Science.gov

Sample records for c3 cropping systems

  1. Enhancing C3 photosynthesis: an outlook on feasible interventions for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jitender; Pandey, Prachi; James, Donald; Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Kaul, Tanushri; Tripathy, Baishnab C; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2014-12-01

    Despite the declarations and collective measures taken to eradicate hunger at World Food Summits, food security remains one of the biggest issues that we are faced with. The current scenario could worsen due to the alarming increase in world population, further compounded by adverse climatic conditions, such as increase in atmospheric temperature, unforeseen droughts and decreasing soil moisture, which will decrease crop yield even further. Furthermore, the projected increase in yields of C3 crops as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is much less than anticipated. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase crop productivity beyond existing yield potentials to address the challenge of food security. One of the domains of plant biology that promises hope in overcoming this problem is study of C3 photosynthesis. In this review, we have examined the potential bottlenecks of C3 photosynthesis and the strategies undertaken to overcome them. The targets considered for possible intervention include RuBisCO, RuBisCO activase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle enzymes, CO2 and carbohydrate transport, and light reactions among many others. In addition, other areas which promise scope for improvement of C3 photosynthesis, such as mining natural genetic variations, mathematical modelling for identifying new targets, installing efficient carbon fixation and carbon concentrating mechanisms have been touched upon. Briefly, this review intends to shed light on the recent advances in enhancing C3 photosynthesis for crop improvement. PMID:25196090

  2. Crop Rotation in Row Crop Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotation is a system of growing different kinds of crops in recurrent succession on the same land. Thus, in the strictest sense, crop rotation is more than just changing crops from year to year based on current economic situations. Rather, it is a long-term plan for soil and farm management. Cr...

  3. Biomass allocation and C-N-P stoichiometry in C3 and C4 crops under abiotic stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass allocation to structural, metabolic and reproductive organs as well as their carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C-N-P) profiles and ratios (C:N, C:P, and N:P) were estimated in C3 and C4 crop plants subjected to multiple abiotic stresses (i.e., combination of temperature and water stress level...

  4. Contrasted nitrogen utilization in annual C 3 grass and legume crops: Physiological explorations and ecological considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pozo, Alejandro; Garnier, Eric; Aronson, James

    2000-01-01

    Although it is well known that legumes have unusually high levels of nitrogen in both reproductive and vegetative organs, the physiological implications of this pattern have been poorly assessed. We conducted a literature survey and used data from two (unpublished) experiments on annual legumes and C 3 grasses in order to test whether these high nitrogen concentrations in legumes are correlated to high rates of carbon gain. Three different temporal/spatial scales were considered: full growing season/stand, days to month/whole plant and seconds/leaf. At the stand level, and for plants grown under both extratropical and tropical settings, biomass per unit organic-nitrogen was lower in legume than in grass crops. At a shorter time scale, the relative growth rate per unit plant nitrogen (`nitrogen productivity') was lower in faba bean ( Vicia faba var. minor cv. Tina) than in wheat ( Triticum aestivum cv. Alexandria), and this was confirmed in a comparison of two wild, circum-Mediterranean annuals - Medicago minima, a legume, and Bromus madritensis, a grass. Finally, at the leaf level, a synthesis of published data comparing soybean ( Glycine max) and rice ( Oryza sativa) on the one hand, and our own data on faba bean and wheat on the other hand, demonstrates that the photosynthetic rate per unit leaf nitrogen (the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency) is consistently lower in legumes than in grasses. These results demonstrate that, regardless of the scale considered and although the organic-nitrogen concentration in vegetative organs of legumes is higher than in grasses, this does not lead to higher rates of carbon gain in the former. Various physiological factors affecting the efficiency of nitrogen utilization at the three time scales considered are discussed. The suggestion is made that the ecological significance of the high nitrogen concentration in legumes may be related to a high nitrogen demand for high quality seed production at a time when nitrogen

  5. Carbon-temperature-water change analysis for peanut production under climate change: a prototype for the AgMIP coordinated climate-crop modeling project (C3MP).

    PubMed

    Ruane, Alex C; McDermid, Sonali; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Baigorria, Guillermo A; Jones, James W; Romero, Consuelo C; Dewayne Cecil, L

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is projected to push the limits of cropping systems and has the potential to disrupt the agricultural sector from local to global scales. This article introduces the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP), an initiative of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to engage a global network of crop modelers to explore the impacts of climate change via an investigation of crop responses to changes in carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]), temperature, and water. As a demonstration of the C3MP protocols and enabled analyses, we apply the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CROPGRO-Peanut crop model for Henry County, Alabama, to evaluate responses to the range of plausible [CO2 ], temperature changes, and precipitation changes projected by climate models out to the end of the 21st century. These sensitivity tests are used to derive crop model emulators that estimate changes in mean yield and the coefficient of variation for seasonal yields across a broad range of climate conditions, reproducing mean yields from sensitivity test simulations with deviations of ca. 2% for rain-fed conditions. We apply these statistical emulators to investigate how peanuts respond to projections from various global climate models, time periods, and emissions scenarios, finding a robust projection of modest (<10%) median yield losses in the middle of the 21st century accelerating to more severe (>20%) losses and larger uncertainty at the end of the century under the more severe representative concentration pathway (RCP8.5). This projection is not substantially altered by the selection of the AgMERRA global gridded climate dataset rather than the local historical observations, differences between the Third and Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5), or the use of the delta method of climate impacts analysis rather than the C3MP impacts response surface and emulator approach. PMID:24115520

  6. Carbon-Temperature-Water Change Analysis for Peanut Production Under Climate Change: A Prototype for the AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; McDermid, Sonali; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Baigorria, Guillermo A.; Jones, James W.; Romero, Consuelo C.; Cecil, L. DeWayne

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is projected to push the limits of cropping systems and has the potential to disrupt the agricultural sector from local to global scales. This article introduces the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP), an initiative of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to engage a global network of crop modelers to explore the impacts of climate change via an investigation of crop responses to changes in carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), temperature, and water. As a demonstration of the C3MP protocols and enabled analyses, we apply the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CROPGRO-Peanut crop model for Henry County, Alabama, to evaluate responses to the range of plausible [CO2], temperature changes, and precipitation changes projected by climate models out to the end of the 21st century. These sensitivity tests are used to derive crop model emulators that estimate changes in mean yield and the coefficient of variation for seasonal yields across a broad range of climate conditions, reproducing mean yields from sensitivity test simulations with deviations of ca. 2% for rain-fed conditions. We apply these statistical emulators to investigate how peanuts respond to projections from various global climate models, time periods, and emissions scenarios, finding a robust projection of modest (<10%) median yield losses in the middle of the 21st century accelerating to more severe (>20%) losses and larger uncertainty at the end of the century under the more severe representative concentration pathway (RCP8.5). This projection is not substantially altered by the selection of the AgMERRA global gridded climate dataset rather than the local historical observations, differences between the Third and Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5), or the use of the delta method of climate impacts analysis rather than the C3MP impacts response surface and emulator approach.

  7. Visual display principles for C3I system tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, William C.; Lane, David M.; Laux, Lila F.; Anderson, Loy A.; Holden, Kritina L.

    1993-06-01

    Modern C3I systems are best described as semi-automated data management and decision systems over which human operators exercise supervisory control. The effectiveness of such systems is heavily dependent on the design for human-computer interaction (HCI), an important aspect of which is the visual display interface. Current Department of Defense policy mandates consideration of such human factors issues at an early stage in the design process. Comprehensive guidelines are available for display design applications after the general system parameters have been specified. Some recommendations are general, others are specific. This report offers a set of design principles at an intermediate (conceptual) level of abstraction as a complement to existing guidelines. The purpose is to synthesize current knowledge of human cognition into a form that will be applicable to the earliest stages of display design ('cognitive' functions being the most salient and critical of those remaining for the operator in advanced C3I systems). The principles are derived from a review of the literatures on human cognition, HCI, and display design, some original research, and liberal interpretation by the authors. They are organized according to operations performed on specific categories of information in possible C3I task configurations.

  8. Crop Sequence Economics in Dynamic Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till production systems allow more intensified and diversified production in the northern Great Plains; however, this has increased the need for information on improving economic returns through crop sequence selection. Field research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan ND to determine the inf...

  9. Simulating Stochastic Crop Management in Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction -- Crop simulation models are uniquely suitable for examining long term crop responses to environmental variability due to changes in climate or other factors. Long-term studies typically emphasize variability related to weather conditions; certain weather-dependent cropping practices m...

  10. Development of a C3 generic workstation: System overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A command, control, and communications (C3) environment is described which will be applied to the evaluation of performance of aircrews, particularly in situations in which they are subjected to chemical defense protection drugs and antihistamines.

  11. Quantifying the effect of drought on carbon dioxide-induced changes in competition between a C3 crop (tomato) and a C4 weed (Amaranthus retroflexus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and subsequent effects on climate are likely to alter competitive outcomes of weeds and crops. Rising [CO2] per se could increase the competitive ability of C3 crops relative to C4 weeds; however, such an outcome may...

  12. Prospects for improving CO2 fixation in C3-crops through understanding C4-Rubisco biogenesis and catalytic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sharwood, Robert E; Ghannoum, Oula; Whitney, Spencer M

    2016-06-01

    By operating a CO2 concentrating mechanism, C4-photosynthesis offers highly successful solutions to remedy the inefficiency of the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco. C4-plant Rubisco has characteristically evolved faster carboxylation rates with low CO2 affinity. Owing to high CO2 concentrations in bundle sheath chloroplasts, faster Rubisco enhances resource use efficiency in C4 plants by reducing the energy and carbon costs associated with photorespiration and lowering the nitrogen investment in Rubisco. Here, we show that C4-Rubisco from some NADP-ME species, such as maize, are also of potential benefit to C3-photosynthesis under current and future atmospheric CO2 pressures. Realizing this bioengineering endeavour necessitates improved understanding of the biogenesis requirements and catalytic variability of C4-Rubisco, as well as the development of transformation capabilities to engineer Rubisco in a wider variety of food and fibre crops. PMID:27131319

  13. Alternative cropping systems for sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Research was conducted at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit at Houma, LA to determine the impac...

  14. Response of photosynthetic characters to CO2 change on C3 and C4 cereal crops grown in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    Lunar Palace 1, as an integrative experiment facility for Permanent Astrobase Life-support Artificial Closed Ecosystem (P.A.L.A.C.E.), provides a largely closed environment for crop growth tests for Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). In this study, we evaluated the response of photosynthetic characters of two soybean cultivars (Glycine max (L.) Merr., ‘Zhonghuang13’and ‘Heihe35’) of C _{3} plants and one maize ( Zea mays L.) of C _{4} plants, which were selected as candidates for cultivation in BLSS. Plants were cultivated in stainless steel pots equipped with the porous-tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) and grew under controlled environmental conditions of Lunar Palace 1 (12 h photoperiod, light intensity 500 umol m (-2) s (-1) , temperature regime 26/22 (o) C light/dark). Fertigation was performed with a standard Hoagland solution, in which pH was kept at 5.8. A gas exchange/chlorophyII fluorescence analysis was performed to determine their net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal (g _{s}) and mesophyll (g _{m}) conductances, intercellular CO _{2} concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (E) under different elevated CO _{2} concentration. In order to partially describe how leaf physiology responds to the elevated CO _{2}, Chl content and the activity and amount of rubisco were analyzed. This study provides a theoretical basis for the crop selection in BLSS.

  15. Effect of the ionosphere on C3I systems

    SciTech Connect

    Akasofu, S.I.

    1988-05-03

    Geomagnetic and auroral disturbances cause significant interference on communications, navigation, and radar systems. Therefore, it is essential to develop a geomagnetic and auroral storm prediction scheme which can provide necessary information in evaluating the interference well before a major geomagnetic storm. The prediction of auroral disturbances and of the F-layer trough development is especially significant for the operation of HF systems at mid and high latitudes. For these reasons, the author has been developing a practical numerical prediction scheme, that can predict storm characteristics, oval diameter, and trough parameters with a 6-12 hour lead time.

  16. A circulating inhibitor of fluid-phase amplification. C3 convertase formation in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, F B; Forristal, J; Beischel, L; West, C D

    1985-01-01

    C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF) was used to assess the formation of the fluid-phase amplification convertase, C3b,Bb, in 37 serum specimens from 24 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). C3b,Bb formation was measured by the concentration of Ba, released when C3b,B is activated. Incubation of normal human serum (NHS) with C3NeF accelerates C3b amplification loop turnover with the formation of large quantities of C3b,Bb. In contrast, sera from 22 of 24 patients with SLE formed little or no convertase when incubated with C3NeF. C3 conversion to C3b was commensurately reduced. The inhibition could not be attributed to depressed serum concentrations of C3, factor B, or classical pathway components. Inhibitor present in excess could be demonstrated in 23 of 34 specimens of SLE serum by mixing experiments. The spontaneous convertase formation that occurs when a portion of the serum H is inactivated with F(ab')2 anti-H was also shown to be inhibited in SLE serum. The inhibition was found, however, to be H dependent in that convertase formation was normal in SLE serum depleted of H. It is concluded that the C3b in most SLE sera is unusually susceptible to inactivation by H, but a functional abnormality was not demonstrable in either C3 or H isolated from SLE serum. The inhibition could be simulated in NHS by addition of heparin, 100 micrograms/ml. In vivo, inhibition of convertase formation could interfere with the solubilization and disposal of immune complexes by reducing the deposition of C3b on the immune complex lattice. PMID:3159752

  17. Economics of Rainfed Cropping Systems: Northeast Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sam H., III; Charoenwatana, Terd

    1981-06-01

    Using a computer model to simulate effective rainfall, it is shown that a flexible rainfed cropping system based on a legume crop planted before rice has a greater expected return than present subsistent rainfed cropping systems. Combining a legume crop intercropped with cassava or kenaf further increases the expected returns yet maintains the stability of the new system. Further research is required to bring the farmer's yields up to match experiment station results and to facilitate effective transfer policies.

  18. Fuelling genetic and metabolic exploration of C3 bioenergy crops through the first reference transcriptome of Arundo donax L.

    PubMed Central

    Sablok, Gaurav; Fu, Yuan; Bobbio, Valentina; Laura, Marina; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Allavena, Andrea; Velikova, Violeta; Viola, Roberto; Loreto, Francesco; Li, Mingai; Varotto, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The development of inexpensive and highly productive biomass sources of biofuel is a priority in global climate change biology. Arundo donax, also known as the giant reed, is recognized as one of the most promising nonfood bioenergy crops in Europe. Despite its relevance, to date no genomic resources are available to support the characterization of the developmental, adaptive and metabolic traits underlying the high productivity of this nonmodel species. We hereby present the first report on the de novo assembly of bud, culm, leaf and root transcriptomes of A. donax, which can be accessed through a customized BLAST server (http://ecogenomics.fmach.it/arundo/) for mining and exploring the genetic potential of this species. Based on functional annotation and homology comparison to 19 prospective biofuel Poaceae species, we provide the first genomic view of this so far unexplored crop and indicate the model species with highest potential for comparative genomics approaches. The analysis of the transcriptome reveals strong differences in the enrichment of the Gene Ontology categories and the relative expression among different organs, which can guide future efforts for functional genomics or genetic improvement of A. donax. A set of homologs to key genes involved in lignin, cellulose, starch, lipid metabolism and in the domestication of other crops is discussed to provide a platform for possible enhancement of productivity and saccharification efficiency in A. donax.

  19. Transportation Command, Control, Communication and Information Systems (C3I): ?Lifting the Lid of Pandora's Box?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocott, D. F. H.

    Integrated Command, Control, Communication and Information (C3I) Systems have developed a language of their own, drawing heavily on acronyms and information technology terminology, resulting in the impression being given to the uninitiated that either a black art is being practised or at least there is a mystique unknown in other complex systems. No master plan or model exists for C3I systems, and their very existence is predicated primarily on the need to fulfil two basic requirements. First, they exist where there is a need at the highest level of management of an international or national authority, or of a large company, or of a large organization, to exercise real-time optimum use of the total and diverse resources available to the corporate body in pursuit of its mission, charter or commercial goal. Secondly, at the lowest level, C3I systems exist to help an individual, or a machine, or a sensor, to perform a given task or rôle more effectively. The integration of emergency services and the operation of large modern transportation systems are among the civilian systems that stand to gain most from the use of integrated C3I systems.

  20. Ultrasonics in the two-dimensional dimer spin system YbAl3C3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Y.; Shichinomiya, F.; Koseki, M.; Koseki, G.; Kashiwazaki, R.; Deto, K.; Nakamura, M.; Yoshizawa, M.; Kosaka, M.

    2012-12-01

    We report on results of ultrasonic investigations of the two-dimensional dimer spin system YbAl3C3 in magnetic fields (H) up to 10 T and for temperatures (T) down to 0.5 K A magnetic field induces a pronounced minimum in the elastic constants far below the transition temperature of 80 K The minimum disappears immediately on increasing T and becomes undetectable above around 2 K We propose the two-dimensional dimer spin model with the energy difference of Δ=15 K between the singlet ground state and the triplet excited one. We discuss the mechanism how to form the two-dimensional dimer spin system in YbAl3C3 where Yb ions have a high degree of geometrical frustration. Our observations show an important role of an exchange striction coupling in YbAl3C3 in the ordered state below 80 K.

