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Sample records for caballo fino chilote

  1. Construction of chromosome markers from the Lake Victoria cichlid Paralabidochromis chilotes and their application to comparative mapping.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, A; Terai, Y; Kobayashi, N; Yoshida, K; Suzuki, M; Nakanishi, A; Matsuda, Y; Watanabe, M; Okada, N

    2014-01-01

    Cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes are known as a spectacular example of adaptive radiation in vertebrates. Four linkage maps have been constructed to identify the genes responsible for adaptation and speciation, and the genetic linkages of those genes are assumed to play an important role during adaptive evolution. However, it is difficult to analyze such linkages because the linkage groups of one species do not match well with those of the other species. Chromosome markers are a powerful tool for the direct identification of linkage homology between different species. We used information about the linkage map of the Lake Malawi cichlid (Labeotropheus fuelleborni/Metriaclima zebra) to isolate bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the BAC library of Paralabidochromis chilotes, Lake Victoria. We identified 18 of 22 P. chilotes chromosomes by single- and multi-color BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization using 19 BAC clones. Comparative mapping with the chromosome markers of P. chilotes in Astatotilapia burtoni (2n = 40) from Lake Tanganyika revealed the chromosome rearrangements that have occurred in this lineage. These chromosome markers will be useful for delineating the process of genome and chromosome evolution in African species. PMID:24217467

  2. CABALLO AND POLVADERA ROADLESS AREAS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manley, Kim; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey has been conducted for the Caballo and Polvadera Roadless Areas, Los Alamos and Rio Arriba Counties, New Mexico. The rocks in the study areas are chiefly volcanic with minor volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or fossil fuel resources in the areas. There has been no mining activity within the roadless areas and chemical analyses of stream-sediment samples show no significant anomalous concentrations of metals. There has been some interest in geothermal resources near the Polvadera Roadless Area and a KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area) extends into the southwestern corner of the area. This area has been classified as having probable geothermal-resource potential.

  3. Infectious Maize rayado fino virus from cloned cDNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is the type member of the marafiviruses within the family Tymoviridae. A cDNA clone from which infectious RNA can be transcribed was produced from a US isolate of MRFV (MRFV-US). Infectivity of transcripts derived from cDNA clones was demonstrated by infection of mai...

  4. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Maize rayado fino virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) causes one of the most important virus diseases of maize in regions of Mexico, Central and South America, where it causes moderate to severe yield losses. The virus is found from the southern United States. to northern Argentina where its vector, the maize leafhopper D...

  5. Standardization of Meteorological Data from FINO Offshore Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiding, Tina; Bastigkeit, Ilona; Bégué, Friederike; Gates, Lydia; Herklotz, Kai; Müller, Stefan; Neumann, Thomas; Schwenk, Patrick; Senet, Christian; Tinz, Birger; Wilts, Friedrich

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate conditions for offshore wind power generation in the German coastal waters, three research platforms were constructed in the North Sea (FINO1 and 3) and the Baltic Sea (FINO2). Measurement masts at each offshore platform are equipped with a range of meteorological sensors at heights of 30 to 100 m above sea level. Standardized analysis and interpretation of the data is necessary to compare the results of the different platforms and will improve the knowledge of the marine ambient conditions at the three locations. International Electrotechnical Commission Standards (IEC) cannot always be applied as some requirements are not applicable to offshore masts e.g. due to the wake of the structure. In the FINO-Wind project, therefore, a standardization method is developed. Recorded measurement data are checked automatically on the basis of a comprehensive quality control. The routine starts with a formal check, followed by climatological, temporal, repetition, and consistency checks. After successful completion of each sequence, the data are assigned standardized quality flags. By default, 10-minute data are processed. A special focus is on mast effects on the wind data of the three masts due to the different shapes of the construction (square or triangular shapes and different boom structures). These effects are investigated in comparison with wind tunnel measurements, LiDAR, Computational Fluid Dynamics calculations, and a 'uniform ambient flow mast correction' method. An adjustment for such effects will be applied to all wind data. The comparison of sensor equipment, its installation and orientation as well as of the mast constructions will lead to suggestions on how wind measurements at offshore platforms mast can be improved. The research project FINO-Wind is funded under the 'Wind Energy' initiative of the German Federal Ministry for the Economic Affairs and Energy for the period 2013 to 2015. For further information see www.dwd.de/fino-wind.

  6. Mapping interactions between the RNA chaperone FinO and its RNA targets

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, David C.; Tsutakawa, Susan; Tainer, John A.; Frost, Laura S.; Glover, J. N. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is regulated by two-component repression comprising the antisense RNA FinP, and its protein co-factor FinO. FinO mediates base-pairing of FinP to the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of traJ mRNA, which leads to translational inhibition of the transcriptional activator TraJ and subsequent down regulation of conjugation genes. Yet, little is known about how FinO binds to its RNA targets or how this interaction facilitates FinP and traJ mRNA pairing. Here, we use solution methods to determine how FinO binds specifically to its minimal high affinity target, FinP stem–loop II (SLII), and its complement SLIIc from traJ mRNA. Ribonuclease footprinting reveals that FinO contacts the base of the stem and the 3′ single-stranded tails of these RNAs. The phosphorylation or oxidation of the 3′-nucleotide blocks FinO binding, suggesting FinO binds the 3′-hydroxyl of its RNA targets. The collective results allow the generation of an energy-minimized model of the FinO–SLII complex, consistent with small-angle X-ray scattering data. The repression complex model was constrained using previously reported cross-linking data and newly developed footprinting results. Together, these data lead us to propose a model of how FinO mediates FinP/traJ mRNA pairing to down regulate bacterial conjugation. PMID:21278162

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of mercury in Caballo and Elephant Butte Reservoirs, Sierra County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, C.A.; Canavan, M.

    1998-05-01

    Caballo and Elephant Butte reservoirs are located in south-central New Mexico of the Rio Grande. The reservoirs are managed together for flood control and irrigation. As a result, Caballo Reservoir undergoes seasonal water volume fluctuations creating large littoral or shallow areas. Water and sediment samples were collected monthly for one year (July 1995 to June 1996) in Caballo Reservoir to examine spatial and temporal variability of total mercury (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg). Concentrations of THg and MMHg were greatest in water and sediments at the site located in the seasonally flooded area (Palomas) compared to five sites in deep water. In contrast, concentrations of MMHg from the five site were at or below 1.0 ng/g. The percentages of THg in the MMHg form was greatest in sediment collected from the Palomas site from September 1995 to June 1996 (5.4-33.8%) compared to sediment from the five sites in deep water. By October 1995, a site above Caballo Reservoir in the Rio Grande had greater concentrations of dissolved MMHg (0.508 ng/L) than the Palomas site (0.411 ng/L). The presence of a potential source of contamination upriver, in addition to a series of unrelated events (fire and late summer rains), precipitated a second study from July 1996 to June 1997. Thus, the second year was initiated to determine the sources of THg and MMHg entering Caballo Reservoir.

  8. N. meningitidis 1681 is a member of the FinO family of RNA chaperones.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaulk, S.; Lu, J.; Tan, K.; Arthur, D.; Edwards, R.; Frost, L.; Joachimiak, A.; Glover, J.

    2010-11-01

    The conjugative transfer of F-like plasmids between bacteria is regulated by the plasmid-encoded RNA chaperone, FinO, which facilitates sense - antisense RNA interactions to regulate plasmid gene expression. FinO was thought to adopt a unique structure, however many putative homologs have been identified in microbial genomes and are considered members of the FinO-conjugation-repressor superfamily. We were interested in determining whether other members were also able to bind RNA and promote duplex formation, suggesting that this motif does indeed identify a putative RNA chaperone. We determined the crystal structure of the N. meningitidis MC58 protein NMB1681. It revealed striking similarity to FinO, with a conserved fold and a large, positively charged surface that could function in RNA interactions. Using assays developed to study FinO-FinP sRNA interactions, NMB1681, like FinO, bound tightly to FinP RNA stem-loops with short 5-foot and 3-foot single-stranded tails but not to ssRNA. It also was able to catalyze strand exchange between an RNA duplex and a complementary single-strand, and facilitated duplexing between complementary RNA hairpins. Finally, NMB1681 was able to rescue a finO deficiency and repress F plasmid conjugation. This study strongly suggests that NMB1681 is a FinO-like RNA chaperone that likely regulates gene expression through RNA-based mechanisms in N. meningitidis.

  9. Maize rayado fino virus capsid proteins assemble into virus-like particles in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV; genus Marafivirus; family Tymoviridae) is a small spherical plant virus that contains two components: empty shells and complete virus particles (encapsidating the 6.3 kb genomic RNA). Virions are approximately 30 nm in diameter and composed of two serologically related...

  10. Evaluating the silencing suppressor activity of proteins encoded by maize rayado fino virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), the type member of the genus Marafivirus, family Tymoviridae, is transmitted in a persistent, circulative manner by leafhoppers of the genus Dalbulus. Symptoms of MRFV infection on leaves of its maize host are small chlorotic spots that coalesce into short stripes. T...

  11. Partial Characterization of Maize Rayado Fino Virus Isolates From Ecuador: Phylogenetic Analysis Supports A Central American Origin of the Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) infects maize and appears to be restricted to, yet widespread in, the Americas. MRFV was previously unreported from Ecuador. Maize plants exhibiting symptoms of MRFV infection were collected at the Santa Catalina experiment station in Quito, Ecuador. RT-PCR reactions ...

  12. Presence of a polyA tail at the 3’-end of Maize rayado fino virus RNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is the type member of the genus Marafivirus in the family Tymoviridae, yet is distinct from other members of the genus in that its genome reportedly lacks a poly(A) tail at the 3’-terminus. Using naïve and targeted PCR-based approaches, we now show that the MRFV genom...

  13. ORF43 of Maize rayado fino virus is dispensable for systemic infection of maize and transmission by leafhoppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) possesses an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein with predicted mass of 43 kDa (ORF43) that has been postulated to be a viral movement protein. Using a clone of MRFV (pMRFV-US) from which infectious RNA can be produced, point mutations were introduced to eithe...

  14. The Villeta-Caballos( ) petroleum system of the Neiva Area, upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Buitrago, J. )

    1993-02-01

    The Villeta-Caballos( ) petroleum system of the Neiva area covers 5120 km[sup 2] and includes 18 fields with ultimate recoverable reserves of 83.8[times]10*6 m[sup 3] (527 million bbl) of oil and 5.7[times]10*9 m[sup 3] (201 billion ft[sup 3]) of gas. Sedimentary rocks range in age from Aptian through Holocene, and were deposited in rift, margin-sag, and foreland basins. The hydrocarbons were sourced mainly from two intervals within the Albian-Santonian Villeta Formation and migrated from the footwall of the Chusma fault and the center of the Neiva syncline beginning at the end of the Oligocene to the present. The two main reservoirs are Cretaceous sandstones of the Caballos and Monserrate formations. Secondary reservoirs of significance are the Miocene fluvial sandstones of the Honda Group. The traps are mainly structures associated with the formation of a fold and thrust belt which began in the Oligocene and is still active. The system extends in time from the Aptian (-110 Ma) to the present. The first event was the deposition of the lower Caballos reservoir. The source rock was deposited a few million years later and reached maturity in synchronism with the formation of structural traps during the last 25 m.y. Destruction of some of the accumulations, by uplift and erosion in the fold belt, started in the Miocene. The volume of the hydrocarbons generated by the system was calculated using an average TOC content of 2.1 wt% for 235 m of total source interval in two intervals, and an area of mature source of 1650 km[sup 2]. A hydrocarbon generation of 325 mgHC/gTOC was used based on the Hydrogen Index measurements of immature Villeta source rock and a hydrocarbon generation algorithm. The efficiency of the system and the percentage of hydrocarbons generated that are present in discovered traps was determined to be about 10%.

  15. Variability of geographically distinct isolates of maize rayado fino virus in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hammond, R W; Kogel, R; Ramirez, P

    1997-12-01

    We have examined the molecular epidemiology of the leafhopper-borne maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) in Latin America. The coat protein gene and 3' non-translated region of 14 isolates of MRFV collected from Latin America and the United States were sequenced and phylogenetic relationships examined. The nucleotide sequence revealed remarkable conservation, with a sequence similarity of 88-99%. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data obtained from a 633 bp fragment showed that MRFV has diverged into three main clusters, i.e. the geographically distinct northern and southern isolates and the Colombian isolates. Significant differences between the isolates collected from Colombia, previously named maize rayado colombiana virus, based upon differences in symptomatology and serological relationships to MRFV, and the other MRFV isolates, provides additional evidence supporting its designation as a unique strain of MRFV. PMID:9400964

  16. Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines

    PubMed Central

    Zea, L.; Moyano, L.; Ruiz, M. J.; Medina, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain) was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy), describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors in the unaged wines, 50 in the 1.5-years-old wines and 59, 61 and 69 in the wines aged 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years, respectively. According to the frequency of the perceived aromas, the fruity and empyreumatic series were the most characteristic odorant series. By exception of chemical, floral and balsamic series without changes during aging of the wines, the remainder series increased their participation during the aging, mainly the fruity, empyreumatic, and fatty series. PMID:20689702

  17. Application of an elastic 2D tube-waveform tomography to estimate the shear modulus in the vicinity of the FINO3 offshore platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn, D.; Wilken, D.; Rabbel, W.

    2012-04-01

    The FINO3 project is aimed at the construction of an offshore research platform in the north-sea, hosting research projects dealing with offshore wind energy topics. As part of FINO3 our sub-project deals with the development of new seismic acquisition and inversion concepts for offshore-building foundation soil analysis. We are focussed on the determination of seismic parameters and structural information of the building plot of the platform. Possible changes of the shear modulus of the sediments in the vicinity of the FINO3 monopile due to mechanic loads on the platform are estimated by a tube-waveform tomography. The tube-waves are excited by a hammer blow at the internal wall of the FINO3 monopile above the water line. The tube-waves are propagating through the water column and the sediments and are measured in situ by hydrophones at the external wall of the monopile. Homogenous long wavelength starting models for the waveform tomography are estimated using simple 2D finite difference models. Possible shear-wave velocity starting models range from 150-300 m/s. The resolution of the tube-waveform tomography is estimated by simple chequerboard and random media models. Additionally first results of the data application in the vicinity of the monopile are presented.

  18. Comparison of the evolution of low molecular weight phenolic compounds in typical Sherry wines: Fino, Amontillado, and Oloroso.

