Science.gov

Sample records for cabbage soup diet

  1. Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2014-04-28

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19-64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003-8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States Department of Agriculture food codes and combination food type from the dietary data. Compared with non-consumers (n 9307), soup consumers (n 1291) had a lower body weight (P = 0.002), a lower waist circumference (P = 0.001) and a trend towards a lower total energy intake (P = 0.087). Soup consumption was associated with a lower dietary ED (P< 0.001); this was independent of whether data on beverage or water consumption were included. Diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2005, was significantly better in soup consumers (P = 0.008). Soup consumption was also associated with a reduced intake of total fat and an increased intake of protein, carbohydrate and dietary fibre, as well as several vitamins and minerals (P < 0.05 for all). However, it was also associated with a higher intake of Na (P < 0.001). The relationship between soup consumption and body weight could be due to a reduced dietary ED and an improved diet quality. Consumers need to pay attention to their Na intake and choose low-Na products for a healthier diet. PMID:24382211

  2. Chicken soup and sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Chicken soup, a popular home remedy for the common cold since at least the 12th century, may really ... chicken soup reduce the inflammation associated with the common cold, thus providing some relief of symptoms. Although researchers ...

  3. Vegetable Soup Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Mary; Shepard, Ray

    Vegetable Soup is a new children's television series whose purpose is to counter the negative and destructive effects of racial isolation. This manual gives detailed instructions for discussion of activities that are presented during the television series such as: crafts, games, recipes, language activities, and children's questions. A list of…

  4. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  5. Cabbage Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Sojourner rover image of the Cabbage Patch shows small rounded objects on the surface that are about 3-4 cm across. Some of these are within excavations, which are about 0.5 cm wide. Several questions arise about the pebbles: Why are they rounded? Where did they come from? What do they mean?

    Geologists use MULTIPLE WORKING HYPOTHESES when attempting to explain observations. Some hypotheses that could account for the pebbles are: They were rounded during transport by waters of catastrophic floods and deposited on the Ares Vallis floodplain They were rounded by wave action on an ancient Martian beach They were rounded during glacial transport They are glasses that were produced by melting during impact cratering. The glass was first ejected from the crater, then molded into spherical shapes or drops as it traveled through the atmosphere, and finally was deposited at the sites They are spatter from lava flows They are nodules brought up from the deep Martian interior by lava flows or pyroclastic eruptions. They are concretions formed in sedimentary rocks They came from ancient conglomerate rocks. The pebbles were rounded by water action and subsequently lithified into conglomerate rocks. Later, the waters of catastrophic floods transported the conglomerates and deposited them on the Ares floodplain. The pebbles were then freed from the rocks by weathering. A combination of the above

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  6. Nutrition for homeless populations: shelters and soup kitchens as opportunities for intervention.

    PubMed

    Koh, Katherine A; Bharel, Monica; Henderson, David C

    2016-05-01

    Nutrition is a daily challenge for the homeless population in America. Homeless individuals suffer from a high prevalence of diseases related to poor diet, yet there has been little public health effort to improve nutrition in this population. Shelters and soup kitchens may have an untapped potential to impact food access, choice and quality. We offer ideas for intervention and lessons learned from ten shelters and soup kitchens around Greater Boston, MA, USA. By advancing food quality, education and policies in shelters and soup kitchens, the homeless population can be given an opportunity to restore its nutrition and health. PMID:26434381

  7. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment. In 1992, the developer applied for a patent for Selected Vegetables/Sun’s Soup as an herbal ... patients. In 1995, the developer was awarded a patent for Selected Vegetables/Sun’s Soup. Many of the ...

  8. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken…

  9. Diet - clear liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... It includes things such as: Clear broth Tea Cranberry juice Jell-O Popsicles This diet is easier ... such as grape juice, filtered apple juice, and cranberry juice Soup broth (bouillon or consommé) Clear sodas, ...

  10. Variation in saltiness perception of soup with respect to soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Weon; Samant, Shilpa S; Seo, Yoojin; Seo, Han-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of serving temperature on saltiness perception in food products such as soups that are typically consumed at high temperature. This study focused on determining whether serving temperature modulates saltiness perception in soup-base products. Eight trained panelists and 62 untrained consumers were asked to rate saltiness intensities in salt water, chicken broth, and miso soup, with serving temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C. Neither trained nor untrained panelists were able to find significant difference in the saltiness intensity among salt water samples served at these five different temperatures. However, untrained consumers (but not trained panelists) rated chicken broth and miso soup to be significantly less salty when served at 70 and/or 80 °C compared to when served at 40 to 60 °C. There was an interaction between temperature-related perceived saltiness and preference; for example, consumers who preferred soups served at lower temperatures found soups served at higher temperatures to be less salty. Consumers who frequently consumed hot dishes rated soup samples served at 60 °C as saltier than consumers who consumed hot dishes less frequently. This study demonstrates that soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits are influential factors affecting saltiness perception of soup. PMID:25265155

  11. Decoding the Assessment Alphabet Soup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Paula

    2010-10-01

    The number of assessment instruments that help physics instructors evaluate the conceptual learning of their students has grown over the last twenty years. Today, the number of tests that are available begin to look like an alphabet soup, FCI, MBT, TUG-K, CSE, CSM, CSEM, DIRECT, BEMA, LOCE, FMCE, SEMCO, etc. What can these assessment tests do for you that is different from what you regularly do? How do these tests differ from the tests and other assessments you already give in class? What is meant by formative and summative assessment and why should you care? What are some of the issues associated with giving one of these assessment tests? These are the questions that will be addressed in this talk.

  12. Of Cabbages and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jacqueline

    This book contains a series of engaging activities that offer students a chance to explore acids and bases using the special indicator properties of red cabbage juice. The activities allow students to discover acids and bases through their own experiments and interpretations. The skills of observing, recording results, comparing, classifying,…

  13. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...

  14. Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to

  15. "Snow Soup" Students Take on Animation Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of producing "Snow Soup"--the 2009 Adobe Flash animation produced by the Computer Game Development and Animation seniors of Washington County Technical High School in Hagerstown, Maryland, for libraries in their area. In addition to the Flash product, the students produced two related Game Maker games, a printed…

  16. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. "Snow Soup" Students Take on Animation Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of producing "Snow Soup"--the 2009 Adobe Flash animation produced by the Computer Game Development and Animation seniors of Washington County Technical High School in Hagerstown, Maryland, for libraries in their area. In addition to the Flash product, the students produced two related Game Maker games, a printed

  19. Teaching Science. The Soup-Can Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents classroom science activities to illustrate concepts of inertia, linear momentum, and friction. Students or teachers conduct races down a slope, using cans containing soups varying in mass, mass distribution, and viscosity. Students predict outcomes, compare speeds, and identify variables affecting the results. (KDFB)

  20. Marking cabbage looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, J.I.; Van Steenwyk, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    Cabbage loopers (CL), Trichoplusia ni (Huebner), adults reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked with cesium (Cs) which could be detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The cesium marks from the 10/sup -2/ M CsCl diet were sufficient to last the expected lifetime of the insects. CL reared on diet containing 1 x 10/sup -1/ M CsCl did not survive. Unmarked females mated to males reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked. CL reared on cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults exposed for 72 h to cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults reared from field cotton plants sprayed with CsCl solutions at rates of 1.24, 2.47, and 4.94 kg of CsCl per ha were marked. 12 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  1. Effect of a barley-vegetable soup on plasma carotenoids and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetti, Tiziana; Tullii, Domenico; Masciangelo, Simona; Gesuita, Rosaria; Skrami, Edlira; Brugè, Francesca; Silvestri, Sonia; Orlando, Patrick; Tiano, Luca; Ferretti, Gianna

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods that provide benefits beyond their traditional nutritional value have attracted much interest. Aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional and the functional properties of a frozen ready-to-eat soup containing barley and pigmented vegetables. Both glycaemic index and the glyceamic load of ready-to-eat soup were evaluated in vivo. Moreover the bioavailability of carotenoids (lutein and beta-carotene) and the effect on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation were studied in 38 volunteers whose diet was supplemented for two weeks with a daily portion (250 g) of the ready-to-eat soup. Plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein and beta-carotene) and plasma total antioxidant capacity significantly increased after 2 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, we observed a decrease in the levels of lipids (total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol) and of markers of lipid peroxidation (oxidized low density lipoprotein and lipid hydroperoxides) in plasma of all subjects. The glyceamic index of the product was 36, therefore it could be considered a low glyceamic index food. An accurate selection of vegetable foods results in a palatable and healthy product that provides benefits on plasma lipids and lipid peroxidation (Protocol number 211525). PMID:26236103

  2. Exploring Weighty Matters with "Cucumber Soup": An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columba, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature can play a significant role in integrating math and science concepts into real-world applications. One particularly delightful selection is "Cucumber Soup" (Krudwig, 1998). This book can create a context--making cucumber soup--for weighing and for a real-life on adding fractions. This kind of learning context takes children

  3. Exploring Weighty Matters with "Cucumber Soup": An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columba, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature can play a significant role in integrating math and science concepts into real-world applications. One particularly delightful selection is "Cucumber Soup" (Krudwig, 1998). This book can create a context--making cucumber soup--for weighing and for a real-life on adding fractions. This kind of learning context takes children…

  4. Selenium-enriched garlic and cabbage as a dietary selenium source for broilers.

    PubMed

    Seo, Tae Cheol; Spallholz, Julian E; Yun, Hyoung Kwon; Kim, Sung Woo

    2008-12-01

    This study determined the selenium (Se) bioavailability from Se-enriched garlic and cabbage using broiler chickens. Se-enriched garlic (18.5 mg of Se/kg) and cabbage (101.5 mg of Se/kg) were produced by soil enrichment using selenate. Conventional and Se-enriched garlic and cabbage were dried, ground, and added to broiler chick diets. Ninety-six broiler chickens at 1 day of age were assigned to four dietary treatments: NC (cabbage + garlic), PC (cabbage + garlic + selenomethionine, 0.5 mg of Se/kg of diet), GS (cabbage + Se-enriched garlic, 0.5 mg of Se/kg of diet), and CS (garlic + Se-enriched cabbage, 0.5 mg of Se/kg of diet), with six replicates per treatment and four birds per cage. Birds were fed the experimental diets for 4 weeks and slaughtered to obtain blood and tissues: white (breast) muscle, dark (thigh) muscle, liver, and feathers. All excreta were collected weekly, dried, and ground for Se analysis. Bird weight gain and feed intake were measured weekly. Total Se content and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity in liver and plasma were measured. Total liver Se content of the PC birds (0.876 mg of Se/kg) was the highest (P < .05). The CS (0.693 mg of Se/kg) and GS (0.627 mg of Se/kg) birds had higher (P < .05) total liver Se than the NC birds (0.514 mg of Se/kg). Plasma GPX activity of the PC birds was highest (P < .05), and that of CS and GS birds was higher (P < .05) than the NC birds. Liver GPX activity of the PC birds was higher (P < .05) than all other treatments. Bioavailability of Se to broiler chickens was not different (P > .05) among PC (65.2%), CS (61.2%), and GS (70.7%) birds. This study indicates that the Se from Se-enriched garlic and cabbage is highly bioavailable and can potentially be beneficial in enhancing Se status and GPX activity. PMID:19053861

  5. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  6. Pediatric soup scald burn injury: etiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Tina L; Alderson, Tyrone S; Ison, Dahlia; O'Mara, Michael S; Sharma, Raj; Bubba, Anthony; Coombs, Elena; Greenhalgh, David G

    2008-01-01

    One of the leading causes of scald burn injury in children is from hot soup, particularly prepackaged instant soups. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic, socioeconomic, and situational factors that contribute to the incidence of scald burns in children. A 20-item questionnaire was given to the caregiver of children who were treated for scald burn injury at a pediatric burn center from July 2006 to March 2007. Questions included demographics (child age, gender, siblings, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (income, education), factors contributing to the injury (type of soup, child supervision, type of container), and location of injury. The mean age of the 78 children sustaining burn injury and completing the survey was 4.8 +/- 0.6 years. The majority of patients were girls (51%), and the most frequently involved ethnic group was Hispanic (44%). Households had a mean of 3.0 +/- 0.3 children in residence, and an income of less than $29,000/year (59%). The highest educational level achieved was high school for 73% of the parents. Prepackaged soup (65%) with a narrow base heated directly in the original container (46%) using the microwave (51%) was implicated in the majority of burns. Soup scald burns, especially from prepackaged instant soups, appear to predominate in lower income families with multiple children. The majority of injuries occur when the caregiver heats the soup in the original container using the microwave. Prevention of these types of injuries will require a two-pronged approach: educating families with multiple children and changing the soup packaging. PMID:18182907

  7. Modeling growth of Clostridium perfringens in pea soup during cooling.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Aarieke E I; Beumer, Rijkel R; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2005-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen that mainly causes food poisoning outbreaks when large quantities of food are prepared. Therefore, a model was developed to predict the effect of different cooling procedures on the growth of this pathogen during cooling of food: Dutch pea soup. First, a growth rate model based on interpretable parameters was used to predict growth during linear cooling of pea soup. Second, a temperature model for cooling pea soup was constructed by fitting the model to experimental data published earlier. This cooling model was used to estimate the effect of various cooling environments on average cooling times, taking into account the effect of stirring and product volume. The growth model systematically overestimated growth of C. perfringens during cooling in air, but this effect was limited to less than 0.5 log N/ml and this was considered to be acceptable for practical purposes. It was demonstrated that the growth model for C. perfringens combined with the cooling model for pea soup could be used to sufficiently predict growth of C. perfringens in different volume sizes of pea soup during cooling in air as well as the effect of stirring, different cooling temperatures, and various cooling environments on the growth of C. perfringens in pea soup. Although fine-tuning may be needed to eliminate inaccuracies, it was concluded that the combined model could be a useful tool for designing good manufacturing practices (GMP) procedures. PMID:15787757

  8. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage is due to the accumulation of large quantity of anthocyanins. To investigate the general regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbages, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulators from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four...

  9. Infection of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ji, R; Zhao, L; Xing, M; Shen, X; Bi, Q; Peng, S; Feng, H

    2014-01-01

    Brassica crops infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae can produce root galls (clubroots) and be prevented from growing normally. To understand the series of changes that occur in the host root during root gall production, the resistance character of 21 Chinese cabbage lines were identified and then resistant and susceptible lines were used for infection observation. Hydroponic technology system was used for plants growing, and the infection process of P. brassicae in the roots of resistant and susceptible Chinese cabbage was examined based on morphology and microscopic characteristics using micoscope. In susceptible Chinese cabbage, the root hair infection stage occurred over approximately 7 days after inoculation, the cortical infection happened over approximatly 14 days after inoculation, and clubroots formed in approximately 30 days after inoculation. However, in resistant Chinese cabbage, the pathogen could be prevented and maintained in the root hair infection stage. This research provides a foundation for the subsequent studies of cabbage resistance of P. brassicae. PMID:25526218

  10. ``Sequence space soup'' of proteins and copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hue Sun; Dill, Ken A.

    1991-09-01

    To study the protein folding problem, we use exhaustive computer enumeration to explore ``sequence space soup,'' an imaginary solution containing the ``native'' conformations (i.e., of lowest free energy) under folding conditions, of every possible copolymer sequence. The model is of short self-avoiding chains of hydrophobic (H) and polar (P) monomers configured on the two-dimensional square lattice. By exhaustive enumeration, we identify all native structures for every possible sequence. We find that random sequences of H/P copolymers will bear striking resemblance to known proteins: Most sequences under folding conditions will be approximately as compact as known proteins, will have considerable amounts of secondary structure, and it is most probable that an arbitrary sequence will fold to a number of lowest free energy conformations that is of order one. In these respects, this simple model shows that proteinlike behavior should arise simply in copolymers in which one monomer type is highly solvent averse. It suggests that the structures and uniquenesses of native proteins are not consequences of having 20 different monomer types, or of unique properties of amino acid monomers with regard to special packing or interactions, and thus that simple copolymers might be designable to collapse to proteinlike structures and properties. A good strategy for designing a sequence to have a minimum possible number of native states is to strategically insert many P monomers. Thus known proteins may be marginally stable due to a balance: More H residues stabilize the desired native state, but more P residues prevent simultaneous stabilization of undesired native states.

  11. An analysis of un-dissolved powders of instant powdered soup by using ultrasonographic image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaai, Yukinori; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays, there are many instant powdered soups around us. When we make instant powdered soup, sometimes we cannot dissolve powders perfectly. Food manufacturers want to improve this problem in order to make better products. Therefore, they have to measure the state and volume of un-dissolved powders. Earlier methods for analyzing removed the un-dissolved powders from the container, the state of the un-dissolved power was changed. Our research using ultrasonographic image can measure the state of un-dissolved powders with no change by taking cross sections of the soup. We then make 3D soup model from these cross sections of soup. Therefore we can observe the inside of soup that we do not have ever seen. We construct accurate 3D model. We can visualize the state and volume of un-dissolved powders with analyzing the 3D soup models.

  12. Quick, easy to prepare freeze-dried soups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, R. V.; Larson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Major advantages of soups are that they totally rehydrate in less than five minutes in water at approximately 150 deg F, maintain flavor and quality stability for two weeks in a 100 F environment, and remain stable for considerably longer at ambient temperatures. They are suitable for either household or field use.

  13. Public Opinion Polls, Chicken Soup and Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phung

    2005-01-01

    Cooking and tasting chicken soup in three different pots of very different size serves to demonstrate that it is the absolute sample size that matters the most in determining the accuracy of the findings of the poll, not the relative sample size, i.e. the size of the sample in relation to its population.

  14. Free radical interactions between raw materials in dry soup powder.

    PubMed

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-12-01

    Interactions at the free radical level were observed between dry ingredients in cauliflower soup powder, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, which may be of importance for quality deterioration of such dry food products. The free radical concentrations of cauliflower soup powder, obtained by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, rapidly become smaller during storage (40C and relative humidity of 75%) than the calculated concentrations of free radicals based on the free radical concentrations of the powder ingredients used to make the soup powder and stored separately under similar conditions. Similarly, free radical concentrations decreased faster when any combination of two powder ingredients (of the three major ingredients of the soup powder) were mixed together and stored at 50C for 1week than when each powder component was stored separately. Furthermore, yeast extract powder was found to play a key role when free radical interactions between powder ingredients occurred. The incubation of rapeseed oil with powder ingredients at 45C for 24h, indicated the ability of cauliflower powder to increase the concentration of hydroperoxides in rapeseed oil, while yeast extract powder was found to prevent this hydroperoxide formation. PMID:25212323

  15. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A E I; Rombouts, F M; Beumer, R R

    2004-02-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during different cooling times was investigated. Tubes of preheated pea soup (50 degrees C) were inoculated with cocktails of cells or heat-activated spores of this pathogen. The tubes were linearly cooled to 15 degrees C in time spans of 3, 5, 7.5, and 10 h and were subsequently stored in a refrigerator at 3 or 7 degrees C for up to 84 h. Cell numbers increased by 1-log cycle during the 3-h cooling period and reached their maximum after 10 h of cooling. Subsequent refrigeration hardly reduced cell numbers. Cooling of 3.75 liters of pea soup in an open pan showed that this amount of pea soup cooled from 50 to 15 degrees C in 5 h, which will allow a more than 10-fold increase in cell numbers. These findings emphasize the need of good hygienic practices and quick cooling of heated foods after preparation. PMID:14968969

  16. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.171 Cabbage crop insurance provisions. The Cabbage Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  17. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.171 Cabbage crop insurance provisions. The Cabbage Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  18. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.171 Cabbage crop insurance provisions. The Cabbage Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  19. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.171 Cabbage crop insurance provisions. The Cabbage Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  20. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.171 Cabbage crop insurance provisions. The Cabbage Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  1. Hierarchical self-organization in the finitary process soup.

    PubMed

    Görnerup, Olof; Crutchfield, James P

    2008-01-01

    Current analyses of genomes from numerous species show that the diversity of their functional and behavioral characters is not proportional to the number of genes that encode the organism. We investigate the hypothesis that the diversity of organismal character is due to hierarchical organization. We do this with the recently introduced model of the finitary process soup, which allows for a detailed mathematical and quantitative analysis of the population dynamics of structural complexity. Here we show that global complexity in the finitary process soup is due to the emergence of successively higher levels of organization, that the hierarchical structure appears spontaneously, and that the process of structural innovation is facilitated by the discovery and maintenance of relatively noncomplex, but general, individuals in a population. PMID:18489247

  2. Study finds Chapel Hill, NC, soup kitchen serves nutritious meals.

    PubMed

    Eppich, Simone; Fernandez, Claudia Plaisted

    2004-08-01

    Soup kitchens attempt to improve the food security of low-income individuals, but the results of their efforts are rarely researched. We focused our study on the Inter-Faith Council Soup Kitchen (IFC) near the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC) in Chapel Hill, NC. The IFC uses no centralized nutrition planning and relies heavily on volunteer cooks, yet we found their meals to be highly nutrient-dense when averaged over a 1-month time frame and compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and the Daily Reference Values (DRVs). In fact, the only nutrients needing improvement were vitamin D, folate, and calcium. The number of servings per meal was also substantially more than one third of the US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid recommendations, except for dairy at all meals, vegetables at breakfast, and fruit at dinner. PMID:15281049

  3. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. PMID:24879887

  4. Temperature Relationships in Eastern Skunk Cabbage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Barbara J.; Halkin, Sylvia L.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory exercise is presented in which students determine where metabolic heat is primarily generated in blooming eastern skunk cabbage ("Symplocarpus foetidus") plants. Students consider how color, shape, and orientation of spathes, and stage of flower maturation, may affect metabolic heat production and retention of both metabolic and solar…

  5. Of Cabbages, Science Curriculums, and Children's Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrowski, Bernard

    1984-01-01

    Uses examples related to a head of cabbage to discuss: (1) sensory development in children; (2) the integration of sensory and cognitive involvement; and (3) a child's mode of exploring and discovering. Also discusses why science curricula need to be organized around a paradigm that is holistic. (JN)

  6. Storage stability of cauliflower soup powder: The effect of lipid oxidation and protein degradation reactions.

    PubMed

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-09-15

    Soups based on cauliflower soup powders, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, showed a decrease in quality, as evaluated by a sensory panel, during the storage of the soup powder in the dark for up to 12weeks under mildly accelerated conditions of 40C and 75% relative humidity. Antioxidant, shown to be effective in protecting the rapeseed bulk oil, used for the powder preparation, had no effect on storage stability of the soup powder. The freshly prepared soup powder had a relatively high concentration of free radicals, as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, which decreased during storage, and most remarkably during the first two weeks of storage, with only marginal increase in lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products, and without any increase in secondary lipid oxidation products. Analyses of volatiles by SPME-GC-MS revealed a significant increase in concentrations of 2-methyl- and 3-methyl butanals, related to Maillard reactions, together with an increase in 2-acetylpyrrole concentration. The soup powders became more brown during storage, as indicated by a decreasing Hunter L-value, in accord with non-enzymatic browning reactions. A significant increase in the concentrations of dimethyl disulfide in soup powder headspace indicated free radical-initiated protein oxidation. Protein degradation, including Maillard reactions and protein oxidation, is concluded to be more important than lipid oxidation in determining the shelf-life of dry cauliflower soup powder. PMID:25212144

  7. Shaking the Salt Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caraway seeds: Lean meats, stews, soups, salads, breads, cabbage, asparagus, noodles Chives: Salads, sauces, soups, lean meat ... tomato soup, mayonnaise Dill: Fish sauces, soups, tomatoes, cabbages, carrots, cauliflower, green beans, cucumbers, potatoes, salads, macaroni, ...

  8. Identification of male cabbage looper sex pheromone attractive to females.

    PubMed

    Heath, R R; Landolt, P J; Dueben, B D; Murphy, R E; Schneider, R E

    1992-03-01

    A multicomponent pheromone produced by male cabbage looper moths that is attractive to female moths in a flight tunnel bioassay was isolated and identified. Based on analyses of hairpencil extracts of male cabbage loopers and volatiles emitted by males, the pheromone has been identified as a blend consisting of (S)-(+)-linalool,p-cresol, andm-cresol. The chirality of the major component, (S)-(+)-linalool, is important for behavioral response of females. These pheromonal compounds were also identified as volatiles released by males when males were exposed to the principal pheromone component of female cabbage loopers, (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate. The amount of male pheromone released was increased significantly when males were exposed to a combination of (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate and the odor from cabbage. Neither linalool nor the cresols were detected in volatiles from cabbage or from males exposed to cabbage odor. PMID:24254948

  9. Expected satiation after repeated consumption of low- or high-energy-dense soup.

    PubMed

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Stafleu, Annette; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-07-14

    We investigated whether repeated consumption of a low-energy-dense (LED; 208 kJ/100 g) or high-energy-dense (HED; 645 kJ/100 g) soup modifies expectations relating to the satiating capacity of the food, and its subsequent intake. In study 1, participants consumed either a novel-flavoured LED (n 32; 21 (SD 1·6) years, BMI 21·4 (SD 1·6) kg/m(2)) or HED soup (n 32; 21 (SD 1·6) years, BMI 21·3 (SD 1·7) kg/m(2)). Soup was served in a fixed amount on days 1-4 and ad libitum on day 5. 'Expected satiation' was measured on days 1, 2 and 5. Expected satiation did not change after repeated consumption of the LED or HED soup. Ad libitum intake did not differ between the LED (461 (SD 213) g) and HED soup (391 (SD 164) g). Only on day 1, expected satiation was higher for the HED soup than for the LED soup (P = 0·03), suggesting a role for sensory attributes in expected satiation. In study 2, thirty participants (21 (SD 1·6) years, BMI 21·3 (SD 1·7) kg/m(2)) performed a single measurement of expected satiation of the LED and HED soup, and four commercially available types of soup. Ratings on sensory attributes were associated with expected satiation. Results on expected satiation coincided with those of study 1. Thickness and intensity of taste were independently associated with expected satiation. Expectations may initially rely on sensory attributes and previous experiences, and are not easily changed. PMID:22017801

  10. Transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) is due to anthocyanin accumulation. To investigate the regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbage, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four ...

  11. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  12. Sunspot observations from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shine, R. A.; Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.

    1987-01-01

    A series of white light images obtained by the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2 of active region 4682 on August 5, 1985 were analyzed in the area containing sunspots. Although the umbra of the spot is underexposed, the film is well exposed in the penumbral regions. These data were digitally processed to remove noise and to separate p-mode oscillations from low velocity material motions. The results of this preliminary investigation include: (1) proper motion measurements of a radial outflow in the photospheric granulation pattern just outside the penumbra; (2) discovery of occasional bright structures (streakers) that appear to be ejected outward from the penumbra; (3) broad dark clouds moving outward in the penumbra in addition to the well known bright penumbral grains moving inward; (4) apparent extensions and contractions of penumbral filaments over the photosphere; and (5) observation of a faint bubble or loop-like structure which seems to expand from two bright penumbral filaments into the photosphere.

  13. A polygon soup representation for free viewpoint video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colleu, T.; Pateux, S.; Morin, L.; Labit, C.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a polygon soup representation for multiview data. Starting from a sequence of multi-view video plus depth (MVD) data, the proposed representation takes into account, in a unified manner, different issues such as compactness, compression, and intermediate view synthesis. The representation is built in two steps. First, a set of 3D quads is extracted using a quadtree decomposition of the depth maps. Second, a selective elimination of the quads is performed in order to reduce inter-view redundancies and thus provide a compact representation. Moreover, the proposed methodology for extracting the representation allows to reduce ghosting artifacts. Finally, an adapted compression technique is proposed that limits coding artifacts. The results presented on two real sequences show that the proposed representation provides a good trade-off between rendering quality and data compactness.

  14. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  15. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  16. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup. PMID:24425950

  17. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks.

    PubMed

    Crassina, K; Sudha, M L

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality and breaking strength were assessed. Nutritional characterization of the soup sticks in terms of protein and starch in vitro digestibility, dietary fiber, minerals, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were determined using standard methods. With the increasing levels of MGP from 0 to 15 %, the farinograph water absorption increased from 60 to 66.7 %. A marginal increase in the gelatinization temperature from 65.4 to 66.2 °C was observed. Retrogradation of gelatinized starch granules decreased with the addition of MGP. The results indicated that the soup stick with 10 % MG had acceptable sensory attributes. The soup stick showed further improvement in terms of texture and breaking strength with the addition of gluten powder, potassium bromate and glycerol monostearate. The total dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of the soup sticks having 10 % MGP increased from 3.31 to 8.64 % and 26.83 to 48.06 % respectively as compared to the control soup sticks. MGP in soup sticks improved the nutritional profile. PMID:26345009

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and nutritional composition of flavoured dehydrated soups packaged in different formats. Reducing the sodium content.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Murcia, M Antonia; Mariscal, Miguel; Lorenzo, M Luisa; Gómez-Murcia, V; Bibiloni, Mar; Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M

    2015-12-01

    The antioxidant activity and nutritional composition of four dehydrated soups (vegetables, meat, chicken and fish) packaged in four formats - carton, plastic, and aluminium bags (the last with and without modified atmosphere) - were evaluated during 12 months' storage. The results showed that all four soups had a good or very good antioxidant capacity as tested by the lipid peroxidation, deoxyribose, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) tests. Of interest from a nutritional point of view was the finding that the lipid fraction of all the soups was below 1 %. The sodium content of the four soups and their ingredients was also analysed. By modifying some of the ingredients, a 25 % reduction in the sodium content of the soups was obtained, permitting them to be labelled as "sodium reduced". The monosodium glutamate (MSG) content of the reformulated soups (lower sodium content) was below levels permitted by European legislation. PMID:26604357

  19. Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.

    PubMed

    Hong, J H; Jung, D W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2010-10-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs on beef-soup flavor compared to soups made with glutathione (GSH) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a control (CON), or a control soup made with 150% beef content (CON150). The sensory characteristics of the beef soups were examined by descriptive analysis. The overall acceptabilities of the beef soups were rated by consumers. Principal component analysis was performed on descriptive data as explanatory variables with overall acceptability as a supplementary variable to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer acceptability, as well as the relationships between the beef-soup samples and their sensory attributes. The samples containing GMRPs had "beef flavor" that was stronger than the CON and MSG samples, and comparable to that of the GSH sample and CON150. The GMRP samples had stronger "green onion flavor,"garlic flavor," and "boiled egg white flavor" than the other samples. The beef soup containing MSG was preferred to CON, CON150, and GSH. The samples with GMRPs were least favored because of their pronounced metallic and astringent notes. The results of this study imply the feasibility of GMRPs as a flavor enhancer since the soups containing these compounds showed more complex flavor profiles than GSH. However, future studies are required to optimize the MR conditions that produce GMRPs without undesirable characteristics. Practical Application: This study examined the practicability of the Maillard reaction products between glutathione (GSH) and glucose (GP) or fructose (FP) as a flavor enhancer by investigating the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability evoked by them in a beef-soup system. This study helps flavor and food industry to develop a new flavor enhancer by providing practical information, such as beef flavor-enhancing effect of FP and GP compared to that by increasing beef content or adding GSH or MSG. In addition, it is expected that the outcome of this study, such as sensory attributes of and consumer responses to GSH Maillard reaction products, compliments previous studies that mostly focused on chemical analysis of Maillard reaction. PMID:21535516

  20. A Head for Science: Using Cabbage to Teach Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifting, Inez Fugate

    1988-01-01

    Using ordinary household items--vinegar, ammonia, and cabbage juice--teachers can demonstrate properties of acids, bases, and neutrals. Students are encouraged to discuss results and hypothesize about experiments. A guide to the project is provided. (JL)

  1. Methylmercury in dried shark fins and shark fin soup from American restaurants.

    PubMed

    Nalluri, Deepthi; Baumann, Zofia; Abercrombie, Debra L; Chapman, Demian D; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2014-10-15

    Consumption of meat from large predatory sharks exposes human consumers to high levels of toxic monomethylmercury (MMHg). There also have been claims that shark fins, and hence the Asian delicacy shark fin soup, contain harmful levels of neurotoxic chemicals in combination with MMHg, although concentrations of MMHg in shark fins are unknown. We measured MMHg in dried, unprocessed fins (n=50) of 13 shark species that occur in the international trade of dried shark fins as well as 50 samples of shark fin soup prepared by restaurants from around the United States. Concentrations of MMHg in fins ranged from 9 to 1720 ng/g dry wt. MMHg in shark fin soup ranged from <0.01 to 34 ng/mL, with MMHg averaging 62 ± 7% of total Hg. The highest concentrations of MMHg and total Hg were observed in both fins and soup from large, high trophic level sharks such as hammerheads (Sphyrna spp.). Consumption of a 240 mL bowl of shark fin soup containing the average concentration of MMHg (4.6 ng/mL) would result in a dose of 1.1 μg MMHg, which is 16% of the U.S. EPA's reference dose (0.1 μg MMHg per 1 kg per day in adults) of 7.4 μg per day for a 74 kg person. If consumed, the soup containing the highest measured MMHg concentration would exceed the reference dose by 17%. While shark fin soup represents a potentially important source of MMHg to human consumers, other seafood products, particularly the flesh of apex marine predators, contain much higher MMHg concentrations and can result in substantially greater exposures of this contaminant for people. PMID:24835340

  2. First results on quiet and magnetic granulation from SOUP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction limited (0.5 arc sec) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc sec) and completely free of the distortion that plagues groundbased images. The p-mode oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, it was shown that the p-modes dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When these oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 500 sec in quiet and 950 sec in magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are seen to be common. It is speculated that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Using local correlation tracking techniques it was able to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the magnetic field. In quiet sun it is possible to detect both super and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions horizontal velocities are much less, about 100 m/s.

  3. Spatial Models of Prebiotic Evolution: Soup Before Pizza?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuring, István; Czárán, Tamás; Szabó, Péter; Károlyi, György; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2003-10-01

    The problem of information integration and resistance to the invasion of parasitic mutants in prebiotic replicator systems is a notorious issue of research on the origin of life. Almost all theoretical studies published so far have demonstrated that some kind of spatial structure is indispensable for the persistence and/or the parasite resistance of any feasible replicator system. Based on a detailed critical survey of spatial models on prebiotic information integration, we suggest a possible scenario for replicator system evolution leading to the emergence of the first protocells capable of independent life. We show that even the spatial versions of the hypercycle model are vulnerable to selfish parasites in heterogeneous habitats. Contrary, the metabolic system remains persistent and coexistent with its parasites both on heterogeneous surfaces and in chaotically mixing flowing media. Persistent metabolic parasites can be converted to metabolic cooperators, or they can gradually obtain replicase activity. Our simulations show that, once replicase activity emerged, a gradual and simultaneous evolutionary improvement of replicase functionality (speed and fidelity) and template efficiency is possible only on a surface that constrains the mobility of macromolecule replicators. Based on the results of the models reviewed, we suggest that open chaotic flows (`soup') and surface dynamics (`pizza') both played key roles in the sequence of evolutionary events ultimately concluding in the appearance of the first living cell on Earth.

  4. Production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Young; Woodams, Edward E; Hang, Yong D

    2006-08-01

    Research was undertaken to determine the suitability of cabbage as a raw material for production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum C3, Lactobacillus casei A4, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii D7). Cabbage juice was inoculated with a 24-h-old lactic culture and incubated at 30 degrees C. Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled conditions were monitored. L. casei, L. delbrueckii, and L. plantarum grew well on cabbage juice and reached nearly 10x10(8) CFU/mL after 48 h of fermentation at 30 degrees C. L. casei, however, produced a smaller amount of titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid than L. delbrueckii or L. plantarum. After 4 weeks of cold storage at 4 degrees C, the viable cell counts of L. plantarum and L. delbrueckii were still 4.1x10(7) and 4.5x10(5) mL(-1), respectively. L. casei did not survive the low pH and high acidity conditions in fermented cabbage juice and lost cell viability completely after 2 weeks of cold storage at 4 degrees C. Fermented cabbage juice could serve as a healthy beverage for vegetarians and lactose-allergic consumers. PMID:16125381

  5. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  6. Identification of the flavonoids in mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) soup and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Cao, Dongdong; Yi, Jianyong; Cao, Jiankang; Jiang, Weibo

    2012-12-15

    Mung bean soup (MBS) has been traditionally taken as a kind of health food in China. To learn the mechanisms underlying its health benefits, antioxidant capacities of the soup prepared with three cultivars of mung bean were measured. The highest DPPH radical scavenging or ferric reducing activity was observed in soup of mung bean cv. Huang. The MBS of cv. Huang and Mao exhibited higher ABTS(+) reducing activities than MBS of cv. Ming. The two major flavonoids in the MBS were purified and identified as vitexin and isovitexin, respectively. Modeling samples containing vitexin and isovitexin at the same levels as them in the MBS were prepared to assess their antioxidant contributions in the MBS. Our results showed that antioxidant capacities of the MBS mainly derived from vitexin and isovitexin, these flavonoids accounted for the most of total DPPH radicals scavenging, ferric reducing and ABTS(+) reducing scavenging activities in MBS of all the three cultivars. PMID:22980894

  7. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T.; Artaev, Viatcheslav B.; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L.; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2015-01-01

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms. PMID:26412575

  8. Transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Youxi; Chiu, Li-Wei; Li, Li

    2009-11-01

    The color of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) is due to anthocyanin accumulation. To investigate the regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbage, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four green varieties had negligible amount of anthocyanins under normal growth condition, the four red cultivars contained up to 1.60 mg g(-1) fresh weight. HPLC analysis of the four red cultivars revealed that they produced similar composition of various forms of cyanidin glucosides but at different concentrations. Molecular analysis indicated that all the red cabbage shared common mechanism of regulatory control for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Except CHI which showed similar expression levels between green and red cultivars, the other structural genes, CHS, F3H, F3'H, DFR, LDOX, and GST, were constitutively up-regulated during all stages of vegetative growth in red varieties. The expression of these structural genes was also dramatically increased in green and red cabbage under nutrient stresses. The increased expression of the structural genes coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a bHLH gene, BoTT8, and a MYB transcription factor, BoMYB2. These results indicate that activation of these two regulatory factors by unknown mechanisms constitutively up-regulates nearly the entire pathway genes for the onset of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbage. Moreover, the amount of total anthocyanins in red cabbage was found to be positively correlated with total antioxidant power, implicating the potential health benefit of red cabbage to human health. PMID:19756724

  9. Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on the nutritional quality of some selected Nigerian soups.

    PubMed

    Raji, Akeem Olayemi; Akinoso, Rahman; Raji, Monsurat Oyewale

    2016-03-01

    Freezing and thawing are heat transfer processes, involving chemical changes which may greatly affect product quality. Due to sparse literature on freeze-thawed cycles and its effects on soups quality, the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on the nutritional quality of selected Nigerian soups has to be investigated. Soups (Ila, Ewedu, Ogbono, and Kuka) were prepared using standard recipes. The soups were packaged in plastic and aluminum containers, frozen at -20°C, and thawed with microwave oven, hot water (100°C), and at ambient condition for four cycles of 5-day interval. After each cycle, chemical compositions of the samples were determined using AOAC methods. Data were analyzed using ANOVA at P = 0.05. Moisture, protein, fat, crude fiber, ash, and carbohydrate contents of the freeze-thawed soups were 63.6-88.6%, 3.6-8.8%, 1.0-6.1%, 0.8-1.2%, 1.8-4.6%, and 0.9-15.6%, respectively. Mineral contents were iron (5.0-6.8 mg/100 g), calcium (68.1-190.8 mg/100 g), sodium (144.4-231.7 mg/100 g), potassium (200.4-302.1 mg/100 g), and phosphorus (228.0-337.2 mg/100 g). Vitamins were vitamin A (29.5-59.9 mg/100 g), vitamin B (10.1-36.4 mg/100 g), and vitamin E (28.4-90.2 mg/100 g). Microwave-thawed plastic soups had limited nutritional losses when compared with other thawing methods, and should not be extended beyond the third cycle because of increasing reduction in fat and protein, indicating deterioration. PMID:27004107

  10. The impact of red cabbage fermentation on bioavailability of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of human plasma.

    PubMed

    Wiczkowski, Wieslaw; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Romaszko, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The effect of red cabbage fermentation on anthocyanin bioavailability and plasma antioxidant capacity in humans was studied. In a randomized crossover study, 13 volunteers consumed fresh and fermented red cabbage. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after consumption. Analyses of anthocyanins by HPLC-MS/MS and plasma antioxidant capacity by photochemiluminescence assay were conducted. Red cabbage products contained 20 different nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins with the main structure of cyanidin triglucosides. The anthocyanins ingested were present in physiological fluids in form of 18 native anthocyanins and 12 metabolites (methylated, glucuronided, sulfated). Among cyanidin metabolites identified, methylated forms were predominant. Bioavailability of anthocyanin from fresh red cabbage was over 10% higher than from fermented red cabbage. Upon fresh cabbage consumption, volunteers plasma showed higher antioxidant capacity than after fermented cabbage intake. The study has shown that fermentation process affects red cabbage anthocyanins bioavailability and human plasma antioxidant capacity. PMID:26213032

  11. Nutritional status of men attending a soup kitchen: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Laven, G T; Brown, K C

    1985-01-01

    Nutritional status and socioeconomic characteristics of 49 men attending a soup kitchen in a residential neighborhood of Birmingham, Alabama were determined by interview, anthropometry and laboratory assays. Laboratory or anthropometric evidence of nutrient deficiency was present in 94 per cent of the subjects. Deficiency of ascorbate (63 per cent), folate (35 per cent), and thiamin (29 per cent) was higher in these men than in either patients or presumably healthy adults. Since soup kitchen meals provided insufficient vitamin C and folate, additional sources of these nutrients should be provided. PMID:4040716

  12. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  13. 78 FR 48805 - Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23608). Table 1 1. Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay... Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim safety zone described in 33 CFR 165.171 will be enforced on August 18,...

  14. Domestic cooking methods affect the nutritional quality of red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Zheng, Yonghua; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Shao, Xingfeng; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwave heating, boiling and stir-frying on the nutritional quality of red cabbage. Compared with fresh-cut red cabbage, all cooking methods were found to cause significant reduction in anthocyanin and total glucosinolates contents. Moreover, steaming resulted in significantly greater retention of vitamin C and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, while stir-frying and boiling, two popular Chinese cooking methods, led to significant losses of total phenolic, vitamin C, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and total soluble sugar as well as reducing sugars. Normally, red cabbage consumed fresh in salads could maintain the highest nutrition. However, considering the habits of Asian cuisine, it is recommended to use less water and less cooking time, such as steaming based on our present results, so as to retain the optimum benefits of the health-promoting compounds. PMID:24837935

  15. Service learning: population-focused nursing for the homeless at a soup kitchen.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Laura H; Dilley, Kathy B

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the development of an undergraduate population-focused nursing service learning experience at a soup kitchen for the homeless. Through this experience, senior BSN students are able to increase their awareness of health disparities and use interdisciplinary communication and collaboration skills to provide basic healthcare and health promotion to the homeless population. PMID:19412058

  16. Legislative Alphabet Soup: Federal Laws that Affect Your Work as a Library Media Specialist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2006-01-01

    Today, federal laws often seem like an alphabet soup with acronyms like CIPA (Children's Internet Protection Act), CTEA (Copyright Term Extension Act), ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), YMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act), and NC LB (No Child Left Behind). These letters stand for federal…

  17. Stone Soup: Photo-Elicitation as a Learning Tool in the Food Geography Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Hilda E.; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases self-reflective and inclusive pedagogy using photo-elicitation in a food geography course assignment. The Stone Soup project positions students as both researchers and participant-subjects in a participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE) study of students' foodways. Student papers for this assignment demonstrate rich…

  18. The study of heat penetration of kimchi soup on stationary and rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F 0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F 0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R(2)=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F 0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%. PMID:25866751

  19. The Study of Heat Penetration of Kimchi Soup on Stationary and Rotary Retorts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R2=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%. PMID:25866751

  20. Stone Soup: Photo-Elicitation as a Learning Tool in the Food Geography Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Hilda E.; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases self-reflective and inclusive pedagogy using photo-elicitation in a food geography course assignment. The Stone Soup project positions students as both researchers and participant-subjects in a participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE) study of students' foodways. Student papers for this assignment demonstrate rich

  1. Does boiling affect the bioaccessibility of selenium from cabbage?

    PubMed

    Funes-Collado, Virginia; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, J Fermín

    2015-08-15

    The bioaccessible selenium species from cabbage were studied using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) which establishes conditions that simulate the gastric and gastrointestinal phases of human digestion. Samples of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown in peat fortified with different concentrations of Se(IV) and Se(VI) were analysed, and several enzymes (pepsin, pancreatin and amylase) were used in the PBET. The effect of boiling before extraction was also assayed. Selenium speciation in the PBET extracts was determined using anionic exchange and LC-ICP/MS. The selenocompounds in the extracts were Se(IV), SeMet and, mostly, Se(VI) species. The results show that the activity of the enzymes increased the concentration of the selenocompounds slightly, although the use of amylase had no effect on the results. The PBET showed the concentration of inorganic selenium in the extracts from boiled cabbage decreased as much as 4-fold while the release of SeMet and its concentration increased (up to 6-fold), with respect to raw cabbage. PMID:25794754

  2. Identification of seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Target detectionis one of research focues for precision chemical application. This study developed a method to identify seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral spectral imaging. In processing the image data, with ENVI software, after dimension reduction, noise reduction, de-correlation for h...

  3. Nitrogen loss in surface runoff from Chinese cabbage fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi-Yuan, Wu; Zhang, Li-Ping; Fu, Xing-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, He-Si

    A growth period of Chinese cabbage included seedling, rosette, anterior folding, middle folding, and posterior folding stages. To investigate characteristic of surface runoff, evolution of various nitrogen (N) forms at different growth stages, and contribution of N loss during a whole growth period to environment, 10 simulated rainfalls were applied on Chinese cabbage planted in two 2 m 2 troughs (A and B), with two replicates. Troughs A and B were designed with slopes of 14° and 21°. Five simulated rainfalls were applied in each trough. Seedling and rosette stages were with rainfall intensities of 0.65 mm min -1 and folding stages were with 1.93 mm min -1, respectively. Fertilizers were applied at seedling and anterior folding stages at rate of 103 and 103 kg N ha -1, respectively. One rainfall event lasted for approximately 20 min. Conclusions were as follows: N loss mainly occurred at rosette stage and anterior folding stage. Nitrogen loss had a close relationship with runoff volume. Percentage of NH4+-N in TN had an ascending trend with growth of Chinese cabbage while percentage of NO3--N had a descending trend. Folding stages had more percentages of undissolved N than seedling and rosette stages. Lower slope was advantageous to the concentrations of TN, NO3--N, and NH4+-N and proportion of NO3--N. Based on the results, we need to pay more attention to the NO3--N pollution in Chinese cabbage filed at lower slope.

  4. Estimating Cabbage Physical Parameters Using Remote Sensing Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has long been used as a tool to extract plant growth and yield information for many crops, but little research has been conducted on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) with this technology. The objective of this study was to evaluate aerial photography and field reflectance spectra for estim...