  1. Effects of mononuclear phagocyte system modulating agents on Fc and C3 receptors of adherent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hitomi, M.; Shimizu, F.

    1985-01-01

    Agents which modulate the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) were examined for their effects on Fc and C3 receptors of adherent cells (A-cells) as judged by rosette formation. Dextran sulphate, carrageenan, and immune complexes, known as MPS suppressants, reduced the percentage of receptor-positive A-cells, while levamisole, known as a MPS-activator, increased the percentage in vitro. The changes in the percentage of Fc receptor were parallel to those of the C3 receptor in vitro. The effects of these agents were also examined in vivo. PMID:2408651

  2. How seasonal temperature or water inputs affect the relative response of C3 crops to elevated [CO2]: A global analysis of open top chamber and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) has the potential to positively impact C3 food crop production by directly stimulating photosynthetic carbon gain (A), which feeds forward to increase crop biomass and yield. Further stimulation of A and yield can result from an indirect mechan...

  3. Cropping system effects on soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems can affect a range of soil properties depending on the specific crop rotation, nutrient amendments, and tillage practices employed. A soil quality index can be use to interpret changes in soil properties and assess improvement or degradation of soil quality. We evaluated a range of ...

  4. Using cover crops and cropping systems for nitrogen management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reasons for using cover crops and optimized cropping sequences to manage nitrogen (N) are to maximize economic returns, improve soil quality and productivity, and minimize losses of N that might adversely impact environmental quality. Cover crops and cropping systems’ effects on N management are...

  5. Comparing cropping system productivity of fixed rotations and a flexible fallow system using Aqua-Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Central High Plains, the predominant crop rotation is winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow. Producers are looking to add diversity and intensity to their cropping systems and improve water use efficiency by adding summer crops, however, the elimination of summer fallow may increase the ...

  6. Sustainability of Switchgrass Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial C4 grass that is native to the eastern two thirds of temperate North America. It has been used for conservation purposes and as a pasture grass since the 1940’s. It is currently being developed as a cellulosic biomass energy crop because it can produ...

  7. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  8. JPSS CGS C3S McMurdo Multimission Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, C.; Urbano, J.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation civilian environmental satellite system, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) developed by NASA, will supply the afternoon orbit & ground system of the restructured NPOESS program. JPSS will replace NOAA's current POES system and ground processing part of both POES & DoD's Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS). JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical data. The command & data distribution part of the JPSS Common Ground System (CGS) is the Command, Control & Communications Segment (C3S), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. C3S manages the overall JPSS & DWSS missions from control & status of the space & ground assets to ensuring timely delivery of high-quality data to the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Key to C3S' data delivery system are 15 globally-distributed ground receptors developed by Raytheon Company which will collect up to 5 times the environmental data about 4 times faster than current polar-orbiting weather satellites. Then these data will be rapidly forwarded to weather centrals via the global fiber optic network for processing/production of data records for use in environmental prediction models. McMurdo Station, Antarctica is a major receptor site due to its high latitude. With the NSF, C3S completed the upgrade & expansion of their existing off-continent satellite communications (SATCOM) link with 60 Mbps of bandwidth outbound and 20 Mbps inbound to missions using McMurdo. C3S completed the 1st big milestone in 2008 increasjng bandwidth of 3 Mbps to/from Antarctica to 10 Mbps both ways. Raytheon's C3S also upgraded network infrastructure at McMurdo Station & Belrose Earth Station, Australia SATCOM sites. This provides routing support for several missions, plus expansion capabilities to support future missions at McMurdo. The upgrade completed in Dec 2010 to prepare for use of McMurdo Station to support new downlink capabilities, called the

  9. Dynamic crop sequencing in Western Australian cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last decade in Western Australia crop sequences have become increasingly dominated by wheat. Wheat may now be grown in sequence with a wide range of crops and pastures that may influence the yield of the subsequent wheat crop by suppressing weeds, disease, or increasing the supply of nitroge...

  10. Composition of Cereal Crop Residue in Dryland Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal crops and cultivars vary in their composition, and also in their decomposition and contribution to soil organic matter. Large quantities of cereal crop residue that decompose slowly present an obstacle to the adoption of minimum till or no-till seeding, conversely lower quantities of crop re...

  11. The Crop Growth Model in the Wind Erosion Prediction System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary purpose of the crop growth submodel (CROP) in the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) is to obtain realistic estimates of plant growth so that the influence of vegetative cover on wind erosion can be properly evaluated. Most crop growth models focus on estimating final crop yield. CROP...

  12. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  13. Soil Quality and the Solar Corridor Crop System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  14. Soil quality and the solar corridor crop system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  20. Effects of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, cropping systems and crop water requirements in southern China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ye, Qing; Yang, Xiaoguang; Dai, Shuwei; Chen, Guangsheng; Li, Yong; Zhang, Caixia

    2015-06-05

    Here, we discuss that rice is one of the main crops grown in southern China. Global climate change has significantly altered the local water availability and temperature regime for rice production. In this study, we explored the influence of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, rice cropping systems and crop water requirements (CWRs) during the growing season for historical (from 1951 to 2010) and future (from 2011 to 2100) time periods. The results indicated that the land areas suitable for rice cropping systems shifted northward and westward from 1951 to 2100 but with different amplitudes.

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.15c3-4 Section 240.15c3-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under...

  2. Nitrogen, Tillage, and Crop Rotation Effects on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Irrigated Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Emissions were monitored from several irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 246 kg N ha-1 during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Cropping systems includ...

  3. C3 System Performance Simulation and User Manual. Getting Started: Guidelines for Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This document is a User's Manual describing the C3 Simulation capabilities. The subject work was designed to simulate the communications involved in the flight of a Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) using the Opnet software. Opnet provides a comprehensive development environment supporting the modeling of communication networks and distributed systems. It has tools for model design, simulation, data collection, and data analysis. Opnet models are hierarchical -- consisting of a project which contains node models which in turn contain process models. Nodes can be fixed, mobile, or satellite. Links between nodes can be physical or wireless. Communications are packet based. The model is very generic in its current form. Attributes such as frequency and bandwidth can easily be modified to better reflect a specific platform. The model is not fully developed at this stage -- there are still more enhancements to be added. Current issues are documented throughout this guide.

  4. Sorbent-Bed Crop-Drying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed aeration system helps reduce spoilage of stored grain or other crop stored in bulk. Air circulates through bin, sorbent bed, and heat exchanger. Outside air cools circulating air in heat exchanger. Sensors measure temperature and humidity, and adjust dampers to obtain requisite temperature and humidity. Suitable for grain bins and shipping barges.

  5. Alternative Dryland Cropping Systems to Wheat Fallow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat-summer fallow (W-F) in the Central Great Plains of the U.S.A. is not a long-term sustainable dryland system due to a high potential for erosion and associated soil degradation. Utilizing no-till and more intensive cropping we have developed several alternative rotations to wheat fallow....

  6. Unique cropping systems for Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years due to declining yields, and, although, it is a costly process, it is both necessary and an opportunity to maximize the financial return during the next four year cropping cycle. Fallow planting systems (FPS) during the fallow perio...

  7. Crop Simulation Models and Decision Support Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first computer simulation models for agricultural systems were developed in the 1970s. These early models simulated potential production for major crops as a function of weather conditions, especially temperature and solar radiation. At a later stage, the water component was added to be able to ...

  8. Environmental sustainability of cellulosic energy cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of bioenergy production depends on both direct and indirect effects of the production systems to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This chapter evaluates what is known about the environmental sustainability of cellulosic bioenergy crop production for the types of produc...

  9. Improvement of phenol photodegradation efficiency by a combined g-C3N4/Fe(III)/persulfate system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Yang; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Graphite-like C3N4 (g-C3N4) is an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst commonly used in dye decolorization with very poor photocatalytic efficiency for degrading recalcitrant organic pollutants, such as phenol. In this study, we designed a g-C3N4/Fe(III)/persulfate system to significantly improve the phenol photodegradation efficacy by combining photocatalysis and light Fenton interaction. The phenol removal ratio and degradation rate of the g-C3N4/Fe(III)/persulfate system are 16.5- and 240-fold higher than those of individual g-C3N4 system. Sulfate radicals [Formula: see text] and H2O2 are detected in the g-C3N4/Fe(III)/persulfate system, suggesting that both radical decomposition and light Fenton interaction play important roles in phenol degradation. The efficient coupled photocatalytic system of g-C3N4 combined with Fe(III) and persulfate shows significant potential for application in large-scale degradation of environmental pollutants. PMID:26802260

  10. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national

  11. A Centralized Regional Database for Winter Cover Crops in Annual Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops have the potential to reduce erosion, minimize losses of nitrogen and phosphorus, and increase soil carbon in annual cropping systems in the Midwest. Public support, however, for incentives to farmers to adopt cover crops is minimal. Therefore, development of location-specific rec...

  12. An operational fluorescence system for crop assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belzile, Charles; Belanger, Marie-Christine; Viau, Alain A.; Chamberland, Martin; Roy, Simon

    2004-03-01

    The development of precision farming requires new tools for plant nutritional stress monitoring. An operational fluorescence system has been designed for vegetation status mapping and stress detection at plant and field scale. The instrument gives relative values of fluorescence at different wavelengths induced by the two-excitation sources. Lightinduced fluorescence has demonstrated successful crop health monitoring and plant nutritional stress detection capabilities. The spectral response of the plants has first been measured with an hyperspectral imager using laser-induced fluorescence. A tabletop imaging fluorometer based on flash lamp technology has also been designed to study the spatial distribution of fluorescence on plant leaves. For field based non-imaging system, LED technology is used as light source to induce fluorescence of the plant. The operational fluorescence system is based on ultraviolet and blue LED to induce fluorescence. Four narrow fluorescence bands centered on 440, 520, 690 and 740nm are detected. The instrument design includes a modular approach for light source and detector. It can accommodate as many as four different light sources and six bands of fluorescence detection. As part of the design for field application, the instrument is compatible with a mobile platform equipped with a GPS and data acquisition system. The current system developed by Telops/GAAP is configured for potato crops fluorescence measurement but can easily be adapted for other crops. This new instrument offers an effective and affordable solution for precision farming.

  13. Applicability of existing C3 (command, control and communications) vulnerability and hardness analyses to sentry system issues. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.C.

    1983-01-13

    This report is a compilation of abstracts resulting from a literature search of reports relevant to Sentry Ballistic missile system C3 vulnerability and hardness. Primary sources consulted were the DOD Nuclear Information Analysis Center (DASIAC) and the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). Approximately 175 reports were reviewed and abstracted, including several related to computer programs for estimating nuclear effects on electromagnetic propagation. The reports surveyed were ranked in terms of their importance for Sentry C3 VandH issues.

  14. ENERGY AND CARBON BUDGETS IN TRANSITIONAL CROPPING SYSTEMS IN MINNESOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy and carbon budgets were constructed for a wide range of cropping systems during the transition from conventional cropping practices. Cropping system treatments included factorial combinations of: conventional and organic systems (CNV and ORG), conventional tillage and strip tillage (CT and ST...

  15. Investigation of parameters affecting voice recognition systems in C3 Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchellor, M. P.

    1981-03-01

    This research investigates the use of a voice recognition system by military operators officer, enlisted, male and female. The application intended is the use of a discrete utterance voice recognition system in a command center environment. The system would be used by members of a watch team to execute ad hoc queries against an automated data base in support of their command center duties. The following factors were examined: the adaptability of a random sample of active duty military personnel to a voice input system; the accuracy of such a system; the effects of male versus female operators; and the effects of officer versus enlisted operators -- the advantages/disadvantages of using three, five or ten trained passes to train the voice system. Results showed no significant difference in error rates between the categories of officer and enlisted nor between male and female. Three training passes had a slightly higher error rate than five or ten passes but five and ten passes were the same.

  16. Tragedies and Crops: Understanding Natural Selection To Improve Cropping Systems.

    PubMed

    Anten, Niels P R; Vermeulen, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Plant communities with traits that would maximize community performance can be invaded by plants that invest extra in acquiring resources at the expense of others, lowering the overall community performance, a so-called tragedy of the commons (TOC). By contrast, maximum community performance is usually the objective in agriculture. We first give an overview of the occurrence of TOCs in plants, and explore the extent to which past crop breeding has led to trait values that go against an unwanted TOC. We then show how linking evolutionary game theory (EGT) with mechanistic knowledge of the physiological processes that drive trait expression and the ecological aspects of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems might contribute to increasing crop yields and resource-use efficiency. PMID:27012675

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An... the following when adopting its internal control system guidelines, policies, and procedures: (1) The... derivatives dealer's internal risk management control system shall include the following elements: (1) A...

  18. Crop and cattle production responses to tillage and cover crop management in an integrated crop-livestock system in the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated crop-livestock systems can help achieve greater environmental quality from disparate crop and livestock systems by recycling nutrients and taking advantage of synergies between systems. We investigated crop and animal production responses in integrated crop-livestock systems with two typ...

  19. C3Winds: A Novel 3D Wind Observing System to Characterize Severe Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. A.; Wu, D. L.; Yee, J. H.; Boldt, J.; Demajistre, R.; Reynolds, E.; Tripoli, G. J.; Oman, L.; Prive, N.; Heidinger, A. K.; Wanzong, S.

    2015-12-01

    The CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds (C3Winds) is a NASA Earth Venture Instrument (EV-I) concept with the primary objective to resolve high-resolution 3D dynamic structures of severe wind events. Rapid evolution of severe weather events highlights the need for high-resolution mesoscale wind observations. Yet mesoscale observations of severe weather dynamics are quite rare, especially over the ocean where extratropical and tropical cyclones (ETCs and TCs) can undergo explosive development. Measuring wind velocity at the mesoscale from space remains a great challenge, but is critically needed to understand and improve prediction of severe weather and tropical cyclones. Based on compact, visible/IR imagers and a mature stereoscopic technique, C3Winds has the capability to measure high-resolution (~2 km) cloud motion vectors and cloud geometric heights accurately by tracking cloud features from two formation-flying CubeSats, separated by 5-15 minutes. Complementary to lidar wind measurements from space, C3Winds will provide high-resolution wind fields needed for detailed investigations of severe wind events in occluded ETCs, rotational structures inside TC eyewalls, and ozone injections associated with tropopause folding events. Built upon mature imaging technologies and long history of stereoscopic remote sensing, C3Winds provides an innovative, cost-effective solution to global wind observations with the potential for increased diurnal sampling via CubeSat constellation.

  20. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  1. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (<1% differences) when a cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern

  2. Covariance structures in conventional and organic cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long-term split-plot experiment with four replicates in a randomized complete block design, was comprised of 16 treatment combinations of cropping systems (conventional and organic, crop rotations (2-Yr and 4-Yr; all phases of each crop rotation were present in each of 8 years), tillage (conventio...

  3. Modelling the crop: from system dynamics to systems biology.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C

    2010-05-01

    There is strong interplant competition in a crop stand for various limiting resources, resulting in complex compensation and regulation mechanisms along the developmental cascade of the whole crop. Despite decades-long use of principles in system dynamics (e.g. feedback control), current crop models often contain many empirical elements, and model parameters may have little biological meaning. Building on the experience in designing the relatively new model GECROS, we believe models can be made less empirical by employing existing physiological understanding and mathematical tools. In view of the potential added value of robust crop modelling to classical quantitative genetics, model input parameters are increasingly considered to represent 'genetic coefficients'. The advent of functional genomics and systems biology enables the elucidation of the molecular genetic basis of these coefficients. A number of case studies, in which the effects of quantitative trait loci or genes have been incorporated into existing ecophysiological models, have shown the promise of using models in analysing genotype-phenotype relationships of some crop traits. For further progress, crop models must be upgraded based on understanding at lower organizational levels for complicated phenomena such as sink formation in response to environmental cues, sink feedback on source activity, and photosynthetic acclimation to the prevailing environment. Within this context, the recently proposed 'crop systems biology', which combines modern genomics, traditional physiology and biochemistry, and advanced modelling, is believed ultimately to realize the expected roles of in silico modelling in narrowing genotype-phenotype gaps. This review summarizes recent findings and our opinions on perspectives for modelling genotype x environment interactions at crop level. PMID:20051352

  4. Nutrient management studies in biofuel cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient management practices on biofuel crop production, and to evaluate long term effects of biofuel crop production on selected chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Experimental plots for research on biofuel crop production were esta...

  5. A Comparison of Ecohydrological Function for a Native C4 Grass, Native C3 Forb and C4 Crop during a Wet Year

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daily and seasonal patterns of water use by native prairie vegetation exert an important control on water fluxes within ecosystems to watersheds. However, the replacement of prairie by annual crops in the Midwest has significantly altered the hydrologic cycle. In this study, water use was assessed f...

  6. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    PubMed

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop

  7. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and NO3--N levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4–5 times during each growing season and analyzed for NO3--N and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3—N. Red clover cover crop increased NO3--N by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on NO3--N in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop agricultural systems. PMID:26600462

  8. Crop productivity and economics during the transition to alternative cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing economic pressures and continued environmental concerns in agricultural production have heightened the need for more sustainable cropping systems. Research is needed to identify systems that simultaneously improve the economic and social viability of farms and rural communities while prot...

  9. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N). This...

  10. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Text: Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N)...

