggregation. The study helps in defining specific peptide sequences that might form the core of TDP-43 aggregation. Identification of these sequences could help in designing peptide based inhibitors of TDP-43 aggregation. PMID:21905193

  10. A C-terminal Membrane Anchor Affects the Interactions of Prion Proteins with Lipid Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Nam K.; Shabbir, Waheed; Bove-Fenderson, Erin; Araman, Can; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Harris, David A.; Becker, Christian F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane attachment via a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor is critical for conversion of PrPC into pathogenic PrPSc. Therefore the effects of the anchor on PrP structure and function need to be deciphered. Three PrP variants, including full-length PrP (residues 23–231, FL_PrP), N-terminally truncated PrP (residues 90–231, T_PrP), and PrP missing its central hydrophobic region (Δ105–125, ΔCR_PrP), were equipped with a C-terminal membrane anchor via a semisynthesis strategy. Analyses of the interactions of lipidated PrPs with phospholipid membranes demonstrated that C-terminal membrane attachment induces a different binding mode of PrP to membranes, distinct from that of non-lipidated PrPs, and influences the biochemical and conformational properties of PrPs. Additionally, fluorescence-based assays indicated pore formation by lipidated ΔCR_PrP, a variant that is known to be highly neurotoxic in transgenic mice. This finding was supported by using patch clamp electrophysiological measurements of cultured cells. These results provide new evidence for the role of the membrane anchor in PrP-lipid interactions, highlighting the importance of the N-terminal and the central hydrophobic domain in these interactions. PMID:25217642

  11. Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Tubuliform Spidroin 1 Contributes to Extensibility in Synthetic Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Gnesa, Eric; Hsia, Yang; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Weber, Warner; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff; Tang, Simon; Agari, Kimiko; Vierra, Craig

    2012-05-24

    Spider silk is renowned for its extraordinary mechanical properties, having a balance of high tensile strength and extensibility. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the production of dragline silks from synthetic spider silk gene products. Here we report the first mechanical analysis of synthetic egg case silk fibers spun from the Latrodectus hesperus tubuliform silk proteins, TuSp1 and ECP-2. We provide evidence that recombinant ECP-2 proteins can be spun into fibers that display mechanical properties similar to other synthetic spider silks. We also demonstrate that silks spun from recombinant thioredoxin-TuSp1 fusion proteins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain exhibit increased extensibility and toughness when compared to the identical fibers spun from fusion proteins lacking the C-terminus. Mechanical analyses reveal that the properties of synthetic tubuliform silks can be modulated by altering the postspin draw ratios of the fibers. Fibers subject to increased draw ratios showed elevated tensile strength and decreased extensibility but maintained constant toughness. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction studies indicate that postdrawn fibers containing the C-terminal domain of TuSp1 have more amorphous content when compared to fibers lacking the C-terminus. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that recombinant tubuliform spidroins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain with embedded protein tags can be effectively spun into fibers, resulting in similar tensile strength but increased extensibility relative to nontagged recombinant dragline silk proteins spun from equivalently sized proteins.

  12. Akt kinase C-terminal modifications control activation loop dephosphorylation and enhance insulin response

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tung O.; Zhang, Jin; Tiegs, Brian C.; Blumhof, Brian; Yan, Linda; Keny, Nikhil; Penny, Morgan; Li, Xue; Pascal, John M.; Armen, Roger S.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Penn, Raymond B.

    2015-01-01

    The Akt protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in insulin receptor signalling and regulates cell growth, survival and metabolism. Recently, we described a mechanism to enhance Akt phosphorylation that restricts access of cellular phosphatases to the Akt activation loop (Thr308 in Akt1 or protein kinase B isoform alpha) in an ATP-dependent manner. In the present paper, we describe a distinct mechanism to control Thr308 dephosphorylation and thus Akt deactivation that depends on intramolecular interactions of Akt C-terminal sequences with its kinase domain. Modifications of amino acids surrounding the Akt1 C-terminal mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) phosphorylation site (Ser473) increased phosphatase resistance of the phosphorylated activation loop (pThr308) and amplified Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the phosphatase-resistant Akt was refractory to ceramide-dependent dephosphorylation and amplified insulin-dependent Thr308 phosphorylation in a regulated fashion. Collectively, these results suggest that the Akt C-terminal hydrophobic groove is a target for the development of agents that enhance Akt phosphorylation by insulin. PMID:26201515

  13. Membrane curvature sensing by the C-terminal domain of complexin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, David; Wragg, Rachel T.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Eliezer, David

    2014-09-01

    Complexin functions at presynaptic nerve terminals to inhibit spontaneous SNARE-mediated synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis, while enhancing stimulated neurotransmitter release. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of complexin is essential for its inhibitory function and has been implicated in localizing complexin to SVs via direct membrane interactions. Here we show that complexin’s CTD is highly sensitive to membrane curvature, which it senses via tandem motifs, a C-terminal motif containing a mix of bulky hydrophobic and positively charged residues, and an adjacent amphipathic region that can bind membranes in either a disordered or a helical conformation. Helix formation requires membrane packing defects found on highly curved membrane surfaces. Mutations that disrupt helix formation without disrupting membrane binding compromise complexin’s inhibitory function in vivo. Thus, this membrane curvature-dependent conformational transition, combined with curvature-sensitive binding by the adjacent C-terminal motif, constitute a novel mechanism for activating complexin’s inhibitory function on the surface of SVs.

  14. Mutagenic Analysis of the C-Terminal Extension of Lsm1

    PubMed Central

    Tharun, Sundaresan

    2016-01-01

    The Sm-like proteins (also known as Lsm proteins) are ubiquitous in nature and exist as hexa or heptameric RNA binding complexes. They are characterized by the presence of the Sm-domain. The Lsm1 through Lsm7 proteins are highly conserved in eukaryotes and they form a hetero-octameric complex together with the protein Pat1. The Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex plays a key role in mRNA decapping and 3’-end protection and therefore is required for normal mRNA decay rates in vivo. Lsm1 is a key subunit that is critical for the unique RNA binding properties of this complex. We showed earlier that unlike most Sm-like proteins, Lsm1 uniquely requires both its Sm domain and its C-terminal extension to contribute to the function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex and that the C-terminal segment can associate with the rest of the complex and support the function even in trans. The studies presented here identify a set of residues at the very C-terminal end of Lsm1 to be functionally important and suggest that these residues support the function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex by facilitating RNA binding either directly or indirectly. PMID:27434131

  15. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the Zaire ebolavirus nucleoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Dziubańska, Paulina J.; Derewenda, Urszula; Ellena, Jeffrey F.; Engel, Daniel A.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2014-01-01

    Ebolavirus (EBOV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever with a mortality rate of up to 90%. EBOV is a member of the order Mononegavirales and, like other viruses in this taxonomic group, contains a negative-sense single-stranded (ss) RNA. The EBOV ssRNA encodes seven distinct proteins. One of them, the nucleoprotein (NP), is the most abundant viral protein in the infected cell and within the viral nucleocapsid. Like other EBOV proteins, NP is multifunctional. It is tightly associated with the viral genome and is essential for viral transcription, RNA replication, genome packaging and nucleocapsid assembly prior to membrane encapsulation. NP is unusual among the Mononegavirales in that it contains two distinct regions, or putative domains, the C-terminal of which shows no homology to any known proteins and is purported to be a hub for protein–protein interactions within the nucleocapsid. The atomic structure of NP remains unknown. Here, the boundaries of the N- and C-terminal domains of NP from Zaire EBOV are defined, it is shown that they can be expressed as highly stable recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, and the atomic structure of the C-terminal domain (residues 641–739) derived from analysis of two distinct crystal forms at 1.98 and 1.75 Å resolution is described. The structure reveals a novel tertiary fold that is distantly reminiscent of the β-grasp architecture. PMID:25195755

  16. Molecular Features of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) Regulation by C-terminal Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zan; Dempsey, Daniel R; Thomas, Stefani N; Hayward, Dawn; Bolduc, David M; Cole, Philip A

    2016-07-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor that functions to negatively regulate the PI3K/AKT pathway as the lipid phosphatase for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Phosphorylation of a cluster of Ser/Thr residues (amino acids 380-385) on the C-terminal tail serves to alter the conformational state of PTEN from an open active state to a closed inhibited state, resulting in a reduction of plasma membrane localization and inhibition of enzyme activity. The relative contribution of each phosphorylation site to PTEN autoinhibition and the structural basis for the conformational closure is still unclear. To further the structural understanding of PTEN regulation by C-terminal tail phosphorylation, we used protein semisynthesis to insert stoichiometric and site-specific phospho-Ser/Thr(s) in the C-terminal tail of PTEN. Additionally, we employed photo-cross-linking to map the intramolecular PTEN interactions of the phospho-tail. Systematic evaluation of the PTEN C-tail phospho-cluster showed autoinhibition, and conformational closure was influenced by the aggregate effect of multiple phospho-sites rather than dominated by a single phosphorylation site. Moreover, photo-cross-linking suggested a direct interaction between the PTEN C-tail and a segment in the N-terminal region of the catalytic domain. Mutagenesis experiments provided additional insights into how the PTEN phospho-tail interacts with both the C2 and catalytic domains. PMID:27226612

  17. Structure of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase α subunit C-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-González, Samuel; Birktoft, Jens J.; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-07-01

    The crystal structure of the dimethyllysine derivative of the E. coli RNA polymerase α subunit C-terminal domain is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. The α subunit C-terminal domain (αCTD) of RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a key element in transcription activation in Escherichia coli, possessing determinants responsible for the interaction of RNAP with DNA and with transcription factors. Here, the crystal structure of E. coli αCTD (α subunit residues 245–329) determined to 2.0 Å resolution is reported. Crystals were obtained after reductive methylation of the recombinantly expressed domain. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and possessed both pseudo-translational symmetry and pseudo-merohedral twinning. The refined coordinate model (R factor = 0.193, R{sub free} = 0.236) has improved geometry compared with prior lower resolution determinations of the αCTD structure [Jeon et al. (1995 ▶), Science, 270, 1495–1497; Benoff et al. (2002 ▶), Science, 297, 1562–1566]. An extensive dimerization interface formed primarily by N- and C-terminal residues is also observed. The new coordinates will facilitate the improved modeling of αCTD-containing multi-component complexes visualized at lower resolution using X-ray crystallography and electron-microscopy reconstruction.

  18. The C-terminal domain of the transcriptional corepressor CtBP is intrinsically unstructured.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Marco; Svergun, Dmitri; Konarev, Peter V; Spanò, Stefania; Fasano, Mauro; Bracco, Chiara; Pesce, Alessandra; Donadini, Alessandra; Cericola, Claudia; Secundo, Francesco; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela; Bolognesi, Martino

    2006-05-01

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are moonlighting proteins involved in nuclear transcriptional corepression and in Golgi membrane tubule fission. Structural information on CtBPs is available for their substrate-binding domain, responsible for transcriptional repressor recognition/binding, and for the nucleotide-binding domain, involved in NAD(H)-binding and dimerization. On the contrary, little is known about the structure of CtBP C-terminal region ( approximately 90 residues), hosting sites for post-translational modifications. In the present communication we apply a combined approach based on bioinformatics, nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering, and we show that the CtBP C-terminal region is intrinsically unstructured in the full-length CtBP and in constructs lacking the substrate- and/or the nucleotide-binding domains. The flexible nature of this protein region, and its structural transitions, may be instrumental for CtBP recognition and binding to diverse molecular partners. PMID:16597837

  19. The role of the C-terminal region on the oligomeric state and enzymatic activity of Trypanosoma cruzi hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Wanda M; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Defelipe, Lucas A; Mitschler, André; Podjarny, Alberto; Santos, Javier; Delfino, José M

    2016-06-01

    Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcHPRT) is a critical enzyme for the survival of the parasite. This work demonstrates that the full-length form in solution adopts a stable and enzymatically active tetrameric form, exhibiting large inter-subunit surfaces. Although this protein irreversibly aggregates during unfolding, oligomerization is reversible and can be modulated by low concentrations of urea. When the C-terminal region, which is predicted as a disordered stretch, is excised by proteolysis, TcHPRT adopts a dimeric state, suggesting that the C-terminal region acts as a main guide for the quaternary arrangement. These results are in agreement with X-ray crystallographic data presented in this work. On the other hand, the C-terminal region exhibits a modulatory role on the enzyme, as attested by the enhanced activity observed for the dimeric form. Bisphosphonates act as substrate-mimetics, uncovering long-range communications among the active sites. All in all, this work contributes to establish new ways applicable to the design of novel inhibitors that could eventually result in new drugs against parasitic diseases. PMID:26969784

  20. Development of the sigma-1 receptor in C-terminals of motoneurons and colocalization with the N,N'-dimethyltryptamine forming enzyme, indole-N-methyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Mavlyutov, T A; Epstein, M L; Liu, P; Verbny, Y I; Ziskind-Conhaim, L; Ruoho, A E

    2012-03-29

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS, the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs appear to concentrate at C-terminals of mouse MN only on the second week of postnatal development. We found that indole-N-methyl transferase (INMT), an enzyme that converts tryptamine into the sigma-1 ligand dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is also localized to postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in close proximity to the S1R. This close association of INMT and S1Rs suggest that DMT is synthesized locally to effectively activate S1R in MN. PMID:22265729

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SIGMA-1 RECEPTOR IN C-TERMINALS OF MOTONEURONS AND COLOCALIZATION WITH THE N,N’-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE FORMING ENZYME, INDOLE-N-METHYL TRANSFERASE

    PubMed Central

    Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Epstein, Miles L.; Liu, Patricia; Verbny, Yakov I.; Ziskind-Conhaim, Lea; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs appear to concentrate at C-terminals of mouse MN only on the second week of postnatal development. We found that Indole-N-methyl transferase (INMT), an enzyme that converts tryptamine into the sigma-1 ligand dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is also localized to postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in close proximity to the S1R. This close association of INMT and SIRs suggest that DMT is synthesized locally to effectively activate S1R in MN. PMID:22265729

  2. Probing the Impact of the EchinT C-Terminal Domain on Structure and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    S Bardaweel; J Pace; T Chou; V Cody; C Wagner

    2011-12-31

    Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein (Hint) is considered as the ancestor of the histidine triad protein superfamily and is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. Prokaryote genomes, including a wide array of both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, typically encode one Hint gene. The cellular function of Hint and the rationale for its evolutionary conservation in bacteria have remained a mystery. Despite its ubiquity and high sequence similarity to eukaryote Hint1 [Escherichia coli Hint (echinT) is 48% identical with human Hint1], prokaryote Hint has been reported in only a few studies. Here we report the first conformational information on the full-length N-terminal and C-terminal residues of Hint from the E. coli complex with GMP. Structural analysis of the echinT-GMP complex reveals that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with four homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of electron density for both the N-terminal residues and the C-terminal residues of the echinT-GMP complex indicates that the loops in some monomers can adopt more than one conformation. The observation of conformational flexibility in terminal loop regions could explain the presence of multiple homodimers in the asymmetric unit of this structure. To explore the impact of the echinT C-terminus on protein structure and catalysis, we conducted a series of catalytic radiolabeling and kinetic experiments on the C-terminal deletion mutants of echinT. In this study, we show that sequential deletion of the C-terminus likely has no effect on homodimerization and a modest effect on the secondary structure of echinT. However, we observed a significant impact on the folding structure, as reflected by a significant lowering of the T{sub m} value. Kinetic analysis reveals that the C-terminal deletion mutants are within an order of magnitude less efficient in catalysis compared to wild type, while the overall kinetic mechanism that proceeds through a fast step

  3. Deletion of extra C-terminal segment and its effect on the function and structure of artemin.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Fatemeh; Sajedi, Reza H; Shahangian, S Shirin; Rasti, Behnam; Mosadegh, Bita; Taghdir, Majid; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2011-10-01

    Artemin acts as a molecular chaperone by protecting Artemia embryos undergoing encystment from damage, caused by heat or other forms of stress. According to the amino acid sequence alignment, although artemin shows a fair amount of homology with ferritin, it also contains an extra C-terminal. Analysis of the C-terminal extension of artemin model in previous studies has shown that there are some favorable interactions between this region and its surrounding cleft. In the current study we tried to investigate the role of this C-terminal in chaperone activity of artemin. This extra C-terminal (39 residues) was deleted and the truncated gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. According to in vivo chaperone-like activity studies, both full-length and C-terminal truncated artemin conferred thermotolerance on transfected E. coli cells. However, bacteria expressing truncated derivative of artemin was less resistant than those producing native artemin against heat. Moreover, the activity recovery on carbonic anhydrase (CA), as protein substrate, was less in the presence of truncated artemin than that of full-length artemin. The results demonstrated that C-terminal deletion decreases the ability of artemin for chaperone-like activity. Theoretical investigations showed that deletion of artemin C-terminal extension makes substantial structural alterations in a way that structural stability and overall integrity of artemin decrease. PMID:21600915

  4. A Novel Signaling Pathway Mediated by the Nuclear Targeting of C-Terminal Fragments of Mammalian Patched 1

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, Hiroki; Shino, Yuka; Kobayashi, Daigo; Demizu, Syunsuke; Shimada, Masumi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Kawahara, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Patched 1 (Ptc1) is a polytopic receptor protein that is essential for growth and differentiation. Its extracellular domains accept its ligand, Sonic Hedgehog, while the function of its C-terminal intracellular domain is largely obscure. Principal Findings In this study, we stably expressed human Ptc1 protein in HeLa cells and found that it is subjected to proteolytic cleavage at the C-terminus, resulting in the generation of soluble C-terminal fragments. These fragments accumulated in the nucleus, while the N-terminal region of Ptc1 remained in the cytoplasmic membrane fractions. Using an anti-Ptc1 C-terminal domain antibody, we provide conclusive evidence that C-terminal fragments of endogenous Ptc1 accumulate in the nucleus of C3H10T1/2 cells. Similar nuclear accumulation of endogenous C-terminal fragments was observed not only in C3H10T1/2 cells but also in mouse embryonic primary cells. Importantly, the C-terminal fragments of Ptc1 modulate transcriptional activity of Gli1. Conclusions Although Ptc1 protein was originally thought to be restricted to cell membrane fractions, our findings suggest that its C-terminal fragments can function as an alternative signal transducer that is directly transported to the cell nucleus. PMID:21533246

  5. Carboxypeptidase D is the only enzyme responsible for antibody C-terminal lysine cleavage in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhilan; Zhang, Henry; Haley, Benjamin; Macchi, Frank; Yang, Feng; Misaghi, Shahram; Elich, Joseph; Yang, Renee; Tang, Yun; Joly, John C; Snedecor, Bradley R; Shen, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Heterogeneity of C-terminal lysine levels often observed in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is believed to result from the proteolysis by endogenous carboxypeptidase(s) during cell culture production. Identifying the responsible carboxypeptidase(s) for C-terminal lysine cleavage in CHO cells would provide valuable insights for antibody production cell culture processes development and optimization. In this study, five carboxypeptidases, CpD, CpM, CpN, CpB, and CpE, were studied for message RNA (mRNA) expression by qRT-PCR analysis in two most commonly used blank hosts (DUXB-11 derived DHFR-deficient DP12 host and DHFR-positive CHOK1 host), used for therapeutic antibody production, as well an antibody-expressing cell line derived from each host. Our results showed that CpD had the highest mRNA expression. When CpD mRNA levels were reduced by RNAi (RNA interference) technology, C-terminal lysine levels increased, whereas there was no obvious change in C-terminal lysine levels when a different carboxypeptidase mRNA level was knocked down suggesting that carboxypeptidase D is the main contributor for C-terminal lysine processing. Most importantly, when CpD expression was knocked out by CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology, C-terminal lysine cleavage was completely abolished in CpD knockout cells based on mass spectrometry analysis, demonstrating that CpD is the only endogenous carboxypeptidase that cleaves antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine in CHO cells. Hence, our work showed for the first time that the cleavage of antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine is solely mediated by the carboxypeptidase D in CHO cells and our finding provides one solution to eliminating C-terminal lysine heterogeneity for therapeutic antibody production by knocking out CpD gene expression. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2100-2106. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26989081

  6. Defective collagen crosslinking in bone, but not in ligament or cartilage, in Bruck syndrome: Indications for a bone-specific telopeptide lysyl hydroxylase on chromosome 17

    PubMed Central

    Bank, Ruud A.; Robins, Simon P.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Breslau-Siderius, Liesbeth J.; Bardoel, Alfons F. J.; Van der Sluijs, Hans A.; Pruijs, Hans E. H.; TeKoppele, Johan M.

    1999-01-01

    Bruck syndrome is characterized by the presence of osteoporosis, joint contractures, fragile bones, and short stature. We report that lysine residues within the telopeptides of collagen type I in bone are underhydroxylated, leading to aberrant crosslinking, but that the lysine residues in the triple helix are normally modified. In contrast to bone, cartilage and ligament show unaltered telopeptide hydroxylation as evidenced by normal patterns of crosslinking. The results provide compelling evidence that collagen crosslinking is regulated primarily by tissue-specific enzymes that hydroxylate only telopeptide lysine residues and not those destined for the helical portion of the molecule. This new family of enzymes appears to provide the primary regulation for controlling the different pathways of collagen crosslinking and explains why crosslink patterns are tissue specific and not related to a genetic collagen type. A genome screen identified only a single region on chromosome 17p12 where all affected sibs shared a cluster of haplotypes identical by descent; this might be the BS (Bruck syndrome) locus and consequently the region where bone telopeptidyl lysyl hydroxylase is located. Further knowledge of this enzyme has important implications for conditions where aberrant expression of telopeptide lysyl hydroxylase occurs, such as fibrosis and scar formation. PMID:9927692

  7. Characterization of peptides cleaved by plasmin from the C-terminal polymerization domain of human fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Southan, C; Thompson, E; Panico, M; Etienne, T; Morris, H R; Lane, D A

    1985-10-25

    The C-terminal region of the fibrinogen gamma chain is known to participate in several functional interactions including fibrin polymerization. This part of the molecule is retained on the gamma chain of fragment D (FgD) when fibrinogen is digested by plasmin in the presence of calcium to produce the fragment D-fragment E (FgD X FgE) complex but is lost if FgD is prepared in the absence of calcium. In an attempt to characterize the C-terminal polymerization domain we have used three techniques to examine this further degradation of FgD following the addition of EDTA and plasmin. Analysis of the digestion by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a progressive cleavage of the gamma chain to two small remnants. The polymerization-inhibitory activity of the whole digest was studied using acid-solubilized fibrin. A progressive loss of inhibitory activity was associated with gamma chain shortening, reaching greater than a 120-fold reduction at the end of digestion. The cleavage of peptides was followed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and the release of a characteristic peptide triplet was associated with gamma chain cleavage. Manual sequencing, amino acid analysis, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry established the three peptides as gamma 303-356, 357-373, and 374-405. These peptides have sequences in common with those peptides recently reported by other investigators to be potent polymerization inhibitors. However, when a mixture of the three peptides was added in a 200-fold molar excess to polymerizing fibrin, no inhibitory activity could be demonstrated. It is concluded that the C-terminal polymerization domain of fibrinogen may be an extended region which includes the sequence gamma 303-405, when this is contiguous with the remainder of the gamma chain. PMID:2932434

  8. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Mehler, Vera J.; Mueller, Christina; Vonhoff, Fernando; White, Robin; Duch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X), a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80) and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2. PMID:27442528

  9. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Raaij, Mark J. van; Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Fox, Gavin C.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2005-07-01

    Partial proteolysis of the avian reovirus cell-attachment protein σC yields a major homotrimeric C-terminal fragment that presumably contains the receptor-binding domain. This fragment has been crystallized in the presence and absence of zinc sulfate and cadmium sulfate. One of the crystal forms diffracts synchrotron X-rays to 2.2–2.3 Å. Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6{sub 3}22 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the Zn{sup II}- and Cd{sup II}-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine.