  5. Sex Attractant of Cabbage Looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner).

    PubMed

    Ignoffo, C M; Berger, R S; Graham, H M; Martin, D F

    1963-09-01

    When virgin male cabbage loopers were exposed to filter-paper strips containing an extract from female abdomens, they exhibited a response lasting from 2 to 5 minutes. Gases of a component (or components) of these extracts emanating from a chromatography column attracted the males and then evoked the same response. The attractant is fairly volatile and has relatively low molecular weight. PMID:17844012

  6. A comparison of plasma and prostate lycopene in response to typical servings of tomato soup, sauce or juice in men before prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Elizabeth M; Hadley, Craig W; Moran, Nancy E; Riedl, Kenneth M; Gong, Michael C; Pohar, Kamal; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-08-28

    Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2-2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142-198 g/d or 5-7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325-488 ml/d or 11-16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25-35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( - 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80-90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and biodistribution. PMID:26202168

  7. Protein-enhanced soups: a consumer-accepted food for increasing dietary protein provision among older adults.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Elizabeth; Crowe, Kristi Michele; Lawrence, Jeannine

    2015-02-01

    Protein-enhanced soups (PES) may improve protein intake among older adults. This study examined sensory attributes (aroma, texture, taste, and overall acceptability) and preferences of PES (chicken noodle and cheddar broccoli) compared with flavor-matched control soups (FCS) among older adults (≥65 years) and evaluated dietary profile changes of a standard menu based on the substitution of one PES serving/d for a standard soup. Modified paired preference tests and 5-point facial hedonic scales were administered to participants (n = 44). No significant differences in sensory attributes between either PES compared with FCS were identified, but significant gender- and age-related differences (p < 0.05) were observed. About Sixty-one percent of participants preferred protein-enhanced chicken noodle soup while only 38% preferred protein-enhanced cheddar broccoli soup to their respective FCS. Substituting one PES serving for one non-fortified soup serving per day resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.001) protein profile. Results suggest that all attributes of PES were consistent with sensory expectations and PES substitution could improve protein provision. PMID:25265204

  8. Genetic Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Alters Feeding Behaviour in the Cabbage Looper, Trichoplusia ni

    PubMed Central

    Shikano, Ikkei; Cory, Jenny S.

    2014-01-01

    Evolved resistance to xenobiotics and parasites is often associated with fitness costs when the selection pressure is absent. Resistance to the widely used microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has evolved in several insect species through the modification of insect midgut binding sites for Bt toxins, and reports of costs associated with Bt resistance are common. Studies on the costs of Bt-resistance restrict the insect to a single artificial diet or host-plant. However, it is well documented that insects can self-select appropriate proportions of multiple nutritionally unbalanced foods to optimize life-history traits. Therefore, we examined whether Bt-resistant and susceptible cabbage loopers Trichoplusia ni differed in their nutrient intake and fitness costs when they were allowed to compose their own protein:carbohydrate diet. We found that Bt-resistant T. ni composed a higher ratio of protein to carbohydrate than susceptible T. ni. Bt-resistant males exhibited no fitness cost, while the fitness cost (reduced pupal weight) was present in resistant females. The absence of the fitness cost in resistant males was associated with increased carbohydrate consumption compared to females. We demonstrate a sex difference in a fitness cost and a new behavioural outcome associated with Bt resistance. PMID:24465656

  9. Genetic resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis alters feeding behaviour in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Shikano, Ikkei; Cory, Jenny S

    2014-01-01

    Evolved resistance to xenobiotics and parasites is often associated with fitness costs when the selection pressure is absent. Resistance to the widely used microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has evolved in several insect species through the modification of insect midgut binding sites for Bt toxins, and reports of costs associated with Bt resistance are common. Studies on the costs of Bt-resistance restrict the insect to a single artificial diet or host-plant. However, it is well documented that insects can self-select appropriate proportions of multiple nutritionally unbalanced foods to optimize life-history traits. Therefore, we examined whether Bt-resistant and susceptible cabbage loopers Trichoplusia ni differed in their nutrient intake and fitness costs when they were allowed to compose their own protein:carbohydrate diet. We found that Bt-resistant T. ni composed a higher ratio of protein to carbohydrate than susceptible T. ni. Bt-resistant males exhibited no fitness cost, while the fitness cost (reduced pupal weight) was present in resistant females. The absence of the fitness cost in resistant males was associated with increased carbohydrate consumption compared to females. We demonstrate a sex difference in a fitness cost and a new behavioural outcome associated with Bt resistance. PMID:24465656

  10. Video image processor on the Spacelab 2 Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter /SL2 SOUP/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, R. W.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    The SOUP instrument is designed to obtain diffraction-limited digital images of the sun with high photometric accuracy. The Video Processor originated from the requirement to provide onboard real-time image processing, both to reduce the telemetry rate and to provide meaningful video displays of scientific data to the payload crew. This original concept has evolved into a versatile digital processing system with a multitude of other uses in the SOUP program. The central element in the Video Processor design is a 16-bit central processing unit based on 2900 family bipolar bit-slice devices. All arithmetic, logical and I/O operations are under control of microprograms, stored in programmable read-only memory and initiated by commands from the LSI-11. Several functions of the Video Processor are described, including interface to the High Rate Multiplexer downlink, cosmetic and scientific data processing, scan conversion for crew displays, focus and exposure testing, and use as ground support equipment.

  11. Within month variability in use of soup kitchens in New York State. p4.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, F E; Taren, D L; Andersen, E; Casella, G; Lambert, J K; Campbell, C C; Frongillo, E A; Spicer, D

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the variation in use of soup kitchens throughout the month using data from the New York State Nutritional Surveillance Program. Excluding November, December, and May, when holiday meals created a different pattern of use, number of meals served in soup kitchens generally increased toward the end of the month, averaging 43 per cent higher for Upstate and 14 per cent higher for New York City in the last week as compared to the first week of the month. The overall increase throughout the month and difference in the magnitude of increase between Upstate and New York City corresponds to the timing of income maintenance benefits distribution. Distribution of most public assistance benefits occurs at the beginning of each month in Upstate, whereas it is staggered in New York City throughout the month. PMID:3421384

  12. Efficacy of enterocin AS-48 against bacilli in ready-to-eat vegetable soups and purees.

    PubMed

    Grande, Maria J; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Ben Omar, Nabil; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    The broad-spectrum bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested for biopreservation of ready-to-eat vegetable foods (soups and purees) against aerobic mesophilic endospore-forming bacteria. By adding AS-48 (10 microg/ml), Bacillus cereus LWL1 was completely inhibited in all six vegetable products tested (natural vegetable cream, asparagus cream, traditional soup, homemade-style traditional soup, vegetable soup, and vichyssoise) for up to 30 days at 6, 15, and 22 degrees C. A collection of strains isolated from spoiled purees showed slightly higher resistance to AS-48 in the order Paenibacillus sp. > Bacillus macroides > B. cereus, although they were also completely inhibited in natural vegetable cream by AS-48 at 10 microg/ml. However, cocktails of five or eight strains composed of B. cereus (three strains), B. macroides (two strains), and Paenibacillus sp., Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus showed higher bacteriocin resistance with AS-48 of up to 50 microg/ml required for complete inactivation in natural vegetable cream stored at 22 degrees C. Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis showed that paenibacilli (along with some B. cereus) was the predominant survivor in the cocktails after bacteriocin treatment. To increase the effectiveness of enterocin AS-48, the bacteriocin was tested (at 20 microg/ml) against the eight-strain cocktail in natural vegetable cream in combination with other antimicrobials. The combination of AS-48 and nisin had a slight but significant additive effect. Bactericidal activity was greatly enhanced by phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and hydrocinnamic acid), achieving a rapid and complete inactivation of bacilli in the tested puree at 22 degrees C. PMID:17969616

  13. The Reverend Russell H. Conwell, W. Wayne Babcock, and the "soup bone" cranioplasties of 1915.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Adam L; Biswas, Arundhati; Goodrich, James Tait

    2014-04-01

    In 1915, faced with 2 patients with large skull defects, W. Wayne Babcock, an obstetrician-gynecologist-turned-general surgeon, operating in a modest North Philadelphia hospital, did something extraordinary: he went to the hospital kitchen to look for a cranial graft. Based heavily on archival and other primary sources, the authors tell the remarkable tale of the "soup bone" cranioplasties of the Samaritan Hospital and place these operations within the context of the early modern American hospital. PMID:24684334

  14. Impact of essential oils on the taste acceptance of tomato juice, vegetable soup, or poultry burgers.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    Despite the vast body of available literature on the possibilities of essential oils (EOs) as food preservatives or functional ingredients, the sensory impact of their addition to foods has barely been approached. This work focuses on the hedonic taste acceptance of 3 food products (tomato juice, vegetable soup, and poultry burgers) when they are incorporated with potentially antimicrobial concentrations (20 to 200 μL/L) of 6 selected EOs (lemon, pennyroyal mint, thyme, and rosemary) and individual compounds (carvacrol, p-cymene). Although addition of 20 μL/L of pennyroyal mint or lemon EO did not change the taste acceptance of tomato juice, higher concentrations of these compounds or any concentration of the other 4 compounds did. In vegetable soup, the tolerance limit for rosemary EO, thyme EO, carvacrol, or p-cymene was 20 μL/L, while the addition of 200 μL/L of lemon EO was accepted. Tolerance limits in poultry burgers were established in 20 μL/L for carvacrol and thyme EOs, 100 μL/L for pennyroyal mint EO and p-cymene, and 200 μL/L for lemon and rosemary EOs. Moreover, incorporation of pennyroyal mint EO to tomato juice or poultry burgers, and enrichment of vegetable soup with lemon EO, could contribute to the development of food products with an improved sensory appeal. PMID:25077550

  15. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p < 0.05). Income was the only variable that remained associated with higher prevalence of food insecurity in the adjusted PR. Knowing the characteristics of soup-kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations. PMID:25099047

  16. "Submesoscale Soup" Vorticity and Tracer Statistics During the Lateral Mixing Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbina, A.; D'Asaro, E. A.; Lee, C. M.; Molemaker, J.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed view of upper-ocean velocity, vorticity, and tracer statistics was obtained by a unique synchronized two-vessel survey in the North Atlantic in winter 2012. In winter, North Atlantic Mode water region south of the Gulf Stream is filled with an energetic, homogeneous, and well-developed submesoscale turbulence field - the "submesoscale soup". Turbulence in the soup is produced by frontogenesis and the surface layer instability of mesoscale eddy flows in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream. This region is a convenient representation of the inertial range of the geophysical turbulence forward cascade spanning scales of o(1-100km). During the Lateral Mixing Experiment in February-March 2012, R/Vs Atlantis and Knorr were run on parallel tracks 1 km apart for 500 km in the submesoscale soup region. Synchronous ADCP sampling provided the first in-situ estimates of full 3-D vorticity and divergence without the usual mix of spatial and temporal aliasing. Tracer distributions were also simultaneously sampled by both vessels using the underway and towed instrumentation. Observed vorticity distribution in the mixed layer was markedly asymmetric, with sparse strands of strong anticyclonic vorticity embedded in a weak, predominantly cyclonic background. While the mean vorticity was close to zero, distribution skewness exceeded 2. These observations confirm theoretical and numerical model predictions for an active submesoscale turbulence field. Submesoscale vorticity spectra also agreed well with the model prediction.

  17. Dissipation of flubendiamide residues in/on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Banerjee, Hemanta

    2013-02-01

    Residues of fubendiamide and its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide were estimated in cabbage and soil using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-vis detector. The initial deposits of flubendiamide residues on cabbage were found to be 0.16 and 0.31 μg g(-1) following two applications of flubendiamide 20 WG at 12.5 (standard dose) and 25 (double dose) g a.i. ha(-1) respectively at 10-days interval. The half-life values (t(1/2)) of flubendiamide on cabbage ranged from 3.4 to 3.6 days. When flubendiamide applied at both the standard and double dose, no detectable residues were found in cabbage and soil at harvest. Thus, a waiting period of 1.63 days was suggested for the safe consumption of flubendiamide-treated cabbage. These data could provide guidance for the proper and safe use of this pesticide on cabbage crops in India. PMID:22527473

  18. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  19. Susceptibility of four different vegetable brassicas to cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella L., Aleyrodidae) attack.

    PubMed

    Trdan, Stanislav; Papler, Ursa

    2002-01-01

    Cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella L.) is one of the most noticeable pests on cultivated Brassica species in the continental part of Slovenia. In year 2000 a susceptibility of four different vegetables of Brassica genus to cabbage whitefly attack had been examined. The highest number of imagoes and larvae was found on kale, significantly less on savoy cabbage and Brussels sprouts and only individual specimen on cabbage. Due to relatively small parcels, the most appropriate way of determining potential economic importance was to count imogoes and larvae on plants (visual inspection). On the other hand, monitoring with sticky yellow boards gave less satisfactory results. PMID:12696419

  20. Enantioselective degradation of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiyun; Zhang, Qing; Cong, Lujing; Yin, Wei; Wang, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective degradation behaviors of the acylamino acid fungicide metalaxyl in vegetables (cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi) under field and greenhouse conditions were elucidated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methyl phenyl carbamate) chiral column (Lux Cellulose-2) was used for the chiral separation of the enantiomers using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution (40:60, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The two enantiomers could be completely separated with a resolution (Rs) of 5.2. The linearity range, matrix effect, precision and recovery were evaluated. The method was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi under different conditions. The results showed that R-enantiomer dissipated faster than S-enantiomer in cucumber of greenhouse. Inversely, a preferential degradation of S-form was found in spinach and pakchoi under field and greenhouse conditions. No stereoselective degradation in cabbage was observed. These results can be applied for evaluating the environmental risk and food safety. PMID:24080002

  1. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. costata) inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Batista, Cátia; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-06-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as "grelos" (rape) and "espigos" ("tronchuda" cabbage) are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables; particularly "tronchuda" cabbage revealed the highest levels of moisture, proteins, fat, energy, β-carotene and vitamin C; rape gave the highest contents of ash, carbohydrates, sugars (including fructose, glucose, sucrose and raffinose), essential n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, and the best ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 fatty acids, tocopherols, lycopene, chlorophylls, phenolics, flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant properties. The health benefits associated to the antioxidant properties reinforce their contribution to a healthy and balanced diet, highlight the interest of their consumption, validate the empirical use and add new values to traditional/regional products which have been used for a long time. PMID:21376770

  2. Monosodium L-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-14

    The umami seasoning, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 25·0-39·9 kg/m²), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (0·5 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders. PMID:26455957

  3. Identification of the active components in Bone Marrow Soup: a mitigator against irradiation-injury to salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Dongdong; Hu, Shen; Liu, Younan; Quan, Vu-Hung; Seuntjens, Jan; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    In separate studies, an extract of soluble intracellular contents from whole bone marrow cells, named “Bone Marrow (BM) Soup”, was reported to either improve cardiac or salivary functions post-myocardial infarction or irradiation (IR), respectively. However, the active components in BM Soup are unknown. To demonstrate that proteins were the active ingredients, we devised a method using proteinase K followed by heating to deactivate proteins and for safe injections into mice. BM Soup and “deactivated BM Soup” were injected into mice that had their salivary glands injured with 15Gy IR. Control mice received either injections of saline or were not IR. Results at week 8 post-IR showed the ‘deactivated BM Soup’ was no better than injections of saline, while injections of native BM Soup restored saliva flow, protected salivary cells and blood vessels from IR-damage. Protein arrays detected several angiogenesis-related factors (CD26, FGF, HGF, MMP-8, MMP-9, OPN, PF4, SDF-1) and cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-16) in BM Soup. In conclusion, the native proteins (but not the nucleic acids, lipids or carbohydrates) were the therapeutic ingredients in BM Soup for functional salivary restoration following IR. This molecular therapy approach has clinical potential because it is theoretically less tumorigenic and immunogenic than cell therapies. PMID:26526154

  4. Salt reduction in vegetable soup does not affect saltiness intensity and liking in the elderly and children

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Monteiro, Sérgio; Padrão, Patrícia; Rocha, Ada; Abreu, Sandra; Pinho, Olívia; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Study background Reduction of added salt levels in soups is recommended. We evaluated the impact of a 30% reduction of usual added salt in vegetable soups on elderly and children's saltiness and liking evaluation. Methods Subjects were elderly and recruited from two public nursing homes (29 older adults, 79.7±8.9 years), and preschool children recruited from a public preschool (49 children, 4.5±1.3 years). This study took place in institutional lunchrooms. Through randomization and crossover, the subjects participated in two sensory evaluation sessions, on consecutive days, to assess perceived saltiness intensity (elderly sample) and liking (elderly and children samples) of a vegetable soup with baseline salt content and with a 30% salt reduction. Elderly rated perceived liking through a 10 cm visual analogue scale [‘like extremely’ (1) to ‘dislike extremely’ (10)] and children through a five-point facial scale [‘dislike very much’ (1) to ‘like very much’ (5)]. Results After 30% added salt reduction in vegetable soup, there were no significant differences in saltiness noted by the elderly (p=0.150), and in perceived liking by children (p=0.160) and elderly (p=0.860). Conclusions A 30% salt reduction in vegetable soup may be achieved without compromising perceived saltiness and liking in children and the elderly. PMID:25317121

  5. Consumption of a high-fat soup preload leads to differences in short-term energy and fat intake between PROP non-taster and super-taster women.

    PubMed

    Shafaie, Yasmine; Hoffman, Daniel J; Tepper, Beverly J

    2015-06-01

    Taste blindness to the bitterness of PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been used as a genetic marker for food selection and adiposity. We have shown that PROP non-taster (NT) women have higher BMIs and habitually consume more fat and energy than either medium-taster (MT) or super-taster (ST) women. These data imply that differences in dietary selection underlie the body weight differences among PROP taster groups. However, no studies investigated energy compensation in women classified by PROP status. We investigated if NTs would compensate less accurately for the calories and fat in a high-fat soup preload in a subsequent test meal compared to MTs and STs. Energy intake from a buffet meal was measured in 75 healthy non-diet-restrained, lean women 30 min after the ingestion of a high-fat soup preload (0.8 kcal/g; 55% calories from fat), calculated to represent 10% of resting energy expenditure for each subject, or the same volume of water. Subjects (n = 20-28/taster group) ate a standard breakfast followed 3 hr later by an ad-libitum buffet lunch, on two occasions. There were no differences in energy intake or macronutrient selection across taster groups after water. After soup, NTs consumed more energy than STs. Fat intake (as %-energy) was higher in NTs (46.4% ± 2.4) compared to either MTs (36.1 ± 1.9%) or STs (38.1% ± 2.3; p < 0.05). NTs overate by 11% ± 5 after the soup compared to MTs and STs who underrate by 16% ± 6 and 26% ± 10, respectively (p < 0.01). These data suggest that small discrepancies in short-term energy compensation and selection of fat after a mixed-nutrient, high-fat preload may play a role in positive energy balance and increased adiposity in women with the PROP non-taster phenotype. PMID:25675856

  6. Distribuion and infestation rates of cyst nematodes(Heterodera spp.) in cabbage-growing areas in Samsun

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cabbages are cultivated in over 7058.5 ha in Samsun (Northern part of Turkey). White head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. subvar. alba), red head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. subvar. rubra), and kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) are the most produced varietie...

  7. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  8. Combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Shen, Guo-Qing; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of women of advanced years. Design: 120 elderly women lacking daily exercise were chosen as the study subjects. By using the table of random numbers, they were then divided into the control group and the experiment group, consisting of 60 each. The control group practiced Taiji boxing for 45 minutes twice a day. The experiment group did the same, and, in addition, took astragalus soup after each boxing. Indexes related to physical immunity of the two groups were observed and compared when they were first chosen, when the alternative treatment was applied three, six and twelve months later, respectively. Results: The two groups demonstrated no significant differences in general data and research indexes when chosen (P > 0.05). Three months after the two groups were chosen and treated differently, the control group demonstrated no significant improvement while most indexes of the experiment group improved considerably (P > 0.05). After six months, the related indexes of both groups improved substantially (P < 0.05) and the improvement with the experiment was even clearer (P < 0.05). Twelve months later, the improvement with the experiment group was more noticeable (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Conclusions: In a relatively short period of three months, Taiji boxing produces no noticeable effect on the improvement of immunity in elderly women. However, when they resume the exercise for another three months and longer, Taiji boxing has a noticeable advantage and the effect is the most favorable when it is combined with astragalus soup. PMID:25126193

  9. A solar magnetic and velocity field measurement system for Spacelab 2: The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) flew on the shuttle mission Spacelab 2 (STS-51F) in August, 1985, and collected historic solar observations. SOUP is the only solar telescope on either a spacecraft or balloon which has delivered long sequences of diffraction-limited images. These movies led to several discoveries about the solar atmosphere which were published in the scientific journals. After Spacelab 2, reflights were planned on the shuttle Sunlab mission, which was cancelled after the Challenger disaster, and on a balloon flights, which were also cancelled for funding reasons. In the meantime, the instrument was used in a productive program of ground-based observing, which collected excellent scientific data and served as instrument tests. Given here is an overview of the history of the SOUP program, the scientific discoveries, and the instrument design and performance.

  10. Notes from the field: Botulism caused by consumption of commercially produced potato soups stored improperly--Ohio and Georgia, 2011.

    PubMed

    2011-07-01

    In January and April 2011, CDC provided antitoxin for treatment of two persons with toxin type A botulism associated with consumption of potato soup produced by two companies. On January 28, 2011, an Ohio resident, aged 29 years, was hospitalized after 5 days of progressive dizziness, blurred vision, dysphagia, and difficulty breathing. The patient required mechanical ventilation and botulism antitoxin. On January 18, he had tasted potato soup from a bulging plastic container, noted a bad taste, and discarded the remainder. The soup had been purchased on December 7, 2010, from the refrigerated section of a local grocer, but it had been kept unrefrigerated for 42 days. He was hospitalized for 57 days and then was transferred with residual weakness to a rehabilitation facility. PMID:21734637

  11. Notes from the field: Botulism caused by consumption of commercially produced potato soups stored improperly--Ohio and Georgia, 2011.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    2011-07-08

    In January and April 2011, CDC provided antitoxin for treatment of two persons with toxin type A botulism associated with consumption of potato soup produced by two companies. On January 28, 2011, an Ohio resident, aged 29 years, was hospitalized after 5 days of progressive dizziness, blurred vision, dysphagia, and difficulty breathing. The patient required mechanical ventilation and botulism antitoxin. On January 18, he had tasted potato soup from a bulging plastic container, noted a bad taste, and discarded the remainder. The soup had been purchased on December 7, 2010, from the refrigerated section of a local grocer, but it had been kept unrefrigerated for 42 days. He was hospitalized for 57 days and then was transferred with residual weakness to a rehabilitation facility.

  12. A solar magnetic and velocity field measurement system for Spacelab 2: The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1992-08-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) flew on the shuttle mission Spacelab 2 (STS-51F) in August, 1985, and collected historic solar observations. SOUP is the only solar telescope on either a spacecraft or balloon which has delivered long sequences of diffraction-limited images. These movies led to several discoveries about the solar atmosphere which were published in the scientific journals. After Spacelab 2, reflights were planned on the shuttle Sunlab mission, which was cancelled after the Challenger disaster, and on a balloon flights, which were also cancelled for funding reasons. In the meantime, the instrument was used in a productive program of ground-based observing, which collected excellent scientific data and served as instrument tests. Given here is an overview of the history of the SOUP program, the scientific discoveries, and the instrument design and performance.

  13. Spectrum orbit utilization program technical manual SOUP5 Version 3.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J.; Ottey, H. R.; Sawitz, P.; Zusman, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying engineering and mathematical models as well as the computational methods used by the SOUP5 analysis programs, which are part of the R2BCSAT-83 Broadcast Satellite Computational System, are described. Included are the algorithms used to calculate the technical parameters and references to the relevant technical literature. The system provides the following capabilities: requirements file maintenance, data base maintenance, elliptical satellite beam fitting to service areas, plan synthesis from specified requirements, plan analysis, and report generation/query. Each of these functions are briefly described.

  14. The Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program (SOUP) used for DBS plan analysis at RARC '83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J.; Ottey, H. R.; Sawitz, P.; Zusman, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the history, functions, and usage of the program that was used to analyze the plans for direct broadcast satellite service developed in the course of the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference for ITU Region 2. Given the requirements for direct broadcast service by the administrations, the conference delegates (1) developed the appropriate technical parameters; (2) made tentative assignments to the orbit locations, frequencies, and polarizations of space stations, (3) calculated the interferences and margins of such assignments through the use of the Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program (SOUP); and (4) iterated this procedure until an acceptable plan was found.

  15. Metabolic differentiation of diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella (L.)) resistance in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Su Ryun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Soo-Yun; Song, Seung Yeub; Na, Jonghyun; Kim, Suk Weon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Nou, Ill-Sup; Lee, Yong Han; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Hyeran

    2013-11-20

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a major pest responsible for destroying cabbage and other Brassica vegetable crops. A diamondback moth-resistant cabbage line was studied by comparing its metabolite profiles with those of a susceptible cabbage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, and amides were the major factors that distinguished the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiled 46 metabolites, including 19 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 8 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine in two genotypes and F1 hybrid cabbages. The levels of glycolic acid, quinic acid, inositol, fumaric acid, glyceric acid, trehalose, shikimic acid, and aspartic acid were found to be very significantly different between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with a P value of <0.0001. These results will provide a foundation for further studies on diamondback moth resistance in cabbage breeding and for the development of other herbivore-resistant crops. PMID:24144435

  16. Diet - full liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... yogurt, and sherbet. Fruit ices and popsicles Sugar, honey, and syrups Soup broth (bouillon, consommé, and strained ... coffee with cream or milk and sugar or honey Ask your doctor if you can include these ...

  17. Diet-boosting Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... vegetable recipe ideas: Stir-fried broccoli over brown rice Collard greens with a fried egg Roasted beets ... with carrots and spinach Split pea soup Brown rice and pinto beans White bean salad with lemon ...

  18. Insecticides suppress natural enemies and increase pest damage in cabbage.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Miranda, Freddy; Bylund, Helena; Björkman, Christer

    2011-06-01

    Intensive use of pesticides is common and increasing despite a growing and historically well documented awareness of the costs and hazards. The benefits from pesticides of increased yields from sufficient pest control may be outweighed by developed resistance in pests and killing of beneficial natural enemies. Other negative effects are human health problems and lower prices because of consumers' desire to buy organic products. Few studies have examined these trade-offs in the field. Here, we demonstrate that Nicaraguan cabbage (Brassica spp.) farmers may suffer economically by using insecticides as they get more damage by the main pest diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), at the same time as they spend economic resources on insecticides. Replicated similarly sized cabbage fields cultivated in a standardized manner were either treated with insecticides according common practice or not treated with insecticides over two seasons. Fields treated with insecticides suffered, compared with nontreated fields, equal or, at least in some periods of the seasons, higher diamondback moth pest attacks. These fields also had increased leaf damage on the harvested cabbage heads. Weight and size of the heads were not affected. The farmers received the same price on the local market irrespective of insecticide use. Rates of parasitized diamondback moth were consistently lower in the treated fields. Negative effects of using insecticides against diamondback moth were found for the density of parasitoids and generalist predatory wasps, and tended to affect spiders negatively. The observed increased leaf damages in insecticide-treated fields may be a combined consequence of insecticide resistance in the pest, and of lower predation and parasitization rates from naturally occurring predators that are suppressed by the insecticide applications. The results indicate biological control as a viable and economic alternative pest management strategy, something that may be particularly relevant for the production of cash crops in tropical countries where insecticide use is heavy and possibly increasing. PMID:21735894

  19. Phenol removal by peroxidases extracted from Chinese cabbage root

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, H.I.; Jeong, Y.H.

    1995-12-31

    More than four million tons of Chinese cabbages are produced in Korea. Most of them are used as raw materials for Kimchi, but root parts of them are discarded as agricultural wastes. A trial for the application of agricultural waste to industrial waste water treatment was made as an effort to the efficient use of natural resources and to reduce water pollution problem simultaneously. Peroxidases of both solid and liquid phases were obtained from Chinese cabbage roots by using commercial juicer. The differences in peroxidase activity among the various cultivars of Chinese cabbages in Korea were little and electrophoretic patterns of various peroxidases will be discussed. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity will be discussed also. Since peroxidases are distributed into 66% in liquid (juice) and 34% in solid phase (pulp), enzymes from both phases were applied to investigate the enzymatic removal of phenol from waste water. After phenol solution at 150 ppm being reacted with liquid phase enzyme (1,800 unit/1) for 3 hours in a batch stirred reactor, 96% of phenol could be removed through polymerization and precipitation. Also, phenol could be removed from initial 120 ppm to final 5 ppm by applying solid phase enzyme in an air lift reactor (600 unit/1). Almost equivalent efficiencies of phenol removal were observed between two systems, even though only one third of the enzymes in batch stirred reactor was applied in air lift reactor. The possible reason for this phenomenon is because peroxidases exist as immobilized forms in solid phase.

  20. Potassium and Your CKD Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peanut Butter (2 tbs.) Mango(1 medium) Chinese Cabbage Salt Substitutes/Lite Salt Nectarine(1 medium) Carrots, ... cooked from frozen) Pasta Apricots, canned in juice Cabbage, green and red Carrots, cooked Bread and bread ...

  1. Immune response is energetically costly in white cabbage butterfly pupae.

    PubMed

    Freitak, Dalial; Ots, Indrek; Vanatoa, Alo; Hõrak, Peeter

    2003-11-01

    Parasite-driven coevolution has led hosts to develop a complicated and potentially costly defence machinery, consisting mainly of the immune system. Despite the evidence for the trade-offs between immune function and life-history traits, it is still obscure how the costs of using and maintaining the immune function are paid. We tested whether immune challenge is energetically costly for white cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae L.) diapausing pupa. Individuals challenged with nylon implant raised their standard metabolic rate nearly 8% compared to the controls. Hence, costs of activation of immune system in insect pupa can be expressed in energetic currency. PMID:14667388

  2. The action of cabbage-leaf phospholipase D upon lysolecithin

    PubMed Central

    Long, C.; Odavić, R.; Sargent, Elizabeth J.

    1967-01-01

    1. The action of the water-soluble phospholipase D from Savoy cabbage leaves upon an aqueous solution of lysolecithin has been studied. 2. Optimum conditions required the presence of Ca2+ ions and pH5·8. 3. Equivalence was found between the amounts of lysolecithin hydrolysed and free choline released. The reaction was not accompanied by deacylation. 4. As the enzymic degradation proceeded, an opalescence developed, owing to the insolubility of the reaction product in the presence of Ca2+ ions. 5. Evidence has been obtained indicating the heterogeneity of this reaction product. PMID:6030285

  3. Carrageenans, sulphated polysaccharides of red seaweeds, differentially affect Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper).

    PubMed

    Sangha, Jatinder S; Khan, Wajahatullah; Ji, Xiuhong; Zhang, Junzeng; Mills, Aaron A S; Critchley, Alan T; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Carrageenans are a collective family of linear, sulphated galactans found in a number of commercially important species of marine red alga. These polysaccharides are known to elicit defense responses in plant and animals and possess anti-viral properties. We investigated the effect of foliar application of ι-, κ- and λ-carrageenans (representing various levels of sulphation) on Arabidopsis thaliana in resistance to the generalist insect Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) which is known to cause serious economic losses in crop plants. Plants treated with ι- and κ-carrageenan showed reduced leaf damage, whereas those treated with λ- carrageenan were similar to that of the control. In a no-choice test, larval weight was reduced by more than 20% in ι- and κ- carrageenan treatments, but unaffected by λ-carrageenan. In multiple choice tests, carrageenan treated plants attracted fewer T. ni larvae by the fourth day following infestation as compared to the control. The application of carrageenans did not affect oviposition behaviour of T. ni. Growth of T. ni feeding on an artificial diet amended with carrageenans was not different from that fed with untreated control diet. ι-carrageenan induced the expression of defense genes; PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, but κ- and λ-carrageenans did not. Besides PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, the indole glucosinolate biosynthesis genes CYP79B2, CYP83B1 and glucosinolate hydrolysing QTL, ESM1 were up-regulated by ι-carrageenan treatment at 48 h post infestation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of carrageenan treated leaves showed increased concentrations of both isothiocyanates and nitriles. Taken together, these results show that carrageenans have differential effects on Arabidopsis resistance to T. ni and that the degree of sulphation of the polysaccharide chain may well mediate this effect. PMID:22046375

  4. Nutritional and functional characterization of barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sumeet; Das, Madhusweta

    2015-09-01

    Barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix (BFSM) was developed from whole barely flour (46.296%), roasted flaxseed powder (23.148%) and the seasoning (30.555%) comprising several flavoring compounds and anticaking agent, using simple processing technique. Developed BFSM was nutritious. On dry matter basis it contained: protein (14.31%), carbohydrate excluding crude fiber (54.70%), fat (8.70%), ash (17.45%) and crude fiber (4.84%). It was low glycemic soup, free of antinutritional risk and had calorific value of 319.77 kcal/100 g (wet or sample basis, sb) estimated from its composition. 100 g (sb) of BFSM contained 4.36 g β-glucans and 8.08 g total lipid of which 25.6% was ω-3 fatty acids. Different extracts of BFSM revealed the presence of total phenols (0.57-1.86 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, sb) with antioxidants equivalence of DPPH (20.69-39.07%) and FRAP (120-331 μm Fe (II)/g, sb). PMID:26344965

  5. Umami compounds enhance the intensity of retronasal sensation of aromas from model chicken soups.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Goto, Shingo; Miura, Kyo; Takakura, Yukiko; Egusa, Ai S; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the influence of taste compounds on retronasal aroma sensation using a model chicken soup. The aroma intensity of a reconstituted flavour solution from which glutamic acid (Glu), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), or phosphate was omitted was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the model soup. The aroma intensity of 0.4% NaCl solution containing the aroma chicken model (ACM) with added Glu and IMP was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of 0.4% NaCl solution containing only ACM. The quantitative analyses showed that adding monosodium glutamate (MSG) to aqueous aroma solution containing only ACM enhanced the intensity of retronasal aroma sensation by 2.5-folds with increasing MSG concentration from 0% to 0.3%. Sensation intensity using an umami solution with added MSG and IMP was significantly higher than that with only MSG when the MSG concentration was 0.05%, 0.075%, or 0.1%. However, it plateaued when MSG concentration was beyond 0.3%. PMID:26593530

  6. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. PMID:25863635

  7. Inducible cadmium binding complexes of cabbage and tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.J.; Trotter, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Cadmium complexes with apparent molecular weights of 10,000 were observed in aqueous extracts of Cd-treated cabbage (Brassica capitata L., cv. red danish) and tobacco (hybrid of Nicotiana glauca and N. langsdorffii) plants. The amount of complex (as Cd) recovered was found to be dependent on the concentration of the metal in the growth medium and the total time of exposure of plants to the metal. Induction of the complex at moderate levels of /sup 112/Cd exposure was monitored after labeling the complex with /sup 109/Cd in vitro. The constitutive nature of the ligand of the complex in cabbage and tobacco leaves was suggested when control plant extracts were exposed to /sup 109/Cd. Such extracts contained /sup 109/Cd, which eluted froom Sephadex G-50 in the region of Cd complex. Simultaneous labeling with /sup 112/Cd and /sup 35/S or /sup 32/P indicated that the complex contained sulfur but probably not phosphorus. The amount of /sup 35/S which eluted coincident with /sup 112/Cd complex increased during complex induction. No evidence was found for the presence of 10,000 molecular weight Cd complex in stem exudates (vascular sap) of Cd-treated plants. The results obtained are consistent with the presence in these tissues of a ligand which is both inducible and consitutive and binds Cd in mercaptide bonds. All of these properties and oters reported earlier, are characteristic of Cd-metallothionein formed in animals.

  8. Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.J.

    1984-11-01

    The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Gamma irradiation inhibits wound induced browning in shredded cabbage.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Suprasanna, Penna; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2015-04-15

    Gamma-radiation induced browning inhibition in minimally processed shredded cabbage stored (10 °C) for up to 8 days was investigated. γ-irradiation (2 kGy) resulted in inhibition of browning as a result of down-regulation (1.4-fold) in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. Activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, total and individual phenolic content as well as o-quinone concentration were, however, unaffected. In the non-irradiated samples, PAL activity increased as a consequence of up-regulation of PAL gene expression after 24 and 48 h by 1.2 and 7.7-fold, respectively, during storage that could be linearly correlated with enhanced quinone formation and browning. Browning inhibition in radiation processed shredded cabbage as a result of inhibition of PAL activity was thus clearly demonstrated. The present work provides an insight for the first time on the mechanism of browning inhibition at both biochemical and genetic level. PMID:25465992

  10. Residues and dissipation dynamics of molluscicide metaldehyde in cabbage and soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Wang, Chen; Lu, Hui-Ze; Guan, Wen-Bi; Ma, Yong-Qiang

    2011-09-01

    The dissipation of metaldehyde on cabbage and in soil was studied and half-life (DT(50)) was estimated in a field study carried out at three different locations. Metaldehyde was sprayed on cabbage at 937.5 and 1406.25 ga.i.ha(-1) for residue study and 1,875 ga.i.ha(-1) for dissipation study in cabbage and soil. Samples of cabbage and soil for dissipation experiment were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days after treatment. For residue studies, cabbage and soil samples were sampled at 5, 7 and 10 days after treatment. Quantification of residues was done by LC-MS/MS. The DT(50) of metaldehyde in cabbage and soil were 0.48-1.61 days and 0.75-1.02 days, respectively, when applied at 2 times of the recommended high dosage. Residues of metaldehyde in cabbage were all below the maximum residue levels of 1.0 mg kg(-1) at both recommended high dosage and 1.5 times the recommended high dosage. PMID:21605906

  11. Nonrandom Distribution of Cabbage Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Dryland Canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Characterization of spatial distribution patterns of pests in large-scale agricultural fields is important because these patterns affect the sampling effort needed to accurately detect and estimate their population density. In this study, we conducted experimental releases of alate cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) into centers of small plots of canola (Brassica napus L.), and their gradual spread over a 7-wk period was characterized. The small-plot experiment demonstrated gradient effects from plot centers and a nonrandom vertical distribution, with initial colonization occurring on the abaxial side of lower canopy leaves and, later, highest numbers of cabbage aphids occurring on racemes. We also conducted large-scale distribution analyses of cabbage aphid infestations in two commercial canola fields, using visual inspection and sweep net sampling. We used canola plant phenological and landscape features as explanatory variables of the spatial distribution of cabbage aphid counts. These large-scale experiments showed strong edge effects with negative associations between cabbage aphid counts and distance to crop edges, including tree lines and contour banks. Cabbage aphid distribution was more effectively displayed using logistic regression than ordinary regression, Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs, or both. Based on the study findings, a nonrandom or optimized inspection approach is proposed to focus monitoring efforts on canola plants within 20 m from field edges with particular attention to the abaxial side of lower-canopy leaves. Detection of advanced cabbage aphid infestations should target the racemes within 20 m from field edges. PMID:26313983

  12. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  13. Investigation of active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T.; Frank, Z.; Gilbreth, C.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Topka, K.; Wolfson, J.

    1989-01-01

    SOUP is a versatile, visible-light solar observatory, built for space or balloon flight. It is designed to study magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere with high spatial resolution and temporal uniformity, which cannot be achieved from the surface of the earth. The SOUP investigation is carried out by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, under contract to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Co-investigators include staff members at a dozen observatories and universities in the U.S. and Europe. The primary objectives of the SOUP experiment are: to measure vector magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere with much better spatial resolution than can be achieved from the ground; to study the physical processes that store magnetic energy in active regions and the conditions that trigger its release; and to understand how magnetic flux emerges, evolves, combines, and disappears on spatial scales of 400 to 100,000 km. SOUP is designed to study intensity, magnetic, and velocity fields in the photosphere and low chromosphere with 0.5 arcsec resolution, free of atmospheric disturbances. The instrument includes: a 30 cm Cassegrain telescope; an active mirror for image stabilization; broadband film and TV cameras; a birefringent filter, tunable over 5100 to 6600 A with 0.05 A bandpass; a 35 mm film camera and a digital CCD camera behind the filter; and a high-speed digital image processor.

  14. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea extracts on foodborne pathogens in ground beef and mushroom soup.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Fung, D Y C

    2004-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of water-soluble arrowroot tea extract was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in ground beef and mushroom soup. The concentrations of arrowroot tea used were 0, 3, and 6% (wt/wt) for ground beef and 0, 1, 5, and 10% (wt/vol) for mushroom soup. Samples without tea extract were considered controls. Each sample was stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at 7 degrees C for ground beef and for 0, 1, 3, and 5 days at 35 degrees C for mushroom soup. On each sampling time, proper dilutions were spread plated on each pathogen-specific agar. Viable cell counts of each pathogen were performed after incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For ground beef, Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes were slightly suppressed by approximately 1.5 log, compared with the control, on day 7 at 3 and 6% arrowroot tea treatment. For mushroom soup, all test pathogens were suppressed by 6.5, 4.7, 3.4, and 4.3 log at 5% and 6.0, 4.7, 5.0, and 4.3 log at 10% against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. Mushroom soup with 1% arrowroot tea also showed 2.3- and 2.7-log growth suppression of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. This study showed that the use of arrowroot tea would effectively inhibit the microbial growth of both gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogens in various foods, especially liquid foods. PMID:15453588

  15. Titan's Primordial Soup: Formation of Amino Acids via Low-Temperature Hydrolysis of Tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Somogyi, Árpád; Smith, Mark A.

    2010-04-01

    Titan organic haze analogues, or "tholins," produce biomolecules when hydrolyzed at low temperature over long timescales. By using a combination of high-resolution mass spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation techniques, four amino acids were identified in a tholin sample that had been hydrolyzed in a 13 wt % ammonia-water solution at 253 ± 1 K and 293 ± 1 K for 1 year. These four species have been assigned as the amino acids asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid. This represents the first detection of biologically relevant molecules created under conditions thought to be similar to those found in impact melt pools and cryolavas on Titan, which are at a stage of chemical evolution not unlike the "primordial soup" of the early Earth. Future missions to Titan should therefore carry instrumentation capable of, but certainly not limited to, detecting amino acids and other prebiotic molecules on Titan's surface.

  16. An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction in children: lentil soup bezoar

    PubMed Central

    Plataras, Christos; Sardianos, Nektarios; Vlatakis, Stephanos; Nikas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Bezoars are an unusual cause of acute intestinal obstruction in children. Most cases are trichobezoars in adolescent girls who swallow their hair. Lactobezoars are another unusual but occasionally reported cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. Phytobezoars and food bolus bezoars are the least common types of intestinal obstruction that have been reported in children. Of the few paediatric cases that have been described, the majority involve persimmons. Moreover, all of these cases involve the ingestion of raw fibres or fruit that have not been cooked. We report a case of a girl who presented with acute ileal obstruction because of lentil soup bezoar. Given the wide use of this otherwise nutritional foodstuff, we highlight the danger from its inappropriate preparation to the health of children. This is the first reported case of intestinal obstruction caused by lentils in children and we hope to raise concern among paediatricians regarding this matter. PMID:24692381

  17. Image motion compensation on the Spacelab 2 Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter /SL2 SOUP/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T. D.; Duncan, D. W.; Finch, M. L.; Spence, G.

    1981-01-01

    The SOUP experiment on Spacelab 2 includes a 30 cm visible light telescope and focal plane package mounted on the Instrument Pointing System (IPS). Scientific goals of the experiment dictate pointing stability requirements of less than 0.05 arcsecond jitter over periods of 5-20 seconds. Quantitative derivations of these requirements from two different aspects are presented: (1) avoidance of motion blurring of diffraction-limited images; (2) precise coalignment of consecutive frames to allow measurement of small image differences. To achieve this stability, a fine guider system capable of removing residual jitter of the IPS and image motions generated on the IPS cruciform instrument support structure has been constructed. This system uses solar limb detectors in the prime focal plane to derive an error signal. Image motion due to pointing errors is compensated by the agile secondary mirror mounted on piezoelectric transducers, controlled by a closed-loop servo system.

  18. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of the Cabbage Seedpod Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five families and 13 species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) were reared from the seedpods of Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae) as putative parasitoids of the cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhyncus obstrictus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Georgia, United States. The species are Conura torvina (...

  19. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  20. Oviposition preference, larval performance and adaptation of Trichoplusia ni on cabbage and cotton.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Xi; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-04-01

    Most female herbivores ensure to lay eggs where their offspring can develop successfully. The oviposition preferences of females affect strategies in pest management. In this study, the performance of two cohorts of Trichoplusia ni larvae on cabbage and cotton (after they had been transferred from their original host plants) were investigated. The preferences of female moth ovipositing and larval feeding on these two host plants were observed. The results indicated that plants significantly affected oviposition preference of the female adults and development and survival of larvae of T. ni. All females preferred to lay eggs on cabbage than cotton regardless from which host they originated. The detrimental effects of cotton on the development and survival of T. ni larvae originated from cabbage (CaTn) increased with the increase of the larval age when they were transferred. In addition, the host plant change did not significantly affect the development and survival of larvae of T. ni originating from cotton (CoTn). Larvae of CaTn preferred cabbage plants as compared to cotton plants, whereas larvae of CoTn did not show a significant choice. Although the adult females preferred laying eggs on cabbage, they did not show preferences between cotton and cabbage in a Y-tube olfactometer test. The hypothesis of oviposition preference and performance of larvae was supported by the results of CaTn, whereas they not supported by those from CoTn. Based on these results, the strategy to manage this serious pest was discussed. PMID:24431263

  1. Field Evaluation of a Novel Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Attracticide for the Management of Zonocerus variegatus on Cabbage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timbilla, J. A.; Lawson, B. W.; Yeboah-Gyan, K.

    Cabbage, Brassica oleraceae var. capitata is an important vegetable grown and consumed in Ghana. Apart from infestations of the lepidopterous Plutella xylostella and Hellula undalis resulting from continuous cultivation, a new pest Zonocerus variegatus has been reported to causing damage to the crop. The efficacy of a novel pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) based novel PA-attracticide developed from treating the roots of the neophyte, Chromolaena odorata which contains PAs with Carbofuran 3G for the management of Z. variegatus was tested using cabbage as a test crop in field caged plots. Field caged plots of cabbage artificially infested with Z. variegatus were treated with and without PA-attracticide in addition to a control treatment of caged cabbage plot with no insect and PA-attracticide. The experimental design was a RCB replicated three times in two ecological zones. The results showed that the establishment, leaf and head damage of cabbage was statistically the same in the PA-treated plots and the control treatment. These treatments, however, performed significantly better than the treatment without PA-attracticide. The results obtained holds promise for mitigating the menace of the grasshopper on cabbage using PA based attracticides.

  2. Self-assembled cabbage-like NaInS2 microstructures with efficient visible light photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuanhao; Zhai, Xuezhen; Zhang, Yange; Xu, Zhihong; Li, Pinjiang; Zheng, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Cabbage-like NaInS2 microstructures have been synthesized by reacting In(NO3)3 with the alkaline sulfur aqueous solution of NaOH in a simple hydrothermal process without any shape-directing surfactants. The cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures are monodispersed in large quantities. The cabbage-like morphologies depend strongly on the different ratios of S powder to NaOH, the reaction temperature and reaction time. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures is discussed. The cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures exhibit the superiority of photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of RhB irradiation under visible light irradiation. It is believed that the photocatalytic superiority of the cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures is mainly due to their special surface areas and inner interconnected structural features.

  3. Impact of some commonly used Egyptian diets on plasma lipids profiles of rats.

    PubMed

    Metwalli, O M; al-Okbi, S Y; Abbas, A E

    1993-09-01

    Seven types of diets commonly consumed in Egypt were studied in hyperlipemic rats. Each of the seven diets were fed to a group of hyperlipemic rats. The diets contain white beans and whole wheat bread (Diet 1); cabbage and peas (2); spinach and carrots (3); whole wheat bread and bean sprouts (4); whole wheat bread, white beans and peas (5); white beans and carrots (6) and the last diet contains peas and carrots (7). The experiment continued for 5 weeks, at the end of which different plasma lipids and biological parameters were compared to hyperlipemic rats fed the control diet for 5 weeks. Results showed that plasma total cholesterol of rats of all groups showed significant decrease, except in rats fed diet 6 in which no significant change was noticed. Plasma total lipids of rats fed diet 5 decreased significantly. Plasma phospholipids of rats fed diets 3 and 7 increased significantly. Rats fed diet 3 showed decreased levels of plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Body weight gain of rats fed diets 1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly. Total food intake was noticed to decrease on feeding diets 1 and 6. Significant decrease was produced in food efficiency ratio of rats fed diets 1, 5 and 6. Feeding any type of the previous seven diets produced significant increase of feces weight. PMID:8237082

  4. Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program Documentation: SOUP5 Version 3.8 User's Manual, Volume 2, Appendices a Through G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J.; Ottey, H. R.; Sawitz, P.; Zusman, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    The appendixes of the user manual are presented. Input forms which may be used to prepare data for the SOUP5V3.4 of the R2BCSAT-83 data base are given. The IBM job control language which can be used to run the SOUP5 system from a magnetic tape is described. Copies of a run using the delivered tape and IBM OS/MVS Job Control Language card deck are illustrated. Numerical limits on scenario data requests are listed. Error handling, error messages and editing procedures are also listed. Instructions as to how to enter a protection ratio template are given. And relation between PARC prameter, channelization, channel families, and interference categories are also listed.