  11. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  12. Divesting in crop diversity: trade-offs of modern cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, P.

    2013-12-01

    Since the advent of the Green Revolution in the 1960's, agriculture has experienced great advances in yield, seed genetics and management. This focus on increased yields and production came at the cost of many marginal, traditional crops because they could no longer compete with the bountiful harvests of massive mono-culture food systems. In the modern agricultural world, three staple crops are responsible for 46% of global agricultural production on 33% of global harvested area. Further, seventeen crops account for 73% of global crop production and use 58% of global harvested area. How has the distribution of individual crops today changed from before the Green Revolution began, and what are the broader implications of these changes for our food systems?

  13. Global crop production forecasting data system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A. (Principal Investigator); Loats, H. L.; Lloyd, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Findings led to the development of a theory of radiometric discrimination employing the mathematical framework of the theory of discrimination between scintillating radar targets. The theory indicated that the functions which drive accuracy of discrimination are the contrast ratio between targets, and the number of samples, or pixels, observed. Theoretical results led to three primary consequences, as regards the data system: (1) agricultural targets must be imaged at correctly chosen times, when the relative evolution of the crop's development is such as to maximize their contrast; (2) under these favorable conditions, the number of observed pixels can be significantly reduced with respect to wall-to-wall measurements; and (3) remotely sensed radiometric data must be suitably mixed with other auxiliary data, derived from external sources.

  14. Antiphospholipid Antibodies are Associated with Low Levels of Complement C3 and C4 in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Garabet, L; Gilboe, I-M; Mowinckel, M-C; Jacobsen, A F; Mollnes, T E; Sandset, P M; Jacobsen, E-M

    2016-08-01

    Complement activation and low complement levels are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are found in about 30-40% of patients with SLE. This study aimed to investigate the association between aPL and complement levels in patients with SLE. Serum samples were collected from 269 patients with SLE enrolled in the Norwegian Systemic Connective Tissue and Vasculitis Registry (NOSVAR) during 2003-2009, and from 353 controls. All samples were analysed for anti-β2 glycoprotein 1 (anti-β2GP1) and anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement components C3 and C4. Median CRP level was significantly higher in cases than in controls (2.06 versus 0.90 mg/l; P < 0.0001). No significant difference in CRP was found between SLE patients with or without aPL (2.09 versus 1.89; P = 0.665). Median C3 levels were similar in cases (1.03 g/l) and controls (1.00 g/l), whereas median C4 levels were 0.16 g/l in cases versus. 0.19 in controls (P < 0.0001). However, aPL-positive SLE patients had significantly lower median C3 levels (0.92 versus. 1.07 g/l; P = 0.001) and C4 levels (0.11 versus 0.16 g/l; P < 0.0001) compared to aPL-negative patients. Lower C3 and C4 values in aPL-positive SLE patients may reflect a higher consumption of C3 and C4 due to more pronounced complement activation in aPL-positive SLE patients compared to SLE patients without aPL. PMID:27135178

  15. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  16. Designer crops: optimal root system architecture for nutrient acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangpei; Zhang, Maolin; De Smet, Ive; Ding, Zhaojun

    2014-12-01

    Plant root systems are highly plastic in response to environmental stimuli. Improved nutrient acquisition can increase fertilizer use efficiency and is critical for crop production. Recent analyses of field-grown crops highlighted the importance of root system architecture (RSA) in nutrient acquisition. This indicated that it is feasible in practice to exploit genotypes or mutations giving rise to optimal RSA for crop design in the future, especially with respect to plant breeding for infertile soils. PMID:25450041

  17. Photosynthetic metabolism of C3 plants shows highly cooperative regulation under changing environments: A systems biological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ruoyu; Wei, Haibin; Ye, Lin; Wang, Kankan; Chen, Fan; Luo, Lijun; Liu, Lei; Li, Yuanyuan; Crabbe, M. James C.; Jin, Li; Li, Yixue; Zhong, Yang

    2009-01-01

    We studied the robustness of photosynthetic metabolism in the chloroplasts of C3 plants under drought stress and at high CO2 concentration conditions by using a method called Minimization of Metabolic Adjustment Dynamic Flux Balance Analysis (M_DFBA). Photosynthetic metabolism in the chloroplasts of C3 plants applies highly cooperative regulation to minimize the fluctuation of metabolite concentration profiles in the face of transient perturbations. Our work suggests that highly cooperative regulation assures the robustness of the biological system and that there is closer cooperation under perturbation conditions than under normal conditions. This results in minimizing fluctuations in the profiles of metabolite concentrations, which is the key to maintaining a system's function. Our methods help in understanding such phenomena and the mechanisms of robustness for complex metabolic networks in dynamic processes. PMID:19129487

  18. Bioenergy cropping systems for food, feed, fuel, and soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop production can meet multiple needs including food, livestock feed, and bioenergy or biofuels. Cropping systems can be developed to focus on meeting any one of these needs, or they can be developed to simultaneously meet multiple needs. In any case, these systems must also protect the soil resou...

  19. No-till bioenergy cropping systems effect on soil aeration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on soil quality, such as the effects of maize stover harvesting on soil aeration and the relationships to soil structure and water, associated with bioenergy cropping systems has been l...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from traditional and biofuels cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems can have a tremendous effect on the greenhouse gas emissions from soils. The objectives of this study were to compare greenhouse gas emissions from traditional (continuous corn or corn/soybean rotation) and biomass (miscanthus, sorghum, switchgrass) cropping systems. Biomass croppin...

  1. Soil carbon levels in irrigated Western Corn Belt cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An irrigated monoculture corn, monoculture soybean, and soybean-corn cropping systems study was initiated in 1991 on a uniform site in the Platte Valley near Shelton, Nebraska. The objective was to determine the long-term effects of these cropping systems on soil organic carbon levels. Four corn hyb...

  2. The Role of Crop Systems Simulation in Agriculture and Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 30 to 40 years, simulation of crop systems has advanced from a neophyte science with inadequate computing power into a robust and increasingly accepted science supported by improved software, languages, development tools, and computer capabilities. Crop system simulators contain mathe...

  3. Modeling nitrous oxide emissions from bioenergy cropping systems using DAYCENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the largest greenhouse gas source from crop systems and quantifying it for the U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory is important. The objective of this study was to validate the ability of DAYCENT to simulate N2O emissions from bioenergy cropping systems. From weather, soil-texture c...

  4. Characterization of the gene encoding component C3 of the complement system from the spider Loxosceles laeta venom glands: Phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Myamoto, D T; Pidde-Queiroz, G; Pedroso, A; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, R M; van den Berg, C W; Tambourgi, D V

    2016-09-01

    A transcriptome analysis of the venom glands of the spider Loxosceles laeta, performed by our group, in a previous study (Fernandes-Pedrosa et al., 2008), revealed a transcript with a sequence similar to the human complement component C3. Here we present the analysis of this transcript. cDNA fragments encoding the C3 homologue (Lox-C3) were amplified from total RNA isolated from the venom glands of L. laeta by RACE-PCR. Lox-C3 is a 5178 bps cDNA sequence encoding a 190kDa protein, with a domain configuration similar to human C3. Multiple alignments of C3-like proteins revealed two processing sites, suggesting that Lox-C3 is composed of three chains. Furthermore, the amino acids consensus sequences for the thioester was found, in addition to putative sequences responsible for FB binding. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Lox-C3 belongs to the same group as two C3 isoforms from the spider Hasarius adansoni (Family Salcitidae), showing 53% homology with these. This is the first characterization of a Loxosceles cDNA sequence encoding a human C3 homologue, and this finding, together with our previous finding of the expression of a FB-like molecule, suggests that this spider species also has a complement system. This work will help to improve our understanding of the innate immune system in these spiders and the ancestral structure of C3. PMID:27259372

  5. Perun: The System For Seasonal Crop Yield Forecasting Based On The Crop Model and Weather Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Zalud, Z.; Trnka, M.; Haberle, J.; Pesice, P.

    The main purpose of the computer system PERUN, which is now being developed, is the probabilistic seasonal crop yield forecasting. The crop yields (winter wheat and spring barley in the first step) are simulated by crop model WOFOST. The input daily weather series consist of observed data, which are available in the date of forecast issuance, and synthetic data, which follow up with the observed data till the end of the crop model simulation. The synthetic weather series are generated by stochastic generator Met&Roll conditionally on the seasonal weather forecast. The probabilis- tic forecast is based on multiple crop model runs. To provide the six daily weather characteristics required for crop model simulation (precipitation, solar radiation, max- imum and minimum temperatures, air humidity, wind speed), the previous WGEN- like four-variate version of Met&Roll generator was supplemented by a new module. This module adds wind speed and air humidity (necessary to calculate evapotranspi- ration) using the nearest neighbours resampling from the observed data. Because of the problems with availability and/or accuracy of wind and humidity data, the source code of the WOFOST model was modified and allows now to switch between Penman and Makkink methods of calculating the evapotranspiration (the daily values of wind speed and humidity are not required in the Makkink method). The contribution will address following items: 1) Structure of the PERUN system: components and their inputs and outputs. Modifications to WOFOST crop model and Met&Roll generator will be discussed. 2) Validation of the WOFOST crop model. The accuracy obtained using the Penman and Makkink methods will be compared. 3) Demonstration of the forecast accuracy in dependence on the date of issuance. Acknowledgement: The system PERUN is being developed within the frame of project QC1316 sponsored by the Czech National Agency for Agricultural Research (NAZV).

  6. Using dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John

    2014-05-01

    The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge. PMID:24323974

  7. Crop pest management with an aerial imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  8. Integrating Sunflower Oil Seed Crops into Florida Horticultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locally produced biodiesel feedstock plant oil creates a unique possibility to integrate multiple-goal oriented cover crops into Florida horticultural production systems. Typically, cover crops are planted to improve soil fertility and the natural suppression of soilborne pests at times when fields...

  9. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Irrigated Cropping Systems in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on the effects of irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions were monitored from irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 246 kg N ha-1 during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Cro...

  10. Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

  11. The Potato Systems Planner: Integrating Cropping System Impacts on Crop Yield and Quality, Soil Biology, Nutrient Cycling, Diseases, and Economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finding and developing profitable cropping systems is a high priority for the potato industry. Consequently, an interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 different rotations for their impacts on crop yield and quality, nutrient availa...

  12. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  13. Integrating soil solarization into crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil solarization remains one of but a handful of nonchemical soil disinfestation methods suitable for high-value crops such as cut-flowers, strawberry and fresh market tomato and pepper. Recognition of soil solarization within the context of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach is paramoun...

  14. Diversifying crop rotations with pulses enhances system productivity

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Yantai; Hamel, Chantal; O’Donovan, John T.; Cutforth, Herb; Zentner, Robert P.; Campbell, Con A.; Niu, Yining; Poppy, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture in rainfed dry areas is often challenged by inadequate water and nutrient supplies. Summerfallowing has been used to conserve rainwater and promote the release of nitrogen via the N mineralization of soil organic matter. However, summerfallowing leaves land without any crops planted for one entire growing season, creating lost production opportunity. Additionally, summerfallowing has serious environmental consequences. It is unknown whether alternative systems can be developed to retain the beneficial features of summerfallowing with little or no environmental impact. Here, we show that diversifying cropping systems with pulse crops can enhance soil water conservation, improve soil N availability, and increase system productivity. A 3-yr cropping sequence study, repeated for five cycles in Saskatchewan from 2005 to 2011, shows that both pulse- and summerfallow-based systems enhances soil N availability, but the pulse system employs biological fixation of atmospheric N2, whereas the summerfallow-system relies on ‘mining’ soil N with depleting soil organic matter. In a 3-yr cropping cycle, the pulse system increased total grain production by 35.5%, improved protein yield by 50.9%, and enhanced fertilizer-N use efficiency by 33.0% over the summerfallow system. Diversifying cropping systems with pulses can serve as an effective alternative to summerfallowing in rainfed dry areas. PMID:26424172

  15. Diversifying crop rotations with pulses enhances system productivity.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yantai; Hamel, Chantal; O'Donovan, John T; Cutforth, Herb; Zentner, Robert P; Campbell, Con A; Niu, Yining; Poppy, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture in rainfed dry areas is often challenged by inadequate water and nutrient supplies. Summerfallowing has been used to conserve rainwater and promote the release of nitrogen via the N mineralization of soil organic matter. However, summerfallowing leaves land without any crops planted for one entire growing season, creating lost production opportunity. Additionally, summerfallowing has serious environmental consequences. It is unknown whether alternative systems can be developed to retain the beneficial features of summerfallowing with little or no environmental impact. Here, we show that diversifying cropping systems with pulse crops can enhance soil water conservation, improve soil N availability, and increase system productivity. A 3-yr cropping sequence study, repeated for five cycles in Saskatchewan from 2005 to 2011, shows that both pulse- and summerfallow-based systems enhances soil N availability, but the pulse system employs biological fixation of atmospheric N2, whereas the summerfallow-system relies on 'mining' soil N with depleting soil organic matter. In a 3-yr cropping cycle, the pulse system increased total grain production by 35.5%, improved protein yield by 50.9%, and enhanced fertilizer-N use efficiency by 33.0% over the summerfallow system. Diversifying cropping systems with pulses can serve as an effective alternative to summerfallowing in rainfed dry areas. PMID:26424172

  16. C3-PRO: Connecting ResearchKit to the Health System Using i2b2 and FHIR.

    PubMed

    Pfiffner, Pascal B; Pinyol, Isaac; Natter, Marc D; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    A renewed interest by consumer information technology giants in the healthcare domain is focused on transforming smartphones into personal health data storage devices. With the introduction of the open source ResearchKit, Apple provides a framework for researchers to inform and consent research subjects, and to readily collect personal health data and patient reported outcomes (PRO) from distributed populations. However, being research backend agnostic, ResearchKit does not provide data transmission facilities, leaving research apps disconnected from the health system. Personal health data and PROs are of the most value when presented in context along with health system data. Our aim was to build a toolchain that allows easy and secure integration of personal health and PRO data into an open source platform widely adopted across 140 academic medical centers. We present C3-PRO: the Consent, Contact, and Community framework for Patient Reported Outcomes. This open source toolchain connects, in a standards-compliant fashion, any ResearchKit app to the widely-used clinical research infrastructure Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2). C3-PRO leverages the emerging health data standard Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR). PMID:27031856

  17. C3-PRO: Connecting ResearchKit to the Health System Using i2b2 and FHIR

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, Pascal B.; Pinyol, Isaac; Natter, Marc D.; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    A renewed interest by consumer information technology giants in the healthcare domain is focused on transforming smartphones into personal health data storage devices. With the introduction of the open source ResearchKit, Apple provides a framework for researchers to inform and consent research subjects, and to readily collect personal health data and patient reported outcomes (PRO) from distributed populations. However, being research backend agnostic, ResearchKit does not provide data transmission facilities, leaving research apps disconnected from the health system. Personal health data and PROs are of the most value when presented in context along with health system data. Our aim was to build a toolchain that allows easy and secure integration of personal health and PRO data into an open source platform widely adopted across 140 academic medical centers. We present C3-PRO: the Consent, Contact, and Community framework for Patient Reported Outcomes. This open source toolchain connects, in a standards-compliant fashion, any ResearchKit app to the widely-used clinical research infrastructure Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2). C3-PRO leverages the emerging health data standard Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR). PMID:27031856

  18. Meteorological risks and impacts on crop production systems in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat stress, rain storms and floods can have devastating effects on cropping systems. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by projected increases of extreme events with climate change. More limits to aid received for agricultural damage and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers further impacts farmers' resilience. Based on insurance claims, potatoes and rapeseed are the most vulnerable crops, followed by cereals and sugar beets. Damages due to adverse meteorological events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage and soil type. Current knowledge gaps exist in the response of arable crops to the occurrence of extreme events. The degree of temporal overlap between extreme weather events and the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop and its environment. The regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency and magnitude of drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages of six arable crops: winter wheat, winter barley, winter rapeseed, potato, sugar beet and maize. Since crop development is driven by thermal time, crops matured earlier during the warmer 1988-2008 period than during the 1947-1987 period. Drought and heat stress, in particular during the sensitive crop stages, occur at different times in the cropping season and significantly differ between two climatic periods, 1947-1987 and 1988-2008. Soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that earlier maturing winter crops may avoid drought stress that occurs in late spring and summer. This is reflected in a decrease both in magnitude and frequency of soil moisture deficit around the sensitive stages during the 1988-2008 period when atmospheric drought may be compensated for with soil moisture. The risk of drought spells during

  19. Long-Term Crop Residue Dynamics in No-Till Cropping Systems Under Semi-Arid Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of crop residue is an important component of dryland cropping systems management in the semiarid environment where soil erosion by wind is a major soil degradation process. Residue also affects precipitation capture and runoff. Long-term residue quantity dynamics of different cropping s...