    PubMed

    García Moreno, M Valme; Barroso, Carmelo García

    2002-12-18

    Changes in the content of low molecular weight phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, aldehydes, and their esterified derivatives, tyrosol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde) during the aging of three different classes of Sherry wine, Fino, Oloroso, and Amontillado, have been studied. The samples studied were taken from each of the scales of the particular aging system applied to the three classes of wine. Clear differences were observed in the behavior of the low molecular weight phenolic in the three classes of wine. The wines subjected to oxidative aging presented a higher phenolic content overall, with the exception of the esterified derivatives of phenolic compounds that are mainly found in the samples that have not undergone any process of oxidation. MANOVA results confirmed that there are significant differences between all of the samples of the three types of wines. Using LDA, a classification of 100% of the samples has been made. PMID:12475270

  19. Modified Rice Straw as Adsorbent Material to Remove Aflatoxin B1 from Aqueous Media and as a Fiber Source in Fino Bread

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Sherif R.; El-Desouky, Tarek A.; Hussein, Ahmed M. S.; Mohamed, Sherif S.; Naguib, Khayria M.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current work are in large part the benefit of rice straw to be used as adsorbent material and natural source of fiber in Fino bread. The rice straw was subjected to high temperature for modification process and the chemical composition was carried out and the native rice straw contained about 41.15% cellulose, 20.46% hemicellulose, and 3.91% lignin while modified rice straw has 42.10, 8.65, and 5.81%, respectively. The alkali number was tested and showed an increase in the alkali consumption due to the modification process. The different concentrations of modified rice straw, aflatoxin B1, and pH were tested for removal of aflatoxin B1 from aqueous media and the maximum best removal was at 5% modified rice straw, 5 ng/mL aflatoxin B1, and pH 7. The modified rice straw was added to Fino bread at a level of 5, 10, and 15% and the chemical, rheological, baking quality, staling, and sensory properties were studied. Modified rice straw induced an increase of the shelf life and the produced Fino bread has a better consistency. PMID:26989411

  20. Modified Rice Straw as Adsorbent Material to Remove Aflatoxin B1 from Aqueous Media and as a Fiber Source in Fino Bread.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sherif R; El-Desouky, Tarek A; Hussein, Ahmed M S; Mohamed, Sherif S; Naguib, Khayria M

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current work are in large part the benefit of rice straw to be used as adsorbent material and natural source of fiber in Fino bread. The rice straw was subjected to high temperature for modification process and the chemical composition was carried out and the native rice straw contained about 41.15% cellulose, 20.46% hemicellulose, and 3.91% lignin while modified rice straw has 42.10, 8.65, and 5.81%, respectively. The alkali number was tested and showed an increase in the alkali consumption due to the modification process. The different concentrations of modified rice straw, aflatoxin B1, and pH were tested for removal of aflatoxin B1 from aqueous media and the maximum best removal was at 5% modified rice straw, 5 ng/mL aflatoxin B1, and pH 7. The modified rice straw was added to Fino bread at a level of 5, 10, and 15% and the chemical, rheological, baking quality, staling, and sensory properties were studied. Modified rice straw induced an increase of the shelf life and the produced Fino bread has a better consistency. PMID:26989411

  1. ORF43 of maize rayado fino virus is dispensable for systemic infection of maize and transmission by leafhoppers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Michael C; Weiland, John J; Todd, Jane; Stewart, Lucy R; Lu, Shunwen

    2016-04-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) possesses an open reading frame (ORF43) predicted to encode a 43 kDa protein (p43) that has been postulated to be a viral movement protein. Using a clone of MRFV (pMRFV-US) from which infectious RNA can be produced, point mutations were introduced to either prevent initiation from three potential AUG initiation codons near the 5'-end of ORF43 or prematurely terminate translation of ORF43. Inoculation of maize seed via vascular puncture inoculation (VPI) resulted in plants exhibiting symptoms typical of MRFV infection for all mutants tested. Furthermore, corn leafhoppers (Dalbulus maidis) transmitted the virus mutants to healthy plants at a frequency similar to that for wild-type MRFV-US. Viral RNA recovered from plants infected with mutants both prior to and after leafhopper transmission retained mutations blocking ORF43 expression. The results indicate that ORF43 of MRFV is dispensable for both systemic infection of maize and transmission by leafhoppers. PMID:26837893

  2. Trench investigation on the main strand of the Boconó fault in its central section, at Mesa del Caballo, Mérida Andes, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard M., Franck A.; Ollarves, Reinaldo; Bechtold, Michel; Díaz, Gustavo; Beck, Christian; Carrillo, Eduardo; Pantosti, Daniela; Diederix, Hans

    2008-11-01

    The Mesa del Caballo trench assessment confirms the Holocene activity of the main strand of the Boconó fault at the Apartaderos pull-apart basin. Fifteen earthquakes, of which fourteen have been radiocarbon dated, have been recognized, spanning the last 20,500 yr. Recurrence intervals of these ≥ 7 magnitude events are variable. The dominant mode of recurrence is 400-450 yr, and the second one is 900 yr. Eventually some events are 1400-1800 yr apart. We suspect that our seismic record may be incomplete. This could be easily justified by several conditions: most of the earthquake recognitions is based on open-crack filling and they superpose spatially (eventually masking or destroying older fills), trenching may miss some events because the fault is made of en echelon Riedel shears, and a short return period may lead to faint differences between paleosoils few hundreds years of age apart. This trench also images an older activity of the fault, as evidenced by plentiful earthquake-triggered liquefaction features, as well as slumping and rotational sliding. By comparing paleoseismic results between the Morro de Los Hoyos and Mesa del Caballo trenches, it appears that both fault strands bounding the Apartaderos pull-apart basin move simultaneously. Besides, the main strand also coseismically slips twice in between those common events. In other words, the seismic scenario could be that the northern strand recurs every 1200-1350 yr while the southern does every 400-450 yr. This is also in agreement with a respective slip share of 25 and 75% of the 9-10 mm/yr average slip of the Boconó fault in the Mérida Andes central sector.

  3. Water quality, discharge, and groundwater levels in the Palomas, Mesilla, and Hueco Basins in New Mexico and Texas from below Caballo Reservoir, New Mexico, to Fort Quitman, Texas, 1889-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKean, Sarah E.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Thomas, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, compiled data from various sources to develop a dataset that can be used to conduct an assessment of the total dissolved solids in surface water and groundwater of the Palomas, Mesilla, and Hueco Basins in New Mexico and Texas, from below Caballo Reservoir, N. Mex., to Fort Quitman, Tex. Data include continuous surface-water discharge records at various locations on the Rio Grande; surface-water-quality data for the Rio Grande collected at selected locations in the Palomas, Mesilla, and Hueco Basins; groundwater levels and groundwater-quality data collected from selected wells in the Palomas and Mesilla Basins; and data from several seepage investigations conducted on the Rio Grande and selected drains in the Mesilla Basin.

  4. Maize rayado fino virus-like particles expressed in tobacco plants: a new platform for cysteine selective bioconjugation peptide display

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of plant virus coat proteins to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs), coupled with unique properties including three-dimensional structures, orthogonal reactivities, suitability for genetic manipulation and chemical bio-conjugation, provide potential utility in nanotechnology a...

  5. Evaluation of sediments in the Middle Rio Grande, Elephant Butte Reservoir, and Caballo Reservoir as potential sources for toxic materials. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, C.J.; Brandvold, D.K.; Lynch, T.R.; Brandvold, L.A.

    1983-03-01

    The distribution of a large number of priority pollutant trace metal and organic species in water and sediments in surface waters in the Middle Rio Grande region of New Mexico has been surveyed. In addition to sediments and water, limnological data was collected on the reservoirs, radionuclide and particle size analysis was performed on the sediments and a limited number of fish were surveyed for trace metals and organics. The sediments carry elevated levels of the metals Hg, Cd, As, Se, and U and fish may be biomagnifying Hg, Pb, and V through the food chain. Detectable levels of 18 different chlorinated organic pesticides were found in samples of water and bottom sediments.

  6. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  7. 76 FR 58837 - Notice of Intent to Accept Proposals, Select Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Intent to Accept Proposals, Select Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development at Caballo Dam, Rio Grande Project, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation,...

  8. Interference Effects as a Function of Semantic Similarity in the Translation Recognition Task in Bilinguals of Catalan and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldovan, Cornelia D.; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Demestre, Josep; Ferre, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Previous evidence has shown that word pairs that are either related in form (e.g., "ruc-berro"; donkey-watercress) or very closely semantically related (e.g., "ruc-caballo", donkey-horse) produce interference effects in a translation recognition task (Ferre et al., 2006; Guasch et al., 2008). However, these effects are not observed when the words…

  9. An assessment of cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology in part of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming; a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, P.R.; Bloyd, R.M.; Daddow, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality are involved in a cooperative effort to assess the probable cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology of a part of the Powder River Structural Basin in Wyoming. It was assumed that the principal impacts on the ground-water system due to mining will occur in the relatively shallow aquifers which can be grouped into three homogeneous aquifers, namely, the Wyodak coal, the overburden, and the under burden. Emphasis of this report is on the results of analysis of surface-water resources in the Caballo Creek drainage. A surface-water model of the Caballo Creek drainage was developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran model to help assess the impacts of mining activities on streamflow. The Caballo Creek drainage was divided into 10 land segments and 6 stream reaches in the modeling process. Three simulation runs show little, if any, change in streamflow between pre- and post-mining conditions and very little change between pre-mining and during-mining conditions. The principal reason for the absence of change is the high infiltration rate used in the model for all three conditions. (USGS)

  10. Transmission of Switchgrass mosaic virus by Graminella aureovitatta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass mosaic virus (SwMV) was identified in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and was proposed as a new marafivirus based on its genome sequence and comparison with its closest relative, Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), a type member of the genus, Marafivirus. MRFV only infects maize (Zea mays) an...

  11. Complete genome sequence of switchgrass mosaic virus, a member of a proposed new species in the genus Marafivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of a virus recently detected in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was determined and was found to be closely related to Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), genus Marafivirus, family Tymoviridae. The genomic RNA is 6408 nucleotides long, excluding the poly (A) tail, and encodes...

  12. Exposure to a combination of heat and hyperoxia during cycling at submaximal intensity does not alter thermoregulatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, M; Reed, JL; Kohl-Bareis, M; Holmberg, H-C; Sperlich, B

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that breathing hyperoxic air (FinO2 = 0.40) while exercising in a hot environment exerts negative effects on the total tissue level of haemoglobin concentration (tHb); core (Tcore) and skin (Tskin) temperatures; muscle activity; heart rate; blood concentration of lactate; pH; partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide; arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2); and perceptual responses. Ten well-trained male athletes cycled at submaximal intensity at 21°C or 33°C in randomized order: first for 20 min while breathing normal air (FinO2 = 0.21) and then 10 min with FinO2 = 0.40 (HOX). At both temperatures, SaO2 and PaO2, but not tHb, were increased by HOX. Tskin and perception of exertion and thermal discomfort were higher at 33°C than 21°C (p < 0.01), but independent of FinO2. Tcore and muscle activity were the same under all conditions (p > 0.07). Blood lactate and heart rate were higher at 33°C than 21°C. In conclusion, during 30 min of submaximal cycling at 21°C or 33°C, Tcore, Tskin and Tbody, tHb, muscle activity and ratings of perceived exertion and thermal discomfort were the same under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Accordingly, breathing hyperoxic air (FinO2 = 0.40) did not affect thermoregulation under these conditions. PMID:26929473

  13. Exposure to a combination of heat and hyperoxia during cycling at submaximal intensity does not alter thermoregulatory responses.

    PubMed

    Zinner, C; Krueger, M; Reed, J L; Kohl-Bareis, M; Holmberg, H-C; Sperlich, B

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that breathing hyperoxic air (FinO2 = 0.40) while exercising in a hot environment exerts negative effects on the total tissue level of haemoglobin concentration (tHb); core (Tcore) and skin (Tskin) temperatures; muscle activity; heart rate; blood concentration of lactate; pH; partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide; arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2); and perceptual responses. Ten well-trained male athletes cycled at submaximal intensity at 21°C or 33°C in randomized order: first for 20 min while breathing normal air (FinO2 = 0.21) and then 10 min with FinO2 = 0.40 (HOX). At both temperatures, SaO2 and PaO2, but not tHb, were increased by HOX. Tskin and perception of exertion and thermal discomfort were higher at 33°C than 21°C (p < 0.01), but independent of FinO2. Tcore and muscle activity were the same under all conditions (p > 0.07). Blood lactate and heart rate were higher at 33°C than 21°C. In conclusion, during 30 min of submaximal cycling at 21°C or 33°C, Tcore, Tskin and Tbody, tHb, muscle activity and ratings of perceived exertion and thermal discomfort were the same under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Accordingly, breathing hyperoxic air (FinO2 = 0.40) did not affect thermoregulation under these conditions. PMID:26929473

  14. Genes encoding putative natural killer cell C-type lectin receptors in teleostean fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akie; Mayer, Werner E.; Overath, Peter; Klein, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that express receptors specific for MHC class I molecules. The NK cell receptors belong to two structurally unrelated families, the killer cell Ig-like receptors and the killer cell C-type lectin receptors. We describe a cDNA clone derived from the bony (cichlid) fish Paralabidochromis chilotes and show that it encodes a protein related to the CD94/NK cell group 2 (NKG2) subfamily of the killer cell C-type lectin receptors. The gene encoding this receptor in a related species, Oreochromis niloticus, has a similar structure to the human CD94/NKG2 genes and is a member of a multigene cluster that resembles the mammalian NK cell gene complex. Thus, the CD94/NKG2 subfamily of NK cell receptors must have arisen before the divergence of fish and tetrapods and may have retained its function (possibly monitoring the expression of MHC class I molecules) for >400 million years. PMID:12802013

  15. A microsatellite-based genetic linkage map and putative sex-determining genomic regions in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yu; Nikaido, Masato; Kondo, Azusa; Suzuki, Hikoyu; Yoshida, Kohta; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-04-15