  5. Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program documentation: SOUP5 version 3.8 user's manual, volume 1, chapters 1 through 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J.; Ottey, H. R.; Sawitz, P.; Zusman, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    The underlying engineering and mathematical models as well as the computational methods used by the Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program 5 (SOUP5) analysis programs are described. Included are the algorithms used to calculate the technical parameters, and references to the technical literature. The organization, capabilities, processing sequences, and processing and data options of the SOUP5 system are described. The details of the geometric calculations are given. Also discussed are the various antenna gain algorithms; rain attenuation and depolarization calculations; calculations of transmitter power and received power flux density; channelization options, interference categories, and protection ratio calculation; generation of aggregrate interference and margins; equivalent gain calculations; and how to enter a protection ratio template.

  6. A solar magnetic and velocity field measurement system for Spacelab 2: The solar optical universal polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1992-08-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter flew on the Shuttle Mission Spacelab 2 (STS-51F) in August, 1985, and collected historic solar observations. SOUP is the only solar telescope on either a spacecraft or balloon which has delivered long sequences of diffraction-limited images. These movies led to several discoveries about the solar atmosphere which were published in the scientific journals. After Spacelab 2, reflights were planned on the Space Shuttle Sunlab Mission, which was cancelled after the Challenger disaster, and on balloon flights, which were also cancelled for funding reasons. In the meantime, the instrument was used in a productive program of ground-based observing, which collected excellent scientific data and served as instrument tests. This report gives an overview of the history of the SOUP program, the scientific discoveries, and the instrument design and performance.

  7. Antixenotic resistance of cabbage to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). I. Light reflectance.

    PubMed

    Fail, József; Deutschlander, Mark E; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-12-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) has become a significant pest of cabbage (Brasssica oleracea L.) in regions with a dry continental climate. Thrips-resistant cabbage varieties have been developed in breeding programs, but the mechanisms ofresistance remain largely unknown. Antixenosis, one of the three resistance mechanisms, may play a role but no plant trait has been identified as a source of antixenosis. A series of studies were conducted to identify resistance mechanisms in this insect- crop interaction and to seek plant traits that were correlated to resistance. In this first article of the series, the result of studying antixenosis and overall resistance of cabbage and the correlation between antixenosis and light reflectance characteristics are reported. There were distinct differences in the overall resistance to thrips between the six cabbage varieties studied. There were more pronounced differences between varieties based on the number of damaged head leaves compared with the use of damage ratings as a measure of overall resistance. Varieties also differed in their level of antixenosis; proportional abundance of thrips adults on head-forming leaves was more closely correlated to overall resistance of cabbage than actual thrips numbers. Some of the variables computed from the recorded reflectance spectra of cabbage were correlated to thrips abundance on head-forming leaves only in the first but not in the second year of this study, suggesting that either spectral characteristics do not affect antixenosis or other variables may affect thrips' responses to spectral cues. Furthermore, multiple spray applications of a kaolin particle-based product significantly changed the light reflectance characteristics of cabbage, but it did not reduce the actual thrips abundance on head-forming leaves. PMID:24498763

  8. Fine mapping and identification of candidate Bo-or gene controlling orange head of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange head Chinese cabbage accumulates significant amounts of carotenoids with enhanced nutritional quality. To develop molecular markers for breeding of Chinese cabbage lines with high carotenoid content and to isolate the candidate gene underlying carotenoid synthesis, we performed fine mapping ...

  9. Enhanced anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using pulsed electric field processing.

    PubMed

    Gachovska, Tanya; Cassada, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Hanna, Milford; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Snow, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using water as a solvent. Mashed cabbage was placed in a batch treatment chamber and subjected to PEF (2.5 kV/cm electric field strength; 15 micros pulse width and 50 pulses, specific energy 15.63 J/g). Extracted anthocyanin concentrations (16 to 889 microg/mL) were determined using HPLC. Heat and light stabilities of the control and PEF-treated samples, having approximately the same initial concentrations, were studied. PEF treatments enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times with a higher proportion of nonacylated forms than the control (P < 0.05). The heat and light stabilities of the PEF-treated samples and control samples were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Practical Application: An innovative pretreatment technology, pulsed electric field processing, enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times. Manufacturers of natural colors can use this technology to extract anthocyanins from red cabbage efficiently. PMID:20722916

  10. Successful genetic transformation of Chinese cabbage using phosphomannose isomerase as a selection marker.

    PubMed

    Min, Byung-Whan; Cho, Yi-Nam; Song, Min-Jung; Noh, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Bong-Kyu; Chae, Won-Ki; Park, Young-Soo; Choi, Yang-Do; Harn, Chee-Hark

    2007-03-01

    A mannose selection system was adapted for use in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Chinese cabbage. This system makes use of the pmi gene that encodes phosphomannose isomerase, which converts mannose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate. Hypocotyl explants from 4-5-day-old seedlings of Chinese cabbage inbred lines were pre-cultured for 2-3 days and then infected with Agrobacterium. Two genes (L: -guluno-gamma-lactone oxidase, GLOase, and jasmonic methyl transferase, JMT) were transformed into Chinese cabbage using the transformation procedure developed in this study. We found that supplementing the media with 7 g l(-1) mannose and 2% sucrose provides the necessary conditions for the selection of transformed plants from nontransformed plants. The transformation rates were 1.4% for GLOase and 3.0% for JMT, respectively. The Southern blot analysis revealed that several independent transformants (T (0)) were obtained from each transgene. Three different inbred lines were transformed, and most of the T (1) plants had normal phenotypes. The transformation method presented here for Chinese cabbage using mannose selection is efficient and reproducible, and it can be useful to introduce a desirable gene(s) into commercially useful inbred lines of Chinese cabbage. PMID:17021847

  11. Fine mapping and characterization of the or gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Zou, C L; Zheng, Y; Wang, P; Zhang, X; Wang, Y-H; Liu, Z Y; Feng, H

    2016-01-01

    Orange inner leaves/heads is a qualitative trait in Chinese cabbage that is controlled by a single recessive gene. Orange head Chinese cabbage contain more carotenoids than its white head counterpart; hence, this trait is of interest to both researchers and consumers. In this study, we selected the orange head Chinese cabbage line 07A163 and the white head Chinese cabbage line Chiifu as test materials. We localized the target gene controlling the orange head trait to the A09 linkage group, with a physical distance of approximately 19.9 kb between the two markers, syau26 and syau28. This region contains six candidate genes, including Bra031539, which was predicted to encode CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase specifically required for carotenoid biosynthesis. A comparison of the nucleic acid sequences of the two test materials revealed 88 and 7-bp deletions and 88 SNPs in the promoter region of Bra031539 in line 07A163, along with a 6-bp deletion in the first exon and early termination at the 3' end of this gene. BLAST analysis revealed that 22 amino acids were altered and 17 amino acids were lost in Bra031539 in the orange head line 07A163. We developed the BrPro1 molecular marker in the promoter region of Bra031539 that can be used for early identification of orange head materials, thereby accelerating the breeding process of orange head Chinese cabbage. PMID:27173304

  12. Genes associated with agronomic traits in non-heading Chinese cabbage identified by expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genomes of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis), heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) and their close relative Arabidopsis thaliana have provided important resources for studying the evolution and genetic improvement of cruciferous plants. Natural growing conditions present these plants with a variety of physiological challenges for which they have a repertoire of genes that ensure adaptability and normal growth. We investigated the differential expressions of genes that control adaptability and development in plants growing in the natural environment to study underlying mechanisms of their expression. Results Using digital gene expression tag profiling, we constructed an expression profile to identify genes related to important agronomic traits under natural growing conditions. Among three non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars, we found thousands of genes that exhibited significant differences in expression levels at five developmental stages. Through comparative analysis and previous reports, we identified several candidate genes associated with late flowering, cold tolerance, self-incompatibility, and leaf color. Two genes related to cold tolerance were verified using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions We identified a large number of genes associated with important agronomic traits of non-heading Chinese cabbage. This analysis will provide a wealth of resources for molecular-assisted breeding of cabbage. The raw data and detailed results of this analysis are available at the website http://nhccdata.njau.edu.cn. PMID:24655567

  13. Behavioral and physiological responses of cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), to steam distillates from resistant versus susceptible soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Khan, Z R; Ciepiela, A; Norris, D M

    1987-08-01

    Soybean plant volatiles, extracted as steam distillates, significantly affected the behavior and biology of the cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Distillates from the susceptible Davis variety attractedT. ni larvae and female adults, whereas those from resistant PI 227687 plants repelled them. When mixed in an artificial diet, steam distillates from PI 227687 plants caused mortality of first-instar larvae. Adults emerging from pupae topically treated with 5 μg of such PI 227687 extractable showed developmental abnormalities. Larval feeding was significantly less on Davis leaves treated with PI 227687 volatiles as compared to solvent (acetone) or such Davis extractables. However, Davis volatiles on PI 227687 leaves did not increase larval feeding. HPLC analyses of steam distillates from susceptible Davis versus resistant PI 227687 indicated differences. PMID:24302399

  14. Ileostomy and your diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... ileostomy - diet; Abdominal pouch - diet; End ileostomy - diet; Ostomy - diet ... odor: Eating parsley, yogurt, and buttermilk Keeping your ostomy devices clean Using special deodorants or adding vanilla ...

  15. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, as space food sterilized by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Hao, Chen; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate microbial populations, Hunter's color values (L*, a*, b*) and the sensory quality of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, in order to use it as space food. Microorganisms were not detected in non-irradiated freeze-dried miyeokguk within the detection limit of 1.00 log CFU/g. However, the microbial population in rehydrated miyeokguk was 7.01 log CFU/g after incubation at 35 °C for 48 h, indicating that freeze-dried miyeokguk was not sterilized by heat treatment during the preparation process. Bacteria in the freeze-dried miyeokguk were tentatively identified as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Ancinetobacter genomosp. using the 16S rDNA sequencing. In samples that were gamma-irradiated above 10 kGy, it was confirmed that all microorganisms were inactivated. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated at doses less than 10 kGy were not significantly altered from their baseline appearance (p>0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that preference scores in all sensory properties decreased when freeze-dried miyeokguk was irradiated at doses greater than 10 kGy. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy is sufficient to sterilize freeze-dried miyeokguk without significant deterioration in the sensory quality, and thus, the freeze-dried and irradiated miyeokguk at 10 kGy fulfills the microbiological requirements as space food.

  16. Smart Soup, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula, Ameliorates Amyloid Pathology and Related Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Ding, Jianqing; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Xianglu; Ling, Yun; Shen, Xiaoheng; Chen, Shengdi; Huang, Chenggang; Pei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS), a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT), Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP) and Radix Polygalae (RP), is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease. PMID:25386946

  17. Development of non-destructive quality measurement technique for cabbage seed (Brassica campestris L) using hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cabbage (Brassica campestris L) is an important crop for Asian countries especially in Korea, Japan and China. In order to achieve uniform and high-yield rate of cabbage product, the seed lot quality needs to be controlled. Non-destructive evaluation of seed viability is an important technique for i...

  18. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Ji; Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Song, Jun Ho; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, HyeRan; Kim, ChulWook; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2013-01-01

    Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL), “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL), “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13) were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS). Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress. PMID:23736694

  19. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk. PMID:26167479

  20. A repellent net as a new technology to protect cabbage crops.

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Palix, R; Kamal, A; Delétré, E; Bonafos, R; Simon, S; Ngouajio, M

    2013-08-01

    Floating row covers or insect-proof nets with fine mesh are effective at protecting vegetable crops against aphids but negatively impact plant health, especially under warm conditions. Furthermore, in control of cabbage insect pests, aphid parasitoids cannot enter the fine-mesh nets, leading to frequent aphid outbreaks. To surmount these difficulties, a 40-mesh-size repellent net treated with alphacypermethrin was studied in laboratory and field tests. Results showed both irritant and repellent effects of the alphacypermethrin-treated net on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Under field conditions, there were no pests on cabbage protected with the repellent net. The repellent net allowed combining a visual and repellent barrier against aphids. Because of this additive effect, repellent nets allowed covering cabbage permanently with adequate protection against all pests. PMID:24020284

  1. GC-MS Analysis of the Extracts from Korean Cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) and Its Seed

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eunyoung; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Korean cabbage, a member of the Brassicaceae family which also includes cauliflower, mustard, radish, and turnip plants, is a crucial leafy vegetable crop. Korean cabbage is harvested after completion of the leaf heading process and is often prepared for use in “baechu kimchi”, a traditional Korean food. Many of the components in Korean cabbage are essential for proper human nutrition; these components can be divided into two groups: primary metabolites, which include carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, and organic acids, and secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, carotenoids, sterols, phenolic acids, alkaloids, and glucosinolates (GSLs). Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, this study examined the variety of volatile compounds (including isothiocyanates) contained in Korean cabbage and its seed, which resulted in the identification of 16 and 12 volatile compounds, respectively. The primary volatile compound found in the cabbage was ethyl linoleolate (~23%), while 4,5-epithiovaleronitrile (~46%) was the primary volatile component in the seed. PMID:24471136

  2. Colored and white sectors from star-patterned petunia flowers display differential resistance to corn earworm and cabbage looper larvae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric T; Berhow, Mark A; Dowd, Patrick F

    2008-06-01

    Anthocyanins are likely a visual aid that attract pollinators. However, there is also the possibility that anthocyanins are present in some flowers as defensive molecules that protect them from excess light, pathogens, or herbivores. In this study, resistance due to anthocyanins from commercial petunia flowers (Petunia hybrida) was examined for insecticide/antifeedant activity against corn earworm (CEW, Helicoverpa zea) and cabbage looper (CL, Trichoplusia ni). The petunia flowers studied contained a star pattern, with colored and white sectors. CEW larvae ate significantly less colored sectors than white sectors in no-choice bioassays in most cases. All CEW larvae feeding on blue sectors weighed significantly less after 2 days than larvae feeding on white sectors, which was negatively correlated with total anthocyanin levels. CL larvae ate less of blue sectors than white sectors, and blue sectors from one petunia cultivar caused significantly higher CL mortality than white sectors. Partially purified anthocyanin mixtures isolated from petunia flowers, when added to insect diet discs at approximately natural concentrations, reduced both CEW and CL larva weights compared to the controls. These studies demonstrate that the colored sectors of these petunia cultivars slow the development of these lepidopteran larvae and indicate that anthocyanins play some part in flower defense in petunia. PMID:18484139

  3. Low Potassium Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sprouts, asparagus (6 spears), green or wax beans, cabbage (cooked), carrots (cooked), cauliflower, celery (1 stalk), corn ( ... or refried beans, beets, broccoli (cooked), Brussels sprouts, cabbage (raw), carrots (raw), chard, greens (except kale), kohlrabi, ...

  4. Anatomic Characteristics Associated with Head Splitting in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonan; Choi, Su Ryun; Wang, Yunbo; Sung, Chang-keun; Im, Subin; Ramchiary, Nirala; Zhou, Guangsheng; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Cabbage belonging to Brassicaceae family is one of the most important vegetables cultivated worldwide. The economically important part of cabbage crop is head, formed by leaves which may be of splitting and non-splitting types. Cabbage varieties showing head splitting causes huge loss to the farmers and therefore finding the molecular and structural basis of splitting types would be helpful to breeders. To determine which anatomical characteristics were related to head-splitting in cabbage, we analyzed two contrasting cabbage lines and their offspring using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The inbred line “747” is an early head-splitting type, while the inbred line “748” is a head-splitting-resistant type. The petiole cells of “747” seems to be larger than those of “748” at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages. The lower epidermis cells of “747” were larger than those of “748” at the pre-heading and maturity stages. “747” had thinner epidermis cell wall than “748” at maturity stage, however, there was no difference of the epidermis cell wall thickness in the two lines at the pre-heading stage. The head-splitting plants in the F1 and F2 population inherited the larger cell size and thinner cell walls of epidermis cells in the petiole. In the petiole cell walls of “747” and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other. These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting. PMID:26536356

  5. Correlations between Colonization of Onion Thrips and Leaf Reflectance Measures across Six Cabbage Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Bálint, János; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Fail, József

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR) against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana – considered resistant – and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor – considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340–400 nm) and visible (401–650 nm) light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E) was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management. PMID:24040093

  6. Correlations between colonization of onion thrips and leaf reflectance measures across six cabbage varieties.

    PubMed

    Bálint, János; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Fail, József

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR) against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana - considered resistant - and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor - considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340-400 nm) and visible (401-650 nm) light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E) was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management. PMID:24040093

  7. Self-assembled cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures with efficient visible light photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yuanhao Zhai, Xuezhen; Zhang, Yange; Xu, Zhihong; Li, Pinjiang; Zheng, Zhi

    2013-07-15

    Cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures have been synthesized by reacting In(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} with the alkaline sulfur aqueous solution of NaOH in a simple hydrothermal process without any shape-directing surfactants. The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures are monodispersed in large quantities. The cabbage-like morphologies depend strongly on the different ratios of S powder to NaOH, the reaction temperature and reaction time. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures is discussed. The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures exhibit the superiority of photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of RhB irradiation under visible light irradiation. It is believed that the photocatalytic superiority of the cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures is mainly due to their special surface areas and inner interconnected structural features. - Graphical abstract: Cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures were facilely synthesized via simple hydrothermal reaction. The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures exhibit the superiority of photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of RhB irradiation under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures were facilely synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction. • Influencing parameters on the NaInS{sub 2} morphologies have been discussed in detail. • The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures hold efficient photocatalytic performance. • The photocatalytic superiority is mainly due to their special structural features.

  8. Isolation of a cadmium-binding complex from cabbage and tobacco leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, C

    1980-01-01

    Cd binding complexes with mol wts of approximately 10k daltons were observed in extracts, protoplast lysates, and protoplast cytosol obtained from the leaves of several plants. Extracts of the roots and stems of cabbage also contain the complex. In cabbage and tobacco the ligand appears to be both inducible and constitutive as determined by its association with Cd acquired either during growth of plants in the presence of the metal or after addition of the metal to extracts of Cd free leaves. Current efforts are directed toward determining the nature of the ligand.

  9. From the Primitive Atmosphere to the Prebiotic Soup to the Pre-RNA World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    Organic compounds would have been produced in an earth's atmosphere that was reducing. The soup would contain amino and hydroxy acids, together with smaller amounts of purines and pyrimidines. The presence' of sugars is less likely, although they can be produced by the formose reaction from formaldehyde. However, the prebiotic synthesis of RNA has not been demonstrated. One problem is that ribose is not produced selectively over other pentoses and hexoses, except under special conditions. The second problem is that ribose is unstable, with a half-life at pH7 and 100 C of 73 minutes (44 years at 0 C). Other sugars are similarly unstable. Another problem is that there is no efficient prebiotic synthesis of polyphosphates, nor the glycosidic bond of nucleosides. This suggests that there may have been an informational macromolecule that preceded RNA. The RNA world refers to the time when RNA carried both the genetic information and the catalytic activity, and was subsequently converted to the DNA/protein world when protein synthesis began. Preceeding the RNA world was the Pre-RNA world, where a backbone different from ribose phosphate was used, and the bases may have been different from adenine, uracil, guanine and cytosine. We have shown recently that cytosine and uracil can be synthesized efficiently under prebiotic conditions using a dried lagoon model instead of the usual dilute ocean hypothesis. In addition, we have shown that uracil adds formaldehyde efficiently to give 5- hydroxymethyl uracil, which in turn adds various nucleophiles to give uracil analogs of most of the amino acids that occur in proteins. For example, the ammonia, guanidine and imidazole adducts from the analogs of lysine, arginine and histidine. This suggests that the catalytic potential of RNA may have been much more extensive than previously assumed. The major problem is finding out what was the precursor to the ribose phosphate backbone. This will be the key to developing prebiotic self-replicating systems.

  10. Mediterranean Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other cereals, potatoes, beans, nuts and seeds olive oil is an important monounsaturated fat source dairy ... Mediterranean diet come from monounsaturated fats (mainly from olive oil). Monounsaturated fat doesn't raise blood cholesterol ...

  11. Vegetarian diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... made up of foods that come mostly from plants. These include: Vegetables Fruits Whole grains Legumes Seeds ... different types of vegetarian diets: Vegan: includes only plant-based foods. No animal proteins or animal by- ...

  12. Genetic method of combating the cabbage root fly. Part II. Localization of factor determining male sex in the cabbage root fly Delia brassicae bouche

    SciTech Connect

    Samoilov, Yu.B.

    1986-05-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was conducted of 15 lines of the cabbage root fly with hereditary semisterility in the form of late embryonic lethals (LEL). In 14 lines (93%), the presence of translocations was noted. A high yield of translocations linked with the male sex was obtained, which was caused by the fact that determination of male sex in this species is apparently associated with the largest chromosome 6, and not with chromosome 1, as was believed previously.

  13. Bacterial feeding induces changes in immune-related gene expression and has trans-generational impacts in the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni)

    PubMed Central

    Freitak, Dalial; Heckel, David G; Vogel, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    Background Poly- and oligophagous insects are able to feed on various host plants with a wide range of defense strategies. However, diverse food plants are also inhabited by microbiota differing in quality and quantity, posing a potential challenge for immune system mediated homeostasis in the herbivore. Recent studies highlight the complex interactions between environmentally encountered microorganisms and herbivorous insects, pointing to a potential adaptational alteration of the insects' physiology. We performed a differential gene expression analysis in whole larvae and eggs laid by parents grown on different diets to identify potential novel genes related to elevated microbial content in the caterpillars' food. Results We used GeneFishing, a novel differential display method, to study the effects of dietary bacteria on the general gene expression in different life stages and tissues of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni). We were able to visualize several hundred transcripts on agarose gels, one fifth of which were differentially expressed between treatments. The largest number of differentially expressed genes was found in defense-related processes (13) and in recognition and metabolism (16). 21 genes were picked out and further tested for differential gene expression by an independent method (qRT-PCR) in various tissues of larvae grown on bacterial and bacteria-free diet, and also in adults. We detected a number of genes indicative of an altered physiological status of the insect, depending on the diet, developmental stage and tissue. Conclusion Changes in immune status are accompanied by specific changes in the transcript levels of genes connected to metabolism and homeostasis of the organism. Our findings show that larval feeding on bacteria-rich diet leads to substantial gene expression changes, potentially resulting in a reorganization of the insects' metabolism to maintain organismal homeostasis, not only in the larval but also in the adult stage. Furthermore, differences in gene expression levels can also be seen in the next generation, strongly influenced by parental diet. PMID:19422678

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage. PMID:26599708

  15. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Podsędek, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays) strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage. PMID:24575407

  16. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 μg/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 °C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms. PMID:25976785

  17. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant. PMID:25288957

  18. The effects of tentoxin on chlorophyll synthesis and plastid structure in cucumber and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Halloin, J M; De Zoeten, G A; Walker, J C

    1970-03-01

    To determine if chlorosis caused by tentoxin, a toxin produced by Alternaria tenuis Nees., is due to interference with chlorophyll synthesis directly or to disruption of normal chloroplast development, the effects of the toxin on these processes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., var. capitata) were studied. Cucumber cotyledons are highly sensitive to the toxin but exhibited no interference with the conversion of protochlorophyll(ide) to chlorophyll(ide) or with the general time course pattern of chlorophyll synthesis, although there was a 90% reduction in chlorophyll concentration. In cabbage, which shows no chlorosis in the presence of the toxin, there was a slight stimulation of chlorophyll synthesis in the presence of the toxin. Electron microscopy revealed that in cucumber, toxin treatment interferes with development of prolamellar bodies and lamellae, and results in deformed plastids. No such effects were noted in toxin-treated cabbage tissues. Plastids in toxin-treated cotyledons of both cucumber and cabbage contained more starch than plastids in nontreated tissues. It was concluded that tentoxin acts through disruption of normal plastid development, rather than through direct interference with chlorophyll synthesis. PMID:5463696

  19. The Effects of Tentoxin on Chlorophyll Synthesis and Plastid Structure in Cucumber and Cabbage 12

    PubMed Central

    Halloin, J. M.; de Zoeten, G. A.; Gaard, G.; Walker, J. C.

    1970-01-01

    To determine if chlorosis caused by tentoxin, a toxin produced by Alternaria tenuis Nees., is due to interference with chlorophyll synthesis directly or to disruption of normal chloroplast development, the effects of the toxin on these processes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., var. capitata) were studied. Cucumber cotyledons are highly sensitive to the toxin but exhibited no interference with the conversion of protochlorophyll(ide) to chlorophyll(ide) or with the general time course pattern of chlorophyll synthesis, although there was a 90% reduction in chlorophyll concentration. In cabbage, which shows no chlorosis in the presence of the toxin, there was a slight stimulation of chlorophyll synthesis in the presence of the toxin. Electron microscopy revealed that in cucumber, toxin treatment interferes with development of prolamellar bodies and lamellae, and results in deformed plastids. No such effects were noted in toxin-treated cabbage tissues. Plastids in toxin-treated cotyledons of both cucumber and cabbage contained more starch than plastids in nontreated tissues. It was concluded that tentoxin acts through disruption of normal plastid development, rather than through direct interference with chlorophyll synthesis. Images PMID:5463696

  20. Changes in bacterial flora of Japanese cabbage during growth and potential source of flora.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hidemi; Sera, Kaori

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial flora of cabbage were identified and enumerated during various stages of growth, and the potential sources of contamination in the field were determined. Bacterial counts increased from below the level of detection (2.4 log CFU/g) on seeds to 2.5 to 5.7 log CFU/g on seedlings. After transplanting, the counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria on leaves decreased and then increased to 5.7 log CFU/g on outer leaves, 5.0 log CFU/g on middle leaves, and 3.0 log CFU/g on inner leaves at the harvesting stage. Counts of coliforms were below the level of detection during the growing period of the leaves. Bacteria isolated from cabbage seeds, seedlings, and leaves were soilborne organisms such as Bacillus, Curtobacterium, and Delftia and phytopathogenic organisms such as Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Stenotrophomonas. These bacteria were found frequently in seeding machines, potting soil mix, soil, agricultural water, pesticide solutions mixed with the agricultural water, liquid fertilizers, and chemical fertilizers. Contamination from these environmental sites occurred throughout the cabbage growing period rather than only at the harvesting stage. These results indicate that use of clean water for irrigation and for mixing with pesticides and amendments from seeding to the harvesting stage is an important part of a good agricultural practices program for cabbage in Japan. PMID:21477482

  1. Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars to cabbage and lettuce leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the ability of five Salmonella enterica serovars to attach to and colonize intact and cut lettuce (Iceberg, Romaine) and cabbage surfaces. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Bacterial populations of loosely and strong...

  2. Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture on fermentation of cabbage with reduced salt concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sauerkraut fermentations rely upon selection of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria by addition of 2.0 to 2.25% granulated sodium chloride (NaCl) to shredded cabbage. Excess brine generated is a waste product with high levels of organic material (BOD) and non-biodegradable NaCl. The objective...

  3. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...

  4. Comparative Analysis Of 226Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-01

    The transfer of 226Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeiriça uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean 226Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of 226Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for 226Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, 226Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1).

  5. Evaluation of nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings using hyper-spectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suming; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Wang, Ching-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Shih-Chieh

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of nutrient status of crops is essential for better management of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in fertilizer for the growth and yield of vegetable crops. In this study, nitrogen content of cabbage seedlings was evaluated using hyper-spectral images. Cabbage seedlings, cultured at five nitrogen fertilization levels, were planted in the 128-cell plug trays and grown in a phytotron at National Taiwan University. The images, ranged from 410 to 1090 nm, of cabbage seedlings were analyzed by a hyper-spectral imaging system consisting of CCD cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF), which was developed in this study. The digital images of seedling canopies were processed including image segmentation, gray level calibration and absorbance conversion. Models including modified partial least square regression (MPLSR), step-wise multi-linear regression (SMLR) and artificial neural network with cross-learning strategy (ANN-CL) were developed for the determination of the nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings. The three significant wavelengths derived from SMLR model are 470, 710, and 1080; and the best result is obtained by ANN-CL model, in which r c=0.89, SEC=6.41 mg/g, r v=0.87, and SEV=6.96 mg/g. The ANN-CL model is more suitable for the remote sensing in precision agriculture applications because not only its model accuracy but also only 3 wavelengths are needed.

  6. Rapid enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in artificially contaminated cabbage using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hough, Angela J; Harbison, Sally-Ann; Savill, Marion G; Melton, Laurence D; Fletcher, Graham

    2002-08-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method specific for Listeria monocytogenes was developed, and studies involving pure culture showed that the response of the assay was linear over 7 log10 (log) cycles. The method was then applied to the detection of L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated onto cabbage, a vegetable chosen because it is a major component of coleslaw, which has been associated with an outbreak of listeriosis. After being allowed to attach to the food, cells were washed from the cabbage leaf surface and recovered by centrifugation. The DNA was purified by an organic solvent extraction technique and analyzed by real-time PCR. In this matrix, the method again produced a linear response over 7 log cycles from 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.4 x 10(9) CFU of L. monocytogenes in 25 g of cabbage, and analysis of the reproducibility of the system showed that log differences in L. monocytogenes numbers added to cabbage could be reliably distinguished. The system allowed quantitative results to be obtained within 8 h and was relatively inexpensive, showing good potential for routine analytical use. PMID:12182489

  7. Digestion of fibre polysaccharides of pea (Pisum sativum) hulls, carrot and cabbage by adult cockerels.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, M; McNab, J M

    1989-11-01

    Characterization of the carbohydrates of pea (Pisum sativum) hulls, carrot and cabbage using both colorimetric and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques permitted a detailed investigation into the extent of digestion of differing types of fibre. These digestion studies were greatly aided by the development of a rapid bioassay employing starved adult cockerels. Total collection of undigested residues, uncontaminated by food spillage, could be made from trays placed under the cockerels. Chemical analysis showed that pea hulls consisted mainly of fibre with very little available carbohydrate present, whereas more than half of freeze-dried carrot and cabbage consisted of available carbohydrate (sucrose, glucose, fructose, starch) and consequently considerably less fibre was present. The fibre of carrot and cabbage was similarly composed of nearly equal amounts of neutral and acidic polysaccharides, whereas pea-hull fibre had four times as much neutral as acidic polysaccharides. The digestibility of total neutral polysaccharides from all three foodstuffs was extremely low. However, there appeared to be preferential digestion of polysaccharides composed of rhamnose, arabinose and galactose residues, all associated with pectic material, in contrast to the indigestibility of polysaccharides composed of fucose, xylose and glucose. Acidic polysaccharides were digested to a greater extent than neutral ones, and those of carrot and cabbage more so than pea hulls. The polysaccharides which were the most soluble were also the most digestible, but due to the arbitrariness of polysaccharide solubility, quantification of their total digestibility per se was considered not possible. PMID:2557886

  8. Genome-wide identification, classification, and expression analysis of sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tao, P; Guo, W L; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are essential for the plant's normal development and stress responses, especially the heat stress response. The information regarding sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis) is sparse, hence we performed a genome-wide analysis to identify sHSP genes in this species. We identified 26 non-redundant sHSP genes distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome A7, with one additional sHSP gene identified from an expressed sequence tag library. Chinese cabbage was found to contain more sHSP genes than Arabidopsis. The 27 sHSP genes were classified into 11 subfamilies. We identified 22 groups of sHSP syntenic orthologous genes between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. In addition, eight groups of paralogous genes were uncovered in Chinese cabbage. Protein structures of the 27 Chinese cabbage sHSPs were modeled using Phyre2, which revealed that all of them contain several conserved β strands across different subfamilies. In general, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, except for peroxisome sHSP. Analysis of promoter motifs showed that most sHSP genes contain heat shock elements or variants. We also found that biased gene loss has occurred during the evolution of the sHSP subfamily in Chinese cabbage. Expression analysis indicated that the greatest transcript abundance of most Chinese cabbage sHSP genes was found in siliques and early cotyledon embryos. Thus, genome-wide identification and characterization of sHSP genes is a first and important step in the investigation of sHSPs in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26505345

  9. Analysis of Chameleonic Change of Red Cabbage Depending on Broad pH Range for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Tae Young; Ko, Hyun Seok; Han, Eun Mi; Lee, Suk-Ho; Kim, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-08-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled using natural dyes extracted from red cabbage as a sensitizer. In this work, we investigated the adsorption characteristics and the electrochemical behavior for harvesting sunlight and electron transfer in red cabbage DSSCs under different solvents and pH. For the red cabbage dye-sensitized electrode adsorbed at pH 3.5, the solar cell yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 1.60 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Vcc) of 0.46 V, and a fill factor of 0.55, corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.41%. PMID:26369159

  10. Persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil, and its risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Gupta, Suman

    2013-07-01

    Metaflumizone is a novel sodium channel blocker insecticide of semicarbazone class. It provides good to excellent control of most of the economically important lepidopterous pests and certain pests in the orders Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Isoptera, and Siphonaptera. Although metaflumizone has been marketed globally for several years and got registered in India in the year 2009, specifically for the control of DBM on cabbage, to our knowledge, no food safety aspects of metaflumizone residue on cabbage have ever been reported in the literature in India or elsewhere. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage and soil, vis-a-vis its risk assessment, following two spray applications of metaflumizone 220 SC (Verismo®), each at recommended and double dose of 200 and 400 g a.i. ha(-1) respectively. Initial residue deposits of metaflumizone on cabbage were 0.46 and 0.51 mg kg(-1) at recommended and 0.76 and 0.85 mg kg(-1) at double the recommended dose following the first spray and second spray application. The residues persisted beyond 5 days from both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life ranging from 1.7-2.1 days. Initial deposits of metaflumizone on soil ranged from 0.23-0.37 mg kg(-1) and degraded with a half life ranging from 4.0-4.8 days. No degradation product of metaflumizone was detected in cabbage and soil at any point of time. Soil samples collected from the treated field after 7 days were free from any residue of metaflumizone or its metabolites. A pre-harvest waiting period of 3 days after application was suggested based on calculation of theoretical maximum daily intake. PMID:23224645

  11. Accumulation of mercury in rice grain and cabbage grown on representative Chinese soils*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-fa; Wu, Cheng-xian; Rafiq, Muhammad T.; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Hou, Dan-di; Ding, Zhe-li; Lin, Zi-wen; Lou, Lin-jun; Feng, Yuan-yuan; Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2013-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the accumulation properties of mercury (Hg) in rice grain and cabbage grown in seven soil types (Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols) spiked with different concentrations of Hg (CK, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that Hg accumulation of plants was significantly affected by soil types. Hg concentration in both rice grain and cabbage increased with soil Hg concentrations, but this increase differed among the seven soils. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pH, Mn(II), particle size distribution, and cation exchange capacity have a close relationship with Hg accumulation in plants, which suggested that physicochemical characteristics of soils can affect the Hg accumulation in rice grain and cabbage. Critical Hg concentrations in seven soils were identified for rice grain and cabbage based on the maximum safe level for daily intake of Hg, dietary habits of the population, and Hg accumulation in plants grown in different soil types. Soil Hg limits for rice grain in Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols were 1.10, 2.00, 2.60, 2.78, 1.53, 0.63, and 2.17 mg/kg, respectively, and critical soil Hg levels for cabbage are 0.27, 1.35, 1.80, 1.70, 0.69, 1.68, and 2.60 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:24302714

  12. Role of xylo-oligosaccharides in protection against salinity-induced adversities in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Guo, Chen; Hussain, Saddam; Zhu, Bingxin; Deng, Fang; Xue, Yan; Geng, Mingjian; Wu, Lishu

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a stringent abiotic constraint limiting crop growth and productivity. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOSs) in improving the salinity tolerance of Chinese cabbage. Salinity stress (0.5 % NaCl solution) and four levels (0, 40, 80, 120 mg L(-1)) of XOSs were imposed on 20-day-old plants cultured under controlled conditions. Salinity stress decreased the aboveground fresh biomass, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll contents but increased the stomatal limitation value of Chinese cabbage compared with control. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Chinese cabbage were significantly alleviated by the addition of XOSs under salinity stress. Under salinity stress, application of XOSs significantly enhanced the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbate, carotene) antioxidants and reduced the malondialdehyde content in the leaves of Chinese cabbage. The XOS-applied plants under salinity stress also recorded higher soluble sugars, proline, and soluble protein content in their leaves. Exposure of salinity stress increased the ratio of Na(+)/K(+), Na(+)/Ca(2+), and Na(+)/Mg(2+) in shoot as well as root of Chinese cabbage, however, XOS application significantly reduced these ratios particularly in shoot. Lower levels of XOSs (40 or 80 mg L(-1)) were more effective for most of the studied attributes. The greater salinity tolerance and better growth in these treatments were related with enhanced antioxidative defense system, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased osmolyte accumulation, and maintenance of ionic balance. PMID:26358207

  13. Evaluation of insect associated and plant growth promoting fungi in the control of cabbage root flies.

    PubMed

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-08-01

    Delia radicum L. or cabbage maggot is an important pest for Brassicaceous crops. There are currently no registered chemical control agents for its control in Slovenia. Fungal control agents for cabbage maggot were therefore sought among nine rhizosphere-compatible and plant growth-promoting, soil-adapted, and entomopathogenic species to cabbage maggots and were assayed in in vitro and soil laboratory bioassays. In the in vitro tests, the conidial suspensions were applied directly to cabbage maggot eggs. The soil tests mimicked pathways of natural exposure of various insect life stages to the fungal strains. Conidial concentrations used in soil tests were comparable to economic rates for in-furrow application. The following fungi were tested: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst. (2 isolates), Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans (1), Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin. (3), Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo) Petch (1), Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (2), Metarhizium robertsii J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber (1), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (4), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel-Jones & Samson (2), and Clonostachys solani f. nigrovirens (J.F.H. Beyma) Schroers (2). Abbott's corrected mortality in the in vitro tests ranged from 0.0 +/- 18.9 to 47.6 +/- 9.0% and in the soil test from 2.4 +/- 13.0 to 68.2 +/- 21.5%. Seven isolates (B. bassiana [isolate 1174], C. solani [1828], M. anisopliae [1154 and 1868], T. atroviride [1872], T. koningiopsis [1874], and T. gamsii [1876]) caused significant cabbage maggot mortality in either in vitro or soil tests. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion during the screening of potential biological control agents is discussed. PMID:25195421

  14. Preincubation time and the use of oxygen indicators in determining the microbiological quality of aseptically packed pea and tomato soup.

    PubMed

    Mattila, T; Ahvenainen, R

    1989-11-01

    In order to get accurate information about the preincubation time needed for viscous aseptic products, the growth characteristics of three food poisoning organisms Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus in pea soup, and one spoilage organism, Lactobacillus plantarum, in tomato soup, were followed during a preincubation period at 30 degrees C for 14 days. The sterile food packs were sealed into polyamidepolyethylene laminate bags containing different headspace gas concentrations (21% oxygen + 80% nitrogen, 5% oxygen + 95% nitrogen and 100% nitrogen). Bacterial growth was followed every second day by counting the number of colony forming units and following the headspace oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. The bacterial strains differed in their growth characteristics, especially in their ability to consume oxygen from the headspace, and also in their ability to produce carbon dioxide. The headspace oxygen concentration was also followed by oxygen indicators in order to determine the correlation with the oxygen concentration of the headspace and the growth of bacteria. The bacterial growth followed more closely the concentration of carbon dioxide than the concentration of oxygen. It was concluded that further studies are needed to determine the preincubation period for viscous aseptic products in order to furnish accurate data on the growth characteristics of low numbers of bacteria in aseptic foods at different headspace gas compositions. PMID:2561900

  15. A Modelling Approach to Estimate the Impact of Sodium Reduction in Soups on Cardiovascular Health in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Dtsch-Klerk, Mariska; Matthee, Joep; Kearney, Mary; van Elk, Kathelijn; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, which could be lowered by reducing dietary sodium. The potential health impact of a product reformulation in the Netherlands was modelled, selecting packaged soups containing on average 25% less sodium as an example of an achievable product reformulation when implemented gradually. First, the blood pressure lowering resulting from sodium intake reduction was modelled. Second, the predicted blood pressure lowering was translated into potentially preventable incidence and mortality cases from stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina pectoris, and heart failure (HF) implementing one year salt reduction. Finally, the potentially preventable subsequent lifetime Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated. The sodium reduction in soups might potentially reduce the incidence and mortality of stroke by approximately 0.5%, AMI and angina by 0.3%, and HF by 0.2%. The related burden of disease could be reduced by approximately 800 lifetime DALYs. This modelling approach can be used to provide insight into the potential public health impact of sodium reduction in specific food products. The data demonstrate that an achievable food product reformulation to reduce sodium can potentially benefit public health, albeit modest. When implemented across multiple product categories and countries, a significant health impact could be achieved. PMID:26393647

  16. A Modelling Approach to Estimate the Impact of Sodium Reduction in Soups on Cardiovascular Health in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Maaike J; Dtsch-Klerk, Mariska; Matthee, Joep; Kearney, Mary; van Elk, Kathelijn; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, which could be lowered by reducing dietary sodium. The potential health impact of a product reformulation in the Netherlands was modelled, selecting packaged soups containing on average 25% less sodium as an example of an achievable product reformulation when implemented gradually. First, the blood pressure lowering resulting from sodium intake reduction was modelled. Second, the predicted blood pressure lowering was translated into potentially preventable incidence and mortality cases from stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina pectoris, and heart failure (HF) implementing one year salt reduction. Finally, the potentially preventable subsequent lifetime Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated. The sodium reduction in soups might potentially reduce the incidence and mortality of stroke by approximately 0.5%, AMI and angina by 0.3%, and HF by 0.2%. The related burden of disease could be reduced by approximately 800 lifetime DALYs. This modelling approach can be used to provide insight into the potential public health impact of sodium reduction in specific food products. The data demonstrate that an achievable food product reformulation to reduce sodium can potentially benefit public health, albeit modest. When implemented across multiple product categories and countries, a significant health impact could be achieved. PMID:26393647

  17. Effects of chitosan films on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. in laboratory media and in fish soup.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Saiz, P; Soler, C; Lagaron, J M; Ocio, M J

    2010-02-28

    The objective of this study was to assess the antimicrobial effectiveness of chitosonium acetate films on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The samples were tested in both laboratory conditions using Tryptone Soy Broth (TSB) and in a real food system using fish soup. The study was carried out at different temperatures (4, 12, and 37 degrees C) in order to discern the influence of such variables. Moreover, a sensory evaluation of the final product was performed as a parameter of consumer acceptance. The results showed a significant reduction of the bacterial growth, which greatly depended on the bacteria type, the temperature of incubation and the food substrate. Although the effectiveness of chitosan films decreased in the fish soup, neither the sensory properties nor the pH of the soup was affected upon their addition. The application of chitosonium acetate as an internal coating of the packaging material could be a very suitable means to assure safety of liquid food products such as fish soup at the range of temperatures studied. PMID:20022649

  18. Diet and Spondylitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spondylitis Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Diet & Spondylitis Learn About Spondyloarthritis / Diet & Spondylitis Overview For ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Diet's Effect On Spondylitis Symptoms In recent years many ...

  19. Diet and Spondylitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Changing Your Diet The London AS / Low Starch Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month ... Your Diet Dietary Supplements The London AS / Low Starch Diet Join us on: About Spondylitis / Spondyloarthritis Overview ...

  20. Why food-poisoning bacteria attached to shredded cabbage are not efficiently disinfected by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO).

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Yumiko; Kawamura, Shiori; Tsutsuura, Satomi; Shimamura, Yuko; Murata, Masatsune

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine why food poisoning bacteria attached to cut cabbage are not efficiently disinfected by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Pretreatment of shredded cabbage with diethyl ether definitely decreased the survival numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. after disinfection with 100 ppm of NaClO. The density of E. coli O157:H7 at the cut edge of a cabbage section was larger than that on the surface. The residual ratio of attached bacteria at the cut edge after NaClO disinfection was significantly higher than that on the surface. Microscopical observation indicated that the cut edge of shredded cabbage pretreated with diethyl ether was almost closed, resulting in a decrease in bacterial infiltration. Pretreatment of shredded cabbage with a higher concentration of NaClO to penetrate it more deeply significantly decreased the numbers of surviving bacteria after NaClO disinfection. Based on these results, we concluded that the bacteria attached to cut cabbage were not efficiently disinfected by NaClO, because not enough NaClO deeply infiltrated into the cut edges, and hence not enough came in contact with the bacteria. PMID:23748784

  1. Persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and des-iodo flubendiamide in cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi; Jagadish, G K; Rashmi, N

    2010-09-01

    Flubendiamide belongs to a novel class of insecticide which controls lepidopteran pest complex of cabbage such as diamondback moth, cabbage white butterfly, cluster caterpillar etc. Being a newly introduced insecticide no information is available on its residue persistence in cabbage. A study was undertaken to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in cabbage and soil following 2 applications of flubendiamide 480 SC at the recommended and double the recommended dose of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide in cabbage were 0.33 and 0.49 mg kg(-1) respectively. The residues persisted for 10 days from the both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life of 3.9 and 4.45 days, respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite of flubendiamide, was not detected in cabbage at any time during the study period. Soil sample collected from the treated field after 15 days was free from any residue of flubendiamide or its metabolite. PMID:20661541

  2. Dietary Mechanism behind the Costs Associated with Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in the Cabbage Looper, Trichoplusia ni

    PubMed Central

    Shikano, Ikkei; Cory, Jenny S.