  10. BS69/ZMYND11 C-Terminal Domains Bind and Inhibit EBNA2

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Xu, Muyu; Martinez, Ernest; Peng, Chih-Wen; Song, Jikui

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) plays an important role in driving immortalization of EBV-infected B cells through regulating the expression of many viral and cellular genes. We report a structural study of the tumor suppressor BS69/ZMYND11 C-terminal region, comprised of tandem coiled-coil-MYND domains (BS69CC-MYND), in complex with an EBNA2 peptide containing a PXLXP motif. The coiled-coil domain of BS69 self-associates to bring two separate MYND domains in close proximity, thereby enhancing the BS69 MYND-EBNA2 interaction. ITC analysis of BS69CC-MYND with a C-terminal fragment of EBNA2 further suggests that the BS69CC-MYND homodimer synergistically binds to the two EBNA2 PXLXP motifs that are respectively located in the conserved regions CR7 and CR8. Furthermore, we showed that EBNA2 interacts with BS69 and down-regulates its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in EBV-infected B cells. Ectopic BS69CC-MYND is recruited to viral target promoters through interactions with EBNA2, inhibits EBNA2-mediated transcription activation, and impairs proliferation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Substitution of critical residues in the MYND domain impairs the BS69-EBNA2 interaction and abolishes the BS69 inhibition of the EBNA2-mediated transactivation and LCL proliferation. This study identifies the BS69 C-terminal domains as an inhibitor of EBNA2, which may have important implications in development of novel therapeutic strategies against EBV infection. PMID:26845565

  11. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alison A; Mehler, Vera J; Mueller, Christina; Vonhoff, Fernando; White, Robin; Duch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X), a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80) and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2. PMID:27442528

  12. The human SNARE protein Ykt6 mediates its own palmitoylation at C-terminal cysteine residues

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The yeast SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor) protein Ykt6 was shown to mediate palmitoylation of the fusion factor Vac8 in a reaction essential for the fusion of vacuoles. Here I present evidence that hYkt6 (human Ykt6) has self-palmitoylating activity. Incubation of recombinant hYkt6 with [3H]Pal-CoA ([3H]palmitoyl-CoA) leads to covalent attachment of palmitate to C-terminal cysteine residues. The N-terminal domain of human Ykt6 contains a Pal-CoA binding site and is required for the reaction. PMID:15479160

  13. Role of the Cationic C-Terminal Segment of Melittin on Membrane Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Alexandre; Fournier, Alain; Lafleur, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The widespread distribution of cationic antimicrobial peptides capable of membrane fragmentation in nature underlines their importance to living organisms. In the present work, we determined the impact of the electrostatic interactions associated with the cationic C-terminal segment of melittin, a 26-amino acid peptide from bee venom (net charge +6), on its binding to model membranes and on the resulting fragmentation. In order to detail the role played by the C-terminal charges, we prepared a melittin analogue for which the four cationic amino acids in positions 21-24 were substituted with the polar residue citrulline, providing a peptide with the same length and amphiphilicity but with a lower net charge (+2). We compared the peptide bilayer affinity and the membrane fragmentation for bilayers prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DPPS) mixtures. It is shown that neutralization of the C-terminal considerably increased melittin affinity for zwitterionic membranes. The unfavorable contribution associated with transferring the cationic C-terminal in a less polar environment was reduced, leaving the hydrophobic interactions, which drive the peptide insertion in bilayers, with limited counterbalancing interactions. The presence of negatively charged lipids (DPPS) in bilayers increased melittin binding by introducing attractive electrostatic interactions, the augmentation being, as expected, greater for native melittin than for its citrullinated analogue. The membrane fragmentation power of the peptide was shown to be controlled by electrostatic interactions and could be modulated by the charge carried by both the membrane and the lytic peptide. The analysis of the lipid composition of the extracted fragments from DPPC/DPPS bilayers revealed no lipid specificity. It is proposed that extended phase separations are more susceptible to lead to the extraction of a lipid species in a specific manner

  14. Purification, solution properties and crystallization of SIV integrase containing a continuous core and C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Yan, Y; Zugay-Murphy, J; Xu, B; Cole, J L; Witmer, M; Felock, P; Wolfe, A; Hazuda, D; Sardana, M K; Chen, Z; Kuo, L C; Sardana, V V

    1999-11-01

    The C-terminal two-thirds segment of integrase derived from the simian immunodeficiency virus has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to greater than 95% homogeneity. The protein encompasses amino-acid residues 50-293 and contains a F185H substitution to enhance solubility. In dilute solutions at concentrations below 1 mg ml(-1), the enzyme is predominantly dimeric. At the higher concentrations (>10 mg ml(-1)) required to enable crystallization, the enzyme self-associates to form species with molecular weights greater than 200 kDa. Despite the apparent high aggregation in solution, the enzyme crystallizes from a 8%(v/v) polyethylene glycol (molecular weight 6000) solution in a form suitable for X-ray diffraction studies. The resulting single crystals belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 79.76, b = 99.98, c = 150.2 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees and Z = 4. Under X-ray irradiation generated with a rotating-anode generator, the crystals diffract to 2.8 A resolution and allow collection of a native 3 A resolution diffraction data set. PMID:10531491

  15. An inhibitory C-terminal region dictates the specificity of A-adding enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Tretbar, Sandy; Neuenfeldt, Anne; Betat, Heike; Mörl, Mario

    2011-01-01

    For efficient aminoacylation, tRNAs carry the conserved 3′-terminal sequence C-C-A, which is synthesized by highly specific tRNA nucleotidyltransferases (CCA-adding enzymes). In several prokaryotes, this function is accomplished by separate enzymes for CC- and A-addition. As A-adding enzymes carry an N-terminal catalytic core identical to that of CCA-adding enzymes, it is unclear why their activity is restricted. Here, it is shown that C-terminal deletion variants of A-adding enzymes acquire full and precise CCA-incorporating activity. The deleted region seems to be responsible for tRNA primer selection, restricting the enzyme’s specificity to tRNAs ending with CC. The data suggest that A-adding enzymes carry an intrinsic CCA-adding activity that can be reactivated by the introduction of deletions in the C-terminal domain. Furthermore, a unique subtype of CCA-adding enzymes could be identified that evolved out of A-adding enzymes, suggesting that mutations and deletions in nucleotidyltransferases can lead to altered and even more complex activities, as a simple A-incorporation is converted into sequence-specific addition of C and A residues. Such activity-modifying events may have had an important role in the evolution of tRNA nucleotidyltransferases. PMID:22167803

  16. Alzheimer's Amyloid-β Sequesters Caspase-3 in Vitro via Its C-Terminal Tail.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Jen; Linh, Nguyen Hoang; Shih, Yao Hsiang; Yu, Hui-Ming; Li, Mai Suan; Chen, Yun-Ru

    2016-08-17

    Amyloid-β (Aβ), the main constituent in senile plaques found in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), is considered as a causative factor in AD pathogenesis. The clinical examination of the brains of patients with AD has demonstrated that caspase-3 colocalizes with senile plaques. Cellular studies have shown that Aβ can induce neuronal apoptosis via caspase-3 activation. Here, we performed biochemical and in silico studies to investigate possible direct effect of Aβ on caspase-3 to understand the molecular mechanism of the interaction between Aβ and caspase-3. We found that Aβ conformers can specifically and directly sequester caspase-3 activity in which freshly prepared Aβ42 is the most potent. The inhibition is noncompetitive, and the C-terminal region of Aβ plays an important role in sequestration. The binding of Aβ to caspase-3 was examined by cross-linking and proteolysis and by docking and all-atom molecular dynamic simulations. Experimental and in silico results revealed that Aβ42 exhibits a higher binding affinity than Aβ40 and the hydrophobic C-terminal region plays a key role in the caspase-Aβ interaction. Overall, our study describes a novel mechanism demonstrating that Aβ sequesters caspase-3 activity via direct interaction and facilitates future therapeutic development in AD. PMID:27227450

  17. Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Transcription Facto IIB from Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, B.; Kanneganti, N; Rieckhof, G; Das, A; Laurents, D; Palenchar, J; Bellofatto, V; Wah, D

    2009-01-01

    In trypanosomes, the production of mRNA relies on the synthesis of the spliced leader (SL) RNA. Expression of the SL RNA is initiated at the only known RNA polymerase II promoter in these parasites. In the pathogenic trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, transcription factor IIB (tTFIIB) is essential for SL RNA gene transcription and cell viability, but has a highly divergent primary sequence in comparison to TFIIB in well-studied eukaryotes. Here we describe the 2.3 A resolution structure of the C-terminal domain of tTFIIB (tTFIIBC). The tTFIIBC structure consists of 2 closely packed helical modules followed by a C-terminal extension of 32 aa. Using the structure as a guide, alanine substitutions of basic residues in regions analogous to functionally important regions of the well-studied eukaryotic TFIIB support conservation of a general mechanism of TFIIB function in eukaryotes. Strikingly, tTFIIBC contains additional loops and helices, and, in contrast to the highly basic DNA binding surface of human TFIIB, contains a neutral surface in the corresponding region. These attributes probably mediate trypanosome-specific interactions and have implications for the apparent bidirectional transcription by RNA polymerase II in protein-encoding gene expression in these organisms.

  18. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  19. Functional analysis of the C-terminal extension of telomerase reverse transcriptase. A putative "thumb" domain.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Shabbir; Singh, Sunitha; Lue, Neal F

    2002-09-27

    Telomerase is an RNA-protein complex responsible for the extension of one strand of telomere terminal repeats. The catalytic protein subunit of telomerase, known generically as telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), exhibits significant homology to reverse transcriptases (RTs) encoded by retroviruses and retroelements. The mechanisms of telomerase may therefore be similar to those of the conventional reverse transcriptases. In this report, we explore potential similarity between these two classes of proteins in a region with no evident sequence similarity. Previous analysis has implicated a C-terminal domain of retroviral RTs (known as the "thumb" domain) in template-primer binding and in processivity control. The equivalent region of TERTs, although similar to one another, does not exhibit significant sequence homology to retroviral RTs. However, we found that removal of this region of yeast TERT similarly resulted in a decrease in the stability of telomerase-DNA complex and in the processivity of telomerase-mediated nucleotide addition. Moreover, the C-terminal domain of TERT exhibits a nucleic acid binding activity when recombinantly expressed and purified. Finally, amino acid substitutions of conserved residues in this region of TERT were found to impair telomerase activity and processivity. We suggest that mechanistic similarity between telomerase and retroviral RTs may extend beyond the regions with apparent sequence similarity. PMID:12151386

  20. The C-terminal region of OVGP1 remodels the zona pellucida and modifies fertility parameters

    PubMed Central

    Algarra, B.; Han, L.; Soriano-Úbeda, C.; Avilés, M.; Coy, P.; Jovine, L.; Jiménez-Movilla, M.

    2016-01-01

    OVGP1 is the major non-serum glycoprotein in the oviduct fluid at the time of fertilization and early embryo development. Its activity differs among species. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of recombinant OVGP1 regulates its binding to the extracellular zona pellucida and affects its activity during fertilization. While porcine OVGP1 penetrates two-thirds of the thickness of the zona pellucida, shorter OVGP1 glycoproteins, including rabbit OVGP1, are restricted to the outer one-third of the zona matrix. Deletion of the C-terminal region reduces the ability of the glycoprotein to penetrate through the zona pellucida and prevents OVGP1 endocytosis. This affects the structure of the zona matrix and increases its resistance to protease digestion. However, only full-length porcine OVGP1 is able to increase the efficiency rate of in vitro fertilization. Thus, our findings document that the presence or absence of conserved regions in the C-terminus of OVGP1 modify its association with the zona pellucida that affects matrix structure and renders the zona matrix permissive to sperm penetration and OVGP1 endocytosis into the egg. PMID:27601270

  1. Investigating the Roles of the C-Terminal Domain of Plasmodium falciparum GyrA

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Soshichiro; Seki, Eiko; Lin, Ting-Yu; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Heddle, Jonathan G.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains as one of the most deadly diseases in developing countries. The Plasmodium causative agents of human malaria such as Plasmodium falciparum possess an organelle, the apicoplast, which is the result of secondary endosymbiosis and retains its own circular DNA. A type II topoisomerase, DNA gyrase, is present in the apicoplast. In prokaryotes this enzyme is a proven, effective target for antibacterial agents, and its discovery in P. falciparum opens up the prospect of exploiting it as a drug target. Basic characterisation of P. falciparum gyrase is important because there are significant sequence differences between it and the prokaryotic enzyme. However, it has proved difficult to obtain soluble protein. Here we have predicted a new domain boundary in P. falciparum GyrA that corresponds to the C-terminal domain of prokaryotic GyrA and successfully purified it in a soluble form. Biochemical analyses revealed many similarities between the C-terminal domains of GyrA from E. coli and P. falciparum, suggesting that despite its considerably larger size, the malarial protein carries out a similar DNA wrapping function. Removal of a unique Asn-rich region in the P. falciparum protein did not result in a significant change, suggesting it is dispensable for DNA wrapping. PMID:26566222

  2. Claws, Disorder, and Conformational Dynamics of the C-Terminal Region of Human Desmoplakin.

    PubMed

    McAnany, Charles E; Mura, Cameron

    2016-08-25

    Multicellular organisms consist of cells that interact via elaborate adhesion complexes. Desmosomes are membrane-associated adhesion complexes that mechanically tether the cytoskeletal intermediate filaments (IFs) between two adjacent cells, creating a network of tough connections in tissues such as skin and heart. Desmoplakin (DP) is the key desmosomal protein that binds IFs, and the DP·IF association poses a quandary: desmoplakin must stably and tightly bind IFs to maintain the structural integrity of the desmosome. Yet, newly synthesized DP must traffic along the cytoskeleton to the site of nascent desmosome assembly without "sticking" to the IF network, implying weak or transient DP···IF contacts. Recent work reveals that these contacts are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) in DP's C-terminal tail (DPCTT). Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have elucidated the structural basis of these PTM-induced effects. Our simulations, nearing 2 μs in aggregate, indicate that phosphorylation of S2849 induces an "arginine claw" in desmoplakin's C-terminal tail. If a key arginine, R2834, is methylated, the DPCTT preferentially samples conformations that are geometrically well-suited as substrates for processive phosphorylation by the cognate kinase GSK3. We suggest that DPCTT is a molecular switch that modulates, via its conformational dynamics, DP's overall efficacy as a substrate for GSK3. Finally, we show that the fluctuating DPCTT can contact other parts of DP, suggesting a competitive binding mechanism for the modulation of DP···IF interactions. PMID:27188911

  3. Induction of the C-terminal proteolytic cleavage of AβPP by statins.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Olivier; Zhang, Qiang; John, Varghese; Bredesen, Dale E

    2011-01-01

    Statins are drugs commonly used to inhibit cholesterol synthesis, with the goal of reducing vascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Statins have also been suggested as a therapeutic option for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although their benefit in AD remains controversial. We have previously shown that the intracellular C-terminal cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) is a major contributor to the neuronal toxicity seen in AD, and that this cleavage can be induced by amyloid-β. We now report that certain brain permeable statins are also able to induce the C-terminal cleavage of AβPP and associated cell death, whereas other statins do not. This statin effect on AβPP exceeded the effects of all other FDA-approved drugs in a library composed of these compounds, suggesting that this effect on AβPP cleavage is unique to a subset of the statins. Furthermore, the greatest effect occurred with cerivastatin, which has previously been shown to be the statin associated with the greatest risk of rhabdomyolysis. These results may have implications for the choice of which statins to evaluate in AD therapeutic trials; furthermore, the results may inform statin choice in individuals who are at high risk for the development of AD, such as those with an apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. PMID:21422530

  4. Regulation of retinal transducin by C-terminal peptides of rhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, D J; Takemoto, L J; Hansen, J; Morrison, D

    1985-01-01

    Transducin is a multi-subunit guanine-nucleotide-binding protein that mediates signal coupling between rhodopsin and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase in retinal rod outer segments. Whereas the T alpha subunit of transducin binds guanine nucleotides and is the activator of the phosphodiesterase, the T beta gamma subunit may function to link physically T alpha with photolysed rhodopsin. In order to determine the binding sites of rhodopsin to transducin, we have synthesized eight peptides (Rhod-1 etc.) that correspond to the C-terminal regions of rhodopsin and to several external and one internal loop region. These peptides were tested for their inhibition of restored GTPase activity of purified transducin reconstituted into depleted rod-outer-segment disc membranes. A marked inhibition of GTPase activity was observed when transducin was pre-incubated with peptides Rhod-1, Rhod-2 and Rhod-3. These peptides correspond to opsin amino acid residues 332-339, 324-331 and 317-321 respectively. Peptides corresponding to the three external loop regions or to the C-terminal residues 341-348 did not inhibit reconsituted GTPase activity. Likewise, Rhod-8, a peptide corresponding to an internal loop region of rhodopsin, did not inhibit GTPase activity. These findings support the concept that these specific regions of the C-terminus of rhodopsin serve as recognition sites for transducin. PMID:3867351

  5. C-terminal low-complexity sequence repeats of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku modulate DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Ambuj K.; Grove, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Ku protein is an integral component of the NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) pathway of DSB (double-strand break) repair. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ku homologues have been characterized and shown to bind DNA ends. A unique feature of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku is its basic C-terminal tail that contains several lysine-rich low-complexity PAKKA repeats that are absent from homologues encoded by obligate parasitic mycobacteria. Such PAKKA repeats are also characteristic of mycobacterial Hlp (histone-like protein) for which they have been shown to confer the ability to appose DNA ends. Unexpectedly, removal of the lysine-rich extension enhances DNA-binding affinity, but an interaction between DNA and the PAKKA repeats is indicated by the observation that only full-length Ku forms multiple complexes with a short stem-loop-containing DNA previously designed to accommodate only one Ku dimer. The C-terminal extension promotes DNA end-joining by T4 DNA ligase, suggesting that the PAKKA repeats also contribute to efficient end-joining. We suggest that low-complexity lysine-rich sequences have evolved repeatedly to modulate the function of unrelated DNA-binding proteins. PMID:23167261

  6. Structure of a plant β-galactosidase C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Rimlumduan, Thipwarin; Hua, Yan-Ling; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2016-10-01

    Most plant β-galactosidases, which belong to glycoside hydrolase family 35, have a C-terminal domain homologous to animal galactose and rhamnose-binding lectins. To investigate the structure and function of this domain, the C-terminal domain of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) β-galactosidase 1 (OsBGal1 Cter) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The free OsBGal1 Cter is monomeric with a native molecular weight of 15kDa. NMR spectroscopy indicated that OsBGal1 Cter comprises five β-strands and one α-helix. The structure of this domain is similar to lectin domains from animals, but loops A and C of OsBGal1 Cter are longer than the corresponding loops from related animal lectins with known structures. In addition, loop A of OsBGal1 Cter was not well defined, suggesting it is flexible. Although OsBGal1 Cter was predicted to be a galactose/rhamnose-binding domain, binding with rhamnose, galactose, glucose, β-1,4-d-galactobiose and raffinose could not be observed in NMR experiments. PMID:27451952

  7. Characterization of the C-terminal ER membrane anchor of PTP1B

    SciTech Connect

    Anderie, Ines Schulz, Irene; Schmid, Andreas

    2007-09-10

    The tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is an important regulator of cell function. In living cells PTP1B activity is restricted to the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by post-translational C-terminal attachment of PTP1B to the ER membrane network. In our study we investigated the membrane anchor of PTP1B by use of EGFP fusion proteins. We demonstrate that the membrane anchor of PTP1B cannot be narrowed down to a unique amino acid sequence with a defined start and stop point but rather is moveable within several amino acids. Removal of up to seven amino acids from the C-terminus, as well as exchange of single amino acids in the putative transmembrane sequence did not influence subcellular localization of PTP1B. With the method of bimolecular fluorescence complementation we could demonstrate dimerization of PTP1B in vivo. Homodimerization was, in contrast to other tail-anchored proteins, not dependent on the membrane anchor. Our data demonstrate that the C-terminal membrane anchor of PTP1B is formed by a combination of a single stretch transmembrane domain (TMD) followed by a tail. TMD and tail length are variable and there are no sequence-specific features. Our data for PTP1B are consistent with a concept that explains the ER membrane anchor of tail-anchored proteins as a physicochemical structure.

  8. Phosphorylation of a C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain increases SMARCAL1 activity.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Clinton; Bansbach, Carol E; Zhao, Runxiang; Jung, Sung Yun; Qin, Jun; Cortez, David

    2014-01-01

    SMARCAL1 promotes the repair and restart of damaged replication forks. Either overexpression or silencing SMARCAL1 causes the accumulation of replication-associated DNA damage. SMARCAL1 is heavily phosphorylated. Here we identify multiple phosphorylation sites, including S889, which is phosphorylated even in undamaged cells. S889 is highly conserved through evolution and it regulates SMARCAL1 activity. Specifically, S889 phosphorylation increases the DNA-stimulated ATPase activity of SMARCAL1 and increases its ability to catalyze replication fork regression. A phosphomimetic S889 mutant is also hyperactive when expressed in cells, while a non-phosphorylatable mutant is less active. S889 lies within a C-terminal region of the SMARCAL1 protein. Deletion of the C-terminal region also creates a hyperactive SMARCAL1 protein suggesting that S889 phosphorylation relieves an auto-inhibitory function of this SMARCAL1 domain. Thus, S889 phosphorylation is one mechanism by which SMARCAL1 activity is regulated to ensure the proper level of fork remodeling needed to maintain genome integrity during DNA synthesis. PMID:24150942

  9. Structure of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase a Subunit C-terminal Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Gonzalez, S.; Birktoft, J; Lawson, C

    2010-01-01

    The {alpha} subunit C-terminal domain ({alpha}CTD) of RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a key element in transcription activation in Escherichia coli, possessing determinants responsible for the interaction of RNAP with DNA and with transcription factors. Here, the crystal structure of E. coli {alpha}CTD ({alpha} subunit residues 245-329) determined to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution is reported. Crystals were obtained after reductive methylation of the recombinantly expressed domain. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and possessed both pseudo-translational symmetry and pseudo-merohedral twinning. The refined coordinate model (R factor = 0.193, R{sub free} = 0.236) has improved geometry compared with prior lower resolution determinations of the {alpha}CTD structure [Jeon et al. (1995), Science, 270, 1495-1497; Benoff et al. (2002), Science, 297, 1562-1566]. An extensive dimerization interface formed primarily by N- and C-terminal residues is also observed. The new coordinates will facilitate the improved modeling of {alpha}CTD-containing multi-component complexes visualized at lower resolution using X-ray crystallography and electron-microscopy reconstruction.

  10. Cell surface nucleolin interacts with CXCR4 receptor via the 212 c-terminal portion.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongxin; Yang, Xiangshan; Xu, Zhongfa; Du, Tong; Wang, Ruogu

    2015-02-01

    Previously, we reported that CXCR4 receptor interacted with cell surface nucleolin, and the synergy of CXCR4 and nucleolin plays an essential role in malignant transformation. Here, we continued to conduct a structure-function analysis of nucleolin to identify which portion can efficaciously bind to CXCR4. In the present study, the expression of CXCR4 and nucleolin in 100 cases of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) samples was investigated through immunohistochemistry (IHC). Subsequently, using nucleolin mutants and pull-down assay, we investigated precise interactions between CXCR4 and nucleolin in HEK-293 cells. A previous study demonstrated CXCR4 and nucleolin co-expressed in cell lines, and the present study further identified that CXCR4 and nucleolin co-expressed in PTC tissues, instead of normal tissues. The nucleolin mutant analysis revealed that nucleolin can efficaciously bind CXCR4 to activate CXCR4 signaling by 212 C-terminal domain. Conversely, N-terminal, RBD and GAR mutants of nucleolin showed no sign of activation of CXCR4 signaling, and differences were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggested nucleolin is essential to activate CXCR4 signaling via 212 C-terminal domain, which is required for cell growth, migration, and invasiveness. Furthermore, nucleolin may interact with more G protein-coupled receptors, at least chemokine receptor. Our study will lay a new foundation for cancer therapy by antagonizing nucleolin and CXCR4. PMID:25326811

  11. Molecular Understanding of USP7 Substrate Recognition and C-Terminal Activation.

    PubMed

    Rougé, Lionel; Bainbridge, Travis W; Kwok, Michael; Tong, Raymond; Di Lello, Paola; Wertz, Ingrid E; Maurer, Till; Ernst, James A; Murray, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    The deubiquitinating enzyme USP7 has a pivotal role in regulating the stability of proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes of normal biology and disease. Despite the importance of USP7, the mechanisms underlying substrate recognition and catalytic activation are poorly understood. Here we present structural, biochemical, and biophysical analyses elucidating the molecular mechanism by which the C-terminal 19 amino acids of USP7 (residues 1084-1102) enhance the ubiquitin cleavage activity of the deubiquitinase (DUB) domain. Our data demonstrate that the C-terminal peptide binds the activation cleft in the catalytic domain and stabilizes the catalytically competent conformation of USP7. Additional structures of longer fragments of USP7, as well as solution studies, provide insight into full-length USP7, the role of the UBL domains, and demonstrate that both substrate recognition and deubiquitinase activity are highly regulated by the catalytic and noncatalytic domains of USP7, a feature that could be essential for the proper function of multi-domain DUBs. PMID:27452404

  12. Groundnut Bud Necrosis Virus Encoded NSm Associates with Membranes via Its C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pratibha; Indi, Shantinath S.; Savithri, Handanahal S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundnut Bud Necrosis Virus (GBNV) is a tripartite ambisense RNA plant virus that belongs to serogroup IV of Tospovirus genus. Non-Structural protein-m (NSm), which functions as movement protein in tospoviruses, is encoded by the M RNA. In this communication, we demonstrate that despite the absence of any putative transmembrane domain, GBNV NSm associates with membranes when expressed in E. coli as well as in N. benthamiana. Incubation of refolded NSm with liposomes ranging in size from 200–250 nm resulted in changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of NSm. A similar behaviour was observed in the presence of anionic and zwitterionic detergents. Furthermore, the morphology of the liposomes was found to be modified in the presence of NSm. Deletion of coiled coil domain resulted in the inability of in planta expressed NSm to interact with membranes. Further, when the C-terminal coiled coil domain alone was expressed, it was found to be associated with membrane. These results demonstrate that NSm associates with membranes via the C-terminal coiled coil domain and such an association may be important for movement of viral RNA from cell to cell. PMID:24919116

  13. The distinct C-terminal acidic domains of HMGB proteins are functionally relevant in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    de Abreu da Silva, Isabel Caetano; Carneiro, Vitor Coutinho; Vicentino, Amanda Roberta Revoredo; Aguilera, Estefania Anahi; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Thiengo, Silvana; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado

    2016-04-01

    The Schistosoma mansoni High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) proteins SmHMGB1, SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 share highly conserved HMG box DNA binding domains but have significantly different C-terminal acidic tails. Here, we used three full-length and tailless forms of the S. mansoni HMGB proteins to examine the functional roles of their acidic tails. DNA binding assays revealed that the different lengths of the acidic tails among the three SmHMGB proteins significantly and distinctively influenced their DNA transactions. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that the longest acidic tail of SmHMGB3 contributes to the structural stabilisation of this protein. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we showed distinct patterns of SmHMGB1, SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 expression in different tissues of adult worms. RNA interference approaches indicated a role for SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 in the reproductive system of female worms, whereas for SmHMGB1 no clear phenotype was observed. Schistosome HMGB proteins can be phosphorylated, acetylated and methylated. Importantly, the acetylation and methylation of schistosome HMGBs were greatly enhanced upon removal of the acidic tail. These data support the notion that the C-terminal acidic tails dictate the differences in the structure, expression and function of schistosome HMGB proteins. PMID:26820302

  14. The C-terminal region of OVGP1 remodels the zona pellucida and modifies fertility parameters.

    PubMed

    Algarra, B; Han, L; Soriano-Úbeda, C; Avilés, M; Coy, P; Jovine, L; Jiménez-Movilla, M

    2016-01-01

    OVGP1 is the major non-serum glycoprotein in the oviduct fluid at the time of fertilization and early embryo development. Its activity differs among species. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of recombinant OVGP1 regulates its binding to the extracellular zona pellucida and affects its activity during fertilization. While porcine OVGP1 penetrates two-thirds of the thickness of the zona pellucida, shorter OVGP1 glycoproteins, including rabbit OVGP1, are restricted to the outer one-third of the zona matrix. Deletion of the C-terminal region reduces the ability of the glycoprotein to penetrate through the zona pellucida and prevents OVGP1 endocytosis. This affects the structure of the zona matrix and increases its resistance to protease digestion. However, only full-length porcine OVGP1 is able to increase the efficiency rate of in vitro fertilization. Thus, our findings document that the presence or absence of conserved regions in the C-terminus of OVGP1 modify its association with the zona pellucida that affects matrix structure and renders the zona matrix permissive to sperm penetration and OVGP1 endocytosis into the egg. PMID:27601270

  15. Structure of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase α subunit C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Lara-González, Samuel; Birktoft, Jens J.; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    The α subunit C-terminal domain (αCTD) of RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a key element in transcription activation in Escherichia coli, possessing determinants responsible for the interaction of RNAP with DNA and with transcription factors. Here, the crystal structure of E. coli αCTD (α subunit residues 245–329) determined to 2.0 Å resolution is reported. Crystals were obtained after reductive methylation of the recombinantly expressed domain. The crystals belonged to space group P21 and possessed both pseudo-translational symmetry and pseudo-merohedral twinning. The refined coordinate model (R factor = 0.193, R free = 0.236) has improved geometry compared with prior lower resolution determinations of the αCTD structure [Jeon et al. (1995 ▶), Science, 270, 1495–1497; Benoff et al. (2002 ▶), Science, 297, 1562–1566]. An extensive dimerization interface formed primarily by N- and C-terminal residues is also observed. The new coordinates will facilitate the improved modeling of αCTD-containing multi-component complexes visualized at lower resolution using X-ray crystallo­graphy and electron-microscopy reconstruction. PMID:20606261

  16. The C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA topoisomerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Caron, P R; Watt, P; Wang, J C

    1994-01-01

    A set of carboxy-terminal deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA topoisomerase II were constructed for studying the functions of the carboxyl domain in vitro and in vivo. The wild-type yeast enzyme is a homodimer with 1,429 amino acid residues in each of the two polypeptides; truncation of the C terminus to Ile-1220 has little effect on the function of the enzyme in vitro or in vivo, whereas truncations extending beyond Gln-1138 yield completely inactive proteins. Several mutant enzymes with C termini in between these two residues were found to be catalytically active but unable to complement a top2-4 temperature-sensitive mutation. Immunomicroscopy results suggest that the removal of a nuclear localization signal in the C-terminal domain is likely to contribute to the physiological dysfunction of these proteins; the ability of these mutant proteins to relax supercoiled DNA in vivo shows, however, that at least some of the mutant proteins are present in the nuclei in a catalytically active form. In contrast to the ability of the catalytically active mutant proteins to relax supercoiled intracellular DNA, all mutants that do not complement the temperature-dependent lethality and high frequency of chromosomal nondisjunction of top2-4 were found to lack decatenation activity in vivo. The plausible roles of the DNA topoisomerase II C-terminal domain, in addition to providing a signal for nuclear localization, are discussed in the light of these results. Images PMID:8164675

  17. Extreme C-terminal sites are posttranslocationally glycosylated by the STT3B isoform of the OST

    PubMed Central

    Shrimal, Shiteshu; Trueman, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Metazoan organisms assemble two isoforms of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) that have different catalytic subunits (STT3A or STT3B) and partially nonoverlapping roles in asparagine-linked glycosylation. The STT3A isoform of the OST is primarily responsible for co-translational glycosylation of the nascent polypeptide as it enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The C-terminal 65–75 residues of a glycoprotein will not contact the translocation channel–associated STT3A isoform of the OST complex before chain termination. Biosynthetic pulse labeling of five human glycoproteins showed that extreme C-terminal glycosylation sites were modified by an STT3B-dependent posttranslocational mechanism. The boundary for STT3B-dependent glycosylation of C-terminal sites was determined to fall between 50 and 55 residues from the C terminus of a protein. C-terminal NXT sites were glycosylated more rapidly and efficiently than C-terminal NXS sites. Bioinformatics analysis of glycopeptide databases from metazoan organisms revealed a lower density of C-terminal acceptor sites in glycoproteins because of reduced positive selection of NXT sites and negative selection of NXS sites. PMID:23530066

  18. C-terminal Src kinase-mediated EPIYA phosphorylation of Pragmin creates a feed-forward C-terminal Src kinase activation loop that promotes cell motility.