    Cichlid fishes in East Africa have undergone extensive adaptive radiation, which has led to spectacular diversity in their morphology and ecology. To date, genetic linkage maps have been constructed for several tilapias (riverine), Astatotilapia burtoni (Lake Tanganyika), and hybrid lines of Lake Malawi cichlids to facilitate genome-wide comparative analyses. In the present study, we constructed a genetic linkage map of the hybrid line of Lake Victoria cichlids, so that maps of cichlids from all the major areas of East Africa will be available. The genetic linkage map shown here is derived from the F2 progeny of an interspecific cross between Haplochromis chilotes and Haplochromis sauvagei and is based on 184 microsatellite and two single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Most of the microsatellite markers used in the present study were originally designed for other genetic linkage maps, allowing us to directly compare each linkage group (LG) among different cichlid groups. We found 25 LGs, the total length of which was 1133.2cM with an average marker spacing of about 6.09cM. Our subsequent linkage mapping analysis identified two putative sex-determining loci in cichlids. Interestingly, one of these two loci is located on cichlid LG5, on which the female heterogametic ZW locus and several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to adaptive evolution have been reported in Lake Malawi cichlids. We also found that V1R1 and V1R2, candidate genes for the fish pheromone receptor, are located very close to the recently detected sex-determining locus on cichlid LG5. The genetic linkage map study presented here may provide a valuable foundation for studying the chromosomal evolution of East African cichlids and the possible role of sex chromosomes in generating their genomic diversity. PMID:25639358

  16. Parallel speciation in Astyanax cave fish (Teleostei) in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Ulrike; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst

    2012-01-01

    We investigated differentiation processes in the Neotropical fish Astyanax that represents a model system for examining adaptation to caves, including regressive evolution. In particular, we analyzed microsatellite and mitochondrial data of seven cave and seven surface populations from Mexico to test whether the evolution of the cave fish represents a case of parallel evolution. Our data revealed that Astyanax invaded northern Mexico across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt at least three times and that populations of all three invasions adapted to subterranean habitats. Significant differentiation was found between the cave and surface populations. We did not observe gene flow between the strongly eye and pigment reduced old cave populations (Sabinos, Tinaja, Pachon) and the surface fish, even when syntopically occurring like in Yerbaniz cave. Little gene flow, if any, was found between cave populations, which are variable in eye and pigmentation (Micos, Chica, Caballo Moro caves), and surface fish. This suggests that the variability is due to their more recent origin rather than to hybridization. Finally, admixture of the young Chica cave fish population with nuclear markers from older cave fish demonstrates that gene flow between populations that independently colonized caves occurs. Thus, all criteria of parallel speciation are fulfilled. Moreover, the microsatellite data provide evidence that two co-occurring groups with small sunken eyes and externally visible eyes, respectively, differentiated within the partly lightened Caballo Moro karst window cave and might represent an example for incipient sympatric speciation. PMID:21963344

  17. Comparison of two carbonate mound sequences in the Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation, west Texas and southern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The El Paso Formations consists of four members, in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose McKelligon and Padre. Mounds in the McKelligon Member exposed in the southern Franklin Mountains were described by Toomey (1970). Most of these mounds are small but one large one is 5.8 m thick and about 13.7 m long in outcrop. The mound rock is chiefly bioclastic wackestone with minor packstone and boundstone. The varied fauna contains echinoderms, sponges and spicules, gastropods, trilobites, digitate algae, Nuia, Girvanella, Pulchrilamina, Calathium, and minor brachiopods and cephalopods. Intraclastic, bioclastic grainstone fills channels cut in the mounds. Similar, but smaller and less spectacular mounds occur in the McKelligon Member in the Florida, Big Hatchet, and Caballo Mountains, Lone Mountain, Cooke's Range, and elsewhere in southwestern New Mexico. A second type of mound is common in the upper part of the Hitt Canyon Member in the Cooke's Range, Red Hills, Caballo and Big Hatchet Mountains. These mounds also are typically small but one in the Red Hills is 13.7 m thick and about 30 m long in outcrop. The mound complex is about 75-80% SH-C and LLH-C stromatolite boundstone and bioclastic wackestone. The remaining 20-25% is bioclastic packstone and grainstone between the SH-C stromatolites and filling channels cut in the mound complex. The limited fauna contains small fragments of echinoderms, gastropods, trilobites, spicules, and Nuia.

  18. Selection of an autochthonous Saccharomyces strain starter for alcoholic fermentation of Sherry base wines.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Palero, María Jesús; Fierro-Risco, Jesús; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía; Valcárcel, Manuel J

    2013-06-01

    Several indigenous Saccharomyces strains from musts were isolated in the Jerez de la Frontera region, at the end of spontaneous fermentation, in order to select the most suitable autochthonous yeast starter, during the 2007 vintage. Five strains were chosen for their oenological abilities and fermentative kinetics to elaborate a Sherry base wine. The selected autochthonous strains were characterized by molecular methods: electrophoretic karyotype and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and by physiological parameters: fermentative power, ethanol production, sugar consumption, acidity and volatile compound production, sensory quality, killer phenotype, desiccation, and sulphur dioxide tolerance. Laboratory- and pilot-scale fermentations were conducted with those autochthonous strains. One of them, named J4, was finally selected over all others for industrial fermentations. The J4 strain, which possesses exceptional fermentative properties and oenological qualities, prevails in industrial fermentations, and becomes the principal biological agent responsible for winemaking. Sherry base wine, industrially manufactured by means of the J4 strain, was analyzed, yielding, together with its sensory qualities, final average values of 0.9 g/l sugar content, 13.4 % (v/v) ethanol content and 0.26 g/l volatile acidity content; apart from a high acetaldehyde production, responsible for the distinctive aroma of "Fino". This base wine was selected for "Fino" Sherry elaboration and so it was fortified; it is at present being subjected to biological aging by the so-called "flor" yeasts. The "flor" velum formed so far is very high quality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study covering from laboratory to industrial scale of characterization and selection of autochthonous starter intended for alcoholic fermentation in Sherry base wines. Since the 2010 vintage, the indigenous J4 strain is employed to industrially manufacture a

  19. Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón, R.; Calzada, M. D.

    The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3Π {g-> A3}Σ u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}Σ {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

  20. Trace-element characteristics of different pyrite types in Mesoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic placer deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koglin, Nikola; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Lawrie Minter, W. E.; Brätz, Helene

    2010-03-01

    A comparative in situ LA-ICP MS trace-element study on pyrite from three different, variably auriferous, Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic palaeoplacer deposits in the Ouro Fino Syncline (Quadrilátero Ferrífero; Brazil), the Elliot Lake area north of Lake Huron (SE Canada) and several deposits within the Witwatersrand Basin (South Africa) revealed systematic differences between morphologically different pyrite types and between the various palaeoplacer deposits. Especially the Ni and Au concentrations as well as Co/Ni and Mo/Ni ratios were found to be systematically different in detrital compact, detrital porous and post-sedimentary/hydrothermal pyrite grains from different source areas. High Co/Ni ratios and low Au concentrations are typical of post-sedimentary pyrite, which is hydrothermal in origin. In contrast, relatively low Co/Ni ratios and high Au contents characterise detrital porous banded and concentric pyrite grains (Au > 1 ppm), which are syn-sedimentary in origin. In the Elliot Lake area and the Witwatersrand Basin, detrital compact rounded pyrite is characterised by high Co/Ni ratios, which is in agreement with derivation from a hydrothermal source. Low Au concentrations in this pyrite type support the contention of the gold and the pyrite in these deposits coming from different source rocks. In contrast, derivation from an originally diagenetic pyrite is suggested for the detrital compact pyrite in the Ouro Fino Syncline because of low to intermediate Co/Ni ratios. High Au contents may indicate a genetic relationship between pyrite and gold there. Systematic differences exist between the three areas with respect to Au, Ni, Co, Mo and Cu distributions in detrital pyrite, which reflects differences in the provenance. A predominantly mafic/ultramafic source is indicated for the Ouro Fino, a felsic source for the Elliot Lake, and a mixed felsic-mafic provenance for the Witwatersrand pyrite populations. Independently of pyrite type, the higher Au endowment

  1. Devonian Novaculites as source of oil in Marathon-Ouachita thrust system

    SciTech Connect

    Zemmels, I.; Grizzle, P.L.; Walters, C.C.; Haney, F.R.

    1985-02-01

    The Arkansas Novaculite of southern Oklahoma and the Caballos Novaculite of west Texas (both Devonian) form fractured reservoirs in the Marathon-Ouachita thrust system. These formations were examined to ascertain their petroleum potential. Findings include the following. (1) The thermal maturity of the thrust system conforms to the maturity of the sequence that it has overthrust, suggesting that this allochthonous facies is not anomalously mature. (2) Shale units within the novaculites contain oil-prone organic matter in sufficient concentrations to constitute source rocks. (3) The composition of oils from Isom Springs field in southern Oklahoma and from McKay Creek field in west Texas is virtually identical and generally resembles Devonian oils in Oklahoma and west Texas. The authors concluded that the Devonian novaculites of the Marathon-Ouachita thrust system are self sourcing and do not require a fortuitous juxtaposition of source rocks of a different age to produce a commercial deposit.

  2. Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model (URGSIM)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-08-05

    URGSIM estimates the location of surface water and groundwater resources in the upper Rio Grande Basin between the Colorado-New Mexico state line, and Caballo Reservoir from 1975 - 2045. It is a mass balance hydrology model of the Upper Rio Grande surface water, groundwater, and water demand systems which runs at a monthly timestep from 1975-1999 in calibration mode, 2000 – 2004 in validation mode, and 2005 – 2045 in scenario analysis mode.

  3. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in Southern Spanish generous wines under the denomination of Origin "Jerez-Xérès-Sherry and 'manzanilla' Sanlúcar de Barrameda".

    PubMed

    Murillo-Arbizu, M Teresa; Amézqueta, Susana; González-Peñas, Elena; de Cerain, Adela López

    2010-05-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) has toxic effects in animals; the most relevant of them is nephrotoxicity. OTA has also been classified as a possible carcinogen for humans (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Therefore, exposure to OTA through contaminated food can represent health impairment to humans. The maximum permitted level for this mycotoxin in wine is 2.0 μg/L. The presence of OTA in Spanish wines produced using the traditional methods under the Denomination of Origin "Jerez-Xérès-Sherry andmanzanilla Sanlúcar de Barrameda" was evaluated by a High performance Liquid Chromatography method with fluorescence detection and immunoaffinity column purification. A recovery of 95.4% and a limit of detection and quantification of 0.009 μg/L and 0.02 μg/L respectively, were achieved. In manzanilla, fino, amontillado and oloroso wine, the mean OTA values were 0.042, 0.044, 0.144, and 0.319 μg/L, respectively. These levels are not different from other data given in the reference literature on white wines, although fino and manzanilla wines have very low OTA levels. PMID:22069625

  4. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in Southern Spanish Generous Wines under the Denomination of Origin “Jerez-Xérès-Sherry and ‘Manzanilla’ Sanlúcar de Barrameda”

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Arbizu, Mª Teresa; Amézqueta, Susana; González-Peñas, Elena; de Cerain, Adela López

    2010-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) has toxic effects in animals; the most relevant of them is nephrotoxicity. OTA has also been classified as a possible carcinogen for humans (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Therefore, exposure to OTA through contaminated food can represent health impairment to humans. The maximum permitted level for this mycotoxin in wine is 2.0 μg/L. The presence of OTA in Spanish wines produced using the traditional methods under the Denomination of Origin “Jerez-Xérès-Sherry and manzanilla Sanlúcar de Barrameda” was evaluated by a High performance Liquid Chromatography method with fluorescence detection and immunoaffinity column purification. A recovery of 95.4% and a limit of detection and quantification of 0.009 μg/L and 0.02 μg/L respectively, were achieved. In manzanilla, fino, amontillado and oloroso wine, the mean OTA values were 0.042, 0.044, 0.144, and 0.319 μg/L, respectively. These levels are not different from other data given in the reference literature on white wines, although fino and manzanilla wines have very low OTA levels. PMID:22069625

  5. Review Article: Storm Britta in 2006: offshore damage and large waves in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    The Britta storm of 31 October-1 November 2006 was a severe autumn storm that was particularly damaging for shipping and coastal flooding from storm surge effects along the southern North Sea. The main low pressure of the storm propagated from Scotland to southern Norway on 31 October, leading to a system of strong north winds that moved southward across North Sea over an 18 h period. A progression of ship and offshore platform difficulties were registered from the northern part of the North Sea from late on 31 October and culminated near the coasts of Germany and the Netherlands early on 1 November with a series of ship emergencies linked with large waves. In two separate incidents, unusually high waves broke the bridge windows of ships and necessitated emergency rescues, and a Dutch motor lifeboat experienced a triple capsize. In the southern North Sea, several gas production and research platforms experienced wave impact damage. The FINO1 offshore research platform, near the Dutch-German border, experienced some of the worst storm conditions with some structural damage. Its meteorological and oceanographic instrumentation give a unique profile of the severe met-ocean conditions during the storm. Two Waverider buoys at FINO1 and the nearby Dutch coastal site of Schiermonnikoog recorded groups of large waves at different times during the storm. These reports give insight into a little-reported rogue wave phenomenon that sometimes accompanies the "ground sea" conditions of the worst storms of the area.

  6. Knowledge and understanding of dissolved solids in the Rio Grande–San Acacia, New Mexico, to Fort Quitman, Texas, and plan for future studies and monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Anderholm, Scott K.; Hogan, James F.; Phillips, Fred M.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Witcher, James C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Falk, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    the Rio Grande study area. The pattern in dissolved-solids concentrations along the Rio Grande is one of increasing concentration with increasing distance downstream from Elephant Butte and Caballo Reservoirs. The concentration of dissolved solids in the Rio Grande doubles (approximately 500 to 1,000 mg/L) from below Elephant Butte Reservoir to El Paso and increases by more than a factor of 5 (approximately 500 to 3,200 mg/L) from below Elephant Butte Reservoir to Fort Quitman. Marked increases in the concentration of dissolved solids commonly coincide with contributions from agricultural drains, wastewater-treatment plants, regional groundwater, and upward-flowing saline groundwater. The greatest factor, from the surface-water system, in controlling dissolved solids in the Rio Grande is the amount of water that is being transported or stored. Annual variation in streamflow is influenced primarily by climate (precipitation and evaporation) and management of Elephant Butte and Caballo Reservoirs (water storage and release cycles). Seasonal variation in streamflow within the Rio Grande study area is generally categorized generally as irrigation (March–September) and nonirrigation (October–February) seasons; with streamflow in the Rio Grande is highest during the irrigation season and lowest during the nonirrigation season. Dissolved-solids loads during the irrigation season decrease between Leasburg and Fort Quitman primarily because of irrigation diversions and losses to the underlying alluvial aquifer. Conversely, dissolved-solids loads during the nonirrigation season increase between Caballo Dam and Fort Quitman primarily because of the inflow of dissolved solids from agricultural drains, wastewater-treatment plants, and groundwater with elevated concentrations of dissolved solids. Many studies have mass-balance budgets that account for the mass of dissolved solids transported along the Rio Grande. Results from mass-balance budgets developed for dissolved solids

  7. Correlation equation for the marine drag coefficient and wave steepness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Richard J.; Emeis, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    This work questions, starting from dimensional considerations, the generality of the belief that the marine drag coefficient levels off with increasing wind speed. Dimensional analysis shows that the drag coefficient scales with the wave steepness as opposed to a wave-age scaling. A correlation equation is employed here that uses wave steepness scaling at low aspect ratios (inverse wave steepnesses) and a constant drag coefficient at high aspect ratios. Invoked in support of the correlation are measurements sourced from the literature and at the FINO1 platform in the North Sea. The correlation equation is then applied to measurements recorded from buoys during the passage of hurricanes Rita, Katrina (2005) and Ike (2008). Results show that the correlation equation anticipates the expected levelling off in deeper water, but a drag coefficient more consistent with a Charnock type relation is also possible in more shallower water. Some suggestions are made for proceeding with a higher-order analysis than that conducted here.

