Science.gov

Sample records for cabbage soup diet

  1. The effect of diets enriched in cabbage and collards on murine pulmonary metastasis.

    PubMed

    Scholar, E M; Wolterman, K; Birt, D F; Bresnick, E

    1989-01-01

    Feeding mice with diets enriched in dried cruciferous vegetables (cabbage and collards) resulted in a significant decrease in the number of pulmonary metastases after the animals were injected intravenously with mammary tumor cells. No differences in weight gain or calorie consumption were seen between the mice fed the different diets. These results support other evidence that diets high in cruciferous vegetables may be beneficial in cancer prevention. PMID:2710654

  2. Chicken soup and sickness

    MedlinePLUS

    Chicken soup, a popular home remedy for the common cold since at least the 12th century, may really ... chicken soup reduce the inflammation associated with the common cold, thus providing some relief of symptoms. Although researchers ...

  3. Vegetable Soup Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Mary; Shepard, Ray

    Vegetable Soup is a new children's television series whose purpose is to counter the negative and destructive effects of racial isolation. This manual gives detailed instructions for discussion of activities that are presented during the television series such as: crafts, games, recipes, language activities, and children's questions. A list of…

  4. Protective effect of Tuscan black cabbage sprout extract against serum lipid increase and perturbations of liver antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Melega, S; Canistro, D; De Nicola, G R; Lazzeri, L; Sapone, A; Paolini, M

    2013-09-28

    A diet rich in fat is considered a primary risk factor for CVD, cancer and failures in metabolism and endocrine functions. Hyperlipidaemia generates oxidative stress and weakens antioxidant defences as well as metabolic detoxification systems. Brassicaceae are vegetables rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, affecting enzymatic antioxidant as well as phase II enzymes and conceivably counteracting high-fat diet (HFD)-associated pathologies. The protective role of Tuscan black cabbage (a variety of kale) sprout extract (TBCSE) intake against HFD alterations was here studied. The effects on rat hepatic antioxidant as well as detoxifying enzymes, and serum lipid- and body weightlowering properties of TBCSE, were investigated. Feeding the animals with a HFD for 21 d increased body as well as liver weights, and induced hyperlipidaemia, as confirmed by a higher serum lipid profile v. control diet. Daily intragastric administration of TBCSE to HFD-fed rats lowered serum total cholesterol, TAG and NEFA. Body and liver weight gains were also reduced. Antioxidant (catalase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) and phase II (glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase) enzymes were down-regulated by the HFD, while the extract restored normal levels in most groups. Generation of toxic intermediates, and membrane fatty acid composition changes by the HFD, might account for the altered hepatic antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme functions. The recovering effects of TBCSE could be attributed to high flavonoid, phenolic and organosulphur compound content, which possess free-radical-scavenging properties, enhance the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. TBCSE intake emerges to be an effective alimentary strategy to counteract the perturbations associated with a diet rich in fat. PMID:23433361

  5. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  6. Reduction in mammary tumorigenesis in the rat by cabbage and cabbage residue.

    PubMed

    Bresnick, E; Birt, D F; Wolterman, K; Wheeler, M; Markin, R S

    1990-07-01

    Mammary cancer was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by a single injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and rats were randomized to control fat (5%) and high fat (24.6%) diets. In addition, dried cabbage (5 and 10%) and collards (5%) were included in the diets of some animals. No statistically significant differences were observed in food consumption, body wt gain and caloric intake between the MNU-treated and control groups in the rats fed the low-fat diet. However, the groups fed the high-fat diet consumed more than the rats maintained on the control diet. The rats on the control fat diet containing cabbage exhibited a significantly lower incidence of mammary cancer than rats that were fed the control-fat diet without cabbage. This effect was not observed in comparable rats on the high-fat diet. The inhibitory effect on mammary tumorigenesis was demonstrated using a residue obtained from cabbage by exhaustive extraction with methanol, methylene chloride and petroleum ether. These studies reinforce the efficacy of cabbage as a 'suppressor' of cancer in experimental model systems under control-fat dietary conditions. PMID:2372873

  7. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment. In 1992, the developer applied for a patent for Selected Vegetables/Sun’s Soup as an herbal ... patients. In 1995, the developer was awarded a patent for Selected Vegetables/Sun’s Soup. Many of the ...

  8. Cabbage Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Sojourner rover image of the Cabbage Patch shows small rounded objects on the surface that are about 3-4 cm across. Some of these are within excavations, which are about 0.5 cm wide. Several questions arise about the pebbles: Why are they rounded? Where did they come from? What do they mean?