    PubMed

    Senda, Yoshie; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2016-07-01

    Pragmin is one of the few mammalian proteins containing the Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) tyrosine-phosphorylation motif that was originally discovered in the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein. Following delivery into gastric epithelial cells by type IV secretion and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation at the EPIYA motifs, CagA serves as an oncogenic scaffold/adaptor that promiscuously interacts with SH2 domain-containing mammalian proteins such as the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), a negative regulator of Src family kinases. Like CagA, Pragmin also forms a physical complex with Csk. In the present study, we found that Pragmin directly binds to Csk by the tyrosine-phosphorylated EPIYA motif. The complex formation potentiates kinase activity of Csk, which in turn phosphorylates Pragmin on tyrosine-238 (Y238), Y343, and Y391. As Y391 of Pragmin comprises the EPIYA motif, Pragmin-Csk interaction creates a feed-forward regulatory loop of Csk activation. Together with the finding that Pragmin and Csk are colocalized to focal adhesions, these observations indicate that the Pragmin-Csk interaction, triggered by Pragmin EPIYA phosphorylation, robustly stimulates the kinase activity of Csk at focal adhesions, which direct cell-matrix adhesion that regulates cell morphology and cell motility. As a consequence, expression of Pragmin and/or Csk in epithelial cells induces an elongated cell shape with elevated cell scattering in a manner that is mutually dependent on Pragmin and Csk. Deregulation of the Pragmin-Csk axis may therefore induce aberrant cell migration that contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:27116701

  19. Membrane fusion by the GTPase atlastin requires a conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic tail and dimerization through the middle domain

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Tyler J.; Andreazza, Camilla; Verma, Avani; Daga, Andrea; McNew, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The biogenesis and maintenance of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires membrane fusion. ER homotypic fusion is driven by the large GTPase atlastin. Domain analysis of atlastin shows that a conserved region of the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail is absolutely required for fusion activity. Atlastin in adjacent membranes must associate to bring the ER membranes into molecular contact. Drosophila atlastin dimerizes in the presence of GTPγS but is monomeric with GDP or without nucleotide. Oligomerization requires the juxtamembrane middle domain three-helix bundle, as does efficient GTPase activity. A soluble version of the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain that contains the GTPase domain and the middle domain three-helix bundle serves as a potent, concentration-dependent inhibitor of membrane fusion both in vitro and in vivo. However, atlastin domains lacking the middle domain are without effect. GTP-dependent dimerization of atlastin generates an enzymatically active protein that drives membrane fusion after nucleotide hydrolysis and conformational reorganization. PMID:21690399

  20. The C-terminal Domain Supports a Novel Function for CETPI as a New Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Victor; Gutiérrez-Quintanar, Nadia; Mas-Oliva, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Described by our group a few years ago, the cholesteryl-ester transfer protein isoform (CETPI), exclusively expressed in the small intestine and present in human plasma, lacked a functional identification for a role of physiological relevance. Now, this study introduces CETPI as a new protein with the potential capability to recognise, bind and neutralise lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Peptides derived from the C-terminal domain of CETPI showed that CETPI not only might interact with several LPS serotypes but also might displace LPS bound to the surface of cells. Peptide VSAK, derived from the last 18 residues of CETPI, protected against the cytotoxic effect of LPS on macrophages. At high concentrations, when different cell types were tested in culture, it did not exhibit cytotoxicity by itself and it did prevent the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the generation of oxidative stress conditions. In a rabbit model of septic shock, the infusion of peptide VSAK exerted a protective effect against the effects of LPS and reduced the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in plasma. Therefore, CETPI is proposed as a new protein with the capability to advance the possibilities for better understanding and treatment of the dangerous effects of LPS in vivo. PMID:26537318

  1. Substitutions of Conserved Residues in the C-terminal Region of DnaC Cause Thermolability in Helicase Loading.

    PubMed

    Felczak, Magdalena M; Sage, Jay M; Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Aykul, Senem; Kaguni, Jon M

    2016-02-26

    The DnaB-DnaC complex binds to the unwound DNA within the Escherichia coli replication origin in the helicase loading process, but the biochemical events that lead to its stable binding are uncertain. This study characterizes the function of specific C-terminal residues of DnaC. Genetic and biochemical characterization of proteins bearing F231S and W233L substitutions of DnaC reveals that their activity is thermolabile. Because the mutants remain able to form a complex with DnaB at 30 and 37 °C, their thermolability is not explained by an impaired interaction with DnaB. Photo-cross-linking experiments and biosensor analysis show an altered affinity of these mutants compared with wild type DnaC for single-stranded DNA, suggesting that the substitutions affect DNA binding. Despite this difference, their activity in DNA binding is not thermolabile. The substitutions also drastically reduce the affinity of DnaC for ATP as measured by the binding of a fluorescent ATP analogue (MANT-ATP) and by UV cross-linking of radiolabeled ATP. Experiments show that an elevated temperature substantially inhibits both mutants in their ability to load the DnaB-DnaC complex at a DnaA box. Because a decreased ATP concentration exacerbates their thermolabile behavior, we suggest that the F231S and W233L substitutions are thermolabile in ATP binding, which correlates with defective helicase loading at an elevated temperature. PMID:26728455

  2. Interaction of the Tim44 C-terminal domain with negatively charged phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Marom, Milit; Safonov, Roman; Amram, Shay; Avneon, Yoav; Nachliel, Esther; Gutman, Menachem; Zohary, Keren; Azem, Abdussalam; Tsfadia, Yossi

    2009-12-01

    The translocation of proteins from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix is mediated by the coordinated action of the TOM complex in the outer membrane, as well as the TIM23 complex and its associated protein import motor in the inner membrane. The focus of this work is the peripheral inner membrane protein Tim44. Tim44 is a vital component of the mitochondrial protein translocation motor that anchors components of the motor to the TIM23 complex. For this purpose, Tim44 associates with the import channel by direct interaction with the Tim23 protein. Additionally, it was shown in vitro that Tim44 associates with acidic model membranes, in particular those containing cardiolipin. The latter interaction was shown to be mediated by the carboxy-terminal domain of Tim44 [Weiss, C., et al. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 8890-8894]. The aim of this study was to determine the precise recognition site for negative lipids in the C-terminal domain of Tim44. In particular, we wanted to examine the recently suggested hypothesis that acidic phospholipids associate with Tim44 via a hydrophobic cavity that is observed in the high-resolution structure of the C-terminal domain of the protein [Josyula, R., et al. (2006) J. Mol. Biol. 359, 798-804]. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that (i) the hydrophobic tail of lipids may interact with Tim44 via the latter's hydrophobic cavity and (ii) a region, located in the N-terminal alpha-helix of the C-terminal domain (helices A1 and A2), may serve as a membrane attachment site. To validate this assumption, N-terminal truncations of yeast Tim44 were examined for their ability to bind cardiolipin-containing phospholipid vesicles. The results indicate that removal of the N-terminal alpha-helix (helix A1) abolishes the capacity of Tim44 to associate with cardiolipin-containing liposomes. We suggest that helices A1 and A2, in Tim44, jointly promote the association of the protein with acidic phospholipids. PMID:19863062

  3. Control of cytoplasmic dynein force production and processivity by its C-terminal domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Höök, Peter; Brenner, Sibylle; Wynne, Caitlin L.; Vallee, Richard B.; Gennerich, Arne

    2015-02-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule motor involved in cargo transport, nuclear migration and cell division. Despite structural conservation of the dynein motor domain from yeast to higher eukaryotes, the extensively studied S. cerevisiae dynein behaves distinctly from mammalian dyneins, which produce far less force and travel over shorter distances. However, isolated reports of yeast-like force production by mammalian dynein have called interspecies differences into question. We report that functional differences between yeast and mammalian dynein are real and attributable to a C-terminal motor element absent in yeast, which resembles a ‘cap’ over the central pore of the mammalian dynein motor domain. Removal of this cap increases the force generation of rat dynein from 1 pN to a yeast-like 6 pN and greatly increases its travel distance. Our findings identify the CT-cap as a novel regulator of dynein function.

  4. The C-terminal domain of Cernunnos/XLF is dispensable for DNA repair in vivo.

    PubMed

    Malivert, Laurent; Callebaut, Isabelle; Rivera-Munoz, Paola; Fischer, Alain; Mornon, Jean-Paul; Revy, Patrick; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre

    2009-03-01

    The core nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway is composed of seven factors: Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Artemis, XRCC4 (X4), DNA ligase IV (L4), and Cernunnos/XLF (Cernunnos). Although Cernunnos and X4 are structurally related and participate in the same complex together with L4, they have distinct functions during DNA repair. L4 relies on X4 but not on Cernunnos for its stability, and L4 is required for optimal interaction of Cernunnos with X4. We demonstrate here, using in vitro-generated Cernunnos mutants and a series of functional assays in vivo, that the C-terminal region of Cernunnos is dispensable for its activity during DNA repair. PMID:19103754

  5. Conformationally restricted C-terminal peptides of substance P. Synthesis, mass spectral analysis and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulos, D; Poulos, C; Gatos, D; Cordopatis, P; Escher, E; Mizrahi, J; Regoli, D; Dalietos, D; Furst, A; Lee, T D

    1985-10-01

    Four cyclic analogues of the C-terminal hepta- or hexapeptide of substance P were prepared by the solution method. The cyclizations were obtained by substituting with cysteine the residues normally present in positions 5 or 6 or 11 of substance P and by subsequent disulfide bond formation. The final products were identified by ordinary analytical procedures and advanced mass spectroscopy. The biological activities were determined on three bioassays: the guinea pig ileum, the guinea pig trachea and the rabbit mesenteric vein. Results obtained with these assays indicate that all peptides with a disulfide bridgehead in position 11 are inactive and that a cycle between positions 5 and 6 already strongly reduces the biological activity. The acyclic precursors containing thiol protection groups display weak biological activities. These results further underline the importance of the side chain in position 11 of substance P and suggest that optimal biological activities may require a linear peptide sequence. PMID:2413208

  6. C-terminal peptides of rhodopsin. Determination of the optimum sequence for recognition of retinal transducin.

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, D J; Morrison, D; Davis, L C; Takemoto, L J

    1986-01-01

    In vertebrate retinal rod outer segments, transducin, a guanine-nucleotide-binding protein, mediates signal coupling between rhodopsin and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. Whereas the T alpha subunit (39 kDa) of transducin binds guanine nucleotides and is the activator of the phosphodiesterase, the T beta gamma subunits (35 and 10 kDa) may function to physically link T alpha with photolysed rhodopsin. We have previously reported that a site of binding of transducin is on the C-terminus of bovine rhodopsin. By using competition with synthetic peptides, the recognition region was localized to bovine opsin amino acid residues 317-339. Further studies are detailed which determine the boundaries of this binding site on rhodopsin, as well as some of the critical amino acids needed for transducin binding. These results suggest that the serine and threonine residues in the rhodopsin C-terminal peptides Rhod-1 and Rhod-3 are critical for reconstitution of transducin GTPase activity. PMID:3461782

  7. Folding of the C-terminal bacterial binding domain in statherin upon adsorption onto hydroxyapatite crystals

    PubMed Central

    Goobes, Gil; Goobes, Rivka; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Baker, David; Stayton, Patrick S.; Drobny, Gary P.

    2006-01-01

    Statherin is an enamel pellicle protein that inhibits hydroxyapatite (HAP) nucleation and growth, lubricates the enamel surface, and is recognized by oral bacteria in periodontal diseases. We report here from solid-state NMR measurements that the protein's C-terminal region folds into an α-helix upon adsorption to HAP crystals. This region contains the binding sites for bacterial fimbriae that mediate bacterial cell adhesion to the surface of the tooth. The helical segment is shown through long-range distance measurements to fold back onto the intermediate region (residues Y16–P28) defining the global fold of the protein. Statherin, previously shown to be unstructured in solution, undergoes conformation selection on its substrate mineral surface. This surface-induced folding of statherin can be related to its functionality in inhibiting HAP crystal growth and can explain how oral pathogens selectively recognize HAP-bound statherin. PMID:17060618

  8. Potential Clinical Utility of Copeptin (C-terminal provasopressin) measurements in clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, K C; Brabant, G

    2016-03-01

    Copeptin is a 39-amino-acids containing glycosylated peptide derived from the C-terminal part of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) precursor. In the process of proteolysis the AVP precursor is processed to AVP, neurophysin II, and copeptin in equimolar amounts. In contrast to AVP, copeptin remains stable for several days at room temperature in serum or plasma. Hence, copeptin serves as a bona fide biomarker of AVP release. We briefly summarise clinical utility of copeptin in the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus. We also discuss potential applications of copeptin measurements in hyponatraemic states, assessment of an anterior pituitary function, as well as a wide range of several acute and chronic medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction, stroke or diabetes mellitus. PMID:27008633

  9. C-terminal phosphorylation is essential for regulation of ethylene synthesizing ACC synthase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2013-02-01

    The genetic and molecular biological studies mainly in Arabidopsis and in some other plants have begun to uncover the various components of ripening signaling pathway in plants. Although transcriptional regulation of major ripening genes have been studied in detail, information on role of phosphorylation in regulating the activity and stability of core ripening pathway associated proteins in relation to ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening is still limited. Recently we have demonstrated the evidence for post-translational regulation of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1), the rate limiting step enzyme regulating ripening ethylene production in banana, through phosphorylation at the C-terminal Ser 476 and 479 residues by a 41-kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase. (1) Here we have further discussed role of protein phosphorylation in regulation of stability and activity of ACS enzymes and the mechanistic and evolutionary perspective of phosphorylation pattern of Type I ACC synthase enzymes. PMID:23221778

  10. Requirement for the E1 Helicase C-Terminal Domain in Papillomavirus DNA Replication In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bergvall, Monika; Gagnon, David; Titolo, Steve; Lehoux, Michaël; D'Abramo, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The papillomavirus (PV) E1 helicase contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), located next to its ATP-binding site, whose function in vivo is still poorly understood. The CTD is comprised of an alpha helix followed by an acidic region (AR) and a C-terminal extension termed the C-tail. Recent biochemical studies on bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) E1 showed that the AR and C-tail regulate the oligomerization of the protein into a double hexamer at the origin. In this study, we assessed the importance of the CTD of human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) E1 in vivo, using a cell-based DNA replication assay. Our results indicate that combined deletion of the AR and C-tail drastically reduces DNA replication, by 85%, and that further truncation into the alpha-helical region compromises the structural integrity of the E1 helicase domain and its interaction with E2. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail alone or mutation of highly conserved residues within the domain still allows significant levels of DNA replication (55%). This is in contrast to the absolute requirement for the C-tail reported for BPV1 E1 in vitro and confirmed here in vivo. Characterization of chimeric proteins in which the AR and C-tail from HPV11 E1 were replaced by those of BPV1 indicated that while the function of the AR is transferable, that of the C-tail is not. Collectively, these findings define the contribution of the three CTD subdomains to the DNA replication activity of E1 in vivo and suggest that the function of the C-tail has evolved in a PV type-specific manner. IMPORTANCE While much is known about hexameric DNA helicases from superfamily 3, the papillomavirus E1 helicase contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) adjacent to its ATP-binding site. We show here that this CTD is important for the DNA replication activity of HPV11 E1 in vivo and that it can be divided into three functional subdomains that roughly correspond to the three conserved regions of the CTD: an alpha helix, needed

  11. Expression and purification of the C-terminal fragments of TRPV5/6 channels.

    PubMed

    Kovalevskaya, Nadezda V; Schilderink, Nathalie; Vuister, Geerten W

    2011-11-01

    The transient receptor potential vanniloid 5 and 6 (TRPV5 and TRPV6) Ca(2+)-ion channels are crucial for the regulation of minute-to-minute whole body calcium homeostasis. They act as the gatekeepers of active Ca(2+) reabsorption in kidney and intestine, respectively. In spite of the great progress in the TRP channels characterization, very little is known at the atomic level about their structure and interactions with other proteins. To the major extent it is caused by difficulties in obtaining suitable samples. Here, we report expression and purification of 36 intracellular C-terminal fragments of TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels, for which no structural information is reported thus far. We demonstrate that these proteins contain intrinsically disordered regions and identify fragments suitable for biophysical characterization. By combining bioinformatic predictions and experimental results, we propose several criteria that may aid in designing a scheme for large-scale production of difficult proteins. PMID:21664972

  12. Dimeric peptides of the C-terminal region of CXCL14 function as CXCL12 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Tsuji, Kohei; Suzuki, Kenji; Shigenaga, Akira; Otaka, Akira; Hara, Takahiko

    2013-11-29

    We recently reported that CXCL14 binds to CXCR4 with high affinity and inhibits CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis. Here we found that the C-terminal 51-77 amino acid residues of CXCL14 are responsible for CXCR4 binding. A disulfide dimer peptide of CXCL14(51-77) bound to CXCR4 with comparable affinity to full length CXCL14, and exhibited CXCL12 inhibitor activity. CXCR4 was efficiently internalized upon binding of dimeric CXCL14(51-77), thereby being reduced on the cell surface. Substitution of 5 amino acid residues in combination with the use of an oxime linker for dimerization increased the solubility and chemical stability of the dimeric CXCL14(51-77). PMID:24161674

  13. C-Terminal-oriented Immobilization of Enzymes Using Sortase A-mediated Technique.

    PubMed

    Hata, Yuto; Matsumoto, Takuya; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, sortase A-mediated immobilization of enzymes was used for the preparation of immobilized enzymes. Thermobifida fusca YX β-glucosidase (BGL) or Streptococcus bovis 148 α-amylase (AmyA) were produced with C-terminal sortase A recognition sequences. The resulting fusion proteins were successfully immobilized on nanoparticle surfaces using sortase A. Some properties (activity, stability, and reusability) of the immobilized fusion proteins were evaluated. Both immobilized BGL and immobilized AmyA prepared by the sortase A-mediated technique retained their catalytic activity, exhibiting activities 3.0- or 1.5-fold (respectively) of those seen with the same enzymes immobilized by chemical crosslinking. Immobilized enzymes prepared by the sortase A-mediated technique did not undergo dramatic changes in stability compared with the respective free enzymes. Thus, the sortase A-mediated technique provides a promising method for immobilization of active, stable enzymes. PMID:26098063

  14. Chelation of cadmium ions by phytochelatin synthase: role of the cysteine-rich C-terminal.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Mun'delanji; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Nishikori, Shingo; Shiraki, Kentaro; Hirata, Kazumasa; Takagi, Masahiro

    2008-02-01

    The interactions between Cd(2+) and the C-terminal region of phytochelatin (PC) synthase using recombinant wild-type and mutant PC synthase were studied. We show that site-directed mutagenesis of Cys residues at C(358)C(359)XXXC(363)XXC(366) motif decreases the number of Cd(2+) and other heavy metal ions interacting with the enzyme, and that the motif binds the metals discriminatingly. The optimum binding ratio of PC synthase to Cd(2+) was also determined. The findings indicate that Cys exists as a free SH residue and that it is involved in the regulation of PC enzyme activity by transferring the metals into closer proximity with the catalytic domain. These results are important in understanding heavy metal detoxification mechanisms in higher plants, a step towards phytoremediated-applications. PMID:18270423

  15. Affinity labelling of proteinases with tryptic specificity by peptides with C-terminal lysine chloromethyl ketone

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, John R.; Kray, William; Shaw, Elliott

    1974-01-01

    Methods are described for the synthesis of peptides terminating in Lys-CH2Cl. The products were examined as affinity labels for several enzymes of trypsin-like specificity which are resistant to Tos-Lys-CH2Cl. In part, the inertness of the latter may be due to the sulphonamide group, since Z-Lys-CH2Cl was more effective. However, a number of tripeptides with C-terminal Lys-CH2Cl were superior in their ability to inactivate subtilisin, thrombin and plasma kallikrein. The possibility of developing enzyme-specific reagents selective for members within the trypsin-like group is demonstrated by Ala-Phe-Lys-CH2Cl, which readily inactivates plasma kallikrein but not thrombin. PMID:4422496

  16. Properties of the C-terminal domain of 4.1 proteins.

    PubMed

    Scott, C; Phillips, G W; Baines, A J

    2001-07-01

    At the C-terminus of all known 4.1 proteins is a sequence domain unique to these proteins, known as the C-terminal domain (CTD). Mammalian CTDs are associated with a growing number of protein-protein interactions, although such activities have yet to be associated with invertebrate CTDs. Mammalian CTDs are generally defined by sequence alignment as encoded by exons 18-21. Comparison of known vertebrate 4.1 proteins with invertebrate (Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster) 4.1 proteins indicates that mammalian 4.1 exon 19 represents a vertebrate adaptation that extends the sequence of the CTD with a Ser/Thr-rich sequence. The CTD was first described as a 22/24-kDa domain by chymotryptic digestion of erythrocyte 4.1 (4.1R) [Leto, T.L. & Marchesi, V.T. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 4603-4608]. Here we show that in 4.1R the 22/24-kDa fragment is not stable but rapidly processed to a 15-kDa fragment by chymotrypsin. The 15-kDa fragment is extremely stable, being resistant to overnight digestion in chymotrypsin on ice. Analysis of this fragment indicates that it is derived from residues 709-858 (SwissProt accession no. P48193), and represents the CTD of 4.1R. The fragment behaves as a globular monomer in solution. Secondary-structure predictions indicate that this domain is composed of five or six beta strands with an alpha helix before the most C-terminal of these. Together these data indicate that the CTD probably represents an independent folding structure which has gained function since the divergence of vertebrates from invertebrates. PMID:11432737

  17. The C-Terminal Acidic Region of Calreticulin Mediates Phosphatidylserine Binding and Apoptotic Cell Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva Joseph; Bedi, Sukhmani Kaur; Huynh, David; Raghavan, Malini

    2016-05-01

    Calreticulin is a calcium-binding chaperone that is normally localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Calreticulin is detectable on the surface of apoptotic cells under some apoptosis-inducing conditions, where it promotes the phagocytosis and immunogenicity of dying cells. However, the precise mechanism by which calreticulin, a soluble protein, localizes to the outer surface of the plasma membrane of dying cells is unknown, as are the molecular mechanisms that are relevant to calreticulin-induced cellular phagocytosis. Calreticulin comprises three distinct structural domains: a globular domain, an extended arm-like P-domain, and a C-terminal acidic region containing multiple low-affinity calcium binding sites. We show that calreticulin, via its C-terminal acidic region, preferentially interacts with phosphatidylserine (PS) compared with other phospholipids and that this interaction is calcium dependent. Additionally, exogenous calreticulin binds apoptotic cells via a higher-affinity calcium-dependent mode that is acidic region dependent. Exogenous calreticulin also binds live cells, including macrophages, via a second, lower-affinity P-domain and globular domain-dependent, but calcium-independent binding mode that likely involves its generic polypeptide binding site. Truncation constructs lacking the acidic region or arm-like P-domain of calreticulin are impaired in their abilities to induce apoptotic cell phagocytosis by murine peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, the results of this investigation provide the first molecular insights into the phospholipid binding site of calreticulin as a key anchor point for the cell surface expression of calreticulin on apoptotic cells. These findings also support a role for calreticulin as a PS-bridging molecule that cooperates with other PS-binding factors to promote the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. PMID:27036911

  18. Structure of the nisin leader peptidase NisP revealing a C-terminal autocleavage activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yueyang; Li, Xin; Li, Ruiqing; Li, Shanshan; Ni, Hongqian; Wang, Hui; Xu, Haijin; Zhou, Weihong; Saris, Per E J; Yang, Wen; Qiao, Mingqiang; Rao, Zihe

    2014-06-01

    Nisin is a widely used antibacterial lantibiotic polypeptide produced by Lactococcus lactis. NisP belongs to the subtilase family and functions in the last step of nisin maturation as the leader-peptide peptidase. Deletion of the nisP gene in LAC71 results in the production of a non-active precursor peptide with the leader peptide unremoved. Here, the 1.1 Å resolution crystal structure of NisP is reported. The structure shows similarity to other subtilases, which can bind varying numbers of Ca atoms. However, no calcium was found in this NisP structure, and the predicted calcium-chelating residues were placed so as to not allow NisP to bind a calcium ion in this conformation. Interestingly, a short peptide corresponding to its own 635-647 sequence was found to bind to the active site of NisP. Biochemical assays and native mass-spectrometric analysis confirmed that NisP possesses an auto-cleavage site between residues Arg647 and Ser648. Further, it was shown that NisP mutated at the auto-cleavage site (R647P/S648P) had full catalytic activity for nisin leader-peptide cleavage, although the C-terminal region of NisP was no longer cleaved. Expressing this mutant in L. lactis LAC71 did not affect the production of nisin but did decrease the proliferation rate of the bacteria, suggesting the biological significance of the C-terminal auto-cleavage of NisP. PMID:24914961

  19. Molecular and functional consequences of Smad4 C-terminal missense mutations in colorectal tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    De Bosscher, Karolien; Hill, Caroline S; Nicolás, Francisco J

    2004-01-01

    Smad4 is an essential signal transducer of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signalling pathway and has been identified as a tumour suppressor, being mutated in approx. 50% of pancreatic cancers and approx. 15% of colorectal cancers. Two missense mutations in the C-terminal domain of Smad4, D351H (Asp351-->His) and D537Y (Asp537-->Tyr), have been described recently in the human colorectal cancer cell lines CACO-2 and SW948 respectively [Woodford-Richens, Rowan, Gorman, Halford, Bicknell, Wasan, Roylance, Bodmer and Tomlinson (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 9719-9723]. Previous work in vitro suggested that only Asp-351 was required for interaction with Smad2 [Wu, Fairman, Penry and Shi (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 20688-20694]. In the present study, we investigate the functional consequences of these point mutations in vivo. We demonstrate that neither of these colorectal cancer cells undergo growth arrest in response to TGF-beta, which can be explained, at least in part, by their inability to up-regulate cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 (CIP1 ) or p15 ( INK4b) after TGF-beta stimulation. Although the point-mutated Smad4s are expressed at normal levels in these colorectal cancer cells, they cannot interact with either TGF-beta-induced phosphorylated Smad2 or Smad3. As a result, these Smad4 mutants do not accumulate in the nucleus after TGF-beta stimulation, are not recruited to DNA by relevant Smad-binding transcription factors and cannot generate transcriptionally active DNA-bound complexes. Therefore both these colorectal tumour cells completely lack functional Smad4 activity owing to the missense mutations. Given the location of these mutations in the three-dimensional structure of the Smad4 C-terminal domain, the results also give us significant insights into Smad complex formation. PMID:14715079

  20. Temperature dependence of C-terminal carboxylic group IR absorptions in the amide I‧ region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin A.; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins using IR spectroscopy often rely on subtle changes in the amide I‧ band as a function of temperature. However, these changes can be obscured by the overlap with other absorptions, namely the side-chain and terminal carboxylic groups. The former were the subject of our previous report (Anderson et al., 2014). In this paper we investigate the IR spectra of the asymmetric stretch of α-carboxylic groups for amino acids representing all major types (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, Glu, Lys, Asn, His, Trp, Pro) as well as the C-terminal groups of three dipeptides (Gly-Gly, Gly-Ala, Ala-Gly) in D2O at neutral pH. Experimental temperature dependent IR spectra were analyzed by fitting of both symmetric and asymmetric pseudo-Voigt functions. Qualitatively the spectra exhibit shifts to higher frequency, loss in intensity and narrowing with increased temperature, similar to that observed previously for the side-chain carboxylic groups of Asp. The observed dependence of the band parameters (frequency, intensity, width and shape) on temperature is in all cases linear: simple linear regression is therefore used to describe the spectral changes. The spectral parameters vary between individual amino acids and show systematic differences between the free amino acids and dipeptides, particularly in the absolute peak frequencies, but the temperature variations are comparable. The relative variations between the dipeptide spectral parameters are most sensitive to the C-terminal amino acid, and follow the trends observed in the free amino acid spectra. General rules for modeling the α-carboxylic IR absorption bands in peptides and proteins as the function of temperature are proposed.