  8. Sea surface wind measurement over offshore wind farm using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Lehner, Susanne; Brusch, Stephan; Ren, Yong-Zheng

    2011-11-01

    A TerraSAR-X Stripmap image over the North Sea shows significant spatial variations of sea surface wind field over the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus. In the present study, we demonstrate the tempting potential of using high resolution SAR to investigate spatial variations of sea surface wind field over the offshore wind farms. A newly developed X-band Geophysical Model Function (GMF) XMOD2 is applied on the TS-X data to retrieve sea surface wind speed. By comparing the TS-X retrieved sea surface wind field to results of the DWD wind field, in situ observations on the FiNO platform, as well as the satellite measurement derived from the polarimetric microwave radiometer WindSat, it is found that the SAR estimated wind field not only agrees well with other measurements, but also presents the fine-scale features of sea surface wind field over the offshore wind farm.

  9. A simple alternative to K-theory in the stable boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Richard; Emeis, Stefan; Canadillas, Beatriz; Neumann, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Arguments are presented in favour of an alternative to an eddy-viscosity approach (K-theory) in stable stratification. These arguments suggest rather a drag coefficient formulation which is to be applied as a function of the bulk Richardson number throughout the boundary layer. Traditionally, application of the drag coefficient has been confined to the surface layer. Here it is demonstrated that the drag coefficient approach gives good agreement with both on- (CASES-99) and offshore (FINO1) measurements. The approach is simple in that it reduces to a single analytical equation for the resultant wind speed tendency. This is then implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting model where an improved calculation of wind speed over the existing eddy viscosity approach is shown, particularly with regards to low level jets.

  10. Improving current forecasts for the German Bight using HF radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Stanev, Emil; Staneva, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Three HF radar stations located at the islands of Wangerooge and Sylt as well as on the mainland in Büsum are operated in the German Bight as part of COSYNA system. The WERA system operates at 12.4 MHz and provides surface current measurements every 20 min. The observations are merged with numerical model data to optimise state estimates on a pre-operational basis. The presentation introduces the spatio temporal interpolation (STOI) method, which is a statistical approach to correct data from a free model run using an analysis window of typically one tidal cycle. The technique is thus able to resolve intra-tidal time scales. The scheme is based on an EOF analysis to estimate the model error background statistics and is capable of providing improved short term forecasts. Statistics of the free model run, the HF radar data and the STOI analysis are shown for several month. Both the three dimensional primitive equation model GETM and the operational BSH model are used to provide free model run data. GETM setups with boundary forcing from the MYOCEAN North West Shelf model are used. Maps of innovation and residuals are presented. Furthermore forecast errors for different forecast horizons are discussed. Results are also compared to independent measurements taken at the FINO-1 and FINO-2 platforms. The impact of the analysis is, e.g., illustrated by drifter trajectory simulations. First results are also shown regarding an extension of the STOI method, which includes a model restart to further improve the dynamical consistency of the results. Issues related to the treatment of the boundary forcing and the meteo forcing used during the forecast period are discussed. The impact of the HF radar data on water level estimates are analysed. Furthermore, some results concerning the potential impact of existing and hypothetical HF radar systems are presented, which were obtained making use of the STOI method as well as statistical OSE and OSSE techniques.

  11. Quantification of mass loading to Strawberry Creek near the Gilt Edge mine, Lawrence County, South Dakota, June 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2006-01-01

    Although remedial actions have taken place at the Gilt Edge mine in the Black Hills of South Dakota, questions remain about a possible hydrologic connection along shear zones between some of the pit lakes at the mine site and Strawberry Creek. Spatially detailed chemical sampling of stream and inflow sites occurred during low-flow conditions in June 2003 as part of a mass-loading study by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the possible connection of shear zones to the stream. Stream discharge was calculated by tracer dilution; discharge increased by 25.3 liters per second along the study reach, with 9.73 liters per second coming from three tributaries and the remaining increase coming from small springs and dispersed, subsurface inflow. Chemical differences among inflow samples were distinguished by cluster analysis and indicated that inflows ranged from those unaffected by interaction with mine wastes to those that could have been affected by drainage from pit lakes. Mass loading to the stream from several inflows resulted in distinct chemical changes in stream water along the study reach. Mass loading of the mine-related metals, including cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc, principally occurred from the discharge from the Gilt Edge mine, and those metals were substantially attenuated downstream. Secondary loadings of metals occurred in the vicinity of the Oro Fino shaft and from two more inflows about 200 m downstream from there. These are both locations where shear zones intersect the stream and may indicate loading associatedwith these zones. Loading downstream from the Oro Fino shaft had a unique chemical character, high in base-metal concentrations, that could indicate an association with water in the pit lakes. The loading from these downstream sources, however, is small in comparison to that from the initial mine discharge and does not appear to have a substantial impact on Strawberry Creek.

  12. Tectonics and depositional environments in early Pennsylvanian of south-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kalesky, J. )

    1987-02-01

    The Pennsylvanian Magdalena Group unconformably overlies Precambrian to Mississippian strata throughout south-central New Mexico. Regional southward tilting, warping, and erosion resulted in progressively older pre-Pennsylvanian subcrop relations from south to north. Normal marine shelf sedimentation was represented by upward shoaling cycles containing mixed siliciclastics and carbonates. Channels cut into Ordovician strata in the southern Caballo Mountain area suggest that this area was a relatively deep valley or trough during Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian erosion. Marine transgression from the south backfilled the preexisting stream valleys with sequences of packstone, wackestone, shale, and coarse quartzarenite. Topographically higher areas were blanketed with thin beds of laminated bioclastic packstone, grainstone, lime mudstone, and shale. Semirestricted tidal to nearshore environments are reflected in local sections by finely laminated hematitic dolomites, oncolitic wackestones, limestone conglomerates containing reworked Mississippian chert, and terrigenous shales supporting petrified wood float. Depositional onlap farther north resulted in a thinner and younger sequence. The cyclic nature of these deposits reflects a proximity to the shoreline and suggests an abruptly shifting base level, possibly controlled by Early Pennsylvanian glacial eustasy. The time-stratigraphic position of the valley-fill depositional unit may be broadly correlated to other Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian valley-fill sequences recognized in the Delaware basin and Grand Canyon.

  13. Late Cretaceous volcanism in south-central New Mexico: Conglomerates of the McRae and Love Ranch Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman-Fahey, J.L.; McMillan, N.J.; Mack, G.H.; Seager, W.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Evidence to support Late Cretaceous volcanism in south central New Mexico is restricted to a small area of 75-Ma-old andesitic rocks at Copper Flats near Hillsboro, and volcanic clasts in the McRae (Late Cretaceous/Paleocene ) and Love Ranch (Paleocene/Eocene). Formations located in the Jornada del Muerto basin east and northeast of the Caballo Mountains. Major and trace element data and petrographic analysis of 5 samples from Copper Flats lavas and 40 samples of volcanic clasts from the McRae and Love Ranch conglomerates will be used to reconstruct the Cretaceous volcanic field. The McRae Formation consists of two members: the lower Jose Creek and the upper Hall Lake. The lowermost Love Ranch Formation is unconformable in all places on the Hall Lake Member. Stratigraphic variations in clast composition from volcanic rocks in the lower Love Ranch Formation to Paleozoic and Precambrian clasts in the upper Love Ranch Formation reflect the progressive unroofing of the Laramide Rio Grande Uplift. Volcanic clasts in the McRae and Love Ranch Formations were derived from the west and south of the depositional basin, but the source area for McRae clasts is less well constrained. Stratigraphic, chemical, and petrographic data will be used to reconstruct the volcanic complex and more clearly define magma genesis and metasomatism associated with Laramide deformation.

  14. Structural style of the Marathon thrust belt, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Robert G.; Varga, Robert J.; Altany, Robert M.

    2009-09-01

    The Marathon portion of the Ouachita thrust belt consists of a highly deformed allochthonous wedge of Cambrian-Pennsylvanian slope strata (Marathon facies) that was transported to the northwest and emplaced over Pennsylvanian foredeep sediments. The foredeep strata in turn overlie early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments which are deformed by late Paleozoic basement-involved reverse faults. The Dugout Creek thrust is the basal thrust of the allochthon. Shortening in this sheet and overlying sheets is ˜80%. Steep imbricate faults link the Dugout Creek thrust to upper level detachments forming complex duplex zones. Progressive thrusting and shortening within the allochthon folded the upper level detachments and associated thrust sheets. The Caballos Novaculite is the most competent unit within the Marathon facies and controlled development of prominent detachment folds. Deeper imbricate sheets composed of the Late Pennsylvanian foredeep strata, and possibly early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments developed concurrently with emplacement of the Marathon allochthon and folded the overlying allochthon. Following termination of thrusting in the earliest Permian, subsidence and deposition shifted northward to the Delaware, Midland and Val Verde foreland basins.

  15. A Powerful Method of Measuring Sea Wave Spectra and their Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, Christoph; Mai, Stephan; Wilhelmi, Jens; Zenz, Theodor; Barjenbruch, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Besides the need of precise measurements of water levels of the sea, there is an increasing demand for assessing waves in height and direction for different purposes like sea-wave modelling and coastal engineering. The design of coastal structures such as piles, breakwaters, and offshore structures like wind farms must take account of the direction of the impacting waves. To date, records of wave directions are scarce. The reason for this might be the high costs of purchasing and operating such measuring devices. These are usually buoys, which require regular maintenance. Against this background, the German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) developed a low-cost directional sea-wave monitoring system that is based on commercially available liquid-level radar sensors. These sensors have the advantage that they have no contact to the fluid, i.e. the corrosive sea water. The newly developed device was tested on two sites. One is the tide gauge 'Borkum Südstrand' that is located in the southern North Sea off the island of Borkum. The other one is the 'Research Platform FINO1' approximately 45 km north of the island of Borkum. The main focus of these tests is the comparison of the data measured by the radar-based system with those of a conventional Directional Wave Rider Buoy. The general conditions at the testing sites are good for the tests. At the tide gauge 'Borkum Südstrand' waves propagate in different directions, strongly influenced by the morphological conditions like shallow waters of the Wadden Seas and the coast of the island of Borkum. Whereas on the open sea, at the site FINO1, the full physical conditions of the sea state, like heavy storms etc. play an important role. To determine and measure the direction of waves, the device has to be able to assess the wave movements in two dimensions. Therefore, an array of several radar sensors is required. Radar sensors are widely used and well established in measuring water levels, e.g. in tanks and basins

  16. Mesoscale modelling methodology based on nudging to increase accuracy in WRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylonas Dirdiris, Markos; Barbouchi, Sami; Hermmann, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The offshore wind energy has recently become a rapidly growing renewable energy resource worldwide, with several offshore wind projects in development in different planning stages. Despite of this, a better understanding of the atmospheric interaction within the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) is needed in order to contribute to a better energy capture and cost-effectiveness. Light has been thrown in observational nudging as it has recently become an innovative method to increase the accuracy of wind flow modelling. This particular study focuses on the observational nudging capability of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and ways the uncertainty of wind flow modelling in the wind resource assessment (WRA) can be reduced. Finally, an alternative way to calculate the model uncertainty is pinpointed. Approach WRF mesoscale model will be nudged with observations from FINO3 at three different heights. The model simulations with and without applying observational nudging will be verified against FINO1 measurement data at 100m. In order to evaluate the observational nudging capability of WRF two ways to derive the model uncertainty will be described: one global uncertainty and an uncertainty per wind speed bin derived using the recommended practice of the IEA in order to link the model uncertainty to a wind energy production uncertainty. This study assesses the observational data assimilation capability of WRF model within the same vertical gridded atmospheric column. The principal aim is to investigate whether having observations up to one height could improve the simulation at a higher vertical level. The study will use objective analysis implementing a Cress-man scheme interpolation to interpolate the observation in time and in sp ace (keeping the horizontal component constant) to the gridded analysis. Then the WRF model core will incorporate the interpolated variables to the "first guess" to develop a nudged simulation. Consequently, WRF with and without

  17. Toward Improved Off-Shore Wind Predictions by Combining Observations with Models through State Estimation - An Analysis of Marine Boundary Layer Parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovic, B.; Delle Monache, L.; Hacker, J.; Lee, J. A.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Wu, Y.; Clifton, A.; Hawkins, S.; Nissen, J.; Rostkier-Edelstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been achieved in model representation of atmospheric boundary layers (ABL). However, fundamental understanding of the processes governing the evolution of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) is still incomplete. We address this problem by combining available atmosphere and ocean observations with advanced coupled atmosphere-wave models, via state estimation (SE) methodologies. The goal is to improve wind prediction for off-shore wind energy applications through advances in understanding and parameterization of underlying physical processes, with an emphasis on the coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean via momentum and heat fluxes. We systematically investigate the errors in the treatment of the surface layer of the MBL in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and identify structural model inadequacies associated with the MBL parameterization. For this purpose we are using both the single-column model (SCM) and three-dimensional (3D) versions of the WRF model, observations of MBL structure provided by offshore observational platform FINO1, and probabilistic SE. We have also developed an atmosphere-wave coupled modeling system by interfacing WRF with a wave model (WaveWatch III - WWIII). This modeling system is used for evaluating errors in the representation of wave-induced forcing on the energy balance at the interface between atmosphere and ocean. Probabilistic SE is based on the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). DART is the framework for obtaining spatial and temporal statistics of wind-error evolution (and hence the surface-layer fluxes), along with objective tuning of model parameters. We explore one of the potential sources of MBL model errors associated with roughness length parameterized using Charnock's relation. Charnock's roughness length parameterization assumes wind-driven waves are in equilibrium. However, it has been shown that swells propagating at different speeds and angles with