    Geologists use MULTIPLE WORKING HYPOTHESES when attempting to explain observations. Some hypotheses that could account for the pebbles are: They were rounded during transport by waters of catastrophic floods and deposited on the Ares Vallis floodplain They were rounded by wave action on an ancient Martian beach They were rounded during glacial transport They are glasses that were produced by melting during impact cratering. The glass was first ejected from the crater, then molded into spherical shapes or drops as it traveled through the atmosphere, and finally was deposited at the sites They are spatter from lava flows They are nodules brought up from the deep Martian interior by lava flows or pyroclastic eruptions. They are concretions formed in sedimentary rocks They came from ancient conglomerate rocks. The pebbles were rounded by water action and subsequently lithified into conglomerate rocks. Later, the waters of catastrophic floods transported the conglomerates and deposited them on the Ares floodplain. The pebbles were then freed from the rocks by weathering. A combination of the above

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  9. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken

  10. The effect of soup on satiation.

    PubMed

    Himaya, A; Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1998-04-01

    We compared the influence of three solid/liquid preloads to a no-preload condition given at lunchtime on hunger ratings and energy intake of the lunch and subsequent dinner in 12 lean and 10 overweight young men. The preloads (vegetables and water, strained vegetable soup, chunky soup) were of the same composition and volume but differed in distribution of nutrients between the liquid and the solid phases, and in the size of solid particles. Hunger ratings were reduced by the preloads; there was a significantly greater suppression of hunger after the chunky soup than after the vegetables and water. In both groups, the soups reduced energy intake at lunch, although the chunky soup had the most effect. In the overweight subjects, a reduced lunch intake was also followed by a reduced dinner intake. The benefit to weight control of large particles in soup should be evaluated. PMID:9573453

  11. Decoding the Assessment Alphabet Soup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Paula

    2010-10-01

    The number of assessment instruments that help physics instructors evaluate the conceptual learning of their students has grown over the last twenty years. Today, the number of tests that are available begin to look like an alphabet soup, FCI, MBT, TUG-K, CSE, CSM, CSEM, DIRECT, BEMA, LOCE, FMCE, SEMCO, etc. What can these assessment tests do for you that is different from what you regularly do? How do these tests differ from the tests and other assessments you already give in class? What is meant by formative and summative assessment and why should you care? What are some of the issues associated with giving one of these assessment tests? These are the questions that will be addressed in this talk.

  12. Early Childhood: From Soup to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Margaret, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provided are recipes (with accompanying questions and activities) designed to help teachers and parents as they explore science and cooking with children. Recipes include those for orange soup, orange milk shakes, and yogurt. (JN)

  13. Of Cabbages and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jacqueline

    This book contains a series of engaging activities that offer students a chance to explore acids and bases using the special indicator properties of red cabbage juice. The activities allow students to discover acids and bases through their own experiments and interpretations. The skills of observing, recording results, comparing, classifying,

  14. Of Cabbages and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jacqueline

    This book contains a series of engaging activities that offer students a chance to explore acids and bases using the special indicator properties of red cabbage juice. The activities allow students to discover acids and bases through their own experiments and interpretations. The skills of observing, recording results, comparing, classifying,…

  15. Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to

  16. Diets

    MedlinePLUS

    Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...

  17. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Teaching Science. The Soup-Can Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents classroom science activities to illustrate concepts of inertia, linear momentum, and friction. Students or teachers conduct races down a slope, using cans containing soups varying in mass, mass distribution, and viscosity. Students predict outcomes, compare speeds, and identify variables affecting the results. (KDFB)

  19. "Snow Soup" Students Take on Animation Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of producing "Snow Soup"--the 2009 Adobe Flash animation produced by the Computer Game Development and Animation seniors of Washington County Technical High School in Hagerstown, Maryland, for libraries in their area. In addition to the Flash product, the students produced two related Game Maker games, a printed

  20. "Snow Soup" Students Take on Animation Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of producing "Snow Soup"--the 2009 Adobe Flash animation produced by the Computer Game Development and Animation seniors of Washington County Technical High School in Hagerstown, Maryland, for libraries in their area. In addition to the Flash product, the students produced two related Game Maker games, a printed…