  20. Productivity and nutrient cycling in bioenergy cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggenstaller, Andrew Howard

    One of the greatest obstacles confronting large-scale biomass production for energy applications is the development of cropping systems that balance the need for increased productive capacity with the maintenance of other critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and retention. To address questions of productivity and nutrient dynamics in bioenergy cropping systems, we conducted two sets of field experiments during 2005-2007, investigating annual and perennial cropping systems designed to generate biomass energy feedstocks. In the first experiment we evaluated productivity and crop and soil nutrient dynamics in three prototypical bioenergy double-crop systems, and in a conventionally managed sole-crop corn system. Double-cropping systems included fall-seeded forage triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack), succeeded by one of three summer-adapted crops: corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Total dry matter production was greater for triticale/corn and triticale/sorghum-sudangrass compared to sole-crop corn. Functional growth analysis revealed that photosynthetic duration was more important than photosynthetic efficiency in determining biomass productivity of sole-crop corn and double-crop triticale/corn, and that greater yield in the tiritcale/corn system was the outcome of photosynthesis occurring over an extended duration. Increased growth duration in double-crop systems was also associated with reductions in potentially leachable soil nitrogen relative to sole-crop corn. However, nutrient removal in harvested biomass was also greater in the double-crop systems, indicating that over the long-term, double-cropping would mandate increased fertilizer inputs. In a second experiment we assessed the effects of N fertilization on biomass and nutrient partitioning between aboveground and belowground crop components, and on carbon storage by four perennial, warm-season grasses: big bluestem

  1. Improving potato cropping systems: longer-term effects on diseases and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of effective cropping systems can provide the structural basis for enhanced crop production and sustainability through the conservation, maintenance, and replenishment of various soil resources. In 2004, field trials evaluating potato cropping systems focused on different specific cr...

  2. Grazing winter cover crops in a cotton-cover crop conservation tillage system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing of winter annual cover crops with cattle offers a way to offset costs and increase farm revenue in conservation tillage systems. However, cattle may create problems due to soil treading and reduction in surface residues needed to reduce soil erosion. Optimizing production efficiencies may re...

  3. Regulation of plant root system architecture: implications for crop advancement.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Eric D; Benfey, Philip N

    2015-04-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) plays a major role in plant fitness, crop performance, and grain yield yet only recently has this role been appreciated. RSA describes the spatial arrangement of root tissue within the soil and is therefore crucial to nutrient and water uptake. Recent studies have identified many of the genetic and environmental factors influencing root growth that contribute to RSA. Some of the identified genes have the potential to limit crop loss caused by environmental extremes and are currently being used to confer drought tolerance. It is hypothesized that manipulating these and other genes that influence RSA will be pivotal for future crop advancements worldwide. PMID:25448235

  4. A Crop Simulation System for Integrating Remote Sensing and Climate Information to Reduce Model Uncertainty in Crop Yield Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ines, A. M.; Honda, K.; Yui, A.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainties in crop yield assessments are caused by many factors, including an imperfect model, model parameters and modeling assumptions, as well as errors in data inputs, e.g. climate. Here, we present a crop simulation system that aims to reduce uncertainty in crop yield assessment due to model and data uncertainties. The system uses DSSAT-CSM as the core crop simulation model. The simulation strategy is two-folds: i) crop model parameter estimation and ii) simulation and prediction mode. In i) a noisy Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (NMCGA) is used to estimate crop, soil and management parameters and their uncertainties, where field and remote sensing data can be used in the process. In ii) simulations can be done in an incremental way, where climate data until the current day is used as inputs to the crop model while the climate inputs for rest of the simulation period are generated by a stochastic weather generator based on climatological or climate forecasts information. Also, in the prediction mode, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be used to update crop model state variables, e.g., leaf area index (LAI) and soil moisture from remote sensing and field sensors, this can be used in tandem with the climate merging mechanism within the crop simulation system. A case study on wheat modeling in Hokkaido, Japan will be presented. Model uncertainty assessment and implications of the crop simulation system for crop assessment will be discussed.

  5. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  6. Circulating conversion products of C3 in liver disease. Evidence for in vivo activation of the complement system

    PubMed Central

    Teisberg, P.; Gjone, E.

    1973-01-01

    Circulating conversion products of the third component of human complement (C3) were sought for in different forms of liver disease by the method of antigen–antibody crossed electrophoresis. Immunochemical determinations of C3 and C4 by the single radial immunodiffusion method were performed simultaneously. The conversion product C3b was found in four out of twelve patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and in seven out of nine with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). C3b was also seen in a patient with the special form of acute hepatitis characterized by arthritic prodromas and a high titre of hepatitis-associated antigen (HAA) in serum in the acute phase. The group of CAH patients had low serum C3 and C4 regardless of whether C3 breakdown products could be demonstrated or not. In PBC normal serum levels of C3 and C4 were generally found. It is concluded that in some patients with CAH and in a majority of the patients with PBC activation of complement takes place in vivo, possibly on immune complexes deposited in the liver. The serum level of C3 is not a good parameter of immunologic activity in liver disease. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4201114

  7. Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers using no-till systems have found that crop yields often exceed their expectation based on nutrient and water supply. For example, corn yields 7% higher in a no-till system in central South Dakota than in a tilled system in eastern South Dakota. This is surprising because rainfall is 5 in...

  8. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Reule, Curtis A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from soil. Emissions were monitored from several irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 246 kg N ha(-1) during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Cropping systems included conventional-till (CT) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), no-till (NT) continuous corn, NT corn-dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (NT-CDb), and NT corn-barley (Hordeum distichon L.) (NT-CB). In 2005, half the N was subsurface band applied as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) at planting to all corn plots, with the rest of the N applied surface broadcast as a polymer-coated urea (PCU) in mid-June. The entire N rate was applied as UAN at barley and dry bean planting in the NT-CB and NT-CDb plots in 2005. All plots were in corn in 2006, with PCU being applied at half the N rate at corn emergence and a second N application as dry urea in mid-June followed by irrigation, both banded on the soil surface in the corn row. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during the growing season using static, vented chambers (1-3 times wk(-1)) and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Linear increases in N(2)O emissions were observed with increasing N-fertilizer rate, but emission amounts varied with growing season. Growing season N(2)O emissions were greater from the NT-CDb system during the corn phase of the rotation than from the other cropping systems. Crop rotation and N rate had more effect than tillage system on N(2)O emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions from N application ranged from 0.30 to 0.75% of N applied. Spikes in N(2)O emissions after N fertilizer application were greater with UAN and urea than with PCU fertilizer. The PCU showed potential for reducing N(2)O emissions from irrigated cropping systems. PMID:18574163

  9. Effects of Potato-Cotton Cropping Systems and Nematicides on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes and Crop Yields

    PubMed Central

    Crow, W. T.; Weingartner, D. P.; Dickson, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    Belonolaimus longicaudatus has been reported as damaging both potato (Solanum tuberosum) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). These crops are not normally grown in cropping systems together in areas where the soil is infested with B. longicaudatus. During the 1990s cotton was grown in a potato production region that was a suitable habitat for B. longicaudatus. It was not known how integrating the production of these two crops by rotation or double-cropping would affect the population densities of B. longicaudatus, other plant-parasitic nematodes common in the region, or crop yields. A 3-year field study evaluated the viability of both crops in monocropping, rotation, and double-cropping systems. Viability was evaluated using effects on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and yields. Rotation of cotton with potato was found to decrease population densities of B. longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita in comparison with continuous potato. Population densities of B. longicaudatus following double-cropping were greater than following continuous cotton. Yields of both potato and cotton in rotation were equivalent to either crop in monocropping. Yields of both crops were lower following double-cropping when nematicides were not used. PMID:19270980

  10. Developing trap cropping systems for effective organic management of key insect pests of cucurbit crops (IPM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trap cropping is a behaviorally-based pest management approach that functions by planting highly attractive plants next to a higher value crop so as to attract the pest to the trap crop plants, thus preventing or making less likely the arrival of the pest to the main crop (= cash crop). In 2012, a s...

  11. The Potato Systems Planner: Cropping System Impacts on Profitability, Income Variability, and Economic Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) producers recognize the benefits of crop rotation; however, the economics of producing a high value crop, such as potato, create incentives for continuous potato production. Our USDA-ARS interdisciplinary team evaluated cropping systems of potato in two and three year ...

  12. Microbe-specific C3b deposition in the horseshoe crab complement system in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Keisuke; Yoshihara, Toyoki; Shibata, Toshio; Kitazaki, Kazuki; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 plays an essential role in the opsonization of pathogens in the mammalian complement system, whereas the molecular mechanism underlying C3 activation in invertebrates remains unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism of C3b deposition on microbes, we characterized two types of C2/factor B homologs (designated TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2) identified from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. Although the domain architectures of TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were identical to those of mammalian homologs, they contained five-repeated and seven-repeated complement control protein domains at their N-terminal regions, respectively. TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were synthesized and glycosylated in hemocytes and secreted to hemolymph plasma, which existed in a complex with C3 (TtC3), and their activation by microbes was absolutely Mg(2+)-dependent. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that TtC3b deposition was Mg(2+)-dependent on Gram-positive bacteria or fungi, but not on Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this analysis demonstrated that Ca(2+)-dependent lectins (C-reactive protein-1 and tachylectin-5A) were required for TtC3b deposition on Gram-positive bacteria, and that a Ca(2+)-independent lectin (Tachypleus plasma lectin-1) was definitely indispensable for TtC3b deposition on fungi. In contrast, a horseshoe crab lipopolysaccharide-sensitive protease factor C was necessary and sufficient to deposit TtC3b on Gram-negative bacteria. We conclude that plasma lectins and factor C play key roles in microbe-specific TtC3b deposition in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner. PMID:22611464

  13. Microbe-Specific C3b Deposition in the Horseshoe Crab Complement System in a C2/Factor B-Dependent or -Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Keisuke; Yoshihara, Toyoki; Shibata, Toshio; Kitazaki, Kazuki; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 plays an essential role in the opsonization of pathogens in the mammalian complement system, whereas the molecular mechanism underlying C3 activation in invertebrates remains unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism of C3b deposition on microbes, we characterized two types of C2/factor B homologs (designated TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2) identified from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. Although the domain architectures of TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were identical to those of mammalian homologs, they contained five-repeated and seven-repeated complement control protein domains at their N-terminal regions, respectively. TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were synthesized and glycosylated in hemocytes and secreted to hemolymph plasma, which existed in a complex with C3 (TtC3), and their activation by microbes was absolutely Mg2+-dependent. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that TtC3b deposition was Mg2+-dependent on Gram-positive bacteria or fungi, but not on Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this analysis demonstrated that Ca2+-dependent lectins (C-reactive protein-1 and tachylectin-5A) were required for TtC3b deposition on Gram-positive bacteria, and that a Ca2+-independent lectin (Tachypleus plasma lectin-1) was definitely indispensable for TtC3b deposition on fungi. In contrast, a horseshoe crab lipopolysaccharide-sensitive protease factor C was necessary and sufficient to deposit TtC3b on Gram-negative bacteria. We conclude that plasma lectins and factor C play key roles in microbe-specific TtC3b deposition in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner. PMID:22611464

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Global Cropping Systems Models and Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. B.; You, L.; Wood, S.; Wood-Sichra, U.; Wu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural practices have dramatically altered the land cover of the Earth, but the spatial extent and intensity of these practices is often difficult to catalogue. Cropland accounts for nearly 15 million km2 of the Earth's land cover - amounting to 12% of the Earth's ice-free land surface - yet information on the distribution and performance of specific crops is often available only through national or sub-national statistics. While remote sensing products offer spatially disaggregated information, those currently available on a global scale are ill-suited for many applications due to the limited separation of crop types within the area classified as cropland. Recently, however, there have been multiple independent efforts to incorporate the detailed information available from statistical surveys with supplemental spatial information to produce a spatially explicit global dataset specific to individual cropss for the year 2000. While these datasets provide analysts and decision makers with improved information on global cropping systems, the final global cropping maps differ from one another substantially. This study aims to explore and quantify systematic similarities and differences between four major global cropping systems products: the monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRAC2000) dataset, the spatial production allocation model (SPAM), the global agro-ecological zone (GAEZ) dataset, and the dataset developed by Monfreda et al., 2008. The analysis explores not only the final cropping systems maps but also the interdependencies of each product, methodological differences and modeling assumptions, which will provide users with information vital for discerning between datasets in selecting a product appropriate for each intended application.

  15. Soil surface carbon dioxide efflux of bioenergy cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on greenhouse gas emissions from such systems is needed to ensure environmental sustainability in the field. Since soil aeration properties are dynamic, high-resolution data are needed ...

  16. Economic implications of alternative potato cropping systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable cropping systems and management practices are needed to improve agricultural viability and rural economic vitality in Maine and the surrounding region. Research is being conducted to 1) identify the constraints to potato system sustainability and 2) develop practices and management strat...

  17. State-Selective Differential Cross Section Measurements for the One-Electron Capture Process in C3+-He and C3+-Ne Systems at Elab = 33 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yoh

    2015-06-01

    Using a crossed-beam apparatus, we measured the relative state-selective differential cross sections (DCSs) for the following reactions: C3+ (1s2 2s 2S) + He (1s2 1S) → C2+ (1s2 2s2p 1P) + He+ (1s 2S) + 10.6 eV and C3+ (1s2 2s 2S) + Ne (2p6 1S) → C2+ (1s2 2p2 1D) + Ne+ (2p5 2P) + 8.2 eV. The scattering angle studied in the laboratory frame, θlab, was from -3.0 to 24°, and the laboratory collision energy Elab was 33 eV. In both systems, the DCSs for the reaction are zero at the center-of-mass angle θcm = 0, and show a peak at a certain angle and a broad hump at larger angles. A classical trajectory analysis within the two-state approximation based on the ab initio potentials for (CHe)3+ revealed that these structures observed are ascribed to the reactions that occur in different trajectories. The peak corresponds to the reactions occurring in the outgoing part of the trajectory, and the hump is associated with the reactions occurring mainly in the incoming part of the trajectory.

  18. WEBGIS based CropWatch online agriculture monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Wu, B.; Zeng, H.; Zhang, M.; Yan, N.

    2015-12-01

    CropWatch, which was developed by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has achieved breakthrough results in the integration of methods, independence of the assessments and support to emergency response by periodically releasing global agricultural information. Taking advantages of the multi-source remote sensing data and the openness of the data sharing policies, CropWatch group reported their monitoring results by publishing four bulletins one year. In order to better analysis and generate the bulletin and provide an alternative way to access agricultural monitoring indicators and results in CropWatch, The CropWatch online system based on the WEBGIS techniques has been developed. Figure 1 shows the CropWatch online system structure and the system UI in Clustering mode. Data visualization is sorted into three different modes: Vector mode, Raster mode and Clustering mode. Vector mode provides the statistic value for all the indicators over each monitoring units which allows users to compare current situation with historical values (average, maximum, etc.). Users can compare the profiles of each indicator over the current growing season with the historical data in a chart by selecting the region of interest (ROI). Raster mode provides pixel based anomaly of CropWatch indicators globally. In this mode, users are able to zoom in to the regions where the notable anomaly was identified from statistic values in vector mode. Data from remote sensing image series at high temporal and low spatial resolution provide key information in agriculture monitoring. Clustering mode provides integrated information on different classes in maps, the corresponding profiles for each class and the percentage of area of each class to the total area of all classes. The time series data is categorized into limited types by the ISODATA algorithm. For each clustering type, pixels on the map, profiles, and percentage legend are all linked

  19. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  20. Toward cropping systems that enhance productivity and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R. James

    2006-01-01

    The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola has helped greatly to address weed and insect pest pressures favored by direct seeding these crops. However, little has been done through genetics and breeding to address diseases caused by residue- and soil-inhabiting pathogens that remain major obstacles to wider adoption of these potentially more productive and sustainable systems. Instead, the gains have been due largely to innovations in management, including enhancement of root defense by antibiotic-producing rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria inhibitory to root pathogens. Historically, new varieties have facilitated wider adoption of new management, and changes in management have facilitated wider adoption of new varieties. Although actual yields may be lower in direct-seed compared with conventional cropping systems, largely due to diseases, the yield potential is higher because of more available water and increases in soil organic matter. Achieving the full production potential of these more-sustainable cropping systems must now await the development of varieties adapted to or resistant to the hazards shown to account for the yield depressions associated with direct seeding. PMID:17130454

  1. Nitrogen input effectiveness on carbon sequestration in rainfed cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Poma, Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    The combined effect of total N and C/N ratio had a large influence on the decomposition rate and consequently on potential soil organic carbon sequestration. The aim of the work was to evaluate Carbon sequestration potentiality under three mineral N fertilization levels in interaction with two cropping systems characterized by addition of N input due to leguminous species in the rotation. The study was carried out in the semiarid Mediterranean environment in a 18years long-term experiment. Is well know that in the semiarid environment the excess of N fertilization reduces biomass yield and the consequent C input. On the contrary, both N and C input determine high difference in C/N input ratio and faster organic matter mineralization. Results showed no influence of N fertilization on SOC sequestration and a reduction of SOC stock due to crop rotation due to lower C input. Crop residue quality of durum wheat-pea crop rotation characterized by a faster decomposition rate could explain the lower ability of crop rotation to sequester C in the semiarid environment.