  18. Analysis of modified MYJ and YSU boundary layer schemes in WRF-Chem with respect to simulated boundary layer heights and pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, Renate; Foreman, Richard; Emeis, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    To improve the performance of boundary layer schemes currently applied within WRF-Chem (Grell et al., 2005), the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) model (Mellor and Yamada 1982) and the Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme (Hong et al. 2006) have been updated using data from a 100 m high offshore measurement tower called FINO1. The turbulence intensity in the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic model has been enhanced as described in Foreman and Emeis (2012). An alternative to the exchange coefficient for stable stratification in the YSU scheme is described in Foreman et al. (2014). These modifications to the two schemes have been applied and are compared with the existing schemes. For example, the updated MYJ scheme results in an improved representation of the turbulent kinetic energy throughout the boundary layer as compared with the measurements at FINO1. The modified MYJ and YSU schemes, which have been originally developed for wind energy applications, have been implemented into version 3.5 of the WRF model. Simulations with WRF-Chem were carried out for Europe and the region of Augsburg in order to evaluate the effect of the modified PBL schemes on simulated PBL heights, gas phase pollutant and aerosol concentrations. Foreman, R.J. and S. Emeis, 2012. A method for increasing the turbulent kinetic energy in the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic boundary layer parametrization. Boundary Layer Meteorology 145:329-349. Foreman, R.J. S. Emeis and B. Canadillas, 2014. Stable boundary layer parametrization without eddy viscosity or turbulent kinetic energy equation approaches. Submitted to Boundary Layer Meteorology 2014. Grell, G. A., Peckham, S. E., Schmitz, R., McKeen, S. A., Frost, G., Skamarock,W. C., and Eder, B., 2005. Fully Coupled Online Chemistry within the WRF Model. Atmospheric Environment 39, 6957-6975. Hong S, Noh Y, Dudhia J 2006. Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon Wea Rev 124:2322-2339. Mellor GL, Yamada T 1982. Development of a turbulence

  19. Hydrocarbon habitats of the Middle and Upper Magdalena Valleys, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S. )

    1990-05-01

    The Magdalena River flows northward across the Colombian Andes, traversing a series of en echelon, sediment-filled structural depressions. Until the late Miocene, these basins were parts of much more extensive basins: an extensional back-arc basin during the Triassic-Jurassic; a pericratonic trough during the Cretaceous and early Tertiary; the inner margin of a broad east-facing foreland trough during the middle Tertiary; and, more recently, an array of intermontane of successor basins. Exploration activity since 1918 has resulted in the discovery of more than 2.6 billion bbl of oil and 2.7 tcf gas - more than one-half of the total oil and about one-third of the total gas reserves of the country. The abundant hydrocarbon resources of the Magdalena basins are based on the presence of a thick organic-rich limestone and shale succession (La Luna or Villeta) deposited in an extensive periocratonic trough along the northwestern margin of the Guyana shield during the Cretaceous. In the south, nearer the paleogeographic margin of the trough, shallow marine sands (Caballos and Monserrate) bounding the Cretaceous marine megacycle are the prime reservoirs. To the north, nearer the axis of the trough, Cretaceous sand reservoirs are absent and production is almost exclusively from middle Tertiary molasse deposits. A wide variety of structural and stratigraphic traps developed during or prior to peak of maturation of the Cretaceous source beds. Recent discoveries of giant oil accumulations, such as the San Francisco field, were made in large hanging-wall anticlines previously considered breached and unproductive. From the standpoint of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, the Magdalena basins are not yet mature. The potential for additional major discoveries is excellent and with improved production techniques, current estimates of remaining ultimately recoverable reserves will be revised upward.

  20. Stratigraphy, foraminiferal assemblages and paleoenvironments in the Late Cretaceous of the Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia (part I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Luis S.

    1997-03-01

    The present work focuses on the Cretaceous record (Middle Albian-Maastrichtian) of the Upper Magdalena Valley (UMV), with a scope that covers facies and biofacies. The nomenclatural scheme previously stated for the Girardot-Guataqui area is here extended and proposed for all the basin, the following fomational units being characterized in detail. The Hondita Formation (Middle Albian-late Turonian), placed on top of the Caballos Formation, is separated from the Lomagorda Formation (late Turonian-early Santonian) by a chert interval within a succession of predominantly dark shales deposited in outer shelf environments. The Olini Group (early Santonian-late Campanian) presents two conspicuous chert units (Lidita Inferior and Superior) overlain by the Nivel de Lutitas y Arenas (early Maastrichtian). The sandstones of La Tabla and finally the mudstones of the Seca Formation (Maastrichtian) represent diverse littoral environments of the end of the Cretaceous. In the UMV, the Cretaceous system attains approximately 1350 m of thickness. Within the paleogeographic scenario, the drowning of the basin and of the adjacent Central Cordillera during most of the Late Cretaceous enabled upwelling currents and the development of widespread pelagic sediments. These sediments graded to shallower water deposits towards the south of the basin. In the Upper Cretaceous, four sequences of second order can be identified. The longer cycle begins at the base of the Hondita Formation and exhibits the maximum flooding in the Cenomanian condensed section of this unit. Following this cycle, three successive sudden sea level drops mark the boundaries of complete sequences, each comprising well developed lowstand, transgressive and highstand system tracts. After the last cycle was completed, the basin was uplifted and rocks of the Seca Formation were cannibalized by fluvial processes during the Tertiary. An angular unconformity that truncates this unit represents the uppermost sequence boundary of

  1. Estimate of significant wave height from non-coherent marine radar images by multilayer perceptrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicen-Bueno, Raúl; Lido-Muela, Cristina; Nieto-Borge, José Carlos

    2012-12-01

    One of the most relevant parameters to characterize the severity of ocean waves is the significant wave height ( H s ). The estimate of H s from remotely sensed data acquired by non-coherent X-band marine radars is a problem not completely solved nowadays. A method commonly used in the literature (standard method) uses the square root of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to linearly estimate H s . This method has been widely used during the last decade, but it presents some limitations, especially when swell-dominated sea states are present. To overcome these limitations, a new non-linear method incorporating additional sea state information is proposed in this article. This method is based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), specifically on multilayer perceptrons (MLPs). The information incorporated in the proposed MLP-based method is given by the wave monitoring system (WaMoS II) and concerns not only to the square root of the SNR, as in the standard method, but also to the peak wave length and mean wave period. Results for two different platforms (Ekofisk and FINO 1) placed in different locations of the North Sea are presented to analyze whether the proposed method works regardless of the sea states observed in each location or not. The obtained results empirically demonstrate how the proposed non-linear solution outperforms the standard method regardless of the environmental conditions (platform), maintaining real-time properties.

  2. Sherry wines.

    PubMed

    Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2011-01-01

    Sherry wines are among the most distinctive Spanish wines, mainly produced in the southern Spain (particularly in Jerez and Montilla-Moriles), using traditional practices aimed at ensuring uniform quality and characteristics over time. Several types of Sherry wines are produced depending on the winemaking conditions. Fino-type wines are characterized by a dynamic biological aging, in which a layer of yeast grows in the surface of the wine (flor velum). On the contrary, Oloroso-type sherry wines are subjected to an oxidative aging, while Amontillado-type Sherries are produced by combining both production systems. Therefore, these wines undergo different biological and chemical processes that affect distinctively their chemical composition and their aroma and sensory characteristics. Through this review, the main aspects involved in the winemaking technology of sherry wines, and the latest scientific findings related to the microbiota of the flor film and other aspects associated to the changes in their chemical and sensory composition during aging will be revised. Some new trends in sherry wine technology focused on the acceleration of the biological aging or the use of organic grapes will be also considered. PMID:21867891

  3. Phenolic compounds and browning in sherry wines subjected to oxidative and biological aging.

    PubMed

    Fabios, M; Lopez-Toledano, A; Mayen, M; Merida, J; Medina, M

    2000-06-01

    The composition in hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxycinnamic esters, tyrosol, syringaldehyde, and flavan-3-ol derivatives of three different types of sherry wine obtained by aging of the same starting wine under different conditions was studied. So-called "fino" wine was obtained by biological aging under flor yeasts, "oloroso" wine by oxidative aging, and "amontillado" wine by a first stage of biological aging followed by a second oxidative step. On the basis of the results, the wines subjected to oxidative aging exhibited higher phenol contents, in addition to scarcely polar compounds absorbing at 420 nm that were absent in the wines obtained by biological aging. Taking into account that flavan-3-ol derivatives play an important role in wine browning, a model catechin solution was inoculated with flor yeast which, contrary to the findings of other authors in the absence of yeasts, formed no colored compounds. This different behavior may account for the resistance to browning of pale sherry wines in the presence of flor yeasts. PMID:10888514

  4. Genetic characterisation of the Uruguayan Creole horse and analysis of relationships among horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L; Postiglioni, A; De Andrés, D F; Vega-Plá, J L; Gagliardi, R; Biagetti, R; Franco, J

    2002-02-01

    The genetic variability within the Uruguayan Creole horse and its relationship to a group of geographically or historically related breeds (Spanish Pure-bred, Barb, Quarter horse, Paso Fino, Peruvian Paso, Arabian and Thoroughbred horse), was evaluated using 25 loci (seven of blood groups, nine of protein polymorphisms and nine microsatellites) analyzed on a total of 145 Uruguayan Creole horses. In this study, blood group and protein polymorphism variants that are considered to be breed markers of Spanish Pure-bred and Barb horses were detected in the Creole breed. Conversely, some microsatellites and protein polymorphisms alleles were found uniquely in the Creole horse. American horse breeds together with Barb and Arabian horses clearly formed a separate cluster from the Spanish pure-bred and Thoroughbred breeds, as shown by an UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's standard genetic distance. Data in this study provided evidence for considerable genetic variation within Uruguayan Creole horses and of a distinctive breed profile. Both traits were most likely inherited from the XVIth century Spanish horses, more closely related to Barb than to Spanish Pure-bred. PMID:12002640

  5. Overexpression and self-assembly of virus-like particles in Nicotiana benthamiana by a single-vector DNA replicon system.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ki-Beom; Lee, Jisu; Kang, Sebyung; Kim, Moonil; Mason, Hugh S; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Kim, Hyun-Soon

    2014-10-01

    Based on recent developments, virus-like particles (VLPs) are considered to be perfect candidates as nanoplatforms for applications in materials science and medicine. To succeed, mass production of VLPs and self-assembly into a correct form in plant systems are key factors. Here, we report expression of synthesized coat proteins of the three viruses, Brome mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, and Maize rayado fino virus, in Nicotiana benthamiana and production of self-assembled VLPs by transient expression system using agroinfiltration. Each coat protein was synthesized and cloned into a pBYR2fp single replicon vector. Target protein expression in cells containing p19 was fourfold higher than that of cells lacking p19. After agroinfiltration, protein expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and quantitative image analyzer. Quantitative analysis showed that BMVCP, CMVCP, and MRFVCP concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 0.8 mg · g(-1) leaf fresh weight, respectively. VLPs were purified by sucrose cushion ultracentrifugation and then analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggested that BMVCP and CMVCP proteins expressed in N. benthamiana leaves were able to correctly self-assemble into particles. Moreover, we evaluated internal cavity accessibility of VLPs to load foreign molecules. Finally, plant growth conditions after agroinfiltration are critical for increasing heterologous protein expression levels in a transient expression system. PMID:24965559

  6. Chemical and biochemical transformations during the industrial process of sherry vinegar aging.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Victor; Valcárcel, Manuel; Caro, Ildefonso; Pérez, Luis

    2002-07-17

    The work described here concerns a study of the chemical and biochemical transformations in sherry vinegar during the different aging stages. The main factors that contribute to the nature and special characteristics of sherry vinegar are the raw sherry wine, the traditional process of acetic acid fermentation in butts (the solera system), and the physicochemical activity during the aging process in the solera system. A number of chemical and biochemical changes that occur during sherry vinegar aging are similar to those that take place in sherry wine during its biological activity process (where the wine types obtained are fino and manzanilla) or physicochemical activity process (to give oloroso wines). Significant increase in acetic acid levels was observed during the biological activity phase. In addition, the concentrations of tartaric, gluconic, succinic, and citric acids increased during the aging, as did levels of amino acids and acetoin. A color change was also produced during this stage. Glycerol was not consumed by acetic acid bacteria, and levels of higher alcohols decreased because of the synthesis of acetates. On the other hand, in the physicochemical phase the microbiological activity was lower. Concentrations of some cations increased because of evaporation of water through the wood. A color change was also produced in this stage. Concentrations of different amino acids decreased because of reaction with carbonyl compounds. A precipitation of potassium with tartaric acid was also observed. PMID:12105949

  7. Sensory and protein profiles of Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    PubMed

    Paul, Moushumi; Nuñez, Alberto; Van Hekken, Diane L; Renye, John A

    2014-11-01

    Native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including the Mexican variety Queso Chihuahua, contribute to flavor development through degradation of milk proteins. The effects of proteolysis were studied in four different brands of Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from raw milk. All of the cheeses were analyzed for chemical and sensory characteristics. Sensory testing revealed that the fresh cheeses elicited flavors of young, basic cheeses, with slight bitter notes. Analysis by gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that the Queseria Blumen (X) and Queseria Super Fino (Z) cheeses show little protein degradation over time while the Queseria America (W) and Queseria Lago Grande (Y) samples are degraded extensively when aged at 4 °C for 8 weeks. Analysis of the mixture of water-soluble cheese proteins by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of short, hydrophobic peptides in quantities correlating with bitterness. All cheese samples contained enterococcal strains known to produce enterocins. The W and Y cheese samples had the highest number of bacteria and exhibited greater protein degradation than that observed for the X and Z cheeses. PMID:26396342

  8. Wind farm induced changes in wind speed and surface fluxes over the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Fabien; van Lipzig, Nicole; Meyers, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Offshore wind farm deployment in the North Sea is foreseen to expand dramatically in the coming years. The strong expansion of offshore wind parks is likely to affect the regional climatology on the North Sea. We assess this impact by conducting a regional climate model simulation over future wind farms built near the German coast. In order to achieve this, the wind farm parameterisation of Fitch et al. 2012, where wind farms are parameterised as elevated sources of turbulent kinetic energy and sinks of momentum ( Blahak et al 2010 and Fitch et al 2012) is implemented in COSMO-CLM at a 1.5 km resolution. As a first step, COSMO-CLM's ability to reproduce wind profiles over the North Sea is evaluated using wind speed data from the FINO1 meteorological mast, toghether with QuikScat scatterometer data, for a time period of 2000-2008. Subsequently, the impact of windfarms on the regional climate over a period of ten years (1999-2008) is assessed. A large scale wind farm can create wakes which depending on the wind direction could affect the power production of a neighbouring farm. Furthermore, wind farms decelerate the flow and create a vertical circulation in the inflow region. As a result, changes in vertical fluxes of moisture are observed. This leads to enhanced low level cloud cover which may trigger changes in precipitation.