  1. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Marking cabbage looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, J.I.; Van Steenwyk, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    Cabbage loopers (CL), Trichoplusia ni (Huebner), adults reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked with cesium (Cs) which could be detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The cesium marks from the 10/sup -2/ M CsCl diet were sufficient to last the expected lifetime of the insects. CL reared on diet containing 1 x 10/sup -1/ M CsCl did not survive. Unmarked females mated to males reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked. CL reared on cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults exposed for 72 h to cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults reared from field cotton plants sprayed with CsCl solutions at rates of 1.24, 2.47, and 4.94 kg of CsCl per ha were marked. 12 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  3. Exploring Weighty Matters with "Cucumber Soup": An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columba, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature can play a significant role in integrating math and science concepts into real-world applications. One particularly delightful selection is "Cucumber Soup" (Krudwig, 1998). This book can create a context--making cucumber soup--for weighing and for a real-life on adding fractions. This kind of learning context takes children…

  4. Exploring Weighty Matters with "Cucumber Soup": An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columba, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature can play a significant role in integrating math and science concepts into real-world applications. One particularly delightful selection is "Cucumber Soup" (Krudwig, 1998). This book can create a context--making cucumber soup--for weighing and for a real-life on adding fractions. This kind of learning context takes children

  5. Effect of a barley-vegetable soup on plasma carotenoids and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetti, Tiziana; Tullii, Domenico; Masciangelo, Simona; Gesuita, Rosaria; Skrami, Edlira; Brugè, Francesca; Silvestri, Sonia; Orlando, Patrick; Tiano, Luca; Ferretti, Gianna

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods that provide benefits beyond their traditional nutritional value have attracted much interest. Aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional and the functional properties of a frozen ready-to-eat soup containing barley and pigmented vegetables. Both glycaemic index and the glyceamic load of ready-to-eat soup were evaluated in vivo. Moreover the bioavailability of carotenoids (lutein and beta-carotene) and the effect on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation were studied in 38 volunteers whose diet was supplemented for two weeks with a daily portion (250 g) of the ready-to-eat soup. Plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein and beta-carotene) and plasma total antioxidant capacity significantly increased after 2 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, we observed a decrease in the levels of lipids (total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol) and of markers of lipid peroxidation (oxidized low density lipoprotein and lipid hydroperoxides) in plasma of all subjects. The glyceamic index of the product was 36, therefore it could be considered a low glyceamic index food. An accurate selection of vegetable foods results in a palatable and healthy product that provides benefits on plasma lipids and lipid peroxidation (Protocol number 211525). PMID:26236103

  6. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ)Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  7. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  8. Pediatric soup scald burn injury: etiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Tina L; Alderson, Tyrone S; Ison, Dahlia; O'Mara, Michael S; Sharma, Raj; Bubba, Anthony; Coombs, Elena; Greenhalgh, David G

    2008-01-01

    One of the leading causes of scald burn injury in children is from hot soup, particularly prepackaged instant soups. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic, socioeconomic, and situational factors that contribute to the incidence of scald burns in children. A 20-item questionnaire was given to the caregiver of children who were treated for scald burn injury at a pediatric burn center from July 2006 to March 2007. Questions included demographics (child age, gender, siblings, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (income, education), factors contributing to the injury (type of soup, child supervision, type of container), and location of injury. The mean age of the 78 children sustaining burn injury and completing the survey was 4.8 +/- 0.6 years. The majority of patients were girls (51%), and the most frequently involved ethnic group was Hispanic (44%). Households had a mean of 3.0 +/- 0.3 children in residence, and an income of less than $29,000/year (59%). The highest educational level achieved was high school for 73% of the parents. Prepackaged soup (65%) with a narrow base heated directly in the original container (46%) using the microwave (51%) was implicated in the majority of burns. Soup scald burns, especially from prepackaged instant soups, appear to predominate in lower income families with multiple children. The majority of injuries occur when the caregiver heats the soup in the original container using the microwave. Prevention of these types of injuries will require a two-pronged approach: educating families with multiple children and changing the soup packaging. PMID:18182907

  9. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage is due to the accumulation of large quantity of anthocyanins. To investigate the general regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbages, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulators from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four...

  10. Infection of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ji, R; Zhao, L; Xing, M; Shen, X; Bi, Q; Peng, S; Feng, H

    2014-01-01

    Brassica crops infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae can produce root galls (clubroots) and be prevented from growing normally. To understand the series of changes that occur in the host root during root gall production, the resistance character of 21 Chinese cabbage lines were identified and then resistant and susceptible lines were used for infection observation. Hydroponic technology system was used for plants growing, and the infection process of P. brassicae in the roots of resistant and susceptible Chinese cabbage was examined based on morphology and microscopic characteristics using micoscope. In susceptible Chinese cabbage, the root hair infection stage occurred over approximately 7 days after inoculation, the cortical infection happened over approximatly 14 days after inoculation, and clubroots formed in approximately 30 days after inoculation. However, in resistant Chinese cabbage, the pathogen could be prevented and maintained in the root hair infection stage. This research provides a foundation for the subsequent studies of cabbage resistance of P. brassicae. PMID:25526218

  11. ``Sequence space soup'' of proteins and copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hue Sun; Dill, Ken A.