  1. N- and C-terminal Transactivation Domains of GATA1 Protein Coordinate Hematopoietic Program*

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eri; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ritsuko

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA1 regulates the expression of a cluster of genes important for hematopoietic cell differentiation toward erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. Three functional domains have been identified in GATA1, a transactivation domain located in the N terminus (N-TAD) and two zinc finger domains located in the middle of the molecule. Although N-TAD is known as a solitary transactivation domain for GATA1, clinical observations in Down syndrome leukemia suggest that there may be additional transactivation domains. In this study, we found in reporter co-transfection assays that transactivation activity of GATA1 was markedly reduced by deletion of the C-terminal 95 amino acids without significant attenuation of the DNA binding activity or self-association potential. We therefore generated transgenic mouse lines that expressed GATA1 lacking the C-terminal region (GATA1-ΔCT). When we crossed these transgenic mouse lines to the Gata1-deficient mouse, we found that the GATA1-ΔCT transgene rescued Gata1-deficient mice from embryonic lethality. The embryos rescued with an almost similar level of GATA1-ΔCT to endogenous GATA1 developed beyond embryonic 13.5 days, showing severe anemia with accumulation of immature erythroid cells, as was the case for the embryos rescued by endogenous levels of GATA1 lacking N-TAD (GATA1-ΔNT). Distinct sets of target genes were affected in the embryos rescued by GATA1-ΔCT and GATA1-ΔNT. We also found attenuated GATA1 function in cell cycle control of immature megakaryocytes in both lines of rescued embryos. These results thus demonstrate that GATA1 has two independent transactivation domains, N-TAD and C-TAD. Both N-TAD and C-TAD retain redundant as well as specific activities for proper hematopoiesis in vivo. PMID:22556427

  2. Autoinhibition of Bacteriophage T4 Mre11 by Its C-terminal Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Nelson, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    Mre11 and Rad50 form a stable complex (MR) and work cooperatively in repairing DNA double strand breaks. In the bacteriophage T4, Rad50 (gene product 46) enhances the nuclease activity of Mre11 (gene product 47), and Mre11 and DNA in combination stimulate the ATPase activity of Rad50. The structural basis for the cross-activation of the MR complex has been elusive. Various crystal structures of the MR complex display limited protein-protein interfaces that mainly exist between the C terminus of Mre11 and the coiled-coil domain of Rad50. To test the role of the C-terminal Rad50 binding domain (RBD) in Mre11 activation, we constructed a series of C-terminal deletions and mutations in bacteriophage T4 Mre11. Deletion of the RBD in Mre11 eliminates Rad50 binding but only has moderate effect on its intrinsic nuclease activity; however, the additional deletion of the highly acidic flexible linker that lies between RBD and the main body of Mre11 increases the nuclease activity of Mre11 by 20-fold. Replacement of the acidic residues in the flexible linker with alanine elevates the Mre11 activity to the level of the MR complex when combined with deletion of RBD. Nuclease activity kinetics indicate that Rad50 association and deletion of the C terminus of Mre11 both enhance DNA substrate binding. Additionally, a short peptide that contains the flexible linker and RBD of Mre11 acts as an inhibitor of Mre11 nuclease activity. These results support a model where the Mre11 RBD and linker domain act as an autoinhibitory domain when not in complex with Rad50. Complex formation with Rad50 alleviates this inhibition due to the tight association of the RBD and the Rad50 coiled-coil. PMID:25077970

  3. The C-terminal region of the RNA helicase CshA is required for the interaction with the degradosome and turnover of bulk RNA in the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, Caroline; Hausmann, Stéphane; Lemeille, Sylvain; Prados, Julien; Redder, Peter; Linder, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile opportunistic pathogen that adapts readily to a variety of different growth conditions. This adaptation requires a rapid regulation of gene expression including the control of mRNA abundance. The CshA DEAD-box RNA helicase was previously shown to be required for efficient turnover of the agr quorum sensing mRNA. Here we show by transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing and microarray analyses that CshA is required for the degradation of bulk mRNA. Moreover a subset of mRNAs is significantly stabilised in absence of CshA. Deletion of the C-terminal extension affects RNA turnover similar to the full deletion of the cshA gene. In accordance with RNA decay data, the C-terminal region of CshA is required for an RNA-independent interaction with components of the RNA degradation machinery. The C-terminal truncation of CshA reduces its ATPase activity and this reduction cannot be compensated at high RNA concentrations. Finally, the deletion of the C-terminal extension does affect growth at low temperatures, but to a significantly lesser degree than the full deletion, indicating that the core of the helicase can assume a partial function and opening the possibility that CshA is involved in different cellular processes. PMID:25997461

  4. YscU/FlhB of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Harbors a C-terminal Type III Secretion Signal.

    PubMed

    Login, Frédéric H; Wolf-Watz, Hans

    2015-10-23

    All type III secretion systems (T3SS) harbor a member of the YscU/FlhB family of proteins that is characterized by an auto-proteolytic process that occurs at a conserved cytoplasmic NPTH motif. We have previously demonstrated that YscUCC, the C-terminal peptide generated by auto-proteolysis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YscU, is secreted by the T3SS when bacteria are grown in Ca(2+)-depleted medium at 37 °C. Here, we investigated the secretion of this early T3S-substrate and showed that YscUCC encompasses a specific C-terminal T3S signal within the 15 last residues (U15). U15 promoted C-terminal secretion of reporter proteins like GST and YopE lacking its native secretion signal. Similar to the "classical" N-terminal secretion signal, U15 interacted with the ATPase YscN. Although U15 is critical for YscUCC secretion, deletion of the C-terminal secretion signal of YscUCC did neither affect Yop secretion nor Yop translocation. However, these deletions resulted in increased secretion of YscF, the needle subunit. Thus, these results suggest that YscU via its C-terminal secretion signal is involved in regulation of the YscF secretion. PMID:26338709

  5. The C-terminal helix in subdomain 4 of the regulatory light chain is essential for myosin regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, T; Kendrick-Jones, J

    1993-01-01

    In vertebrate smooth/non-muscle myosins, phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains by a specific calmodulin-activated kinase controls both myosin head interaction with actin and assembly of the myosin into filaments. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal domain of the regulatory light chain is crucial for the regulation of these myosin functions. To further dissect the role of this region of the light chain in myosin regulation, a series of chicken smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain mutants has been constructed with successive C-terminal deletions. These mutants were synthesized in Escherichia coli and analysed by their ability to restore Ca2+ regulation to scallop myosin that had been stripped of its native regulatory light chains ('desensitized'). The results show that regulatory light chain mutants with deletions in the C-terminal helix in subdomain 4 were able to reform the regulatory Ca2+ binding site on the scallop myosin head, but had lost the ability to suppress scallop myosin filament assembly and interaction with actin in the absence of Ca2+. Further deletions in the C-terminal domain led to a gradual loss of ability to restore the regulatory Ca2+ binding site. Thus, the regions in the C-terminal half of the regulatory light chain responsible for myosin regulation can be identified. Images PMID:8223496

  6. The C-terminal region of alpha-crystallin: involvement in protection against heat-induced denaturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Horwitz, J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the alpha-crystallins can protect other proteins against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation. To determine the possible involvement of the C-terminal region in this activity, the alpha-crystallins were subjected to limited tryptic digestion, and the amount of cleavage from the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the alpha-A and alpha-B crystallin chains was assessed using antisera specific for these regions. Limited tryptic digestion resulted in cleavage only from the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin. This trypsin-treated alpha-A crystallin preparation showed a decreased ability to protect proteins from heat-induced aggregation using an in vitro assay. Together, these results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is important for its ability to protect against heat-induced aggregation, which is consistent with the hypothesis that post-translational changes that are known to occur at the C-terminal region may have significant effects on the ability of alpha-A crystallin to protect against protein denaturation in vivo.

  7. Crystal structure of yeast Sis1 peptide-binding fragment and Hsp70 Ssa1 C-terminal complex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingzhi; Wu, Yunkun; Qian, Xinguo; Sha, Bingdong

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 40 facilitates the critical role of Hsp70 in a number of cellular processes such as protein folding, assembly, degradation and translocation in vivo. Hsp40 and Hsp70 stay in close contact to achieve these diverse functions. The conserved C-terminal EEVD motif in Hsp70 has been shown to regulate Hsp40–Hsp70 interaction by an unknown mechanism. Here, we provide a structural basis for this regulation by determining the crystal structure of yeast Hsp40 Sis1 peptide-binding fragment complexed with the Hsp70 Ssa1 C-terminal. The Ssa1 extreme C-terminal eight residues, G634PTVEEVD641, form a β-strand with the domain I of Sis1 peptide-binding fragment. Surprisingly, the Ssa1 C-terminal binds Sis1 at the site where Sis1 interacts with the non-native polypeptides. The negatively charged residues within the EEVD motif in Ssa1 C-terminal form extensive charge–charge interactions with the positively charged residues in Sis1. The structure-based mutagenesis data support the structural observations. PMID:16737444

  8. The C-terminal region of Drosophila heat shock factor (HSF) contains a constitutively functional transactivation domain.

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, J; Orosz, A; Allada, R; Wu, C

    1996-01-01

    The heat shock transcription factor (HSF) is constitutively expressed in Drosophila cells as an inactive monomer. Upon heat shock HSF undergoes trimerization and acquires high affinity DNA binding ability leading to specific interaction with its cognate elements in heat shock promoters. Here we show that the transactivation function of HSF is conferred by the extreme C-terminal region of the protein. Deletion analysis of HSF fragments fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain demonstrates that transactivation is dependent on HSF residues 610-691. This domain is located beyond the C-terminal heptad repeat (leucine zipper 4) whose presence or integrity is dispensable for transactivation. The transactivation domain is functional in the absence of heat shock and can be replaced by the extreme C-terminal region of human HSF1. The Drosophila and human HSF transactivation domains are both rich in hydrophobic and acidic residues and may be structurally conserved, despite limited sequence identity. PMID:8628664

  9. Effects of C-terminal deletions on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator function in cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Randak, Christoph; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Karp, Philip; Vermeer, Daniel; Ashbourne Excoffon, Katherine J; Welsh, Michael J

    2003-02-18

    To better understand the function of the conserved C terminus of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator, we studied constructs containing deletions in the C-terminal tail. When expressed in well differentiated CF airway epithelia, each construct localized predominantly to the apical membrane and generated transepithelial Cl(-) current. The results suggested that neither the C-terminal PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-interacting motif nor other C-terminal sequences were absolutely required for apical expression in airway epithelia. Surprisingly, deleting an acidic cluster near the C terminus reduced both channel opening rate and transepithelial Cl(-) transport, indicating that it influences channel gating. These results may help explain the relative paucity of CF-associated mutations in the C terminus. PMID:12578973

  10. Effects of C-terminal deletions on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator function in cystic fibrosis airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Randak, Christoph; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Karp, Philip; Vermeer, Daniel; Ashbourne Excoffon, Katherine J.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the function of the conserved C terminus of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator, we studied constructs containing deletions in the C-terminal tail. When expressed in well differentiated CF airway epithelia, each construct localized predominantly to the apical membrane and generated transepithelial Cl− current. The results suggested that neither the C-terminal PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-interacting motif nor other C-terminal sequences were absolutely required for apical expression in airway epithelia. Surprisingly, deleting an acidic cluster near the C terminus reduced both channel opening rate and transepithelial Cl− transport, indicating that it influences channel gating. These results may help explain the relative paucity of CF-associated mutations in the C terminus. PMID:12578973

  11. The C-terminal domain of NifL is sufficient to inhibit NifA activity.

    PubMed Central

    Narberhaus, F; Lee, H S; Schmitz, R A; He, L; Kustu, S

    1995-01-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae, transcription of all nif (nitrogen fixation) operons except the regulatory nifLA operon itself is regulated by the proteins NifA and NifL. NifA, an enhancer-binding protein, activates transcription by RNA polymerase containing the alternative sigma factor sigma 54. The central catalytic domain of NifA is sufficient for transcriptional activation, which can occur from solution. In vivo, NifL antagonizes the action of NifA in the presence of molecular oxygen or combined nitrogen. Inhibition has also been shown in vitro, but it was not responsive to environmental signals. Assuming a two-domain structure of NifL, we localized inhibition by NifL to its carboxy (C)-terminal domain, which is more soluble than the intact protein. The first line of evidence for this is that internal deletions of NifL containing an intact C-terminal domain were able to inhibit transcriptional activation by NifA in a coupled transcription-translation system. The second line of evidence is that the isolated C-terminal domain of NifL (assayed as a fusion to the soluble maltose-binding protein [MBP]) was sufficient to inhibit transcriptional activation by the central domain of NifA in a purified transcription system. The final line of evidence is that an MBP fusion to the C-terminal domain of NifL inhibited transcriptional activation by NifA in vivo. On the basis of these data, we postulate that the inhibitory function of NifL lies in its C-terminal domain and hence infer that this domain is responsible for interaction with NifA. Gel filtration experiments with MBP-NifL fusion derivatives lacking portions of the N- or C-terminal domain of the protein revealed that the C-terminal domain is the most soluble part of NifL. Up to 50% of two MBP-NifL truncations containing only the C-terminal domain appeared to be in a defined dimeric state. PMID:7665487

  12. Biochemical and virological analysis of the 18-residue C-terminal tail of HIV-1 integrase

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Mohd J; Monel, Blandine; Krishnan, Lavanya; Shun, Ming-Chieh; Di Nunzio, Francesca; Helland, Dag E; Engelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background The 18 residue tail abutting the SH3 fold that comprises the heart of the C-terminal domain is the only part of HIV-1 integrase yet to be visualized by structural biology. To ascertain the role of the tail region in integrase function and HIV-1 replication, a set of deletion mutants that successively lacked three amino acids was constructed and analyzed in a variety of biochemical and virus infection assays. HIV-1/2 chimers, which harbored the analogous 23-mer HIV-2 tail in place of the HIV-1 sequence, were also studied. Because integrase mutations can affect steps in the replication cycle other than integration, defective mutant viruses were tested for integrase protein content and reverse transcription in addition to integration. The F185K core domain mutation, which increases integrase protein solubility, was furthermore analyzed in a subset of mutants. Results Purified proteins were assessed for in vitro levels of 3' processing and DNA strand transfer activities whereas HIV-1 infectivity was measured using luciferase reporter viruses. Deletions lacking up to 9 amino acids (1-285, 1-282, and 1-279) displayed near wild-type activities in vitro and during infection. Further deletion yielded two viruses, HIV-11-276 and HIV-11-273, that displayed approximately two and 5-fold infectivity defects, respectively, due to reduced integrase function. Deletion mutant HIV-11-270 and the HIV-1/2 chimera were non-infectious and displayed approximately 3 to 4-fold reverse transcription in addition to severe integration defects. Removal of four additional residues, which encompassed the C-terminal β strand of the SH3 fold, further compromised integrase incorporation into virions and reverse transcription. Conclusion HIV-11-270, HIV-11-266, and the HIV-1/2 chimera were typed as class II mutant viruses due to their pleiotropic replication defects. We speculate that residues 271-273 might play a role in mediating the known integrase-reverse transcriptase interaction, as

  13. Structural and Functional Significance of the N- and C-Terminal Appendages in Arabidopsis Truncated Hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Mukhi, Nitika; Dhindwal, Sonali; Uppal, Sheetal; Kapoor, Abhijeet; Arya, Richa; Kumar, Pravindra; Kaur, Jagreet; Kundu, Suman

    2016-03-29

    Plant hemoglobins constitute three distinct groups: symbiotic, nonsymbiotic, and truncated hemoglobins. Structural investigation of symbiotic and nonsymbiotic (class I) hemoglobins revealed the presence of a vertebrate-like 3/3 globin fold in these proteins. In contrast, plant truncated hemoglobins are similar to bacterial truncated hemoglobins with a putative 2/2 α-helical globin fold. While multiple structures have been reported for plant hemoglobins of the first two categories, for plant truncated globins only one structure has been reported of late. Here, we report yet another crystal structure of the truncated hemoglobin from Arabidopsis thaliana (AHb3) with two water molecules in the heme pocket, of which one is distinctly coordinated to the heme iron, unlike the only available crystal structure of AHb3 with a hydroxyl ligand. AHb3 was monomeric in its crystallographic asymmetric unit; however, dimer was evident in the crystallographic symmetry, and the globin indeed existed as a stable dimer in solution. The tertiary structure of the protein exhibited a bacterial-like 2/2 α-helical globin fold with an additional N-terminal α-helical extension and disordered C-termini. To address the role of these extended termini in AHb3, which is yet unknown, N- and C-terminal deletion mutants were created and characterized and molecular dynamics simulations performed. The C-terminal deletion had an insignificant effect on most properties but perturbed the dimeric equilibrium of AHb3 and significantly influenced azide binding kinetics in the ferric state. These results along with the disordered nature of the C-terminus indicated its putative role in intramolecular or intermolecular interactions probably regulating protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. While the N-terminal deletion did not change the overall globin fold, stability, or ligand binding kinetics, it seemed to have influenced coordination at the heme iron, the hydration status of the active site

  14. Solution structure and dynamics of C-terminal regulatory domain of Vibrio vulnificus extracellular metalloprotease

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Heeyoun; Park, Jung Eun; Lee, Jung Sup; Lee, Weontae

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have determined solution structures of vEP C-terminal regulatory domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 has a compact {beta}-barrel structure with eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution structure of vEP C-ter100 shares its molecular topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residues in the {beta}3 region of vEP C-ter100 might be important in putative ligand/receptor binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron ion. -- Abstract: An extracellular metalloprotease (vEP) secreted by Vibrio vulnificus ATCC29307 is a 45-kDa proteolytic enzyme that has prothrombin activation and fibrinolytic activities during bacterial infection. The action of vEP could result in clotting that could serve to protect the bacteria from the host defense machinery. Very recently, we showed that the C-terminal propeptide (C-ter100), which is unique to vEP, is involved in regulation of vEP activity. To understand the structural basis of this function of vEP C-ter100, we have determined the solution structure and backbone dynamics using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solution structure shows that vEP C-ter100 is composed of eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands with a unique fold that has a compact {beta}-barrel formation which stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding networks. Protein dynamics shows that the overall structure, including loops, is very rigid and stabilized. By structural database analysis, we found that vEP C-ter100 shares its topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase, despite low sequence homology between the two domains. Fluorescence assay reveals that vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron (Fe{sup 3+}). These findings suggest that vEP protease might recruit substrate molecules, such as collagen, by binding at C-ter100 and that vEP participates

  15. Functionalization with C-terminal cysteine enhances transfection efficiency of cell-penetrating peptides through dimer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Amand, Helene L.

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversible CPP dimerisation is a simple yet efficient strategy to improve delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dimer formation enhances peptiplex stability, resulting in increased transfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By dimerisation, the CPP EB1 even gain endosomal escape properties while lowering cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Cell-penetrating peptides have the ability to stimulate uptake of macromolecular cargo in mammalian cells in a non-toxic manner and therefore hold promise as efficient and well tolerated gene delivery vectors. Non-covalent peptide-DNA complexes ('peptiplexes') enter cells via endocytosis, but poor peptiplex stability and endosomal entrapment are considered as main barriers to peptide-mediated delivery. We explore a simple, yet highly efficient, strategy to improve the function of peptide-based vectors, by adding one terminal cysteine residue. This allows the peptide to dimerize by disulfide bond formation, increasing its affinity for nucleic acids by the 'chelate effect' and, when the bond is reduced intracellularly, letting the complex dissociate to deliver the nucleic acid. By introducing a single C-terminal cysteine in the classical CPP penetratin and the penetratin analogs PenArg and EB1, we show that this minor modification greatly enhances the transfection capacity for plasmid DNA in HEK293T cells. We conclude that this effect is mainly due to enhanced thermodynamic stability of the peptiplexes as endosome-disruptive chloroquine is still required for transfection and the effect is more pronounced for peptides with lower inherent DNA condensation capacity. Interestingly, for EB1, addition of one cysteine makes the peptide able to mediate transfection in absence of chloroquine, indicating that dimerisation can also improve endosomal escape properties. Further, the cytotoxicity of EB1 peptiplexes is considerably reduced, possibly due to lower concentration of free peptide dimer resulting from

  16. Pharmacological activity of the C-terminal and N-terminal domains of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, K.; Kamimura, T.; Watanabe, K.; Suga, T.; Kanesaki, M.; Takeuchi, A.; Imaizumi, A.; Suzuki, Y.

    1995-01-01

    1. In order to characterize the physiological functions of the domain structure of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), the biological capacities of half-length SLPIs, (Ser1-Pro54)SLPI and (Asn55-Ala107)SLPI, were investigated and compared with those of full-length SLPI. 2. The activities of these inhibitors against several serine proteases were determined using synthetic chromogenic substrates. The inhibitory capacity of the C-terminal domain, (Asn55-Ala107)SLPI, was as strong as that of full-length SLPI against human neutrophil elastase (NE), cathepsin G and chymotrypsin. It possessed less trypsin inhibitory activity than intact SLPI. For the N-terminal domain of SLPI, (Ser1-Pro54)SLPI, no inhibitory activity could be detected against the serine proteases tested in this study. 3. The inhibitory activity of (Asn55-Ala107)SLPI against the proteolysis of the natural substrates elastin and collagen by NE was comparable with that of full-SLPI (elastin, IC50 = 907 +/- 31 nM for SLPI, 767 +/- 33 nM for (Asn55-Ala107)SLPI; collagen, IC50 = 862 +/- 36 nM for SLPI, 727 +/- 47 nM for (Asn55-Ala107)SLPI). 4. The binding affinities of full- and half-length SLPIs for heparin were measured by affinity column chromatography. Full-length SLPI showed high affinity for heparin while the binding capacities of both half-length SLPIs were lower. (Concentration of NaCl for elution, 0.45 M for SLPI, 0.24 M for (Ser1-Pro54)SLPI, 0.27 M for (Asn55-Ala107)SLPI). 5. The effects of full-SLPI and (Asn55-Ala107)SLPI on blood coagulation were measured using the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582515

  17. Chemical and thermal unfolding of a global staphylococcal virulence regulator with a flexible C-terminal end.

    PubMed

    Mahapa, Avisek; Mandal, Sukhendu; Biswas, Anindya; Jana, Biswanath; Polley, Soumitra; Sau, Subrata; Sau, Keya

    2015-01-01

    SarA, a Staphylococcus aureus-specific dimeric protein, modulates the expression of numerous proteins including various virulence factors. Interestingly, S. aureus synthesizes multiple SarA paralogs seemingly for optimizing the expression of its virulence factors. To understand the domain structure/flexibility and the folding/unfolding mechanism of the SarA protein family, we have studied a recombinant SarA (designated rSarA) using various in vitro probes. Limited proteolysis of rSarA and the subsequent analysis of the resulting protein fragments suggested it to be a single-domain protein with a long, flexible C-terminal end. rSarA was unfolded by different mechanisms in the presence of different chemical and physical denaturants. While urea-induced unfolding of rSarA occurred successively via the formation of a dimeric and a monomeric intermediate, GdnCl-induced unfolding of this protein proceeded through the production of two dimeric intermediates. The surface hydrophobicity and the structures of the intermediates were not identical and also differed significantly from those of native rSarA. Of the intermediates, the GdnCl-generated intermediates not only possessed a molten globule-like structure but also exhibited resistance to dissociation during their unfolding. Compared to the native rSarA, the intermediate that was originated at lower GdnCl concentration carried a compact shape, whereas, other intermediates owned a swelled shape. The chemical-induced unfolding, unlike thermal unfolding of rSarA, was completely reversible in nature. PMID:25822635

  18. A C-terminal domain of GAP is sufficient to stimulate ras p21 GTPase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M S; Hill, W S; Ng, A S; Vogel, U S; Schaber, M D; Scolnick, E M; Dixon, R A; Sigal, I S; Gibbs, J B

    1989-01-01

    The cDNA for bovine ras p21 GTPase activating protein (GAP) has been cloned and the 1044 amino acid polypeptide encoded by the clone has been shown to bind the GTP complexes of both normal and oncogenic Harvey (Ha) ras p21. To identify the regions of GAP critical for the catalytic stimulation of ras p21 GTPase activity, a series of truncated forms of GAP protein were expressed in Escherichia coli. The C-terminal 343 amino acids of GAP (residues 702-1044) were observed to bind Ha ras p21-GTP and stimulate Ha ras p21 GTPase activity with the same efficiency (kcat/KM congruent to 1 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 at 24 degrees C) as GAP purified from bovine brain or full-length GAP expressed in E. coli. Deletion of the final 61 amino acid residues of GAP (residues 986-1044) rendered the protein insoluble upon expression in E. coli. These results define a distinct catalytic domain at the C terminus of GAP. In addition, GAP contains amino acid similarity with the B and C box domains conserved among phospholipase C-II, the crk oncogene product, and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase oncogene products. This homologous region is located in the N-terminal half of GAP outside of the catalytic domain that stimulates ras p21 GTPase activity and may constitute a distinct structural or functional domain within the GAP protein. Images PMID:2545441

  19. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Brittany; Petko, Jessica; Woll, Matthew; Murakami, Shoko; Sokolina, Kate; Wong, Victoria; Stagljar, Igor; Lüscher, Bernhard; Levenson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC), a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443) of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C443 was deleted showed significantly reduced palmitoylation levels, plasma membrane expression, and protein stability compared to wild-type D2Rs. Rather, the C443 deletion mutant appeared to accumulate in the Golgi, indicating that palmitoylation of the D2R is important for cell surface expression of the receptor. Using the full-length D2R as bait in a membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) screen, we identified the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) zDHHC4 as a D2R interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that several other PATs, including zDHHC3 and zDHHC8, also interacted with the D2R and that each of the three PATs was capable of affecting the palmitoylation status of the D2R. Finally, biochemical analyses using D2R mutants and the palmitoylation blocker, 2-bromopalmitate indicate that palmitoylation of the receptor plays a role in stability of the D2R. PMID:26535572

  20. Export of autotransported proteins proceeds through an oligomeric ring shaped by C-terminal domains.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Esteban; Sugawara, Etsuko; Nikaido, Hiroshi; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Fernández, Luis Angel

    2002-05-01

    An investigation was made into the oligomerization, the ability to form pores and the secretion-related properties of the 45 kDa C-terminal domain of the IgA protease (C-IgAP) from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This protease is the best studied example of the autotransporters (ATs), a large family of exoproteins from Gram-negative bacteria that includes numerous virulence factors from human pathogens. These proteins contain an N-terminal passenger domain that em bodies the secreted polypeptide, while the C-domain inserts into the outer membrane (OM) and trans locates the linked N-module into the extracellular medium. Here we report that purified C-IgAP forms an oligomeric complex of approximately 500 kDa with a ring-like structure containing a central cavity of approximately 2 nm diameter that is the conduit for the export of the N-domains. These data overcome the previous model for ATs, which postulated the passage of the N-module through the hydrophilic channel of the beta-barrel of each monomeric C-domain. Our results advocate a secretion mechanism not unlike other bacterial export systems, such as the secretins or fimbrial ushers, which rely on multimeric complexes assembled in the OM. PMID:11980709

  1. Cathepsin X Cleaves Profilin 1 C-Terminal Tyr139 and Influences Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Pečar Fonović, Urša; Kos, Janko