  9. [A view of tropical biology through the electron microscope].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Chavarría, Francisco

    2002-01-01

    The first electron microscope in Costa Rica was a donation from the government of Japan through its International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 1974. This donation made possible the consolidation of what was to become the University of Costa Rica's Electron Microscope Unit (UME). Within three years the first scientific papers were published, dealing with ultrastructural aspects of "Corn's rayado fino virus" and rotavirus, viral agent of human diarrhea. Subsequent papers out of the UME were published for the most part in the Journal of Tropical Biology, totaling at least 50 in that journal alone by the year 2000. With the recent acquisition of Energy Dispersive Spectrometer to coupled in transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope to X ray analysis, the data acquisition of the UME has been greatly enhanced, making possible to analyze both structure and elemental chemical composition in a specimen. Other applications of this new technology include studies of environmental pollution with heavy metals, such as comparative analysis of residues on leaves from urban areas and those on leaves from primary forest. PMID:12947579

  10. Atmospheric stability assessment for the characterization of offshore wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz Rodrigo, J.; Cantero, E.; García, B.; Borbón, F.; Irigoyen, U.; Lozano, S.; Fernande, P. M.; Chávez, R. A.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the Fino-1 offshore met mast database, different instrument set-ups and methodologies for stability characterization have been tested using non-dimensional numbers like the gradient and bulk Richardson number, and their equivalences with the Obukhov parameter ζ = z/L, which can be measured locally with the use of a sonic anemometer. These equivalences depend to a large extent on the suitability of empirical stability functions obtained in horizontally-homogeneous conditions. The bulk Richardson number method, based on Grachev and Fairall (1997) empirical function, is the least demanding measurement method for stability characterization offering a more practical approach to wind farm designers than using the sonic method. Alternatively, the AMOK method, used by FUGA wake model and also based on the bulk Richardson number, assumes surface-layer theory and avoids using stability functions, which results in a more robust formulation. A 9-class stability classification based on Sorbjan and Grachev (2010) is used to generalize the categorization of wind conditions. Based on flux-profile analysis it was concluded that unfortunately the local ζ is not sufficient to describe the scaling behaviour of the stable boundary layer. Indeed, larger wind shear than predicted by classical onshore stability functions is found, probably as a result of lower boundary layer depths.

  11. Yeast Population Dynamics during the Fermentation and Biological Aging of Sherry Wines

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Zarzoso, B.; Peris-Torán, M. J.; García-Maiquez, E.; Uruburu, F.; Querol, A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and physiological analyses were used to study the evolution of the yeast population, from alcoholic fermentation to biological aging in the process of “fino” sherry wine making. The four races of “flor” Saccharomyces cerevisiae (beticus, cheresiensis, montuliensis, and rouxii) exhibited identical restriction patterns for the region spanning the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS-1 and ITS-2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene, but this pattern was different, from those exhibited by non-flor S. cerevisiae strains. This flor-specific pattern was detected only after wines were fortified, never during alcoholic fermentation, and all the strains isolated from the velum exhibited the typical flor yeast pattern. By restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA and karyotyping, we showed that (i) the native strain is better adapted to fermentation conditions than commercial strains; (ii) two different populations of S. cerevisiae strains are involved in the process of elaboration, of fino sherry wine, one of which is responsible for must fermentation and the other, for wine aging; and (iii) one strain was dominant in the flor population integrating the velum from sherry wines produced in González Byass wineries, although other authors have described a succession of races of flor S. cerevisiae during wine aging. Analyzing all these results together, we conclude that yeast population dynamics during biological aging is a complex phenomenon and differences between yeast populations from different wineries can be observed. PMID:11319081

  12. Near-surface marine wind profiles from rawinsonde and NORA10 hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furevik, Birgitte R.; Haakenstad, Hilde

    2012-12-01

    With huge investments going into offshore wind farming and strong focus on offshore safety at all levels, there is an increasing demand for high-resolution wind products in the near-surface boundary layer. The Norwegian Reanalysis Archive (NORA10) is a dynamical downscaling of ERA-40 to a spatial resolution of 10-11 km over the northeastern North Atlantic using the High-Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM). The boundary layer wind speed between 10 and 150 m above the sea surface from NORA10 is used in a large number of applications. In this study, wind speed maps are produced, and the seasonal and decadal variability in wind speed is discussed. The model underestimates the mean wind speed from in situ winds from offshore platforms and 0.5 Hz rawinsonde observations over the sea by 5-10%. One exception is FINO-1, where there is excellent agreement. Part of the discrepancies may be due to the speed-up effects over large platform structures. The high sampling rate of the rawinsondes gives good quality recordings of wind speed and temperature in approximately 10 m height intervals for a 10 year period. Mean model wind profile shapes below 150 m above sea level favorable compare with mean wind speed profiles for stable, unstable and neutral conditions from rawinsonde at Polarfront (ocean weather ship in the geographical position 66°N, 2°E). However, in 18% of the cases the wind speed is decreasing with height, which is not reproduced by the model. We suggest that these inverse wind profiles may be related to cold air advection and convection cells, e.g., downstream of cold air outbreaks.

  13. Validating coastal, near and far offshore boundary layer parameterizations with airborne helipod turbulence probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, A.; Bange, J.

    2009-09-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow is more complex at the land-sea transition zone due to the formation of coherent mesoscale land-sea breeze circulation triggered by abrupt changes in the surface roughness and thermal forcing. Since the structure of the boundary layer flow is closely related to the representation of the surface conditions as determined by e.g. orography, land use, surface roughness etc., we begin with investigating the sensitivity of the boundary layer flow to the surface forcing at the land-sea transition zone including the coastline, the islands, the near (< 10 km) and the far offshore regions at the north-western German coast, the Borkum island and the offshore research platform FINO-1. The turbulent momentum, heat and moisture fluxes derived from in-situ airborne Helipod measurements are compared with results from the Mellor-Yamada-Janic (MYJ), Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (YMNN) and the Quasi Normal Scale Elimination (QSNE) boundary layer parameterization schemes implemented in the WRF (V3.1) mesoscale model. Since ground stations and measurement towers offer only isolated point measurements, and remote sensing methods rely strongly on assumptions on the turbulent structure of the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer, the best strategy to obtain precise in-situ data are airborne measurements. Probably the most accurate airborne measurement platform offering highest spatial and temporal resolution of thermodynamic quantities is the helicopter-borne turbulence probe Helipod. The Helipod is attached to a 15 m rope and carried below a helicopter and outside the downwash area of the rotor blades at 40 m/s. At a sampling rate of 500 Hz, measurements of the wind vector, temperature and humidity resolve sub-meter turbulence but also large (e.g. convective) structures. Vertical profiles and horizontal legs can be flown between 1500 m and a few meters above the surface, although the latter is limited by local flight safety rules

  14. Pre-exposure to hyperoxic air does not enhance power output during subsequent sprint cycling.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Schiffer, Thorsten; Achtzehn, Silvia; Mester, Joachim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies have indicated that aerobic pathways contribute to 13-27% of the energy consumed during short-term (10-20 s) sprinting exercise. Accordingly, the present investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that prior breathing of oxygen-enriched air (F(in)O(2) = 60%) would enhance power output and reduce fatigue during subsequent sprint cycling. Ten well-trained male cyclists (mean +/- SD age, 25 +/- 3 years; height, 186.1 +/- 6.9 cm; body mass, 79.1 +/- 8.2 kg; maximal oxygen uptake [VO(2max)]: 63.2 +/- 5.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) took 25 breaths of either hyperoxic (HO) or normoxic (NO) air before performing 15 s of cycling at maximal exertion. During this performance, the maximal and mean power outputs were recorded. The concentration of lactate, pH, partial pressure of and saturation by oxygen, [H(+)] and base excess in arterial blood were assessed before and after the sprint. The maximal (1,053 +/- 141 for HO vs. 1,052 +/- 165 W for NO; P = 0.77) and mean power outputs (873 +/- 123 vs. 876 +/- 147 W; P = 0.68) did not differ between the two conditions. The partial pressure of oxygen was approximately 2.3-fold higher after inhaling HO in comparison to NO, while lactate concentration, pH, [H(+)] and base excess (best P = 0.32) after sprinting were not influenced by exposure to HO. These findings demonstrate that the peak and mean power outputs of athletes performing short-term intense exercise cannot be improved by pre-exposure to oxygen-enriched air. PMID:20473681

  15. Salinity-Dependent Impacts of ProQ, Prc, and Spr Deficiencies on Escherichia coli Cell Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Craig H.; Culham, Doreen E.; Marom, David

    2014-01-01

    ProQ is a cytoplasmic protein with RNA chaperone activities that reside in FinO- and Hfq-like domains. Lesions at proQ decrease the level of the osmoregulatory glycine betaine transporter ProP. Lesions at proQ eliminated ProQ and Prc, the periplasmic protease encoded by the downstream gene prc. They dramatically slowed the growth of Escherichia coli populations and altered the morphologies of E. coli cells in high-salinity medium. ProQ and Prc deficiencies were associated with different phenotypes. ProQ-deficient bacteria were elongated unless glycine betaine was provided. High-salinity cultures of Prc-deficient bacteria included spherical cells with an enlarged periplasm and an eccentric nucleoid. The nucleoid-containing compartment was bounded by the cytoplasmic membrane and peptidoglycan. This phenotype was not evident in bacteria cultivated at low or moderate salinity, nor was it associated with murein lipoprotein (Lpp) deficiency, and it differed from those elicited by the MreB inhibitor A-22 or the FtsI inhibitor aztreonam at low or high salinity. It was suppressed by deletion of spr, which encodes one of three murein hydrolases that are redundantly essential for enlargement of the murein sacculus. Prc deficiency may alter bacterial morphology by impairing control of Spr activity at high salinity. ProQ and Prc deficiencies lowered the ProP activity of bacteria cultivated at moderate salinity by approximately 70% and 30%, respectively, but did not affect other osmoregulatory functions. The effects of ProQ and Prc deficiencies on ProP activity are indirect, reflecting their roles in the maintenance of cell structure. PMID:24443528

  16. A comparison of three different methodologies for evaluating Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus susceptibility to topical spray compounds.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Rafael Rodrigues; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to compare three different methodologies (Adult Immersion Tests, field trials with naturally infected animals, and a Stall Test using artificially infested cattle) to evaluate the efficacy of two topical formulations that we administered as whole body sprays (15% Cypermethrin+30% Chlorpyriphos+15% Fenthion-Colosso(®) FC 30, Ouro Fino Agronegócios; and 60% Dichlorvos+20% Chlorpyriphos-Ectofós(®), Vallée Saúde Animal Ltd.), against a susceptible strain of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. To achieve this objective, two natural infestation trials were conducted, as well as two artificial infestation trials (Stall Tests) and two Adult Immersion Tests (AIT). The AIT results showed that both spray formulations achieved 100% efficacy against R. (B.) microplus fully engorged females. However, when observing results obtained by field trials (natural infestations) and Stall Tests, none of these topically applied compounds reached 100% efficacy or affected the reproductive capacity of the fully engorged female ticks. Additional studies must be conducted to compare these in vivo methodologies with different in vitro techniques, such as the Larval Packet Test. However, based on results obtained here, we can conclude that depending on the spray formulations used, the AIT can overestimate acaricidal efficacy and values of reproductive efficiency of such compounds against R (B.) microplus. Specifically, when dealing with spray formulations in the Stall Tests, the period of residual action can increase because these animals are sheltered from contact with environmental factors that might interfere with the efficacy of the products tested. It may be necessary to take in vivo trial results into consideration (such as field trials with naturally infested animals or Stall Tests) to standardize a specific in vitro assay, such as the Adult Immersion Test. PMID:25468670

  17. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100 µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100 µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. PMID:25278142

  18. Weibull Wind-Speed Distribution Parameters Derived from a Combination of Wind-Lidar and Tall-Mast Measurements Over Land, Coastal and Marine Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier; Peña, Alfredo; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Brümmer, Burghard

    2016-05-01

    Wind-speed observations from tall towers are used in combination with observations up to 600 m in altitude from a Doppler wind lidar to study the long-term conditions over suburban (Hamburg), rural coastal (Høvsøre) and marine (FINO3) sites. The variability in the wind field among the sites is expressed in terms of mean wind speed and Weibull distribution shape-parameter profiles. The consequences of the carrier-to-noise-ratio ( CNR) threshold-value choice on the wind-lidar observations are revealed as follows. When the wind-lidar CNR is lower than a prescribed threshold value, the observations are often filtered out as the uncertainty in the wind-speed measurements increases. For a pulsed heterodyne Doppler lidar, use of the traditional -22 dB CNR threshold value at all measuring levels up to 600 m results in a ≈ 7 % overestimation in the long-term mean wind speed over land, and a ≈ 12 % overestimation in coastal and marine environments. In addition, the height of the profile maximum of the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution (so-called reversal height) is found to depend on the applied CNR threshold; it is found to be lower at small CNR threshold values. The reversal height is greater in the suburban (high roughness) than in the rural (low roughness) area. In coastal areas the reversal height is lower than that over land and relates to the internal boundary layer that develops downwind from the coastline. Over the sea the shape parameter increases towards the sea surface. A parametrization of the vertical profile of the shape parameter fits well with observations over land, coastal regions and over the sea. An applied model for the dependence of the reversal height on the surface roughness is in good agreement with the observations over land.