    1991-09-01

    To study the protein folding problem, we use exhaustive computer enumeration to explore ``sequence space soup,'' an imaginary solution containing the ``native'' conformations (i.e., of lowest free energy) under folding conditions, of every possible copolymer sequence. The model is of short self-avoiding chains of hydrophobic (H) and polar (P) monomers configured on the two-dimensional square lattice. By exhaustive enumeration, we identify all native structures for every possible sequence. We find that random sequences of H/P copolymers will bear striking resemblance to known proteins: Most sequences under folding conditions will be approximately as compact as known proteins, will have considerable amounts of secondary structure, and it is most probable that an arbitrary sequence will fold to a number of lowest free energy conformations that is of order one. In these respects, this simple model shows that proteinlike behavior should arise simply in copolymers in which one monomer type is highly solvent averse. It suggests that the structures and uniquenesses of native proteins are not consequences of having 20 different monomer types, or of unique properties of amino acid monomers with regard to special packing or interactions, and thus that simple copolymers might be designable to collapse to proteinlike structures and properties. A good strategy for designing a sequence to have a minimum possible number of native states is to strategically insert many P monomers. Thus known proteins may be marginally stable due to a balance: More H residues stabilize the desired native state, but more P residues prevent simultaneous stabilization of undesired native states.

  12. Conformal correlation functions in the Brownian loop soup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camia, Federico; Gandolfi, Alberto; Kleban, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We define and study a set of operators that compute statistical properties of the Brownian loop soup, a conformally invariant gas of random Brownian loops (Brownian paths constrained to begin and end at the same point) in two dimensions. We prove that the correlation functions of these operators have many of the properties of conformal primaries in a conformal field theory, and compute their conformal dimension. The dimensions are real and positive, but have the novel feature that they vary continuously as a periodic function of a real parameter. We comment on the relation of the Brownian loop soup to the free field, and use this relation to establish that the central charge of the loop soup is twice its intensity.

  13. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A E I; Rombouts, F M; Beumer, R R

    2004-02-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during different cooling times was investigated. Tubes of preheated pea soup (50 degrees C) were inoculated with cocktails of cells or heat-activated spores of this pathogen. The tubes were linearly cooled to 15 degrees C in time spans of 3, 5, 7.5, and 10 h and were subsequently stored in a refrigerator at 3 or 7 degrees C for up to 84 h. Cell numbers increased by 1-log cycle during the 3-h cooling period and reached their maximum after 10 h of cooling. Subsequent refrigeration hardly reduced cell numbers. Cooling of 3.75 liters of pea soup in an open pan showed that this amount of pea soup cooled from 50 to 15 degrees C in 5 h, which will allow a more than 10-fold increase in cell numbers. These findings emphasize the need of good hygienic practices and quick cooling of heated foods after preparation. PMID:14968969

  14. Public Opinion Polls, Chicken Soup and Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phung

    2005-01-01

    Cooking and tasting chicken soup in three different pots of very different size serves to demonstrate that it is the absolute sample size that matters the most in determining the accuracy of the findings of the poll, not the relative sample size, i.e. the size of the sample in relation to its population.

  15. Free radical interactions between raw materials in dry soup powder.

    PubMed

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-12-01

    Interactions at the free radical level were observed between dry ingredients in cauliflower soup powder, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, which may be of importance for quality deterioration of such dry food products. The free radical concentrations of cauliflower soup powder, obtained by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, rapidly become smaller during storage (40C and relative humidity of 75%) than the calculated concentrations of free radicals based on the free radical concentrations of the powder ingredients used to make the soup powder and stored separately under similar conditions. Similarly, free radical concentrations decreased faster when any combination of two powder ingredients (of the three major ingredients of the soup powder) were mixed together and stored at 50C for 1week than when each powder component was stored separately. Furthermore, yeast extract powder was found to play a key role when free radical interactions between powder ingredients occurred. The incubation of rapeseed oil with powder ingredients at 45C for 24h, indicated the ability of cauliflower powder to increase the concentration of hydroperoxides in rapeseed oil, while yeast extract powder was found to prevent this hydroperoxide formation. PMID:25212323