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial alleles that spread rapidly as an adaptation to a new environment are often associated with costs that reduce the fitness of the population in the original environment. Several species of insect pests have evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in the field, jeopardizing its future use. This has most commonly occurred through the alteration of insect midgut binding sites specific for Bt toxins. While fitness costs related to Bt resistance alleles have often been recorded, the mechanisms behind them have remained obscure. We asked whether evolved resistance to Bt alters dietary nutrient intake, and if reduced efficiency of converting ingested nutrients to body growth are associated with fitness costs and variation in susceptibility to Bt. We fed the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni artificial diets differing in levels of dietary imbalance in two major macronutrients, protein and digestible carbohydrate. By comparing a Bt-resistant T. ni strain with a susceptible strain we found that the mechanism behind reduced pupal weights and growth rates associated with Bt-resistance in T. ni was reduced consumption rather than impaired conversion of ingested nutrients to growth. In fact, Bt-resistant T. ni showed more efficient conversion of nutrients than the susceptible strain under certain dietary conditions. Although increasing levels of dietary protein prior to Bt challenge had a positive effect on larval survival, the LC50 of the resistant strain decreased when fed high levels of excess protein, whereas the LC50 of the susceptible strain continued to rise. Our study demonstrates that examining the nutritional basis of fitness costs may help elucidate the mechanisms underpinning them. PMID:25171126

  3. Dietary mechanism behind the costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Shikano, Ikkei; Cory, Jenny S

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial alleles that spread rapidly as an adaptation to a new environment are often associated with costs that reduce the fitness of the population in the original environment. Several species of insect pests have evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in the field, jeopardizing its future use. This has most commonly occurred through the alteration of insect midgut binding sites specific for Bt toxins. While fitness costs related to Bt resistance alleles have often been recorded, the mechanisms behind them have remained obscure. We asked whether evolved resistance to Bt alters dietary nutrient intake, and if reduced efficiency of converting ingested nutrients to body growth are associated with fitness costs and variation in susceptibility to Bt. We fed the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni artificial diets differing in levels of dietary imbalance in two major macronutrients, protein and digestible carbohydrate. By comparing a Bt-resistant T. ni strain with a susceptible strain we found that the mechanism behind reduced pupal weights and growth rates associated with Bt-resistance in T. ni was reduced consumption rather than impaired conversion of ingested nutrients to growth. In fact, Bt-resistant T. ni showed more efficient conversion of nutrients than the susceptible strain under certain dietary conditions. Although increasing levels of dietary protein prior to Bt challenge had a positive effect on larval survival, the LC50 of the resistant strain decreased when fed high levels of excess protein, whereas the LC50 of the susceptible strain continued to rise. Our study demonstrates that examining the nutritional basis of fitness costs may help elucidate the mechanisms underpinning them. PMID:25171126

  4. Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolics of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Seong, Gi-Un; Hwang, In-Wook; Chung, Shin-Kyo

    2016-05-15

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) is a green leafy vegetable used mainly in kimchi, salted and fermented dishes. Consumer preference for the leaf portion differs according to the type of dishes. In this study, Chinese cabbage was divided into three parts, and their antioxidant activities were investigated through in vitro assays. The total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and vitamin C contents were also determined as indicators of antioxidant contents. The phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The outer leaf had the strongest antioxidant activity with the maximum antioxidant contents, followed by the mid- and inner leaves. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that outer leaf is positively related to caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and myricetin contents, whereas the mid- and inner leaves are negatively related to sinapic acid contents. PMID:26776015

  5. Stability of glucosinolates and glucosinolate degradation products during storage of boiled white cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Ewa; Drabińska, Natalia; Narwojsz, Agnieszka; Honke, Joanna

    2016-07-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of storage on the contents of glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products in a boiled white cabbage. A 24h storage at 4°C resulted in a decrease in GLS content (20-40%, depending on the cooking time applied) in the edible parts. The most significant losses were observed for sinigrin (20-45%), and the least for glucobrassicin (12-32%). Storage had a diversified effect on GLS breakdown products (indole-3-acetonitrile, indole-3-carbinol, ascorbigen and 3,3'-diindolylmethane released from glucobrassicin and 4-methylsulfinylbutanenitrile released from glucoiberin) in the boiled cabbage. The increase in the content of indole-3-acetonitrile, especially considerable within the first 24h of storage (and a simultaneous decrease in glucobrassicin) clearly indicates that degradation of GLS may occur during storage or cooling to 4°C. PMID:26948623

  6. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  7. Nuclear DNA endoreduplication during petal development in cabbage: relationship between ploidy levels and cell size.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Nobuhiro; Kimura, Yasuo

    2002-05-01

    The development of cabbage petals comprises two distinct phases: a cell division phase and a consecutive phase of cell expansion until the onset of opening. In this study, cytological changes characterizing the two phases of petal development were analysed. First, the mitotic activity and the surface area of epidermal cells during petal development were investigated. The DNA content of isolated nuclei from the different stages of petal tissues was determined by flow cytometric analysis. The results show that cell differentiation, leading to expanded cells, is characterized by endoreduplication. In the proximal part of the petal, after cell division arrest, differentiation frequently involves endoreduplication and cell enlargement. By contrast, normal diploid nuclei remained in the distal part of the lamina in the mature petal. It is suggested that the developmental programmes of the cabbage petal may be a trigger for the initiation of endoreduplication. Correlation between ploidy levels and cell size is also discussed. PMID:11971913

  8. [Osteoporosis diet].

    PubMed

    Morselli, B; Neuenschwander, B; Perrelet, R; Lippuner, K

    2000-03-01

    Bone requires a wide variety of nutrients to develop normally and to maintain itself after growth. Most important--in the sense that bony abnormalities are associated with their deficiencies--are protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, C and K, zinc, manganese and copper. The nutrients most likely to be deficient in citizens of industrialized countries are calcium and vitamin D. In this review of the current literature about nutritional aspects of osteoporosis, we have focused on factors influencing calcium requirement: the principal interacting nutrients are sodium, protein, caffeine, fiber, oxalate, phytate, and the acid/alkaline ash character of the overall diet. Fiber and caffeine decrease calcium absorption from the gut and typically exert relatively minor effects, while sodium, protein and the acid/alkaline balance of the diet increase urinary excretion of calcium and are of much greater significance for the calcium homeostasis. Alkali buffers, whether vegetables or fruits reverse this urinary calcium loss. As long as accompanied by adequate calcium intake, protein-rich diet is not deleterious to bone: a calcium-to-protein ratio of 20:1 (mg calcium/g protein) is recommended. Whether a nutrition-based therapeutic approach to osteoporosis is feasible in the near future is yet unclear: at least there are some recent promising data from in-vitro as well as from rat studies showing that extracts taken from various vegetables, mainly from the onion family inhibit bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:10756695

  9. Two cytochromes P450 catalyze S-heterocyclizations in cabbage phytoalexin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Andrew P; Sattely, Elizabeth S

    2015-01-01

    Phytoalexins are abundant in edible crucifers and have important biological activities, yet no dedicated gene for their biosynthesis is known. Here, we report two new cytochromes P450 from Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) that catalyze unprecedented S-heterocyclizations in cyclobrassinin and spirobrassinin biosynthesis. Our results reveal the first genetic and biochemical insights into the biosynthesis of a prominent pair of dietary metabolites, and have implications for pathway discovery across >20 recently sequenced crucifers. PMID:26389737

  10. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation. PMID:26611631

  11. Two cytochromes P450 catalyze S-heterocyclizations in cabbage phytoalexin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Andrew P; Sattely, Elizabeth S

    2015-11-01

    Phytoalexins are abundant in edible crucifers and have important biological activities, yet no dedicated gene for their biosynthesis is known. Here, we report two new cytochromes P450 from Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) that catalyze unprecedented S-heterocyclizations in cyclobrassinin and spirobrassinin biosynthesis. Our results provide genetic and biochemical insights into the biosynthesis of a prominent pair of dietary metabolites and have implications for pathway discovery across >20 recently sequenced crucifers. PMID:26389737

  12. Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

  13. Oral fluid therapy: sodium and potassium content and osmolality of some commercial "clear" soups, juices and beverages.

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, B E; Arbus, G S

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of nearly 90 commercial "clear" fluids, including soups, juices, fruit-flavoured drinks and ices, carbonated beverages and gelatins, showed a range of 0.1 to 251 mmol of sodium and 0.0 to 65 mmol of potassium per litre; the osmolality ranged from 246 to more than 2000 mOsm/kg of water. Knowledge of these values is useful in the home or hospital management of patients for whom control of fluid and electrolyte intake is indicated. The results of the analyses are presented in tabular form for use by physicians and nutritionists when counselling patients to ingest clear-type fluids for various illnesses. Examples are given using these data to show how clear-fluid therapy can be tailored in one such illness--gastroenteritis (infectious diarrhea). PMID:497946

  14. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of Bisphenol A following ingestion in soup: Individual pharmacokinetic data and emographics

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2015-09-01

    Here we present data to evaluate potential absorption of Bisphenol A through non-metabolizing tissues of the upper digestive tract. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 h period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. The pharmacokinetic behavior of BPA and its metabolites in this cohort (rapid absorption, complete elimination, evidence against sublingual absorption) was reported. This Data in Brief article contains the corresponding individual pharmacokinetic data, reports the demographics of the cohort and provides additional details related to the analytical methods employed and is related to [4].

  15. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of Bisphenol A following ingestion in soup: Individual pharmacokinetic data and emographics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2015-09-01

    Here we present data to evaluate potential absorption of Bisphenol A through non-metabolizing tissues of the upper digestive tract. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 h period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. The pharmacokinetic behavior of BPA and its metabolites in this cohort (rapid absorption, complete elimination, evidence against sublingual absorption) was reported. This Data in Brief article contains the corresponding individual pharmacokinetic data, reports the demographics of the cohort and provides additional details related to the analyticalmore » methods employed and is related to [4].« less

  16. Aliphatic glucosinolate synthesis and gene expression changes in gamma-irradiated cabbage.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Rai, Archana N; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2016-10-15

    Glucosinolates, found principally in the plant order Brassicales, are modulated by different post-harvest processing operations. Among these, ionizing radiation, a non-thermal process, has gained considerable interest for ensuring food security and safety. In gamma-irradiated cabbage, enhanced sinigrin, a major glucosinolate, has been reported. However, the molecular basis of such a radiation induced effect is not known. Herein, the effect of radiation processing on the expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes was investigated. RT-PCR based expression analysis of seven glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway genes (MYB28, CYP79F1, CYP83A1, SUR1, UGT74B1, SOT18 and TGG1) showed that CYP83A1, MYB28, UGT74B1, CYP79F1 and SUR1 were up-regulated in irradiated cabbage. The content of jasmonates, signalling molecules involved in glucosinolate induction was, however, unaffected in irradiated cabbage suggesting their non-involvement in glucosinolate induction during radiation processing. This is the first report on the effect of gamma irradiation on the expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes in vegetables. PMID:27173540

  17. Molar absorptivity (ε) and spectral characteristics of cyanidin-based anthocyanins from red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ahmadiani, Neda; Robbins, Rebecca J; Collins, Thomas M; Giusti, M Monica

    2016-04-15

    Red cabbage extract contains mono and di-acylated cyanidin (Cy) anthocyanins and is often used as food colorants. Our objectives were to determine the molar absorptivity (ε) of different red cabbage Cy-derivatives and to evaluate their spectral behaviors in acidified methanol (MeOH) and buffers pH 1-9. Major red cabbage anthocyanins were isolated using a semi-preparatory HPLC, dried and weighed. Pigments were dissolved in MeOH and diluted with either MeOH (0.1% HCl) or buffers to obtain final concentrations between 5×10(-5) and 1×10(-3) mol/L. Spectra were recorded and ε calculated using Lambert-Beer's law. The ε in acidified MeOH and buffer pH 1 ranged between ~16,000-30,000 and ~13,000-26,000 L/mol cm, respectively. Most pigments showed higher ε in pH 8 than pH 2, and lowest ε between pH 4 and 6. There were bathochromic shifts (81-105 nm) from pH 1 to 8 and hypsochromic shifts from pH 8 to 9 (2-19 nm). Anthocyanins molecular structures and the media were important variables which greatly influenced their ε and spectral behaviors. PMID:26617032

  18. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. PMID:26593594

  19. Effectiveness of Taiwanese traditional herbal diet for pain management in terminal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Hsiu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chen, Ching-Yu; Chen, Lih-Chi; Yang, Ling-Ling

    2008-01-01

    In addition to modern medicinal therapy, many cancer patients in Taiwan are treated regularly with herbal medicines or prescribed a traditional herbal diet. In this paper, the effect of a Taiwanese traditional herbal diet (TTHD) on pain in terminal cancer patients was investigated. A total of 2,466 patients diagnosed with a variety of cancers were included. The most common patient-reported symptoms included troublesome pain (79.2%), weakness (69.0%), anorexia (46.4%), fever (36.5%), dyspnea (31.1%), and leg edema (30.9%). The 2,466 terminal cancer patients included in the study were randomly divided into three groups. The TTHD group (n=1044; 42.3%) were given the TTHD consisting of analgesic herbs (paeony root: licorice root=1:1) and a Taiwanese tonic vegetable soup (Lilii bulbus, Nelumbo seed, and Jujube fruit). The remaining patients were divided into a reference group, given the regular hospital diet, (n=909, 36.9%) and a control group, given the Taiwanese tonic vegetable soup without analgesic herbs, (n=513, 20.8%). All patients maintained their assigned diets for one week. A verbal numerical scale was used to assess pain. Results revealed that the patients given TTHD reported enhanced pain relief (p<0.05) compared to the reference and control groups. We found that TTHD could alleviate the pain among terminal cancer patients thereby supporting the supposition that Eastern and Western medicines can be effectively co-administered to enhance terminal patient's quality of life. Further research is warranted. PMID:18364321

  20. Genome-wide identification, classification and expression analysis of the heat shock transcription factor family in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Gaofeng; Duan, Weike; Liu, Tongkun; Huang, Zhinan; Ren, Jun; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2014-08-01

    The Hsf gene family, one of the most important transcription factor families, plays crucial roles in regulating heat resistance. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of this gene family has not been reported in Chinese cabbage. Therefore, systematic analysis of the Hsf gene family in Chinese cabbage has profound significance. In this study, 35 BrHsf genes were identified from Chinese cabbage, which could be classified into three groups according to their structural characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons with Arabidopsis and rice. Thirty-three BrHsf genes mapped on chromosomes were further assigned to three subgenomes and eight ancestral karyotypes. Distribution mapping showed that BrHsf genes were non-randomly localized on chromosomes. Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis shared 22 orthologous gene pairs. The expansion of BrHsf genes mainly resulted from genome triplication. Comparative analysis showed that the most Hsf genes were in Chinese cabbage among the five species analyzed. Interestingly, the number of Hsf genes of heat-resistant plants (Theobroma cacao and Musa acuminata) was fewer than that in Chinese cabbage. The expression patterns of BrHsf genes were different in six tissues, based on RNA-seq. Quantitative real-time-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of BrHsf genes varied under various abiotic stresses. In conclusion, this comprehensive analysis of BrHsf genes will provide rich resources, aiding the determination of Hsfs functions in plant heat resistance. Furthermore, the comparative genomics analysis deepened our understanding of Hsf genes' evolution accompanied by the polyploidy event of Chinese cabbage. PMID:24609322

  1. Chemical stimulants of leaf-trenching by cabbage loopers: natural products, neurotransmitters, insecticides, and drugs.

    PubMed

    Dussourd, David E

    2003-09-01

    Larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), often transect leaves with a narrow trench before eating the distal section. The trench reduces larval exposure to exudates, such as latex, during feeding. Plant species that do not emit exudate, such as Plantago lanceolata, are not trenched. However, if exudate is applied to a looper's mouth during feeding on P. lanceolata, the larva will often stop and cut a trench. Dissolved chemicals can be similarly applied and tested for effectiveness at triggering trenching. With this assay, I have documented that lactucin from lettuce latex (Lactuca sativa), myristicin from parsley oil (Petroselinum crispum), and lobeline from cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis) elicit trenching. These compounds are the first trenching stimulants reported. Several other constituents of lettuce and parsley, including some phenylpropanoids, monoterpenes, and furanocoumarins had little or no activity. Cucurbitacin E glycoside found in cucurbits, another plant family trenched by cabbage loopers, also was inactive. Lactucin, myristicin, and lobeline all affect the nervous system of mammals, with lobeline acting specifically as an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. To determine if cabbage loopers respond selectively to compounds active at acetylcholine synapses, I tested several neurotransmitters, insecticides, and drugs with known neurological activity, many of which triggered trenching. Active compounds included dopamine, serotonin, the insecticide imidacloprid, and various drugs such as ipratropium, apomorphine, buspirone, and metoclopramide. These results document that noxious plant chemicals trigger trenching, that loopers respond to different trenching stimulants in different plants, that diverse neuroactive chemicals elicit the behavior, and that feeding deterrents are not all trenching stimulants. The trenching assay offers a novel approach for identifying defensive plant compounds with potential uses in agriculture or medicine. Cabbage loopers in the lab and field routinely trench and feed on plants in the Asteraceae and Apiaceae. However, first and third instar larvae enclosed on Lobelia cardinalis (Campanulaceae) failed to develop, even though the third instar larvae attempted to trench. Trenching ability does not guarantee effective feeding on plants with canal-borne exudates. Cabbage loopers must not only recognize and respond to trenching stimulants, they must also tolerate exudates during the trenching procedure to disable canalicular defenses. PMID:14584674

  2. The application of soil amendments benefits to the reduction of phosphorus depletion and the growth of cabbage and corn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ji, Hongli; Kerr, Philip; Wu, Yonghong; Fang, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    The loss of phosphorus from agricultural intensive areas can cause ecological problems such as eutrophication in downstream surface waters. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to control the phosphorus loss using environmentally benign soil amendments, viz, ferrous sulfate (FES), aluminum sulfate (ALS), and polyacrylamide (PAM). The phosphorus concentration changes in soil and leaching solution, the morphological index of plant (including stem and root), and root activity and quality (represented by chlorophyll and soluble sugar) at different growth stages of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) were monitored in a pilot experiment. Phosphorus contents in soil and runoff were also investigated in field experiments cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). The results show that the application of these amendments improved the phosphorus uptake by cabbage and corn, resulting in the enhanced morphologies of root and stem as well as the root activity at the early and middle stages of cabbage growth. The soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus in soils treated with FES, ALS, and PAM declined, resulting in lower concentrations of phosphorus in the leachate and the soil runoff. During the use of the soil amendments, the cabbage quality measures, determined as chlorophyll and soluble sugar in leaves, were not significantly different from those in the control. It is suggested that the application of these soil amendments is safe for cabbage production under single season cropping conditions, and the use of these three amendments is a promising measure to reduce phosphorus loss in intensive agricultural areas. PMID:26092358

  3. Determination of residual flubendiamide in the cabbage by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Lu, Chunliang; Fan, Shuqin; Lu, Haibo; Cui, Hairong; Meng, Zhiyuan; Yang, Yizhong

    2012-11-01

    Flubendiamide, which belongs to the new chemical class of phthalic acid diamides, is widely used against lepidopteron pests in a variety of vegetable and rice pests. It provides superior plant protection against a broad range of economically important lepidopterous pests, including Spodoptera exigua and Plutella xylostella. A determination method of flubendiamide in the cabbage was established in this paper. Flubendiamide in the cabbage was extracted with acetonitrile and ultrasonic extraction, and was purified by QuEChERS and analyzed by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). The results indicated that the average recovery of flubendiamide in the cabbage was 81.27%-91.45%, the coefficient of variation was 1.79%-4.81%, and the lowest detection concentration was 0.3 μg/kg. The extraction of flubendiamide from the cabbage and its analysis was in accordance with the pesticide residue criterion, i.e., simple, rapid, accurate, reproducible, stable, separatory, and convenient. It identifies and quantifies trace-level flubendiamide residues in the cabbage extracts using LC-MS/MS in the ESI negative mode coupled with the QuEChERS method. PMID:22983724

  4. Trichokonins from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2 induce resistance against Gram-negative Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yun; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Xiu-Sheng; Shi, Wei-Ling; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Peptaibols, mainly produced by Trichoderma, play a pivotal role in controlling plant disease caused by fungi, virus, and Gram-positive bacteria. In the current study, we evaluated the control effect of Trichokonins, antimicrobial peptaibols from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2, on soft rot disease of Chinese cabbage caused by a Gram-negative bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and analyzed the mechanism involved. Trichokonins treatment (0.3 mg L(-1) ) enhanced the resistance of Chinese cabbage against Pcc infection. However, Trichokonins could hardly inhibit the growth of Pcc in vitro, even at high concentration (500 mg L(-1) ). Therefore, the direct effect of Trichokonins on Pcc may not the main reason why Trichokonins could control soft rot of Chinese cabbage. Trichokonin treatment led to an obvious increase in the production of reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical, a significant enhance of the activities of pathogenesis-related enzymes catalase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase, and upregulation of the expression of salicylic acid - responsive pathogenesis-related protein gene acidic PR-1a in Chinese cabbage. These results indicate that Trichokonins induce resistance in Chinese cabbage against Pcc infection through the activation of salicylic acid signaling pathway, which imply the potential of Trichoderma and peptaibols in controlling plant disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24655217

  5. Growth inhibition in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) growth exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chien-Sen; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2009-04-30

    The toxicity and effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), an endocrine disruptor, on the growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) were studied. Etiolation occurred on leaves of Chinese cabbage plant treated with 50mg/L of DBP for 42 d. DBP even below 1mg/L had a significant effect on the concentration of chlorophyll in Chinese cabbage and the biomass showed a severe decrease under treatment with more than 30 mg/L of DBP. At a concentration below 1mg/L of DBP, no significant difference in accumulation was found, but treatments with concentration exceeding 10, 30, 50 and 100mg/L all resulted in significant accumulation of DBP. Six protein spots extracted from leaf tissue of DBP-treated Chinese cabbage displaying a differential expression are shown in 2-DE maps. According to proteome level studies, three protein spots were found to increase and were identified, respectively, as acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase (acyl-ACP desaturase), root phototropism protein 3 (RPT3) and ferredoxin-nitrite reductase (Fd-NiR). The other three protein spots were found to decrease and were identified respectively as dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) and ATP synthase subunit beta. The key finding is that the other closely related plant, Bok choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis), the subspecies of Chinese cabbage, respond differently to the same chemicals. PMID:18678443

  6. Glut1 deficiency syndrome: Absence epilepsy and La Soupe du Jour.

    PubMed

    Thouin, Anaïs; Crompton, Douglas E

    2016-02-01

    For some time, paediatric neurologists have recognised glucose transporter type 1 (GluT1) deficiency syndrome as a cause of intractable infantile seizures, microcephaly, developmental delay and hypoglycorrhachia in the presence of a normal plasma glucose. It is caused by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene, coding for GluT1, leading to a reduction in the available glucose transporter sites; it responds to the ketogenic diet. Recently, a wider spectrum of seizure syndromes have been associated with functional impairment of glucose transport caused by SLC2A1 mutations. These syndromes include 12% of early-onset absence epilepsy and 1% of genetic generalised epilepsies, where they represent a risk allele contributing to polygenic inheritance. We describe a young man with early-onset absence seizures and paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia. While this syndrome is uncommon, it is recognisable and its diagnosis allows consideration of treatment with the ketogenic diet. We discuss the role of genetic testing in early-onset absence seizures and genetic generalised epilepsy. PMID:26336901

  7. Solar production of industrial process hot water: operation and evaluation of the Campbell Soup hot water solar facility. Final report, September 1, 1979-December 10, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kull, J. I.; Niemeyer, W. N.; Youngblood, S. B.

    1980-12-01

    The operation and evaluation of a solar hot water facility designed by Acurex Corporation and installed (November 1977) at the Campbell Soup Company Sacramento, California canning plant is summarized. The period of evaluation was for 12 months from October 1979 through September 1980. The objective of the work was to obtain additional, long term data on the operation and performance of the facility. Minor modifications to the facility were completed. The system was operated for 15 months, and 12 months of detailed data were evaluated. The facility was available for operation 99% of the time during the last 8 months of evaluation. A detailed description of the solar facility and of the operating experience is given, and a summary of system performance for the 12 month operation/evaluation period is presented. Recommendations for large-scale solar facilities based on this project's experience are given, and an environmental impact assessment for the Campbell Soup solar facility is provided. (WHK)

  8. Caffeine in the diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - caffeine ... for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine stimulates, or excites, the brain and nervous ... medications such as pain relievers , over-the-counter diet pills, and cold medicines. Caffeine has no flavor. ...

  9. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  10. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rings Frequently Asked Questions Definitions Transplantation Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence Diet & Nutrition Kayser-Fleischer Rings Wilson Disease FAQs Definitions Transplantation ...

  11. Dieting and Gallstones

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as weight-loss surgery and very low-calorie diets (VLCDs), may increase your chances of developing ... affecting how food is digested. A very low-calorie diet is a very restrictive diet that uses ...

  12. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni. PMID:26470077

  13. Mechanism of iodine uptake by cabbage: effects of iodine species and where it is stored.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Hong, Chun-Lai; Yan, Ai-Lan; Pan, Le-Hua; Qin, Ya-Chao; Bao, Lü-Ting; Xie, Ling-Li

    2008-10-01

    Iodine-enhanced vegetable has been proven to be an effective way to reduce iodine deficiency disorders in many regions. However, the knowledge about what mechanisms control plant uptake of iodine and where iodine is stored in plants is still very limited. A series of controlled experiments, including solution culture, pot planting, and field experiments were carried out to investigate the uptake mechanism of iodine in different forms. A new methodology for observing the iodine distribution within the plant tissues, based on AgI precipitation reaction and transmission electron microscope techniques, has been developed and successfully applied to Chinese cabbage. Results show that iodine uptake by Chinese cabbage was more effective when iodine was in the form of IO(3) (-) than in the form of I(-) if the concentration was low (<0.5 mg L(-1)), but the trend was opposite if iodine concentration was 0.5 mg L(-1) or higher. The uptake was more sensitive to metabolism inhibitor in lower concentration of iodine, which implies that the uptake mechanism transits from active to passive as the iodine concentration increases, especially when the iodine is in the form of IO(3) (-). The inorganic iodine fertilizer provided a quicker supply for plant uptake, but the higher level of iodine was toxic to plant growth. The organic iodine fertilizer (seaweed composite) provided a more sustainable iodine supply for plants. Most of the iodine uptake by the cabbage is intercepted and stored in the fibrins in the root while the iodine that is transported to the above-ground portion (shoots and leaves) is selectively stored in the chloroplasts. PMID:18521548

  14. Cold plasma treatment for the microbiological safety of cabbage, lettuce, and dried figs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Chung, Myong-Soo; Min, Sea C

    2015-10-01

    Microwave-powered cold plasma treatment (CPT) was evaluated as a means to improve the microbiological safety of fresh vegetables and dried fruits. The CPT at 900 W, conducted for 10 min using nitrogen as a plasma-forming gas, inactivated Salmonella Typhimurium inoculated on cabbage and lettuce by approximately 1.5 log CFU/g. The CPT at 400-900 W and 667 Pa, conducted for 1-10 min using a helium-oxygen gas mixture, inactivated Listeria monocytogenes on cabbage by 0.3-2.1 log CFU/g in a time-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The Weibull model adequately described the inactivation of L. monocytogenes on cabbage by CPT. The CPT at the optimum conditions of treatment power (400 W) and time (10 min) inactivated L. monocytogenes on lettuce by 1.8 ± 0.2 log CFU/g. As the water activity of the dried figs increased from 0.70 to 0.93, the reductions in numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes on figs increased from 0.5 to 1.3 log CFU/g and from 1.0 to 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The microbial inactivation by CPT increased synergistically when the pH of the figs was reduced from 6 to 4. CTPs have potential application to increase the microbiological safety of vegetables and dried fruits. PMID:26187830

  15. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  16. Salicylic acid alleviates the cadmium toxicity in Chinese cabbages (Brassica chinensis).

    PubMed

    Obono Mba, Felicite; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Qiu, Hai-Jie

    2007-09-15

    To test the effects of Salicylic Acid (SA) on physiological changes of plants under cadmium stress one cultivar of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) cadmium resistance, Changkenxiaobaicai (tolerance) were studied with pots cultures. Like other organisms Plants have adaptatives mechanisms whereby they are able to respond to both nutrient deficiency and toxicities. Plants materials were originated from the vegetable market in Wuhan, Hubei China. The seeds were tested on the pot cultures in the green house. The results of our experiments were quite different between the treatments. The combined treatment Cd 5 ppm + SA 500 mmol L(-1) during our experiment showed that the activity of peroxidase and superoxidase dismutase in the cabbages were induced, the total chlorophyll content increased significally by 25.38%, chl a/b about 43.01% and total biomass about 41.67%, both in comparison with the control. The soluble sugar content increased significantly to about 25.47% in comparison with the control. The electrolyte leakages were less affected. Under SA treatment only, the chlorophyll content, chl a/b content increased to about 18.85%, in comparison with the control. Plant biomass increased about 18.90% with the addition of SA in the culture. SA treatment can increase or decrease the Chinese cabbages metabolism. Plants were exposed to 5 ppm CdCl2 for 5 days under natural light. Then they were cultivated with Hoagland nutrient solution, which served as control, nutrient solution supplemented with 5 ppm CdCl2. Five days after Cd treatment, seedlings were harvested. The experiment was performed in triplicate. PMID:19090100

  17. Growing hot pepper for cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hübner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch) control.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Meyer, Janet E; Rogers, Jami A; Hu, Yoon-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    With the public perception that synthetic pesticides leave harmful residues in crop produce for human consumption, there has been increased interest in using natural products for pest control. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper for controlling the cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hübner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is explored in this investigation. Crude extracts from fruits of Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. annuum, were prepared and tested under laboratory conditions for their insecticidal and acaricidal performance. Mortality was greatest (94%) when fruit extract of accession PI-593566 (C. annuum) was sprayed on larvae of the cabbage looper, while crude extracts of accessions PI-241675 (C. frutescens) and PI-310488 (C. annuum) were repellent to the spider mite. We investigated differences in chemical composition of the crude fruit extracts that may explain the observed differences in mortality and repellency between accessions. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry spectrometric analysis revealed that capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, the pungent components of pepper fruit, were not correlated with toxicity or repellency, indicating that the two capsaicinoids are not likely related to the efficacy of pepper fruit extracts. Major compounds in hot pepper fruit extracts were detected and identified as pentadecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, and octadecanoic acid methyl ester. Spectrometric analysis and toxicity to cabbage looper larvae revealed that pentadecanoic acid methyl ester is likely related to cabbage looper mortality. However, the concentration of pentadecanoic acid methyl ester in some accessions was insufficient to explain the observed mortality of cabbage looper and repellency of spider mite. Fruit extracts of accessions PI-593566 (C. annuum) and PI-241675 (C. frutescens) could be useful for managing populations of cabbage loopers and spider mites, which could reduce reliance on synthetic pesticides. Further study is needed to investigate performance of hot pepper extracts under ultra-violet light and field conditions. PMID:17562464

  18. Influence of fermentation conditions on glucosinolates, ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Peñas, E; Frias, J; Ciska, E; Honke, J; Piskula, M K; Kozlowska, H; Vidal-Valverde, C

    2009-01-01

    The content of glucosinolates (GLS), ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons (summer and winter) was determined, before and after spontaneous and starter-induced fermentation. Different salt concentrations (0.5% NaCl or 1.5% NaCl) were used for sauerkraut production. Glucoiberin, sinigrin, and glucobrassicin were dominating in raw white cabbage cultivated either in winter or summer seasons. Ascorbigen precursor, glucobrassicin, was found higher in cabbage cultivated in winter (2.54 micromol/g dw) than those grown in summer (1.83 micromol/g dw). Cabbage fermented for 7 d was found to contain only traces of some GLS irrespective of the fermentation conditions used. Ascorbigen synthesis occurred during white cabbage fermentation. Brining cabbage at low salt concentration (0.5% NaCl) improved ascorbigen content in sauerkraut after 7 d of fermentation at 25 degrees C. The highest ascorbigen concentration was observed in low-sodium (0.5% NaCl) sauerkraut produced from cabbage cultivated in winter submitted to either natural (109.0 micromol/100 g dw) or starter-induced fermentation (108.3 and 104.6 micromol/100 g dw in cabbages fermented by L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides, respectively). Ascorbic acid content was found higher in cabbage cultivated in summer and fermentation process led to significant reductions. Therefore, the selection of cabbages with high glucobrassicin content and the production of low-sodium sauerkrauts may provide enhanced health benefits towards prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:19200088

  19. Residue level and dissipation pattern of spiromesifen in cabbage and soil from 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2016-03-01

    Spiromesifen is a new class of insecticide used for the control of whiteflies and mites which have developed resistance to the more commonly used neonicotinoids. Dissipation pattern of spiromesifen on cabbage was evaluated over 2 years by conducting supervised field studies as per good agricultural practices. Cabbage and soil samples were extracted and purified using modified QuEChERS method and analyzed through gas chromatography (GC). Confirmatory studies were carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The recoveries of spiromesifen from cabbage and soil were between 85.44 and 103.37 % with the relative standard deviation (RSD) between 3.2 and 9.4 % (n = 6). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003 μg mL(-1) and 0.01 mg kg(-1), respectively. The measurement uncertainties (MUs) were within 9.9-14.9 %. Initial residues of spiromesifen on cabbage were 0.640 and 1.549 mg kg(-1) during 2013 and 0.723 and 1.438 mg kg(-1) during 2014 from treatments at standard and double doses of 125 and 250 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), respectively. Spiromesifen residue dissipation followed first-order rate kinetics, and it degraded within the half-lives of 2.9 and 3.9 days during 2013 and 3.2 and 4.5 days during 2014. The residue levels reached below the maximum residue limit (MRL; 0.02 mg kg(-1)) within 15-17 days at the standard dose and 24-27 days at the double dose. The field soil analyzed at harvest (30 days) was free from spiromesifen residues. Metabolite spiromesifen-enol was not detected in any sample which was confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis. PMID:26869045

  20. [Spectrophotometric determination of scandium,gallium and vanadium in white cabbage leaves].

    PubMed

    Buhl, F; Połedniok, J

    1997-01-01

    Scandium, gallium and vanadium contents in plants is on the ppm level, although plants from industrial areas can show higher concentrations of these elements. In Department of Analytical Chemistry of Silesian University there have been elaborated new, sensitive, spectrophotometric methods of determination of scandium, gallium and vanadium using Chrome Azurol S (CAS) and Sterinol (ST). The aim of this study was the application of these methods in analysis of cultivated plants from polluted regions. White cabbage from Upper Silesia was chosen. Because the spectrophotometric methods are not selective, scandium, gallium and vanadium should be preliminary separated from interfering elements. The solvent reaction was applied for the isolation from main and trace components of investigated material. Tienoiltrifluoracetone solution in xylene was used for the extraction of scandium, mesithyloxide for vanadium and n-butyl acetate--for gallium. Interfering and not separated Fe(III) was isolated using the extraction with acetylacetone solution in CHCl3 in the case of scandium and the reduction to Fe(II) by ascorbic acid in the case of gallium and vanadium. Due to influence of Fe(II) on the vanadium determination, KCN was used as a masking agent directly after the reduction. Scandium, gallium and vanadium were determined in 6 independent samples of white cabbage after dry or wet mineralization and contents of these leemnets were found from calibration graphs. Obtain results were checked by the internal standard addition method and Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method (ICP AES). The amounts of gallium and vanadium in white cabbage from Upper Silesia District determined by elaborated methods are in good correlation with a literature data, although the contents of vanadium are on the toxic level. The scandium concentration is higher than in plants from not industrial areas. The standard recovery is satisfactory. The Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method gave comparable results. The proposed the spectrophotometric methods are sensitive, precise and economical too, because they require only small amounts of reagents and simple not expensive apparatus. The methods can be recommended for many laboratories to the analytical control of white cabbage and after adaptation to the other plant material analysis. PMID:9562804

  1. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) increases susceptibility to a nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Sarfraz, Rana M; Cervantes, Veronica; Myers, Judith H

    2010-10-01

    Cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni, are pests in many agricultural settings including vegetable greenhouses in British Columbia (Canada), where microbial insecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are commonly used. Frequent use of these insecticides has led to resistance in some populations. An alternative microbial control is the multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus of the alfalfa looper (Autographa californica), AcMNPV which occurs naturally, but at low frequencies in T. ni populations. Bioassays show that T. ni resistant to Bt were twice as susceptible to AcMNPV as were individuals from the Bt-susceptible strain and AcMNPV could be complementary in a resistance management program for T. ni. PMID:20600095

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence, and more than forty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. The genome has undergone triplication events since its divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana (13 to 17 Mya), however a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between the two species. Arabidopsis is therefore a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Variation in the number of members in gene families due to genome triplication may contribute to the broad range of phenotypic plasticity, and increased tolerance to environmental extremes observed in Brassica species. Transcription factors are important regulators involved in plant developmental and physiological processes. The AP2/ERF proteins, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators, play a crucial role in plant growth, and in response to biotic and abiotic stressors. Our analysis will provide resources for understanding the tolerance mechanisms in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. Results In the present study, 291 putative AP2/ERF transcription factor proteins were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database, and compared with proteins from 15 additional species. The Chinese cabbage AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into four families, including AP2, ERF, RAV, and Soloist. The ERF family was further divided into DREB and ERF subfamilies. The AP2/ERF superfamily was subsequently divided into 15 groups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns, and interaction networks of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily were predicted and analyzed. Distribution mapping results showed AP2/ERF superfamily genes were localized on the 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences among six tissue types based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In the AP2/ERF superfamily, 214 orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Orthologous gene interaction networks were constructed, and included seven CBF and four AP2 genes, primarily involved in cold regulatory pathways and ovule development, respectively. Conclusions The evolution of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage resulted from genome triplication and tandem duplications. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes in Chinese cabbage is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which provides us with rich resources and opportunities to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms. PMID:23972083

  3. Correlation lifetimes of quiet and magnetic granulation from the SOUP (Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter) instrument on Spacelab 2

    SciTech Connect

    Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Topka, K.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.

    1988-10-01

    The flight of the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction-limited (0.5 arc second) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc second jitter RMS) and freedom from the distortion that plagues ground-based images. The solar 5 minute oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, the authors show that these dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When the oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 410 and 890 seconds, respectively, in quiet and magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are common. It is hard to find that neither explodes nor is unaffected by a nearby explosion. A significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Local correlation-tracking techniques are used to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the intensity field. In the quiet sun it is possible to detect both super- and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s quiet sun, and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions, horizontal velocities are much less, about 200 m/s. These flows effect the measured lifetime. A lower limit to the lifetime in quiet and magnetic sun is estimated to be 440 and 950 seconds respectively.

  4. White-light movies of the solar photosphere from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab. [Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L; Duncan, D.; Simon, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Initial results are presented on solar granulation, pores and sunspots from the white-light films obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) instrument in Spacelab 2. Several hours of movies were taken at various disk and limb positions in quiet and active regions. The images are diffraction-limited at 0.5 arcsec resolution and are, of course, free of atmospheric seeing and distortion. Properties of the granulation in magnetic and nonmagnetic regions are compared and are found to differ significantly in size, rate of intensity variation, and lifetime. In quiet sun, on the order of fifty-percent of the area has at least one 'exploding granule' occurring in it during a 25-min period. Local correlation tracking has detected several types of transverse flows, including systematic outflow from the penumbral boundary of a spot, motion of penumbral filaments, and cellular flow patterns of supergranular and mesogranular size. Feature tracking has shown that, in the quiet sun, the average granule fragment has a velocity of about one kilometer/second.

  5. Characterization of a Cadmium-Binding Complex of Cabbage Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical nature of a principal, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves (Wagner and Trotter 1982 Plant Physiol 69: 804-809) was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16663927

  6. Regulation of growth-blocking peptide expression during embryogenesis of the cabbage army worm

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Sekiguchi, Shiroh; Hayakawa, Yoichi . E-mail: hayakayo@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-07

    Growth-blocking peptide (GBP) is an insect cytokine with diverse biological functions. Northern blot analysis revealed high heterogeneity in the size distribution of GBP mRNAs as well as in the tissues where they are detected. The s patio-temporal transcription pattern is dynamic, especially during embryogenesis. Gel shift assays demonstrated that the cabbage army worm embryo nuclear extract specifically binds to a 178-bp element, at position +234 to +411 from the transcription start site of the 1.3 kb GBP transcript, in which two Drosophila Deformed (DfD) binding sites are repeated in tandem. The specific binding between this element and Dfd was demonstrated using recombinant cabbage armyworm Dfd protein. Silencing the Dfd expression in embryos by treating with DfD double-stranded RNA did not reduce the expression level of GBP, but ectopic GBP expression was observed in the lateral region of the embryo, suggesting that DD could serve as a transcriptional repressor for the GBP gene.

  7. Evolution of antioxidants in dietary fiber powder produced from white cabbage outer leaves: effects of blanching and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Tanongkankit, Yardfon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-04-01

    White cabbage outer leaves, which are usually discarded both during industrial processing and selling in a consumer market, have proven to be a good source of dietary fiber (DF) as well as antioxidants and can be effectively transformed into functional DF powder. In the past, however, only hot air drying was used to prepare DF powder from cabbage outer leaves although it is well recognized that this drying technique could lead to much quality degradation of a dried product. This work was therefore aimed at studying the evolution of selected important antioxidants, e.g., phenolic compounds and vitamin C, in white cabbage outer leaves during vacuum drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C. The effect of pretreatment viz. steam blanching was also evaluated. The results showed that there were losses of antioxidants during steam blanching; vacuum dried blanched leaves nevertheless contained higher antioxidant contents and activity than dried unblanched leaves. Losses of antioxidants during vacuum drying were also noted to be less than those during hot air drying. Overall, the results showed that there were no differences in the antioxidants retention among all the tested conditions performed in this study. Therefore, the most suitable condition for the production of antioxidant DF powder from cabbage outer leaves is vacuum drying at 80 °C as this condition requires the minimum specific energy consumption. PMID:25829610

  8. First report of bacterial blight of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in Monterey County, California in 2006. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomon...

  9. First Report of Bacterial Leaf Blight on Broccoli and Cabbage Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In May 2009, leaf spot and leaf blight symptoms were observed on broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) on several farms in Lexington County, the major brassica-growing region of South Carolina. Affected areas ranged from scattered disease foci within fiel...

  10. Safety evaluation of flubendiamide and its metabolites on cabbage and persistence in soil in different agroclimatic zones of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K K; Mohapatra, Saudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi; Jagdish, G K; Rashmi, N; Battu, R S; Sharma, S K; Singh, Balwinder; Parihar, N S; Sharma, B N; Kale, V D; Nakat, R V; Walnuj, A R; Singh, Geeta; Ravivanshi, Kuldeep K; Devi, Suneeta; Noniwal, Rajbir

    2014-06-01

    Supervised field trials following good agricultural practices were conducted at the research farms of four agricultural universities located at four different agroclimatic zones of India to evaluate the persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, on cabbage. Two spray applications of flubendiamide 480 SC of standard and double dose at the rate of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1) were given to the crop at a 15-day interval, and the residues of flubendiamide 2 h after spray were found in the range of 0.107-0.33 and 0.20-0.49 mg kg(-1) at respective doses. Residue of des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in any cabbage sample during study period. No residues were found in the soil samples collected from all treated fields after 15 days of application. On the basis of data generated under All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues, a preharvest interval (PHI) of 10 days has been recommended, and the flubendiamide 480 SC has been registered for its use on cabbage by Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The maximum residue limit (MRL) of flubendiamide on cabbage has been fixed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, under Food Safety Standard Authority of India as 0.05 μg/g after its risk assessment. PMID:24497081

  11. FIELD RESPONSE OF ALFALFA LOOPER AND CABBAGE LOOPER MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE, PLUSIINAE) TO SINGLE AND BINARY BLENDS OF FLORAL ODORANTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven compounds known as floral odorants were tested as lures for attractiveness to alfalfa looper moths, Autographa californica (speyer) and cabbage looper moths, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). Phenylacetaldehyde, limonen, ß-mycrene, methyl-2-methoxy benzoate, methyl salicylate, alpha-pinene, and ß-pine...

  12. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found, that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded, that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth. PMID:27047496

  13. Interactive Effects of Soil ph, Halosulfuron Rate, and Application Method on Carryover to Turnip Green and Cabbage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the tolerance of autumn-planted cabbage and turnip green to halosulfuron applied the previous spring to cantaloupe. Main plots were three levels of soil pH; maintained at a natural pH level, pH raised with Ca(OH)2, and pH lowered with Al2(SO...

  14. The Effect of Dose Size on Bioavailability of Acylated and Nonacylated Anthocyanins from Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies indicate that anthocyanin (ACN) intake conveys a variety of health benefits, which depend on absorption and metabolic mechanisms that deliver ACNs and their bioactive metabolites to responsive tissues. We evaluated red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) ACN bioavailability a...

  15. Comparative Analysis Of {sup 226}Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-07

    The transfer of {sup 226}Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeirica uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, {sup 226}Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1)

  16. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) in cabbage on Prince Edward Island: observations on planting date and variety choice.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Suzanne; Ryan, Andrew; Adams, Shelley; Driscoll, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) can be a pest in organic onion production on Prince Edward Island. This study was to examine the effect of planting time and variety on infestation levels and damage by onion thrips on cabbage (Brassicae oleracea capitala (L.)). A field site was planted with 2 main and 8 lesser varieties of cabbage over 4 planting dates. Some varieties were short season and harvested on July 31 with longer season varieties harvested on September 2. Blue sticky traps were used to capture thrips migrating into the field site from July 22-September 2. Traps were counted weekly and cabbage heads within the field site were visually surveyed for thrips. At harvest, heads were weighed and measured, thrips damage was assessed then the head was dissected and thrips counted on the first four layers of the head. Thrips exhibited a preference for Lennox over Bronco throughout the season although thrips populations were not high enough to effect economic damage in 2014. Planting date influenced cabbage head weight and size with later plantings yielding the largest heads. Use of planting date and variety to avoid thrips populations is discussed. PMID:26306292

  17. Cover crop mulches influence biological control of the imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L., Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in cabbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing structural complexity within crop fields can provide a way to manipulate pest abundance and biological control in agroecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of cover crop mulches in cabbage on the structure and function of an insect food web, investigating the role of cover crop species,...

  18. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found, that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded, that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth. PMID:27047496

  19. Tritium levels in Chinese cabbage and radish plants acutely exposed to HTO vapor at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, Kwang Muk; Lee, Won Yun; Park, Hyo Guk; Choi, Geun Sik; Keum, Dong Kwon; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, Sang Bog; Lee, Chang Woo

    2005-01-01

    To simulate an acute exposure of Chinese cabbage and radish plants to airborne HTO, the potted plants were exposed to HTO vapor under semi-outdoor conditions for 1h at different times from the early to late growth stages. The plants were grown outdoors and the plant tritium was measured at the end of an exposure (h(0)) and at harvest. The leaf tissue free water tritium (TFWT) concentrations at h(0) were considerably lower than estimated equilibrium concentrations. In the leaves of Chinese cabbage, the exposure at the earlier growth stage generally ended with a higher TFWT concentration. Such a tendency was not apparent either in the leaves or roots of radish. On the other hand, the earlier stage exposure gave rise to lower TFWT concentrations at the harvest of both crops. For the OBT (organically bound tritium), however, the same occurred only in the Chinese cabbage leaves. During the period between the exposure and harvest, the TFWT concentrations reduced by factors of up to 1.1 x 10(6) for the Chinese cabbage leaves and 1.3 x 10(4) for the radish roots. Based on the activity ratios of OBT to TFWT at harvest, it is estimated that OBT mostly contributes much more to the ingestion dose than TFWT does. PMID:15936121

  20. [Research on identification of cabbages and weeds combining spectral imaging technology and SAM taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Zu, Qin; Zhang, Shui-fa; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Hui-yi; Dang, Chang-qing

    2015-02-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide. Therefore, accurate, rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cabbage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed, barnyard grass, goosegrass, crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1000 to 2500 nm. In ENVI, by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11, and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra, finally, using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds, the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0. 1 radians. In HSI Analyzer, after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum, the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages. Furthermore, in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally, the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classification image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image. The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing, 0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle, the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds, non-weeds and overall samples was 80%, 97.3% and 96.8% respectively. The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image. By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level, integrating the advantages of spectra and images meanwhile considering their accuracy and rapidity and improving weeds detection range in the full range that could detect weeds between and within crop rows, the above method contributes relevant analysis tools and means to the application field requiring the accurate information of plants in agricultural precision management PMID:25970917

  1. Microbial reduction efficacy of various disinfection treatments on fresh-cut cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Hee; Hong, Seok-In; Kim, Dongman

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the pathogenic microorganisms of fresh-cut vegetables, various sanitizers applied at different concentrations and against four different bacteria inoculated in high or low initial loads were tested on shredded cabbage. The bacteria were reduced by 1 log CFU g−1 after being exposed to over 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite, over 1% hydrogen peroxide, over 50 ppm peroxyacetic acid, and three types of electrolyzed water (EW) for 1 min. When the efficacy of the sanitizer was compared in the low initial bacterial load of 103–104 CFU g−1, a significant reduction in the inoculated bacteria was observed with the acidified EW treatment, followed by the 50 ppm peroxyacetic acid and the neutral EW treatment, which was more efficient than the 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite treatment. The efficacy of the various sanitizers used could be also influenced by different bacterial species. PMID:25473517

  2. Translocation of Sugars Into Infected Cabbage Tissues During Clubroot Development 1

    PubMed Central

    Keen, N. T.; Williams, P. H.