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin X, a cysteine carboxypeptidase, is upregulated in several types of cancer. Its molecular target in tumor cells is profilin 1, a known tumor suppressor and regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cathepsin X cleaves off the C-terminal Tyr139 of profilin 1, affecting binding of poly-L-proline ligands and, consequently, tumor cell migration and invasion. Profilin 1 with mutations at the C-terminus, transiently expressed in prostate cancer cells PC-3, showed that Tyr139 is important for proper function of profilin 1 as a tumor suppressor. Cleaving off Tyr139 prevents the binding of clathrin, a poly-L-proline ligand involved in endocytosis. More profilin 1—clathrin complexes were present in PC-3 cells when cathepsin X was inhibited by its specific inhibitor AMS36 or silenced by siRNA. As a consequence, the endocytosis of FITC-labeled dextran and transferrin conjugate was significantly increased. These results constitute the first report of the regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in tumor cells through proteolytic processing of profilin 1. PMID:26325675

  2. Piezo1 ion channel pore properties are dictated by C-terminal region

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Bertrand; Murthy, Swetha E.; Mathur, Jayanti; Schmidt, Manuela; Mechioukhi, Yasmine; Delmas, Patrick; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Piezo1 and Piezo2 encode mechanically activated cation channels that function as mechanotransducers involved in vascular system development and touch sensing, respectively. Structural features of Piezos remain unknown. Mouse Piezo1 is bioinformatically predicted to have 30–40 transmembrane (TM) domains. Here, we find that nine of the putative inter-transmembrane regions are accessible from the extracellular side. We use chimeras between mPiezo1 and dPiezo to show that ion-permeation properties are conferred by C-terminal region. We further identify a glutamate residue within a conserved region adjacent to the last two putative TM domains of the protein, that when mutated, affects unitary conductance and ion selectivity, and modulates pore block. We propose that this amino acid is either in the pore or closely associates with the pore. Our results describe important structural motifs of this channel family and lay the groundwork for a mechanistic understanding of how Piezos are mechanically gated and conduct ions. PMID:26008989

  3. The C-terminal region of Trypanosoma cruzi MASPs is antigenic and secreted via exovesicles.

    PubMed

    De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Díaz Lozano, Isabel María; Jercic, Maria Isabel; Quinzada, Markela; Giménez, Maria José; Calabuig, Eva; Espino, Ana Margarita; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Osuna, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a neglected and emerging tropical disease, endemic to South America and present in non-endemic regions due to human migration. The MASP multigene family is specific to T. cruzi, accounting for 6% of the parasite's genome and plays a key role in immune evasion. A common feature of MASPs is the presence of two conserved regions: an N-terminal region codifying for signal peptide and a C-terminal (C-term) region, which potentially acts as GPI-addition signal peptide. Our aim was the analysis of the presence of an immune response against the MASP C-term region. We found that this region is highly conserved, released via exovesicles (EVs) and has an associated immune response as revealed by epitope affinity mapping, IFA and inhibition of the complement lysis assays. We also demonstrate the presence of a fast IgM response in Balb/c mice infected with T. cruzi. Our results reveal the presence of non-canonical secreted peptides in EVs, which can subsequently be exposed to the immune system with a potential role in evading immune system targets in the parasite. PMID:27270330

  4. Evolutionary diversification of an ancient gene family (rhs) through C-terminal displacement

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Rhs genes are prominent features of bacterial genomes that have previously been implicated in genomic rearrangements in E. coli. By comparing rhs repertoires across the Enterobacteriaceae, this study provides a robust explanation of rhs diversification and evolution, and a mechanistic model of how rhs diversity is gained and lost. Results Rhs genes are ubiquitous and comprise six structurally distinct lineages within the Enterobacteriaceae. There is considerable intergenomic variation in rhs repertoire; for instance, in Salmonella enterica, rhs are restricted to mobile elements, while in Escherichia coli one rhs lineage has diversified through transposition as older lineages have been deleted. Overall, comparative genomics reveals frequent, independent gene gains and losses, as well as occasional lateral gene transfer, in different genera. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rhs 'core' domains and variable C-termini are evolutionarily decoupled, and propose that rhs diversity is driven by homologous recombination with circular intermediates. Existing C-termini are displaced by laterally acquired alternatives, creating long arrays of dissociated 'tips' that characterize the appearance of rhs loci. Conclusion Rhs repertoires are highly dynamic among Enterobacterial genomes, due to repeated gene gains and losses. In contrast, the primary structures of Rhs genes are evolutionarily conserved, indicating that rhs sequence diversity is driven, not by rapid mutation, but by the relatively slow evolution of novel core/tip combinations. Hence, we predict that a large pool of dissociated rhs C-terminal tips exists episomally and these are potentially transmitted across taxonomic boundaries. PMID:19968874

  5. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, Brittany; Petko, Jessica; Woll, Matthew; Murakami, Shoko; Sokolina, Kate; Wong, Victoria; Stagljar, Igor; Lüscher, Bernhard; Levenson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC), a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443) of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C443 was deleted showed significantly reduced palmitoylation levels, plasma membrane expression, and protein stability compared to wild-type D2Rs. Rather, the C443 deletion mutant appeared to accumulate in the Golgi, indicating that palmitoylation of the D2R is important for cell surface expression of the receptor. Using the full-length D2R as bait in a membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) screen, we identified the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) zDHHC4 as a D2R interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that several other PATs, including zDHHC3 and zDHHC8, also interacted with the D2R and that each of the three PATs was capable of affecting the palmitoylation status of the D2R. Finally, biochemical analyses using D2R mutants and the palmitoylation blocker, 2-bromopalmitate indicate that palmitoylation of the receptor plays a role in stability of the D2R. PMID:26535572

  6. The E. coli thioredoxin folding mechanism: the key role of the C-terminal helix.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Diego S; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Garrote, Ana; Sica, Mauricio P; Santos, Javier

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the unfolding mechanism of oxidized Escherichia coli thioredoxin (EcTRX) was investigated experimentally and computationally. We characterized seven point mutants distributed along the C-terminal α-helix (CTH) and the preceding loop. The mutations destabilized the protein against global unfolding while leaving the native structure unchanged. Global analysis of the unfolding kinetics of all variants revealed a linear unfolding route with a high-energy on-pathway intermediate state flanked by two transition state ensembles TSE1 and TSE2. The experiments show that CTH is mainly unfolded in TSE1 and the intermediate and becomes structured in TSE2. Structure-based molecular dynamics are in agreement with these experiments and provide protein-wide structural information on transient states. In our model, EcTRX folding starts with structure formation in the β-sheet, while the protein helices coalesce later. As a whole, our results indicate that the CTH is a critical module in the folding process, restraining a heterogeneous intermediate ensemble into a biologically active native state and providing the native protein with thermodynamic and kinetic stability. PMID:25463044

  7. PrP106-126 peptide disrupts lipid membranes: Influence of C-terminal amidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Wenfu; Wang Lijun; Hong Yuankai; Sha Yinlin

    2009-02-06

    PrP106-126 is located within the important domain concerning membrane related conformational conversion of human Prion protein (from cellular isoform PrP{sup C} to scrapie isoform PrP{sup Sc}). Recent advances reveal that the pathological and physicochemical properties of PrP106-126 peptide are very sensitive to its N-terminal amidation, however, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we studied the interactions of the PrP106-126 isoforms (PrP106-126{sub CONH2} and PrP106-126{sub COOH}) with the neutral lipid bilayers by atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy. The membrane structures were disturbed by the two isoforms in a similarly stepwise process. The distinct morphological changes of the membrane were characterized by formation of semi-penetrated defects and sigmoidal growth of flat high-rise domains on the supported lipid bilayers. However, PrP106-126{sub COOH} displayed a higher peptide-lipid binding affinity than PrP106-126{sub CONH2} ({approx}2.9 times) and facilitated the peptide-lipid interactions by shortening the lag time. These results indicate that the C-terminal amidation may influence the pathological actions of PrP106-126 by lowering the interaction potentials with lipid membranes.

  8. Amyloid β-Protein C-Terminal Fragments: Formation of Cylindrins and β-Barrels.

    PubMed

    Do, Thanh D; LaPointe, Nichole E; Nelson, Rebecca; Krotee, Pascal; Hayden, Eric Y; Ulrich, Brittany; Quan, Sarah; Feinstein, Stuart C; Teplow, David B; Eisenberg, David; Shea, Joan-Emma; Bowers, Michael T

    2016-01-20

    In order to evaluate potential therapeutic targets for treatment of amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is essential to determine the structures of toxic amyloid oligomers. However, for the amyloid β-protein peptide (Aβ), thought to be the seminal neuropathogenetic agent in AD, its fast aggregation kinetics and the rapid equilibrium dynamics among oligomers of different size pose significant experimental challenges. Here we use ion-mobility mass spectrometry, in combination with electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and computational modeling, to test the hypothesis that Aβ peptides can form oligomeric structures resembling cylindrins and β-barrels. These structures are hypothesized to cause neuronal injury and death through perturbation of plasma membrane integrity. We show that hexamers of C-terminal Aβ fragments, including Aβ(24-34), Aβ(25-35) and Aβ(26-36), have collision cross sections similar to those of cylindrins. We also show that linking two identical fragments head-to-tail using diglycine increases the proportion of cylindrin-sized oligomers. In addition, we find that larger oligomers of these fragments may adopt β-barrel structures and that β-barrels can be formed by folding an out-of-register β-sheet, a common type of structure found in amyloid proteins. PMID:26700445

  9. Impedance Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cells upon Challenge with C-terminal Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Geoffrey; Lo, Chun-Min

    2007-03-01

    Both in vitro and animal studies in breast, prostate, and ovarian cancers have shown that clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), which binds to CLDN4, may have an important therapeutic benefit, as it is rapidly cytotoxic in tissues overexpressing CLDN4. This study sought to evaluate the ability of C-terminal clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), a CLDN4-targetting molecule, to disrupt tight junction barrier function. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was used to measure both junctional resistance and average cell-substrate separation of ovarian cancer cell lines after exposure to C-CPE. A total of 14 ovarian cancer cell lines were used, and included cell lines derived from serous, mucinous, and clear cells. Our results showed that junctional resistance increases as CLDN4 expression increases. In addition, C-CPE is non-cytotoxic in ovarian cancer cells expressing CLDN4. However, exposure to C-CPE results in a significant (p<0.05) dose- and CLDN4-dependent decrease in junctional resistance and an increase in cell-substrate separation. Treatment of ovarian cancer cell lines with C-CPE disrupts tight junction barrier function.

  10. Effects of Sorafenib on C-Terminally Truncated Androgen Receptor Variants in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zengerling, Friedemann; Streicher, Wolfgang; Schrader, Andres J.; Schrader, Mark; Nitzsche, Bianca; Cronauer, Marcus V.; Höpfner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the development of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPCa) is commonly associated with an aberrant, ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor (AR). A putative mechanism allowing prostate cancer (PCa) cells to grow under low levels of androgens, is the expression of constitutively active, C-terminally truncated AR lacking the AR-ligand binding domain (LBD). Due to the absence of a LBD, these receptors, termed ARΔLBD, are unable to respond to any form of anti-hormonal therapies. In this study we demonstrate that the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib inhibits AR as well as ARΔLBD-signalling in CRPCa cells. This inhibition was paralleled by proteasomal degradation of the AR- and ARΔLBD-molecules. In line with these observations, maximal antiproliferative effects of sorafenib were achieved in AR and ARΔLBD-positive PCa cells. The present findings warrant further investigations on sorafenib as an option for the treatment of advanced AR-positive PCa. PMID:23109869

  11. Effects of sorafenib on C-terminally truncated androgen receptor variants in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zengerling, Friedemann; Streicher, Wolfgang; Schrader, Andres J; Schrader, Mark; Nitzsche, Bianca; Cronauer, Marcus V; Höpfner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the development of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPCa) is commonly associated with an aberrant, ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor (AR). A putative mechanism allowing prostate cancer (PCa) cells to grow under low levels of androgens, is the expression of constitutively active, C-terminally truncated AR lacking the AR-ligand binding domain (LBD). Due to the absence of a LBD, these receptors, termed ARΔLBD, are unable to respond to any form of anti-hormonal therapies. In this study we demonstrate that the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib inhibits AR as well as ARΔLBD-signalling in CRPCa cells. This inhibition was paralleled by proteasomal degradation of the AR- and ARΔLBD-molecules. In line with these observations, maximal antiproliferative effects of sorafenib were achieved in AR and ARΔLBD-positive PCa cells. The present findings warrant further investigations on sorafenib as an option for the treatment of advanced AR-positive PCa. PMID:23109869

  12. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P43. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions. PMID:19622868

  13. C-Terminal Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Peptide: A New Sepsis Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Function

    PubMed Central

    Blaurock, Nancy; Schmerler, Diana; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Ludewig, Katrin; Baier, Michael; Brunkhorst, Frank Martin; Imhof, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a life threatening condition and the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Although single aspects of pathophysiology have been described in detail, numerous unknown mediators contribute to the progression of this complex disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of CAAP48, a C-terminal alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment, that we found to be elevated in septic patients and to apply this peptide as diagnostic marker for infectious and noninfectious etiologies of SIRS. Incubation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with synthetic CAAP48, the SNP-variant CAAP47, and several control peptides revealed intense neutrophil activation, induction of neutrophil chemotaxis, reduction of neutrophil viability, and release of cytokines. We determined the abundance of CAAP48 in patients with severe sepsis, severe SIRS of noninfectious origin, and viral infection. CAAP48 levels were 3-4-fold higher in patients with sepsis compared to SIRS of noninfectious origin and allowed discrimination of those patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that CAAP48 is a promising discriminatory sepsis biomarker with immunomodulatory functions, particularly on human neutrophils, supporting its important role in the host response and pathophysiology of sepsis. PMID:27382189

  14. C-Terminal Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin-Mediated Antigen Delivery for Nasal Pneumococcal Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hidehiko; Watari, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Eri; Yonemitsu, Miki; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kondoh, Masuo; Kunisawa, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Efficient vaccine delivery to mucosal tissues including mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues is essential for the development of mucosal vaccine. We previously reported that claudin-4 was highly expressed on the epithelium of nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and thus claudin-4-targeting using C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) effectively delivered fused antigen to NALT and consequently induced antigen-specific immune responses. In this study, we applied the C-CPE-based vaccine delivery system to develop a nasal pneumococcal vaccine. We fused C-CPE with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), an important antigen for the induction of protective immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, (PspA-C-CPE). PspA-C-CPE binds to claudin-4 and thus efficiently attaches to NALT epithelium, including antigen-sampling M cells. Nasal immunization with PspA-C-CPE induced PspA-specific IgG in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as IgA in the nasal wash and BALF. These immune responses were sufficient to protect against pneumococcal infection. These results suggest that C-CPE is an efficient vaccine delivery system for the development of nasal vaccines against pneumococcal infection. PMID:26018248

  15. C-terminal amino acids are essential for human heat shock protein 70 dimerization.

    PubMed

    Marcion, Guillaume; Seigneuric, Renaud; Chavanne, Evelyne; Artur, Yves; Briand, Loïc; Hadi, Tarik; Gobbo, Jessica; Garrido, Carmen; Neiers, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The human inducible heat shock protein 70 (hHsp70), which is involved in several major pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, is a key molecular chaperone and contributes to the proper protein folding and maintenance of a large number of protein structures. Despite its role in disease, the current structural knowledge of hHsp70 is almost exclusively based on its Escherichia coli homolog, DnaK, even though these two proteins only share ~50 % amino acid identity. For the first time, we describe a complete heterologous production and purification strategy that allowed us to obtain a large amount of soluble, full-length, and non-tagged hHsp70. The protein displayed both an ATPase and a refolding activity when combined to the human Hsp40. Multi-angle light scattering and bio-layer interferometry analyses demonstrated the ability of hHsp70 to homodimerize. The role of the C-terminal part of hHsp70 was identified and confirmed by a study of a truncated version of hHsp70 that could neither dimerize nor present refolding activity. PMID:25030382

  16. Identification and characterization of the role of c-terminal Src kinase in dengue virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rinki; Agrawal, Tanvi; Khan, Naseem Ahmed; Nakayama, Yuji; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R.

    2016-01-01

    We screened a siRNA library targeting human tyrosine kinases in Huh-7 cells and identified c-terminal Src kinase (Csk) as one of the kinases involved in dengue virus replication. Knock-down of Csk expression by siRNAs or inhibition of Csk by an inhibitor reduced dengue virus RNA levels but did not affect viral entry. Csk partially colocalized with viral replication compartments. Dengue infection was drastically reduced in cells lacking the three ubiquitous src family kinases, Src, Fyn and Yes. Csk knock-down in these cells failed to block dengue virus replication suggesting that the effect of Csk is via regulation of Src family kinases. Csk was found to be hyper-phosphorylated during dengue infection and inhibition of protein kinase A led to a block in Csk phosphorylation and dengue virus replication. Overexpression studies suggest an important role for the kinase and SH3 domains in this process. Our results identified a novel role for Csk as a host tyrosine kinase involved in dengue virus replication and provide further insights into the role of host factors in dengue replication. PMID:27457684

  17. TMAO promotes fibrillization and microtubule assembly activity in the C-terminal repeat region of tau.

    PubMed

    Scaramozzino, Francesca; Peterson, Dylan W; Farmer, Patrick; Gerig, J T; Graves, Donald J; Lew, John

    2006-03-21

    Alzheimer's disease most closely correlates with the appearance of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), intracellular fibrous aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein, tau. Under native conditions, tau is an unstructured protein, and its physical characterization has revealed no clues about the three-dimensional structural determinants essential for aggregation or microtubule binding. We have found that the natural osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) induces secondary structure in a C-terminal fragment of tau (tau(187)) and greatly promotes both self-aggregation and microtubule (MT) assembly activity. These processes could be distinguished, however, by a single-amino acid substitution (Tyr(310) --> Ala), which severely inhibited aggregation but had no effect on MT assembly activity. The inability of this mutant to aggregate could be completely reversed by TMAO. We propose a model in which TMAO induces partial order in tau(187), resulting in conformers that may correspond to on-pathway intermediates of either aggregation or tau-dependent MT assembly or both. These studies set the stage for future high-resolution structural characterization of these intermediates and the basis by which Tyr(310) may direct pathologic versus normal tau function. PMID:16533051

  18. Peptide library approach to uncover phosphomimetic inhibitors of the BRCA1 C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    White, E Railey; Sun, Luxin; Ma, Zhong; Beckta, Jason M; Danzig, Brittany A; Hacker, David E; Huie, Melissa; Williams, David C; Edwards, Ross A; Valerie, Kristoffer; Glover, J N Mark; Hartman, Matthew C T

    2015-05-15

    Many intracellular protein-protein interactions are mediated by the phosphorylation of serine, and phosphoserine-containing peptides can inhibit these interactions. However, hydrolysis of the phosphate by phosphatases, and the poor cell permeability associated with phosphorylated peptides has limited their utility in cellular and in vivo contexts. Compounding the problem, strategies to replace phosphoserine in peptide inhibitors with easily accessible mimetics (such as Glu or Asp) routinely fail. Here, we present an in vitro selection strategy for replacement of phosphoserine. Using mRNA display, we created a 10 trillion member structurally diverse unnatural peptide library. From this library, we found a peptide that specifically binds to the C-terminal domain (BRCT)2 of breast cancer associated protein 1 (BRCA1) with an affinity comparable to phosphorylated peptides. A crystal structure of the peptide bound reveals that the pSer-x-x-Phe motif normally found in BRCA1 (BRCT)2 binding partners is replaced by a Glu-x-x-4-fluoroPhe and that the peptide picks up additional contacts on the protein surface not observed in cognate phosphopeptide binding. Expression of the peptide in human cells led to defects in DNA repair by homologous recombination, a process BRCA1 is known to coordinate. Overall, this work validates a new in vitro selection approach for the development of inhibitors of protein-protein interactions mediated by serine phosphorylation. PMID:25654734

  19. β-Catenin C-terminal signals suppress p53 and are essential for artery formation.

    PubMed

    Riascos-Bernal, Dario F; Chinnasamy, Prameladevi; Cao, Longyue Lily; Dunaway, Charlene M; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad; Sibinga, Nicholas E S

    2016-01-01

    Increased activity of the tumour suppressor p53 is incompatible with embryogenesis, but how p53 is controlled is not fully understood. Differential requirements for p53 inhibitors Mdm2 and Mdm4 during development suggest that these control mechanisms are context-dependent. Artery formation requires investment of nascent endothelial tubes by smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Here, we find that embryos lacking SMC β-catenin suffer impaired arterial maturation and die by E12.5, with increased vascular wall p53 activity. β-Catenin-deficient SMCs show no change in p53 levels, but greater p53 acetylation and activity, plus impaired growth and survival. In vivo, SMC p53 inactivation suppresses phenotypes caused by loss of β-catenin. Mechanistically, β-catenin C-terminal interactions inhibit Creb-binding protein-dependent p53 acetylation and p53 transcriptional activity, and are required for artery formation. Thus in SMCs, the β-catenin C-terminus indirectly represses p53, and this function is essential for embryogenesis. These findings have implications for angiogenesis, tissue engineering and vascular disease. PMID:27499244

  20. Identification and characterization of the role of c-terminal Src kinase in dengue virus replication.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rinki; Agrawal, Tanvi; Khan, Naseem Ahmed; Nakayama, Yuji; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R

    2016-01-01

    We screened a siRNA library targeting human tyrosine kinases in Huh-7 cells and identified c-terminal Src kinase (Csk) as one of the kinases involved in dengue virus replication. Knock-down of Csk expression by siRNAs or inhibition of Csk by an inhibitor reduced dengue virus RNA levels but did not affect viral entry. Csk partially colocalized with viral replication compartments. Dengue infection was drastically reduced in cells lacking the three ubiquitous src family kinases, Src, Fyn and Yes. Csk knock-down in these cells failed to block dengue virus replication suggesting that the effect of Csk is via regulation of Src family kinases. Csk was found to be hyper-phosphorylated during dengue infection and inhibition of protein kinase A led to a block in Csk phosphorylation and dengue virus replication. Overexpression studies suggest an important role for the kinase and SH3 domains in this process. Our results identified a novel role for Csk as a host tyrosine kinase involved in dengue virus replication and provide further insights into the role of host factors in dengue replication. PMID:27457684

  1. β-Catenin C-terminal signals suppress p53 and are essential for artery formation

    PubMed Central

    Riascos-Bernal, Dario F.; Chinnasamy, Prameladevi; Cao, Longyue (Lily); Dunaway, Charlene M.; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad; Sibinga, Nicholas E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Increased activity of the tumour suppressor p53 is incompatible with embryogenesis, but how p53 is controlled is not fully understood. Differential requirements for p53 inhibitors Mdm2 and Mdm4 during development suggest that these control mechanisms are context-dependent. Artery formation requires investment of nascent endothelial tubes by smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Here, we find that embryos lacking SMC β-catenin suffer impaired arterial maturation and die by E12.5, with increased vascular wall p53 activity. β-Catenin-deficient SMCs show no change in p53 levels, but greater p53 acetylation and activity, plus impaired growth and survival. In vivo, SMC p53 inactivation suppresses phenotypes caused by loss of β-catenin. Mechanistically, β-catenin C-terminal interactions inhibit Creb-binding protein-dependent p53 acetylation and p53 transcriptional activity, and are required for artery formation. Thus in SMCs, the β-catenin C-terminus indirectly represses p53, and this function is essential for embryogenesis. These findings have implications for angiogenesis, tissue engineering and vascular disease. PMID:27499244

  2. Peptide Library Approach to Uncover Phosphomimetic Inhibitors of the BRCA1 C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    White, E. Railey; Sun, Luxin; Ma, Zhong; Beckta, Jason M.; Danzig, Brittany A.; Hacker, David E.; Huie, Melissa; Williams, David C.; Edwards, Ross A.; Valerie, Kristoffer; Mark Glover, J. N.; Hartman, Matthew C. T.

    2015-01-01

    Many intracellular protein–protein interactions are mediated by the phosphorylation of serine, and phosphoserine-containing peptides can inhibit these interactions. However, hydrolysis of the phosphate by phosphatases, and the poor cell permeability associated with phosphorylated peptides has limited their utility in cellular and in vivo contexts. Compounding the problem, strategies to replace phosphoserine in peptide inhibitors with easily accessible mimetics (such as Glu or Asp) routinely fail. Here, we present an in vitro selection strategy for replacement of phosphoserine. Using mRNA display, we created a 10 trillion member structurally diverse unnatural peptide library. From this library, we found a peptide that specifically binds to the C-terminal domain (BRCT)2 of breast cancer associated protein 1 (BRCA1) with an affinity comparable to phosphorylated peptides. A crystal structure of the peptide bound reveals that the pSer-x-x-Phe motif normally found in BRCA1 (BRCT)2 binding partners is replaced by a Glu-x-x-4-fluoroPhe and that the peptide picks up additional contacts on the protein surface not observed in cognate phosphopeptide binding. Expression of the peptide in human cells led to defects in DNA repair by homologous recombination, a process BRCA1 is known to coordinate. Overall, this work validates a new in vitro selection approach for the development of inhibitors of protein–protein interactions mediated by serine phosphorylation. PMID:25654734

  3. Structure and inhibition analysis of the mouse SAD-B C-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Wu, Jing-Xiang; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2016-10-01

    The SAD (synapses of amphids defective) kinases, including SAD-A and SAD-B, play important roles in the regulation of neuronal development, cell cycle, and energy metabolism. Our recent study of mouse SAD-A identified a unique autoinhibitory sequence (AIS), which binds at the junction of the kinase domain (KD) and the ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain and exerts autoregulation in cooperation with UBA. Here, we report the crystal structure of the mouse SAD-B C-terminal fragment including the AIS and the kinase-associated domain 1 (KA1) at 2.8 Å resolution. The KA1 domain is structurally conserved, while the isolated AIS sequence is highly flexible and solvent-accessible. Our biochemical studies indicated that the SAD-B AIS exerts the same autoinhibitory role as that in SAD-A. We believe that the flexible isolated AIS sequence is readily available for interaction with KD-UBA and thus inhibits SAD-B activity. PMID:27251228

  4. Physical association of GPR54 C-terminal with protein phosphatase 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Barry J.; Wang Zixuan; Mobley, La'Tonya; Khosravi, Davood; Fujii, Nobutaka; Navenot, Jean-Marc; Peiper, Stephen C.

    2008-12-26

    KiSS1 was discovered as a metastasis suppressor gene and subsequently found to encode kisspeptins (KP), ligands for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR54. This ligand-receptor pair was later shown to play a critical role in the neuro-endocrine regulation of puberty. The C-terminal cytoplasmic (C-ter) domain of GPR54 contains a segment rich in proline and arginine residues that corresponds to the primary structure of four overlapping SH3 binding motifs. Yeast two hybrid experiments identified the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-C) as an interacting protein. Pull-down experiments with GST fusion proteins containing the GPR54 C-ter confirmed binding to PP2A-C in cell lysates and these complexes contained phosphatase activity. The proline arginine rich segment is necessary for these interactions. The GPR54 C-ter bound directly to purified recombinant PP2A-C, indicating the GPR54 C-ter may form complexes involving the catalytic subunit of PP2A that regulate phosphorylation of critical signaling intermediates.