  16. An analysis of un-dissolved powders of instant powdered soup by using ultrasonographic image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaai, Yukinori; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays, there are many instant powdered soups around us. When we make instant powdered soup, sometimes we cannot dissolve powders perfectly. Food manufacturers want to improve this problem in order to make better products. Therefore, they have to measure the state and volume of un-dissolved powders. Earlier methods for analyzing removed the un-dissolved powders from the container, the state of the un-dissolved power was changed. Our research using ultrasonographic image can measure the state of un-dissolved powders with no change by taking cross sections of the soup. We then make 3D soup model from these cross sections of soup. Therefore we can observe the inside of soup that we do not have ever seen. We construct accurate 3D model. We can visualize the state and volume of un-dissolved powders with analyzing the 3D soup models.

  17. Study finds Chapel Hill, NC, soup kitchen serves nutritious meals.

    PubMed

    Eppich, Simone; Fernandez, Claudia Plaisted

    2004-08-01

    Soup kitchens attempt to improve the food security of low-income individuals, but the results of their efforts are rarely researched. We focused our study on the Inter-Faith Council Soup Kitchen (IFC) near the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC) in Chapel Hill, NC. The IFC uses no centralized nutrition planning and relies heavily on volunteer cooks, yet we found their meals to be highly nutrient-dense when averaged over a 1-month time frame and compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and the Daily Reference Values (DRVs). In fact, the only nutrients needing improvement were vitamin D, folate, and calcium. The number of servings per meal was also substantially more than one third of the US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid recommendations, except for dairy at all meals, vegetables at breakfast, and fruit at dinner. PMID:15281049

  18. Temperature Relationships in Eastern Skunk Cabbage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Barbara J.; Halkin, Sylvia L.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory exercise is presented in which students determine where metabolic heat is primarily generated in blooming eastern skunk cabbage ("Symplocarpus foetidus") plants. Students consider how color, shape, and orientation of spathes, and stage of flower maturation, may affect metabolic heat production and retention of both metabolic and solar…

  19. Of Cabbages, Science Curriculums, and Children's Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrowski, Bernard

    1984-01-01

    Uses examples related to a head of cabbage to discuss: (1) sensory development in children; (2) the integration of sensory and cognitive involvement; and (3) a child's mode of exploring and discovering. Also discusses why science curricula need to be organized around a paradigm that is holistic. (JN)

  20. Storage stability of cauliflower soup powder: The effect of lipid oxidation and protein degradation reactions.

    PubMed

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-09-15

    Soups based on cauliflower soup powders, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, showed a decrease in quality, as evaluated by a sensory panel, during the storage of the soup powder in the dark for up to 12weeks under mildly accelerated conditions of 40C and 75% relative humidity. Antioxidant, shown to be effective in protecting the rapeseed bulk oil, used for the powder preparation, had no effect on storage stability of the soup powder. The freshly prepared soup powder had a relatively high concentration of free radicals, as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, which decreased during storage, and most remarkably during the first two weeks of storage, with only marginal increase in lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products, and without any increase in secondary lipid oxidation products. Analyses of volatiles by SPME-GC-MS revealed a significant increase in concentrations of 2-methyl- and 3-methyl butanals, related to Maillard reactions, together with an increase in 2-acetylpyrrole concentration. The soup powders became more brown during storage, as indicated by a decreasing Hunter L-value, in accord with non-enzymatic browning reactions. A significant increase in the concentrations of dimethyl disulfide in soup powder headspace indicated free radical-initiated protein oxidation. Protein degradation, including Maillard reactions and protein oxidation, is concluded to be more important than lipid oxidation in determining the shelf-life of dry cauliflower soup powder. PMID:25212144

  1. Story of Stone Soup: a recipe to improve health disparities.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C

    2010-01-01

    Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development. PMID:20629241

  2. Cover crop mulch and weed management influence arthropod communities in strip-tilled cabbage.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Alexandria; Brainard, Daniel C; Haramoto, Erin R; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2013-04-01