    1969-01-01

    Sucrose, glucose, and inositol were the major sugars in cabbage hypocotyls infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae and in noninfected hypocotyls, based on paper, thin-layer, and gas-liquid chromatography. Small amounts of trehalose were tentatively identified in extracts from noninfected hypocotyls, whereas up to 20× this level occurred in extracts from infected hypocotyls. Inositol declined in the infected hypocotyls while glucose increased to about 4× the level in noninfected hypocotyls. Fructose and mannose concentrations increased about 2-fold in the diseased hypocotyls, whereas the galactose concentration was about one-third that of noninfected hypocotyls. Translocation of 14CO2 sugar photosynthates into infected hypocotyls was more rapid than that into noninfected hypocotyls. The infected tissues also exported less sugar than the non-infected tissues. Sucrose was the major sugar translocated into the hypocotyls of both infected and noninfected plants. Images PMID:16657127

  3. Effects of freezing and hardening on the sulfhydryl groups of protein fractions from cabbage leaves.

    PubMed

    Morton, W M

    1969-02-01

    Disc electrophoresis was used to separate water soluble proteins from hardy, non-hardy, and frost killed cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) leaves. Amidoschwarz staining failed to reveal any new bands as a result of hardening although the relative amounts of proteins in individual bands changed. Sulfhydryl groups in the protein bands were stained with 2,2-dihydroxy-6,6-dinaphthyl disulfide and labeled with (14)C p-chloromercuribenzoate. Significant decreases in the sulfhydryl content of the total water soluble protein were found during hardening and as a result of frost death. The decrease during hardening was paralleled by a significant increase in the water soluble protein. There was a significant increase in the sulfhydryl content per unit high molecular weight protein but a decrease in the sulfhydryl content per total protein as a result of frost death. This was interpreted as evidence for intermolecular disulfide bond formation during freezing. PMID:16657040

  4. Modeling of the thermoregulation system in the skunk cabbage: Symplocarpus foetidus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ken; Ito, Takanori; Onda, Yoshihiko; Endo, Takehiro; Chiba, Shigeki; Ito, Kikukatsu; Osada, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents a model of the thermoregulation system of the spadix of skunk cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus which regulates its internal temperature at around 20°C during flowering even when the ambient air temperature drops below freezing. From the temperature responses of the spadix to changing ambient air temperature, we assumed that the thermoregulation system of the spadix is probably one of negative feedback control. The feedback signals are based on the rate of temperature change of the spadix over time. A signal is factored into the biochemical energy generator, and becomes biochemical energy, some of which becomes heat. Comparing our proposed model temperature responses and those of the living spadix, we found good agreement. In the process of engineering the model, the existence of two regulatory pathways in the thermoregulation system was simulated, and our proposed model appears to provide the necessary elements to explain the fundamental mechanism of the thermoregulation system of S. foetidus.

  5. Sojourner Rover View of Well-Rounded Pebbles in Cabbage Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner Rover image of rounded 4-cm-wide pebble (lower center) and excavation of cloddy deposit of Cabbage Patch at lower left. Note the bright wind tails of drift material extending from small rocks and the wheel track from upper right to lower left.

    Well-rounded objects, like the one in this image, were not seen at the Viking sites. These are thought to be pebbles liberated from sedimentary rocks composed of cemented silts, sands and rounded fragments; such rocks are called conglomerates.

    NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  6. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm, Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Feng, Xiao-Jing; Huang, Guo-Hua; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2016-03-01

    The sequenced mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm Hellula undalis includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (nad1-6, cox1-3, atp6, atp8, nad4L and cob), two ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S) and 19 transfer RNAs, which is 14,678 bp in length. Its gene order and orientation are identical to the common types found in most of the other completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. Thirteen PCGs start with a typical ATN codon, while cox1 uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs use the standard TAA as their termination codon, while others use the incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2 and nad4). PMID:24919505

  7. Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA is aminoacylated in vivo in Chinese cabbage leaves

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, S.; Chapeville, F.; Haenni, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) contains a tRNA-like structure as an integral part of its genome. This structure is located at the extreme 3' end of the viral RNA and is the acceptor of valine after 3'-terminal adenylation. It is known that in vitro (with bacterial, yeast, or plant systems) and in vivo (upon microinjection into Xenopus laevis oocytes) a series of tRNA-specific enzymes can recognize this structure in the viral RNA. We report that TYMV RNA is valylated and consequently adenylated in vivo in its natural host, Chinese cabbage leaves. This suggests that the acylated form of the viral RNA could play an important role in the life-cycle of the virus. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. PMID:16453426

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of homeothermic temperature control in skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takanori; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2005-11-01

    Certain primitive plants undergo orchestrated temperature control during flowering. Skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus, has been demonstrated to maintain an internal temperature of around 20 °C even when the ambient temperature drops below freezing. However, it is not clear whether a unique algorithm controls the homeothermic behavior of S. foetidus, or whether such an algorithm might exhibit linear or nonlinear thermoregulatory dynamics. Here we report the underlying dynamics of temperature control in S. foetidus using nonlinear forecasting, attractor and correlation dimension analyses. It was shown that thermoregulation in S. foetidus was governed by low-dimensional chaotic dynamics, the geometry of which showed a strange attractor named the “Zazen attractor.” Our data suggest that the chaotic thermoregulation in S. foetidus is inherent and that it is an adaptive response to the natural environment.

  9. Diet myths and facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and facts; Obesity- diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...

  10. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    PubMed

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily-available Ghanaian plants give beneficial, tri-trophic benefits and merit further research as an inexpensive plant protection strategy for smallholder farmers in West Africa. PMID:24205287

  11. Temporal consistency in herbivore responses to glucosinolate polymorphism in populations of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    PubMed

    Newton, Erika; Bullock, James M; Hodgson, Dave

    2010-11-01

    Natural populations of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) show significant qualitative diversity in heritable aliphatic glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites involved in defence against herbivore attack. One candidate mechanism for the maintenance of this diversity is that differential responses among herbivore species result in a net fitness balance across plant chemotypes. Such top-down differential selection would be promoted by consistent responses of herbivores to glucosinolates, temporal variation in herbivore abundance, and fitness impacts of herbivore attack on plants varying in glucosinolate profile. A 1-year survey across 12 wild cabbage populations demonstrated differential responses of herbivores to glucosinolates. We extended this survey to investigate the temporal consistency of these responses, and the extent of variation in abundance of key herbivores. Within plant populations, the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae consistently preferred plants producing the glucosinolate progoitrin. Among populations, increasing frequencies of sinigrin production correlated positively with herbivory by whitefly Aleyrodes proletella and negatively with herbivory by snails. Two Pieris butterfly species showed no consistent response to glucosinolates among years. Rates of herbivory varied significantly among years within populations, but the frequency of herbivory at the population scale varied only for B. brassicae. B. brassicae emerges as a strong candidate herbivore to impose differential selection on glucosinolates, as it satisfies the key assumptions of consistent preferences and heterogeneity in abundance. We show that variation in plant secondary metabolites structures the local herbivore community and that, for some key species, this structuring is consistent over time. We discuss the implications of these patterns for the maintenance of diversity in plant defence chemistry. PMID:20596728

  12. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

  13. Tri-Trophic Insecticidal Effects of African Plants against Cabbage Pests

    PubMed Central

    Amoabeng, Blankson W.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Gitau, Catherine W.; Nicol, Helen I.; Stevenson, Phil C.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily-available Ghanaian plants give beneficial, tri-trophic benefits and merit further research as an inexpensive plant protection strategy for smallholder farmers in West Africa. PMID:24205287

  14. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-01-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the ‘glucosinolate–myrosinase’ system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as ‘the mustard oil bomb’. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn’t affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate–myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

  15. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  16. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  17. Diets for Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation. PMID:25587519

  18. Formulation of enteral diets.

    PubMed

    Silk, D B

    1999-01-01

    The number of enteral diets has increased from a handful in the 1970s to over 100 at present. These can be classified as polymeric, chemically defined, disease-specific, and specialized diets, as well as oral dietary supplements. The properties, indications, pros and cons for the use of these diets are outlined in an effort to assist clinicians in their selection. PMID:10422100

  19. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - diet ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ... DIET The low-salt Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is proven to help lower blood ...

  20. Effects of spray application of lanthanum and cerium on yield and quality of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L) based on different seasons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian Jun; Ren, Yan Jun; Yan, Li Ying

    2014-09-01

    The use of single light rare earth elements in agriculture was studied using the application of single rare earth elements (La and Ce) to Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in field plot experiments where the soil conditions remained the same but the season (spring or autumn) in which application occurred was altered. The results showed that the Chinese cabbage's nutrition quality between the two seasons had obvious differences. When planted in the autumn, the soluble sugar and vitamin C content was higher, the titratable acid and nitrate content was lower, and the ratio of sugar to acid was higher, while when planted in spring, the situation was opposite. La or Ce treatments in spring and autumn promoted the growth of the Chinese cabbage, the fresh and dry weight of the stems and leaves increased, the ratio of dry to fresh weight increased, and the observed effects were greater in the Ce treatments than the La treatments. Moreover, the soluble sugar content increased and the titratable acid content decreased, which meant that the ratio of sugar to acid increased. There was an increase in the vitamin C and nitrate content in the spring Chinese cabbage, while there was a decrease in the vitamin C and nitrate content in the autumn. The levels of the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni decreased. The La treatment had greater effects on the spring Chinese cabbage, while the Ce affected the autumn Chinese cabbage more. PMID:25022243

  1. Performance of arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and cabbage and its implications on evolution and pest management.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Fail, Jozsef; Wang, Ping; Feng, Ji-Nian; Shelton, A M

    2014-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest on onion and cabbage. Two reproductive modes--arrhenotoky and thelytoky--are found in this species and co-occur in the field. We compared life table traits between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci on cabbage and onion. Experiments were conducted in cages to determine which reproductive mode is more competitive. Additionally, host adaption of the arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci between onion and cabbage was investigated. On onion, arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better than thelytokous T. tabaci, while on cabbage the opposite occurred. When comparing life table and demographic growth parameters (net reproductive rates R(o), mean generation time T, the intrinsic rate of natural increase r(m), finite rate of increase A, and population doubling time T(d)) on different host plants, we found that arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better on onion than on cabbage, whereas thelytokous T. tabaci performed better on cabbage than on onion. Host-related performance differences in this species suggest that the divergence between two reproductive modes might be associated with host adaption. Pest management strategies for this global pest should recognize that the two reproductive modes can impact population dynamics on different crops. PMID:25195445

  2. Lifestyle and diet.

    PubMed

    Opie, Lionel H

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is widespread interest in many different diets. The best-known diets include the New Atkins diet in the USA, the Dukan diet in France, and in South Africa the Noakes diet. Two different approaches have emerged, one focusing on a life-long healthy lifestyle and the other emphasising weight loss. These are in fact complementary aims, as will be reviewed and reconciled. Furthermore, besides the dietary approach, there is a valid case for added drug therapy for selected lipid disorders with the use statins. In addition, new drugs are emerging that in the future might eventually considerably reduce the negative health impact of coronary artery disease. PMID:25629717

  3. A first study comparing preservation of a ready-to-eat soup under pressure (hyperbaric storage) at 25°C and 30°C with refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sílvia A; Fernandes, Pedro A R; Duarte, Ricardo; Santos, Diana I; Fidalgo, Liliana G; Santos, Mauro D; Queirós, Rui P; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2015-11-01

    Hyperbaric storage (HS), storage under pressure at 25°C and 30°C, of a ready-to-eat (RTE) soup was studied and compared with refrigeration. Soup was stored at different time (4 and 8 h), temperature (4°C, 25°C, and 30°C), and pressure (0.1, 100, and 150 MPa) conditions, to compare microbial loads and physicochemical parameters. HS resulted in similar (microbial growth inhibition) to better (microbial inactivation) results compared to refrigeration, leading to equal and lower microbial loads, respectively, at the end of storage. Lower/higher pressure (100 vs. 150 MPa) and shorter/longer storage times (4 vs. 8 h) resulted in more pronounced microbial growth inhibition/microbial inactivation. Aerobic mesophiles showed less susceptibility to HS, compared to Enterobacteriaceae and yeast and molds. HS maintained generally the physicochemical parameters at values similar to refrigeration. Thus, HS with no need for temperature control throughout storage and so basically energetically costless, is a potential alternative to refrigeration. PMID:26788288

  4. Active substances and in vitro anti-diabetic effects of a traditional folk remedy Bian-Que Triple-Bean Soup as affected by the boiling time.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Xu, Baojun; Cai, Weixi

    2013-04-25

    Bian-Que Triple-Bean Soup (Bian-Que San Dou Yin in Chinese) is a folk remedy which has been used for thousands of years in the practices of traditional Chinese medicine. The objectives of the current study were aimed to determine in vitro anti-diabetic effects and to find out the optimal cooking time for retaining active substances. α-Glycosidase in vitro inhibitory capacities and DPPH free radical scavenging capacities, and contents of active substances including total phenolics, saponin, tannin and monomeric anthocyanin, were determined with colorimetric methods. The results revealed that Bian-Que Triple-Bean Soup boiled for 30 min has the most effective impact on α-glycosidase inhibition. n-Butanol-soluble and water extract fractions showed relatively higher α-glycosidase inhibitory activity (17.4% and 11.2%, respectively) than that (2.56% and 5.32%, respectively) of hexane-soluble and dichloromethane-soluble fractions. Degradation was observed for those thermally unstable substances (TPC, tannin, and anthocyanin) by extending the boiling time; however, there were no obvious changes for thermo-stable substances (saponin). PMID:23396437

  5. Gas chromatographic detection of D-(-)-2,3-butanediol and butyric acid produced by sporeformers in cream-style corn and canned beef noodle soup: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Schafer, M L; Peeler, J T; Bradshaw, J G; Hamilton, C H; Carver, R B

    1985-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method that identifies sporeformers as the cause of spoilage in swollen cans of low-acid foods was collaboratively studied in 2 stages. Two organic compounds produced by sporeformers, D-(-)-2,3-butanediol and butyric acid, are measured in the upper phase after centrifugation of the liquid portion of the can contents. Each sample is assayed on 2 packed columns designed for the assay of aqueous solutions of volatile fatty acids, using flame ionization detectors. For study 1, 16 duplicate inoculated cans of cream-style corn and beef noodle soup were sent to 9 collaborators. For study 2, 7 collaborators received 11 duplicate inoculated cans of the 2 foods. Duplicate uninoculated cans of each food served as negative controls. The inocula were 6 sporeforming organisms (4 Clostridium and 2 gas-forming Bacillus species) and 2 nonsporeformers. After the deletion of marginal samples, the percentages of correctly identified sporeformers and nonsporeformers in beef noodle soup were 83 (110/132) and 90 (54/60), respectively; corresponding percentages for cream-style corn were 80 (98/123) and 100 (35/35). The method has been adopted official first action. PMID:4030630

  6. Diet induced thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2004-01-01

    Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis. PMID:15507147

  7. Cloning, expression and physiological analysis of broccoli catalase gene and Chinese cabbage ascorbate peroxidase gene under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Huang, Ho-Chang; Lin, Ching-Yun

    2010-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to clone the catalase (CAT) gene from broccoli (Brassica oleracea) and the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) gene from Chinese cabbage and measure the regulation of CAT and APX gene expressions under heat-stress conditions. Different genotypes responded differently to heat stress according to their various antioxidant enzymes and physiological parameters. CAT and APX gene expression profiles were well matched with the data for CAT and APX enzyme activities in the broccoli and Chinese cabbage plants, respectively. Full-length of the CAT and APX cDNA were 1,768 and 1,070 bp, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of CAT and APX indicated that plant CATs and APXs diverged into two major clusters. PMID:20352229

  8. Surface micro/nanotopography, wetting properties and the potential for biomimetic icephobicity of skunk cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2014-10-21

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is known for its two remarkable properties: superhydrophobicity and thermogenesis; however, the relationship between these two properties remains obscure. Most botanists agree that thermogenesis helps to attract pollinators, while non-wetting helps to catch pollinators and prevents contamination. Here we investigate the surface micro- and nanotopography and wetting properties of eastern skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), another thermogenic plant, which is known for its ability to melt snow. The skunk cabbage leaves are hydrophobic but not superhydrophobic, and they have high contact angle hysteresis (similar to the rose petal effect). We develop a heat transfer model to relate icephobicity with heat transfer and discuss the biomimetic potential that both thermogenic and superhydrophobic plants may have for icephobicity in soft materials. PMID:25144747

  9. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  10. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  11. Combined effects of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid with mild heat to control microorganisms on cabbage.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S M E; Jin, Yong-Guo; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2010-03-01

    Effects of alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), deionized water (DIW), 1% citric acid (CA) alone, and combinations of AlEW with 1% CA (AlEW + CA), in reducing the populations of spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens on cabbage were investigated at various dipping times (3, 5, and 10 min) with different dipping temperatures (1, 20, 40, and 50 degrees C). Inhibitory effect of the selected optimal treatment against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157 : H7 on cabbage were also evaluated. Compared to the untreated control, AlEW treatment most effectively reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast, and mold, followed by AcEW and 100-ppm NaClO treatments. All treatments dip washed for 5 min significantly reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast, and mold on cabbage. With increasing dipping temperature from 1 to 50 degrees C, the reductions of total bacteria, yeast, and mold were significantly increased from 0.19 to 1.12 log CFU/g in the DIW wash treatment (P < 0.05). Combined 1% CA with AlEW treatment at 50 degrees C showed the reduction of around 3.98 and 3.45 log CFU/g on the total count, and yeast and mold, effective reduction of L. monocytogenes (3.99 log CFU/g), and E. coli O157 : H7 (4.19 log CFU/g) on cabbage. The results suggest that combining AlEW with CA could be a possible method to control foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria effectively on produce. PMID:20492239

  12. ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION AND GENE EXPRESSION IN CHINESE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) AFTER CONTINUOUS SEEDLING BREEDING.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Wang, X L; Guo, M H; Zhang, Y W

    2015-08-01

    Vernalization plays a key role in the bolting and flowering of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Plants can switch from vegetative to reproductive growth and then bolt and flower under low temperature induction. The economic benefits of Chinese cabbage will decline significantly when the bolting happens before the vegetative body fully grows due to a lack of the edible value. It was found that continuous seedling breeding reduced the heading of Chinese cabbage and led to bolt and flower more easily. In the present study, two inbred lines, termed A161 and A105, were used as experiment materials. These two lines were subjected to vernalization and formed four types: seeds-seedling breeding once, seedling breeding twice, seedling breeding thrice and normal type. Differences in plant phenotype were compared. DNA methylation analysis was performed based on MSAP method. The differential fragments were cloned and analyzed by qPCR. Results showed that plants after seedling breeding thrice had a loosen heading leaves, elongated center axis and were easier to bolt and flower. It is suggested that continuous seedling breeding had a weaker winterness. It was observed that genome methylation level decreased with increasing generation. Four differential genes were identified, short for BraAPC1, BraEMP3, BraUBC26, and BraAL5. Fluorescent qPCR analysis showed that expression of four genes varied at different reproduction modes and different vernalization time. It is indicated that these genes might be involve in the development and regulation of bolting and flowering of plants. Herein, the molecular mechanism that continuous seedling breeding caused weaker winterness was analyzed preliminarily. It plays an important guiding significance for Chinese cabbage breeding. PMID:26601490

  13. A SIX1 Homolog in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans Is Required for Full Virulence on Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Li, Erfeng; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Jiling; Ling, Jian; Yang, Yuhong; Xie, Bingyan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-born fungus that induces wilt and root rot on a variety of plants. F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) can cause wilt disease on cabbage. This study showed that a homolog of SIX1 protein in the Arabidopsis infecting isolate Fo5176 (Fo5176-SIX1) had four isoforms in the conidia of Foc by proteomic analysis. Thus, we analyzed the roles of protein Foc-SIX1. Gene expression analysis showed that, compared to the expression in mycelia, dramatically altered expression of Foc-SIX1 could be detected after infecting cabbages, and Foc-SIX1 was highly expressed in conidia under axenic culture condition. Furthermore, we knocked out the Foc-SIX1 gene and found that Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants had significantly reduced virulence compared with wild type isolate, and full virulence was restored by complementation of Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants with Foc-SIX1. Thus, we concluded that SIX1 in Foc was required for full virulence on cabbage. We also complemented Foc-ΔSIX1 with SIX1 gene in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and found Foc-ΔSIX1::Fol-SIX1 mutants did not affect the virulence of Foc-ΔSIX1. The results confirmed that Fol-SIX1 was not capable of replacing the role of Foc-SIX1 in Foc on the disease symptom development of cabbage. The roles of Fol-SIX1 on virulence might rely on host specificity. PMID:27010418

  14. A SIX1 Homolog in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans Is Required for Full Virulence on Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Jian; Yang, Yuhong; Xie, Bingyan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-born fungus that induces wilt and root rot on a variety of plants. F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) can cause wilt disease on cabbage. This study showed that a homolog of SIX1 protein in the Arabidopsis infecting isolate Fo5176 (Fo5176-SIX1) had four isoforms in the conidia of Foc by proteomic analysis. Thus, we analyzed the roles of protein Foc-SIX1. Gene expression analysis showed that, compared to the expression in mycelia, dramatically altered expression of Foc-SIX1 could be detected after infecting cabbages, and Foc-SIX1 was highly expressed in conidia under axenic culture condition. Furthermore, we knocked out the Foc-SIX1 gene and found that Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants had significantly reduced virulence compared with wild type isolate, and full virulence was restored by complementation of Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants with Foc-SIX1. Thus, we concluded that SIX1 in Foc was required for full virulence on cabbage. We also complemented Foc-ΔSIX1 with SIX1 gene in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and found Foc-ΔSIX1::Fol-SIX1 mutants did not affect the virulence of Foc-ΔSIX1. The results confirmed that Fol-SIX1 was not capable of replacing the role of Foc-SIX1 in Foc on the disease symptom development of cabbage. The roles of Fol-SIX1 on virulence might rely on host specificity. PMID:27010418

  15. Isolation and gene expression analysis of a papain-type cysteine protease in thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius).

    PubMed

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Masuko, Hiromi; Watanabe, Masao; Inaba, Takehito

    2012-01-01

    Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) spadices contain abundant transcripts for cysteine protease (CP). From thermogenic spadices, we isolated SrCPA, a highly expressed CP gene that encoded a papain-type CP. SrCPA is structurally similar to other plant CPs, including the senescence-associated CPs found in aroids. The expression of SrCPA increased during floral development, and was observed in all floral tissues except for the stamens. PMID:23047088

  16. [Environmental safety assessment on the new super absorbent polymers applied into a soil-Chinese cabbage system].

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; He, Ji-Zheng; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zheng, Ming-Lan

    2014-02-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAPs), a new water retention material, have a potential for application in water-saving agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effects of SAPs, synthesized from natural plant extracts, on Chinese cabbage fresh weight, soil water content, soil water stable aggregates, soil microbial biomass (carbon) and soil microbial respiration under three water conditions (excessive, normal and deficient) and two SAPs application strategies (bulk treatment and spraying treatment). The results showed that the SAPs significantly promoted the soil water content, water-stable aggregates (> 0.25 mm) and the soil microbial activities, especially under the water deficient conditions. Meanwhile, SAP application strategy was of great significance to the effects on Chinese cabbage and soil properties. Compared with the control treatment under normal water condition, spraying treatment of Jaguar C (S-JC) could reduce irrigation water amount by about 25% without reducing the crop production. Furthermore, compared with the control treatment under the same water condition with S-JC (deficient), it could increase Chinese cabbage production by 287%. Thus, SAPs is an environmental friendly water-saving technique in agricultural production. PMID:24812978

  17. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qian; Li, Jingjuan; Wang, Fengde; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR) markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%), amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5%) showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26504770

  18. Improved solar efficiency by introducing graphene oxide in purple cabbage dye sensitized TiO2 based solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Gupta, R. K.; Kahol, P. K.; Wageh, S.; Al-Turki, Y. A.; El Shirbeeny, W.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2014-04-01

    Natural dye extracted from purple cabbage was used for fabrication of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effect of light intensity on the solar efficiency of the device was investigated. It was observed that the efficiency of the DSSC increases with increasing the light intensity e.g. the efficiency of the solar cell increases from 0.013±0.002% to 0.150±0.020% by increase in light intensity from 30 to 100 mW/cm2, respectively. The solar efficiency of the natural dye used in this research was compared with commercial dye (N 719) under similar experimental conditions and observed that the natural (purple cabbage) dye has higher efficiency (0.150±0.020%) than N 719 (0.078±0.002%). It was further evaluated that the efficiency of the fabricated solar cell could improve by incorporating graphene oxide. The efficiency of the TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell was found to increase from 0.150±0.020% to 0.361±0.009% by incorporating graphene oxide into purple cabbage dye.

  19. Diet and acne.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Joshi, Smita S; Shalita, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    Historically, the relationship between diet and acne has been highly controversial. Before the 1960s, certain foods were thought to exacerbate acne. However, subsequent studies dispelled these alleged associations as myth for almost half a century. Several studies during the last decade have prompted dermatologists to revisit the potential link between diet and acne. This article critically reviews the literature and discusses how dermatologists might address diet when counseling patients with acne. Dermatologists can no longer dismiss the association between diet and acne. Compelling evidence exists that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne, and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, zinc, vitamin A, and dietary fiber remain to be elucidated. This study was limited by the lack of randomized controlled trials in the literature. We hope that this review will encourage others to explore the effects of diet on acne. PMID:20338665

  20. Sea Soup: Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerullo, Mary M.

    This guide, designed for students in grades 3-7, answers intriguing questions about phytoplankton, tiny drifters that have shaped our world. Invisible to the naked eye, phytoplankton are the source of our atmosphere, our climate, our ocean food chain, much of our oil supply, and more. They're also food for zooplankton. Photomicroscopy serves up

  1. Sea Soup: Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerullo, Mary M.

    This guide, designed for students in grades 3-7, answers intriguing questions about phytoplankton, tiny drifters that have shaped our world. Invisible to the naked eye, phytoplankton are the source of our atmosphere, our climate, our ocean food chain, much of our oil supply, and more. They're also food for zooplankton. Photomicroscopy serves up…

  2. Soup-Can Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randall D.

    2004-01-01

    In these studies, a vegetable can containing fluid was swung as a pendulum by supporting its end-lips with a pair of knife edges. The motion was measured with a capacitive sensor and the logarithmic decrement in free decay was estimated from computer-collected records. Measurements performed with nine different homogeneous liquids, distributed…

  3. Chemical elements in common vegetable components of Portuguese diets, determined by k0-INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, A. M. G.; Freitas, M. C.; Ventura, M. G.; Dionísio, I.; Ermakova, E.

    2006-08-01

    Vegetables play an important role in national diets, as a side dish to many a main-course fare the whole year round, and, especially in what concerns raw lettuce and tomato, with a higher seasonal rate of consumption during summer months, as associated to the traditional charcoal-grilled sardines. In March 2004, lettuces, tomatoes, carrots and cabbages of Portuguese origin (except for the carrots from one site) were purchased from large commercial areas or central markets of two central and southern regional hubs, respectively Coimbra and Évora. Even if from different growers, all vegetables had come from horticultural plots in the same general area of western Portugal, north of Lisboa. For lettuce plants, the inner leaves were separated from the external ones and processed as different samples for further analysis. In this work, the reactor and detector parameters were re-evaluated for the new IAEA k0-INAA software. Quality assessment was obtained through analysis of IAEA-359 (cabbage material) and BCR-679 (Bowen's kale). Traces of hazardous elements—namely, antimony, arsenic and bromine—could be found throughout, and, for lettuce samples, the overall results indicate that outer leaves feature higher concentrations than inner ones. Interestingly enough, vegetables from Coimbra and Évora appeared to differ from each other in their elemental levels, even if originally grown at relatively close range. Concentrations of trace elements are compared to available data from other countries' cultivars.

  4. Identification of expressed genes during infection of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan F; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae is an obligate, biotrophic pathogen causing the club-root disease of crucifers. Despite its importance as a plant pathogen, little is known about P. brassicae at the molecular level as most of its life cycle takes place inside the plant host, and axenic culturing is impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen-host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty ESTs were found of which 49% proved to be P. brassicae genes. Ten novel P. brassicae genes were identified, and the genomic sequences surrounding four of the ESTs were acquired using genome walking. Alignment of the ESTs and the genomic DNA sequences confirmed that P. brassicae genes are intron rich and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed in the infection of Arabidopsis plants, indicating that these genes play an important role in P. brassicae infection. PMID:21518080

  5. Quorum-sensing signals in the microbial community of the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut

    PubMed Central

    Borlee, Bradley R; Geske, Grant D; Robinson, Courtney J; Blackwell, Helen E; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to examine the role of quorum-sensing (QS) signals in a multispecies microbial community. Toward this aim, we studied QS signals produced by an indigenous member and an invading pathogen of the microbial community of the cabbage white butterfly (CWB) larval midgut (Pieris rapae). As an initial step, we characterized the QS system in Pantoea CWB304, which was isolated from the larval midgut. A luxI homolog, designated panI, is necessary for the production of N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs) by Pantoea CWB304. To determine whether AHL signals are exchanged in the alkaline environment of the midgut, we constructed AHL-sensing bioluminescent reporter strains in Pantoea CWB304 and a panI mutant of this strain. In the gut of the CWB larvae, the reporter in an AHL-deficient Pantoea CWB304 detected AHLs when coinoculated with the wild type. To study the role of AHL signals produced by a community invader, we examined pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in CWB larvae. Mortality induced by P. aeruginosa PAO1 was significantly reduced when signaling was interrupted by either a potent chemical inhibitor of QS or mutations in the lasI and rhlI AHL synthases of P. aeruginosa PAO1. These results show that AHLs are exchanged among bacteria in the alkaline gut of CWB larvae and contribute to disease caused by P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:18650927

  6. Purification of peroxidase from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra) by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Somtürk, Burcu; Kalın, Ramazan; Özdemir, Nalan

    2014-08-01

    Peroxidase was purified in a single step using 4-amino benzohydrazide affinity chromatography from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra), and some important biochemical characteristics of the purified enzyme were determined. The enzyme, with a specific activity of 3,550 EU/mg protein, was purified 120.6-fold with a yield of 2.9% from the synthesized affinity matrix. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 69.3 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. For guaiacol substrate, the K m and V max values were found as 0.048 mM and 1.46 EU/mL/min, respectively. Additionally, the IC50 and K i values for 4-amino benzohydrazide were calculated to be 1.047 and 0.702±0.05 mM, respectively, and 4-amino benzohydrazide showed noncompetitive inhibition. PMID:24879596

  7. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in Rural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis. PMID:25295297

  8. Carotenoid and polyphenol bioaccessibility and cellular uptake from plum and cabbage varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaulmann, Anouk; André, Christelle M; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2016-04-15

    Plum and cabbage are rich in carotenoids and polyphenols. However, their bioactivity depends on their release and intestinal uptake. Four varieties of Brassicaceae (Duchy, Scots Kale, Kale, Kalorama) and Prunus (Cherry Plum, Plum 620, Ersinger, Italian Plum) were studied; bioaccessibility following in vitro digestion, cellular uptake (Caco-2 vs. co-culture cell model: Caco-2:HT-29-MTX (90:10%) and colonic fermentation were determined for carotenoids/polyphenols; the influence of certain kitchen preparations was likewise studied. Carotenoids were non-significantly influenced by the latter, while for polyphenols, boiling and steaming significantly reduced total phenolics (p<0.05). Carotenoid bioaccessibility did not differ significantly between Prunus vs. Brassicaceae varieties, but xanthophyll was higher than carotene bioaccessibility (p<0.01). Polyphenol bioaccessibility was low (<10%), possibly compromised by the cream containing test meal. Total carotenoid cellular uptake varied between varieties (0.3-4.1%), being higher for carotenes (4.1%) than for xanthophylls (1.6%, p<0.01), and were higher for the co-culture cell model compared to Caco-2 cells (p<0.01). Total carotenoid recovery in the colonic fraction varied from 4% to 25%. Lower bioaccessibility of carotenes thus appeared to be somewhat counterbalanced by higher cellular uptake. The potential positive role of the mucus layer for cellular uptake and the fate of the colonic digesta deserve further attention in the future. PMID:26616956

  9. Endocrine Mechanisms Regulating Post-Diapause Development in the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nobuto; Okamoto, Naoki; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest at a specific stage, is common in insects and is regulated by hormones. It is well established that in pupal diapause, cessation of ecdysteroid secretion from the prothoracic glands (PGs) after pupal ecdysis leads to diapause initiation, while resumption of its secretion induces post-diapause development. However, what regulates the activity of the glands is poorly understood, especially for the glands of diapause-terminated pupae. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms by which post-diapause development is regulated in the cabbage armyworm Mamestra brassicae. We demonstrate that the brain is necessary for the initiation of post-diapause development and that the factor in the brain responsible for the activation of the PGs is the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Further, through measuring the hemolymph PTTH titers by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, we show that PTTH is actually released into the hemolymph prior to the activation of the PGs. Although its peak titer is much lower than expected, this low concentration of PTTH is most likely still effective to activate the PGs of post-diapause pupae, because the responsiveness to PTTH of the glands at this stage is very high compared to that of nondiapause pupal PGs. These results strongly suggest that in M. brassicae, PTTH serves as a trigger to initiate pupa-adult development after diapause termination by stimulating the PGs to secrete ecdysteroid. PMID:26745499

  10. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour. PMID:26353086

  11. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  12. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003–2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40–60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003–2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010–2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of ‘oogenesis-flight syndrome’. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  13. Dishabituating long-term memory for gustatory habituation in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Shikano, Ikkei; Akhtar, Yasmin; Isman, Murray B; Rankin, Catharine H

    2010-10-01

    The gustatory rejection response of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), habituates to antifeedant compounds, allowing for the consumption of deterrent yet nontoxic plant materials. In the present study, we demonstrate that habituation to an antifeedant compound (quinine) persists through the moult between larval instars. As an indirect test of whether the memory was protein synthesis-dependent, we tested whether disrupting protein synthesis would block memory reconsolidation after a reminder. The results indicated that disrupting protein synthesis in habituated larvae following a reminder treatment (reexposure to quinine) eliminated the memory for habituation and restored the antifeedant properties of the quinine. We then examined whether the learned memory could be dishabituated and whether this would disrupt or eliminate long-term memory. We show that 6 hr after exposure to a novel/noxious stimulus (a second antifeedant, xanthotoxin) habituated larvae showed a transient dishabituation-like effect in which the quinine deterred feeding again. However, this effect did not permanently eliminate the habituation produced by the extended exposure as larvae tested 72 hr after xanthotoxin exposure again showed a willingness to consume the quinine treated leaves, indicating that the earlier habituation was still present. PMID:20939670

  14. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. PMID:26878720

  15. Decarboxylation and transport of auxin in segments of sunflower and cabbage roots.

    PubMed

    Iversen, T H; Aasheim, T

    1970-12-01

    The movement of (14)C from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (14)C has been examined in 5 mm root segments of dark-grown seedlings of Helianthus annuus and Brassica oleracea. Contaminants from distilled water, phosphate buffer and the razor-blade cutter increase the decarboxylation of IAA-(14)C, and cutting of root segments results in an activation of IAA-destroying enzymes at the cut surfaces. When these sources of errors were eliminated the following was shown: a) Both in sunflower and cabbage there is a slight acropetal flux of (14)C through the root segments into the agar receiver blocks. The amount of (14)C found in the receiver blocks increases with the lenght of the transport period. b) When the root segments, after the transport period, are cut in two equal parts and these assayed separately, the amounts of (14)C in the two parts indicate a greater acropetal than basipetal transport. c) The total radioactivity of the receiver blocks is in part due to IAA-(14)C and in part to (14)CO2, the latter being a result of enzymatic destruction of auxin. d) Addition of ferulic acid, an inhibitor of IAA oxidases, to the receiver blocks markedly inhibits the decarboxylation of IAA-(14)C and thus increases the amount transported. This effect is more pronounced after a 20 hr than after a 6 hr transport period. PMID:24496770

  16. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of apoptosis-inducing pierisin-5 protein from white cabbage butterfly.

    PubMed

    Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Marimuthu, Satheesh Kumar; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar; Zhang, Wenqing; Subramanian, Selvi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, caspase-dependent apoptosis-inducing pierisin-5 gene was identified and characterized from cabbage white butterfly, Pieris canidia. A thousand-fold increase in expression of pierisin-5 gene was observed from second to third instar larvae, gradually decreasing before pupation. Pierisin-5 was purified from the fifth-instar larvae and was found to exhibit cytotoxicity against HeLa and HepG2 human cancer cell lines. Pierisin-5 showed growth inhibition and several morphological changes such as cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation with programmed cell death in HeLa and HepG2 cells. Moreover, DNA fragmentation was observed after gel electrophoresis analysis. Caspase substrate assay showed further cleavage of Ac-DEVD-pNA, suggesting the activation of Caspase-3. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in cancer cell lines treated with pierisin-5. These findings suggest that pierisin-5 could significantly induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines and is mediated by activation of caspase-3 in the mitochondrial pathway. Phylogenetic analysis using pierisin proteins from Pierid butterflies, ADP-ribosylating toxins from bacteria, human, rat, and mouse indicated the possibility of horizontal transfer of pierisin genes from bacteria to butterflies. The single copy of pierisin gene unlike other insect toxin genes also supports lateral transfer. PMID:26812112

  17. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  18. Plant Bioelectric Potential of Hard-leaf Cabbage to Irradiation-light Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Masaki; Shao, Lixin; Oyabu, Takashi; Nanto, Hidehito

    Bioelectric potential was investigated to examine the availability of vegetable growth control. The potential is a kind of information transmitted by the vegetable and it varies markedly with one’s physiological phenomenon, light, air contaminant and insect which are external factors. Highly-efficient growth control can be made possible due to clarifying the relationship between the external factors and the potential. Vegetable can be used as a sensor in addition. A hard-leaf cabbage (Ancient specie) was adopted as a subjective plant in this study and the bioelectric potential was measured. The analysis was carried out using the summation of the potential (vm1) for one minute. The data was input every 0.1 seconds through a difference amplifier. The potential characteristic was investigated as a function of light frequency emitting from a LED panel. In addition, the potential was studied when ethyl alcohol existed and not existed as an air contaminant. As a result, it becomes obvious that the vm1 is raised when blue and red lights are irradiated. The lights mainly contribute to photosynthesis. The potential increases in the presence of ethyl alcohol which was adopted as a kind of nutrient.

  19. Red cabbage anthocyanins as inhibitors of lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Saluk, Joanna; Bijak, Michal; Posmyk, Malgorzata M; Zbikowska, Halina M

    2015-09-01

    LPS is a Gram-negative bacteria endotoxin, which is an important pro-inflammatory agent. Blood platelets take part both in inflammatory processes and in pathogenesis of septic shock following accumulation of LPS. As a platelet agonist LPS causes the intraplatelet overproduction of ROS/RNS that are responsible for adverse modifications in the structure of platelet compounds being associated with a development of platelet-dependent diseases. Existing evidence suggests that anthocyanins (ATH) are able to protect the circulatory system. The antioxidative properties of ATH are believed to be mainly responsible for their positive health effects. The main goal of the present in vitro study was to investigate the potential protective properties of red cabbage ATH against oxidative damage induced by LPS in blood platelets. Exposure of platelets to LPS resulted in carbonyl group increase, 3-nitrotyrosine formation, lipid peroxidation and O2(•-) generation. We have shown that ATH extract effectively decreased oxidative stress induced by LPSs. The in silico analysis demonstrated that both cyanin and LPS were located at the same region of human TLR4-MD-2 complex. Our findings suggest that there could be two-way ATH platelet protection mechanism, by their antioxidant properties and directly by binding with TLRs. PMID:26208857

  20. Evaluation of phytoavailability of heavy metals to Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in rural soils.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis. PMID:25295297

  1. Extinction of Vibrio cholerae in acidic substrata: contaminated cabbage and lettuce treated with lime juice.

    PubMed

    Mata, L; Vargas, C; Saborío, D; Vives, M

    1994-12-01

    Lime juice killed millions of Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor, Inaba, present on cabbage and lettuce contaminated in the laboratory. The lethal effect was evident within 5 min of exposure to lime juice. No vibrios could be recovered at dilution 1:10 using alkaline peptone water (APW) and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-saccharose agar (TCBS). More than 99.9% of the initial inoculum was effectively destroyed. The number of vibrios killed by lime juice was 2 to 6 logarithms greater than the maximum infecting dose, and 4 to 8 logs greater than the minimum infecting dose for cholera El Tor. The time interval needed for killing was smaller than the usual waiting time for serving food in homes and restaurants. The addition of lime juice to non-acidic foods, beverages and water, is strongly recommended to prevent infection with cholera vibrios and other acid-sensitive microorganisms. This measure is particularly important for rural and slum populations in the tropics and subtropics. PMID:7501870

  2. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner. PMID:25289020

  3. Genetic analysis of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a seasonal migrant in western North America.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Michelle T; Ritland, Carol E; Myers, Judith H

    2011-01-01

    Long-range migrations of many wind-borne noctuid moths will have been influenced by the expansion of agriculture that provides greater availability of food plants along the migratory route. The migratory, agricultural pest, Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) over-winters in southern California and each summer migrates as far north as British Columbia. We explored the degree of genetic connectivity of populations over this migratory range. Preliminary investigation of seven mitochondrial gene regions found little to no variation among 13 populations, while partial regions of the NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 in 42 individuals revealed eight and six haplotypes, respectively. The pattern of haplotype distribution indicated genetic homogeneity of persistent populations in California but weak differentiation among populations further north. Four highly variable amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations generated 167 polymorphic bands, with heterozygosity levels ranging from 0.250 to 0.302. Pairwise F ST values and clustering analyses also showed similarty among populations in California with some differentiation among populations initiated from the annual migration. Overall, some differentiation occurs among temporary, annual migratory populations but no pattern occurs with distance from the source population. Population subdivision in British Columbia associated with greenhouses has the greatest impact on genetic differentiation. PMID:25567955

  4. Genetic analysis of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a seasonal migrant in western North America

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Michelle T; Ritland, Carol E; Myers, Judith H

    2011-01-01

    Long-range migrations of many wind-borne noctuid moths will have been influenced by the expansion of agriculture that provides greater availability of food plants along the migratory route. The migratory, agricultural pest, Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) over-winters in southern California and each summer migrates as far north as British Columbia. We explored the degree of genetic connectivity of populations over this migratory range. Preliminary investigation of seven mitochondrial gene regions found little to no variation among 13 populations, while partial regions of the NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 in 42 individuals revealed eight and six haplotypes, respectively. The pattern of haplotype distribution indicated genetic homogeneity of persistent populations in California but weak differentiation among populations further north. Four highly variable amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations generated 167 polymorphic bands, with heterozygosity levels ranging from 0.250 to 0.302. Pairwise FST values and clustering analyses also showed similarty among populations in California with some differentiation among populations initiated from the annual migration. Overall, some differentiation occurs among temporary, annual migratory populations but no pattern occurs with distance from the source population. Population subdivision in British Columbia associated with greenhouses has the greatest impact on genetic differentiation. PMID:25567955

  5. Endocrine Mechanisms Regulating Post-Diapause Development in the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Nobuto; Okamoto, Naoki; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest at a specific stage, is common in insects and is regulated by hormones. It is well established that in pupal diapause, cessation of ecdysteroid secretion from the prothoracic glands (PGs) after pupal ecdysis leads to diapause initiation, while resumption of its secretion induces post-diapause development. However, what regulates the activity of the glands is poorly understood, especially for the glands of diapause-terminated pupae. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms by which post-diapause development is regulated in the cabbage armyworm Mamestra brassicae. We demonstrate that the brain is necessary for the initiation of post-diapause development and that the factor in the brain responsible for the activation of the PGs is the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Further, through measuring the hemolymph PTTH titers by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, we show that PTTH is actually released into the hemolymph prior to the activation of the PGs. Although its peak titer is much lower than expected, this low concentration of PTTH is most likely still effective to activate the PGs of post-diapause pupae, because the responsiveness to PTTH of the glands at this stage is very high compared to that of nondiapause pupal PGs. These results strongly suggest that in M. brassicae, PTTH serves as a trigger to initiate pupa-adult development after diapause termination by stimulating the PGs to secrete ecdysteroid. PMID:26745499

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Piperine, Capsaicin, and Dihydrocapsaicin in Korean Instant-Noodle (Ramyun) Soup Base Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection.

    PubMed

    Shim, You-Shin; Kim, Jong-Chan; Jeong, Seung-Weon

    2016-01-01

    A simultaneous analytical method for piperine, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin in Korean instant-noodle soup base using HPLC was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and linearity. The HPLC separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column (5 μm particle size, 4.6 mm id, 250 mm length) using a UV detector fixed at 280 nm. The LOD and LOQ of the HPLC analyses ranged from 0.25 to 1.03 mg/kg. The intraday and interday precisions of the individual piperine, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin were <10.55%, and the recovery values ranged from 85.43 to 94.68%. The calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r(2) = 0.999) within the tested ranges. These results suggest that the analytical method in this study can be used to classify Korean instant noodles based on their levels of spiciness. PMID:26822681

  7. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g-1 dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g-1 dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  8. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g-1 dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g-1 dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  9. Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (cry1Ab) gene in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) chloroplasts confers high insecticidal efficacy against Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Chin-Chung; Yiu, Jinn-Chin; Chen, Jeremy J W; Tseng, Menq-Jiau

    2008-06-01

    Chloroplast genetic engineering is an environmentally friendly approach, where the foreign integrated gene is often expressed at a higher level than nuclear transformation. The cry1Ab gene was successfully transferred into the cabbage chloroplast genome in this study. The aadA and cry1Ab genes were inserted into the pASCC201 vector and driven by the prrn promoter. The cabbage-specific plastid vectors were transferred into the chloroplasts of cabbage via particle gun mediated transformation. Regenerated plantlets were selected by their resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin. According to antibiotic selection, the regeneration percentage of the two cabbage cultivars was 4-5%. The results of PCR, Southern, Northern hybridization and western analyses indicated that the aadA and cry1Ab genes were not only successfully integrated into the chloroplast genome, but functionally expressed at the mRNA and protein level. Expression of Cry1Ab protein was detected in the range of 4.8-11.1% of total soluble protein in transgenic mature leaves of the two species. Insecticidal effects on Plutella xylostella were also demonstrated in cry1Ab transformed cabbage. The objectives of this study were to establish a gene transformation system for Brassica chloroplasts, and to study the possibility for insect-resistance in dicot vegetables using chloroplast gene transformation. PMID:18415072

  10. Plasmids from the gut microbiome of cabbage root fly larvae encode SaxA that catalyses the conversion of the plant toxin 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Welte, Cornelia U; de Graaf, Rob M; van den Bosch, Tijs J M; Op den Camp, Huub J M; van Dam, Nicole M; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-05-01

    Cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum) cause severe crop losses (≥ 50%) of rapeseed/ canola and cabbages used in the food and biofuel industries. These losses occur despite the fact that cabbages produce insecticidal toxins such as isothiocyanates. Here we describe the cabbage root fly larval gut microbiome as a source of isothiocyanate degrading enzymes. We sequenced the microbial gut community of the larvae and analysed phylogenetic markers and functional genes. We combined this with the isolation of several microbial strains representing the phylogenetic distribution of the metagenome. Eleven of those isolates were highly resistant towards 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate, a subset also metabolized 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate. Several plasmids appeared to be shared between those isolates that metabolized the toxin. One of the plasmids harboured a saxA gene that upon transformation gave resistance and enabled the degradation of 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate in Escherichia coli. Taken together, the results showed that the cabbage root fly larval gut microbiome is capable of isothiocyanate degradation, a characteristic that has not been observed before, and may help us understand and design new pest control strategies. PMID:26234684

  11. Mediterranean diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E

    2000-12-01

    Mortality statistics from the WHO database covering the period 1960 to 1990 have provided intriguing evidence that something unusual has been affecting in a beneficial way the health of the Mediterranean population. In recent papers, which evaluated the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, it was concluded that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. Direct evidence in support of the beneficial properties of the Mediterranean diet has also become available. These data were derived from three studies, which have used a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight desirable key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region. The conclusion of these studies is that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean one is associated with longer survival. The Greek version of the Mediterranean diet is dominated by the consumption of olive oil and by high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and an antioxidant action provides a plausible explanation for the apparent benefits. Wild edible greens frequently eaten in rural Greece in the form of salads and pies contain very high quantities of flavonoids-- considerably higher than those found in red wine or black tea. While there is no direct evidence that these antioxidants are central to the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, indirect evidence from epidemiological data and the increasing understanding of their mechanisms of action suggest that antioxidants may play a major role. PMID:11242471

  12. TOTAL DIET STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Total Diet Study (TDS), sometimes called the Market Basket Study, is an ongoing FDA program that determines levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods, for the purpose of estimating intakes of these substances in representative diets of specifi...