  5. Segmental expression and C-terminal labeling of protein ERp44 through protein trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xudong; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Meng, Qing

    2015-08-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44 (ERp44) is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family and functions in oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. A structurally flexible C-terminal tail (C-tail) of ERp44 plays critical roles in dynamically regulating ERp44's function in protein folding quality control. The structure-function dynamics of ERp44's C-tail may be studied further using fluorescence and other techniques, if methods are found to label the C-tail site-specifically with a fluorescent group or segmentally with other desired labels. Here we have developed such methods, employing split inteins capable of protein trans-splicing, and identifying atypical S1 split inteins able to function efficiently at a suitable split site in the ERp44 sequence. One method demonstrated segmental expression of ERp44 for segmental labeling of the C-tail, another method efficiently added a commercially available fluorescent group to the C-terminus of ERp44, and both methods may also be generally useful for studying other proteins. PMID:25907381

  6. The C-terminal amyloidogenic peptide contributes to self-assembly of Avibirnavirus viral protease

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaojuan; Jia, Lu; Hu, Boli; Sun, Yanting; Zhang, Yina; Gao, Xiangxiang; Deng, Tingjuan; Bao, Shengjun; Xu, Li; Zhou, Jiyong

    2015-01-01

    Unlike other viral protease, Avibirnavirus infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-encoded viral protease VP4 forms unusual intracellular tubule-like structures during viral infection. However, the formation mechanism and potential biological functions of intracellular VP4 tubules remain largely elusive. Here, we show that VP4 can assemble into tubules in diverse IBDV-infected cells. Dynamic analysis show that VP4 initiates the assembly at early stage of IBDV infection, and gradually assembles into larger size of fibrils within the cytoplasm and nucleus. Intracellular assembly of VP4 doesn’t involve the host cytoskeleton, other IBDV-encoded viral proteins or vital subcellular organelles. Interestingly, the last C-terminal hydrophobic and amyloidogenic stretch 238YHLAMA243 with two “aggregation-prone” alanine residues was found to be essential for its intracellular self-assembly. The assembled VP4 fibrils show significantly low solubility, subsequently, the deposition of highly assembled VP4 structures ultimately deformed the host cytoskeleton and nucleus, which was potentially associated with IBDV lytic infection. Importantly, the assembly of VP4 significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of protease activity in host cells which potentially prevent the premature cell death and facilitate viral replication. This study provides novel insights into the formation mechanism and biological functions of the Avibirnavirus protease-related fibrils. PMID:26440769

  7. The C-terminal region of Trypanosoma cruzi MASPs is antigenic and secreted via exovesicles

    PubMed Central

    De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Díaz Lozano, Isabel María; Jercic, Maria Isabel; Quinzada, Markela; Giménez, Maria José; Calabuig, Eva; Espino, Ana Margarita; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Osuna, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a neglected and emerging tropical disease, endemic to South America and present in non-endemic regions due to human migration. The MASP multigene family is specific to T. cruzi, accounting for 6% of the parasite’s genome and plays a key role in immune evasion. A common feature of MASPs is the presence of two conserved regions: an N-terminal region codifying for signal peptide and a C-terminal (C-term) region, which potentially acts as GPI-addition signal peptide. Our aim was the analysis of the presence of an immune response against the MASP C-term region. We found that this region is highly conserved, released via exovesicles (EVs) and has an associated immune response as revealed by epitope affinity mapping, IFA and inhibition of the complement lysis assays. We also demonstrate the presence of a fast IgM response in Balb/c mice infected with T. cruzi. Our results reveal the presence of non-canonical secreted peptides in EVs, which can subsequently be exposed to the immune system with a potential role in evading immune system targets in the parasite. PMID:27270330

  8. Interaction of chromatin with a histone H1 containing swapped N- and C-terminal domains

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Jordana B.; Cheema, Manjinder S.; Wang, Jason; Missiaen, Krystal; Finn, Ron; Gonzalez Romero, Rodrigo; Th’ng, John P. H.; Hendzel, Michael; Ausió, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Although the details of the structural involvement of histone H1 in the organization of the nucleosome are quite well understood, the sequential events involved in the recognition of its binding site are not as well known. We have used a recombinant human histone H1 (H1.1) in which the N- and C-terminal domains (NTD/CTD) have been swapped and we have reconstituted it on to a 208-bp nucleosome. We have shown that the swapped version of the protein is still able to bind to nucleosomes through its structurally folded wing helix domain (WHD); however, analytical ultracentrifuge analysis demonstrates its ability to properly fold the chromatin fibre is impaired. Furthermore, FRAP analysis shows that the highly dynamic binding association of histone H1 with the chromatin fibre is altered, with a severely decreased half time of residence. All of this suggests that proper binding of histone H1 to chromatin is determined by the simultaneous and synergistic binding of its WHD–CTD to the nucleosome. PMID:26182371

  9. Microtubule C-Terminal Tails Can Change Characteristics of Motor Force Production.

    PubMed

    Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra; Janakaloti Narayanareddy, Babu Reddy; Vadpey, Omid; Jun, Yonggun; Chapman, Dail; Rosenfeld, Steven; Gross, Steven P

    2015-10-01

    Control of intracellular transport is poorly understood, and functional ramifications of tubulin isoform differences between cell types are mostly unexplored. Motors' force production and detachment kinetics are critical for their group function, but how microtubule (MT) details affect these properties--if at all--is unknown. We investigated these questions using both a vesicular transport human kinesin, kinesin-1, and also a mitotic kinesin likely optimized for group function, kinesin-5, moving along either bovine brain or MCF7(breast cancer) MTs. We found that kinesin-1 functioned similarly on the two sets of MTs--in particular, its mean force production was approximately the same, though due to its previously reported decreased processivity, the mean duration of kinesin-1 force production was slightly decreased on MCF7 MTs. In contrast, kinesin-5's function changed dramatically on MCF7 MTs: its average detachment force was reduced and its force-velocity curve was different. In spite of the reduced detachment force, the force-velocity alteration surprisingly improved high-load group function for kinesin-5 on the cancer-cell MTs, potentially contributing to functions such as spindle-mediated chromosome separation. Significant differences were previously reported for C-terminal tubulin tails in MCF7 versus bovine brain tubulin. Consistent with this difference being functionally important, elimination of the tails made transport along the two sets of MTs similar. PMID:26094820

  10. Cathepsin L Mediates the Degradation of Novel APP C-Terminal Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haizhi; Sang, Nianli; Zhang, Can; Raghupathi, Ramesh; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Saunders, Aleister

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ), a peptide generated from proteolytic processing of its precursor, amyloid precursor protein (APP). Canonical APP proteolysis occurs via α-, β-, and γ-secretases. APP is also actively degraded by protein degradation systems. By pharmacologically inhibiting protein degradation with ALLN, we observed an accumulation of several novel APP C-terminal fragments (CTFs). The two major novel CTFs migrated around 15 and 25 kDa and can be observed across multiple cell types. The process was independent of cytotoxicity or protein synthesis. We further determine that the accumulation of the novel CTFs is not mediated by proteasome or calpain inhibition, but by cathepsin L inhibition. Moreover, these novel CTFs are not generated by an increased amount of BACE. Here, we name the CTF of 25 kDa as η-CTF (eta-CTF). Our data suggest that under physiological conditions, a subset of APP undergoes alternative processing and the intermediate products, the 15 kDa CTFs, and the η-CTFs aret rapidly degraded and/or processed via the protein degradation machinery, specifically, cathepsin L. PMID:25910068

  11. C-Terminal Engineering of CXCL12 and CCL5 Chemokines: Functional Characterization by Electrophysiological Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Petit-Hartlein, Isabelle; Sadir, Rabia; Revilloud, Jean; Caro, Lydia; Vivaudou, Michel; Fieschi, Franck; Moreau, Christophe; Vivès, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines comprised of 70–100 amino acids. The chemokines CXCL12 and CCL5 are the endogenous ligands of the CXCR4 and CCR5 G protein-coupled receptors that are also HIV co-receptors. Biochemical, structural and functional studies of receptors are ligand-consuming and the cost of commercial chemokines hinders their use in such studies. Here, we describe methods for the expression, refolding, purification, and functional characterization of CXCL12 and CCL5 constructs incorporating C-terminal epitope tags. The model tags used were hexahistidines and Strep-Tag for affinity purification, and the double lanthanoid binding tag for fluorescence imaging and crystal structure resolution. The ability of modified and purified chemokines to bind and activate CXCR4 and CCR5 receptors was tested in Xenopus oocytes expressing the receptors, together with a Kir3 G-protein activated K+ channel that served as a reporter of receptor activation. Results demonstrate that tags greatly influence the biochemical properties of the recombinant chemokines. Besides, despite the absence of any evidence for CXCL12 or CCL5 C-terminus involvement in receptor binding and activation, we demonstrated unpredictable effects of tag insertion on the ligand apparent affinity and efficacy or on the ligand dissociation. These tagged chemokines should constitute useful tools for the selective purification of properly-folded chemokines receptors and the study of their native quaternary structures. PMID:24498095

  12. The C-terminal tail of the Hedgehog receptor Patched regulates both localization and turnover

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xingwu; Liu, Songmei; Kornberg, Thomas B.

    2006-01-01

    Patched (Ptc) is a membrane protein whose function in Hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction has been conserved among metazoans and whose malfunction has been implicated in human cancers. Genetic analysis has shown that Ptc negatively regulates Hh signal transduction, but its activity and structure are not known. We investigated the functional and structural properties of Drosophila Ptc and its C-terminal domain (CTD), 183 residues that are predicted to reside in the cytoplasm. Our results show that Ptc, as well as truncated Ptc deleted of its CTD, forms a stable trimer. This observation is consistent with the proposal that Ptc is structurally similar to trimeric transporters. The CTD itself trimerizes and is required for both Ptc internalization and turnover. Two mutant forms of the CTD, one that disrupts trimerization and the other that mutates the target sequence of the Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase, stabilize Ptc but do not prevent internalization and sequestration of Hh. Ptc deleted of its CTD is stable and localizes to the plasma membrane. These data show that degradation of Ptc is regulated at a step subsequent to endocytosis, although endocytosis is a likely prerequisite. We also show that the CTD of mouse Ptc regulates turnover. PMID:16980583

  13. Structural and functional roles of the N- and C-terminal extended modules in channelrhodopsin-1.

    PubMed

    Doi, Satoko; Mori, Arisa; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Reissig, Louisa; Ihara, Kunio; Sudo, Yuki

    2015-09-26

    Channelrhodopsins have become a focus of interest because of their ability to control neural activity by light, used in a technology called optogenetics. The channelrhodopsin in the eukaryote Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrChR-1) is a light-gated cation channel responsible for motility changes upon photo-illumination and a member of the membrane-embedded retinal protein family. Recent crystal structure analysis revealed that CrChR-1 has unique extended modules both at its N- and C-termini compared to other microbial retinal proteins. This study reports the first successful expression of a ChR-1 variant in Escherichia coli as a holoprotein: the ChR-1 variant lacking both the N- and C-termini (CrChR-1_82-308). However, compared to ChR-1 having the extended modules (CrChR-1_1-357), truncation of the termini greatly altered the absorption maximum and photochemical properties, including the pKa values of its charged residues around the chromophore, the reaction rates in the photocycle and the photo-induced ion channeling activity. The results of some experiments regarding ion transport activity suggest that CrChR-1_82-308 has a proton channeling activity even in the dark. On the basis of these results, we discuss the structural and functional roles of the N- and C-terminal extended modules in CrChR-1. PMID:26098533

  14. C-terminal 13-residue truncation induces compact trigger factor conformation and severely impairs its dimerization ability.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi; Yu, Ling; Kihara, Hiroshi; Zhou, Jun-Mei

    2014-05-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is the first chaperone to interact with nascent chains and facilitate their folding within bacteria. TF possesses a three-state equilibrium in vivo: monomeric TF bound to ribosome, free monomeric, and dimeric TF in cytoplasm. TF consists of an N-terminal ribosome binding domain, a middle peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) domain and a C-terminal domain involved in substrate binding and dimerization. Investigation of the effect of C-terminal 13 region on TF structure and function will help to further the understanding of its mechanism as a chaperone in vitro and in vivo. Here we present TF419, a TF mutant from which the C-terminal 13 residues were deleted to investigate the role of these residues in the structure stability and function of intact molecules. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), fluorescence measurements and limited proteolysis results suggested that TF transitioned to a compact conformation when the Cterminal 13 residues were truncated. Further biochemical results reveal that TF dimerization was decreased as a result of the truncation. These results suggested that the C-terminal 13 residues play an important role in structural stability and chaperone function of TF. PMID:24555433

  15. C-Terminal Protein Characterization by Mass Spectrometry using Combined Micro Scale Liquid and Solid-Phase Derivatization

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    A sample preparation method for protein C-terminal peptide isolation has been developed. In this strategy, protein carboxylate glycinamidation was preceded by carboxyamidomethylation and optional α- and ϵ-amine acetylation in a one-pot reaction, followed by tryptic digestion of the modified protein. The digest was adsorbed on ZipTipC18 pipette tips for sequential peptide α- and ϵ-amine acetylation and 1-ethyl-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide-mediated carboxylate condensation with ethylenediamine. Amino group-functionalized peptides were scavenged on N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated agarose, leaving the C-terminal peptide in the flow-through fraction. The use of reversed-phase supports as a venue for peptide derivatization enabled facile optimization of the individual reaction steps for throughput and completeness of reaction. Reagents were exchanged directly on the support, eliminating sample transfer between the reaction steps. By this sequence of solid-phase reactions, the C-terminal peptide could be uniquely recognized in mass spectra of unfractionated digests of moderate complexity. The use of the sample preparation method was demonstrated with low-level amounts of a model protein. The C-terminal peptides were selectively retrieved from the affinity support and proved highly suitable for structural characterization by collisionally induced dissociation. The sample preparation method provides for robustness and simplicity of operation using standard equipment readily available in most biological laboratories and is expected to be readily expanded to gel-separated proteins. PMID:23543807

  16. NMR assignments of the C-terminal domain of human polypeptide release factor eRF1.

    PubMed

    Mantsyzov, Alexey B; Ivanova, Elena V; Birdsall, Berry; Kolosov, Petr M; Kisselev, Lev L; Polshakov, Vladimir I

    2007-12-01

    We report NMR assignments of the protein backbone of the C-terminal domain (163 a.a.) of human class 1 translation termination factor eRF1. It was found that several protein loop residues exist in two slowly interconverting conformational states. PMID:19636860

  17. The sea urchin mitochondrial transcription factor A binds and bends DNA efficiently despite its unusually short C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Malarkey, Christopher S; Lionetti, Claudia; Deceglie, Stefania; Roberti, Marina; Churchill, Mair E A; Cantatore, Palmiro; Loguercio Polosa, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a key component for the protection and transcription of the mitochondrial genome. TFAM belongs to the high mobility group (HMG) box family of DNA binding proteins that are able to bind to and bend DNA. Human TFAM (huTFAM) contains two HMG box domains separated by a linker region, and a 26 amino acid C-terminal tail distal to the second HMG box. Previous studies on huTFAM have shown that requisites for proper DNA bending and specific binding to the mitochondrial genome are specific intercalating residues and the C-terminal tail. We have characterized TFAM from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (suTFAM). Differently from human, suTFAM contains a short 9 amino acid C-terminal tail, yet it still has the ability to specifically bind to mtDNA. To provide information on the mode of binding of the protein we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays and found that, in spite of the absence of a canonical C-terminal tail, suTFAM distorts DNA at a great extent and recognizes specific target with high affinity. Site directed mutagenesis showed that the two Phe residues placed in corresponding position of the two intercalating Leu of huTFAM are responsible for the strong bending and the great binding affinity of suTFAM. PMID:27101895

  18. Occurrence of C-Terminal Residue Exclusion in Peptide Fragmentation by ESI and MALDI Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2012-02-01

    By screening a data set of 392 synthetic peptides MS/MS spectra, we found that a known C-terminal rearrangement was unexpectedly frequently occurring from monoprotonated molecular ions in both ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry upon low and high energy collision activated dissociations with QqTOF and TOF/TOF mass analyzer configuration, respectively. Any residue localized at the C-terminal carboxylic acid end, even a basic one, was lost, provided that a basic amino acid such arginine and to a lesser extent histidine and lysine was present in the sequence leading to a fragment ion, usually depicted as (bn-1 + H2O) ion, corresponding to a shortened non-scrambled peptide chain. Far from being an epiphenomenon, such a residue exclusion from the peptide chain C-terminal extremity gave a fragment ion that was the base peak of the MS/MS spectrum in certain cases. Within the frame of the mobile proton model, the ionizing proton being sequestered onto the basic amino acid side chain, it is known that the charge directed fragmentation mechanism involved the C-terminal carboxylic acid function forming an anhydride intermediate structure. The same mechanism was also demonstrated from cationized peptides. To confirm such assessment, we have prepared some of the peptides that displayed such C-terminal residue exclusion as a C-terminal backbone amide. As expected in this peptide amide series, the production of truncated chains was completely suppressed. Besides, multiply charged molecular ions of all peptides recorded in ESI mass spectrometry did not undergo such fragmentation validating that any mobile ionizing proton will prevent such a competitive C-terminal backbone rearrangement. Among all well-known nondirect sequence fragment ions issued from non specific loss of neutral molecules (mainly H2O and NH3) and multiple backbone amide ruptures (b-type internal ions), the described C-terminal residue exclusion is highly identifiable giving raise to a single fragment ion in

  19. Dandelion PPO-1/PPO-2 domain-swaps: the C-terminal domain modulates the pH optimum and the linker affects SDS-mediated activation and stability.

    PubMed

    Leufken, Christine M; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E

    2015-02-01

    Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have a conserved three-domain structure: (i) the N-terminal domain (containing the active site) is connected via (ii) a linker to (iii) the C-terminal domain. The latter covers the active site, thereby maintaining the enzyme in a latent state. Activation can be achieved with SDS but little is known about the mechanism. We prepared domain-swap variants of dandelion PPO-1 and PPO-2 to test the specific functions of individual domains and their impact on enzyme characteristics. Our experiments revealed that the C-terminal domain modulates the pH optimum curve and has a strong influence on the optimal pH value. The linker determines the SDS concentration required for full activation. It also influences the SDS concentration required for half maximal activation (kSDS) and the stability of the enzyme during prolonged incubation in buffers containing SDS, but the N-terminal domain has the strongest effect on these parameters. The N-terminal domain also determines the IC50 of SDS and the stability in buffers containing or lacking SDS. We propose that the linker and C-terminal domain fine-tune the activation of plant PPOs. The C-terminal domain adjusts the pH optimum and the linker probably contains an SDS-binding/interaction site that influences inactivation and determines the SDS concentration required for activation. For the first time, we have determined the influence of the three PPO domains on enzyme activation and stability providing insight into the regulation and activation mechanisms of type-3 copper proteins in general. PMID:25484281

  20. Structure Predictions of Two Bauhinia variegata Lectins Reveal Patterns of C-Terminal Properties in Single Chain Legume Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Gustavo M. S. G.; Conceição, Fabricio R.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Pinto, Luciano da S.

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and –II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins. PMID:24260572

  1. Structure of metabotropic glutamate receptor C-terminal domains in contact with interacting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Enz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate intracellular signal pathways that control several physiological tasks, including neuronal excitability, learning, and memory. This is achieved by the formation of synaptic signal complexes, in which mGluRs assemble with functionally related proteins such as enzymes, scaffolds, and cytoskeletal anchor proteins. Thus, mGluR associated proteins actively participate in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Importantly, dysfunction of mGluRs and interacting proteins may lead to impaired signal transduction and finally result in neurological disorders, e.g., night blindness, addiction, epilepsy, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson's disease. In contrast to solved crystal structures of extracellular N-terminal domains of some mGluR types, only a few studies analyzed the conformation of intracellular receptor domains. Intracellular C-termini of most mGluR types are subject to alternative splicing and can be further modified by phosphorylation and SUMOylation. In this way, diverse interaction sites for intracellular proteins that bind to and regulate the glutamate receptors are generated. Indeed, most of the known mGluR binding partners interact with the receptors' C-terminal domains. Within the last years, different laboratories analyzed the structure of these domains and described the geometry of the contact surface between mGluR C-termini and interacting proteins. Here, I will review recent progress in the structure characterization of mGluR C-termini and provide an up-to-date summary of the geometry of these domains in contact with binding partners. PMID:22536173

  2. The C-Terminal Sequence of IFITM1 Regulates Its Anti-HIV-1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qinghua; Liu, Shan-Lu; Qiao, Wentao; Liang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins inhibit a wide range of viruses. We previously reported the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain BH10 by human IFITM1, 2 and 3. It is unknown whether other HIV-1 strains are similarly inhibited by IFITMs and whether there exists viral countermeasure to overcome IFITM inhibition. We report here that the HIV-1 NL4-3 strain (HIV-1NL4-3) is not restricted by IFITM1 and its viral envelope glycoprotein is partly responsible for this insensitivity. However, HIV-1NL4-3 is profoundly inhibited by an IFITM1 mutant, known as Δ(117–125), which is deleted of 9 amino acids at the C-terminus. In contrast to the wild type IFITM1, which does not affect HIV-1 entry, the Δ(117–125) mutant diminishes HIV-1NL4-3 entry by 3-fold. This inhibition correlates with the predominant localization of Δ(117–125) to the plasma membrane where HIV-1 entry occurs. In spite of strong conservation of IFITM1 among most species, mouse IFITM1 is 19 amino acids shorter at its C-terminus as compared to human IFITM1 and, like the human IFITM1 mutant Δ(117–125), mouse IFITM1 also inhibits HIV-1 entry. This is the first report illustrating the role of viral envelope protein in overcoming IFITM1 restriction. The results also demonstrate the importance of the C-terminal region of IFITM1 in modulating the antiviral function through controlling protein subcellular localization. PMID:25738301

  3. Evolutionary Origins of C-Terminal (GPP)n 3-Hydroxyproline Formation in Vertebrate Tendon Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, David M.; Werther, Rachel; Weis, MaryAnn; Wu, Jiann-Jiu; Eyre, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half the proline residues in fibrillar collagen are hydroxylated. The predominant form is 4-hydroxyproline, which helps fold and stabilize the triple helix. A minor form, 3-hydroxyproline, still has no clear function. Using peptide mass spectrometry, we recently revealed several previously unknown molecular sites of 3-hydroxyproline in fibrillar collagen chains. In fibril-forming A-clade collagen chains, four new partially occupied 3-hydroxyproline sites were found (A2, A3, A4 and (GPP)n) in addition to the fully occupied A1 site at Pro986. The C-terminal (GPP)n motif has five consecutive GPP triplets in α1(I), four in α2(I) and three in α1(II), all subject to 3-hydroxylation. The evolutionary origins of this substrate sequence were investigated by surveying the pattern of its 3-hydroxyproline occupancy from early chordates through amphibians, birds and mammals. Different tissue sources of type I collagen (tendon, bone and skin) and type II collagen (cartilage and notochord) were examined by mass spectrometry. The (GPP)n domain was found to be a major substrate for 3-hydroxylation only in vertebrate fibrillar collagens. In higher vertebrates (mouse, bovine and human), up to five 3-hydroxyproline residues per (GPP)n motif were found in α1(I) and four in α2(I), with an average of two residues per chain. In vertebrate type I collagen the modification exhibited clear tissue specificity, with 3-hydroxyproline prominent only in tendon. The occupancy also showed developmental changes in Achilles tendon, with increasing 3-hydroxyproline levels with age. The biological significance is unclear but the level of 3-hydroxylation at the (GPP)n site appears to have increased as tendons evolved and shows both tendon type and developmental variations within a species. PMID:24695516

  4. DNA Instability Maintains the Repeat Length of the Yeast RNA Polymerase II C-terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Summer A; Exner, Alexandra E; Babokhov, Michael; Reinfeld, Bradley I; Fuchs, Stephen M

    2016-05-27

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes is comprised of tandemly repeating units of a conserved seven-amino acid sequence. The number of repeats is, however, quite variable across different organisms. Furthermore, previous studies have identified evidence of rearrangements within the CTD coding region, suggesting that DNA instability may play a role in regulating or maintaining CTD repeat number. The work described here establishes a clear connection between DNA instability and CTD repeat number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae First, analysis of 36 diverse S. cerevisiae isolates revealed evidence of numerous past rearrangements within the DNA sequence that encodes the CTD. Interestingly, the total number of CTD repeats was relatively static (24-26 repeats in all strains), suggesting a balancing act between repeat expansion and contraction. In an effort to explore the genetic plasticity within this region, we measured the rates of repeat expansion and contraction using novel reporters and a doxycycline-regulated expression system for RPB1 In efforts to determine the mechanisms leading to CTD repeat variability, we identified the presence of DNA secondary structures, specifically G-quadruplex-like DNA, within the CTD coding region. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mutating PIF1, a G-quadruplex-specific helicase, results in increased CTD repeat length polymorphisms. We also determined that RAD52 is necessary for CTD repeat expansion but not contraction, identifying a role for recombination in repeat expansion. Results from these DNA rearrangements may help explain the CTD copy number variation seen across eukaryotes, as well as support a model of CTD expansion and contraction to maintain CTD integrity and overall length. PMID:27026700

  5. MAS C-Terminal Tail Interacting Proteins Identified by Mass Spectrometry- Based Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tirupula, Kalyan C.; Zhang, Dongmei; Osbourne, Appledene; Chatterjee, Arunachal; Desnoyer, Russ; Willard, Belinda; Karnik, Sadashiva S.

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of signals from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in cells is primarily mediated by protein-protein interactions. MAS is a GPCR that was initially discovered as an oncogene and is now known to play an important role in cardiovascular physiology. Current literature suggests that MAS interacts with common heterotrimeric G-proteins, but MAS interaction with proteins which might mediate G protein-independent or atypical signaling is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that MAS C-terminal tail (Ct) is a major determinant of receptor-scaffold protein interactions mediating MAS signaling. Mass-spectrometry based proteomic analysis was used to comprehensively identify the proteins that interact with MAS Ct comprising the PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM). We identified both PDZ and non-PDZ proteins from human embryonic kidney cell line, mouse atrial cardiomyocyte cell line and human heart tissue to interact specifically with MAS Ct. For the first time our study provides a panel of PDZ and other proteins that potentially interact with MAS with high significance. A ‘cardiac-specific finger print’ of MAS interacting PDZ proteins was identified which includes DLG1, MAGI1 and SNTA. Cell based experiments with wild-type and mutant MAS lacking the PDZ-BM validated MAS interaction with PDZ proteins DLG1 and TJP2. Bioinformatics analysis suggested well-known multi-protein scaffold complexes involved in nitric oxide signaling (NOS), cell-cell signaling of neuromuscular junctions, synapses and epithelial cells. Majority of these protein hits were predicted to be part of disease categories comprising cancers and malignant tumors. We propose a ‘MAS-signalosome’ model to stimulate further research in understanding the molecular mechanism of MAS function. Identifying hierarchy of interactions of ‘signalosome’ components with MAS will be a necessary step in future to fully understand the physiological and pathological functions of this enigmatic receptor. PMID

  6. Evolutionary origins of C-terminal (GPP)n 3-hydroxyproline formation in vertebrate tendon collagen.

    PubMed

    Hudson, David M; Werther, Rachel; Weis, MaryAnn; Wu, Jiann-Jiu; Eyre, David R

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half the proline residues in fibrillar collagen are hydroxylated. The predominant form is 4-hydroxyproline, which helps fold and stabilize the triple helix. A minor form, 3-hydroxyproline, still has no clear function. Using peptide mass spectrometry, we recently revealed several previously unknown molecular sites of 3-hydroxyproline in fibrillar collagen chains. In fibril-forming A-clade collagen chains, four new partially occupied 3-hydroxyproline sites were found (A2, A3, A4 and (GPP)n) in addition to the fully occupied A1 site at Pro986. The C-terminal (GPP)n motif has five consecutive GPP triplets in α1(I), four in α2(I) and three in α1(II), all subject to 3-hydroxylation. The evolutionary origins of this substrate sequence were investigated by surveying the pattern of its 3-hydroxyproline occupancy from early chordates through amphibians, birds and mammals. Different tissue sources of type I collagen (tendon, bone and skin) and type II collagen (cartilage and notochord) were examined by mass spectrometry. The (GPP)n domain was found to be a major substrate for 3-hydroxylation only in vertebrate fibrillar collagens. In higher vertebrates (mouse, bovine and human), up to five 3-hydroxyproline residues per (GPP)n motif were found in α1(I) and four in α2(I), with an average of two residues per chain. In vertebrate type I collagen the modification exhibited clear tissue specificity, with 3-hydroxyproline prominent only in tendon. The occupancy also showed developmental changes in Achilles tendon, with increasing 3-hydroxyproline levels with age. The biological significance is unclear but the level of 3-hydroxylation at the (GPP)n site appears to have increased as tendons evolved and shows both tendon type and developmental variations within a species. PMID:24695516

  7. DNA Instability Maintains the Repeat Length of the Yeast RNA Polymerase II C-terminal Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Morrill, Summer A.; Exner, Alexandra E.; Babokhov, Michael; Reinfeld, Bradley I.