    Cover crop mulch and weeds create habitat complexity in agricultural fields that may influence arthropods. Under strip-tillage systems, planting rows are tilled and preestablished cover crops can remain between rows. In field experiments conducted in Michigan in 2010 and 2011, a preestablished oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop was allowed to grow between rows of strip-tilled cabbage and killed at 0, 9-14, or 21-27 d after transplanting (DAT). The effects of herbicide intensity and oat kill date on arthropods, weeds, and crop yield were examined. Two levels of herbicide intensity (low or high) were used to manipulate habitat vegetational complexity, with low weed management intensity resulting in more weeds, particularly in 2010. Oat kill date manipulated the amount of cover crop mulch on the soil surface. Later oat kill dates were associated with higher natural enemy abundance. Reduced herbicide intensity was associated with (1) lower abundance of several key cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.) pests, and (2) greater abundance of important natural enemy species. Habitats with both later oat kill dates and reduced herbicide intensity contained (1) fewer herbivores with chewing feeding guilds and more specialized diet breadths, and (2) greater abundance of active hunting natural enemies. Oats reduced cabbage yield when oat kill was delayed past 9-14 DAT. Yields were reduced under low herbicide intensity treatments in 2010 when weed pressure was greatest. We suspect that increased habitat complexity associated with oat mulches and reduced herbicide intensity enhances biological control in cabbage, although caution should be taken to avoid reducing yields or enhancing hyperparasitism. PMID:23575020

  3. A polygon soup representation for free viewpoint video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colleu, T.; Pateux, S.; Morin, L.; Labit, C.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a polygon soup representation for multiview data. Starting from a sequence of multi-view video plus depth (MVD) data, the proposed representation takes into account, in a unified manner, different issues such as compactness, compression, and intermediate view synthesis. The representation is built in two steps. First, a set of 3D quads is extracted using a quadtree decomposition of the depth maps. Second, a selective elimination of the quads is performed in order to reduce inter-view redundancies and thus provide a compact representation. Moreover, the proposed methodology for extracting the representation allows to reduce ghosting artifacts. Finally, an adapted compression technique is proposed that limits coding artifacts. The results presented on two real sequences show that the proposed representation provides a good trade-off between rendering quality and data compactness.

  4. Intracisternal injection of inflammatory soup activates the trigeminal nerve system.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, J; Neeb, L; Israel, H; Dannenberg, F; Triebe, F; Dirnagl, U; Reuter, U

    2009-11-01

    The release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and sensitization of the trigeminal nerve system are important elements in migraine pathophysiology. Sensitization can be induced by topical meningeal administration of inflammatory soup (IS). CGRP release is a marker of trigeminal nerve activation. We examined the effect of intracisternal IS administration on CGRP release in rat jugular vein blood at baseline, 2 and 15 min after the beginning of IS infusion. IS administration caused a significant increase of CGRP levels after 2 and 15 min compared with baseline. Daily oral treatment with topiramate for 4 and 8 weeks led to a dose- and time-dependent reduction of IS-induced CGRP release. Sumatriptan also attenuated stimulated neuropeptide release. These results indicate that intracisternal IS administration leads to activation of the trigeminal system. The inhibition of CGRP release by topiramate offers a possible mechanism that may in part account for the preventative antimigraine activity of this drug. PMID:19558535

  5. Sunspot observations from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shine, R. A.; Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.

    1987-01-01

    A series of white light images obtained by the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2 of active region 4682 on August 5, 1985 were analyzed in the area containing sunspots. Although the umbra of the spot is underexposed, the film is well exposed in the penumbral regions. These data were digitally processed to remove noise and to separate p-mode oscillations from low velocity material motions. The results of this preliminary investigation include: (1) proper motion measurements of a radial outflow in the photospheric granulation pattern just outside the penumbra; (2) discovery of occasional bright structures (streakers) that appear to be ejected outward from the penumbra; (3) broad dark clouds moving outward in the penumbra in addition to the well known bright penumbral grains moving inward; (4) apparent extensions and contractions of penumbral filaments over the photosphere; and (5) observation of a faint bubble or loop-like structure which seems to expand from two bright penumbral filaments into the photosphere.

  6. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  7. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457.171 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.171 Cabbage crop...

  8. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457.171 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS 457.171 Cabbage crop...

  9. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457.171 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS 457.171 Cabbage crop...

  10. Transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) is due to anthocyanin accumulation. To investigate the regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbage, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four ...

  11. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  12. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks.