  2. International crop information system for germplasm data management.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Arllet; Balachandra, Ranjan; Metz, Thomas; Bruskiewich, Richard; McLaren, Graham

    2007-01-01

    Passport and phenotypic data on germplasm and breeding lines are available from worldwide sources in various electronic formats. These data can be collated into a single database format to enable strategic interrogation to make the best use of data for effective germplasm use and enhancement. The International Crop Information System (http://www.icis.cgiar.org) is an open-source project under development by a global community of crop researchers and includes applications designed to achieve the storage and interrogation of pedigree and phenotypic data. PMID:18287707

  3. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  4. Current and future management strategies in intensive crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root-knot nematode Control and Management Strategy chapter addresses the current and future developments in Meloidogyne spp. control in intensive crop production systems. Discussed are current nematode management strategies such as the use of cultural practices, host plant resistance, applicati...

  5. Nitrogen dynamics in integrated crop-livestock systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture has been utterly transformed by the availability of manufactured fertilizers that are inexpensive and easy to transport and handle. Fertilizers severed the need for livestock and poultry manure in crop production. Improved transport systems have allowed farmers to utilize distant markets...

  6. Broiler litter fertilization and cropping system impacts on soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-year study was conducted at the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Verona, MS, in a Catalpa silty clay loam soil (Fine, smectitic, thermic Fluvaquentic Hapludolls) to evaluate soil chemical, physical, and biological changes resulting from cropping systems along with broile...

  7. Delayed tillage and cover crop effects in potato systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed tillage and the inclusion of cover crops can substantially reduce erosion in intensively tilled potato systems. Both of these practices can potentially impact potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)yield and quality via changes in soil temperature and soil water status, and suppression or enhancement...

  8. Weed resistance challenges and management under herbicide resistant cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last six decades, herbicides have been the mainstay of weed management in cropping systems around the world, especially in the Western Hemisphere. A direct consequence of intensive use of herbicides is the development of resistance in weed populations. The extreme popularity of transgenic g...

  9. Effect of Conservation Systems and Irrigation on Potential Bioenergy Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable energy production in the United States should increase due to economic, environmental, and national security concerns. In the Southeastern US, annual cellulosic crops could be integrated in rotation systems to produce biofuels. An experiment conducted in South Central Alabama evaluated thr...

  10. Incorporating Grasslands into Cropping Systems: What are the Keys?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American agriculture in the 20th century has been shaped by social/political, economic, environmental and technological drivers. During this time, American agricultural systems became increasingly specialized and input driven resulting in agricultural production being dominated by ‘commodity crop p...

  11. COVER CROP SYSTEMS AFFECT WEED COMMUNITIES IN A CALIFORNIA VINEYARD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vineyard weed communities were examined under four dormant season cover crop systems representative of those used in the north-coastal grape-growing region of California: no-till annuals (rose clover, soft brome, zorro fescue; ANoT), no-till perennials (blue wildrye, California brome, meadow barley,...

  12. Nutrient Use Efficiency in Bioenergy Cropping Systems: Critical Research Questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current U.S. plans for energy security rely on converting large areas of cropland from food to biofuel production. Additionally, lands currently considered too marginal for intensive food production may be considered suitable for biofuels production; predominant cropping systems may shift to more va...

  13. Heavy metals in the soil-crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'in, V. B.

    2007-09-01

    Data on the bulk contents of heavy metals in polluted soils are not quite suitable to judge the ecological situation in an agrocenosis. According to the results of model experiments with artificial contamination of soil, the flux of zinc and lead from the starting point (from a medium loamy leached chernozem) to the final point (wheat grains) sharply decreases. It is possible to obtain an ecologically pure (uncontaminated) grain yield even on a strongly contaminated soil due to the buffering capacity of the latter and due to the self-protective capacity of agricultural crops. The ecological potential of the soil-crop system is formed mostly at the expense of the buffering capacity of soil to heavy metals; the barrier function of plants is less significant. It is argued that the existing ecological standards based on the total contents of heavy metals in soil are of little use for predicting the quality of crops.

  14. Cover crops in vegetable production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount of work and inputs, and if not properly managed could have detrimental effects on soil and the environment. Practices such as intensive tillage, increased herbicide use, ...

  15. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions. PMID:26442005

  16. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions. PMID:26442005

  17. Local and systemic activation of the whole complement cascade in human leukocytoclastic cutaneous vasculitis; C3d,g and terminal complement complex as sensitive markers.

    PubMed Central

    Dauchel, H; Joly, P; Delpech, A; Thomine, E; Sauger, F; Le Loet, X; Lauret, P; Tron, F; Fontaine, M; Ripoche, J

    1993-01-01

    We have studied complement activation both in plasma samples and in lesional skin from patients with leukocytoclastic cutaneous vasculitis (LCV). Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) quantification of the complement activation markers, C3d,g and the terminal complement complex (TCC) in plasma, showed that their levels were significantly increased in 66% and 55% of the patients, respectively (n = 29) compared with healthy controls, whereas the standard measurements of C3, factor B, C1q, C4 and C2 were generally within normal range. Elevations of C3d,g and TCC levels in plasma were significantly correlated. Importantly, a significant correlation was found between the severity of the vasculitis and both C3d,g and TCC plasma levels. Immunofluorescence studies of skin biopsy specimens demonstrated simultaneous presence of perivascular dermal deposits of C3d,g and TCC in lesional skin from 96% and 80% respectively of the patients (n = 25). There was a significant correlation between the intensity of the deposits of both markers. Clusterin, a TCC inhibitory protein, was always found at the same sites of perivascular TCC deposits. Immunofluorescence studies at the epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ) revealed in each case deposits of C3d,g which were accompanied by TCC deposits in 52% of the biopsy specimens. These data demonstrate that there is a local and systemic activation of the whole complement cascade in human LCV. The presence of both C3d,g and clusterin-associated TCC perivascular deposits suggests an intervention of a regulatory mechanism of local complement activation in LCV. Finally, measurement of plasma C3d,g and TCC appears to be a sensitive indicator of systemic complement activation and disease severity in LCV. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8485913

  18. Overview of C3 Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Master Sankar Raj, Vimal; Gordillo, Roberto; Chand, Deepa H.

    2016-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is an umbrella term, which includes several rare forms of glomerulonephritis (GN) with underlying defects in the alternate complement cascade. A common histological feature noted in all these GN is dominant C3 deposition in the glomerulus. In this review, we will provide an overview of the complement system as well as mediators, with an introduction to pharmaceutical agents that can alter the pathway. PMID:27200326

  19. Long-term impacts of cropping systems and landscape positions on grain crop production on claypan soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS) with reduced inputs. Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum...

  20. Long-term impacts of cropping systems and landscape positions on claypan-soil grain crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS) with reduced inputs. Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum...

  1. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  2. Long-term impacts of cropping systems and landscape positions on clay-pan soil grain crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS) with reduced inputs. Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum...

  3. Effects of different elevated CO2 concentrations on chlorophyll contents, gas exchange, water use efficiency, and PSII activity on C3 and C4 cereal crops in a closed artificial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minjuan; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Hui, Liu; Guanghui, Liu; Liu, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Although terrestrial CO2 concentrations [CO2] are not expected to reach 1000 μmol mol(-1) (or ppm) for many decades, CO2 levels in closed systems such as growth chambers and greenhouses can easily exceed this concentration. CO2 levels in life support systems (LSS) in space can exceed 10,000 ppm (1 %). In order to understand how photosynthesis in C4 plants may respond to elevated CO2, it is necessary to determine if leaves of closed artificial ecosystem grown plants have a fully developed C4 photosynthetic apparatus, and whether or not photosynthesis in these leaves is more responsive to elevated [CO2] than leaves of C3 plants. To address this issue, we evaluated the response of gas exchange, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic efficiency of PSII by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., 'Heihe35') of a typical C3 plant and maize (Zea mays L., 'Susheng') of C4 plant under four CO2 concentrations (500, 1000, 3000, and 5000 ppm), which were grown under controlled environmental conditions of Lunar Palace 1. The results showed that photosynthetic pigment by the C3 plants of soybean was more sensitive to elevated [CO2] below 3000 ppm than the C4 plants of maize. Elevated [CO2] to 1000 ppm induced a higher initial photosynthetic rate, while super-elevated [CO2] appeared to negate such initial growth promotion for C3 plants. The C4 plant had the highest ETR, φPSII, and qP under 500-3000 ppm [CO2], but then decreased substantially at 5000 ppm [CO2] for both species. Therefore, photosynthetic down-regulation and a decrease in photosynthetic electron transport occurred by both species in response to super-elevated [CO2] at 3000 and 5000 ppm. Accordingly, plants can be selected for and adapt to the efficient use of elevated CO2 concentration in LSS. PMID:25869633

  4. Triggering Gel Formation and Luminescence through Donor-Acceptor Interactions in a C3 -Symmetric Tris(pyrene) System.

    PubMed

    Lai, Thanh-Loan; Pop, Flavia; Melan, Caroline; Canevet, David; Sallé, Marc; Avarvari, Narcis

    2016-04-18

    Straightforward modulation of the gelation, absorption and luminescent properties of a tris(pyrene) organogelator containing a C3 -symmetric benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide central unit functionalized by three 3,3'-diamino-2,2'-bipyridine fragments is achieved through donor-acceptor interactions in the presence of tetracyanoquinodimethane. PMID:26864120

  5. Correlation of C3d fixing circulating immune complexes with disease activity and clinical parameters in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Sekita, K; Doi, T; Muso, E; Yoshida, H; Kanatsu, K; Hamashima, Y

    1984-01-01

    Using anti-C3d as a solid phase reagent, C3d fixing circulating immune complexes (CIC) were detected in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, membranous nephropathy and IgA nephropathy. Particularly, sera from SLE showed the highest CIC levels and highest incidence of positivity among these diseases. In the 51 serum samples from 48 patients with SLE we studied, the CIC detected by the anti-C3d assay correlated well (P less than 0.01) with the CIC detected by the solid phase C1q assay, but not with those detected by the conglutinin assay. In addition, the CIC detected by the anti-C3d assay correlated more significantly (P less than 0.001) with disease activity, as well as some clinical parameters (serum anti-dsDNA antibodies, CH50 and C3 levels) than CIC detected by the other two assays of SLE sera. The anti-C3d binding materials were found to be of intermediate (8-19S) and small (7S) sizes in a small number of SLE sera which we analysed. PMID:6608422

  6. In vitro and in vivo downregulation of C3 by lipoteichoic acid isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum K8 suppressed cytokine-mediated complement system activation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Boram; Kim, Hye Rim; Kim, Hangeun; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-07-01

    Complement component 3 (C3) is one of the proteins associated with complement cascades. C3 plays an essential role in three different pathways-the alternative, classical and lectin pathways. It is well known that cytokines activate complement system and increase complement component C3 production. In the current study, we found that lipoteichoic acid isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum K8 (pLTA) inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-mediated C3 mRNA and protein expression in HaCaT cells. pLTA inhibited C3 expression through the inhibition of the phosphorylation of p65 and p38 in the TNF-α-treated cells, while the inhibition of STAT1/2 and JAK2 phosphorylation by pLTA contributed to the reduction of C3 in IFN-γ-treated cells. When mice were pre-injected with pLTA followed by re-injection of TNF-α, serum C3 level was decreased as compared to TNF-α-injected only. Further studies revealed that membrane attack complex (MAC) increased by TNF-α injection was lessened in pLTA-pre-injected mice. A bactericidal assay using mouse sera showed that MAC activity in pLTA-pre-injected mice was lower than in TNF-α only-injected mice. These results suggest that pLTA can suppress inflammatory cytokine-mediated complement activation through the inhibition of C3 synthesis. pLTA application has the potential to alleviate complement-mediated diseases caused by excessive inflammation. PMID:27231239

  7. Identifying Constraints to Potato Cropping System Sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Consequently, a key question is: What is limiting potato system sustainability? We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressiv...

  8. Climate change: Cropping system changes and adaptations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change impacts the life of every person; however, there is little comprehensive understanding of the direct and indirect effects of climate change on agriculture. Since our food, feed, fiber, and fruit is derived from agricultural systems, understanding the effects of changing temperature, p...

  9. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, <50 μm). Delta carbon-13 was determined by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. In addition, a site with natural vegetation (reference site, REF) was also sampled for delta carbon-13 determination. ANOVA and Tukey statistical analysis were carried out for all data. The SOC was higher in ICLS than in CCS at both depths (20.8 vs 17.7 g kg-1 for 0-5 cm and 16.1 vs 12.7 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm, respectively, P<0.05). MOC was

  10. Cover cropping and no-tillage improve soil health in arid irrigated cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact on soil health of long-term no-tillage (NT) and cover cropping (CC) practices, alone and in combination, was measured and compared with standard tillage (ST) with and without cover crops (NO) in irrigated row crops after 15 years of management in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Soil aggregat...

  11. A New Role of the Complement System: C3 Provides Protection in a Mouse Model of Lung Infection with Intracellular Chlamydia psittaci

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Jenny; Dutow, Pavel; Sommer, Kirsten; Janik, Katrin; Glage, Silke; Tümmler, Burkhard; Munder, Antje; Laudeley, Robert; Sachse, Konrad W.; Klos, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The complement system modulates the intensity of innate and specific immunity. While it protects against infections by extracellular bacteria its role in infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, such as the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, is still unknown. In the present study, knockout mice lacking C3 and thus all main complement effector functions were intranasally infected with C. psittaci strain DC15. Clinical parameters, lung histology, and cytokine levels were determined. A subset of infections was additionally performed with mice lacking C5 or C5a receptors. Complement activation occurred before symptoms of pneumonia appeared. Mice lacking C3 were ∼100 times more susceptible to the intracellular bacteria compared to wild-type mice, with all C3−/− mice succumbing to infection after day 9. At a low infective dose, C3−/− mice became severely ill after an even longer delay, the kinetics suggesting a so far unknown link of complement to the adaptive, protective immune response against chlamydiae. The lethal phenotype of C3−/− mice is not based on differences in the anti-chlamydial IgG response (which is slightly delayed) as demonstrated by serum transfer experiments. In addition, during the first week of infection, the absence of C3 was associated with partial protection characterized by reduced weight loss, better clinical score and lower bacterial burden, which might be explained by a different mechanism. Lack of complement functions downstream of C5 had little effect. This study demonstrates for the first time a strong and complex influence of complement effector functions, downstream of C3 and upstream of C5, on the outcome of an infection with intracellular bacteria, such as C. psittaci. PMID:23189195

  12. The impact of a chlorotoxin-modified liposome system on receptor MMP-2 and the receptor-associated protein ClC-3.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chao; He, Bing; Dai, Wenbing; Lin, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Guangji; Yin, Lifang; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    Currently, it is unknown whether a receptor-associated protein will be affected when a ligand modified delivery system interacts with its receptor. Besides, chlorotoxin (ClTx)-modified liposomes can target to glioma cells, but the target molecule is not clear: MMP-2, ClC-3 or both? Here a comparative study of ClTx-conjugated liposomes was conducted on two types of tumor cells: U87, a human glioma cell line with high expression of both MMP-2 and ClC-3, and A549, a human lung cancer cell line with expression of only MMP-2. ClTx-modified liposomes behaved similarly in these two cancer cells in terms of in vitro cell uptake, endocytosis pathway, intracellular trafficking and in vivo targeting efficacy, though the two tested cell lines were very different in ClC-3 expression. These results revealed that the targeted delivery of ClTx modified liposomes to U87 tumor was MMP-2-mediated and not correlated with the chloride channel ClC-3. On the other hand, ClTx modified on the liposomes did activate the receptor-associated protein ClC-3 via the binding with MMP-2, leading to the inhibition on cell migration and chloride currents. This is significant because cell migration is a key step in tumor metastasis. Interestingly, higher in vitro cellular uptake and lower in vivo tumor accumulation of liposomal systems was found in U87 compared to the A549 model, possibly due to the biological differences between in vitro and in vivo models. In general, ClTx-modified delivery systems may potentially target to tumors other than glioma that express a high level of MMP-2, and its effect on ClC-3 may help prevent tumor metastasis. PMID:24743031

  13. Root system architecture: insights from Arabidopsis and cereal crops

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephanie; De Smet, Ive

    2012-01-01

    Roots are important to plants for a wide variety of processes, including nutrient and water uptake, anchoring and mechanical support, storage functions, and as the major interface between the plant and various biotic and abiotic factors in the soil environment. Understanding the development and architecture of roots holds potential for the exploitation and manipulation of root characteristics to both increase food plant yield and optimize agricultural land use. This theme issue highlights the importance of investigating specific aspects of root architecture in both the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and (cereal) crops, presents novel insights into elements that are currently hardly addressed and provides new tools and technologies to study various aspects of root system architecture. This introduction gives a broad overview of the importance of the root system and provides a snapshot of the molecular control mechanisms associated with root branching and responses to the environment in A. thaliana and cereal crops. PMID:22527386

  14. Carbon sequestration in maize and grass dominant cropping systems in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Vreken, Philippe; Gobin, Anne; Merckx, Roel

    2014-05-01

    differences could also be demonstrated for the carbon fractions of soils with different cropping histories. Each fraction of a GM-topsoil contained significantly more C4-SOC as compared to a SM-topsoil (with or without a second annual crop) with the sizes of the fractions being equal. The more labile POM- en DOC-fractions accounted for the biggest part of the maize C4-SOC detected in the bulk sample, whereas the silt and clay associated SOC and chemically resistant SOC consisted mainly out of old grass C3-SOC. For the deeper soil layers no significant differences could be demonstrated between GM and SM, neither for the total SOC stock nor for the C4-SOC stock. Our results suggest that the soils with maize cropping systems in Flanders are near carbon saturation, such that crop residue management does not influence the total amount, but rather the quality of the carbon sequestered. Stolbovoy, V., Montanarella, L., Filippi, N., Jones, A., Gallego, J., and Grassi, G. (2007). Soil sampling protocol to certify the changes of organic carbon stock in mineral soil of the European Union. Version 2. EUR 21576 EN/2. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. 56p. Zimmermann, M., Leifeld, J., Schmidt, M.W.I., Smith, P., and Fuhrer, J. (2007). Measured soil organic matter fractions can be related to pools in the RothC model. European Journal of Soil Science, 58: 658-667.