    2016-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes is comprised of tandemly repeating units of a conserved seven-amino acid sequence. The number of repeats is, however, quite variable across different organisms. Furthermore, previous studies have identified evidence of rearrangements within the CTD coding region, suggesting that DNA instability may play a role in regulating or maintaining CTD repeat number. The work described here establishes a clear connection between DNA instability and CTD repeat number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, analysis of 36 diverse S. cerevisiae isolates revealed evidence of numerous past rearrangements within the DNA sequence that encodes the CTD. Interestingly, the total number of CTD repeats was relatively static (24–26 repeats in all strains), suggesting a balancing act between repeat expansion and contraction. In an effort to explore the genetic plasticity within this region, we measured the rates of repeat expansion and contraction using novel reporters and a doxycycline-regulated expression system for RPB1. In efforts to determine the mechanisms leading to CTD repeat variability, we identified the presence of DNA secondary structures, specifically G-quadruplex-like DNA, within the CTD coding region. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mutating PIF1, a G-quadruplex-specific helicase, results in increased CTD repeat length polymorphisms. We also determined that RAD52 is necessary for CTD repeat expansion but not contraction, identifying a role for recombination in repeat expansion. Results from these DNA rearrangements may help explain the CTD copy number variation seen across eukaryotes, as well as support a model of CTD expansion and contraction to maintain CTD integrity and overall length. PMID:27026700

  8. The C-terminal propeptide of a plant defensin confers cytoprotective and subcellular targeting functions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant defensins are small (45–54 amino acids), basic, cysteine-rich proteins that have a major role in innate immunity in plants. Many defensins are potent antifungal molecules and are being evaluated for their potential to create crop plants with sustainable disease resistance. Defensins are produced as precursor molecules which are directed into the secretory pathway and are divided into two classes based on the absence (class I) or presence (class II) of an acidic C-terminal propeptide (CTPP) of about 33 amino acids. The function of this CTPP had not been defined. Results By transgenically expressing the class II plant defensin NaD1 with and without its cognate CTPP we have demonstrated that NaD1 is phytotoxic to cotton plants when expressed without its CTPP. Transgenic cotton plants expressing constructs encoding the NaD1 precursor with the CTPP had the same morphology as non-transgenic plants but expression of NaD1 without the CTPP led to plants that were stunted, had crinkled leaves and were less viable. Immunofluorescence microscopy and transient expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CTPP chimera were used to confirm that the CTPP is sufficient for vacuolar targeting. Finally circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy were used to show that the CTPP adopts a helical confirmation. Conclusions In this report we have described the role of the CTPP on NaD1, a class II defensin from Nicotiana alata flowers. The CTPP of NaD1 is sufficient for vacuolar targeting and plays an important role in detoxification of the defensin as it moves through the plant secretory pathway. This work may have important implications for the use of defensins for disease protection in transgenic crops. PMID:24495600

  9. G-protein-coupled receptors for neurotransmitter amino acids: C-terminal tails, crowded signalosomes.

    PubMed Central

    El Far, Oussama; Betz, Heinrich

    2002-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a superfamily of highly diverse integral membrane proteins that transduce external signals to different subcellular compartments, including nuclei, via trimeric G-proteins. By differential activation of diffusible G(alpha) and membrane-bound G(beta)gamma subunits, GPCRs might act on both cytoplasmic/intracellular and plasma-membrane-bound effector systems. The coupling efficiency and the plasma membrane localization of GPCRs are regulated by a variety of interacting proteins. In this review, we discuss recently disclosed protein interactions found with the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail regions of two types of presynaptic neurotransmitter receptors, the group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-B receptors (GABA(B)Rs). Calmodulin binding to mGluR7 and other group III mGluRs may provide a Ca(2+)-dependent switch for unidirectional (G(alpha)) versus bidirectional (G(alpha) and G(beta)gamma) signalling to downstream effector proteins. In addition, clustering of mGluR7 by PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1), a polyspecific PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg1/ZO-1) domain containing synaptic organizer protein, sheds light on how higher-order receptor complexes with regulatory enzymes (or 'signalosomes') could be formed. The interaction of GABA(B)Rs with the adaptor protein 14-3-3 and the transcription factor ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) suggests novel regulatory pathways for G-protein signalling, cytoskeletal reorganization and nuclear gene expression: processes that may all contribute to synaptic plasticity. PMID:12006104

  10. Prediction of bacterial type IV secreted effectors by C-terminal features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many bacteria can deliver pathogenic proteins (effectors) through type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to eukaryotic cytoplasm, causing host diseases. The inherent property, such as sequence diversity and global scattering throughout the whole genome, makes it a big challenge to effectively identify the full set of T4SS effectors. Therefore, an effective inter-species T4SS effector prediction tool is urgently needed to help discover new effectors in a variety of bacterial species, especially those with few known effectors, e.g., Helicobacter pylori. Results In this research, we first manually annotated a full list of validated T4SS effectors from different bacteria and then carefully compared their C-terminal sequential and position-specific amino acid compositions, possible motifs and structural features. Based on the observed features, we set up several models to automatically recognize T4SS effectors. Three of the models performed strikingly better than the others and T4SEpre_Joint had the best performance, which could distinguish the T4SS effectors from non-effectors with a 5-fold cross-validation sensitivity of 89% at a specificity of 97%, based on the training datasets. An inter-species cross prediction showed that T4SEpre_Joint could recall most known effectors from a variety of species. The inter-species prediction tool package, T4SEpre, was further used to predict new T4SS effectors from H. pylori, an important human pathogen associated with gastritis, ulcer and cancer. In total, 24 new highly possible H. pylori T4S effector genes were computationally identified. Conclusions We conclude that T4SEpre, as an effective inter-species T4SS effector prediction software package, will help find new pathogenic T4SS effectors efficiently in a variety of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24447430

  11. Interaction of CheY with the C-terminal peptide of CheZ

    SciTech Connect

    Guhaniyogi,J.; Wu, T.; Patel, S.; Stock, A.

    2008-01-01

    Chemotaxis, a means for motile bacteria to sense the environment and achieve directed swimming, is controlled by flagellar rotation. The primary output of the chemotaxis machinery is the phosphorylated form of the response regulator CheY (P{approx}CheY). The steady-state level of P{approx}CheY dictates the direction of rotation of the flagellar motor. The chemotaxis signal in the form of P{approx}CheY is terminated by the phosphatase CheZ. Efficient dephosphorylation of CheY by CheZ requires two distinct protein-protein interfaces: one involving the strongly conserved C-terminal helix of CheZ (CheZC) tethering the two proteins together and the other constituting an active site for catalytic dephosphorylation. In a previous work, we presented high-resolution crystal structures of CheY in complex with the CheZC peptide that revealed alternate binding modes subject to the conformational state of CheY. In this study, we report biochemical and structural data that support the alternate-binding-mode hypothesis and identify key recognition elements in the CheY-CheZC interaction. In addition, we present kinetic studies of the CheZC-associated effect on CheY phosphorylation with its physiologically relevant phosphodonor, the histidine kinase CheA. Our results indicate mechanistic differences in phosphotransfer from the kinase CheA versus that from small-molecule phosphodonors, explaining a modest twofold increase of CheY phosphorylation with the former, observed in this study, relative to a 10-fold increase previously documented with the latter.

  12. The C-terminal kinase fragment of Arabidopsis phototropin 2 triggers constitutive phototropin responses.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Shimazaki, Ken-Ichiro; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Nagatani, Akira

    2007-09-01

    Phototropins mediate various blue-light responses such as phototropism, chloroplast relocation, stomatal opening and leaf flattening in plants. Phototropins are hydrophilic chromoproteins that are mainly bound to the plasma membrane. One of two phototropins in Arabidopsis thaliana, phot2, associates with the Golgi apparatus in a light-dependent manner. In this study, we analyzed the biological activities of the N-terminal photosensory and C-terminal kinase domains of phot2. For this purpose, these domains were fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ectopically expressed in the wild-type and a phot1 phot2 double mutant of Arabidopsis. The kinase domain fused to GFP (P2CG) was localized to the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus, whereas the photosensory domain fused to GFP (P2NG) was uniformly localized in the cytosol. Hence, the kinase domain rather than the photosensory domain is responsible for the membrane association. Interestingly, the P2CG plants exhibited constitutive blue-light responses even in dark conditions, i.e. stomata were open and chloroplasts were in the avoidance position. By contrast, P2CG with a mutation that abolishes the kinase activity (P2C[D720/N]G) failed to exhibit these responses. phot2 kinase is therefore suggested to be correctly localized to functional sites in the cell and to trigger light signal transduction through its kinase activity. In contrast to P2CG, P2NG did not affect the phot2 responses, except for partial inhibition of the phototropic response caused by the endogenous phototropins. PMID:17662032

  13. A helix-turn motif in the C-terminal domain of histone H1.

    PubMed

    Vila, R; Ponte, I; Jiménez, M A; Rico, M; Suau, P

    2000-04-01

    The structural study of peptides belonging to the terminal domains of histone H1 can be considered as a step toward the understanding of the function of H1 in chromatin. The conformational properties of the peptide Ac-EPKRSVAFKKTKKEVKKVATPKK (CH-1), which belongs to the C-terminal domain of histone H1(o) (residues 99-121) and is adjacent to the central globular domain of the protein, were examined by means of 1H-NMR and circular dichroism. In aqueous solution, CH-1 behaved as a mainly unstructured peptide, although turn-like conformations in rapid equilibrium with the unfolded state could be present. Addition of trifluoroethanol resulted in a substantial increase of the helical content. The helical limits, as indicated by (i,i + 3) nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) cross correlations and significant up-field conformational shifts of the C(alpha) protons, span from Pro100 to Val116, with Glu99 and Ala117 as N- and C-caps. A structure calculation performed on the basis of distance constraints derived from NOE cross peaks in 90% trifluoroethanol confirmed the helical structure of this region. The helical region has a marked amphipathic character, due to the location of all positively charged residues on one face of the helix and all the hydrophobic residues on the opposite face. The peptide has a TPKK motif at the C-terminus, following the alpha-helical region. The observed NOE connectivities suggest that the TPKK sequence adopts a type (I) beta-turn conformation, a sigma-turn conformation or a combination of both, in fast equilibrium with unfolded states. Sequences of the kind (S/T)P(K/R)(K/R) have been proposed as DNA binding motifs. The CH-1 peptide, thus, combines a positively charged amphipathic helix and a turn as potential DNA-binding motifs. PMID:10794405

  14. C-terminal turn stability determines assembly: differences between Aβ40 and Aβ42

    PubMed Central

    Roychaudhuri, Robin; Yang, Mingfeng; Deshpande, Atul; Cole, Gregory M.; Frautschy, Sally; Lomakin, Aleksey; Benedek, George B.; Teplow, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Oligomerization of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is a seminal event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ42, which is only two amino acids longer than Aβ40, is particularly pathogenic. Why this is so has not been elucidated fully. We report here results of computational and experimental studies revealing a C-terminal turn at Val36-Gly37 in Aβ42 that is not present in Aβ40. The dihedral angles of residues 36 and 37 in an Ile31–Ala42 peptide were consistent with β-turns, and a β-hairpin-like structure was indeed observed that was stabilized by hydrogen bonds and by hydrophobic interactions between residues 31–35 and residues 38–42. In contrast, Aβ(31–40) mainly existed as a statistical coil. To study the system experimentally, Aβ peptides containing amino acid substitutions designed to stabilize or destabilize the hairpin were chemically synthesized. The triple substitution Gly33Val–Val36Pro–Gly38Val (“VPV”) facilitated Aβ42 hexamer and nonamer formation, while inhibiting formation of classical amyloid-type fibrils. These assemblies were as toxic as were assemblies from wild type Aβ42. When substituted into Aβ40, the VPV substitution caused the peptide to oligomerize similarly to Aβ42. The modified Aβ40 was significantly more toxic than Aβ40. The double substitution D-Pro36-L-Pro37 abolished hexamer and dodecamer formation by Aβ42 and produced an oligomer size distribution similar to that of Aβ40. Our data suggest that the Val36-Gly37 turn could be the sine qua non of Aβ42. If true, this structure would be an exceptionally important therapeutic target. PMID:23154165

  15. Properties of Rab5 N-terminal domain dictate prenylation of C-terminal cysteines.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, J C; Pan, Y; Wessling-Resnick, M

    1995-01-01

    Rab5 is a Ras-related GTP-binding protein that is post-translationally modified by prenylation. We report here that an N-terminal domain contained within the first 22 amino acids of Rab5 is critical for efficient geranylgeranylation of the protein's C-terminal cysteines. This domain is immediately upstream from the "phosphate binding loop" common to all GTP-binding proteins and contains a highly conserved sequence recognized among members of the Rab family, referred to here as the YXYLFK motif. A truncation mutant that lacks this domain (Rab5(23-215) fails to become prenylated. However, a chimeric peptide with the conserved motif replacing cognate Rab5 sequence (MAYDYLFKRab5(23-215) does become post-translationally modified, demonstrating that the presence of this simple six amino acid N-terminal element enables prenylation at Rab5's C-terminus. H-Ras/Rab5 chimeras that include the conserved YXYLFK motif at the N-terminus do not become prenylated, indicating that, while this element may be necessary for prenylation of Rab proteins, it alone is not sufficient to confer properties to a heterologous protein to enable substrate recognition by the Rab geranylgeranyl transferase. Deletion analysis and studies of point mutants further reveal that the lysine residue of the YXYLFK motif is an absolute requirement to enable geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins. Functional studies support the idea that this domain is not required for guanine nucleotide binding since prenylation-defective mutants still bind GDP and are protected from protease digestion in the presence of GTP gamma S. We conclude that the mechanism of Rab geranylgeranylation involves key elements of the protein's tertiary structure including a conserved N-terminal amino acid motif (YXYLFK) that incorporates a critical lysine residue. Images PMID:7749197

  16. Identification of a C-terminal cdc25 sequence required for promotion of germinal vesicle breakdown.

    PubMed Central

    Powers, E A; Thompson, D P; Garner-Hamrick, P A; He, W; Yem, A W; Bannow, C A; Staples, D J; Waszak, G A; Smith, C W; Deibel, M R; Fisher, C

    2000-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-cdc25B(31-566) induced germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) when microinjected into Xenopus oocytes. Purified, N-terminally truncated forms of cdc25B did not induce GVBD, even though many had phosphatase activity and activated cdc2 in vitro. N-terminally truncated forms of cdc25B inhibited induction of GVBD by longer forms of the enzyme suggesting a direct interaction in vivo. cdc25B(356-556), but not cdc25B(364-529), inhibited GVBD induction by GST-cdc25B(31-566) suggesting that a region of cdc25B near to the C-terminus was responsible for the inhibition. To determine the region of peptide sequence that was inhibitory, cdc25B(356-556) was subjected to proteolysis with endoproteinase lys-C. Following a demonstration that the resulting peptide mixture inhibited GST-cdc25B-dependent GVBD, a series of peptides spanning amino acids at the C-terminus were synthesized. The peptide TRSWAGERSR inhibited GVBD induced by GST-cdc25B. An alanine scan of the peptide revealed residues critical for GVBD inhibition, and site-directed mutagenesis of the corresponding residues in GST-cdc25B(31-566) eliminated its ability to induce GVBD. These results demonstrate that a cdc25B C-terminal domain, involved in dominant-negative inhibition of GVBD-competent cdc25B, is required for induction of GVBD following microinjection into oocytes. PMID:10769167

  17. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak and its interaction with model membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Senac, María del Mar; Corbalán-García, Senena; Gómez-Fernández, Juan C

    2002-01-01

    Bak is a pro-apoptotic protein widely distributed in different cell types that is associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane, apparently through a C-terminal hydrophobic domain. We used infrared spectroscopy to study the secondary structure of a synthetic peptide ((+)(3)HN-(188)ILNVLVVLGVVLLGQFVVRRFFKS(211)-COO(-)) with the same sequence as the C-terminal domain of Bak. The spectrum of this peptide in D(2)O buffer shows an amide I' band with a maximum at 1636 cm(-1), which clearly indicates the predominance of an extended beta-structure in aqueous solvent. However, the peptide incorporated in multilamellar dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes shows a different amide I' band spectrum, with a maximum at 1658 cm(-1), indicating a predominantly alpha-helical structure induced by its interaction with the membrane. It was observed that through differential scanning calorimetry the transition of the phospholipid model membrane was broadened in the presence of the peptide. Fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) in fluid DMPC vesicles showed that increasing concentrations of the peptide produced increased polarization values, which is compatible with the peptide being inserted into the membrane. High concentrations of the peptide considerably broaden the phase transition of DMPC multilamellar vesicles, and DPH polarization increased, especially at temperatures above the T(c) transition temperature of the pure phospholipid. The addition of peptide destabilized unilamellar vesicles and released encapsulated carboxyfluorescein. These results indicate that this domain is able to insert itself into membranes, where it adopts an alpha-helical structure and considerably perturbs the physical properties of the membrane. PMID:11751312

  18. Differential Contributions of Tacaribe Arenavirus Nucleoprotein N-Terminal and C-Terminal Residues to Nucleocapsid Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    D'Antuono, Alejandra; Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; Foscaldi, Sabrina; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) is the main protein component of viral nucleocapsids and is strictly required for viral genome replication mediated by the L polymerase. Homo-oligomerization of NP is presumed to play an important role in nucleocapsid assembly, albeit the underlying mechanism and the relevance of NP-NP interaction in nucleocapsid activity are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the contribution of the New World Tacaribe virus (TCRV) NP self-interaction to nucleocapsid functional activity. We show that alanine substitution of N-terminal residues predicted to be available for NP-NP interaction strongly affected NP self-association, as determined by coimmunoprecipitation assays, produced a drastic inhibition of transcription and replication of a TCRV minigenome RNA, and impaired NP binding to RNA. Mutagenesis and functional analysis also revealed that, while dispensable for NP self-interaction, key amino acids at the C-terminal domain were essential for RNA synthesis. Furthermore, mutations at these C-terminal residues rendered NP unable to bind RNA both in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on the interaction with the L polymerase. In addition, while all oligomerization-defective variants tested exhibited unaltered capacities to sustain NP-L interaction, NP deletion mutants were fully incompetent to bind L, suggesting that, whereas NP self-association is dispensable, the integrity of both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains is required for binding the L polymerase. Overall, our results suggest that NP self-interaction mediated by the N-terminal domain may play a critical role in TCRV nucleocapsid assembly and activity and that the C-terminal domain of NP is implicated in RNA binding. IMPORTANCE The mechanism of arenavirus functional nucleocapsid assembly is still poorly understood. No detailed information is available on the nucleocapsid structure, and the regions of full-length NP involved in binding to viral RNA remain to be

  19. Relationship Between Urinary Cross-Linked N-Telopeptide of Type-I Collagen and Heel Stiffness Index Measured by Quantitative Ultrasound in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takayuki; Arima, Kazuhiko; Abe, Yasuyo; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Mizukami, Satoshi; Okabe, Takuhiro; Tomita, Yoshihito; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the age-related patterns and the relationship between levels of urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTx) and heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in men with a special reference to age groups of aged 40 to 59 years and ≥60 years. A total of 379 men participated in this study. Heel stiffness index (bone mass) was measured by QUS. Spot urine samples were collected, and urinary NTx was measured. The values were corrected for creatinine (Cre) concentration. Stiffness index was significantly lower in men aged ≥60 years compared with men aged 40 to 59 years (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference of Log (NTx/Cre) by 10-year age groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that higher level of urinary NTx/Cre was significantly correlated with lower stiffness index after adjusting for age and body mass index in men aged ≥60 years, but not in men aged 40 to 59 years. Higher rates of bone resorption were associated with lower stiffness index only in elderly men. Our results may indicate a different mechanism of low bone mass among different age groups. PMID:26554777

  20. Relationship Between Urinary Cross-Linked N-Telopeptide of Type-I Collagen and Heel Stiffness Index Measured by Quantitative Ultrasound in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takayuki; Arima, Kazuhiko; Abe, Yasuyo; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Mizukami, Satoshi; Okabe, Takuhiro; Tomita, Yoshihito; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the age-related patterns and the relationship between levels of urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTx) and heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in men with a special reference to age groups of aged 40 to 59 years and ≥60 years.A total of 379 men participated in this study. Heel stiffness index (bone mass) was measured by QUS. Spot urine samples were collected, and urinary NTx was measured. The values were corrected for creatinine (Cre) concentration.Stiffness index was significantly lower in men aged ≥60 years compared with men aged 40 to 59 years (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference of Log (NTx/Cre) by 10-year age groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that higher level of urinary NTx/Cre was significantly correlated with lower stiffness index after adjusting for age and body mass index in men aged ≥60 years, but not in men aged 40 to 59 years.Higher rates of bone resorption were associated with lower stiffness index only in elderly men. Our results may indicate a different mechanism of low bone mass among different age groups. PMID:26554777

  1. The C-terminal tail of tetraspanin proteins regulates their intracellular distribution in the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Coceres, V M; Alonso, A M; Nievas, Y R; Midlej, V; Frontera, L; Benchimol, M; Johnson, P J; de Miguel, N

    2015-08-01

    The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Here, we report the cellular analysis of T.vaginalis tetraspanin family (TvTSPs). This family of membrane proteins has been implicated in cell adhesion, migration and proliferation in vertebrates. We found that the expression of several members of the family is up-regulated upon contact with vaginal ectocervical cells. We demonstrate that most TvTSPs are localized on the surface and intracellular vesicles and that the C-terminal intracellular tails of surface TvTSPs are necessary for proper localization. Analyses of full-length TvTSP8 and a mutant that lacks the C-terminal tail indicates that surface-localized TvTSP8 is involved in parasite aggregation, suggesting a role for this protein in parasite : parasite interaction. PMID:25703821

  2. Crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the RAP74 subunit of human transcription factor IIF

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, Katsuhiko; De Angelis, Jacqueline; Roeder, Robert G.; Burley, Stephen K.

    2012-12-13

    The x-ray structure of a C-terminal fragment of the RAP74 subunit of human transcription factor (TF) IIF has been determined at 1.02-{angstrom} resolution. The {alpha}/{beta} structure is strikingly similar to the globular domain of linker histone H5 and the DNA-binding domain of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3{gamma} (HNF-3{gamma}), making it a winged-helix protein. The surface electrostatic properties of this compact domain differ significantly from those of bona fide winged-helix transcription factors (HNF-3{gamma} and RFX1) and from the winged-helix domains found within the RAP30 subunit of TFIIF and the {beta} subunit of TFIIE. RAP74 has been shown to interact with the TFIIF-associated C-terminal domain phosphatase FCP1, and a putative phosphatase binding site has been identified within the RAP74 winged-helix domain.

  3. Design and Synthesis of Peptide YY Analogues with C-terminal Backbone Amide-to-Ester Modifications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) is a gut hormone that activates the G protein-coupled neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors, and because of its appetite reducing actions, it is evaluated as an antiobesity drug candidate. The C-terminal tail of PYY is crucial for activation of the NPY receptors. Here, we describe the design and preparation of a series of PYY(3–36) depsipeptide analogues, in which backbone amide-to-ester modifications were systematically introduced in the C-terminal. Functional NPY receptor assays and circular dichroism revealed that the ψ(CONH) bonds at positions 30–31 and 33–34 are particularly important for receptor interaction and that the latter is implicated in Y2 receptor selectivity. PMID:24900634

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of Ski7 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Si Hoon; Jeong, Byung-Cheon; Song, Hyun Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Ski7 (superkiller protein 7) plays a critical role in the mRNA surveillance pathway. The C-terminal fragment of Ski7 (residues 520–747) from Saccharo­myces cerevisiae was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. It was successfully crystallized and preliminary X-ray data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to a trigonal space group, either P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.5, c = 83.6 Å. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of the C-terminal fragment of Ski7 with a corresponding crystal volume per protein mass (V M) of 2.61 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 52.8% by volume. The merging R factor is 6.6%. Structure determination by MAD phasing is under way. PMID:25195903

  5. Crystal Structure in the Vivo-Assembled Bacillus subtilis Spx/RNA Polymerase alpha Subunit C-Terminal Domain Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Lamour, V.; Westblade, L; Campbell, E; Darst, S

    2009-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis Spx protein is a global transcription factor that interacts with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase {alpha} subunit ({alpha}CTD) and regulates transcription of genes involved in thiol-oxidative stress, sporulation, competence, and organosulfur metabolism. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the Spx/{alpha}CTD complex from an entirely new crystal form than previously reported [Newberry, K.J., Nakano, S., Zuber, P., Brennan, R.G., 2005. Crystal structure of the Bacillus subtilis anti-alpha, global transcriptional regulator, Spx, in complex with the alpha C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15839-15844]. Comparison of the previously reported sulfate-bound complex and our sulfate-free complex reveals subtle conformational changes that may be important for the role of Spx in regulating organosulfur metabolism.