    PubMed

    Crassina, K; Sudha, M L

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality and breaking strength were assessed. Nutritional characterization of the soup sticks in terms of protein and starch in vitro digestibility, dietary fiber, minerals, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were determined using standard methods. With the increasing levels of MGP from 0 to 15 %, the farinograph water absorption increased from 60 to 66.7 %. A marginal increase in the gelatinization temperature from 65.4 to 66.2 °C was observed. Retrogradation of gelatinized starch granules decreased with the addition of MGP. The results indicated that the soup stick with 10 % MG had acceptable sensory attributes. The soup stick showed further improvement in terms of texture and breaking strength with the addition of gluten powder, potassium bromate and glycerol monostearate. The total dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of the soup sticks having 10 % MGP increased from 3.31 to 8.64 % and 26.83 to 48.06 % respectively as compared to the control soup sticks. MGP in soup sticks improved the nutritional profile. PMID:26345009

  13. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup. PMID:24425950

  14. Production and characterization of a somatic hybrid of Chinese cabbage and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yuji

    2012-09-01

    In order to broaden Chinese cabbage gene pool, we conducted interspecific somatic hybridization between Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris, 2n=20, AA) and Cabbage (B. oleracea, 2n=18, CC). Protoplasts were isolated from 10-day-old cotyledons and hypocotyls of young seedlings, and fused by 40% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Fused cells were cultured in modified K8p liquid medium supplemented with some plant growth regulators. Fusion products were characterized by their morphological, cytological and molecular biological traits. The results showed that, a total of 35 regenerated green plants were obtained from 320 calli, the plant regeneration frequency was 10.94%, and eleven of which were survived in greenhouse. All regenerants were true hybrids as confirmed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis. Ploidy levels of hybrid plants were determined by chromosome counting and flow cytometry. The sum of the chromosome number (2n = 38) from the two fusion patents were found in 36.4% of regeneratns; another 36.4% had chromosomes range to 58-60; 27.2% had more chromosomes ranges to 70-76. All regenerated plants produced normal flowers. We investigated the pollen fertility and seed set after self-pollination and backcrossing with the parental species. For hybrids with chromosomes more than 38 it was possible to obtain some seeds when they after self-pollination. Within the group of hybrids with 38 chromosomes, seed set were very variable, only 0.11 seeds per pod by self-pollination, 0.23-0.76 by open-pollination, 0.02-0.04 by backcrossing with Chinese cabbage. Progeny lines obtained by self-pollination had larger leaves and leaf shapes intermediate of the parental species. Pollen fertility was gradually recovered in the first and second progenies. The backcrossing progeny lines, as a whole, exhibited morphologies were similar to Chinese cabbage. Morphological variations were observed among the somatic hybrids and their progenies. PMID:23289310

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and nutritional composition of flavoured dehydrated soups packaged in different formats. Reducing the sodium content.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Murcia, M Antonia; Mariscal, Miguel; Lorenzo, M Luisa; Gómez-Murcia, V; Bibiloni, Mar; Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M

    2015-12-01

    The antioxidant activity and nutritional composition of four dehydrated soups (vegetables, meat, chicken and fish) packaged in four formats - carton, plastic, and aluminium bags (the last with and without modified atmosphere) - were evaluated during 12 months' storage. The results showed that all four soups had a good or very good antioxidant capacity as tested by the lipid peroxidation, deoxyribose, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) tests. Of interest from a nutritional point of view was the finding that the lipid fraction of all the soups was below 1 %. The sodium content of the four soups and their ingredients was also analysed. By modifying some of the ingredients, a 25 % reduction in the sodium content of the soups was obtained, permitting them to be labelled as "sodium reduced". The monosodium glutamate (MSG) content of the reformulated soups (lower sodium content) was below levels permitted by European legislation. PMID:26604357

  16. Methylmercury in dried shark fins and shark fin soup from American restaurants.

    PubMed

    Nalluri, Deepthi; Baumann, Zofia; Abercrombie, Debra L; Chapman, Demian D; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2014-10-15

    Consumption of meat from large predatory sharks exposes human consumers to high levels of toxic monomethylmercury (MMHg). There also have been claims that shark fins, and hence the Asian delicacy shark fin soup, contain harmful levels of neurotoxic chemicals in combination with MMHg, although concentrations of MMHg in shark fins are unknown. We measured MMHg in dried, unprocessed fins (n=50) of 13 shark species that occur in the international trade of dried shark fins as well as 50 samples of shark fin soup prepared by restaurants from around the United States. Concentrations of MMHg in fins ranged from 9 to 1720 ng/g dry wt. MMHg in shark fin soup ranged from <0.01 to 34 ng/mL, with MMHg averaging 62 ± 7% of total Hg. The highest concentrations of MMHg and total Hg were observed in both fins and soup from large, high trophic level sharks such as hammerheads (Sphyrna spp.). Consumption of a 240 mL bowl of shark fin soup containing the average concentration of MMHg (4.6 ng/mL) would result in a dose of 1.1 μg MMHg, which is 16% of the U.S. EPA's reference dose (0.1 μg MMHg per 1 kg per day in adults) of 7.4 μg per day for a 74 kg person. If consumed, the soup containing the highest measured MMHg concentration would exceed the reference dose by 17%. While shark fin soup represents a potentially important source of MMHg to human consumers, other seafood products, particularly the flesh of apex marine predators, contain much higher MMHg concentrations and can result in substantially greater exposures of this contaminant for people. PMID:24835340