  19. First comparison of LES of an offshore wind turbine wake with dual-Doppler lidar measurement in the offshore wind farm "alpha ventus"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, L.; Trabucchi, D.; Witha, B.; van Dooren, M.; Trujillo, J. J.; Schneemann, J.; Kühn, M.

    2014-12-01

    The planning of offshore wind farms is still tainted with high risks due to unknown power losses and a higher level of fatigue loads due to wake effects. Recently, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are more and more used for simulating offshore wind turbine wakes as they resolve the atmospheric turbulence as well as the wake turbulence.However, for an application of LES wind fields to assess offshore wind farm flow a proper validation with measured data is necessary.Several methods have been investigated at the University of Oldenburg to compare LES wind fields and lidar measurements. In this study we apply one of these methods to validate wake simulations of a single wake of a 5MW wind turbine in the German offshore wind farm "alpha ventus" with processed dual-Doppler lidar measurements in the same wind farm.The simulations are performed with the LES model PALM, which has been enhanced by two different approaches of actuator models to simulate the wake of single wind turbines and the interaction of wakes in wind farms. Effects of tower and nacelle are regarded as well as simple turbine control mechanisms. The simulations are initialized with comparable atmospheric conditions as during the time of lidar operation by using measurements from the adjacent meteorological mast FINO 1.Plan Position Indicator (PPI) measurements have been performed with two long-range wind lidars installed at different opposing platforms at the border of the wind farm. A Cartesian grid was overlapped to the scanned region and a dual-Doppler algorithm was applied in order to estimate the horizontal stationary wind field on the grid nodes. To our knowledge, the presented study is one of the first validations of LES wake simulations with lidar measurements and first which validates offshore LES wake simulations with 2D lidar data.

  20. Evaluation of planetary boundary layer schemes in meso-scale simulations above the North and Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurps, Hauke; Tambke, Jens; Steinfeld, Gerald; von Bremen, Lueder

    2014-05-01

    The development and design of wind energy converters for offshore wind farms require profound knowledge of the wind profile in the lower atmosphere. Especially an accurate and reliable estimation of turbulence, shear and veer are necessary for the prediction of energy production and loads. Currently existing wind energy turbines in the North Sea have hub heights of around 90 m and upper tip heights around 150 m, which is already higher than the highest measurement masts (e.g. FINO1: 103 m). The next generation of wind turbines will clearly outrange these altitudes, so the interest is to examine the atmosphere's properties above the North Sea up to 300 m. Therefore, besides the Prandtl layer also the Ekman layer has to be taken into account, which implies that changes of the wind direction with height become more relevant. For this investigation we use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), a meso-scale numerical weather prediction system. In this study we compare different planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes (MYJ, MYNN, QNSE) with the same high quality input from ECMWF used as boundary conditions (ERA-Interim). It was found in previous studies that the quality of the boundary conditions is crucially important for the accuracy of comparisons between different PBL schemes. This is due to the fact that the major source of meso-scale simulation errors is introduced by the driving boundary conditions and not by the different schemes of the meso-scale model itself. Hence, small differences in results from different PBL schemes can be distorted arbitrarily by coarse input data. For instance, ERA-Interim data leads to meso-scale RMSE values of 1.4 m/s at 100 m height above sea surface with mean wind speeds around 10 m/s, whereas other Reanalysis products lead to RMSEs larger than 2 m/s. Second, we compare our simulations to operational NWP results from the COSMO model (run by the DWD). In addition to the wind profile, also the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE

  1. Simulating wind energy resources with mesoscale models: Intercomparison of state-of-the-art models over Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale models are increasingly being used to estimate wind conditions to identify perspective areas and sites where to develop wind farm projects. Mesoscale models are useful because they give information over extensive areas with various terrain complexities where measurements are scarce and measurement campaigns costly. Various mesoscale models and families of mesoscale models are being used, with thousands of setup options. Since long-term integrations are expensive and tedious to carry out, only limited comparisons exist. We have carried out a blind benchmarking study to evaluate the capabilities of mesoscale models used in wind energy to estimate site wind conditions: to highlight common issues on mesoscale modeling of wind conditions on sites with different characteristics, and to identify gaps and strengths of models and understand the root conditions for further evaluating uncertainties. Three experimental sites with tall mast measurements were selected: FINO3 (offshore), Høvsøre (coastal), and Cabauw (land-based). The participants were asked to provide hourly time series of wind speed and direction, temperature, etc., at various heights for 2011. The methods used were left to the choice of the participants, but they were asked for a detailed description of their model and many other parameters (e.g., horizontal and vertical resolution, model parameterizations, surface roughness length) that could be used to group the models and interpret the results of the intercomparison. The analysis of the time series includes comparison to observations, summarized with well-known measures such as biases, RMSE, correlations, and of sector-wise statistics, and the temporal spectra. The statistics were grouped by the models, their spatial resolution, forcing data, various integration methods, etc. The results show high fidelity of the various entries in simulating the wind climate at the offshore and coastal site. Over land and the statistics of other derived fields

  2. Investigating Marine Boundary Layer Parameterizations for Improved Off-Shore Wind Predictions by Combining Observations with Models via State Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Monache, Luca; Hacker, Josh; Kosovic, Branko; Lee, Jared; Vandenberghe, Francois; Wu, Yonghui; Clifton, Andrew; Hawkins, Sam; Nissen, Jesper; Rostkier-Edelstein, Dorita

    2014-05-01

    the surface-layer fluxes), along with objective tuning of model parameters. Budgets for the first and second moments of residual error reveal primary error sources, which via SE are be corrected allowing to greatly improve offshore wind forecasts. Results over a domain center at the FINO 1 covering northern Europe for the month of July, and from October to November of 2006 will be presented.

  3. A Diagnostic Diagram to Understand the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer at High Wind Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 57, 97-100, 1995). In the Froya study, plots on axes of wind speed and air-sea temperature difference provided an effective method to 'fingerprint' atmospheric conditions and summarize large segments of the data. The increasing numbers of offshore meteorological masts associated with the offshore wind industry are amenable to a similar approach to understand the main characteristics of the boundary layer. In this presentation, the Froya diagnostic figure is used interpret data from the FINO1 platform in the North Sea and understand boundary layer dynamics at high wind speeds.

  4. Measuring and modelling the frictional velocity u*, turbulence and heat fluxes above the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambke, Jens; Bye, John A. T.; Schmidt, Michael; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we analyse the frictional velocity u*, drag coefficient, vertical wind speed and turbulence profiles observed at different met-masts in the German North and Baltic Sea. We present an analysis of different models for the frictional velocity u* in convective, neutral and stable thermal stratification of the atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulent momentum and heat flux measurements performed with ultra-sonic anemometers are compared to profile-derived values and a bulk Richardson number formulation of the atmospheric thermal stability. Modelling: An improved approach to model the vertical wind speed profile is presented and compared against meso-scale model results (WRF, COSMO): Bye-Ekman-Coupling (BEC) describes the flux of momentum from the Ekman layer of the atmosphere through the Prandtl layer down to the air-sea interface by a modified wave boundary layer with enhanced Charnock dynamics (Bye et al. 2010). The BEC model is based on the coupled pair of similarity relations for "aerodynamically rough flow" in both fluids (air and sea). The derived drag law is of Charnock form, almost independent of the wave age and consistent with the transfer of momentum to the wave spectrum - which takes place in the smaller rather than the dominant wavelengths. Measurements: It was found that the frictional velocity u* is considerably smaller than predicted by conventional approaches using the Charnock relation: For wind speeds between 10 m/s and 15 m/s at 40 m height above the sea surface, u*(observed) is 14% smaller than u*(Charnock). Most important, we found unexpected, strong and obviously artificial distortions concerning the three wind speed components in the 10Hz data of the three ultra-sonic anemometers at the offshore met-mast FINO1 at 40 m, 60 m and 80 m height. The pattern of these distortions is independent from different post-processing procedures (planar-fit etc.). We anticipate that these artefacts imply severe problems for the eddy covariance technique

  5. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de

  6. Intercomparison of state-of-the-art models for wind energy resources with mesoscale models:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Bjarke Tobias; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Badger, Jake; Joergensen, Hans E.

    2016-04-01

    1. Introduction Mesoscale models are increasingly being used to estimate wind conditions to identify perspective areas and sites where to develop wind farm projects. Mesoscale models are functional for giving information over extensive areas with various terrain complexities where measurements are scarce and measurement campaigns costly. Several mesoscale models and families of models are being used, and each often contains thousands of setup options. Since long-term integrations are expensive and tedious to carry out, only limited comparisons exist. To remedy this problem and for evaluating the capabilities of mesoscale models to estimate site wind conditions, a tailored benchmarking study has been co-organized by the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) and the European Energy Research Alliance Joint Programme Wind Energy (EERA JP WIND). EWEA hosted results and ensured that participants were anonymous. The blind evaluation was performed at the Wind Energy Department of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) with the following objectives: (1) To highlight common issues on mesoscale modelling of wind conditions on sites with different characteristics, and (2) To identify gaps and strengths of models and understand the root conditions for further evaluating uncertainties. 2. Approach Three experimental sites were selected: FINO 3 (offshore, GE), Høvsore (coastal, DK), and Cabauw (land-based, NL), and three other sites without observations based on . The three mast sites were chosen because the availability of concurrent suitable time series of vertical profiles of winds speed and other surface parameters. The participants were asked to provide hourly time series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, etc., at various vertical heights for a complete year. The methodology used to derive the time series was left to the choice of the participants, but they were asked for a brief description of their model and many other parameters (e.g., horizontal and

  7. Cyclone Xaver seen by SARAL/AltiKa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharroo, Remko; Fenoglio, Luciana; Annunziato, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    During the first week of December 2013, Cyclone Xaver pounded the coasts and the North Sea. On 6 December, all along the Wadden Sea, the barrier islands along the north of the Netherlands and the northwest of Germany experienced record storm surges. We show a comparison of the storm surge measured by the radar altimeter AltiKa on-board the SARAL satellite and various types of in-situ data and models. Two tide gauges along the German North Sea coast, one in the southern harbour of the island of Helgoland and one on an offshore lighthouse Alte Weser, confirmed that the storm drove sea level to about three meters above the normal tide level. Loading effects during the storm are also detected by the GPS measurements at several tide gauge stations. The altimeter in the mean time shows that the storm surge was noticeable as far as 400 km from the coast. The altimeter measured wind speeds of 20 m/s nearly monotonically throughout the North Sea. An offshore anemometer near the island of Borkum corroborated this value. A buoy near the FINO1 offshore platform measured wave heights of 8 m, matching quite well the measurements from the altimeter, ranging from 6 m near the German coast to 12 m further out into the North Sea. Furthermore we compare the altimeter-derived and in-situ sea level, wave height and wind speed products with outputs from the Operation Circulation and Forecast model of the Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) and with a global storm surge forecast and inundation model of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The Operational circulation model of BSH (BSHcmod) and its component, the surge model (BSHsmod), perform daily predictions for the next 72 hours based on the meteorological model of the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD). The JRC Storm Surge Calculation System is a new development that has been established at the JRC in the framework of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS). The system uses

  8. Variability of Wind Speeds and Power over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambke, J.; von Bremen, L.; de Decker, J.; Schmidt, M.; Steinfeld, G.; Wolff, J.-O.

    2010-09-01

    This study comprises two parts: First, we describe the vertical wind speed and turbulence profiles that result from our improved PBL scheme and compare it to observations and 1-dimensional approaches (Monin-Obukhov etc.). Second, we analyse the spatio-temporal correlations in our meso-scale simulations for the years 2004 to 2007 over entire Europe, with special focus on the Irish, North and Baltic Sea. 1.) Vertical Wind Speed Profiles The vertical wind profile above the sea has to be modelled with high accuracy for tip heights up to 160m in order to achieve precise wind resource assessments, to calculate loads and wakes of wind turbines as well as for reliable short-term wind power forecasts. We present an assessment of different models for wind profiles in unstable, neutral and stable thermal stratification. The meso-scale models comprise MM5, WRF and COSMO-EU (LME). Both COSMO-EU from the German Weather Service DWD and WRF use a turbulence closure of 2.5th order - and lead to similar results. Especially the limiting effect of low boundary layer heights on the wind shear in very stable stratification is well captured. In our new WRF-formulation for the mixing length in the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) parameterisation of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL-scheme), the master length scale itself depends on the Monin-Obukhov-Length as a parameter for the heat flux effects on the turbulent mixing. This new PBL-scheme shows a better performance for all weather conditions than the original MYJ-scheme. Apart from the low-boundary-layer-effect in very stable situations (which are seldom), standard Monin-Obukhov formulations in combination with the Charnock relation for the sea surface roughness show good agreement with the FINO1-data (German Bight). Interesting results were achieved with two more detailed micro-scale approaches: - the parameterization proposed by Pena, Gryning and Hasager [BLM 2008] that depends on the boundary layer height - our ICWP-model, were the flux

  9. Observation of high-resolution wind fields and offshore wind turbine wakes using TerraSAR-X imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Tobias; Jacobsen, Sven; Lehner, Susanne; Pleskachevsky, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    coast of Borkum, Germany, and consists of twelve 5-Megawatt wind power turbines. The retrieved results are validated by comparing with QuikSCAT measurements, the results of the German Weather Service (DWD) atmospheric model and in-situ measurements of wind speed and wind direction, obtained from the research platform FiNO1, installed 400 m west of Alpha Ventus. 4. Conclusion In the presented case study we quantify the wake characteristics of wake length, wake width, maximum velocity de?cit, wake merging and wake meandering. We show that SAR has the capability to map the sea surface two-dimensionally in high spatial resolution which provides a unique opportunity to observe spatial characteristics of offshore wind turbine wakes. The SAR derived information can support offshore wind farming with respect to optimal siting and design and help to estimate their effects on the environment.