  15. C3 variants in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Nishimukai, H; Kitamura, H; Sano, Y; Tamaki, Y

    1985-01-01

    By high-voltage agarose gel electrophoresis, seven phenotypes of C3 were found in Japanese. The allele frequencies for C3*S, C3*S025, C3*S02, C3*F, C3*F06, C3*F065, and C3*F08 were 0.9943, 0.0003, 0.0003, 0.0006, 0.0003, 0.0021, and 0.0021, respectively. CH50, C3/C3c protein concentrations, and C3 hemolytic activities in fresh sera with variant C3 phenotypes were within the normal ranges. PMID:3988301

  16. Tillage and Multiple Cropping Systems and Population Dynamics of Phytoparasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Gallaher, R. N.; Dickson, D. W.; Corella, J. F.; Hewlett, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of two cropping and tillage systems on the population dynamics of four nematode species was evaluated on a loamy sand. Hairy vetch succeeded by corn or grain sorghum was seeded in split plots randomized within whole plots of no-tillage versus conventional tillage over four growing seasons (1980-83). The vetch-corn cropping system increased the density of Meloidogyne incognita 2.9 x more than the vetch-grain sorghum cropping system. In contrast, the vetch-grain sorghum cropping system increased the density of Criconemella ornata 0.7 x more than the vetch-corn cropping system. Meloidogyne incognita and C. ornata were affected more by these cropping systems than were Pratylenchus brachyurus or Paratrichodorus minor. Multiple cropping systems, vetch varieties, and crop host preference affected nematode population densities, whereas tillage treatments, conventional or no-tillage, had little effect on them. PMID:19290311

  17. CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds(C3Winds) A New Wind Observing System to Study Mesoscale Cloud Dynamics and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D. L.; Kelly, M.A.; Yee, J.-H.; Boldt, J.; Demajistre, R.; Reynolds, E. L.; Tripoli, G. J.; Oman, L. D.; Prive, N.; Heidinger, A. K.; Wanzong, S. T.

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds (C3Winds) is a NASA Earth Venture Instrument (EV-I) concept with the primary objective to better understand mesoscale dynamics and their structures in severe weather systems. With potential catastrophic damage and loss of life, strong extratropical and tropical cyclones (ETCs and TCs) have profound three-dimensional impacts on the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic structures, producing complex cloud precipitation patterns, strong low-level winds, extensive tropopause folds, and intense stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Employing a compact, stereo IR-visible imaging technique from two formation-flying CubeSats, C3Winds seeks to measure and map high-resolution (2 km) cloud motion vectors (CMVs) and cloud geometric height (CGH) accurately by tracking cloud features within 5-15 min. Complementary to lidar wind observations from space, the high-resolution wind fields from C3Winds will allow detailed investigations on strong low-level wind formation in an occluded ETC development, structural variations of TC inner-core rotation, and impacts of tropopause folding events on tropospheric ozone and air quality. Together with scatterometer ocean surface winds, C3Winds will provide a more comprehensive depiction of atmosphere-boundary-layer dynamics and interactive processes. Built upon mature imaging technologies and long history of stereoscopic remote sensing, C3Winds provides an innovative, cost-effective solution to global wind observations with potential of increased diurnal sampling via CubeSat constellation.

  18. Regio- and stereoselective Pd-catalyzed direct arylation of unactivated sp(3) C(3)-H bonds of tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-benzodioxane systems.

    PubMed

    Parella, Ramarao; Babu, Srinivasarao Arulananda

    2015-02-20

    An auxiliary-enabled Pd-catalyzed highly regio- and stereoselective sp(3) C-H activation and the direct arylation of the C3-position of oxygen heterocycles, such as tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-benzodioxane systems, are reported. An efficient stereoselective construction of cis 2,3-disubstituted tetrahydrofuran derivatives (analogues of norlignans) and cis 2,3-disubstituted 1,4-benzodioxane derivatives (analogues of neolignans) is described. The direct C(sp(3))-H arylation of the C3-position of (R)- or (S)- tetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamides furnished the corresponding (2R,3R) and (2S,3S) C3-arylated THF scaffolds as major compounds with very high regio- and diastereoselectivities. The stereochemistry of the products obtained in this work were unambiguously assigned on the basis of the X-ray structure analyses of representative compounds 3b, 3e, 4p, and 7. PMID:25588549

  19. Evaluation of Long-Term Impacts of Tillage and Cropping Systems in Alabama, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of sustainable agriculture production systems depends on the use of reliable crop rotations and tillage systems. Understanding the interaction between different cropping and tillage systems as they affect crop yields over the long-term is essential for determining the best alternatives ...

  20. Tissue C3b receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Schrieber, L; Penny, R

    1979-01-01

    Using fluorescein-labelled S. typhi coated with C3b (FBC) the presence of a receptor for C3b in normal human glomeruli has been confirmed. A quantitative system, counting the number of FBC bound per unit area of glomerulus, has been developed. Experimental variables have been studied to determine optimal conditions for FBC binding. Glomerular FBC binding has been shown to be dependent on FBC concentration, temperature and time of tissue incubation. A standardized procedure has been adopted. Using this technique we have examined a number of target tissues, including synovium, skin, lung, choroid plexus and uveal tract, which are frequently affected in systemic immune complex diseases. No evidence of this receptor has been found in these tissues. These results suggest a mechanism different from the C3b receptor operating to localise immune complexes in these non-renal sites. Images FIG. 2 PMID:527266

  1. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  2. Comparing net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange at adjacent commercial bioenergy and conventional cropping systems in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Ross; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Rylett, Daniel; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to bioenergy plantations represents one option in the national and global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst meeting future energy demand. Despite an increase in the area of (e.g. perennial) bioenergy crops in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the biophysical and biogeochemical impacts of large scale conversion of arable and other land cover types to bioenergy cropping systems remain poorly characterised and uncertain. Here, the results of four years of eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) obtained at a commercial farm in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom (UK) are reported. CO2 flux measurements are presented and compared for arable crops (winter wheat, oilseed rape, spring barely) and plantations of the perennial biofuel crops Miscanthus x. giganteus (C4) and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix sp.,C3). Ecosystem light and temperature response functions were used to analyse and compare temporal trends and spatial variations in NEE across the three land covers. All three crops were net in situ sinks for atmospheric CO2 but were characterised by large temporal and between site variability in NEE. Environmental and biological controls driving the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 exchange processes, as well as the influences of land management, will be analysed and discussed.

  3. Humidity effects on photochemical aerosol formation in the SO 2-NO-C 3H 6-air system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Katsuyuki; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Murano, Kentaro; Fukuyama, Tsutomu

    In order to investigate the effects of humidity on the gas-phase oxidation of SO 2 in polluted air and on the subsequent aerosol formation process, photoirradiation experiments were carried out by means of a 4-m 3 chamber, in which mixtures containing SO 2, NO and C 3H 6 with concentrations in the ppm range were exposed to simulated solar radiation in different relative humidity (r.h.) conditions. The total amount of oxidized SO 2 was quantified from the SO 42- yield determined by the chemical analysis of the aerosol product, and a part due to the oxidation by the OH radical was evaluated by estimating the OH concentration from the decay rate of C 3H 6. The remaining part was assigned to the oxidation by the Criegee intermediate, as it had a good correlation with the progress of the O 3 + C 3H 6 reaction. The contributions of the two oxidizing species to the total conversion and the oxidation rate of SO 2 were measured as functions of r.h. As a result, experimental evidence was obtained for the prediction of Calvert and Stockwell's (1983, Envir. Sci. Technol. 17, 428A-443A) simulation that the oxidation due to the Criegee intermediate was retarded by the increase in humidity. The OH contribution, on the other hand, was almost independent of r.h. It was observed consequently that the total oxidized amount of SO 2 considerably decreased as r.h. was higher. The humidity effect on the aerosol formation process was found to be more complicated than the effect on the gas-phase chemistry. The maximum rate of increase in the particle number concentration rose linearly with increasing r.h., but the number concentration itself measured at its maximum or at the end of the irradiation reached a ceiling value around r.h. = 30% and went down for higher r.h. The average panicle size in the final stage of the reaction showed a minimum around the same r.h. at which the number concentration was maximum. The H 2SO 4 concentration in the mist particles, however, decreased

  4. Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant cropping systems on weed seedbanks in two years of following crops.

    PubMed

    Firbank, L G; Rothery, P; May, M J; Clark, S J; Scott, R J; Stuart, R C; Boffey, C W H; Brooks, D R; Champion, G T; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Dewar, A M; Perry, J N; Squire, G R

    2006-03-22

    The Farm Scale Evaluations (FSEs) showed that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) cropping systems could influence farmland biodiversity because of their effects on weed biomass and seed production. Recently published results for winter oilseed rape showed that a switch to GMHT crops significantly affected weed seedbanks for at least 2 years after the crops were sown, potentially causing longer-term effects on other taxa. Here, we seek evidence for similar medium-term effects on weed seedbanks following spring-sown GMHT crops, using newly available data from the FSEs. Weed seedbanks following GMHT maize were significantly higher than following conventional varieties for both the first and second years, while by contrast, seedbanks following GMHT spring oilseed rape were significantly lower over this period. Seedbanks following GMHT beet were smaller than following conventional crops in the first year after the crops had been sown, but this difference was much reduced by the second year for reasons that are not clear. These new data provide important empirical evidence for longer-term effects of GMHT cropping on farmland biodiversity. PMID:17148348

  5. The Crop Disease and Pest Warning and Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Juhua; Huang, Wenjiang; Wang, Jihua; Wei, Chaoling

    The aim of this study was to establish the warning and prediction system for crop diseases and pests based on SuperMap IS. NET geographic information system (GIS), which was developed by Supermap company. In this system, the author used GIS and remote sensing (RS) technology. The system could transform data information into a geographical information map to show the occurrence degree and distribution on various diseases and pests. This paper described mainly warning flow, database design and the main functions of the system. Finally, the system realized successfully the warning of the wheat stripe rust in Xifeng region of Qingyang city in Gansu province in 2002, and the prediction result was satisfactory. It indicated that we could classify and predict diseases and pests, and select right time and technology to control the diseases and pests by this GIS system.

  6. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR REDUCING NET GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL IN IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN NORTHEASTERN COLORADO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cropping systems field study initiated in 1999 was used in this analysis to evaluate the economic feasibility of achieving reductions in net global warming potential through changes in cropping system management. Crop yield and management information collected from 2000-2005 were used to estimate ...

  7. Statistical modeling of yield and variance instability in conventional and organic cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems research was undertaken to address declining crop diversity and verify competitiveness of alternatives to the predominant conventional cropping system in the northern Corn Belt. To understand and capitalize on temporal yield variability within corn and soybean fields, we quantified ...

  8. Soil C and N fractions in cropping systems integrated with livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of livestock in cropping systems of the southeastern USA could increase farm income diversity and improve nutrient cycling dynamics to increase resource efficiency. A long-term pasture was terminated and planted to cropping systems with and without cattle grazing of cover crops to deter...

  9. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  10. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  11. The 4050 Å Group of the {A}^{1}Π_{u} - {X}^{1}Σ_{g}^{+} Transition System of C_{3}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.; Linnartz, H.; Haddad, M. A.; Ubachs, W.; Schmidt, M. R.; Krelowski, J.; Galazutdinov, G. A.

    2013-06-01

    The 4050 Å group of C_{3}, which consists of a series of bands of the {A˜}^{1}Π_{u} - {X˜}^{1}Σ_{g}^{+} electronic transition system, has been of much interest to astronomers as it serves as a remote diagnostic of the physical-chemical conditions in translucent interstellar clouds. In this contribution, we present: a) The high resolution (R=80 000) detection of eight vibronic bands of C_{3} in the diffuse translucent cloud towards HD 169454. Four of these vibronic bands are also detected in two additional objects: HD 73882 and HD 154368. Column densities and excitation conditions of C_{3} are inferred. b) A laboratory re-examination of the eight vibronic bands observed towards HD 169454 using cavity ring-down spectroscopy and a supersonic plasma jet. High-quality laboratory data build the list of lines with a wavelength accuracy of <0.01Å. This is sufficient for the analysis of the observational data. Improved spectroscopic parameters of the corresponding vibronic states are presented. An improved perturbation analysis in the {A˜}^{1}Π_{u} (000) state is given as well. c) The systematic laboratory investigation on the {A˜}^{1}Π_{u} - {X˜}^{1}Σ_{g}^{+} 000-000 electronic origin band of ^{13}C-substituted C_{3}. Rotationally resolved spectra of all five ^{13}C-isotopologues are recorded in a supersonic plasma expansion by discharging ^{13}C_{2}H_{2} or ^{12}C_{2}H_{2}/^{13}C_{2}H_{2} mixtures diluted in noble gas. The {A˜}^{1}Π_{u} state molecular constants for all five isotopologues and ground-state molecular constants for ^{13}C^{12}C^{13}C and ^{12}C^{13}C^{13}C are experimentally determined for the first time. This work extends the recent mid-infrared work on the ^{13}C-isotopologues of C_{3} by Giesen et al. T. Giesen, private communication, December 2012.

  12. Automated video analysis system reveals distinct diurnal behaviors in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN mice.

    PubMed

    Adamah-Biassi, E B; Stepien, I; Hudson, R L; Dubocovich, M L

    2013-04-15

    Advances in rodent behavior dissection using automated video recording and analysis allows detailed phenotyping. This study compared and contrasted 15 diurnal behaviors recorded continuously using an automated behavioral analysis system for a period of 14 days under a 14/10 light/dark cycle in single housed C3H/HeN (C3H) or C57BL/6 (C57) male mice. Diurnal behaviors, recorded with minimal experimental interference and analyzed using phenotypic array and temporal distribution analysis showed bimodal and unimodal profiles in the C57 and C3H mice, respectively. Phenotypic array analysis revealed distinct behavioral rhythms in Activity-Like Behaviors (i.e. walk, hang, jump, come down) (ALB), Exploration-Like Behaviors (i.e. dig, groom, rear up, sniff, stretch) (ELB), Ingestion-Like Behaviors (i.e. drink, eat) (ILB) and Resting-Like Behaviors (i.e. awake, remain low, rest, twitch) (RLB) of C3H and C57 mice. Temporal distribution analysis demonstrated that strain and time of day affects the magnitude and distribution of the spontaneous homecage behaviors. Wheel running activity, water and food measurements correlated with timing of homecage behaviors. Subcutaneous (3 mg/kg, sc) or oral (0.02 mg/ml, oral) melatonin treatments in C57 mice did not modify either the total 24 h magnitude or temporal distribution of homecage behaviors when compared with vehicle treatments. We conclude that C3H and C57 mice show different spontaneous activity and behavioral rhythms specifically during the night period which are not modulated by melatonin. PMID:23337734

  13. Automated Video Analysis System Reveals Distinct Diurnal Behaviors in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adamah-Biassi, E. B.; Stepien, I.; Hudson, R.L.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in rodent behavior dissection using automated video recording and analysis allows detailed phenotyping. This study compared and contrasted 15 diurnal behaviors recorded continuously using an automated behavioral analysis system for a period of 14 days under a 14/10 light/dark cycle in single housed C3H/HeN (C3H) or C57BL/6 (C57) male mice. Diurnal behaviors, recorded with minimal experimental interference and analyzed using phenotypic array and temporal distribution analysis showed bimodal and unimodal profiles in the C57 and C3H mice, respectively. Phenotypic array analysis revealed distinct behavioral rhythms in activity-like behaviors (i.e. walk, hang, jump, come down) (ALB), exploration-like behaviors (i.e. dig, groom, rear up, sniff, stretch) (ELB), ingestion-like behaviors (i.e. drink, eat) (ILB) and resting-like behaviors (i.e. awake, remain low, rest, twitch) (RLB) of C3H and C57 mice. Temporal analysis demonstrated that strain and time of day affects the magnitude and distribution of the spontaneous homecage behaviors. Wheel running activity, water and food measurements correlated with timing of homecage behaviors. Subcutaneous (3 mg/kg, sc) or oral (0.02 mg/ml, oral) melatonin treatments in C57 mice did not modify either the total 24 hr magnitude or temporal distribution of homecage behaviors when compared with vehicle treatments. We conclude that C3H and C57 mice show different spontaneous activity and behavioral rhythms specifically during the night period which are not modulated by melatonin. PMID:23337734

  14. Water use in a winter camelina – soybean double crop system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-cropping winter camelina (Camelina sativa) followed by soybean (Glycine max) may increase land-use efficiency by producing food and biofuel in a single season and is a viable cropping system for the northern Corn Belt. However, regional success of double-cropping, especially under dryland con...