  13. Diet Therapy Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This four-volume student text is intended for use in training Air Force diet therapy specialists. The first volume, a study guide and workbook for self-directed instruction, covers nutrition, food processing and preparation, therapeutic diets, security precautions in medical food service, procedures for ordering equipment and supplies, food

  14. DIET at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  15. On the influence of soil properties on the transfer of 137Cs from two soils (Chromic Luvisol and Eutric Fluvisol) to wheat and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Djingova, R; Kovacheva, P; Todorov, B; Zlateva, B; Kuleff, I

    2005-01-01

    Two types of soils (Eutric Fluvisol and Chromic Luvisol) and two crops (wheat and cabbage) were investigated for determination of the transfer of 137Cs from soil to plant. Measurements were performed using gamma-spectrometry. Results for the soil characteristics, transfer factors of the radionuclides (TF), and conversion factors (CF) (cabbage/wheat) were obtained. The transfer of 137Cs was higher for Chromic Luvisol for both the plants. Statistically significant dependence of TF of 137Cs on its concentration in soil was established for cabbage. Dependence between K content in the soil and the transfer factor of 137Cs was not found due to the high concentrations of available K. Use of bioconcentration factor (BCF) (ratio between the activity concentration of a radionuclide in a reference plant to its concentration in another plant) is demonstrated and proposed for risk assessment studies. PMID:15829337

  16. Genome-wide analysis and expression patterns of ZF-HD transcription factors under different developmental tissues and abiotic stresses in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenli; Wu, Peng; Li, Ying; Hou, XiLin

    2016-06-01

    The ZF-HD gene family plays an important role in plant developmental processes and stress responses. However, the function of the ZF-HD genes in Chinese cabbage remains largely unknown. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence has been determined, and more than forty thousand proteins have been identified to date. In this study, 31 ZF-HD genes were identified in Chinese cabbage. We show here that the BraZF-HD genes could be categorized into ZHD and MIF subfamilies. Among them, ZHD genes are plant-specific, nearly all intronless, and related to MINI ZINC FINGER genes that possess only the zinc finger. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that ZHDs have expanded considerably during angiosperm evolution. In addition, the ZHD group has 24 members, which is twice as much as the Arabidopsis ZHD group, indicating that the Chinese cabbage ZHD genes have been retained more frequently than other group genes. Real-time PCR analysis showed that most of BraZF-HD genes are preferentially expressed in flower. Furthermore, most of these genes are significantly induced under photoperiod or vernalization conditions, as well as abiotic stresses. Thereby implying that they may play important roles in these processes. This study provides insight into the evolution of ZF-HD genes in Chinese cabbage genome and may aid efforts to further characterize the function of these predicted ZF-HD genes in flowering and resistance. PMID:26546019

  17. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    PubMed

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation. PMID:16208206

  18. Transcriptome Profiling of Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Roots

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Miaomiao; Lv, Honghao; Ma, Jian; Xu, Donghui; Li, Hailong; Yang, Limei; Kang, Jungen; Wang, Xiaowu; Fang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (FOC) is a destructive disease of Brassica crops, which results in severe yield losses. There is little information available about the mechanism of disease resistance. To obtain an overview of the transcriptome profiles in roots of R4P1, a Brassica oleracea variety that is highly resistant to fusarium wilt, we compared the transcriptomes of samples inoculated with FOC and samples inoculated with distilled water. RNA-seq analysis generated more than 136 million 100-bp clean reads, which were assembled into 62,506 unigenes (mean size = 741 bp). Among them, 49,959 (79.92%) genes were identified based on sequence similarity searches, including SwissProt (29,050, 46.47%), Gene Ontology (GO) (33,767, 54.02%), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG) (14,721, 23.55%) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) (12,974, 20.76%) searches; digital gene expression analysis revealed 885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between infected and control samples at 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours after inoculation. The DEGs were assigned to 31 KEGG pathways. Early defense systems, including the MAPK signaling pathway, calcium signaling and salicylic acid-mediated hypersensitive response (SA-mediated HR) were activated after pathogen infection. SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance (SAR), ethylene (ET)- and jasmonic (JA)-mediated pathways and the lignin biosynthesis pathway play important roles in plant resistance. We also analyzed the expression of defense-related genes, such as genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, UDP-glycosyltransferase (UDPG), pleiotropic drug resistance, ATP-binding cassette transporters (PDR-ABC transporters), myrosinase, transcription factors and kinases, which were differentially expressed. The results of this study may contribute to efforts to identify and clone candidate genes associated with disease resistance and to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying FOC resistance in cabbage. PMID:26849436

  19. Transcriptome Profiling of Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Roots.

    PubMed

    Xing, Miaomiao; Lv, Honghao; Ma, Jian; Xu, Donghui; Li, Hailong; Yang, Limei; Kang, Jungen; Wang, Xiaowu; Fang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (FOC) is a destructive disease of Brassica crops, which results in severe yield losses. There is little information available about the mechanism of disease resistance. To obtain an overview of the transcriptome profiles in roots of R4P1, a Brassica oleracea variety that is highly resistant to fusarium wilt, we compared the transcriptomes of samples inoculated with FOC and samples inoculated with distilled water. RNA-seq analysis generated more than 136 million 100-bp clean reads, which were assembled into 62,506 unigenes (mean size = 741 bp). Among them, 49,959 (79.92%) genes were identified based on sequence similarity searches, including SwissProt (29,050, 46.47%), Gene Ontology (GO) (33,767, 54.02%), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG) (14,721, 23.55%) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) (12,974, 20.76%) searches; digital gene expression analysis revealed 885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between infected and control samples at 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours after inoculation. The DEGs were assigned to 31 KEGG pathways. Early defense systems, including the MAPK signaling pathway, calcium signaling and salicylic acid-mediated hypersensitive response (SA-mediated HR) were activated after pathogen infection. SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance (SAR), ethylene (ET)- and jasmonic (JA)-mediated pathways and the lignin biosynthesis pathway play important roles in plant resistance. We also analyzed the expression of defense-related genes, such as genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, UDP-glycosyltransferase (UDPG), pleiotropic drug resistance, ATP-binding cassette transporters (PDR-ABC transporters), myrosinase, transcription factors and kinases, which were differentially expressed. The results of this study may contribute to efforts to identify and clone candidate genes associated with disease resistance and to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying FOC resistance in cabbage. PMID:26849436

  20. Trade-off between sensitivity and specificity in the cabbage looper moth response to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Hemmann, Daniel J; Allison, Jeremy D; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2008-11-01

    The evolution of male moth responses to pheromone blends may be constrained by a trade-off between two response traits: sensitivity and breadth of response. Population genetic simulations predict that if sensitivity and breadth of response are negatively correlated (i.e., a trade-off exists), then selection will favor males with narrow response phenotypes and high sensitivity. Although sensitivity-breadth of response trade-offs are generally assumed to exist and are implicit to the shape of male preference function, this study is the first to provide empirical support measuring behavior at the level of the individual. Previous studies with the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, have documented the existence of a mutant pheromone strain. While mutant females produce a pheromone blend significantly different from wild-type females, mutant males respond equally to the wild-type and mutant pheromone blends. This study used wind tunnel bioassays to document that relative to wild-type males, mutant males had broader response profiles but lower pheromone sensitivity. While wild-type male responses were highest to the wild-type pheromone blend, mutant males did not discriminate among pheromone blends. These results are consistent with a trade-off between breadth of response and sensitivity. Pure wild-type and mutant lines were crossed and hybrid males assayed. Both hybrid types (maternal wild-type and maternal mutant hybrids) responded similarly. Hybrid males had response profiles similar to wild-type males and the reduced sensitivity observed in mutant males. These results suggest a possible hybrid disadvantage and a putative mechanism for reinforcement of male pheromone response traits. PMID:18818970

  1. Molecular characterization of four midgut aminopeptidase N isozymes from the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jie

    2005-06-01

    Four aminopeptidase N (APN) isoforms, TnAPN1, TnAPN2, TnAPN3 and TnAPN4, were identified from the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, by cDNA cloning. The deduced amino acid sequences of the four APNs indicate that TnAPN1, TnAPN2, TnAPN3 and TnAPN4 are synthesized as pre-proteins of 110, 106, 114 and 108 kDa, respectively. Sequence features of the T. ni APNs include the presence of a signal peptide at their N-termini and a prepeptide at the C-termini for the GPI anchor, the zinc binding/gluzincin motif HEX2HX18E, the gluzincin aminopeptidase motif GAMENWG and the presence of glycosylation sites. After removal of the signal peptide and the C-terminal prepeptide, the predicted molecular weights of TnAPN1, TnAPN2, TnAPN3 and TnAPN4 are 106, 102, 110 and 104 kDa, respectively. Enzymatic activity assays of various larval tissues showed that aminopeptidase activities were mainly localized in the midgut and the specific enzyme activity per mg of midgut tissue proteins was constant in T. ni larvae regardless of the composition of dietary proteins and amino acids. Both enzyme activity assays and RT-PCR analyses for the expression of the APN genes in T. ni larval tissues demonstrated that APN genes were expressed in Malphigian tubules in addition to the midgut, which was the first observation that APNs were also synthesized in insect Malphigian tubules. The finding of APN gene expression and enzyme activity in the Malphigian tubules indicated the biochemical and functional similarity of the insect Malphigian tubules to the mammalian counterpart, the kidney, in which APNs are known to play important functions. PMID:15857766

  2. Functionally distinct dopamine and octopamine transporters in the CNS of the cabbage looper moth.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Pamela; Malutan, Tabita; McLean, Heather; Verellen, LouAnn; Caveney, Stanley; Donly, Cam

    2003-02-01

    A cDNA was cloned from the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni based on similarity to other cloned dopamine transporters (DATs). The total nucleotide sequence is 3.8 kb in length and contains an open reading frame for a protein of 612 amino acids. The predicted moth DAT protein (TrnDAT) has greatest amino acid sequence identity with Drosophila melanogasterDAT (73%) and Caenorhabditis elegansDAT (51%). TrnDAT shares only 45% amino acid sequence identity with an octopamine transporter (TrnOAT) cloned recently from this moth. The functional properties of TrnDAT and TrnOAT were compared through transient heterologous expression in Sf9 cells. Both transporters have similar transport affinities for DA (Km 2.43 and 2.16 micro m, respectively). However, the competitive substrates octopamine and tyramine are more potent blockers of [3H]dopamine (DA) uptake by TrnOAT than by TrnDAT. D-Amphetamine is a strong inhibitor and l-norepinephrine a weak inhibitor of both transporters. TrnDAT-mediated DA uptake is approximately 100-fold more sensitive to selective blockers of vertebrate transporters of dopamine and norepinephrine, such as nisoxetine, nomifensine and dibenzazepine antidepressants, than TrnOAT-mediated DA uptake. TrnOAT is 10-fold less sensitive to cocaine than TrnDAT. None of the 15 monoamine uptake blockers tested was TrnOAT-selective. In situ hybridization shows that TrnDAT and TrnOAT transcripts are expressed by different sets of neurons in caterpillar brain and ventral nerve cord. These results show that the caterpillar CNS contains both a phenolamine transporter and a catecholamine transporter whereas in the three invertebrates whose genomes have been completely sequenced only a dopamine-selective transporter is found. PMID:12581206

  3. Cabbage waxes affect Trissolcus brochymenae response to short-range synomones.

    PubMed

    Frati, Francesca; Salerno, Gianandrea; Conti, Eric

    2013-12-01

    We show that induced synomones, emitted as a consequence of Murgantia histrionica activity on Brassica oleracea, are adsorbed by the epicuticular waxes of leaves and perceived by the egg parasitoid Trissolcus brochymenae. Leaves were exposed to M. histrionica females placed on the abaxial leaf surface. After 24 h, the leaves were treated mechanically using gum arabic, or chemically using chloroform, on the adaxial surface, and finally the adaxial surface was assayed with T. brochymenae by two-choice tests in a closed arena. Wasp females responded to mechanically dewaxed cabbage leaf portions with feeding punctures and footprints (Ff) and with feeding punctures, oviposition and footprints (FOf), showing no effect of wax removal. In contrast, the removal of the epicuticular waxes from leaf portions close to FOf, and from leaves with oviposition and footprints (Of), determined the lack of responses by T. brochymenae. Solvent extracts of different treatments were bioassayed, but only FOf triggered parasitoid response. Thus the detection of oviposition-induced synomones by the parasitoid depends on their adsorption by the epicuticular waxes. Mechanical wax removal from leaf portions contaminated with host footprints (f) also determined a lack of wasp responses, suggesting that the footprints might trigger the induction of a "footprint-induced synomone" adsorbed onto the epicuticular waxes and exploited by the parasitoid. Leaf portions with the abaxial lamina previously dewaxed and then contaminated by footprints (D+f) of M. histrionica did not affect the parasitoid response, indicating that the abaxial epicuticular waxes are not directly involved in the chemicals induced by M. histrionica footprints. PMID:23956054

  4. Biofilm formation by Aeromonas hydrophila on green-leafy vegetables: cabbage and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Elhariry, Hesham M

    2011-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most well known of the six species of Aeromonas, which has been linked to two groups of human diseases: septicemia and gastroenteritis. Reference strain ATCC 7966 and biofilm strains TUB19, TUB20, and TUB21 were investigated for their ability to form biofilm in vitro (after 48 h on polystyrene surface) and on the surface of two green-leafy vegetables, cabbage and lettuce (after 1, 2, 4, and 24 h). Attachment strength (S(R)) of these strains to the vegetable surface was also measured in the same time intervals. The ATCC 7966 and TUB19 had high ability to form biofilm in vitro compared with TUB20 and TUB21 in full strength tryptone soy broth or under starvation conditions in diluted tryptone soy broth (1:20, v/v). Cell surface hydrophobicity of the biofilm strains was lower than that of the reference strain. The biofilm of all tested strains on polystyrene surfaces differed from that on the vegetable surfaces. All strains studied rapidly attached to both green leafy vegetables (after 1 h). S(R) and cell populations (loosely and strongly attached cells) significantly (p < 0.05) increased with contact time; however, no significant (p > 0.05) differences in cell populations were recorded after 4 and 24 h. The highest S(R) and cell population (log CFU cm⁻²) were recorded by TUB19. In conclusion, the use of A. hydrophila strains isolated from environmental biofilm samples may be more useful for understanding biofilm formation on green-leafy vegetables than the reference or laboratory strains. The attachment of A. hydrophila was significantly affected by the surfaces of green-leafy vegetables. Further studies are required to improve our understanding of the interaction between human microbial pathogens and surfaces of raw vegetables. PMID:21034267

  5. Sulfur, chromium, and selenium accumulated in Chinese cabbage under direct covers.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Diego A; Víllora, Gemma; Soriano, Maria T; Castilla, Nicolás; Romero, Luis

    2005-01-01

    Currently, pollution of our agricultural soils and waters is increasing and is often associated with many human health ailments. Soils contaminated with low levels of heavy metals and other trace elements are frequently used for growing vegetable crops and in such a situation, these toxic contaminants often accumulate in the edible portions of these agricultural plants and thereby enter the human food chain. In 3 consecutive years of field experiments (1994-1996), two different crop-covering treatments--T (50 microm perforated polyethylene), and T2 (17 gm(-2) non-woven polypropylene)--were used to modify the environmental conditions for the growth of Chinese cabbage 'Nagaoka 50' [Brassica rapa L. (Pekinensis group)]. Open-air plots (T(0)) were used as controls. Analytical determinations of chromium (Cr), selenium (Se), two forms of sulfur (total-S and sulfate-S), and amino acids (Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, serine, threonine, and valine) were performed utilizing plant shoots for analysis. The T1 and T2 treated plants contained concentrations of lysine, methionine, serine, and threonine higher than in T(0). Under T1, the extent of Cr and Se removal in the field was more favorable. Direct covers could be used in contaminated agricultural zones for a variety of plant species, not just for use with those plants previously reported to be efficient at bio-accumulating toxic elements because the thermal effect created by the covers favors phytoextraction processes. However, it is clear that the accumulation of these toxic substances in the plants (Cr) would deem the plant material unsuitable for human consumption and use as animal fodder. PMID:15572085

  6. Attachment strength and biofilm forming ability of Bacillus cereus on green-leafy vegetables: cabbage and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Elhariry, Hesham M

    2011-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ability of six Bacillus cereus strains to attach and form biofilm on cabbage and lettuce surfaces. These six strains were; a reference strain DSMZ 345 and five biofilm-producing strains (aquatic strains; TUB8, TUB30, TUB31, TUB32 and TUB33) isolated from drinking-water distribution network. Hydrophobicity, biofilm formation ability, attachment strength (S(R)) of spores and vegetative cells of the six B. cereus strains were also determined. Due to their high hydrophobicity, spores of all strains had high ability to attach polystyrene and did not affect by dilution of tryptone soy broth (TSB, 1:20 v/v) in the in vitro experiment. Significant (p < 0.05) enhancement in vitro biofilm formation by vegetative cells of B. cereus was recorded in the diluted TSB. The highest biofilm formation on cabbage and lettuce surfaces was obtained by spores and vegetative cells of all tested strains on the 4(th) hour of the incubation period. These populations were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by elongating incubation time from 4 h to 24 h except DSMZ 345 and TUB8. Biofilm formation behavior obtained by B. cereus spores and vegetative cells on the polystyrene surface was different compared with that recorded on produce surface. The S(R) of both spores and vegetative cells of the studied strains to the lettuce surface was higher than that of the cabbage surface. The hydrophobicity, biofilm formation and S(R) of spores and vegetative cells of the biofilm-producing strains were higher than that of the reference strain DSMZ 345. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exposed random distribution of cells either on the surface or cut edge, without clear obvious affinity for the surface structures. Increasing in the presence of large clusters of cells on leaf surfaces was demonstrated after 4 and 24 h. In conclusion, use of aquatic environmental isolates is more useful for studying biofilm formation than the reference strain. Lettuce surface supported the attachment of B. cereus spores and vegetative cells compared with the cabbage surface. Further investigations are required to improve our knowledge of biofilm formation mechanisms by the human pathogenic microorganisms, especially by using the environmental and clinical isolates. To ensure safety level of green-leafy vegetables, biofilm formation after harvest should be considered as critical control point during handling of these vegetables. PMID:21839375

  7. Copper in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Oysters and other shellfish , whole grains, beans, nuts, potatoes, and organ meats (kidneys, liver) are good sources of copper. Dark leafy greens, dried fruits such as prunes, cocoa, black pepper, and yeast are also sources of copper in the diet.

  8. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ample food, and fasting does not provide enough fuel to support them. For these reasons, detox diets ... the high other people get from nicotine or alcohol. This can become a dangerous addiction that leads ...

  9. Sodium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with congestive heart failure , cirrhosis of the liver, or kidney disease ... Sodium in the diet (called dietary sodium) is measured in ... There are no specific recommended amounts of sodium for infants, ...

  10. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluids, eating a low-protein diet, limiting salt, potassium, phosphorous, and other electrolytes , and getting enough calories ... of phosphorous, but may contain large amounts of potassium. You may need to take calcium supplements to ...

  11. Diet and Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12 By Emily McCloud, RD Rheumatoid Arthritis: Lifestyle Management Diet and Pain Many people who suffer from ... and Pain Information Back to Rheumatoid Arthritis: Lifestyle Management Print Page Email Page Add Page I want ...

  12. Diet and Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Make A Gift Be an Organ Donor Car Donation Volunteer Corporate Support Match Your ... Home » Diet and Transplantation If you have a new organ transplant, you are probably wondering if your ...

  13. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  14. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  15. Iron in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... toddlers. TOO MUCH IRON The genetic disorder called hemochromatosis affects the body's ability to control how much iron is absorbed. This leads to too much iron in the body. Treatment consists of a low-iron diet, no iron ...

  16. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  17. Diet and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gotto, Antonio M.; Scott, Lynne W.; Foreyt, John P.

    1984-01-01

    The role of diet in personal health maintenance is important whether a person is trying to stay healthy or to treat diet-related diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. Dietary recommendations include limiting fat to 30% and protein to 20% of total calories, with the remaining 50% coming from carbohydrate. Maintaining dietary changes for long periods is very difficult for many persons. Specific self-management skills may ease the task. PMID:6523862

  18. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: influence of sampling parameters, and validation of binomial sequential sampling plans for the cabbage looper (Lepidoptera Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2009-10-01

    Populations of cabbage looper, Trichoplusiani (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were sampled in experimental plots and commercial fields of cabbage (Brasicca spp.) in Minnesota during 1998-1999 as part of a larger effort to implement an integrated pest management program. Using a resampling approach and the Wald's sequential probability ratio test, sampling plans with different sampling parameters were evaluated using independent presence/absence and enumerative data. Evaluations and comparisons of the different sampling plans were made based on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions generated for each plan and through the use of a decision probability matrix. Values for upper and lower decision boundaries, sequential error rates (alpha, beta), and tally threshold were modified to determine parameter influence on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions. The following parameters resulted in the most desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions; action threshold of 0.1 proportion of plants infested, tally threshold of 1, alpha = beta = 0.1, upper boundary of 0.15, lower boundary of 0.05, and resampling with replacement. We found that sampling parameters can be modified and evaluated using resampling software to achieve desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions. Moreover, management of T. ni by using binomial sequential sampling should provide a good balance between cost and reliability by minimizing sample size and maintaining a high level of correct decisions (>95%) to treat or not treat. PMID:19886452

  19. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease. PMID:24264226

  20. Analyses of phenotype and ARGOS and ASY1 expression in a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ai Xia; Zhao, Jian Jun; Li, Li Min; Wang, Yan Hua; Zhao, Yu Jing; Hua, Fan; Xu, Yuan Chao; Shen, Shu Xing

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to improve our understanding of how ploidy level influences phenotype and gene expression in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Haploid plants (2n = 10) was induced by 0.2% colchicine to produce diploid (2n = 20) and tetraploid plants (2n = 40). The aneuploid (2n = 24) was also obtained by hybridization between diploid plants as the female and tetraploid plants. The ploidy levels of all plants were identified through chromosome counts and flow cytometry. Leaves and petals became larger as the ploidy level increased from haploid to diploid, and from aneuploid to tetraploid. Similarly, expression of ARGOS was regulated by genome size, increasing in parallel with the level of ploidy. Among the four ploidy types, expression was stronger in the floral buds than in the leaves. Expression by ASY1 also differed according to ploidy level, being highest in diploid plants, followed in order by tetraploids. Expression was similar between haploids and aneuploids at two stages—prior to and after meiosis—but was higher in the haploids during meiosis. When buds were compared within the same ploidy type at different stages, ASY1 expression was obviously higher during meiosis than either before or after. Our study demonstrated the generation and phenotype of a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid. Expression of genes ARGOS and ASY1 were modulated by genome size in this ploidy series, and the regulated patterns of the two genes was different. PMID:27162487

  1. Recovery of turgor by wilted, excised cabbage leaves in the absence of water uptake : a new factor in drought acclimation.

    PubMed

    Levitt, J

    1986-09-01

    Cabbage leaves excised from a fully turgid plant wilt within 20 minutes to 2 hours (depending on plant age) with a loss of about 10% relative water content (RWC). If droughted for 2 to 4 days in a high relative humidity leaf chamber, they may acclimate, recovering their turgor without the absorption of water, in fact at a loss of 15 to 25% RWC. This turgor recovery in the absence of water uptake occurs only if (a) the rate of water loss is slow enough (about 1-5% RWC per day after the first 24 hours drought loss of about 15% RWC), (b) if the leaves are no longer growing actively. Osmotic adjustment accompanies the turgor adjustment, but cannot be the cause in the absence of water uptake. The recovery of turgor by wilted cabbage leaves in the absence of water uptake cannot be explained by (a) transfer of reserve water from apoplast to symplast either from the cell walls or from the vessel lumens by cavitation or (b) metabolic loss of dry matter and gain of water. It can be explained by a contraction of the cell walls around the partially dehydrated protoplasts, until they regain their elastic extensibility. These proposed cell wall changes during drought acclimation are therefore the opposite of those occurring during growth. This hypothesis therefore explains the long recognized inverse relation between growth and acclimation. Two predictions of this hypothesis were tested and substantiated. PMID:16664982

  2. Dialkoxybenzene and dialkoxyallylbenzene feeding and oviposition deterrents against the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni: potential insect behavior control agents.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Yasmin; Yu, Yang; Isman, Murray B; Plettner, Erika

    2010-04-28

    The antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, and toxic effects of individual dialkoxybenzene compounds/sets and of hydroxy- or alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes, obtained through Claisen rearrangement of substituted allyloxybenzenes, were assessed against the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni , in laboratory bioassays. Most of the compounds/sets strongly deterred larval feeding, with some exhibiting mild toxic and oviposition deterrent effects as well. Some of the compounds/sets were more active than the commercial insect repellent, DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), as both feeding and oviposition deterrents against the cabbage looper. On the basis of the obtained oviposition data a general hypothesis was proposed regarding the oviposition sites: one binding mode with the alkyl and allyl groups on the same side of the benzene ring resulted in deterrence, the other with alkyl and allyl groups on opposite sides of the benzene ring resulted in stimulation. The results suggest some structure-activity relationships useful in improving the efficacy of the compounds and designing new, nontoxic insect control agents for agriculture. PMID:20225858

  3. Analyses of phenotype and ARGOS and ASY1 expression in a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ai Xia; Zhao, Jian Jun; Li, Li Min; Wang, Yan Hua; Zhao, Yu Jing; Hua, Fan; Xu, Yuan Chao; Shen, Shu Xing

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this research was to improve our understanding of how ploidy level influences phenotype and gene expression in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Haploid plants (2n = 10) was induced by 0.2% colchicine to produce diploid (2n = 20) and tetraploid plants (2n = 40). The aneuploid (2n = 24) was also obtained by hybridization between diploid plants as the female and tetraploid plants. The ploidy levels of all plants were identified through chromosome counts and flow cytometry. Leaves and petals became larger as the ploidy level increased from haploid to diploid, and from aneuploid to tetraploid. Similarly, expression of ARGOS was regulated by genome size, increasing in parallel with the level of ploidy. Among the four ploidy types, expression was stronger in the floral buds than in the leaves. Expression by ASY1 also differed according to ploidy level, being highest in diploid plants, followed in order by tetraploids. Expression was similar between haploids and aneuploids at two stages-prior to and after meiosis-but was higher in the haploids during meiosis. When buds were compared within the same ploidy type at different stages, ASY1 expression was obviously higher during meiosis than either before or after. Our study demonstrated the generation and phenotype of a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid. Expression of genes ARGOS and ASY1 were modulated by genome size in this ploidy series, and the regulated patterns of the two genes was different. PMID:27162487

  4. Live imaging technique for studies of growth and development of Chinese cabbage under microgravity in a recoverable satellite (SJ-8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huiqiong; Wei, Ning; Chen, Aidi

    The live imaging techniques have been developed and applied to investigate for the first time the growth and development of Chinese cabbage for 18 d under microgravity conditions on board the Chinese SJ-8 recoverable satellite. These experiments offer insight into plant behaviors operating during plant development in space. Two automatic, preprogrammed CCD cameras were installed in the plant experimental chamber. The experimental objectives were: 1) seed germination; 2) Seedling growth; 3) Flower opening and pollination. The growth of seedlings and flowers were followed by time lapse photography at 2h intervals. Serial real-time images of the Chinese cabbage plant growth under microgravity were successfully obtained through the remote operating system. The image data obtained from space experiment, in comparison with the results from ground control (1g) and 3-D clinostat stimulate experiments, showed that the height of plant and the number of leaves were significantly reduced under the microgravity conditions, but characters of leaf arrangement and leaf shape were not altered obviously. Flower opening and expansion were inhibited by exposed to space flight condition. The petals of flowers from both SJ-8 grown plants and clinostat rotated plants couldn't fully expand before wilted.

  5. Hydrogen-rich water enhances cadmium tolerance in Chinese cabbage by reducing cadmium uptake and increasing antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Cai, Jiangtao; Shen, Zhenguo; Cui, Jin

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present paper was to understand the specific mechanism of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) in alleviating cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. chinensis L.). Our results showed that the addition of 50% saturation HRW significantly alleviated the Cd toxic symptoms, including the improvement of both root elongation and seedling growth inhibition. These responses were consistent with a significant decrease of Cd accumulation in roots and shoots, which was further confirmed by the histochemical staining. Molecular evidence illustrated that Cd-induced up-regulations of IRT1 and Nramp1 genes, responsible for Cd absorption, were blocked by HRW. By contrast, Cd-induced up-regulation of the HMA3 gene, which regulates Cd sequestration into the root vacuoles, was substantially strengthened by HRW. Furthermore, compared with those in Cd stress alone, the expressions of HMA2 and HMA4, which function in the transportation of Cd to xylem, were repressed by co-treatment with HRW. HRW enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. These results were further confirmed by the alleviation of oxidative damage, as indicated by the decrease of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Taken together, these results suggest that the improvement of Cd tolerance by HRW was associated with reduced Cd uptake and increased antioxidant defense capacities. Therefore, the application of HRW may be a promising strategy to improve Cd tolerance of Chinese cabbage. PMID:25543863

  6. SnRK1 Phosphorylation of AL2 Delays Cabbage Leaf Curl Virus Infection in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Dallas, Mary Beth; Goshe, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Geminivirus AL2/C2 proteins play key roles in establishing infection and causing disease in their plant hosts. They are involved in viral gene expression, counter host defenses by suppressing transcriptional gene silencing, and interfere with the host signaling involved in pathogen resistance. We report here that begomovirus and curtovirus AL2/C2 proteins interact strongly with host geminivirus Rep-interacting kinases (GRIKs), which are upstream activating kinases of the protein kinase SnRK1, a global regulator of energy and nutrient levels in plants. We used an in vitro kinase system to show that GRIK-activated SnRK1 phosphorylates recombinant AL2/C2 proteins from several begomoviruses and to map the SnRK1 phosphorylation site to serine-109 in the AL2 proteins of two New World begomoviruses: Cabbage Leaf Curl Virus (CaLCuV) and Tomato mottle virus. A CaLCuV AL2 S109D phosphomimic mutation did not alter viral DNA levels in protoplast replication assays. In contrast, the phosphomimic mutant was delayed for symptom development and viral DNA accumulation during infection of Arabidopsis thaliana, demonstrating that SnRK1 contributes to host defenses against CaLCuV. Our observation that serine-109 is not conserved in all AL2/C2 proteins that are SnRK1 substrates in vitro suggested that phosphorylation of viral proteins by plant kinases contributes to the evolution of geminivirus-host interactions. IMPORTANCE Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious diseases in many crops. Dicot-infecting geminiviruses carry genes that encode multifunctional AL2/C2 proteins that are essential for infection. However, it is not clear how AL2/C2 proteins are regulated. Here, we show that the host protein kinase SnRK1, a central regulator of energy balance and nutrient metabolism in plants, phosphorylates serine-109 in AL2 proteins of three subgroups of New World begomoviruses, resulting in a delay in viral DNA accumulation and symptom appearance. Our results support SnRK1's antiviral role and reveal a novel mechanism underlying this function. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that AL2 S109 evolved as begomoviruses migrated from the Old World to the New World and may have provided a selective advantage as begomoviruses adapted to a different environment and different plant hosts. This study provides new insights into the interaction of viral pathogens with their plant hosts at the level of viral protein modification by the host. PMID:24990996

  7. Seasonal dynamics of three insect pests in the cabbage field in central Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Trdan, Stanislav; Vidrih, Matej; Bobnar, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of April until the beginning of November 2006, a seasonal dynamics of three harmful insect species--Swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii [Kieffer], Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella [L.], Lepidoptera, Plutellidae)--was investigated at the Laboratory Field of the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana (Slovenia). The males were monitored with pheromone traps; the males of Swede midge were trapped with the traps of Swiss producer (Agroscope FAW, Wädenswill), while the adult flea beetles (trap type KLP+) and diamondback moths (trap type RAG) were trapped with the Hungarian traps (Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences). The pheromone capsules were changed in 4-week intervals, while the males were counted on about every 7th day. The first massive occurrence of diamondback moth (1.6 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of April, and the pest remained active until the 2nd 10 days period of September. The adults were the most numerous in the period between the end of May until the middle of June, but even then their number did not exceed three males caught per day. In the first 10 days period of May, the first adult flea beetles were recorded in the pheromone traps, while their notable number (0.8 males/trap/day) was stated in the third 10 days period of May. Absolutely the highest number of the beetles was recorded in the second (19 adults/trap/day) and in the third (25 adults/trap/day) 10 days of July, and the pest occurred until the beginning of October. The first massive occurrence of Swede midge (0.4 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of May, while the highest number of males (8/trap/day) were caught in the second 10 days period of July. In the third 10 days period of October, the last adults were found in the traps. Based on the results of monitoring of three cabbage insect pests we ascertained that in the central Slovenia the Swede midge has 3-4 generations, the flea beetles has 1-2 generations, and the diamondback moth has 4 generations. PMID:19226795

  8. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zheng-Miao; Wang, Bi-Ling; Sun, Ye-Fang; Li, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phyto-availability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m(2) soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment. PMID:16365925

  9. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zheng-miao; Wang, Bi-ling; Sun, Ye-fang; Li, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phytoavailability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m2 soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment. PMID:16365925

  10. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

    2010-12-01

    An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment. PMID:21443002

  11. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants. PMID:26679081

  12. Influence of organic and conventional growing conditions on the nutrient contents of white head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) during two successive seasons.

    PubMed

    Citak, Sedat; Sonmez, Sahriye

    2010-02-10

    Organically and conventionally grown white head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) plants were cultivated during two successive seasons (spring and autumn) to evaluate the effects of the applications on the nutrient content of the edible part of cabbage plants. Seventeen different organic applications containing farmyard manure (FM), chicken manure (CM), and blood meal (BM) and 1 chemical fertilizer and 1 control, collectively 19 treatments, were examined under the open-field conditions. Recommendations of the best results obtained should be divided into groups in the following order regarding the mineral contents and also the seasons: 0.6 BM + 7.5 FM in the spring season, and 3.5 CM in the autumn season for N, P, and K content of cabbage. For Ca and Mg, the group division should be 1.7 CM + 0.6 BM in the spring season and 10.0 FM + 1.2 CM in the autumn season. The optimum recommendations for the micronutrients could be 5.0 FM + 1.0 BM in the spring season and 0.9 BM + 0.85 CM in the autumn season for Fe and Cu and 15.0 FM in the spring season, and 10.0 FM + 0.4 BM in the autumn season for Mn and Zn. FM and CM could be used in high rates in producing organic cabbage and could be substituted for chemical fertilizer especially in the spring season. PMID:20088503

  13. Characterizing volatiles and attractiveness of five brassicaceous plants with potential for a 'push-pull' strategy toward the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum.

    PubMed

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Dugravot, Sébastien; Danner, Holger; van Dam, Nicole M; Cortesero, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) released by plants are involved in various orientation processes of herbivorous insects and consequently play a crucial role in their reproductive success. In the context of developing new strategies for crop protection, several studies have previously demonstrated the possibility to limit insect density on crops using either host or non-host plants that release attractive or repellent VOCs, respectively. The cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, is an important pest of brassicaceous crops for which control methods have to be implemented. Several studies have shown that plant odors influence cabbage root fly behavior, but only few VOCs have been identified so far. The present study aimed at selecting both plants and olfactory stimuli that could be used in the development of a "push-pull" strategy against the cabbage root fly. Olfactometer results revealed that plants belonging to the same family, even to the same species, may exhibit different levels of attractiveness toward D. radicum. Plants that were found attractive in behavioral observations were characterized by high release rates of distinct terpenes, such as linalool, β-caryophyllene, humulene, and α-farnesene. This study represents a first step to identify both attractive plants of agronomic interest, and additional volatiles that could be used in the context of trap crops to protect broccoli fields against the cabbage root fly. PMID:25893791

  14. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53, a potent biocontrol agent resists Rhizoctonia disease on Chinese cabbage through hormonal and antioxidants regulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani is one of the causal agents of numerous diseases that affect crop growth and yield. The aim of this present investigation was to identify a biocontrol agent that acts against R. solani and to determine the agent's protective effect through phytohormones and antioxidant regulation in experimentally infected Chinese cabbage plants. Four rhizospheric soil bacterial isolates GR53, GR169, GR786, and GR320 were tested for their antagonistic activity against R. solani. Among these isolates, GR53 significantly suppressed fungal growth. GR53 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. The biocontrol activity of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 was tested in Chinese cabbage plants under controlled conditions. Results showed that R. solani inhibited plant growth (length, width, fresh and dry weight of leaves) by reducing chlorophyll and total phenolic content, as well as by increasing the levels of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and DPPH scavenging activity. By regulating the levels of these compounds, the co-inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 heightened induced systemic resistance in infected Chinese cabbage, effectively mitigating R. solani-induced damaging effects and improving plant growth. The results obtained from this study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 is an effective biocontrol agent to prevent the damage caused by R. solani in Chinese cabbage plants. PMID:26160009

  15. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations. PMID:12798783

  16. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment. PMID:22874538

  17. Characterization and expression profiling of MYB transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-01

    MYB proteins comprise a large family of plant transcription factors that play regulatory roles in different biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and defense responses. To gain insight into this gene superfamily and to elucidate its roles in stress resistance, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of MYB genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). We identified 475 Chinese cabbage MYB genes, among which most were from R2R3-MYB (256 genes) and MYB-related (202) subfamilies. Analysis of sequence characteristics, phylogenetic classification, and protein motif structures confirmed the existence of several categories (1R, 2R, 3R, 4R, and 5R) of Chinese cabbage MYB genes, which is comparable with MYB genes of other crops. An extensive in silico functional analysis, based on established functional properties of MYB genes from different crop species, revealed 11 and four functional clades within the Chinese cabbage R2R3-MYB and MYB-related subfamilies, respectively. In this study, we reported a MYB-like group within the MYB-related subfamily contains 77 MYB genes. Expression analysis using low temperature-treated whole-genome microarray data revealed variable transcript abundance of 1R/2R/3R/4R/5R-MYB genes in 11 clusters between two inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, Chiifu and Kenshin, which differ in cold tolerance. In further validation tests, we used qRT-PCR to examine the cold-responsive expression patterns of 27 BrMYB genes; surprisingly, the MYB-related genes were induced more highly than the R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, we identified 10 genes with corresponsive expression patterns from a set of salt-, drought-, ABA-, JA-, and SA-induced R2R3-MYB genes. We identified 11 R2R3-MYBs functioning in resistance against biotic stress, including 10 against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and one against Pectobacterium carotovoram subsp. caratovorum. Furthermore, based on organ-specific expression data, we identified nine R2R3-MYBs that were constitutively expressed in male reproductive tissue, which may provide an important key for studying male sterility in Chinese cabbage. The extensive annotation and transcriptome profiling reported in this study will be useful for understanding the involvement of MYB genes in stress resistance in addition to their growth regulatory functions, ultimately providing the basis for functional characterization and exploitation of the candidate MYB genes for genetic engineering of Chinese cabbage. PMID:27038155

  18. Diet-Regulated Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michelle; Mercer, Julian G.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of noncommunicable disease originates in habitual overconsumption of calories, which can lead to weight gain and obesity and attendant comorbidities. At the other end of the spectrum, the consequences of undernutrition in early life and at different stages of adult life can also have major impact on wellbeing and quality of life. To help address some of these issues, greater understanding is required of interactions with food and contemporary diets throughout the life course and at a number of different levels: physiological, metabolic, psychological, and emotional. Here we review the current literature on the effects of dietary manipulation on anxiety-like behaviour. This evidence, assembled from study of preclinical models of diet challenge from gestation to adult life, supports a role for diet in the important connections between psychology, physiology, and behaviour. Analogous processes in the human population in our current obesogenic environment are likely to contribute to individual and societal challenges in this area. PMID:24027581

  19. Diet and Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Samir P.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it was thought that many common dermatological conditions had no relationship to diet. Studies from recent years, however, have made it clear that diet may influence outcome. In this review, the authors focus on conditions for which the role of diet has traditionally been an underappreciated aspect of therapy. In some cases, dietary interventions may influence the course of the skin disease, as in acne. In others, dietary change may serve as one aspect of prevention, such as in skin cancer and aging of the skin. In others, dermatological disease may be linked to systemic disease, and dietary changes may affect health outcomes, as in psoriasis. Lastly, systemic medications prescribed for dermatological disease, such as steroids, are known to raise the risk of other diseases, and dietary change may reduce this risk. PMID:25053983

  20. Diet affects spawning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Michelle L; Rizzuto, Noel V; Brown, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Seven-month-old zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed four different diets to test the hypothesis that diet affects spawning success and resulting characteristics of eggs and offspring. The diets were: the recommended feeding regime for zebrafish (a mixture of Artemia, flake feed, and liver paste); Artemia; a flake feed; and a commercially available trout diet. The number of eggs laid and average egg diameter were significantly different as functions of male, female, and individual matings. Fish fed the flake diet produced significantly fewer eggs (mean, 116) than fish fed all other diets (means, 166-187). However, the percent hatch of eggs from fish fed the flake diet (62.5%) was significantly higher than from fish fed the trout diet (19.5%). The percentages of hatched eggs from fish fed the control diet (36.2%) or Artemia (35.6%) were not significantly different from each other or from fish fed the other two diets. Wet weight and diameter of eggs were not significantly affected by diet. Larval length was significantly higher from parents fed the flake diet (14.5 mm) compared to larvae from parents fed Artemia (13.7 mm). Length of larvae from fish fed the control or trout diets was intermediate and not significantly different from fish fed the flake diet or Artemia. Larval weight was not significantly affected by dietary treatment, but offspring from fish fed the flake diet were heavier than larvae from adults fed any of the other diets. Feeding adult zebrafish the flake diet alone resulted in more viable offspring and larger larvae and is a simpler feeding regime than the current recommendation. The authors recommend feeding adult zebrafish flake diets to satiation three times daily for maximum production of viable offspring. PMID:18041944

  1. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease. PMID:24264226

  2. Enhancing growth, phytochemical constituents and aphid resistance capacity in cabbage with foliar application of eckol--a biologically active phenolic molecule from brown seaweed.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Pendota, Srinivasa C; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-03-25

    Although foliar application of seaweed extracts on plant growth and development has and is extensively studied, reliable knowledge and understanding of the mode of action of particular compound(s) responsible for enhancing plant growth is lacking. A brown seaweed Ecklonia maxima is widely used commercially as a biostimulant to improve plant growth and crop protection. Eckol, a phenolic compound isolated from E. maxima has recently shown stimulatory effects in maize, indicating its potential use as a plant biostimulant. Cabbage is a widely cultivated vegetable crop throughout the world, which requires high input of fertilizers and is susceptible to several aphid borne diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application of eckol on the growth, phytochemical constituents and myrosinase activity (aphid resistance capacity) of commercially cultivated cabbage. Foliar application of eckol (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf number. This treatment also showed a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll 'a', chlorophyll 'b', total chlorophyll and carotenoid) compared to the untreated plants. The levels of protein, proline and iridoid glycosides were significantly higher in cabbage leaves with eckol treatment. All the control plants were severely infested with cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) but no infestation was observed on the eckol-sprayed plants, which can be attributed to an increase in myrosinase activity. This study reveals dual effects (plant growth promoting and insect repelling) of eckol on cabbage plants that need further investigations both under field conditions and in other brassicaceous species. PMID:26585339

  3. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  4. The Role of Dark Septate Endophytic Fungal Isolates in the Accumulation of Cesium by Chinese Cabbage and Tomato Plants under Contaminated Environments

    PubMed Central

    Diene, Ousmane; Sakagami, Nobuo; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the preservation of the food chain from radionuclides contamination has become of crucial importance. The potential of Dark septate endophytic fungi in the management of Cs accumulation in plants under contaminated environments was investigated using Chinese cabbage and tomato plants. Four endophytic fungal isolates of different species, i.e. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, Helminthosporium velutinum 41-1, and as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 were tested In Vitro in two levels of Cs (5ppm and 10ppm). On the plant growth, the inoculation of the selected DSEs to both Chinese cabbage and tomato resulted in an increased biomass of up to 82% and 122%, respectively compared to control (non-inoculated) plants. With regards to the Cs accumulation, it varied with the host plant considered. In Chinese cabbage, DSEs inoculation caused higher Cs accumulation in above ground plant parts, whereas in tomato, Cs accumulation decreased significantly with three of the isolates tested, i.e., V. simplex Y34, P. ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, and the as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 suggesting low-risk transfer on the above ground plants parts as a result of high and negative plant reactions rather than high and positive reactions as it is the case with Chinese cabbage. These results suggested that DSEs can be recommended for use with Chinese cabbage to enhance phytoremediation of Cs in surrounding contaminated areas. With tomato, DSEs can be recommended for decreasing the accumulation of Cs in plants under contaminated environments. PMID:25296037

  5. Overexpression of the Brassica rapa transcription factor WRKY12 results in reduced soft rot symptoms caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum in Arabidopsis and Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Park, Y H; Nam, H; Lee, Y M; Song, K; Choi, C; Ahn, I; Park, S R; Lee, Y H; Hwang, D J

    2014-09-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), an important vegetable crop, can succumb to diseases such as bacterial soft rot, resulting in significant loss of crop productivity and quality. Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum (Pcc) causes soft rot disease in various plants, including Chinese cabbage. To overcome crop loss caused by bacterial soft rot, a gene from Chinese cabbage was isolated and characterised in this study. We isolated the BrWRKY12 gene from Chinese cabbage, which is a group II member of the WRKY transcription factor superfamily. The 645-bp coding sequence of BrWRKY12 translates to a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 24.4 kDa, and BrWRKY12 was exclusively localised in the nucleus. Transcripts of BrWRKY12 were induced by Pcc infection in Brassica. Heterologous expression of BrWRKY12 resulted in reduced susceptibility to Pcc but not to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Arabidopsis. Defence-associated genes, such as AtPDF1.2 and AtPGIP2, were constitutively expressed in transgenic lines overexpressing BrWRKY12. The expression of AtWKRY12, which is the closest orthologue of BrWRKY12, was down-regulated by Pcc in Arabidopsis. However, the Atwrky12-2 mutants did not show any difference in response to Pcc, pointing to a difference in function of WRKY12 in Brassica and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, BrWRKY12 in Chinese cabbage also exhibited enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot and increased the expression of defence-associated genes. In summary, BrWRKY12 confers enhanced resistance to Pcc through transcriptional activation of defence-related genes. PMID:24552622

  6. The combination of aricept with a traditional Chinese medicine formula, smart soup, may be a novel way to treat Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Sui, Yi; Yu, Hongshuang; Shen, Xiaoheng; Chen, Shengdi; Pei, Gang; Zhao, Jian; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease affecting cognitive function in the elderly, which is characterized by the presence of extracellular deposits of insoluble amyloid-β plaques and neuronal loss. Modern pharmacology and drug development usually follow a single-target principle, which might contribute to the failure of most compounds in clinical trials against AD. Considering AD is a multifactorial disease, a combination therapeutic strategy that applies drugs with different mechanisms would be an alternative way. Smart Soup (SS), a Traditional Chinese Medicine formula, is composed of three herbaceous plants and has been applied in the treatment of amnesia in China for hundreds of years. In this work, we studied the clinical potency of the combination of SS and Aricept in AD therapy. In the in vivo model, both longevity and locomotive activity of AD transgenic Drosophila were improved remarkably in the combined medicine treated group. We also observed less amyloid-β deposition and retarded neuronal loss following the combined drug treatment. In the retrospective cohort study, we found the combination therapy exerted better therapeutic effect on AD patients. Our study revealed that combination therapy with multiple drug targets did have a better therapeutic outcome. It provides a new strategy to develop an optimum pharmaceutical approach against AD. PMID:25690664

  7. Chung-Yeul-Gue-Soup-Sa-Gan-Tang, traditional Korean medicine, enhances CD4(+) T cell activities and modulates Th1/Th2 lineage development.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjung; Park, Jae-Woo; Rho, Samwoong; Cho, Chongwoon; Park, Seongkyu; Ko, Seonggyu; Lee, Yongwon; Hong, Moo-Chang; Shin, Min-Kyu; Ryu, Ki-Won; Bae, Hyunsu

    2004-04-01

    Chung-Yeul-Gue-Soup-Sa-Gan-Tang (CYT), a traditional Korea herbal medicine, has been widely used in Korea for the treatment of various immunological disorders, including allergic asthma. In this study, CYT was examined in vitro and tested for possible immunological effects. The results demonstrated that CYT had no mitogenic effects on unstimulated CD4(+) T cells, but rather increased CD4(+) T cell proliferation upon activation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody. Under the Th0 condition, CYT also enhanced expression of interleukin (IL)-2 in purified murine CD4(+) T cells assayed by real-time PCR, suggesting that CYT moderately increases the activity of helper T cells upon T cell receptor ligation under the neutral condition. However, the Th1 cells were overpopulated following CYT treatment under the Th1 condition, while Th2 cells were under-populated in the Th2 driven condition. In addition, under Th1/Th2-skewed conditions, the levels of IL-4 were considerably decreased, while the expression of T-bet and interferon-gamma were increased with CYT treatment. Thus, CYT enhances Th1 lineage development from naive CD4(+) T cells both by increasing Th1 specific cytokine secretion and repressing Th2 specific cytokine production. These results suggest that CYT is a desirable agent for the correction of Th2 dominant pathological disorders. PMID:15107575

  8. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST.