  6. Transcription initiation complexes and upstream activation with RNA polymerase II lacking the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Buratowski, S; Sharp, P A

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II assembles with other factors on the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter to generate pairs of transcription initiation complexes resolvable by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. The pairing of the complexes is caused by the presence or absence of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit. This domain is not required for transcription stimulation by the major late transcription factor in vitro. Images PMID:2398901

  7. The role of C-terminal amidation in the membrane interactions of the anionic antimicrobial peptide, maximin H5.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sarah R; Mura, Manuela; Harris, Frederick; Morton, Leslie H G; Zvelindovsky, Andrei; Phoenix, David A

    2015-05-01

    Maximin H5 is an anionic antimicrobial peptide from amphibians, which carries a C-terminal amide moiety, and was found to be moderately haemolytic (20%). The α-helicity of the peptide was 42% in the presence of lipid mimics of erythrocyte membranes and was found able to penetrate (10.8 mN m(-1)) and lyse these model membranes (64 %). In contrast, the deaminated peptide exhibited lower levels of haemolysis (12%) and α-helicity (16%) along with a reduced ability to penetrate (7.8 m Nm(-1)) and lyse (55%) lipid mimics of erythrocyte membranes. Taken with molecular dynamic simulations and theoretical analysis, these data suggest that native maximin H5 primarily exerts its haemolytic action via the formation of an oblique orientated α-helical structure and tilted membrane insertion. However, the C-terminal deamination of maximin H5 induces a loss of tilted α-helical structure, which abolishes the ability of the peptide's N-terminal and C-terminal regions to H-bond and leads to a loss in haemolytic ability. Taken in combination, these observations strongly suggest that the C-terminal amide moiety carried by maximin H5 is required to stabilise the adoption of membrane interactive tilted structure by the peptide. Consistent with previous reports, these data show that the efficacy of interaction and specificity of maximin H5 for membranes can be attenuated by sequence modification and may assist in the development of variants of the peptide with the potential to serve as anti-infectives. PMID:25640709

  8. Identification of a potential hydrophobic peptide binding site in the C-terminal arm of trigger factor

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yi; Fan, Dong-Jie; Li, Shu-Xin; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Perrett, Sarah; Zhou, Jun-Mei

    2007-01-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is the first chaperone to interact with nascent chains and facilitate their folding in bacteria. Escherichia coli TF is 432 residues in length and contains three domains with distinct structural and functional properties. The N-terminal domain of TF is important for ribosome binding, and the M-domain carries the PPIase activity. However, the function of the C-terminal domain remains unclear, and the residues or regions directly involved in substrate binding have not yet been identified. Here, a hydrophobic probe, bis-ANS, was used to characterize potential substrate-binding regions. Results showed that bis-ANS binds TF with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a Kd of 16 μM, and it can be covalently incorporated into TF by UV-light irradiation. A single bis-ANS–labeled peptide was obtained by tryptic digestion and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Asn391-Lys392. In silico docking analysis identified a single potential binding site for bis-ANS on the TF molecule, which is adjacent to this dipeptide and lies in the pocket formed by the C-terminal arms. The bis-ANS-labeled TF completely lost the ability to assist GAPDH or lysozyme refolding and showed increased protection toward cleavage by α-chymotrypsin, suggesting blocking of hydrophobic residues. The C-terminal truncation mutant TF389 also showed no chaperone activity and could not bind bis-ANS. These results suggest that bis-ANS binding may mimic binding of a substrate peptide and that the C-terminal region of TF plays an important role in hydrophobic binding and chaperone function. PMID:17525465

  9. Ezrin self-association involves binding of an N-terminal domain to a normally masked C-terminal domain that includes the F-actin binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Gary, R; Bretscher, A

    1995-01-01

    Ezrin is a membrane-cytoskeletal linking protein that is concentrated in actin-rich surface structures. It is closely related to the microvillar proteins radixin and moesin and to the tumor suppressor merlin/schwannomin. Cell extracts contain ezrin dimers and ezrin-moesin heterodimers in addition to monomers. Truncated ezrin fusion proteins were assayed by blot overlay to determine which regions mediate self-association. Here we report that ezrin self-association occurs by head-to-tail joining of distinct N-terminal and C-terminal domains. It is likely that these domains, termed N- and C-ERMADs (ezrin-radixin-moesin association domain), are responsible for homotypic and heterotypic associations among ERM family members. The N-ERMAD of ezrin resided within amino acids 1-296; deletion of 10 additional residues resulted in loss of activity. The C-ERMAD was mapped to the last 107 amino acids of ezrin, residues 479-585. The two residues at the C-terminus were required for activity, and the region from 530-585 was insufficient. The C-ERMAD was masked in the native monomer. Exposure of this domain required unfolding ezrin with sodium dodecyl sulfate or expressing the domain as part of a truncated protein. Intermolecular association could not occur unless the C-ERMAD had been made accessible to its N-terminal partner. It can be inferred that dimerization in vivo requires an activation step that exposes this masked domain. The conformationally inaccessible C-terminal region included the F-actin binding site, suggesting that this activity is likewise regulated by masking. Images PMID:7579708

  10. Characterization of RNA binding and chaperoning activities of HIV-1 Vif protein. Importance of the C-terminal unstructured tail.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Dona; Bernacchi, Serena; Xavier Guerrero, Santiago; Brachet, Franck; Larue, Valéry; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Tisne, Carine

    2014-01-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells, containing the cellular anti-HIV defense cytosine deaminases APOBEC3 (A3G and A3F). Vif neutralizes the antiviral activities of the APOBEC3G/F by diverse mechanisms including their degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and their translational inhibition. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by interacting with Pr55(Gag), reverse transcriptase and genomic RNA. Here, we expressed and purified full-length and truncated Vif proteins, and analyzed their RNA binding and chaperone properties. First, we showed by CD and NMR spectroscopies that the N-terminal domain of Vif is highly structured in solution, whereas the C-terminal domain remains mainly unfolded. Both domains exhibited substantial RNA binding capacities with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, whereas the basic unfolded C-terminal domain of Vif was responsible in part for its RNA chaperone activity. Second, we showed by NMR chemical shift mapping that Vif and NCp7 share the same binding sites on tRNA(Lys) 3, the primer of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Finally, our results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity. PMID:25144404

  11. Collision-Induced Dissociation Fragmentation Inside Disulfide C-Terminal Loops of Natural Non-Tryptic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samgina, Tatiana Y.; Vorontsov, Egor A.; Gorshkov, Vladimir A.; Artemenko, Konstantin A.; Zubarev, Roman A.; Ytterberg, Jimmy A.; Lebedev, Albert T.

    2013-07-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of long non-tryptic peptides are usually quite complicated and rather difficult to interpret. Disulfide bond formed by two cysteine residues at C-terminus of frog skin peptides precludes one to determine sequence inside the forming loop. Thereby, chemical modification of S-S bonds is often used in "bottom up" sequencing approach. However, low-energy CID spectra of natural non-tryptic peptides with C-terminal disulfide cycle demonstrate an unusual fragmentation route, which may be used to elucidate the "hidden" C-terminal sequence. Low charge state protonated molecules experience peptide bond cleavage at the N-terminus of C-terminal cysteine. The forming isomeric acyclic ions serve as precursors for a series of b-type ions revealing sequence inside former disulfide cycle. The reaction is preferable for peptides with basic lysine residues inside the cycle. It may also be activated by acidic protons of Asp and Glu residues neighboring the loop. The observed cleavages may be quite competitive, revealing the sequence inside disulfide cycle, although S-S bond rupture does not occur in this case.

  12. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novologues as C-Terminal Hsp90 Inhibitors with Cytoprotective Activity against Sensory Neuron Glucotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kusuma, Bhaskar Reddy; Zhang, Liang; Sundstrom, Teather; Peterson, Laura B.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Compound 2 (KU-32) is a first-generation novologue (a novobiocin-based, C-terminal, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor), that decreases glucose-induced death of primary sensory neurons and reverses numerous clinical indices of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in mice. The current study sought to exploit the C-terminal binding site of Hsp90 to determine whether the optimization of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions of second generation novologues could enhance neuroprotective activity. Using a series of substituted phenylboronic acids to replace the coumarin lactone of 2, we identified electronegative atoms placed at the meta-position of the B-ring exhibit improved cytoprotective activity, which is believed to result from favorable interactions with Lys539 in the Hsp90 C-terminal binding pocket. Consistent with these results, a meta-3-fluorophenyl substituted novologue (13b) exhibited a 14-fold lower ED50 compared to 2 for protection against glucose-induced toxicity of primary sensory neurons. PMID:22702513

  13. The C-terminal domains of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 promote association with N-TIMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Troeberg, Linda; Fushimi, Kazunari; Scilabra, Simone D.; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Dive, Vincent; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Nagase, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the affinity of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3 for adamalysins with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 and ADAMTS-5 is affected by the non-catalytic ancillary domains of the enzymes. For this purpose, we first established a novel method of purifying recombinant FLAG-tagged TIMP-3 and its inhibitory N-terminal domain (N-TIMP-3) by treating transfected HEK293 cells with sodium chlorate to prevent heparan sulfate proteoglycan-mediated TIMP-3 internalization. TIMP-3 and N-TIMP-3 affinity for selected matrix metalloproteinases and forms of ADAMTS-4 and -5 lacking sequential C-terminal domains was determined. TIMP-3 and N-TIMP-3 displayed similar affinity for various matrix metalloproteinases as has been previously reported for E. coli-expressed N-TIMP-3. ADAMTS-4 and -5 were inhibited more strongly by N-TIMP-3 than by full-length TIMP-3. The C-terminal domains of the enzymes enhanced interaction with N-TIMP-3 and to a lesser extent with the full-length inhibitor. For example, N-TIMP-3 had 7.5-fold better Ki value for full-length ADAMTS-5 than for the catalytic and disintegrin domain alone. We propose that the C-terminal domains of the enzymes affect the structure around the active site, favouring interaction with TIMP-3. PMID:19643179

  14. Kar1 binding to Sfi1 C-terminal regions anchors the SPB bridge to the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Seybold, Christian; Elserafy, Menattallah; Rüthnick, Diana; Ozboyaci, Musa; Neuner, Annett; Flottmann, Benjamin; Heilemann, Mike; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    The yeast spindle pole body (SPB) is the functional equivalent of the mammalian centrosome. The half bridge is a SPB substructure on the nuclear envelope (NE), playing a key role in SPB duplication. Its cytoplasmic components are the membrane-anchored Kar1, the yeast centrin Cdc31, and the Cdc31-binding protein Sfi1. In G1, the half bridge expands into the bridge through Sfi1 C-terminal (Sfi1-CT) dimerization, the licensing step for SPB duplication. We exploited photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) to show that Kar1 localizes in the bridge center. Binding assays revealed direct interaction between Kar1 and C-terminal Sfi1 fragments. kar1Δ cells whose viability was maintained by the dominant CDC31-16 showed an arched bridge, indicating Kar1’s function in tethering Sfi1 to the NE. Cdc31-16 enhanced Cdc31–Cdc31 interactions between Sfi1–Cdc31 layers, as suggested by binding free energy calculations. In our model, Kar1 binding is restricted to Sfi1-CT and Sfi1 C-terminal centrin-binding repeats, and centrin and Kar1 provide cross-links, while Sfi1-CT stabilizes the bridge and ensures timely SPB separation. PMID:26076691

  15. Mutations in the C-terminal region affect subcellular localization of crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) GPCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Gui, Lang; Chen, Zong-Yan; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2016-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known as seven transmembrane domain receptors and consequently can mediate diverse biological functions via regulation of their subcellular localization. Crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) was recently isolated from infected fish with acute gill hemorrhage. CaHV GPCR of 349 amino acids (aa) was identified based on amino acid identity. A series of variants with truncation/deletion/substitution mutation in the C-terminal (aa 315-349) were constructed and expressed in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. The roles of three key C-terminal regions in subcellular localization of CaHV GPCR were determined. Lysine-315 (K-315) directed the aggregation of the protein preferentially at the nuclear side. Predicted N-myristoylation site (GGGWTR, aa 335-340) was responsible for punctate distribution in periplasm or throughout the cytoplasm. Predicted phosphorylation site (SSR, aa 327-329) and GGGWTR together determined the punctate distribution in cytoplasm. Detection of organelles localization by specific markers showed that the protein retaining K-315 colocalized with the Golgi apparatus. These experiments provided first evidence that different mutations of CaHV GPCR C-terminals have different affects on the subcellular localization of fish herpesvirus-encoded GPCRs. The study provided valuable information and new insights into the precise interactions between herpesvirus and fish cells, and could also provide useful targets for antiviral agents in aquaculture. PMID:27059239

  16. Deletion of the N- or C-Terminal Helix of Apolipophorin III To Create a Four-Helix Bundle Protein.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Pankaj; Rodriguez, Johana; Ibe, Nnejiuwa U; Weers, Paul M M

    2016-07-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is an exchangeable apolipoprotein found in insects and plays an important function in lipid transport. The protein has an unusual five-helix bundle architecture, deviating from the common four-helix bundle motif. To understand the role of the additional helix in apoLp-III, the N-terminal or C-terminal helix was deleted to create a putative four-helix bundle protein. While the protein lacking helix-1 could be expressed in bacteria albeit at reduced yields, apoLp-III lacking helix-5 could not be produced. Mutational analysis by truncating helix-5 showed that a minimum segment of approximately one-third of the C-terminal helix is required for protein expression. The variant lacking helix-5 was produced by inserting a methionine residue between helix-4 and -5; subsequent cyanogenbromide cleavage generated the four-helix variant. Both N- and C-terminal helix deletion variants displayed significantly reduced helical content, protein stability, and tertiary structure. Despite the significantly altered structure, the variants were still fully functional. The rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicle solubilization was enhanced 4-5-fold compared to the wild-type protein, and the deletion variants were effective in binding to lipolyzed low density lipoprotein thereby preventing lipoprotein aggregation. These results show that the additional helix of apoLp-III is not essential for lipid binding but is required for proper folding to keep the protein into a stable conformation. PMID:27280697

  17. Structure and regulatory role of the C-terminal winged helix domain of the archaeal minichromosome maintenance complex

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Christoph; Szambowska, Anna; Häfner, Sabine; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Gührs, Karl-Heinz; Görlach, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) represents the replicative DNA helicase both in eukaryotes and archaea. Here, we describe the solution structure of the C-terminal domains of the archaeal MCMs of Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Mth). Those domains consist of a structurally conserved truncated winged helix (WH) domain lacking the two typical ‘wings’ of canonical WH domains. A less conserved N-terminal extension links this WH module to the MCM AAA+ domain forming the ATPase center. In the Sso MCM this linker contains a short α-helical element. Using Sso MCM mutants, including chimeric constructs containing Mth C-terminal domain elements, we show that the ATPase and helicase activity of the Sso MCM is significantly modulated by the short α-helical linker element and by N-terminal residues of the first α-helix of the truncated WH module. Finally, based on our structural and functional data, we present a docking-derived model of the Sso MCM, which implies an allosteric control of the ATPase center by the C-terminal domain. PMID:25712103

  18. The C-terminal domain is sufficient for host-binding activity of the Mu phage tail-spike protein.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidetaka; Yamada, Seiko; Toyama, Yoshiharu; Takeda, Shigeki

    2010-09-01

    The Mu phage virion contains tail-spike proteins beneath the baseplate, which it uses to adsorb to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli during the infection process. The tail spikes are composed of gene product 45 (gp45), which contains 197 amino acid residues. In this study, we purified and characterized both the full-length and the C-terminal domains of recombinant gp45 to identify the functional and structural domains. Limited proteolysis resulted in a Ser64-Gln197 sequence, which was composed of a stable C-terminal domain. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the recombinant C-terminal domain (gp45-C) indicated that the molecular weight of gp45-C was about 58 kDa and formed a trimeric protomer in solution. Coprecipitation experiments and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) demonstrated that gp45-C irreversibly binds to the E. coli membrane. These results indicate that gp45 shows behaviors similar to tail-spike proteins of other phages; however, gp45 did not show significant sequence homology with the other phage tail-spike structures that have been identified. PMID:20478417

  19. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Splicing Factor Prp8 Carrying Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,L.; Shen, J.; Guarnieri, M.; Heroux, A.; Yang, K.; Zhao, R.

    2007-01-01

    Prp8 is a critical pre-mRNA splicing factor. Prp8 is proposed to help form and stabilize the spliceosome catalytic core and to be an important regulator of spliceosome activation. Mutations in human Prp8 (hPrp8) cause a severe form of the genetic disorder retinitis pigmentosa, RP13. Understanding the molecular mechanism of Prp8's function in pre-mRNA splicing and RP13 has been hindered by its large size (over 2000 amino acids) and remarkably low-sequence similarity with other proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (the last 273 residues) of Caenorhabditis elegans Prp8 (cPrp8). The core of the C-terminal domain is an / structure that forms the MPN (Mpr1, Pad1 N-terminal) fold but without Zn{sup 2+} coordination. We propose that the C-terminal domain is a protein interaction domain instead of a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent metalloenzyme as proposed for some MPN proteins. Mapping of RP13 mutants on the Prp8 structure suggests that these residues constitute a binding surface between Prp8 and other partner(s), and the disruption of this interaction provides a plausible molecular mechanism for RP13.

  20. Synthesis of histone proteins by CPE ligation using a recombinant peptide as the C-terminal building block.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Toru; Yoshikawa, Ryo; Fujiyoshi, Yuki; Mishima, Yuichi; Hojo, Hironobu; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2015-11-01

    The post-translational modification of histones plays an important role in gene expression. We report herein on a method for synthesizing such modified histones by ligating chemically prepared N-terminal peptides and C-terminal recombinant peptide building blocks. Based on their chemical synthesis, core histones can be categorized as two types; histones H2A, H2B and H4 which contain no Cys residues, and histone H3 which contains a Cys residue(s) in the C-terminal region. A combination of native chemical ligation and desulphurization can be simply used to prepare histones without Cys residues. For the synthesis of histone H3, the endogenous Cys residue(s) must be selectively protected, while keeping the N-terminal Cys residue of the C-terminal building block that is introduced for purposes of chemical ligation unprotected. To this end, a phenacyl group was successfully utilized to protect endogenous Cys residue(s), and the recombinant peptide was ligated with a peptide containing a Cys-Pro ester (CPE) sequence as a thioester precursor. Using this approach it was possible to prepare all of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 with any modifications. The resulting proteins could then be used to prepare a core histone library of proteins that have been post-translationally modified. PMID:26002961

  1. The C-terminal domains of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 promote association with N-TIMP-3.

    PubMed

    Troeberg, Linda; Fushimi, Kazunari; Scilabra, Simone D; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Dive, Vincent; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J; Nagase, Hideaki

    2009-10-01

    We investigated whether the affinity of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3 for adamalysins with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 and ADAMTS-5 is affected by the non-catalytic ancillary domains of the enzymes. For this purpose, we first established a novel method of purifying recombinant FLAG-tagged TIMP-3 and its inhibitory N-terminal domain (N-TIMP-3) by treating transfected HEK293 cells with sodium chlorate to prevent heparan sulfate proteoglycan-mediated TIMP-3 internalization. TIMP-3 and N-TIMP-3 affinity for selected matrix metalloproteinases and forms of ADAMTS-4 and -5 lacking sequential C-terminal domains was determined. TIMP-3 and N-TIMP-3 displayed similar affinity for various matrix metalloproteinases as has been previously reported for E. coli-expressed N-TIMP-3. ADAMTS-4 and -5 were inhibited more strongly by N-TIMP-3 than by full-length TIMP-3. The C-terminal domains of the enzymes enhanced interaction with N-TIMP-3 and to a lesser extent with the full-length inhibitor. For example, N-TIMP-3 had 7.5-fold better K(i) value for full-length ADAMTS-5 than for the catalytic and disintegrin domain alone. We propose that the C-terminal domains of the enzymes affect the structure around the active site, favouring interaction with TIMP-3. PMID:19643179

  2. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity, and membrane permeabilizing properties of C-terminally modified nisin conjugates accessed by CuAAC.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, Jack C; van der Wal, Steffen; Quarles van Ufford, H C; Breukink, Eefjan; Liskamp, Rob M J; Rijkers, Dirk T S

    2013-12-18

    Functionalization of the lantibiotic nisin with fluorescent reporter molecules is highly important for the understanding of its mode of action as a potent antimicrobial peptide. In addition to this, multimerization of nisin to obtain multivalent peptide constructs and conjugation of nisin to bioactive molecules or grafting it on surfaces can be attractive methods for interference with bacterial growth. Here, we report a convenient method for the synthesis of such nisin conjugates and show that these nisin derivatives retain both their antimicrobial activity and their membrane permeabilizing properties. The synthesis is based on the Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC) as a bioorthogonal ligation method for large and unprotected peptides in which nisin was C-terminally modified with propargylamine and subsequently efficiently conjugated to a series of functionalized azides. Two fluorescently labeled nisin conjugates together with a dimeric nisin construct were prepared while membrane insertion as well as antimicrobial activity were unaffected by these modifications. This study shows that C-terminal modification of nisin does not deteriorate biological activity in sharp contrast to N-terminal modification and therefore C-terminally modified nisin analogues are valuable tools to study the antibacterial mode of action of nisin. Furthermore, the ability to use stoichiometric amounts of the azide containing molecule opens up possibilities for surface tethering and more complex multivalent structures. PMID:24266643

  3. Comparative evaluation of recombinant HSP70 (N & C-terminal) fragments in the detection of equine trypanosomosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jaideep; Chaudhury, A; Yadav, S C

    2016-06-15

    Trypanosomosis (Surra) is an economically important disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi which is an extracellular parasite present in the plasma, tissues and other body fluids of a wide range of hosts including domesticated animals. Currently, serological reports are based on detection of antibodies by ELISA using whole cell lysate (WCL) antigen, which has a limitation of persistence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies after successful treatment of the disease. Moreover, it has some ethical issues also like requirement of mice for in vivo maintenance of parasite for preparing the antigen. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the in vitro production of recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) for detection of antibodies in experimentally infected ponies. The amino acid sequence analysis of HSP70 revealed that N-terminal region of the protein was highly conserved while the C-terminal region was most divergent. The four different regions of HSP70 protein viz. HSP-1, HSP-2, HSP-3 and HSP-4 were cloned and expressed, among which HSP-1 (N-terminal region) & HSP-2 (C-terminal region) were truncated while HSP-3 & HSP-4 were complete C-terminal proteins. The recombinant fragments were probed with sequentially pooled experimental serum samples where antibodies were detected in these fragments from 10(th) day post infection till the termination of the experiment. Further, these recombinant fragments were also comparatively evaluated with WCL antigen in ELISA using experimental as well as field serum samples. It was observed that after successful treatment of infected ponies, there was a sharp fall in antibodies (within 90 days) when tested with recombinant HSP's fragments, while antibodies persisted even after 469 days when tested against WCL antigen. The sensitivity and specificity of all HSP70 fragments were also estimated from field serum samples with reference to WCL antigen ELISA. The HSP-1 showed minimum sensitivity (41.03%) among all the

  4. The Last C-Terminal Residue of VP3, Glutamic Acid 257, Controls Capsid Assembly of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Christophe; Lepault, Jean; Da Costa, Bruno; Delmas, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a nonenveloped virus with an icosahedral capsid composed of two proteins, VP2 and VP3, that derive from the processing of the polyprotein NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH. The virion contains VP1, the viral polymerase, which is both free and covalently linked to the two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomic segments. In this study, the virus assembly process was studied further with the baculovirus expression system. While expression of the wild-type polyprotein was not found to be self-sufficient to give rise to virus-like particles (VLPs), deletion or replacement of the five C-terminal residues of VP3 was observed to promote capsid assembly. Indeed, the single deletion of the C-terminal glutamic acid was sufficient to induce VLP formation. Moreover, fusion of various peptides or small proteins (a green fluorescent protein or a truncated form of ovalbumin) at the C terminus of VP3 also promoted capsid assembly, suggesting that assembly required screening of the negative charges at the C terminus of VP3. The fused polypeptides mimicked the effect of VP1, which interacts with VP3 to promote VLP assembly. The C-terminal segment of VP3 was found to contain two functional domains. While the very last five residues of VP3 mainly controlled both assembly and capsid architecture, the five preceding residues constituted the VP1 (and possibly the pVP2/VP2) binding domain. Finally, we showed that capsid formation is associated with VP2 maturation, demonstrating that the protease VP4 is involved in the virus assembly process. PMID:15016850

  5. Skin-Derived C-Terminal Filaggrin-2 Fragments Are Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Directed Antimicrobials Targeting Bacterial Replication.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Britta; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Gerstel, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2), a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin's antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials. PMID:26371476

  6. Structural implications of the C-terminal tail in the catalytic and stability properties of manganese peroxidases from ligninolytic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Acebes, Sandra; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Martínez, María Jesús; Romero, Antonio; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T.

    2014-01-01

    The genome of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora includes 13 manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes representative of the three subfamilies described in ligninolytic fungi, which share an Mn2+-oxidation site and have varying lengths of the C-terminal tail. Short, long and extralong MnPs were heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized, and the first structure of an extralong MnP was solved. Its C-terminal tail surrounds the haem-propionate access channel, contributing to Mn2+ oxidation by the internal propionate, but prevents the oxidation of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), which is only oxidized by short MnPs and by shortened-tail variants from site-directed mutagenesis. The tail, which is anchored by numerous contacts, not only affects the catalytic properties of long/extralong MnPs but is also associated with their high acidic stability. Cd2+ binds at the Mn2+-oxidation site and competitively inhibits oxidation of both Mn2+ and ABTS. Moreover, mutations blocking the haem-propionate channel prevent substrate oxidation. This agrees with molecular simulations that position ABTS at an electron-transfer distance from the haem propionates of an in silico shortened-tail form, while it cannot reach this position in the extralong MnP crystal structure. Only small differences exist between the long and the extralong MnPs, which do not justify their classification as two different subfamilies, but they significantly differ from the short MnPs, with the presence/absence of the C-terminal tail extension being implicated in these differences. PMID:25478843

  7. The C-terminal extension of bacterial flavodoxin-reductases: involvement in the hydride transfer mechanism from the coenzyme.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Ana; Sánchez-Azqueta, Ana; Maya, Celia M; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Hermoso, Juan A; Medina, Milagros; Cortez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    To study the role of the mobile C-terminal extension present in bacterial class of plant type NADP(H):ferredoxin reductases during catalysis, we generated a series of mutants of the Rhodobacter capsulatus enzyme (RcFPR). Deletion of the six C-terminal amino acids beyond alanine 266 was combined with the replacement A266Y, emulating the structure present in plastidic versions of this flavoenzyme. Analysis of absorbance and fluorescence spectra suggests that deletion does not modify the general geometry of FAD itself, but increases exposure of the flavin to the solvent, prevents a productive geometry of FAD:NADP(H) complex and decreases the protein thermal stability. Although the replacement A266Y partially coats the isoalloxazine from solvent and slightly restores protein stability, this single change does not allow formation of active charge-transfer complexes commonly present in the wild-type FPR, probably due to restraints of C-terminus pliability. A proton exchange process is deduced from ITC measurements during coenzyme binding. All studied RcFPR variants display higher affinity for NADP(+) than wild-type, evidencing the contribution of the C-terminus in tempering a non-productive strong (rigid) interaction with the coenzyme. The decreased catalytic rate parameters confirm that the hydride transfer from NADPH to the flavin ring is considerably hampered in the mutants. Although the involvement of the C-terminal extension from bacterial FPRs in stabilizing overall folding and bent-FAD geometry has been stated, the most relevant contributions to catalysis are modulation of coenzyme entrance and affinity, promotion of the optimal geometry of an active complex and supply of a proton acceptor acting during coenzyme binding. PMID:24016470

  8. C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Adachi, Noritaka; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Chromatin binding of XRCC4 is dependent on the presence of DNA ligase IV. •C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV alone can recruit itself and XRCC4 to chromatin. •Two BRCT domains of DNA ligase IV are essential for the chromatin binding of XRCC4. -- Abstract: DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ.

  9. Consequences of C-terminal domains and N-terminal signal peptide deletions on LEKTI secretion, stability, and subcellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Arumugam; Kang, Ya'an; Henderson, Ying; Mitsudo, Kenji; Liu, Xiaoling; Briggs, Katrina; Wang, Mary; Frederick, Mitchell J; El-Naggar, Adel K; Bebök, Zsuzsa; Clayman, Gary L

    2005-03-01

    The secretory lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-inhibitor (LEKTI) is synthesized as a pro-LEKTI protein containing an N-terminal signal peptide and 15 potentially inhibitory domains. This inhibitor is of special interest because of its pathophysiological importance for the severe congenital disease Netherton syndrome. We showed that LEKTI is a potent inhibitor of a family of serine proteinases involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and its expression is downregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. To assess the role of C-terminal domains and N-terminal signal peptide in LEKTI secretion, we constructed deletion mutants of LEKTI, expressed them in HEK 293T cells, and analyzed their secretion behavior, stability, subcellular distribution, and proteinase inhibitory function. Pro-LEKTI is processed and secreted into the medium. On the basis of partial N-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting, the cleavage products are ordered from amino- to carboxy-terminal as follows: 37, 40, and 60kDa. Inhibitors of furin lead to enhanced secretion of unprocessed LEKTI, suggesting that processing was not required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminal signal peptide of pro-LEKTI caused altered distribution of LEKTI from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cytoplasm and markedly reduced its stability, consistent with its failure to become secreted into the medium. Interestingly, when we deleted the C-terminal domains, stable partial LEKTI (LD-1-6) accumulated and still retained its association with ER but was not secreted. Recombinant LD-1-6 specifically inhibited the trypsin activity. We conclude that N-terminal signal peptide is required for LEKTI import into ER and elements present in C-terminal domains may have a role in regulating LEKTI secretion. PMID:15680911

  10. Chemical shift assignments of the C-terminal EF-hand domain of α-actinin-1.

    PubMed

    Turner, Matthew; Anderson, David E; Rajan, Sahana; Hell, Johannes W; Ames, James B

    2016-04-01

    The regulation and localization of the neuronal voltage gated Ca(2+) channel CaV1.2 is important for synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory. The cytoskeletal protein, α-actinin-1 is known to interact with CaV1.2 and stabilize its localization at the postsynaptic membrane. Here we report both backbone and sidechain NMR assignments for the C-terminal EF-hands (EF3 and EF4) of α-actinin-1 (residues 824-892, called ACTN_EF34) bound to the IQ-motif (residues 1644-1665) from CaV1.2 (BMRB accession no. 25902). PMID:26861220