  15. Efficacy of fluensulfone in a tomato-cucumber double cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern U.S. are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone when applied through a drip system to the second crop in a...

  16. SOIL WATER USE AND GRAIN YIELD OF THREE DRYLAND CROPS UNDER DIFFERING TILLAGE SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining the use of drought-adapted and early maturing crops with reduced tillage practices in dryland cropping systems can increase soil water storage, water-use efficiency and crop yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil water use by cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), grain sorghum [So...

  17. Analyzing Water Management and Production Trade-Offs Using Crop Systems Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water management decisions for agricultural cropping systems may be affected by multiple factors, including crop water needs, water availability, water delivery mechanisms, and water rights. A robust tool for improvement of on-farm water management must therefore provide information on crop water r...

  18. The effect of cover cropping systems and nitrogen fertilization on sorghum grain characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till farming has become an increasing popular cropping practice, due to increased water and soil conservation. Recently, cover cropping has been added to the system to aid in weed prevention and also increase soil fertility. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cropping sy...

  19. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    PubMed Central

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were

  20. Use of fall-grown oats in dairy cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, there has been new (or renewed) interest in alternative forage crops, double-cropping, and cover crops to meet a variety of different management objectives; however, the use of cereal-grain forages figures prominently in many of these management considerations. Work by the USDA-ARS and UW ...

  1. Crop Growth Modeling in the Wind Erosion Prediction System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On land used for the production of food and fiber, the amount of growing crop and crop residue remaining on the field during no growth periods often determine whether the field is susceptible to the erosion of the soil by wind. The crop growth sub-model component of the Wind Erosion Prediction Syste...

  2. Wireless computer vision system for crop stress detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of soil water deficits, crop water stress, and biotic stress from disease or insects is important for optimal irrigation scheduling and water management. Crop spectral reflectances provide a means to quantify visible and near infrared thermal crop stress, but in-situ measurements can be cu...

  3. Bio-fuel Cropping Systems Effects on Soil Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient management practices on bio-fuel crop production, and to evaluate long term effects of bio-fuel crop production on selected chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Experimental plots for research on bio-fuel crops production were ...

  4. Integrated Crop/Livestock Systems Research: Practical research considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many reasons for the paucity of integrated crop/livestock research and associated publications. Integrated/crop livestock experiments that involve adequate treatments and replications, as perceived by both crop and animal scientists, require large acreages, many animals, considerable labor...

  5. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Associations in Biofuel Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, K.

    2012-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil microorganisms that play an important role in delivering nutrients to plant roots via mutualistic symbiotic relationships. AMF root colonization was compared between four different biofuel cropping systems in an effort to learn more about the factors that control colonization. The four biofuel systems sampled were corn, switchgrass, prairie, and fertilized prairie. We hypothesized that prairie systems would have the highest levels of AMF colonization and that fertilization would result in lower AMF colonization rates. Roots were sampled from each system in early June and mid-July. Soil P and pH were also measured. In contrast to our hypothesis, corn systems had 70-80% colonization and the unfertilized prairie system had ~35% (P=0.001) in June. In July, all systems saw an increase in colonization rate, but corn roots still had significantly more AMF colonization than unfertilized prairie (P=0.001). AMF colonization in the unfertilized prairie system increased ~55% from June to July. In contrast to previous work, AMF colonization rates were highest in systems with the greatest availability on P and N (corn systems). These results indicate that seasonal differences in root growth were more influential to AMF root colonization than soil nutrient availability.

  6. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. PMID:23994820

  7. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In

  8. Benefits of an improved wheat crop information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, I. L.

    1976-01-01

    The ECON work and the results of the independent reviews are summarized. Attempts are made to put this information into layman's terms and to present the benefits that can realistically be expected from a LANDSAT-type remote sensing system. Further the mechanisms by which these benefits can be expected to accrue are presented. The benefits are given including the nature of expected information improvements, how and why they can lead to benefits to society, and the estimated magnitude of the expected benefits. A brief description is presented of the ECON models, how they work, their results, and a summary of the pertinent aspects of each review. The ECON analyses show that substantial benefits will accrue from implementation of an improved wheat crop information system based on remote sensing.

  9. RZWQM2 Simulations of Alternative Cropping Systems With and Without Summer Crops in the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration and synthesis of data accruing from complex alternative crop rotation experiments across locations and climates is a challenge to agriculturists. System simulation models are potential tools to address this challenge. In this study, we simulated three long-term (1991 to 2008) dryland c...

  10. Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

  11. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  12. Nitrogen, Tillage, and Crop Rotation Effects On Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes from Irrigated Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effects of tillage intensity, N fertilization, and crop rotation on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) flux from semiarid irrigated soils are poorly understood. We evaluated effects of: a) tillage intensity [no-till (NT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT)] in a continuous corn rotation; b...

  13. Sustainable cropping systems using cover crops, native species field borders and riparian buffers for environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will focus on the application of sustainable management practices for no-till cultivation using cover crops, native species field borders, and fast growing woody species integrated in vegetative strips and riparian buffers. An ongoing field project at the Bradford Research and Exte...

  14. An overview of crop growing condition monitoring in China agriculture remote sensing monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing; Zhou, Qing-bo; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    China is a large agricultural country. To understand the agricultural production condition timely and accurately is related to government decision-making, agricultural production management and the general public concern. China Agriculture Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) can monitor crop acreage changes, crop growing condition, agriculture disaster (drought, floods, frost damage, pest etc.) and predict crop yield etc. quickly and timely. The basic principles, methods and regular operation of crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS are introduced in detail in the paper. CHARMS can monitor crop growing condition of wheat, corn, cotton, soybean and paddy rice with MODIS data. An improved NDVI difference model was used in crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS. Firstly, MODIS data of every day were received and processed, and the max NDVI values of every fifteen days of main crop were generated, then, in order to assessment a certain crop growing condition in certain period (every fifteen days, mostly), the system compare the remote sensing index data (NDVI) of a certain period with the data of the period in the history (last five year, mostly), the difference between NDVI can indicate the spatial difference of crop growing condition at a certain period. Moreover, Meteorological data of temperature, precipitation and sunshine etc. as well as the field investigation data of 200 network counties were used to modify the models parameters. Last, crop growing condition was assessment at four different scales of counties, provinces, main producing areas and nation and spatial distribution maps of crop growing condition were also created.

  15. C3N4-H5PMo10V2O40: a dual-catalysis system for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol

    PubMed Central

    Long, Zhouyang; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Guojian; Ge, Weilin; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylation of benzene is a widely studied atom economical and environmental benign reaction for producing phenol, aiming to replace the existing three-step cumene process. Aerobic oxidation of benzene with O2 is an ideal and dream process, but benzene and O2 are so inert that current systems either require expensive noble metal catalysts or wasteful sacrificial reducing agents; otherwise, phenol yields are extremely low. Here we report a dual-catalysis non-noble metal system by simultaneously using graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) and Keggin-type polyoxometalate H5PMo10V2O40 (PMoV2) as catalysts, showing an exceptional activity for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol. The dual-catalysis mechanism results in an unusual route to create phenol, in which benzene is activated on the melem unit of C3N4 and O2 by the V-O-V structure of PMoV2. This system is simple, highly efficient and thus may lead the one-step production of phenol from benzene to a more practical pathway. PMID:24413448

  16. DayCent modelling of Swiss cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Büchi, Lucie; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need to identify and evaluate sustainable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options, their bio-economic feasibility in the agricultural sector, and support implementation of agricultural GHG mitigation activities that are an integral part of climate change strategies. In recent years, several ecosystem biogeochemical process-based models and comprehensive decision making tools integrated with these models have been developed. The DayCent model simulates all major ecosystem processes that affect soil C and N dynamics, including plant production, water flow, heat transport, SOC decomposition, N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, and methane oxidation. However, if the model is to be reliably used for identification of GHG mitigation options and climate change strategies across the EU agricultural regions, it requires site- and region-specific calibration and evaluation. Here, we calibrated and validated the model to Swiss climate and soil conditions and management options using available long-term experimental data. Data on crop productivity, soil organic carbon and N2O emissions were derived from four field sites located in Thervil (1977-2013), Frick (2003-2013), Changins (1971-2013), and Reckenholz (2009-2013) that have evaluated the effects of agricultural input systems (specifically, organic, biodynamic, and conventional with and without manure additions) and soil management options (various tillage practices and cover cropping). The preliminary results show that the DayCent model was able to reproduce 76% of variability in the crop productivity (n = 1 316) and 75% variability in measured soil organic carbon (n = 402) across all long-term trials. Model calibration was evaluated against independent proportions of the data. The uncertainty in model predictions induced by model structure and uncertainty in the measured data still needs to be further evaluated using the Monte Carlo approach. The calibrated model will be

  17. Spatiotemporal simulation of changes in rice cropping systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh

    2015-04-01

    With the dramatic development of agro-economics, population growth, and climate change, the rice cropping systems in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) have been undergoing a major change. Information on rice cropping practices and changes in cropping systems is critical for policymakers to devise successful strategies to ensure food security and rice grain exports for the country. The primary objective of this research is to map rice cropping systems and predict future dynamics of rice cropping systems using MODIS time-series data from 2002 to 2012. A phenology-based classification approach was applied for the classification and assessment of rice cropping systems. Then, the Cellular Automata-Markov (CA-Markov) model was used to simulate future changes in rice-cropping activities. To obtain precise prediction, a calibration of CA-Markov were implemented by using a series of rice crop maps. The comparisons between the classification maps and the ground reference data indicated satisfactory results with overall accuracies above 81%, and Kappa coefficients above 0.75, respectively. The simulated maps of rice cropping systems for 2010-2012 were extrapolated by CA-Markov model based on the trend of rice cropping systems during 2002-2009. The comparison between the predicted scenarios and the classification maps for 2010-2012 presents a reasonably close agreement. In summary, the CA-Markov model with a long-term calibration confirmed the validity of the approach for dynamic modeling of changes in rice cropping systems in the study region. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that the approach produced satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, quantitative forecast, and spatial pattern changes. Thus, projections of future changes would provide useful information for the agricultural policymakers in respect to formulating effective management strategies of rice cropping practices in VMD.

  18. Black oat cover crop management in watermelon production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.) were sown as a cover crop near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26 deg N) in Fall 2010. The cover crop was allowed to senesce naturally and was planted to watermelons in both the spring and in the fall of 2011. Watermelon transplants planted in the spring into mowed black o...

  19. Nutsedge-vegetable crop interactions in mulched systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the lack of effective control, purple nutsedge and yellow nutsedge are considered the most troublesome weeds of vegetable crops in the Southeast US. It is important to evaluate whether nutsedge control is necessary for economical vegetable crop production. There are several compelling reason...

  20. Managing Soil Properties through Dryland Cropping System Intensities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modification of soil functioning/quality parameters (i.e., organic matter content) is important to improve the capacity of soil as a water storage-reservoir for crop production in dryland. A long-term dryland cropping research study was established at the USDA-ARS farm near Lubbock, Texas in 2003, ...

  1. Management and tillage system influence forage barley productivity and water use in dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual cereal forages are resilient in low water use, high water use efficiency (WUE), and weed control compared with grain crops in dryland farming systems. The combined influence of tillage and management systems on annual cereal forage productivity and water use, however, has not been well docume...

  2. How efficiently do corn- and soybean-based cropping systems use water? A systems modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, Ranae; Liebman, Matt; Ewing, Robert; Helmers, Matt; Horton, Robert; Jarchow, Meghann; Archontoulis, Sotirios

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural systems are being challenged to decrease water use and increase production while climate becomes more variable and the world's population grows. Low water use efficiency is traditionally characterized by high water use relative to low grain production and usually occurs under dry conditions. However, when a cropping system fails to take advantage of available water during wet conditions, this is also an inefficiency and is often detrimental to the environment. Here, we provide a systems-level definition of water use efficiency (sWUE) that addresses both production and environmental quality goals through incorporating all major system water losses (evapotranspiration, drainage, and runoff). We extensively calibrated and tested the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) using 6 years of continuous crop and soil measurements in corn- and soybean-based cropping systems in central Iowa, USA. We then used the model to determine water use, loss, and grain production in each system and calculated sWUE in years that experienced drought, flood, or historically average precipitation. Systems water use efficiency was found to be greatest during years with average precipitation. Simulation analysis using 28 years of historical precipitation data, plus the same dataset with ± 15% variation in daily precipitation, showed that in this region, 430 mm of seasonal (planting to harvesting) rainfall resulted in the optimum sWUE for corn, and 317 mm for soybean. Above these precipitation levels, the corn and soybean yields did not increase further, but the water loss from the system via runoff and drainage increased substantially, leading to a high likelihood of soil, nutrient, and pesticide movement from the field to waterways. As the Midwestern United States is predicted to experience more frequent drought and flood, inefficiency of cropping systems water use will also increase. This work provides a framework to concurrently evaluate production and

  3. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  4. Longer-term potato cropping system effects on soilborne diseases and tuber yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In field trials established in 2004, different 3-yr potato cropping systems focused on specific crop management goals of (SC) soil conservation, (SI) soil improvement, and (DS) disease-suppression were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases and tuber yield. These systems were compared to ...

  5. Behavior of Atrazine In Limited Irrigation Cropping Systems in Colorado: Prior Use Is Important

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Irrigation Water Optimization Project was begun in 2005 at Colorado State University to develop cropping systems to optimize use of limited irrigation water supply while sustaining production. Corn is a major component of many of these cropping systems and atrazine is used to provide residual w...

  6. Challenges and opportunities for mitigating nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) represents in many cases the largest single component of the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget of individual cropping systems and for the U.S. agricultural sector as a whole. Reducing N2O emissions from cropping systems remains a research frontier largely because of biophysical factors...

  7. Evaluation of Learning Group Approaches for Fostering Integrated Cropping Systems Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blissett, Hana; Simmons, Steve; Jordan, Nicholas; Nelson, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    Cropping systems management requires integration of multiple forms of knowledge, practice, and learning by farmers, extension educators, and researchers. We evaluated the outcomes of participation in collaborative learning groups organized to address cropping systems and, specifically, challenges of integrated weed management. Groups were…

  8. Comparison of simulated and observed N2O gas emission rates from bioenergy cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide is the largest greenhouse gas source from crop systems. DAYCENT was used to compare N2O emissions from the following 3 bioenergy cropping systems: switchgrass, reed canarygrass, and a rotation of 3 yr corn, 1 yr soybeans, and 4 yr alfalfa. Although DAYCENT did not always capture the ob...

  9. Early changes due to sorghum biofuel cropping systems in soil microbial communities and metabolic functioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of biofuel production cropping systems should address not only energy yields but also the impacts on soil attributes are important for long-term sustainability. In this study, forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cropping systems were initiated on a low organic matter soil (< 0.9%)...

  10. Acquisition history simulation for evaluation of Landsat-based crop inventory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.; Malin, J. T.; Lin, C. C.; Dvorin, M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a simulation procedure which produces patterns of Landsat data loss attributable to cloud patterns that are characteristic of a crop region. This simulation procedure is part of a simulation system under development which evaluates the performance of crop inventory system components over a number of years and under a variety of conditions.

  11. APEX Simulations of Productivity for 9 Cropping Systems over 19 Years in 3 Claypan Landscape Positions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior research has shown that conventional corn-soybean cropping systems are economically riskier in the claypan MLRA, caused by variable rain and limited water holding capacity above the low-permeability claypan. These observations prompted research into alternative cropping systems that offer more...

  12. Soil profile organic carbon as affected by tillage and cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports on the long-term effects of tillage and cropping systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in the entire rooting profile are limited. A long-term experiment with three cropping systems [continuous corn (CC), continuous soybean (CSB), and soybean-corn (SB-C)] in six primary tillage s...

  13. A low-cost microcontroller-based system to monitor crop temperature and water status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prototype microcontroller-based system was developed to automate the measurement and recording of soil-moisture status and canopy-, air-, and soil-temperature levels in cropped fields. Measurements of these conditions within the cropping system are often used to assess plant stress, and can assis...

  14. Early Changes Due to Sorghum Biofuel Cropping Systems in Soil Microbial Communities and Metabolic Functioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of biofuel production cropping systems needs to address not only energy yields but also the impacts on soil attributes important for long-term sustainability. In this study, forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cropping systems were initiated on a low organic matter soil (<0.9%) wi...

  15. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Impacts of Introducing Legumes into Cropping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Reckling, Moritz; Bergkvist, Göran; Watson, Christine A.; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Zander, Peter M.; Walker, Robin L.; Pristeri, Aurelio; Toncea, Ion; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Europe's agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2% of the arable land and more than 70% of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 and 33% and N fertilizer use by 24 and 38% in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22% in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers. PMID:27242870

  16. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Impacts of Introducing Legumes into Cropping Systems.