  9. Parental Encouragement of Dieting Promotes Daughters' Early Dieting

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Savage, Jennifer S.; Marini, Michele E.; Birch, Leann L.

    2014-01-01

    Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported “early dieting” (prior to age 11y) and adolescent dieting (between 11y and 15y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughter BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were age 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11y and by 15y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared to girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9y to 15y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls. PMID:24858835

  10. Estimation of habitual iodine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d diet records over four seasons with a newly developed food composition database for iodine.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Miura, Ayako; Todoriki, Hidemi; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-08-28

    Although habitual seaweed consumption in Japan would suggest that iodine intake in Japanese is exceptionally high, intake data from diet records are limited. In the present study, we developed a composition database of iodine and estimated the habitual intake of iodine among Japanese adults. Missing values for iodine content in the existing composition table were imputed based on established criteria. 16 d diet records (4 d over four seasons) from adults (120 women aged 30-69 years and 120 men aged 30-76 years) living in Japan were collected, and iodine intake was estimated. Habitual intake was estimated with the Best-power method. Totally, 995 food items were imputed. The distribution of iodine intake in 24 h was highly skewed, and approximately 55 % of 24 h values were < 300 μg/d. The median iodine intake in 24 h was 229 μg/d for women and 273 μg/d for men. All subjects consumed iodine-rich foods (kelp or soup stock) on one or more days of the sixteen survey days. The mean (median) habitual iodine intake was 1414 (857) μg/d for women and 1572 (1031) μg/d for men. Older participants had higher intake than younger participants. The major contributors to iodine intake were kelp (60 %) and soup stock (30 %). Habitual iodine intake among Japanese was sufficient or higher than the tolerable upper intake level, particularly in older generations. The association between high iodine intake as that observed in the present study and thyroid disease requires further study. PMID:26197981

  11. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development in children, teens, and pregnant women.

  12. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  13. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  14. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  15. Development of a Specific Diagnostic System for Detecting Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus from Chinese Cabbage in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Rho, J Y

    2016-03-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) is a plant pathogenic virus transmitted mainly through its host Brassica spp. TYMV is originated from Europe. Its infection cases have been reported in Australia, Brazil, Turkey, and Japan. Symptoms similar to those of TYMV infections were also reported in Korea in 2012. In this study, we developed RT-PCR primer pairs that were highly sensitive for detecting TYMV. The developed RT-PCR primer pairs offered about 10-100 times stronger detection sensitivity compared to primer pairs previously used in Korea. As a result, a 491 bp TYMV-specific band was identified. The specific band was confirmed to be TYMV based on sequencing results and phylogenetic analysis. The RT-PCR primer pairs developed in this study can be used to rapidly and precisely diagnose TYMV in agricultural products such as Chinese cabbage and other crops infected by TYMV. PMID:26843703

  16. Simultaneous determination of flubendiamide its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide residues in cabbage, tomato and pigeon pea by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Banerjee, Hemanta

    2011-10-01

    A sensitive and simple method for simultaneous analysis of flubendiamide and its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide in cabbage, tomato and pigeon pea has been developed. The residues were extracted with QuEChERS method followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent to remove co extractives, prior to analysis by HPLC coupled with UV-Vis detector. The recoveries of flubendiamide and desiodo flubendiamide were ranged from 85.1 to 98.5% and 85.9 to 97.1% respectively with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 5% and sensitivity of 0.01 μg g(-1). The method offers a less expensive and safer alternative to the existing residue analysis methods for vegetables. PMID:21858703

  17. Risk Assessment Studies: Detailed Host Range Testing of Wild-Type Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Cathy J.; Hirst, Mark L.; Cory, Jenny S.; Entwistle, Philip F.

    1990-01-01

    The host range of a multiply enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) (Baculoviridae) isolated from the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined by challenging a wide range of insect species with high (106 polyhedral inclusion bodies) and low (103 polyhedral inclusion bodies) doses of the virus. The identity of the progeny virus was confirmed by dot blotting. Analysis of 50% lethal dose was carried out on selected species, and the progeny virus was identified by using restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blotting. Other than the Lepidoptera, none of the species tested was susceptible to M. brassicae NPV. Within the Lepidoptera, M. brassicae NPV was infective to members of four families (Noctuidae, Geometridae, Yponomeutidae, and Nymphalidae). Of 66 lepidopterous species tested, M. brassicae NPV was cross-infective to 32 of them; however, 91% of the susceptible species were in the Noctuidae. The relevance of host range data in risk assessment studies is discussed. Images PMID:16348279

  18. Cabbage compression early breast care on breast engorgement in primiparous women after cesarean birth: a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lim, A-Reum; Song, Ji-Ah; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lee, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of cabbage compression early breast care (CCEBC) and early breast care (EBC) on breast pain, breast hardness with general nursing breast care (GNBC) in primiparous women after cesarean birth. Sixty participants were divided to three groups including CCEBC, EBC and GNBC. Each group was treated with its intervention respectively more than 10 minutes before breast feeding from day two to day four after delivery. The primary outcomes were breast pain and breast hardness. Both CCEBC and EBC showed significantly lower pain level than GNBC at day 4 after delivery. There are significant differences of breast hardness among three groups. CCEBC group showed significantly lower breast hardness compared with EBC and GNBC. Neither core body temperature nor breast skin temperature was significantly different among the three groups. In conclusion, CCEBC may effective in relieving breast pain and breast hardness compared with EBC alone and GNBC in primiparous women after a cesarean birth. PMID:26885074

  19. Glycine conjugates in a lepidopteran insect herbivore--the metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Fredd; Svatos, Ales; Schneider, Bernd; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wittstock, Ute

    2006-12-01

    Herbivores have developed a wide array of countermeasures to overcome plants' chemical defences. Larvae of the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae, feed exclusively on plants of the Brassicales order, which are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system. The defensive function of this system comes from toxic isothiocyanates that are formed when glucosinolates are hydrolysed by myrosinases upon tissue damage. Here we show that P. rapae larvae convert benzylglucosinolate to phenylacetylglycine, which is released in their faeces. Feeding experiments with isotopic tracers suggest that phenylacetonitrile and phenylacetic acid are intermediates in this conversion. We also identified additional glycine and isoserine (2-hydroxy-3-aminopropanoic acid) conjugates with benzoate and indole-3-carboxylate from P. rapae faeces extracts. This is the first description of such conjugates from lepidopteran insects. PMID:17086559

  20. Rapid evolution and the cost of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in greenhouse populations of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Janmaat, Alida F; Myers, Judith

    2003-11-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become the mainstay of non-chemical control of Lepidopteran pests, either as sprays or through the incorporation of Bt toxins into transgenic crops. Given the wide use of Bt, it is striking that currently only one pest species, Plutella xylostella, has been reported to have developed significant resistance to Bt outside the laboratory. By contrast, we report here the frequent and rapid development of resistance to B. thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel, Abbott) in populations of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni, in commercial greenhouses. Resistance to Bt appears to be costly and there is a rapid decline of resistance in populations collected from greenhouses and maintained in the laboratory without selection. Management of pests resistant to Bt in vegetable greenhouses will require sporadic use of Bt-based sprays or alternatively use of sprays containing other Bt toxins. PMID:14613613

  1. Rapid evolution and the cost of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in greenhouse populations of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed Central

    Janmaat, Alida F; Myers, Judith

    2003-01-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become the mainstay of non-chemical control of Lepidopteran pests, either as sprays or through the incorporation of Bt toxins into transgenic crops. Given the wide use of Bt, it is striking that currently only one pest species, Plutella xylostella, has been reported to have developed significant resistance to Bt outside the laboratory. By contrast, we report here the frequent and rapid development of resistance to B. thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel, Abbott) in populations of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni, in commercial greenhouses. Resistance to Bt appears to be costly and there is a rapid decline of resistance in populations collected from greenhouses and maintained in the laboratory without selection. Management of pests resistant to Bt in vegetable greenhouses will require sporadic use of Bt-based sprays or alternatively use of sprays containing other Bt toxins. PMID:14613613

  2. Rearing insects on artificial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are reared in the laboratory for various purposes. They may be reared either on their natural food or artificial diets. Developing artificial diets may be difficult and time consuming but once optimized, artificial diets usually are simple to prepare and easy to use. Because they are process...

  3. Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Control.

    PubMed

    Bažok, Renata; Ceranić-Sertić, Mirna; Barčić, Jasminka Igrc; Borošić, Josip; Kozina, Antonela; Kos, Tomislav; Lemić, Darija; Čačija, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 °C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was determined. Seasonal flight activity during the cultivation season of a mid-early variety of white cabbage was correlated with DDA and JD and was characterized by having two peaks. The first peak occurred between 119 ± 7.5 JD and 125.5 ± 8 JD when DDA was 471.35 ± 74.97 °C. The second occurred between 172.8 ± 6.1 JD and 179.3 ± 6.7 JD when DDA was 1,217.28 ± 96.12 °C. The DDA, cumulative capture of flies and JD are suitable for predicting the timing of insecticide application. Spraying with insecticides should be applied when the cumulative capture of flies reaches 100 flies/YST and when DDA reaches 400 °C. If only one parameter reaches the threshold, additional visual surveys should be employed to establish the level of infestation. Insecticides were able to ensure only partial control. In the future, alternative control tactics which employ seed treatments and nonpesticide measures should be investigated in Croatia. PMID:26466723

  4. Resynthesized lines and cultivars of Brassica napus L. provide sources of resistance to the cabbage stem weevil ( Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Mrsh.)).

    PubMed

    Eickermann, M; Ulber, B; Vidal, S

    2011-06-01

    The cabbage stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Mrsh.)) (Col., Curculionidae) is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera Metzg.) in central and northern Europe. Although host-plant resistance is a key tool in integrated pest management systems, resistant genotypes are not yet available for this species. Resynthesized rapeseed lines (B. oleracea L.×B. rapa L.) are broadening the genetic diversity and might have potential as sources of resistance to pest insects. The host quality, of nine resynthesized rapeseed lines and six genotypes of B. napus to cabbage stem weevil, was evaluated in laboratory screening tests and in a semi-field experiment. In dual-choice oviposition tests, female C. pallidactylus laid significantly fewer eggs on five resyntheses and on swede cv 'Devon Champion' than on the moderately susceptible oilseed rape cv 'Express', indicating a lower host quality of these genotypes. Results of laboratory screenings were confirmed in a semi-field experiment, in which twelve genotypes were exposed to C. pallidactylus females. The number of larvae was significantly lower in two resyntheses and in cv 'Devon Champion' than in oilseed rape cv WVB 9. The total, as well as individual, glucosinolate (GSL) content in the leaves differed substantially among the genotypes tested. The amount of feeding by larvae of C. pallidactylus, as measured by a stem-injury coefficient, was positively correlated with the indolyl GSL compounds 3-indolylmethyl and 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl, and with the aromatic GSL 2-phenylethyl, whereas it was negatively correlated with 4-hydroxy-3-indolylmethyl. Thus, the composition and concentration of GSL compounds within the plant tissue might be a key factor in breeding for pest resistance in oilseed rape. PMID:21092380

  5. Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Control

    PubMed Central

    Bažok, Renata; Ceranić-Sertić, Mirna; Barčić, Jasminka Igrc; Borošić, Josip; Kozina, Antonela; Kos, Tomislav; Lemić, Darija; Čačija, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 °C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was determined. Seasonal flight activity during the cultivation season of a mid-early variety of white cabbage was correlated with DDA and JD and was characterized by having two peaks. The first peak occurred between 119 ± 7.5 JD and 125.5 ± 8 JD when DDA was 471.35 ± 74.97 °C. The second occurred between 172.8 ± 6.1 JD and 179.3 ± 6.7 JD when DDA was 1,217.28 ± 96.12 °C. The DDA, cumulative capture of flies and JD are suitable for predicting the timing of insecticide application. Spraying with insecticides should be applied when the cumulative capture of flies reaches 100 flies/YST and when DDA reaches 400 °C. If only one parameter reaches the threshold, additional visual surveys should be employed to establish the level of infestation. Insecticides were able to ensure only partial control. In the future, alternative control tactics which employ seed treatments and nonpesticide measures should be investigated in Croatia. PMID:26466723

  6. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes. PMID:23186839

  7. [Controversies around diet proteins].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    Critical theories regarding proteins of anima origin are still and still popularized, though they are ungrounded from scientific point of view. Predominance of soya proteins over the animal ones in relation to their influence on calcium metabolism, bone break risk or risk of osteoporosis morbidity has not been confirmed in any honest, reliable research experiment. Statement, that sulphur amino acids influence disadvantageously on calcium metabolism of human organism and bone status, is completely groundless, the more so as presence of sulphur amino acids in diet (animal proteins are their best source) is the condition of endogenic synthesis of glutathione, the key antioxidant of the organism, and taurine stimulating brain functioning. Deficiency of proteins in the diet produce weakness of intellectual effectiveness and immune response. There is no doubt that limitation of consumption of animal proteins of standard value is not good for health. PMID:24490473

  8. Protein and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate A; Munn, Elizabeth A; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds. Eggs and dairy products also provide protein for those following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. PMID:25369930

  9. DIET AND TISSUE GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Arthur H.; Moise, T. S.

    1927-01-01

    The rate of compensatory enlargement of the remaining kidney after unilateral nephrectomy has been studied in adult rats fed diets containing various concentrations of protein. A curve of enlargement on "standard" food (18 per cent casein) shows a rapid initial increase with subsequent slower rise to the 120th day. There is no significant difference between the value at 120 days (44 per cent) and that at 150 days (48 per cent). A similar series with diets containing increasing concentrations of protein but with a constant time interval (21 days) after nephrectomy shows an increase in the degree of enlargement directly proportional to the protein content of the food. The values vary from 24 per cent with the 18 per cent casein ration to 77 per cent with the 90 per cent casein diet. A third series shows the enlargement on "high protein" food (85 per cent casein). The values vary from 49 per cent at 3 days to 121 per cent at 150 days. There is no significant difference between the value at 120 days (123 per cent) and that at 150 days (121 per cent). Determinations of total solids on the experimental kidneys show that the recorded enlargement involves mainly an actual tissue increase. PMID:19869250

  10. Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Divisi, Duilio; Di Tommaso, Sergio; Salvemini, Salvatore; Garramone, Margherita; Crisci, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between diet and cancer development. It has been estimated that 30-40% of all kinds of cancer can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle and dietary measures. A low use of fibres, the intake of red meat and an imbalance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fats may contribute to increase the risk of cancer. On the other hand, the assumption of lots of fruit and vegetables may lower the risk of cancer. Protective elements in a cancer-preventive diet include selenium, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin D, chlorophyll and antioxidants such as carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, cryptoxanthin). Ascorbic acid has limited benefits if taken orally, but it effective through intravenous injection. A supplementary use of oral digestive enzymes and probiotics is also an anticancer dietary measure. A diet drawn up according to the proposed guidelines could decrease the incidence of breast, colon-rectal, prostate and bronchogenic cancer. PMID:17172193

  11. [Diet low in potassium].

    PubMed

    Sáez Rodríguez, Loreto; Meizoso Ameneiro, Ana; Pérez Paz, Ma Jesús; Valiño Pazos, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    After confirming the high prevalence rates in our hemodialysis unit of the following nursing diagnoses: nutritional imbalances--both excesses and shortages, willingness to improve nutrition and fear related to the consequences of excessive intake of potassium and manifested by the inhibition in some people towards the enjoyment of food, we decided to plan an educational strategy which later resulted in a nursing intervention for these diagnoses, with the objective of providing adequate resources for the monitoring of balanced diets with a restriction of potassium. Inspired by dietary rations, as well as recognized dietary programs of learning by points, we decided to incorporate these ideas to design an educational tool to facilitate advice to our patients on how to follow diet plans as well as the choice of appropriate foods. The result was a set of cards incorporating nutritional information of various kinds, aimed at our patients covering different aspects of the diet appropriate food rations using household measurements, promoting good food preparation, appropriate dietary advice for different chronic diseases and a scoring system of foods according to their potassium content. Together they form a board game available during the hemodialysis sessions that also takes into consideration other issues of importance related to conditions such as cognitive stimulation, coping with the disease, improving the therapeutic performance or resources to increase patient motivation. Although initially it was only an educational exercise, the result has turned out to be both enjoyable and entertaining. PMID:25546901

  12. Acne and diet.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3) PMID:15556724

  13. Quantitative profiling of glucosinolates by LC-MS analysis reveals several cultivars of cabbage and kale as promising sources of sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Katsunori; Neyazaki, Makiko; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ogawa, Toshiya; Momose, Masaki

    2012-08-15

    Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate well known for its potential health benefits. With the aim of finding sulforaphane supply sources, its precursor, glucoraphanin, was widely searched for among Brassica oleracea varieties. Quantitative profiling of seven glucosinolates by LC-MS analysis was performed on 6 cultivars of broccoli, 32 of cabbage and 24 cultivars of kale. The glucoraphanin levels found in three cultivars of cabbage and six cultivars of kale were comparable with, or even higher than, the highest of broccoli (119.4 mg/100g FW). The most promising group belonged to the black kale, Cavolo nero. Use of a C30 column and an ammonium formate buffer in LC-MS and a micro plate solid phase extraction technique was highly effective. PMID:22857862

  14. Ternary Cu2SnS3 cabbage-like nanostructures: large-scale synthesis and their application in Li-ion batteries with superior reversible capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Baihua; Li, Hongxing; Zhang, Ming; Mei, Lin; Chen, Libao; Wang, Yanguo; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, novel ternary Cu2SnS3 cabbage-like nanostructures are synthesized on a large scale via a facile solvothermal route. The individual Cu2SnS3 cabbage-like hierarchitecture is constructed from 2D nanosheets with thickness of about 15.6 nm. The Cu2SnS3 electrodes exhibit an initial reversible capacity of 842 mAh g-1 and still reach 621 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles. Such an admirable performance could be related to their 3D porous structural features as well as the high electrical conductivity induced by Cu. The electrochemical properties of the 3D hierarchical nanostructures imply its potential application in high energy density Li-ion batteries.

  15. Characterisation of anthocyanins in red cabbage using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse and tentatively identify anthocyanin species in red cabbage using HPLC/DAD-ESI/Qtrap MS. The extraction was realized by using a pressurized liquid technique and the separation of the pigments was achieved by a high resolution liquid chromatography system with a 1.8μm particles C-18 column. Photodiode array detection was employed to determine the UV/Vis spectral characteristic of the pigments. Electrospray ionization-linear ion trap mass spectrometry allowed the specific determination of the fragmentation patterns of the anthocyanins, by performing different ion scan modes. Twenty four anthocyanins were separated and identified, all having cyanidin as aglycon, represented as mono- and/or di-glycoside, and acylated, or not, with aromatic and aliphatic acids. Nine anthocyanins were identified for the first time in red cabbage. PMID:26054284

  16. Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Na, U.

    2010-12-01

    It has been recognized that intensively managed agricultural soil is a dominant source of atmospheric N2O through increase in use of nitrogen fertilizer and soil microbial processes, contributing to about 57% (9Tg y-1) of total N2O annual global emission. Organic carbons in soil and wetland sediment including tidal flat affect the CO2 and CH4 emission in such environments depending on their physicochemical conditions. From October 2009 to June 2010, CO2, CH4, and N2O (GHG) soil emission measurements were conducted from upland cabbage field at Kunsan (35o56’23’’N, 126o43’14’’E), Korea by using closed static chamber method. During the experimental period, hourly GHG emissions were conducted mostly from 1000 to 1800LST in each field measurement day (total 28 days). After placing each chamber over soil surface of two neighboring plots, 50 ml of air sample inside the chambers was taken for every 15 min over a 30 min period by using plastic syringes (total of three samples). GHG concentrations were simultaneously analyzed in the laboratory by using a GC equipped with a methanizer, FID and ECD (Varian CP3800). The GHG fluxes were calculated from a linear regression of the changes in the concentrations. Negative values indicate GHG uptake by the soil surface, and positive values indicate GHG emission to the atmosphere. In addition, soil parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, pH, organic C, soil N) were measured at the sampling plot. The average soil pH and soil moisture during the experimental period was ~pH5.4±0.4 and 70.0±19.7 %WFPS, respectively. The average fluxes and ranges of GHG during the experimental period were -0.004±0.032 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-0.087 ~ 0.045 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CH4, 5.32±57.63 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-92.96 ~ 139.38 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CO2, and 1.119±1.918 mg-m-2 hr-1 (0.077 ~ 8.409 mg-m-2 hr-1) for N2O, respectively. Monthly base flux measurement results revealed that monthly means of CO2 and CH4 flux during October (fall) was positive and significantly higher than those (negative value) during January (winter) when sub soil have low temperature and relatively high moisture due to snow during the winter measurement period. Averages of soil temperature and moisture during these months were 17.5±1.2oC, 45.7±8.2%WFPS for October; and 1.4±1.3oC, 89.9±8.8%WFPS for January. It may indicate that soil temperature and moisture have significant role in determining whether the CO2 and CH4 emission or uptake take place. Low temperature and high moisture above a certain optimum level during winter could weaken microbial activity and the gas diffusion in soil matrix, and then make soil GHG emission to the atmosphere decrease. Other soil parameters were also correlated with GHG emissions and discussed. Both positive and negative gas fluxes in CH4 and CO2 were observed during these measurements, but not for N2O. CH4 and CO2 gases seem to be emitted from soil surface or up taken by the soil depending on other factors such as background concentrations and physicochemical soil conditions. However, still there are many uncertainties and large scarcities in both their determination methods and soil GHG flux data. Improvement of measurement techniques and well-understanding of relationships between gas emission and controlling factors in such environments need to be required.

  17. Correlation of leaf senescence and gene expression/activities of chlorophyll degradation enzymes in harvested Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuelian; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Li, Jin; Wu, Lajie; Guo, Jiongye; Ouyang, Lvqing; Xia, Yinyin; Huang, Xuemei; Pang, Xuequn

    2011-11-15

    Chinese flowering cabbage is one of the main leafy vegetables produced in China. They have a rapid leaf yellowing due to chlorophyll degradation after harvest that limits their marketing. In the present study, leaf senescence of the cabbages was manipulated by ethylene and 6-benzyl aminopurine (6-BA) treatment to investigate the correlation of leaf senescence and chlorophyll degradation related to gene expression/activities in the darkness. The patterns of several senescence associated markers, including a typical marker, the expression of senescence-associated gene SAG(12), demonstrated that ethylene accelerated leaf senescence of the cabbages, while 6-BA retarded this progress. Similar to the trends of BrSAG(12) gene expression, strong activation in the expression of three chlorophyll degradation related genes, pheophytinase (BrPPH), pheophorbide a oxygenase (BrPAO) and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (BrRCCR), was detected in ethylene treated and control leaves during the incubation, while no evident increase was recorded in 6-BA treated leaves. The overall dynamics of Mg-dechelatase activities in all treatments displayed increasing trends during the senescence process, and a delayed increase in the activities was observed for 6-BA treated leaves. However, chlorophyllase activity as well as the expression of BrChlase1 and BrChlase2 decreased with the incubation in all treatments. Taken together, the expression of BrPPH, BrPAO and BrRCCR, and the activity of Mg-dechelatase was closely associated with the chlorophyll degradation during the leaf senescence process in harvested Chinese flowering cabbages under dark conditions. PMID:21820757

  18. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. PMID:26263516

  19. MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

    2014-02-01

    Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops. PMID:24351684

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Fengde; Li, Jingjuan; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that the VQ motif–containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa play an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the VQ genes in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage). In this study, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the VQ genes in Chinese cabbage, especially under adverse environment. We identified 57 VQ genes and classified them into seven subgroups (I–VII), which were dispersedly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 10. The expansion of these genes mainly contributed to segmental and tandem duplication. Fifty-four VQ genes contained no introns and 50 VQ proteins were less than 300 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the VQ genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and during different abiotic stresses and plant hormone treatments. This study provides a comprehensive overview of Chinese cabbage VQ genes and will benefit the molecular breeding for resistance to stresses and disease, as well as further studies on the biological functions of the VQ proteins. PMID:26633387

  1. Development of Full-Length cDNAs from Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa Subsp. pekinensis) and Identification of Marker Genes for Defence Response

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Issei; Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Shin-I, Sadasu; Narusaka, Mari; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Satoru; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis belongs to the Brassicaceae family and plays an important role as a model plant for which researchers have developed fine-tuned genome resources. Genome sequencing projects have been initiated for other members of the Brassicaceae family. Among these projects, research on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) started early because of strong interest in this species. Here, we report the development of a library of Chinese cabbage full-length cDNA clones, the RIKEN BRC B. rapa full-length cDNA (BBRAF) resource, to accelerate research on Brassica species. We sequenced 10 000 BBRAF clones and confirmed 5476 independent clones. Most of these cDNAs showed high homology to Arabidopsis genes, but we also obtained more than 200 cDNA clones that lacked any sequence homology to Arabidopsis genes. We also successfully identified several possible candidate marker genes for plant defence responses from our analysis of the expression of the Brassica counterparts of Arabidopsis marker genes in response to salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. We compared gene expression of these markers in several Chinese cabbage cultivars. Our BBRAF cDNA resource will be publicly available from the RIKEN Bioresource Center and will help researchers to transfer Arabidopsis-related knowledge to Brassica crops. PMID:21745830

  2. Piriformospora indica confers drought tolerance in Chinese cabbage leaves by stimulating antioxidant enzymes, the expression of drought-related genes and the plastid-localized CAS protein.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Johnson, Joy M; Cai, Daguang; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf; Lou, Binggan

    2010-08-15

    Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, promotes plant growth and confers resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. The fungus strongly colonizes the roots of Chinese cabbage, promotes root and shoot growth, and promotes lateral root formation. When colonized plants were exposed to polyethylene glycol to mimic drought stress, the activities of peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases in the leaves were upregulated within 24h. The fungus retarded the drought-induced decline in the photosynthetic efficiency and the degradation of chlorophylls and thylakoid proteins. The expression levels of the drought-related genes DREB2A, CBL1, ANAC072 and RD29A were upregulated in the drought-stressed leaves of colonized plants. Furthermore, the CAS mRNA level for the thylakoid membrane associated Ca(2+)-sensing regulator and the amount of the CAS protein increased. We conclude that antioxidant enzyme activities, drought-related genes and CAS are three crucial targets of P. indica in Chinese cabbage leaves during the establishment of drought tolerance. P. indica-colonized Chinese cabbage provides a good model system to study root-to-shoot communication. PMID:20471134

  3. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Fengde; Li, Jingjuan; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that the VQ motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa play an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the VQ genes in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage). In this study, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the VQ genes in Chinese cabbage, especially under adverse environment. We identified 57 VQ genes and classified them into seven subgroups (I-VII), which were dispersedly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 10. The expansion of these genes mainly contributed to segmental and tandem duplication. Fifty-four VQ genes contained no introns and 50 VQ proteins were less than 300 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the VQ genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and during different abiotic stresses and plant hormone treatments. This study provides a comprehensive overview of Chinese cabbage VQ genes and will benefit the molecular breeding for resistance to stresses and disease, as well as further studies on the biological functions of the VQ proteins. PMID:26633387

  4. Functional Coexpression of the Mitochondrial Alternative Oxidase and Uncoupling Protein Underlies Thermoregulation in the Thermogenic Florets of Skunk Cabbage1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Kato, Yoshiaki; Abe, Yukie; Ito, Takanori; Morohashi, Miyuki; Ito, Yuka; Ichikawa, Megumi; Matsukawa, Kazushige; Kakizaki, Yusuke; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2008-01-01

    Two distinct mitochondrial energy dissipating systems, alternative oxidase (AOX) and uncoupling protein (UCP), have been implicated as crucial components of thermogenesis in plants and animals, respectively. To further clarify the physiological roles of AOX and UCP during homeothermic heat production in the thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius), we identified the thermogenic cells and performed expression and functional analyses of these genes in this organism. Thermographic analysis combined with in situ hybridization revealed that the putative thermogenic cells surround the stamens in the florets of skunk cabbage and coexpress transcripts for SrAOX, encoding Symplocarpus AOX, and SrUCPb, encoding a novel UCP that lacks a fifth transmembrane segment. Mitochondria isolated from the thermogenic florets exhibited substantial linoleic acid (LA)-inducible uncoupling activities. Moreover, our results demonstrate that LA is capable of inhibiting the mitochondrial AOX pathway, whereas the proportion of pyruvate-stimulated AOX capacity was not significantly affected by LA. Intriguingly, the protein expression levels for SrAOX and SrUCPb were unaffected even when the ambient air temperatures increased from 10.3°C to 23.1°C or from 8.3°C to 24.9°C. Thus, our results suggest that functional coexpression of AOX and UCP underlies the molecular basis of heat production, and that posttranslational modifications of these proteins play a crucial role in regulating homeothermic heat production under conditions of natural ambient temperature fluctuations in skunk cabbage. PMID:18162588

  5. Fate of Escherichia coli O157 Cells Inoculated into Lightly Pickled Chinese Cabbage during Processing, Storage and Incubation in Artificial Gastric Juice.

    PubMed

    Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Ohata, Yukiko; Ananchaipattana, Chiraporn; Latiful Bari, Md; Hosotani, Yukie; Kawasaki, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Fate of Escherichia coli O157 cells was evaluated when inoculated into each step after production of lightly pickled Chinese cabbage. The efficacy of surface sterilization by 100 mg/L of chlorine water for 10 min on raw leaves (6.0 log CFU/g) was 2.2 log CFU/g reduction. No meaningful change of the population of E. coli O157 (3.5 log CFU/g to 1.5 log MPN/g) contaminated into 19 kinds of products was observed. These results indicated the difficulty of estimating the viable count of the cells between contaminated on farms and further processing and storage steps. The population of E. coli O157 (3 log CFU/g to 1 log MPN/g) inoculated into the Chinese cabbage products was reduced less than 0.6 log CFU/g after 2 h-incubation at 37℃ in artificial gastric juice. Prevention from initial contamination of E. coli O157 on the ingredients of Chinese cabbage products is important to reduce the risk of food poisoning because the reduction of the bacterial counts after processing and consumption are limited. PMID:27009510

  6. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets—such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet—have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  7. Diet in Training and Competitions

    PubMed Central

    Ebbetts, John

    1965-01-01

    The principles underlying the formulation of a diet for young professionals undergoing training for, and taking part in, Competition Golf are dealt with. The composition of the diet and its supplementation are outlined. The literature on the subject is reviewed, and the absence of any really helpful work among so much which is contradictory is pointed out. The reception of the diet over a three year period and its possible contribution to enhanced performance are discussed. The necessary components of such a diet are deduced in the light of experimental evidence and this experience. The importance of making the diet appetising and yet varying the calorie content to suit the underweight and the overweight individuals is stressed. The advisability of two diets is indicated; one providing long term nourishment to support heavy training, and the other for use on competition days, when physical requirements demand rapid production of glucose and psychic inhibition prevents complicated digestion, absorption and oxidation.

  8. Nutrition, diet and immunosenescence.

    PubMed

    Maijó, Mònica; Clements, Sarah J; Ivory, Kamal; Nicoletti, Claudio; Carding, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by immunosenescence and the progressive decline in immunity in association with an increased frequency of infections and chronic disease. This complex process affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems with a progressive decline in most immune cell populations and defects in activation resulting in loss of function. Although host genetics and environmental factors, such as stress, exercise and diet can impact on the onset or course of immunosenescence, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. This review focusses on identifying the most significant aspects of immunosenescence and on the evidence that nutritional intervention might delay this process, and consequently improve the quality of life of the elderly. PMID:24373813

  9. Diet and dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, P K

    1987-01-01

    Personal experience shows that subjective and objective improvements can be achieved in chronic renal failure treated with dialysis. These aims were achieved by limiting energy intake to 8 MJ a day and by substituting cassava for bread and potatoes, thereby reducing the intake of protein, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. Water soluble vitamins were added to the diet. With this regimen blood urea concentrations vary between 2.5 and 12 mmol/l for most of the week and the packed cell volume between 0.30 and 0.37. PMID:3119029

  10. Biochemical, photosynthetic and productive parameters of Chinese cabbage grown under blue-red LED assembly designed for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Pogosyan, Sergey; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Erokhin, Alexei; Zhigalova, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    Currently light emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered to be most preferable source for space plant growth facilities. We performed a complex study of growth and photosynthesis in Chinese cabbage plants (Brassica chinensis L.) grown with continuous LED lighting based on red (650 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs with a red to blue photon ratio of 7:1. Plants grown with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps were used as a control. PPF levels used were about 100 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 100) and nearly 400 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 400). One group of plants was grown with PPF 100 and transferred to PPF 400 at the age of 12 days. Plants were studied at the age of 15 and 28 days (harvest age); some plants were left to naturally end their life cycle. We studied a number of parameters reflecting different stages of photosynthesis: photosynthetic pigment content; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (photosystem II quantum yield, photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching); electron transport rate, proton gradient on thylakoid membranes (ΔpH), and photophosphorylation rate in isolated chloroplasts. We also tested parameters reflecting plant growth and productivity: shoot and root fresh and dry weight, sugar content and ascorbic acid content in shoots. Our results had shown that at PPF 100, plants grown with LEDs did not differ from control plants in shoot fresh weight, but showed substantial differences in photophosphorylation rate and sugar content. Differences observed in plants grown with PPF 100 become more pronounced in plants grown with PPF 400. Most parameters characterizing the plant photosynthetic performance, such as photosynthetic pigment content, electron transport rate, and ΔpH did not react strongly to light spectrum. Photophosphorylation rate differed strongly in plants grown with different spectrum and PPF level, but did not always reflect final plant yield. Results of the present work suggest that narrow-band LED lighting caused changes in Chinese cabbage plants on levels of the photosynthetic apparatus and the whole plant, concerning its development and adaptation to a varying PPF level.

  11. From Olympia to Atlanta: a cultural-historical perspective on diet and athletic training.

    PubMed

    Grivetti, L E; Applegate, E A

    1997-05-01

    Greek and Roman writers described diet and training of Olympic athletes. Lucian (A.D. 120-ca. 180) described distance and speed work in runners; Galen (A.D. 131-201) recommended ball-related exercises to train vision and the body; Philostratos (A.D. 170-249) suggested cross training by endurance running, weight training, and wrestling with animals. The ancient Greek training system, the tetrad (eta tau epsilon tau rho alpha sigma), was a four-day cycle with each day devoted to a different activity. Diogenes Laertius (died A.D. 222) wrote that Greek athletes trained on dried figs, moist cheese and wheat; then the pattern changed and focused on meat. Epictetus (2nd century A.D.) wrote that Olympic victors avoided desserts and cold water and took wine sparingly. Philostratos deprecated athletic diet in his era, a pattern based on white bread sprinkled with poppy seeds, fish and pork. Americans at the XIth Olympiad in Berlin (1936) consumed beefsteak with average daily intake of 125 grams of butter or cotton oil, three eggs, custard for dessert and 1.5 L of milk. The American pattern at Berlin was characterized by ad libitum intake of white bread, dinner rolls, fresh vegetables and salads. At Atlanta, more than 5 million meals will be served during the Olympic festival. The highly varied menu will include fresh vegetables and dips; fruits, cheeses and breads; salads; pasta, rice and fruit salads; soups; meat and seafood entrees; hot vegetables; desserts; and beverages. American Southern specialties will be served. PMID:9164253

  12. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  13. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    PubMed

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future. PMID:26668038

  14. 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet KidsHealth > For ... Fad Diet Print A A A Text Size 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet Lots of ... quick-fix" diets don't work. Here are 5 clues that a diet may be more about ...

  15. Dieting among Thai adolescents: having friends who diet and pressure to diet.

    PubMed

    Page, R M; Suwanteerangkul, J

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dieting behavior, the number of friends who diet, and number of friends who pressure to go on a diet among a sample of 2,519 Thai adolescents. More than half of the girls (52.2%) and over one-fourth of boys (28.0%) reported going on a diet in the past 30 days. Dieting among friends was very common with only 14.2% of girls and 34.3% of boys saying none of their friends dieted. Results also showed significant associations between 1) number of friends who diet and 2) number of friends who pressure to diet with dieting behavior, body mass index (BMI), weight satisfaction, perceived body fatness, effort to look like people in the media, and frequency of thinking about wanting to be thinner in girls. In addition, several of these associations for boys were significant. The role of BMI in these relationships was also explored. PMID:17984635

  16. Summer and winter diapause in pupae of the cabbage butterfly, Pieris melete Ménétriés.

    PubMed

    Wei, H -Y.; Kallenborn, H G.; Xue, F -S.

    1997-08-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris melete is multivoltine with a pupal summer and winter diapause. Summer and winter diapause are induced principally by relatively long and short daylengths, respectively. The intermediate to relatively short daylengths of autumn permitted some pupae to develop without diapause in the field. A short daylength had a stronger diapause inducing effect than a relatively long one under higher temperatures. The principal sensitive phase for photoperiodic response occurred before the late 3rd larval instar. The critical daylength for wild autumnal populations was between 12h 30min and 12h 40min at an average temperature of 20.5 degrees C. A night interruption by 2h of light averted diapause most effectively when it was placed 10 to 12h after lights-off. High temperatures and long days during summer inhibited the incidence of diapause, suggesting that the occurrence of summer diapause is due to the specific climatic conditions occurring in April and early May, rather than to the high temperatures in summer. This indicates that the butterfly has a cryptic ability to reproduce in summer. High temperatures delayed diapause development, whereas low temperatures enhanced it, indicating that the optimum temperature of diapause development is lower. The diapause regulating mechanisms thus ensure that the species synchronises its development and reproduction with the growth seasons of the host plants and provide the species with a high degree of flexibility in its life cycle. PMID:12770448

  17. Differential alteration of two aminopeptidases N associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in cabbage looper.

    PubMed

    Tiewsiri, Kasorn; Wang, Ping

    2011-08-23

    The soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most successfully used biopesticide in agriculture, and its insecticidal protein genes are the primary transgenes used for insect control in transgenic crops. However, evolution of insect resistance to Bt toxins threatens the long-term future of Bt applications. To date, cases of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in agricultural situations in six insect species, but the molecular basis for these cases of resistance remains unclear. Here we report that the resistance to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, evolved in greenhouses, is associated with differential alteration of two midgut aminopeptidases N, APN1 and APN6, conferred by a trans-regulatory mechanism. Biochemical, proteomic, and molecular analyses showed that in the Cry1Ac-resistant T. ni, APN1 was significantly down-regulated, whereas APN6 was significantly up-regulated. The Cry1Ac resistance was correlated with down-regulation of APN1 but not with the up-regulation of APN6. The concurrent up-regulation of APN6 and down-regulation of APN1 might play a role in compensating for the loss of APN1 to minimize the fitness costs of the resistance. Along with identifying reduced expression of APN1 as the molecular basis of Bt resistance selected in an agricultural setting, our findings demonstrate the importance of APN1 to the mode of action of Bt toxin Cry1Ac. PMID:21844358

  18. The Respiratory Chain of Plant Mitochondria. I. Electron Transport Between Succinate and Oxygen in Skunk Cabbage Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Bayard T.; Bahr, James T.

    1969-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of ubiquinone, flavoprotein, cytochrome c, and the cytochrome b complex in skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) mitochondria made anaerobic with succinate have been measured spectrophotometrically and fluorimetrically in the absence of respiratory inhibitor and in the presence of cyanide or antimycin A. No component identifiable by these means was oxidized rapidly enough in the presence of one or the other inhibitor to qualify for the role of alternate oxidase. Cycles of oxidation and rereduction of flavoprotein and ubiquinone obtained by injecting 12 μm oxygen into the anaerobic mitochondrial suspension were kinetically indistinguishable in the presence of cyanide or antimycin A, implying that these 2 components are part of a respiratory pathway between succinate and oxygen which does not involve the cytochromes and does involve a cyanide-insensitive alternate oxidase. The cytochrome b complex shows biphasic oxidation kinetics with half times of 0.018 sec and 0.4 sec in the absence of inhibitor, which increase to 0.2 sec and 1 sec in the presence of cyanide. In the presence of antimycin A, the oxidation of the cytochrome b complex shows an induction period of 1 sec and a half-time of 3.5 sec. A split respiratory chain with 2 terminal oxidases and a branch point between the cytochromes and flavoprotein and ubiquinone is proposed for these mitochondria. PMID:5775846

  19. Influence of postharvest UV-B treatment and fermentation on secondary plant compounds in white cabbage leaves.

    PubMed

    Harbaum-Piayda, Britta; Palani, Kalpana; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The influence of postharvest UV-B on its own and in combination with fermentation (e.g. sauerkraut production) on formation and degradation of bioactive compounds was investigated in white cabbage, processed according to traditional Chinese fermentation methods. The pattern of polyphenols was affected by postharvest UV-B: Newly formed coumaroylglycoside, feruloylglycoside, caffeoylglycoside (up to 1 mg/g dry matter; 4 days) and quercetintriglycoside (0.4-0.5 mg/gdm; 4 days) might be related to postharvest increase in enzyme activity in the biosynthesis. Decreasing contents were observed for the glucosinolates glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, but the formation of the degradation products dihydroascorbigen and dihydro-4-methoxyascorbigen, which might be related to cell shrinking as mechanical damage. Fermentation resulted in deglycosidation of hydroxycinnamic acids. Newly generated cinnamic acid from coumaric acid aglycone was detected in fermented plant material combined with UV-B (50 μg/g). Glucosinolates and dihydroascorbigens were completely degraded. This study shows exemplary UV-B as a supplemental step to improve the nutritional quality of processed plants. PMID:26616923

  20. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants. PMID:27085315

  1. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the PUB family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinesis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Duan, Weike; Riquicho, Ali RamuliMaquina; Jing, Zange; Liu, Tongkun; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2015-12-01

    U-box proteins are widely distributed among eukaryotic organisms and show a higher prevalence in plants than in other organisms. Plant U-box (PUB) proteins play crucial regulatory roles in various developmental and physiological processes. Previously, 64 and 77 PUB genes have been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. In this study, 101 putative PUB genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis line Chiifu-401-42) genome and compared with other 15 representative plants. By specific protein domains and a phylogenetic analysis, the B. rapa PUB (BrPUB) gene family was subdivided into 10 groups. Localization of BrPUB genes showed an uneven distribution on the ten chromosomes of B. rapa. The orthologous and co-orthologous PUB gene pairs were identified between B. rapa and A. thaliana. RNA-seq transcriptome data of different tissues revealed tissue-specific and differential expression profiles of the BrPUBs, and quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed inverse gene expression patterns of the BrPUB-ARMs in response to cold and heat stresses. Altogether, the identification, classification, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs, and expression patterns of BrPUBs were predicted and analysed. Importantly, this study of BrPUBs provides a rich resource that will aid in the determination of PUB functions in plant development. PMID:26054324

  2. Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage with swine manure for biogas production: batch and continuous study.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Bhattarai, Sujala; Kim, Sang Hun; Chen, Lide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage (CCWS) with swine manure (SM). Batch and continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions (36-38°C). The batch test evaluated the effect of CCWS co-digestion with SM (SM: CCWS=100:0; 25:75; 33:67; 0:100, % volatile solids (VS) basis). The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor with SM alone and with a mixture of SM and CCWS. Batch test results showed no significant difference in biogas yield up to 25-33% of CCWS; however, biogas yield was significantly decreased when CCWS contents in feed increased to 67% and 100%. When testing continuous digestion, the biogas yield at organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ increased by 17% with a mixture of SM and CCWS (SM:CCWS=75:25) (423 mL g⁻¹ VS) than with SM alone (361 mL g⁻¹ VS). The continuous anaerobic digestion process (biogas production, pH, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and TVFA/total alkalinity ratios) was stable when co-digesting SM and CCWS (75:25) at OLR of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ and hydraulic retention time of 20 days under mesophilic conditions. PMID:25176305

  3. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  4. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crushes What's a Booger? Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...

  5. HEALTH AND DIET SURVEY (HDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FDA conducts this periodic omnibus survey of American consumers to track consumer attitudes, knowledge, and reported behaviors related to diet and health issues including cholesterol awareness of diet-disease risk factors, food label use, dietary supplement use, and awarenes...

  6. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  7. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals. PMID:19279075

  8. Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence

    PubMed Central

    Alaux, Cédric; Ducloz, François; Crauser, Didier; Le Conte, Yves

    2010-01-01

    The maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and a lack of dietary protein can increase the susceptibility of organisms to disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between protein nutrition and immunity in insects. Here, we tested in honeybees (Apis mellifera) whether dietary protein quantity (monofloral pollen) and diet diversity (polyfloral pollen) can shape baseline immunocompetence (IC) by measuring parameters of individual immunity (haemocyte concentration, fat body content and phenoloxidase activity) and glucose oxidase (GOX) activity, which enables bees to sterilize colony and brood food, as a parameter of social immunity. Protein feeding modified both individual and social IC but increases in dietary protein quantity did not enhance IC. However, diet diversity increased IC levels. In particular, polyfloral diets induced higher GOX activity compared with monofloral diets, including protein-richer diets. These results suggest a link between protein nutrition and immunity in honeybees and underscore the critical role of resource availability on pollinator health. PMID:20089536

  9. Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence.

    PubMed

    Alaux, Cédric; Ducloz, François; Crauser, Didier; Le Conte, Yves

    2010-08-23

    The maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and a lack of dietary protein can increase the susceptibility of organisms to disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between protein nutrition and immunity in insects. Here, we tested in honeybees (Apis mellifera) whether dietary protein quantity (monofloral pollen) and diet diversity (polyfloral pollen) can shape baseline immunocompetence (IC) by measuring parameters of individual immunity (haemocyte concentration, fat body content and phenoloxidase activity) and glucose oxidase (GOX) activity, which enables bees to sterilize colony and brood food, as a parameter of social immunity. Protein feeding modified both individual and social IC but increases in dietary protein quantity did not enhance IC. However, diet diversity increased IC levels. In particular, polyfloral diets induced higher GOX activity compared with monofloral diets, including protein-richer diets. These results suggest a link between protein nutrition and immunity in honeybees and underscore the critical role of resource availability on pollinator health. PMID:20089536

  10. [Diet prescription in obese patients].