  10. Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2007-01-01

    Tongue River to 1,460 ?S/cm at 25?C on Prairie Dog Creek. The Tongue River drainage basin has the largest percentage of area underlain by Mesozoic-age and older rocks and by more resistant rocks. In addition, the higher annual precipitation and a steeper gradient in this basin compared to basins in the plains produce relatively fast stream velocities, which result in a short contact time between stream waters and basin materials. The Powder River drainage basin, which has the largest drainage area and most diverse site conditions, had the largest range of median specific-conductance values among the four major drainage basins. Median values in that basin ranged from 680 ?S/cm at 25?C on Clear Creek to 5,950 ?S/cm at 25?C on Salt Creek. Median specific-conductance values among sites in the Cheyenne River drainage basin ranged from 1,850 ?S/cm at 25?C on Black Thunder Creek to 4,680 ?S/cm at 25?C on the Cheyenne River. The entire Cheyenne River drainage basin is in the plains, which have low precipitation, soluble geologic materials, and relatively low gradients that produce slow stream velocities and long contact times. Median specific-conductance values among sites in the Belle Fourche River drainage basin ranged from 1,740 ?S/cm at 25?C on Caballo Creek to 2,800 ?S/cm at 25?C on Donkey Creek. Water in the study area ranged from a magnesium-calcium-bicarbonate type for some sites in the Tongue River drainage basin to a sodium-sulfate type at many sites in the Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Little Goose Creek, Goose Creek, and the Tongue River in the Tongue River drainage basin, and Clear Creek in the Powder River drainage basin, which have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains, consistently had the smallest median dissolved-sodium concentrations, sodium-adsorption ratios, dissolved-sulfate concentrations, and dissolved-solids concentrations. Salt Creek, Wild Horse Creek, Little Powder River, and the Cheyenne River, which have headwat

  11. Estimating Climate Resilience for Conservation across Geophysical Settings

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSON, MARK G; CLARK, MELISSA; SHELDON, ARLENE OLIVERO

    2014-01-01

    poder conservar la diversidad biológica mientras permiten que las especies y las comunidades se reorganicen con respecto al clima cambiante. Desarrollamos y probamos tal método, el cual basamos en características físicas asociadas con la diversidad ecológica y la capacidad de recuperación del sitio con respecto al cambio climático, en el noreste de Norteamérica. Mapeamos comprensivamente 30 escenarios geofísicos distintos basados en la geología y la elevación. Dentro de cada escenario geofísico identificamos sitios que estaban conectados por una cubierta natural y que tenían relativamente más microclimas indicados por la topografía diversa y los gradientes de elevación. Hicimos esto al puntuar cada hexágono de 450 ha en la región con estas dos características y al seleccionar aquellos que tuvieron una puntuación >SD 0.5 por encima del puntaje combinado promedio para cada escenario. Nuestra hipótesis fue que estos sitios con altas puntuaciones tuvieron la mayor capacidad de recuperación. Los comparamos con los sitios seleccionados por The Nature Conservancy por sus poblaciones de alta calidad de especies raras y sus ocurrencias de comunidades naturales. Los sitios con altos puntajes capturaron significativamente más de los sitios de biodiversidad de lo que se esperaba por casualidad (p < 0.0001): 75% de las 414 especies objetivo, 49% de las 4592 localidades de especies objetivo y 53% de las 2710 localidades de comunidades objetivo. Los escenarios de lecho rocoso calcáreo, arena gruesa y limo fino tuvieron puntos marcadamente más bajos para la capacidad de recuperación estimada y tuvieron niveles bajos de protección permanente de suelo (en promedio 7%). Ya que nuestro método identifica – para cada escenario geofísico – sitios que tienen mayor probabilidad de retener especies y funciones más tiempo bajo un clima cambiante, revela baluartes naturales para la conservación futura que también capturaría biodiversidad existente sustancial y

  12. Geomorphic aspects of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFleur, Robert G.

    ésultante fait apparaître des rognons, des pentes qui s'évasent, des roches en équilibre, des inselbergs et des plaines de corrosion d'extension régionale. La migration des sels dissous des eaux souterraines crée des croûtes de compositions variées, qui constituent des paysages particuliers. (3) Les processus d'érosion des sols et des roches par les eaux souterraines comprennent les phénomènes suivants: la chenalisation, l'érosion par suintement, le sapement, qui tous sont des agents notables du recul des versants et d'érosion régressive vers l'amont. Les seuils et les limites sont importants dans de nombreuses actions chimiques et mécaniques des eaux souterraines. Une approche morphométrique quantitative des formes et des processus liés aux eaux souterraines est donnée en exemple à partir d'études choisies dans les terrains carbonatés et détritiques d'origine aussi bien ancienne que récente. Resumen Las aguas subterráneas tienen una importancia fundamental en la evolución de los paisajes geomorfológicos. En este artículo se consideran tres grandes categorías de procesos ligados al agua subterránea y sus correspondientes paisajes resultantes: (1) La disolución crea distintas geometrías kársticas, fundamentalmente en rocas carbonatadas, como respuesta a las condiciones de recarga, condicionantes geológicos, litologías y al propio flujo de agua subterránea. La velocidad de denudación y formación de cavernas se puede estimar a partir de los parámetros cinéticos e hidráulicos. (2) La erosión producida por las aguas subterráneas genera regolitas de alteración residual en los frentes de erosión, con los subsiguientes afloramientos de rocas inalteradas, inselbergs, rocas oscilantes o llanuras de corrosión de carácter regional. La recolocación de las sales disueltas crea costras superficiales de diferente composición. (3) La erosión de rocas y suelos por procesos ligados al agua subterránea, como filtración y arrastre de finos da lugar a

  13. Calibrazioni a terra e prestazioni in volo di spettrometri ad immagine nel visibile e nel vicino infrarosso per l'esplorazione planetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, Gianrico

    2006-10-01

    Nel corso dell’ultimo decennio l’esplorazione planetaria ha potuto beneficiare dei dati prodotti dagli spettrometri ad immagine: grazie a questa nuova classe di strumenti, realizzati per l’osservazione in remoto di superfici ed atmosfere planetarie, è possibile acquisire dati iperspettrali con elevati poteri risolutivi spaziali e spettrali. Il principale vantaggio offerto dagli spettrometri ad immagine, rispetto alle camere ed agli spettrometri puntuali, è rappresentato dalla capacità di misurare, identificare e mappare le unità composizionali delle superfici planetarie; queste informazioni permettono di investigare sia l’evoluzione geochimica delle superfici sia la dinamica e la composizione delle atmosfere. Sebbene i primi spettrometri ad immagine siano stati francesi (Phobos/ISM, Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) e statunitensi (Galileo/NIMS, Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer), il nostro paese nel corso degli ultimi anni è stato in grado di proporre alla com unità spaziale internazionale degli strumenti dalle elevate prestazioni che sono stati infatti accettati come payload scientifici su diverse missioni interplanetarie: dai canali visibili di VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) su Cassini (Nasa, JPL, ESA, ASI) e di OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l’Eau, les Glacies et l’Activitè de Mars) su MarsExpress (ESA) ai due VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) su Rosetta (ESA) e VenusExpress (ESA) fino a VIR-MS (Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) su Dawn (Nasa). In questo momento inoltre altri due spettrometri sono in avanzata fase di studio: JIRAM (Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper) su Juno (missione New Discovery Nasa) e VIHI (Visible and Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) integrato nel payload italiano di remote sensing SIMBIO-SYS di BepiColombo (missione cornerstone ESA). La realizzazione di uno spettrometro ad immagini da utilizzare su una missione interplanetaria richiede un’accurata analisi in fase

  14. Geomorphic aspects of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFleur, Robert G.

    ésultante fait apparaître des rognons, des pentes qui s'évasent, des roches en équilibre, des inselbergs et des plaines de corrosion d'extension régionale. La migration des sels dissous des eaux souterraines crée des croûtes de compositions variées, qui constituent des paysages particuliers. (3) Les processus d'érosion des sols et des roches par les eaux souterraines comprennent les phénomènes suivants: la chenalisation, l'érosion par suintement, le sapement, qui tous sont des agents notables du recul des versants et d'érosion régressive vers l'amont. Les seuils et les limites sont importants dans de nombreuses actions chimiques et mécaniques des eaux souterraines. Une approche morphométrique quantitative des formes et des processus liés aux eaux souterraines est donnée en exemple à partir d'études choisies dans les terrains carbonatés et détritiques d'origine aussi bien ancienne que récente. Resumen Las aguas subterráneas tienen una importancia fundamental en la evolución de los paisajes geomorfológicos. En este artículo se consideran tres grandes categorías de procesos ligados al agua subterránea y sus correspondientes paisajes resultantes: (1) La disolución crea distintas geometrías kársticas, fundamentalmente en rocas carbonatadas, como respuesta a las condiciones de recarga, condicionantes geológicos, litologías y al propio flujo de agua subterránea. La velocidad de denudación y formación de cavernas se puede estimar a partir de los parámetros cinéticos e hidráulicos. (2) La erosión producida por las aguas subterráneas genera regolitas de alteración residual en los frentes de erosión, con los subsiguientes afloramientos de rocas inalteradas, inselbergs, rocas oscilantes o llanuras de corrosión de carácter regional. La recolocación de las sales disueltas crea costras superficiales de diferente composición. (3) La erosión de rocas y suelos por procesos ligados al agua subterránea, como filtración y arrastre de finos da lugar a

  15. Final Report for Project: Impacts of stratification and non-equilibrium winds and waves on hub-height winds

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Edward G.

    2015-07-14

    wind plant scale. Overall project conclusions include: • In the presence of fast-moving swell (significant wave height Hs = 6.4 m, and phase speed cp = 18 ms−1), the atmospheric boundary layer grows more rapidly when waves propagate opposite to the winds compared to when winds and waves are aligned. Pressure drag increases by nearly a factor of 2 relative to the turbulent stress for the extreme case where waves propagate at 180◦ compared to the pressure gradient forcing. Net wind speed reduces by nearly 15% at hub-height for the 180◦-case compared to the 0◦-case, and turbulence intensities increase by nearly a factor of 2. These impacts diminish with decreasing wave age. • Stratification increases hub height wind speeds and increases the vertical shear of the mean wind across the rotor plane. Fortuitously, this stability-induced enhanced shear does not influence turbulence intensity at hub height, but does increase (decrease) turbulence intensity below (above) hub height. Increased stability also increases the wave-induced pressure stress by ∼ 10%. • Off the East Coast of the United States during Coupled Boundary Layers Air-Sea Transfer - Low Wind (CBLAST-Low), cases with short fetch include thin stable boundary layers with depths of only a few tens of meters. In the coastal zone, the relationship between the mean wind and the surface fiction velocity (u∗(V )) is significantly related to wind direction for weak winds but is not systematically related to the air sea difference of virtual potential temperature, δθv; since waves generally propagate from the south at the Air-Sea Interaction Tower (ASIT) tower, these results suggest that under weak wind conditions waves likely influence surface stress more than stratification does. • Winds and waves are frequently misaligned in the coastal zone. Stability conditions persist for long duration. Over a four year period, the Forschungsplattformen in Nord- und Ostsee Nr. 1 (FINO1) tower (a site with long

  16. The migration, dissolution, and fate of chlorinated solvents in the urbanized alluvial valleys of the southwestern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. E.

    solvants chlorés piégés. Malgré leur faible solubilité dans l'eau, ces solvants denses sont suffisamment mobiles et solubles pour avoir produit, dans le sud-ouest des vallées alluviales, des panaches aqueux qui ont migré de plusieurs kilomètres dans les alluvions plus profondes et ont contaminé des champs captants pour l'eau potable en Californie, en Arizona et au Nouveau-Mexique. La longueur de ces panaches et la présence d'eau souterraine en conditions oxiques indiquent qu'il est peu probable que la décroissance naturelle soit un recours pratique de décontamination dans les vallées alluviales du sud-ouest ou dans d'autres systèmes alluviaux dans lesquels existent des conditions hydrogéologiques et géochimiques semblables. Resumen La migración, disolución y transporte de compuestos clorados en valles aluviales urbanos del sudoeste de los Estados Unidos de América parecen estar gobernados por un conjunto único de procesos hidrogeológicos y geoquímicos que tienen lugar en los depósitos clásticos. El relleno aluvial y lacustre de las cuencas, la inmovilización de los solutos en sedimentos de grano fino bajo las zonas urbanizadas, los condiciones óxicas típicas del aluvial profundo y las direcciones de transporte regidas por los fuertes bombeos en las cuencas se combinan para producir grandes penachos en fase acuosa procedentes de la disolución de los compuestos clorados atrapados en el medio. Aunque la solubilidad de estos compuestos clorados densos es pequeña, es suficiente para producir penachos que en algunos casos se han desplazado varios kilómetros a través del aluvial profundo y han llegado a contaminar zonas de extracción muy productivas en California, Arizona y Nuevo México. La longitud de estos penachos y la presencia de agua subterránea oxidante indican que es improbable que la degradación natural sea un buen método de limpieza de estos acuíferos o de otros sistemas aluviales que presenten características hidrogeológicas y

  17. Groundwater demand management at local scale in rural areas of India: a strategy to ensure water well sustainability based on aquifer diffusivity and community participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Himanshu; Vijay Shankar, P. S.; Deolankar, S. B.; Shah, Mihir

    el punto de vista de la ``demanda''. El acuífero de Neemkheda es un acuífero típico de almacenamiento bajo y conductividad hidráulica baja, perteneciente a una cuenca hídrica ubicada en las regiones secas del Estado de Madhya Pradesh, en la parte central de India. Un acuífero de tipo libre, somero, formado por una unidad superior de arenisca calcárea de grano grueso, subyacida por una unidad de arenisca de grano fino. Un campo de pozos comunitario compuesto por siete pozos, pone a prueba el concepto de gestión conjunta del agua subterránea, dentro del cual los pozos son mecanismos para usar una fuente de agua común: El acuífero de Neemkheda. La estrategia usada para la gestión sistemática del agua subterránea, en el campo de pozos comunitario de Neemkheda, se basa en la relación existente entre Transmisividad (T) y Coeficiente de Almacenamiento (S), es decir en la Difusividad del Acuífero y en su variación observada dentro del mismo acuífero. Los pozos cuya difusividad esta dentro de un rango alto, tienden a experimentar un descenso en su nivel mas rápidamente que aquellos pozos con una difusividad baja. El concepto de gestión de agua subterránea se basa en un programa especial de operación para cada pozo durante la estación seca, el cual a su vez se basa en la difusividad del acuífero. La distribución de difusividades locales del acuífero rige las relaciones entre las épocas de descensos de nivel en el acuífero a escala regional y local, y además constituyen la base del ejercicio de la gestión del agua subterránea que se esta proponiendo para el acuífero de Neemkheda. Les programmes de développement des bassins versants offrent une occasion de développer des stratégies pour une gestion durable, bien qu' à présent elles restent en grande mesure `le terme source' dans le mécanisme de développement de la ressource en eau. Les conditions hydrogéologiques, la participation de la communauté et l'usage des eaux souterraines sont