    PubMed

    Reckling, Moritz; Bergkvist, Göran; Watson, Christine A; Stoddard, Frederick L; Zander, Peter M; Walker, Robin L; Pristeri, Aurelio; Toncea, Ion; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Europe's agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2% of the arable land and more than 70% of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 and 33% and N fertilizer use by 24 and 38% in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22% in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers. PMID:27242870

  17. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping. PMID:26572032

  18. Cropping systems and control of soil erosion in a Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scalici, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    The research has been carried out over the years 1996-2010 in an area of the internal hill of Sicily region (Enna, c.da Geracello, 550 m a. s. l. 37° 23' N. Lat, 14° 21' E. Long) in the center of Mediterranean Sea, mainly devoted to durum wheat cultivation, using the experimental plots, established in 1996 on a slope of 26-28%, equipped to determine surface runoff and soil losses. The establishment consists of twelve plots, having 40 m length and 8 m width. In order to study the effect of different field crop systems in controlling soil erosion in slopes subjected to water erosion, the following systems were studied: permanent crops, tilled annual crops, no-tilled annual crops, set-aside. The used crops were: durum wheat, faba bean, rapeseed, subterranean clover, Italian ryegrass, alfalfa, sweetvetch, moon trefoil, barley, sweet sorghum, sunflower. The results pointed out that the cropping systems with perennial crops allowed to keep low the soil loss, while annual crop rotation determined a high amount of soil loss. Sod seeding showed promising results also for annual crop rotations.

  19. Can subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) be a competitive irrigation system in the Great Plains region for commodity crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) as with all microirrigation systems is typically only used on crops with greater value. In the U.S. Great Plains region, the typical irrigated crops are the cereal and oil seed crops and cotton. These crops have less economic revenue than typical microirrigated cro...

  20. Differential expression of type 2 3α/type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) in tumors of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Park, Aubrey L; Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Yang, Qing; Sing, Chor Wing; Fan, Michael; Mapstone, Timothy B; Gross, Naina L; Gumerlock, Mary K; Martin, Michael D; Rabb, Craig H; Fung, Kar-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Human aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3, type 2 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSC)/ type 5 17β-HSD, is known to be involved in steroids, prostaglandins, and lipid aldehydes metabolism. The expression of AKR1C3 has been demonstrated in hormone-dependent normal tissues such as breast, endometrium, prostate, and testis; and de -regulated AKR1C3 expression has been shown in breast carcinoma, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma. AKR1C3 expression has also been demonstrated in hormone-independent normal tissues (renal tubules and urothelium) and neoplastic tissues (renal cell carcinoma, Wilm's tumor, and urothelial cell carcinoma). Extensive expression of AKR1C3 in normal and neoplastic as well as hormone-dependent and hormone-independent tissues indicates that AKR1C3 may have functions beyond steroid hormone metabolism. In this report, we describe a widespread expression of AKR1C3 in glial neoplasms and meningiomas, with limited expression in medulloblastoma and no expression in Schwannoma. These tumors, except meningioma, are not classically considered to be sex hormone-dependent or related brain tumors. The current results corroborate our earlier observations that AKR1C3 is expressed in both sex hormone-dependent and hormone-independent malignancies. Similar to AKR1C3 distribution in Wilm’s tumor, we also demonstrate that expression of AKR1C3 is reduced in tumors with embryonic phenotypes. PMID:21151387

  1. Pressure Control System Design for a Closed Crop Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, K.; Blackwell, C.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is an area of active research at NASA. CELSS is a plant-based bioregenerative life support system for long term manned space flights where resupply is costly or impractical. The plants in a CELSS will function to convert the carbon dioxide (exhaled by the crew) into oxygen, purify non-potable water into potable quality water, and provide food for the crew. Prior to implementing a CELSS life support system, one must have knowledge on growing plants in a closed chamber under low gravity. This information will come from research to be conducted on the CELSS Test Facility that will operate on the Space Station Freedom. Currently a ground-based CELSS Test Facility is being built at NASA Ames Research Center. It is called the EDU (Engineering Development Unit). This system will allow researchers to identify issues that may cause difficulties in the development of the CELSS Test Facility and aid in the development of new needed technologies. The EDU consists of a 1 m2 crop growth chamber that is surrounded by a containment enclosure. The containment enclosure isolates the system so there is very little mass and thermal exchange with the ambient. The leakage rate is on the order of 1 % of the enclosure's volume per day (with 0.2S psi pressure difference). The thermal leakage is less than 0.5% of the electrical power supplied to the system per degree Celsius difference from the surrounding. The pressure in the containment enclosure is regulated at 62.5 Pa below the ambient by an active controller. The goal is to maintain this set point for a variety of conditions, such as a range of operating temperatures, heat load variations that occur when the lights are turned on and off, and fluctuations in ambient pressure. In addition certain transition tracking performance is required. This paper illustrates the application of some advanced systems control methods to the task of synthesizing the EDU's pressure control system.

  2. Assessing Nutritional Diversity of Cropping Systems in African Villages

    PubMed Central

    DeClerck, Fabrice; Diru, Willy; Fanzo, Jessica; Gaynor, Kaitlyn; Lambrecht, Isabel; Mudiope, Joseph; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nkhoma, Phelire; Siriri, David; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD), has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. Methods and Findings Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. Conclusion This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are generated and strategies for

  3. A National Crop Progress Monitoring and Decision Support System Based on NASA Earth Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, L.; Yang, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Timely and accurate information on weekly crop progress and development is essential to a dynamic agricultural industry in the U. S. and the world. By law, the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) of the U. S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) is responsible for monitoring and assessing U.S. agricultural production. Currently NASS compiles and issues weekly state and national crop progress and development reports based on reports from knowledgeable state and county agricultural officials and farmers. Such survey-based reports are subjectively estimated for an entire county, lack spatial coverage, and are labor intensive. There has been limited use of remote sensing data to assess crop conditions. NASS produces weekly 1-km resolution un-calibrated AVHRR-based NDVI static images to represent national vegetation conditions but there is no quantitative crop progress information. This presentation discusses the early result for developing a National Crop Progress Monitoring and Decision Support System. The system will overcome the shortcomings of the existing systems by integrating NASA satellite and model-based land surface and weather products, NASS’ wealth of internal crop progress and condition data and Cropland Data Layers (CDL), and the Farm Service Agency’s (FSA) Common Land Units (CLU). The system, using service-oriented architecture and web service technologies, will automatically produce and disseminate quantitative national crop progress maps and associated decision support data at 250-m resolution, as well as summary reports to support NASS and worldwide users in their decision-making. It will provide overall and specific crop progress for individual crops from the state level down to CLU field level to meet different users’ needs on all known croplands. This will greatly enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the NASS aggregated crop condition data and charts of and provides objective and scientific evidence and guidance for the

  4. C3 glomerulopathy: consensus report

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Matthew C; D'Agati, Vivette D; Nester, Carla M; Smith, Richard J; Haas, Mark; Appel, Gerald B; Alpers, Charles E; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bedrosian, Camille; Braun, Michael; Doyle, Mittie; Fakhouri, Fadi; Fervenza, Fernando C; Fogo, Agnes B; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Gale, Daniel P; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Griffin, Gene; Harris, Claire L; Holers, V Michael; Johnson, Sally; Lavin, Peter J; Medjeral-Thomas, Nicholas; Paul Morgan, B; Nast, Cynthia C; Noel, Laure-Hélène; Peters, D Keith; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Servais, Aude; Sethi, Sanjeev; Song, Wen-Chao; Tamburini, Paul; Thurman, Joshua M; Zavros, Michael; Cook, H Terence

    2013-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is a recently introduced pathological entity whose original definition was glomerular pathology characterized by C3 accumulation with absent or scanty immunoglobulin deposition. In August 2012, an invited group of experts (comprising the authors of this document) in renal pathology, nephrology, complement biology, and complement therapeutics met to discuss C3 glomerulopathy in the first C3 Glomerulopathy Meeting. The objectives were to reach a consensus on: the definition of C3 glomerulopathy, appropriate complement investigations that should be performed in these patients, and how complement therapeutics should be explored in the condition. This meeting report represents the current consensus view of the group. PMID:24172683

  5. NITROGEN FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of N fertilization and irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Emissions were monitored from several irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 246 kg N/ha) during the 2006 growing season and N rates of 0 and 246 ...

  6. MODELING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM BIOENERGY CROPPING SYSTEMS IN PENNSYLVANIA USING DAYCENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the net global warming potential (GWP) of energy use is a major factor driving interest in biofuels. Bioenergy cropping systems vary in contribution to the GWP due to the crop yield and resulting quantity of fossil fuels displaced, quantity and quality of C added to the soil, feedstock conv...

  7. Development of early and late blight under different cropping systems and irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop and soil management may influence development and control of early and late blight; however, their effects are not well documented. From 2006-2008, we evaluated the effects of cropping system and irrigation on incidence and severity of early and late blight of potato, and on microclimatic param...

  8. Simulating Alternative Dryland Rotational Cropping Systems in the Central Great Plains with RZWQM2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term crop rotation effects on crop water use and yield have been investigated in the Central Great Plains since the 1990s. System models are needed to synthesize these long-term results for making management decisions and for transferring localized data to other conditions. The objectives of th...

  9. Yields in stripper header vs conventional header in dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in crop residue quality can impact the amount of soil water storage in semi-arid no-till systems of the West Central Great Plains. Using a stripper header as opposed to a conventional-reel type header to harvest small grains impacts the quality of the crop residue left in the field. Pr...

  10. Potential to develop crops to contribute to food security conservation, and sustainable systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As estimated, agricultural productivity needs to be increased by 70 percent or more by 2050 in order to meet the world’s food demand as global population increases. In the last few decades, improving agronomic traits in crops and efficiency in crop system management are two of the key components tha...

  11. Assimilating Leaf Area Index Estimates from Remote Sensing into the Simulations of a Cropping Systems Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial extrapolation of cropping systems models for regional crop growth and water use assessment and farm-level precision management has been limited by the vast model input requirements and the model sensitivity to parameter uncertainty. Remote sensing has been proposed as a viable source of spat...

  12. The effect of cropping systems and irrigation management on development of potato early blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop and soil management may modify canopy and belowground microclimate. However, their effects on potential development and control of early blight are not well documented. Crop management systems [Status Quo (SQ), Soil Conserving (SC), Soil Improving (SI), Disease Suppressive (DS), and Continuou...

  13. Spring wheat production and associated pests in conventional and diversified cropping systems in north central Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers in the northern Plains are diversifying and intensifying traditional wheat-based cropping systems by reducing summer fallow and including legume and oilseed crops. This study examined the influence of diversification and intensification on spring wheat yield and quality, and associated ins...

  14. The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of…

  15. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  16. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Economics for Irrigated Cropping Systems in Northeastern Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent soil and crop management technologies have potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. However, these management strategies must be profitable if they are to be adopted by producers. The economic feasibility of reducing net greenhouse gas emissions in irrigated cropping systems was eva...

  17. Development of an integration sensor and instrumentation system for measuring crop conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture requires reliable technology to acquire accurate information on crop conditions. Based on this information, the amount of fertilizers and pesticides for the site-specific crop management can be optimized. A ground-based integrated sensor and instrumentation system was developed...

  18. Utilizing cover crop mulches to reduce tillage in organic systems in the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic sytems in the southeast offer unique challenges and solutions due to regional soil and climate characterized by highly weather soil types, high precipitation, and the capacity to grow cover crops in the winter. Recently high-residue cover crops and conservation tillage systems have increased...

  19. Utilizing Cover Crop Mulches to Reduce TIllage in Organic Systems in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crop roller-crimper trials have been conducted across the southeastern U.S. during the past decade. Regional climatic conditions make the system particularly attractive but also pose their own challenges. Winter annual cover crops productivity can exceed 8 Mg ha-1 (dry weight) for rye (Secale ...

  20. The effects of combined cover crop termination and planting in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, cover crop termination and cash crop planting can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field experiment merging cover...

  1. Agronomic & entomological results from 7 years of dryland cropping systems research at Briggsdale, Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryland crop production in the semi-arid Great Plains is limited by both the quantity and timing of precipitation. Sustainable dryland cropping systems maximize precipitation use efficiency by managing precipitation capture, storage, and use. Pest management approaches are also critical for efficie...

  2. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of dryland cropping systems in the U.S. Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Great Plains contain significant expanses of agricultural land dedicated to dryland cropping. Dryland cropping systems in the region that sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) and minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can serve to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of U.S. agriculture....

  3. TILLAGE AND ROTATION EFFECTS ON LUPIN IN DOUBLE-CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful introduction of a new crop into a region requires that basic crop management parameters be determined and provided to producers through an information extension system. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was cultivated in the southeastern USA from 1930-1950 on up to 1 million ha, primarily a...

  4. Fertilizer induced losses of nitrous oxide gas from Montana dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilization to crops contributes a significant portion of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. This information is, however, lacking in the dryland cropping system in the northern Great Plains. Soil N2O and methane (CH4) fluxes from May to No...

  5. SOIL ORGANIC CARBON AND NITROGEN FRACTIONS IN TEMPERATE ALLEY CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alley cropping may promote greater sequestration of soil organic carbon. The objective of this study was to examine spatial variability of soil organic C and N fractions relative to tree rows in established alley cropping systems in north central Missouri. Soils were collected to a depth of 30 cm fr...

  6. Climate change impacts on dryland cropping systems in the central Great Plains, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural systems models are essential tools to assess potential climate change (CC) impacts on crop production and help guide policy decisions. In this study, impacts of GCM projected CC on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow (WF), wheat-corn-fallow (WCF), and wheat-corn-millet (WCM) at Akro...

  7. A Crop Simulation Model for Prediction of Yield and Fate of Nitrogen in Irrigated Potato Rotation Cropping System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models are valuable tools to evaluate the soil processes, crop growth and production under varied agroclimatic and management conditions. In this study, an upgraded potato crop growth simulation model (CSPotato) was integrated with a multi-year, multi-crop simulation model (CropSystVB)....

  8. Effect of intercropping period management on runoff and erosion in a maize cropping system.

    PubMed

    Laloy, Eric; Bielders, C L

    2010-01-01

    The management of winter cover crops is likely to influence their performance in reducing runoff and erosion during the intercropping period that precedes spring crops but also during the subsequent spring crop. This study investigated the impact of two dates of destruction and burial of a rye (Secale cereale L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cover crop on runoff and erosion, focusing on a continuous silage maize (Zea mays L.) cropping system. Thirty erosion plots with various intercrop management options were monitored for 3 yr at two sites. During the intercropping period, cover crops reduced runoff and erosion by more than 94% compared with untilled, post-maize harvest plots. Rough tillage after maize harvest proved equally effective as a late sown cover crop. There was no effect of cover crop destruction and burial dates on runoff and erosion during the intercropping period, probably because rough tillage for cover crop burial compensates for the lack of soil cover. During two of the monitored maize seasons, it was observed that plots that had been covered during the previous intercropping period lost 40 to 90% less soil compared with maize plots that had been left bare during the intercropping period. The burial of an aboveground cover crop biomass in excess of 1.5 t ha(-1) was a necessary, yet not always sufficient, condition to induce a residual effect. Because of the possible beneficial residual effect of cover crop burial on erosion reduction, the sowing of a cover crop should be preferred over rough tillage after maize harvest. PMID:20400595

  9. Noah-MP-Crop: Enhancing cropland representation in the community land surface modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Chen, F.; Barlage, M. J.; Zhou, G.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Croplands are important in land-atmosphere interactions and in modifying local and regional weather and climate. Despite their importance, croplands are poorly represented in the current version of the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/ Noah land-surface modeling system, resulting in significant surface temperature and humidity biases across agriculture- dominated regions of the United States. This study aims to improve the WRF weather forecasting and regional climate simulations during the crop growing season by enhancing the representation of cropland in the Noah-MP land model. We introduced dynamic crop growth parameterization into Noah-MP and evaluated the enhanced model (Noah-MP-Crop) at both the field and regional scales with multiple crop biomass datasets, surface fluxes and soil moisture/temperature observations. We also integrated a detailed cropland cover map into WRF, enabling the model to simulate corn and soybean field across the U.S. Great Plains. Results show marked improvement in the Noah-MP-Crop performance in simulating leaf area index (LAI), crop biomass, soil temperature, and surface fluxes. Enhanced cropland representation is not only crucial for improving weather forecasting but can also help assess potential impacts of weather variability on regional hydrometeorology and crop yields. In addition to its applications to WRF, Noah-MP-Crop can be applied in high-spatial-resolution regional crop yield modeling and drought assessments

  10. Nematode Numbers and Crop Yield in a Fenamiphos-Treated Sweet Corn-Sweet Potato-Vetch Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Glaze, N. C.; Chalfant, R. B.; Golden, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet corn and sweet potato as affected by the nematicide fenamiphos, in a sweet corn-sweet potato-vetch cropping system, were determined in a 5-year test (1981-85). Sweet potato was the best host of Meloidogyne incognita of these three crops. Fenamiphos 15G (6.7 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15 cm of the soil layer before planting of each crop increased (P ≤ 0.05) yields of sweet corn in 1981 and 1982 and sweet potato number 1 grade in 1982 and 1983. Yield of sweet corn and numbers of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) in the soil each month were negatively correlated from planting (r = - 0.47) to harvest (r = -0.61) in 1982. Yield of number 1 sweet potato was inversely related to numbers of J2 in the soil in July-October 1982 and July-September 1983. Yield of cracked storage roots was positively related to the numbers of J2 in the soil on one or more sampling dates in all years except 1985. Some factor(s), such as microbial degradation, resistant M. incognita development, or environment, reduced the effect of fenamiphos. PMID:19283032