    PubMed

    Lesi, Carlo; Giaquinto, Ester; Valeriani, Luca; Zoni, Luisa

    2005-03-01

    Diet is a cornerstone in the treatment of obese patients with or without metabolic complications. To optimize outcome, diet treatment should always take into account factors such as the Body Mass Index, the timeframe for reaching the recommended weight loss, comorbidities (e.g. arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, lipid abnormalities, hyperuricemia) and, finally, individual patient characteristics (e.g. habits, preferences, adherence capacity). Hypocaloric diets need to be adequately balanced in terms of glucides, lipids and proteins, vitamins and minerals. For these reasons the diet prescription for obese patients, particularly those with comorbidities or cardiovascular disease, should be under the guidance of expert nutrition professionals who are aware of the risks of an unbalanced diet. PMID:16128164

  11. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  12. Diet and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koriech, Osama M.

    1994-01-01

    Environrnental and lifestyle factors, including diet, pray be responsible for the recognised worldwide variation in tire incidence of specific types or cancer. Chemical carcinogenesis is a multistage process occurring over a relatively long period or time. The mechanisms are complex as different factors damage develops following exposure to carcinogenic agents. Progression to malignancy is, at this stage, not inevitable. Specific agents are needed to promote, and induce progression or inhibit subsequent changes to develop invasive malignancy. Understanding the roles played by different agents and mechanisms in the overall carcinogenic process For cc specific cancer nary form the basis for risk assessment and eventual prevention. The multistep process of carcinogenesis including initiation, promotion, and progression, are all needed for clinically invasive cancer to develop. Efforts directed to any of these phases can prevent the development of cancer. A variety of carcinogenic and mutagenic substances ore present in our diet. Some are found naturally in the food ingredients, whereas others result from pesticide residues, environmental pollution, food additives, preparation and processing procedures, curd fungal contamination. The control of these factors may render some cancers potentially avoidable. The role of macro and micro-nutrients in the causation of cancer and eventually in its prevention is complicated by their combined distribution in food products. Intensive research into the nature of cancer prevention by nutrient components and their synthetic analogs is still in its infancy. As cancer induction, promotion and progression is a slow mechanism that could take many years, it is uncertain what time-period of dietary intake is most relevant. Currently, recommended prevention strategies include choose more/choose less approach, through emphasizing a shift away from high fat, low-fiber foods that may increase cancer risks, toward foods low in fat and rich in fiber and nutrients. PMID:23008529

  13. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet ... avoid. It is very important to follow these diet guidelines. ... about any problems you are having with your diet, or about other issues related to your surgery ...

  14. Cooking Up Hot Quark Soup

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Walsh, Karen McNulty

    2011-03-28

    Near-light-speed collisions of gold ions provide a recipe for in-depth explorations of matter and fundamental forces. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has produced the most massive antimatter nucleus ever discovered—and the first containing an anti-strange quark. The presence of strange antimatter makes this antinucleus the first to be entered below the plane of the classic Periodic Table of Elements, marking a new frontier in physics.

  15. A recipe for primordial soup.

    PubMed

    Kolb, E

    2001-12-01

    If the universe emerged from a state of high temperature and high density, we can study the origin of the universe by recreating those conditions in the laboratory. While we can not reproduce the Big Bang, we can recreate its conditions and study the physical processes responsible for producing the rich and varied universe we observe today. PMID:11797763

  16. A recipe for primordial soup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, E.

    2001-01-01

    If the universe emerged from a state of high temperature and high density, we can study the origin of the universe by recreating those conditions in the laboratory. While we can not reproduce the Big Bang, we can recreate its conditions and study the physical processes responsible for producing the rich and varied universe we observe today.

  17. Chemical Soups Around Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This artist's conception shows a young, hypothetical planet around a cool star. A soupy mix of potentially life-forming chemicals can be seen pooling around the base of the jagged rocks. Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope hint that planets around cool stars the so-called M-dwarfs and brown dwarfs that are widespread throughout our galaxy might possess a different mix of life-forming, or prebiotic, chemicals than our young Earth.

    Life on our planet is thought to have arisen out of a pond-scum-like mix of chemicals. Some of these chemicals are thought to have come from a planet-forming disk of gas and dust that swirled around our young sun. Meteorites carrying the chemicals might have crash-landed on Earth.

    Astronomers don't know if these same life-generating processes are taking place around stars that are cooler than our sun, but the Spitzer observations show their disk chemistry is different. Spitzer detected a prebiotic molecule, called hydrogen cyanide, in the disks around yellow stars like our sun, but found none around cooler, less massive, reddish stars. Hydrogen cyanide is a carbon-containing, or organic compound. Five hydrogen cyanide molecules can join up to make adenine a chemical element of the DNA molecule found in all living organisms on Earth.

  18. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective. PMID:25461244

  19. Physiological Characterization and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Slow-Growing Reduced-Thylakoid Mutant of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shengnan; Liu, Zhiyong; Li, Danyang; Yao, Runpeng; Hou, Li; Li, Xiang; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mutants are ideal for studying physiological processes. The leaves of Chinese cabbage are a major place for photosynthesis, and the mutation of these leaves may directly affect the rate of plant growth and development, thus influencing the formation of its leafy head. We characterized a slow-growing mutant, which was designated as drm. The drm exhibited slow growth and development at the seedling and heading stages, leading to the production of a tiny, leafy head, and chlorophyll-deficient leaves, especially in seedlings. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotype of drm was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Compared with the wild-type “FT” line, the drm's chlorophyll content was significantly reduced and its chloroplast structure was abnormal. Moreover, its photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were significantly decreased. The changes in leaf color, combined with these altered physiological characters, may influence the growth and development of plant, ultimately resulting in the slow-growing phenotype. To further understand the molecular regulation mechanisms of phenotypic differences between “FT” and drm, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed using RNA-Seq; a total of 338 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between “FT” and drm. According to GO and KEGG pathway analysis, a number of DEGs involved in chlorophyll degradation and photosynthesis were identified, such as chlorophyllase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. In addition, the expression patterns of 12 DEGs, including three chlorophyll degradation- and photosynthesis-related genes and nine randomly-selected genes, were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified, providing a valuable resource for research and molecular marker-assistant breeding in Chinese cabbage. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular regulation mechanisms underlying growth and development and lay the foundation for future genetic and functional genomics in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26858733

  20. QTL Analysis of Head Splitting Resistance in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) Using SSR and InDel Makers Based on Whole-Genome Re-Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Head splitting resistance (HSR) in cabbage is an important trait closely related to both quality and yield of head. However, the genetic control of this trait remains unclear. In this study, a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from an intra-cross between head splitting-susceptible inbred cabbage line 79–156 and resistant line 96–100 was obtained and used to analyze inheritance and detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for HSR using a mixed major gene/polygene inheritance analysis and QTL mapping. HSR can be attributed to additive-epistatic effects of three major gene pairs combined with those of polygenes. Negative and significant correlations were also detected between head Hsr and head vertical diameter (Hvd), head transverse diameter (Htd) and head weight (Hw). Using the DH population, a genetic map was constructed with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and insertion–deletion (InDel) markers, with a total length of 1065.9 cM and average interval length of 4.4 cM between adjacent markers. Nine QTLs for HSR were located on chromosomes C3, C4, C7, and C9 based on 2 years of phenotypic data using both multiple-QTL mapping and inclusive composite interval mapping. The identified QTLs collectively explained 39.4 to 59.1% of phenotypic variation. Three major QTLs (Hsr 3.2, 4.2, 9.2) showing a relatively larger effect were robustly detected in different years or with different mapping methods. The HSR trait was shown to have complex genetic mechanisms. Results from QTL mapping and classical genetic analysis were consistent. The QTLs obtained in this study should be useful for molecular marker-assisted selection in cabbage breeding and provide a foundation for further research on HSR genetic regulation. PMID:26406606

  1. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (var. kurstaki) Against Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.) Eggs and Larvae on Cabbage Under Semi-Controlled Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Legwaila, Mitch M.; Munthali, David C.; Kwerepe, Baone C.; Obopile, Motshwari

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (var. kurstaki) (Btk) against the diamondback moth (DBM) on cabbage was studied at Botswana College of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana. Using five concentrations of Btk: 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/L, bioassays were conducted against DBM eggs and second instar larvae at 30°C ± 5°C. Each treatment was replicated three times. Probit analysis was used to determine the LD50 and LD90 values for the treatments against eggs and larvae. When the treatments were assessed at 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours, LD90 values against larvae were 11.02, 10.22, 5.92, and 4.01 g/L, whereas they were 7.71, 6.94, and 6.24 g/L against eggs when assessed 48, 72, and 96 hours after the expected time of hatching. This indicated that Btk was effective against both eggs and larvae when exposed for long periods. The slopes of the probit lines for larvae assessed at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours after application were 0.250, 1.064, 0.910, 0.383, 0.453, and 0.414, while those against eggs were 1.153, 1.246, and 0.933 when assessed 48, 72, and 96 hours after the expected time of hatching. This indicates a smaller change in mortality with increase in pesticide dosage for both eggs and larvae. Btk treatments achieved 85.7%–94.6% reduction in DBM damage on cabbage. Therefore, Btk can be used to achieve effective control of DBM eggs and larvae and reduce damage on cabbage under greenhouse conditions. PMID:26816488

  2. Physiological Characterization and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Slow-Growing Reduced-Thylakoid Mutant of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengnan; Liu, Zhiyong; Li, Danyang; Yao, Runpeng; Hou, Li; Li, Xiang; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mutants are ideal for studying physiological processes. The leaves of Chinese cabbage are a major place for photosynthesis, and the mutation of these leaves may directly affect the rate of plant growth and development, thus influencing the formation of its leafy head. We characterized a slow-growing mutant, which was designated as drm. The drm exhibited slow growth and development at the seedling and heading stages, leading to the production of a tiny, leafy head, and chlorophyll-deficient leaves, especially in seedlings. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotype of drm was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Compared with the wild-type "FT" line, the drm's chlorophyll content was significantly reduced and its chloroplast structure was abnormal. Moreover, its photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were significantly decreased. The changes in leaf color, combined with these altered physiological characters, may influence the growth and development of plant, ultimately resulting in the slow-growing phenotype. To further understand the molecular regulation mechanisms of phenotypic differences between "FT" and drm, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed using RNA-Seq; a total of 338 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between "FT" and drm. According to GO and KEGG pathway analysis, a number of DEGs involved in chlorophyll degradation and photosynthesis were identified, such as chlorophyllase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. In addition, the expression patterns of 12 DEGs, including three chlorophyll degradation- and photosynthesis-related genes and nine randomly-selected genes, were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified, providing a valuable resource for research and molecular marker-assistant breeding in Chinese cabbage. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular regulation mechanisms underlying growth and development and lay the foundation for future genetic and functional genomics in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26858733

  3. Diet and nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Kritchevsky, D

    1988-10-15

    The interest in nutrition and cancer, which was high in the 1940s and 1950s, was rekindled in the 1970s and is now more intense than ever. There has been considerable experimental work on dietary fat, but delineation of the precise role(s) of the essential fatty acids is still lacking. There have been few studies on protein or carbohydrate effects and only Visek has adequately addressed the important area of nutrient interactions. More work is needed in the fiber field with regard to the influences of short chain fatty acids, and the standardization of protocols is needed to make the various findings comparable. Currently, fiber data have been accrued using rats of different strains and gender, commercial and semipurified diets, a variety of colon carcinogens, and different routes of administration. The effects of energy restriction (in the literature since 1909) have not been widely studied as to mechanism and influence of energy expenditure (i.e., exercise) and merit more attention. PMID:2844385

  4. The construction of a genetic linkage map of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; Geng, Jianfeng; Zhang, Jingyi; Wang, Qian; Ban, Qingyu; Hou, Xilin

    2009-08-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino) is one of the most important vegetables in eastern China. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 127 doubled haploid (DH) lines, and the DH population was derived from a commercial hybrid "Hanxiao" (lines SW-13 x L-118). Out of the 614 polymorphic markers, 43.49% were not assigned to any of the linkage groups(LGs). Chi-square tests showed that 42.67% markers were distorted from expected Mendelian segregation ratios, and the direction of distorted segregation was mainly toward the paternal parent L-118. After sequentially removing the markers that had an interval distance smaller than 1 cM from the upper marker, the overall quality of the linkage map was increased. Two hundred and sixty-eight molecular markers were mapped into 10 LGs, which were anchored to the corresponding chromosome of the B. rapa reference map based on common simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The map covers 973.38 cM of the genome and the average interval distance between markers was 3.63 cM. The number of markers on each LG ranged from 18 (R08) to 64 (R07), with an average interval distance within a single LG from 1.70 cM (R07) to 6.71 cM (R06). Among these mapped markers, 169 were sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers, 50 were SSR markers and 49 were random amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. With further saturation to the LG, the current map offers a genetic tool for loci analysis for important agronomic traits. PMID:19683673

  5. Egg Laying of Cabbage White Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) on Arabidopsis thaliana Affects Subsequent Performance of the Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Blenn, Beatrice; Drechsler, Navina; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Kunze, Reinhard; Hilker, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Plant resistance to the feeding by herbivorous insects has recently been found to be positively or negatively influenced by prior egg deposition. Here we show how crucial it is to conduct experiments on plant responses to herbivory under conditions that simulate natural insect behaviour. We used a well-studied plant – herbivore system, Arabidopsis thaliana and the cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae, testing the effects of naturally laid eggs (rather than egg extracts) and allowing larvae to feed gregariously as they do naturally (rather than placing single larvae on plants). Under natural conditions, newly hatched larvae start feeding on their egg shells before they consume leaf tissue, but access to egg shells had no effect on subsequent larval performance in our experiments. However, young larvae feeding gregariously on leaves previously laden with eggs caused less feeding damage, gained less weight during the first 2 days, and suffered twice as high a mortality until pupation compared to larvae feeding on plants that had never had eggs. The concentration of the major anti-herbivore defences of A. thaliana, the glucosinolates, was not significantly increased by oviposition, but the amount of the most abundant member of this class, 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate was 1.8-fold lower in larval-damaged leaves with prior egg deposition compared to damaged leaves that had never had eggs. There were also few significant changes in the transcript levels of glucosinolate metabolic genes, except that egg deposition suppressed the feeding-induced up-regulation of FMOGS-OX2, a gene encoding a flavin monooxygenase involved in the last step of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate biosynthesis. Hence, our study demonstrates that oviposition does increase A. thaliana resistance to feeding by subsequently hatching larvae, but this cannot be attributed simply to changes in glucosinolate content. PMID:23527243

  6. Overexpression of a Chinese cabbage BrERF11 transcription factor enhances disease resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yan; Dang, Fengfeng; Lin, Jing; Yu, Lu; Shi, Youliang; Xiao, Yuhua; Huang, Mukun; Lin, Jinhui; Chen, Chengcong; Qi, Aihua; Liu, Zhiqin; Guan, Deyi; Mou, Shaoliang; Qiu, Ailian; He, Shuilin

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene-responsive factors (ERFs) play diverse roles in plant growth, developmental processes and stress responses. However, the roles and underlying mechanism of ERFs remain poorly understood, especially in non-model plants. In this study, a full length cDNA of ERF gene was isolated from the cDNA library of Chinese cabbage. According to sequence alignment, we found a highly conservative AP2/ERF domain, two nuclear localization signals, and an ERF-associated Amphiphilic Repression (EAR) motif in its C-terminal region. It belonged to VIIIa group ERFs sharing the highest sequence identity with AtERF11 in all of the ERFs in Arabidopsis and designated BrERF11. BrERF11-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transient expressed in onion epidermis cells localized to the nucleus. The transcript levels of BrERF11 were induced by exogenous salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ethephon (ETH), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Constitutive expression of BrERF11 enhanced tolerance to Ralstonia solanacearum infection in transgenic tobacco plants, which was coupled with hypersensitive response (HR), burst of H(2)O(2) and upregulation of defense-related genes including HR marker genes, SA-, JA-dependent pathogen-related genes and ET biosynthesis associated genes and downregulation of CAT1, suggesting BrERF11 may participate in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)- and effector-triggered immunity (PTI and ETI) mediated by SA-, JA- and ET-dependent signaling mechanisms. PMID:23201563

  7. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects. PMID:26699853

  8. Ammonia volatilization from a Chinese cabbage field under different nitrogen treatments in the Taihu Lake Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Shan, Linan; He, Yunfeng; Chen, Jie; Huang, Qian; Wang, Hongcai

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major pathway of nitrogen (N) loss from soil-crop systems. As vegetable cultivation is one of the most important agricultural land uses worldwide, a deeper understanding of NH3 volatilization is necessary in vegetable production systems. We therefore conducted a 3-year (2010-2012) field experiment to characterize NH3 volatilization and evaluate the effect of different N fertilizer treatments on this process during the growth period of Chinese cabbage. Ammonia volatilization rate, rainfall, soil water content, pH, and soil NH4(+) were measured during the growth period. The results showed that NH3 volatilization was significantly and positively correlated to topsoil pH and NH4(+) concentration. Climate factors and fertilization method also significantly affected NH3 volatilization. Specifically, organic fertilizer (OF) increased NH3 volatilization by 11.77%-18.46%, compared to conventional fertilizer (CF, urea), while organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (OIF) reduced NH3 volatilization by 8.82%-12.67% compared to CF. Furthermore, slow-release fertilizers had significantly positive effects on controlling NH3 volatilization, with a 60.73%-68.80% reduction for sulfur-coated urea (SCU), a 71.85%-78.97% reduction for biological Carbon Power® urea (BCU), and a 77.66%-83.12% reduction for bulk-blend controlled-release fertilizer (BBCRF) relative to CF. This study provides much needed baseline information, which will help in fertilizer choice and management practices to reduce NH3 volatilization and encourage the development of new strategies for vegetable planting. PMID:26702964

  9. Effects of Temperature on Systemic Infection and Symptom Expression of Turnip mosaic virus in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bong Nam; Choi, Kyung San; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Joa, Jae Ho; Do, Ki Seck; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Using the Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris) cultivar ‘Chun-goang’ as a host and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) as a pathogen, we studied the effects of ambient temperature (13°C, 18°C, 23°C, 28°C and 33°C) on disease intensity and the speed of systemic infection. The optimal temperature for symptom expression of TuMV was 18–28°C. However, symptoms of viral infection were initiated at 23–28°C and 6 days post infection (dpi). Plants maintained at 33°C were systemically infected as early as 6 dpi and remained symptomless until 12 or 22 dpi, depending on growth stage at the time of inoculation. It took 45 days for infection of plants grown at 13°C. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) results showed that the accumulation of virus coat protein was greater in plants grown at 23–28°C. The speed of systemic infection increased linearly with rising ambient temperature, up to 23°C. The zero-infection temperature was 10.1°C. To study the effects of abruptly elevated temperatures on systemic infection, plants inoculated with TuMV were maintained at 10°C for 20 d; transferred to a growth chamber at temperatures of 13°C, 18°C, 23°C, 28°C, or 33°C for 1, 2, or 3 d; and then moved back to 10°C. The numbers of plants infected increased as duration of exposure to higher temperatures and dpi increased. PMID:26673094

  10. Diapause induction and clock mechanism in the cabbage butterfly Pieris melete Ménétriés.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hai-Jun; Wu, Xian-Fu; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Xing-Fen; Xue, Fang-Sen

    2009-05-01

    Photoperiodic control of diapause induction was systematically investigated in the cabbage butterfly, Pieris melete, which enters summer and winter diapause as a pupa. Summer and winter diapause are induced principally by short and long scotophases, respectively; the intermediate scotophases (11-12 h) permit pupae to develop without diapause. Photoperiodic responses under 24-h light-dark cycles at 16.9, 18, 20 and 22 degrees C showed that the hibernation response was temperature compensated, whereas aestivation response was strongly temperature-dependent. The incidence of diapause for both aestivation and hibernation showed a decline at the ultra-short and ultra-long scotophases. Experiments using non-24-h light-dark cycles showed that the length of the scotophase played an essential role in the determination of diapause. The highest photosensitivity differed under hibernation and aestivation conditions. With a 3 x LD 12:12 interruption, a maximal inhibition of aestivation occurred in the L3/2 stage, and of hibernation it occurred in the L4/0 stage. A long-night of LD 10:14 induced hibernation diapause but inhibited aestivation diapause and, conversely, a short-night of LD 14:10 inhibited hibernation diapause but induced aestivation diapause. With a 1-h light pulse at LD 11:13, a maximal inhibition of hibernation occurred 3 h before lights-on (late scotophase), whereas, with a 1-h light pulse at LD 12.5:11.5, a maximal induction of aestivation occurred 2-3 h after the onset of darkness (early scotophase). Nanda-Hamner and Bünsow experiments failed to reveal the involvement of a circadian system, suggesting that the photoperiodic time measurement for diapause induction in this butterfly resembles an hourglass-like timer or a damped circadian oscillator. PMID:19183558

  11. A novel chitin-binding protein identified from the peritrophic membrane of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Li, Guoxun; Pang, Yi; Wang, Ping

    2005-11-01

    A novel midgut peritrophic membrane (PM) protein, TnPM-P42, was identified from the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. TnPM-P42 was shown as a 42kDa protein by SDS-PAGE analysis and appeared to be associated with the PM throughout its entire length. In T. ni larvae, the midgut is the only tissue where TnPM-P42 could be detected during the feeding period of the larvae. TnPM-P42 has chitin-binding activity and is strongly associated with the PM, which is similar to the currently known peritrophin type PM proteins. However, TnPM-P42 represents a unique family of proteins distinctly different from the peritrophin type PM proteins in its sequence characteristics. TnPM-P42 does not contain the peritrophin domain which is present in all the currently known PM proteins, but instead has a chitin deacetylase-like domain. Sequence similarity search of the GenBank database did not result in identification of any known proteins with a significant overall sequence similarity to the TnPM-P42. However, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from various arthropods were identified to code for proteins with high sequence similarities to TnPM-P42, indicating the presence of TnPM-P42 homologs in other arthropods. Consistent with the identification of various ESTs from arthropods, Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of a TnPM-P42-like protein in the PMs from Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea larvae. The sequence characteristics of TnPM-P42 indicate that TnPM-P42 represents a novel family of insect proteins. However, its biochemical and physiological functions require further investigation. PMID:16203204

  12. Secretion of Na(+), K(+) and fluid by the Malpighian (renal) tubule of the larval cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Esau; O'Donnell, Michael J; Donini, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The Malpighian (renal) tubules play important roles in ionic and osmotic homeostasis in insects. In Lepidoptera, the Malpighian tubules are structurally regionalized and the concentration of Na(+) and K(+) in the secreted fluid varies depending on the segment of tubule analyzed. In this work, we have characterized fluid and ion (Na(+), K(+), H(+)) transport by tubules of the larval stage of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni; we have also evaluated the effects of fluid secretion inhibitors and stimulants on fluid and ion transport. Ramsay assays showed that fluid was secreted by the iliac plexus but not by the yellow and white regions of the tubule. K(+) and Na(+) were secreted by the distal iliac plexus (DIP) and K(+) was reabsorbed in downstream regions. The fluid secretion rate decreased>50% after 25μM bafilomycin A1, 500μM amiloride or 50μM bumetanide was added to the bath. The concentration of K(+) in the secreted fluid did not change, whereas the concentration of Na(+) in the secreted fluid decreased significantly when tubules were exposed to bafilomycin A1 or amiloride. Addition of 500μM cAMP or 1μM 5-HT to the bath stimulated fluid secretion and resulted in a decrease in K(+) concentration in the secreted fluid. An increase in Na(+) concentration in the secreted fluid was observed only in cAMP-stimulated tubules. Secreted fluid pH and the transepithelial electrical potential (TEP) did not change when tubules were stimulated. Taken together, our results show that the secretion of fluid is carried out by the upper regions (DIP) in T. ni Malpighian tubules. Upper regions of the tubules secrete K(+), whereas lower regions reabsorb it. Stimulation of fluid secretion is correlated with a decrease in the K(+)/Na(+) ratio. PMID:26432549

  13. Mechanism of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in a greenhouse population of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Rodrigo-Simón, Ana; Kain, Wendy; Janmaat, Alida F; Shelton, Anthony M; Ferré, Juan; Myers, Judith

    2007-02-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, is one of only two insect species that have evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in agricultural situations. The trait of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac from a greenhouse-evolved resistant population of T. ni was introgressed into a highly inbred susceptible laboratory strain. The resulting introgression strain, GLEN-Cry1Ac-BCS, and its nearly isogenic susceptible strain were subjected to comparative genetic and biochemical studies to determine the mechanism of resistance. Results showed that midgut proteases, hemolymph melanization activity, and midgut esterase were not altered in the GLEN-Cry1Ac-BCS strain. The pattern of cross-resistance of the GLEN-Cry1Ac-BCS strain to 11 B. thuringiensis Cry toxins showed a correlation of the resistance with the Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac binding site in T. ni. This cross-resistance pattern is different from that found in a previously reported laboratory-selected Cry1Ab-resistant T. ni strain, evidently indicating that the greenhouse-evolved resistance involves a mechanism different from the laboratory-selected resistance. Determination of specific binding of B. thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac to the midgut brush border membranes confirmed the loss of midgut binding to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac in the resistant larvae. The loss of midgut binding to Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac is inherited as a recessive trait, which is consistent with the recessive inheritance of Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac resistance in this greenhouse-derived T. ni population. Therefore, it is concluded that the mechanism for the greenhouse-evolved Cry1Ac resistance in T. ni is an alteration affecting the binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac to the Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac binding site in the midgut. PMID:17189446

  14. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E.; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects. PMID:26699853

  15. Evidence for Inbreeding Depression and Pre-Copulatory, but Not Post Copulatory Inbreeding Avoidance in the Cabbage Beetle Colaphellus bowringi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, XingPing; Tu, XiaoYun; He, HaiMin; Chen, Chao; Xue, FangSen

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding is known to have adverse effects on fitness-related traits in a range of insect species. A series of theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that polyandrous insects could avoid the cost of inbreeding via pre-copulatory mate choice and/or post-copulatory mechanisms. We looked for evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance using female mate preference trials, in which females were given the choice of mating with either of two males, a sibling and a non-sibling. We also tested for evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance by conducting double mating experiments, in which four sibling females were mated with two males sequentially, either two siblings, two non-siblings or a sibling and a non-sibling in either order. We identified substantial inbreeding depression: offspring of females mated to full siblings had lower hatching success, slower development time from egg to adult, lower survival of larval and pupal stages, and lower adult body mass than the offspring of females mated to non-sibling males. We also found evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, as females preferred to mate with non-sibling males. However, we did not find any evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance: egg hatching success of females mating to both sibling and non-sibling males were consistent with sperm being used without bias in relation to mate relatedness. Our results suggest that this cabbage beetle has evolved a pre-copulatory mechanism to avoid matings between close relative, but that polyandry is apparently not an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in C. bowringi. PMID:24718627

  16. Target-site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in German populations of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christoph T; Müller, Andreas; Heimbach, Udo; Nauen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major pest of winter oilseed rape in several European countries particularly attacking young emerging plants in autumn. Over the last several decades, pyrethroid insecticides have been foliarly applied to control flea beetle outbreaks. Recent control failures in northern Germany suggested pyrethroid resistance development in cabbage stem flea beetles, which were confirmed by resistance monitoring bioassays using lambda-cyhalothrin in an adult vial test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of polymorphisms in the para-type voltage-gated sodium channel gene of P. chrysocephala known to be involved in knock-down resistance (kdr). By using a degenerate primer approach we PCR amplified part of the para-type sodium channel gene and identified in resistant flea beetles a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in an L1014F (kdr) mutation within domain IIS6 of the channel protein, known as one of the chief pyrethroid target-site resistance mechanisms in several other pest insects. Twenty populations including four archived museum samples collected between 1945 and 1958 were analyzed using a newly developed pyrosequencing diagnostic assay. The assay revealed a kdr allele frequency of 90-100% in those flea beetle populations expressing high-level cross-resistance in discriminating dose bioassays against different pyrethroids such as lambda-cyhalothrin, tau-fluvalinate, etofenprox and bifenthrin. The presence of target-site resistance to pyrethroids in cabbage stem flea beetle is extremely worrying considering the lack of effective alternative modes of action to control this pest in Germany and other European countries, and is likely to result in major control problems once it expands to other geographies. The striking fact that cabbage stem flea beetle is next to pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus the second coleopteran pest in European winter oilseed rape resisting pyrethroid treatments by expressing a target-site mutation, underpins the importance of diversity in available chemistry for resistance management tactics based on mode of action rotation in order to guarantee sustainable winter oilseed rape cultivation in Europe. PMID:24485308

  17. [Vegetarian diets; effect on health].

    PubMed

    de Luis Román, D; Aller, R; Castaño, O

    2007-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that diet is healthy, nutritionally adequate and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:17397638

  18. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... lot of acid and can sting your mouth. Diarrhea Try the BRATT Diet (Bananas, Rice, Applesauce, Tea, ... are taking. If you are vomiting or have diarrhea, you will need to drink more than usual. ...

  19. Search for the optimal diet.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E

    2010-12-01

    Since the beginning of time, we have been searching for diets that satisfy our palates while simultaneously optimizing health and well-being. Every year, there are hundreds of new diet books on the market that make a wide range of promises but rarely deliver. Unfortunately, consumers are gullible and believe much of the marketing hype because they are desperately seeking ways to maximize their health. As a result, they continue to purchase these diet books, sending many of them all the way to the bestseller list. Because many of these meal plans are not sustainable and are questionable in their approaches, the consumer is ultimately left to continue searching, only able to choose from the newest "fad" promoted by publicists rather than being grounded in science. Thus, the search for the optimal diet continues to be the "holy grail" for many of us today, presenting a challenge for nutritionists and practitioners to provide sound advice to consumers. PMID:21139121

  20. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Cancer.gov

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  1. How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Treatment and Care Overview Nutrition Post-Surgery Diet ...

  2. Diet and regimen during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Girija, P.LT

    2008-01-01

    To rely on Ayurveda is the best way to ensure a safe and natural childbirth. Ayurveda understands all the factors, which bring about a hazard-free childbirth. By following a regulated diet and regimen, the pregnant mother is prepared for a natural delivery. By helping nature to take its course, women enjoy a risk-free childbirth. This paper provides a broad view of the diet and regimen during pregnancy PMID:22557297

  3. Diet and regimen during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Girija, P Lt

    2008-07-01

    To rely on Ayurveda is the best way to ensure a safe and natural childbirth. Ayurveda understands all the factors, which bring about a hazard-free childbirth. By following a regulated diet and regimen, the pregnant mother is prepared for a natural delivery. By helping nature to take its course, women enjoy a risk-free childbirth. This paper provides a broad view of the diet and regimen during pregnancy. PMID:22557297

  4. Metabolic effects of HAY's diet.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, K D; Heine, W E; Köster, D; Muscheites, J; Mix, M; Mohr, C; Popp, K; Wigger, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was, to evaluate the metabolic effect of HAY's diet on protein turnover, fat oxidation, respiratory quotient, body fat and weight loss. Twelve healthy adults received an individually regular diet and thereafter a corresponding isocaloric and isonitrogenous 10-day HAY-diet. Protein turnover and 13C-fat oxidation were investigated after administration of [15N]glycine and an [U-13C]algae lipid mixture. The 15N and 13C enrichment in urine and breath were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The respiratory quotient was measured by indirect calorimetry. Body fat, total body water and lean body mass were estimated by bio-electric impedance analysis. HAY's diet led to a significantly higher 13C-fat oxidation (15.4 vs. 22.0% P < 0.01), corresponding to a lower respiratory quotient (0.88 vs. 0.81; P < 0.01), whereas the protein turnover remained constant in both diets (3.06 vs. 3.05 g/kg/day). HAY's diet did not reduce total body water, lean body mass, body fat and body weight (72.2 vs. 71.4 kg). PMID:11924853

  5. Impact of boiling on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of green vegetables consumed in the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Vinha, Ana F; Alves, Rita C; Barreira, Sérgio V P; Costa, Anabela S G; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-04-01

    The effect of boiling (10 minutes) on eleven green vegetables frequently consumed in the Mediterranean diet was evaluated. For that, some physicochemical parameters and the contents of vitamin C, phenolics and carotenoids, as well as the antioxidant activity, were determined in raw and boiled samples. The raw vegetables analysed in this study were good sources of vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, with contents ranging from 10.6 to 255.1 mg/100 g, 0.03 to 3.29 mg/100 g and 202.9 to 1010.7 mg/100 g, respectively. Boiling promoted losses in different extensions considering both the different bioactive compounds and the distinct vegetables analysed. Contrary to phenolics (more resistant), vitamin C was the most affected compound. Boiling also originated significant losses in the antioxidant activity of the vegetables. Considering all the parameters analysed, the vegetables most affected by boiling were broccoli and lettuce. The least affected ones were collard and tronchuda cabbage. PMID:25690509

  6. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  7. The Modified Atkins Diet in Refractory Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy. PMID:24627806

  8. Perceptions of a Healthy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Denby, Nigel; Haycock, Bryan; Sherif, Katherine; Steinbaum, Suzanne; von Schacky, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Limited data exist on consumer beliefs and practices on the role of omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin D dietary supplements and health. For this reason, the Global Health and Nutrition Alliance conducted an online survey in 3 countries (n = 3030; United States = 1022, Germany = 1002, United Kingdom = 1006) of a convenience sample of adults (aged 18–66 years) who represented the age, gender, and geographic composition within each country. More than half of the sample (52%) believed they consume all the key nutrients needed for optimal nutrition through food sources alone; fewer women (48%) than men (57%), and fewer middle-aged adults (48%) than younger (18–34 years [56%]) and older (≥55 years [54%]) adults agreed an optimal diet could be achieved through diet alone. Overall, 32% reported using omega-3s (45% in United States, 29% in United Kingdom, and 24% in Germany), and 42% reported using vitamin D dietary supplements (62% in United States, 32% in United Kingdom, and 31% in Germany). Seventy eight percent of the sample agreed that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for heart health; however, only 40% thought that their diet was adequate in omega-3 fatty acids. Similarly, 84% agreed that vitamin D was beneficial to overall, and 55% of adults from all countries were unsure or did not think they consume enough vitamin D in their diet. For most findings in our study, US adults reported more dietary supplement use and had stronger perceptions about the health effects of omega-3s and vitamin D than their counterparts in the United Kingdom and Germany. Nevertheless, the consistent findings across all countries were that adults are aware of the importance of nutrition, and most adults believe their diet is optimal for health. Our data serve to alert dietitians and health professionals that consumers may have an elevated sense of the healthfulness of their own diets and may require guidance and education to achieve optimal diets. PMID:26663954

  9. Wavelength-dependent photooxidation and photoreduction of protochlorophyllide and protochlorophyll in the innermost leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

    PubMed

    Erdei, Anna Laura; Kósa, Annamária; Kovács-Smirová, Lilla; Böddi, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The photoreduction and photooxidation processes of different protochlorophyll(ide) forms were studied in the innermost leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) under monochromatic irradiations. Room-temperature fluorescence emission spectra were measured from the same leaf spots before and after illumination to follow the wavelength dependence of the photochemical reactions. Short-wavelength light of 7 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) (625-630 nm) provoked mainly bleaching, and longer wavelengths (630-640 nm) caused both bleaching and photoreduction, while above 640 nm resulted in basically photoreduction. When bleached leaves were kept in darkness at room temperature, all protochlorophyll(ide) forms regenerated during 72 h. Oxygen-reduced environment decreased the extent of bleaching suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species. These results confirm that the short-wavelength, 628 nm absorbing, and 633 nm emitting protochlorophyll(ide) form in etiolated cabbage leaves sensibilizes photooxidation. However, the 628 nm light at low intensities stimulates the photoreduction of the longer wavelength protochlorophyllide forms. Kinetic measurements showed that photoreduction saturates at a low PFD (photon flux density) compared to bleaching, suggesting that the quantum yield of photoreduction is higher than that of bleaching. PMID:26519365

  10. Impact of Vairimorpha sp. (Microsporidia: Burnellidae) on Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae), a hymenopteran parasitoid of the cabbage moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae).

    PubMed

    Schuld, M; Madel, G; Schmuck, R

    1999-09-01

    A multi-generation mass breeding colony of the cabbage moth, Plutella xylostella, was found to be infected with a microsporidium, Vairimorpha sp., which is passed transovarially between generations. The microsporidian infection had little impact on the fitness of this lepidopteran pest. However, when Trichogramma chilonis parasitized such infected host eggs, the offspring of this parasitoid species suffered from severe deficiencies. Microsporidian spores, ingested by parasitoid larvae together with the host egg nutrients, gave rise to stages which developed in various tissues of the parasitoid, such as the flight muscle and the nervous system. This infection resulted in a significantly increased rate of metamorphosis failure (related to host age) and reduced longevity and reproductive performance of the parasitoids. There are two main consequences arising from our findings if T. chilonis is to be used in an integrated control strategy against P. xylostella: (1) T. chilonis must be raised on Vairimorpha-free host eggs to receive viable and efficaceous parasitoids for release and (2) if natural populations of the cabbage moth in cruciferous crops are infected with Vairimorpha to a significant extent, the parasitoid must be released repeatedly within infested crop areas. PMID:10486223

  11. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, Duplication, and Expression Analyses of Two-Component System Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenning; Zhang, Mei; Kong, Lijun; Lv, Yanxia; Zou, Minghua; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu; Yu, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    In plants, a two component system (TCS) composed of sensor histidine kinases (HKs), histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HPs), and response regulators (RRs) has been employed in cytokinin signal transduction. A TCS exhibits important functions in diverse biological processes, including plant growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli. Conducting an exhaustive search of the Chinese cabbage genome, a total of 20 HK(L) (11 HKs and 9 HKLs), 8 HP (7 authentic and 1 pseudo), and 57 RR (21 Type-A, 17 Type-B, 4 Type-C, and 15 pseudo) proteins were identified. The structures, conserved domains, and phylogenetic relationships of these protein-coding genes were analysed in detail. The duplications, evolutionary patterns, and divergence of the TCS genes were investigated. The transcription levels of TCS genes in various tissues, organs, and developmental stages were further analysed to obtain information of the functions of these genes. Cytokinin-related binding elements were found in the putative promoter regions of Type-A BrRR genes. Furthermore, gene expression patterns to adverse environmental stresses (drought and high salinity) and exogenous phytohormones (tZ and ABA) were investigated. Numerous stress-responsive candidate genes were obtained. Our systematic analyses provided insights into the characterization of the TCS genes in Chinese cabbage and basis for further functional studies of such genes. PMID:24585003

  12. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae perform better on pre-infested Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis by enhancing host plant nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Cao, He-He; Liu, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction. PMID:26905564

  13. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae perform better on pre-infested Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis by enhancing host plant nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Cao, He-He; Liu, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction. PMID:26905564

  14. Pesticide effects on the plant cuticle. IV. The effect of EPTC on the permeability of cabbage, bean, and sugar beet cuticle

    SciTech Connect

    Flore, J.A.; Bukovac, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC, 2.24 kg/ha) inhibited epicuticular wax production on developing leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., resulting in an increase in cuticular permeability. This increased penetration of /sup 14/C-1-naphthaleneacetic acid (/sup 14/C-NAA) and increased cuticular transpiration. EPTC-enhanced penetration was a consequence of increased diffusion across the cuticle, and not of active uptake. Application of EPTC increased penetration of NAA 200% in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and 121% in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). For cabbage, the percent increase in penetration due to EPTC inhibition of cuticle development 7 days after treatment (141%) was similar to that at 42 days (112%). The effect of EPTC declined until full leaf expansion (28 days after application). Silver nitrate was preferentially taken up by the cuticular ledges of guard cells and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and was greater in leaves from EPTC-treated plants than in those from non-treated plants. 27 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Determination of three major triterpenoids in epicuticular wax of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Martelanc, Mitja; Vovk, Irena; Simonovska, Breda

    2007-09-14

    Lupeol, together with alpha- and beta-amyrins in smaller quantities, has been found for the first time in the epicuticular wax of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. capitata (L.) Alef. var. alba DC) leaf surface extract. The three triterpenoids were identified by a new high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV and mass spectrometric (MS) detection using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). All three isomeric compounds gave a parent ion peak at m/z 409 [M+H-18](+) and the relative intensities of some characteristic fragment ion peaks in tandem mass spectrometric (MS-MS) spectra of this parent ion enabled differentiation between the isomers. An additional peak at m/z 439 [M+H](+), which could be oleanonic or ursonic aldehyde, was detected by HPLC-APCI-MS. Saponification of cabbage leaf surface extract with 20% NaOH in methanol at 65 degrees C for 2h had no influence on lupeol, or alpha- or beta-amyrins, but lead to the formation of three additional compounds, which were not identified. PMID:17692861

  16. Alcohol levels in Chinese lactating mothers after consumption of alcoholic diet during postpartum "doing-the-month" ritual.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Liu, Jen-Fang; Huang, Ya-Jing; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Chao, Jane C-J

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to ethanol through cultural practices by lactating mothers. Specifically, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in Chinese lactating mothers was investigated after they consumed chicken soup flavored with sesame oil and rice wine (CSSR), a typically prescribed diet during the postpartum "doing-the-month" period. Experimental findings were employed to estimate the potential ethanol dose to neonates and determine associated health risks. Twenty-three lactating mothers were examined. Informed consent was obtained from each subject. The target alcohol dosage was 0.3g/kg. Milk and blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals from each subject following exposure to CSSR, and alcohol levels were determined. Acute health risks to infants were estimated by comparing the potential infant dosage to an established criterion dose. Blood alcohol level peaked at 20 min after exposure to CSSR and decreased almost linearly thereafter. Alcohol in milk reached a plateau roughly at 20-40 min after exposure to CSSR and then decreased. Alcohol pharmacokinetics among subjects varied widely. The coefficients of variation in subject alcohol concentrations were 16.5-46.2% (mean, 30.0%) for blood and 32.8-57.6% (mean, 44.4%) for milk. Mean maximal alcohol concentration in blood (30.2+/-5.0 mg/dl) was achieved at 23.5+/-7.6 min and in milk (31.6+/-10.3 mg/dl) at 31.7+/-12.7 min. Potential infant doses were 3.0-58.8 mg (mean, 13.4 mg), and the predicted time required for milk alcohol level to return to zero level was 175 min. The acute health risks for infants exposed to alcohol through their mothers' milk under the current exposure scenario are low (hazard index<0.2). Nursing infants at least 3h after ingesting a diet containing alcohol would further reduce potential health risks. PMID:16713502

  17. Testing the importance of jasmonate signalling in induction of plant defences upon cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) attack

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Phloem-feeding aphids deprive plants of assimilates, but mostly manage to avoid causing the mechanical tissue damage inflicted by chewing insects. Nevertheless, jasmonate signalling that is induced by infestation is important in mediating resistance to phloem feeders. Aphid attack induces the jasmonic acid signalling pathway, but very little is known about the specific impact jasmonates have on the expression of genes that respond to aphid attack. Results We have evaluated the function that jasmonates have in regulating Arabidopsis thaliana responses to cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) by conducting a large-scale transcriptional analysis of two mutants: aos, which is defective in jasmonate production, and fou2, which constitutively induces jasmonic acid biosynthesis. This analysis enabled us to determine which genes' expression patterns depend on the jasmonic acid signalling pathway. We identified more than 200 genes whose expression in non-challenged plants depended on jasmonate levels and more than 800 genes that responded differently to infestation in aos and fou2 plants than in wt. Several aphid-induced changes were compromised in the aos mutant, particularly genes connected to regulation of transcription, defence responses and redox changes. Due to jasmonate-triggered pre-activation of fou2, its transcriptional profile in non-challenged plants mimicked the induction of defence responses in wt. Additional activation of fou2 upon aphid attack was therefore limited. Insect fitness experiments revealed that the physiological consequences of fou2 mutation contributed to more effective protection against B. brassicae. However, the observed resistance of the fou2 mutant was based on antibiotic rather than feeding deterrent properties of the mutant as indicated by an analysis of aphid feeding behaviour. Conclusions Analysis of transcriptional profiles of wt, aos and fou2 plants revealed that the expression of more than 200 genes is dependent on jasmonate status, regardless of external stimuli. Moreover, the aphid-induced response of more than 800 transcripts is regulated by jasmonate signalling. Thus, in plants lacking jasmonates many of the defence-related responses induced by infestation in wt plants are impaired. Constant up-regulation of jasmonate signalling as evident in the fou2 mutant causes reduction in aphid population growth, likely as a result of antibiotic properties of fou2 plants. However, aos mutation does not seem to affect aphid performance when the density of B. brassicae populations on plants is low and aphids are free to move around. PMID:21854623

  18. Genotypic differences in nitrate uptake, translocation and assimilation of two Chinese cabbage cultivars [Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis (L.)].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yafang; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Zhao, Xiaohu

    2013-09-01

    A hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate genotypic differences in nitrate uptake, translocation and assimilation between low nitrate accumulator L18 and high accumulator H96 of Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis (L.)]. The results suggested that H96 could uptake more nitrate than L18 in the root but lower transport inside leaf cells and assimilation in the leaf. It was showed that root morphology parameters - length, surface area and volume of H96 were 18.0%, 31.6% and 46.5% higher than L18. Nitrate transporters NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 transcription levels were 41.6% and 269.6% higher than those of L18 respectively. NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 expression amount in leaf blade of two cultivars were opposite to in the root, L18 NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 expressions were 279.2% and 80.0% higher than H96. In addition, nitrate assimilation capacity of L18 was significantly higher than H96 in leaf. It was showed that Nitrate Reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1) activity and NIA expression level of L18 leaf were 234 0.4% and 105.4% higher than those of H96, Glutamine Synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) activity, Gln1 and Gln2 expression levels in the leaf blade of L18 were 43.9%, 331.5% and 124.8% higher than those of H96 respectively. Nitrate assimilation products-Glu, total amino acid, soluble protein content in the leaf of L18 were all significantly higher than those of H96. The results above suggested that nitrate accumulation differences were due to differential capacities to uptake, mechanisms for nitrate transport in leaves and assimilate nitrate. Comparing contribution of three aspects in nitrate accumulation, translocation and assimilation were contributed more in low nitrate concentration in the leaf blade. PMID:23770590

  19. Identification, expression, and comparative genomic analysis of the IPT and CKX gene families in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytokinins (CKs) have significant roles in various aspects of plant growth and development, and they are also involved in plant stress adaptations. The fine-tuning of the controlled CK levels in individual tissues, cells, and organelles is properly maintained by isopentenyl transferases (IPTs) and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenases (CKXs). Chinese cabbage is one of the most economically important vegetable crops worldwide. The whole genome sequencing of Brassica rapa enables us to perform the genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the IPT and CKX gene families. Results In this study, a total of 13 BrIPT genes and 12 BrCKX genes were identified. The gene structures, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed. The isoelectric point, subcellular localization and glycosylation sites of the proteins were predicted. Segmental duplicates were found in both BrIPT and BrCKX gene families. We also analyzed evolutionary patterns and divergence of the IPT and CKX genes in the Cruciferae family. The transcription levels of BrIPT and BrCKX genes were analyzed to obtain an initial picture of the functions of these genes. Abiotic stress elements related to adverse environmental stimuli were found in the promoter regions of BrIPT and BrCKX genes and they were confirmed to respond to drought and high salinity conditions. The effects of 6-BA and ABA on the expressions of BrIPT and BrCKX genes were also investigated. Conclusions The expansion of BrIPT and BrCKX genes after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana is mainly attributed to segmental duplication events during the whole genome triplication (WGT) and substantial duplicated genes are lost during the long evolutionary history. Genes produced by segmental duplication events have changed their expression patterns or may adopted new functions and thus are obtained. BrIPT and BrCKX genes respond well to drought and high salinity stresses, and their transcripts are affected by exogenous hormones, such as 6-BA and ABA, suggesting their potential roles in abiotic stress conditions and regulatory mechanisms of plant hormone homeostasis. The appropriate modulation of endogenous CKs levels by IPT and CKX genes is a promising approach for developing economically important high-yielding and high-quality stress-tolerant crops in agriculture. PMID:24001366

  20. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).