  17. Spatial Models of Prebiotic Evolution: Soup Before Pizza?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuring, Istvn; Czrn, Tams; Szab, Pter; Krolyi, Gyrgy; Toroczkai, Zoltn

    2003-10-01

    The problem of information integration and resistance to the invasion of parasitic mutants in prebiotic replicator systems is a notorious issue of research on the origin of life. Almost all theoretical studies published so far have demonstrated that some kind of spatial structure is indispensable for the persistence and/or the parasite resistance of any feasible replicator system. Based on a detailed critical survey of spatial models on prebiotic information integration, we suggest a possible scenario for replicator system evolution leading to the emergence of the first protocells capable of independent life. We show that even the spatial versions of the hypercycle model are vulnerable to selfish parasites in heterogeneous habitats. Contrary, the metabolic system remains persistent and coexistent with its parasites both on heterogeneous surfaces and in chaotically mixing flowing media. Persistent metabolic parasites can be converted to metabolic cooperators, or they can gradually obtain replicase activity. Our simulations show that, once replicase activity emerged, a gradual and simultaneous evolutionary improvement of replicase functionality (speed and fidelity) and template efficiency is possible only on a surface that constrains the mobility of macromolecule replicators. Based on the results of the models reviewed, we suggest that open chaotic flows (`soup') and surface dynamics (`pizza') both played key roles in the sequence of evolutionary events ultimately concluding in the appearance of the first living cell on Earth.

  18. First results on quiet and magnetic granulation from SOUP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction limited (0.5 arc sec) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc sec) and completely free of the distortion that plagues groundbased images. The p-mode oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, it was shown that the p-modes dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When these oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 500 sec in quiet and 950 sec in magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are seen to be common. It is speculated that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Using local correlation tracking techniques it was able to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the magnetic field. In quiet sun it is possible to detect both super and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions horizontal velocities are much less, about 100 m/s.

  19. A Head for Science: Using Cabbage to Teach Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifting, Inez Fugate

    1988-01-01

    Using ordinary household items--vinegar, ammonia, and cabbage juice--teachers can demonstrate properties of acids, bases, and neutrals. Students are encouraged to discuss results and hypothesize about experiments. A guide to the project is provided. (JL)

  20. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... improper application of control measures; (5) Earthquake; (6) Volcanic eruption; or (7) Failure of the... your application; or (2) When the cabbage is planted in each planting period. (b) In addition to...

  1. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... improper application of control measures; (5) Earthquake; (6) Volcanic eruption; or (7) Failure of the... your application; or (2) When the cabbage is planted in each planting period. (b) In addition to...

  2. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T.; Artaev, Viatcheslav B.; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L.; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2015-01-01

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms. PMID:26412575

  3. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T; Artaev, Viatcheslav B; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms. PMID:26412575

  4. Identification of the flavonoids in mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) soup and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Cao, Dongdong; Yi, Jianyong; Cao, Jiankang; Jiang, Weibo

    2012-12-15

    Mung bean soup (MBS) has been traditionally taken as a kind of health food in China. To learn the mechanisms underlying its health benefits, antioxidant capacities of the soup prepared with three cultivars of mung bean were measured. The highest DPPH radical scavenging or ferric reducing activity was observed in soup of mung bean cv. Huang. The MBS of cv. Huang and Mao exhibited higher ABTS(+) reducing activities than MBS of cv. Ming. The two major flavonoids in the MBS were purified and identified as vitexin and isovitexin, respectively. Modeling samples containing vitexin and isovitexin at the same levels as them in the MBS were prepared to assess their antioxidant contributions in the MBS. Our results showed that antioxidant capacities of the MBS mainly derived from vitexin and isovitexin, these flavonoids accounted for the most of total DPPH radicals scavenging, ferric reducing and ABTS(+) reducing scavenging activities in MBS of all the three cultivars. PMID:22980894

  5. Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on the nutritional quality of some selected Nigerian soups.

    PubMed

    Raji, Akeem Olayemi; Akinoso, Rahman; Raji, Monsurat Oyewale

    2016-03-01

    Freezing and thawing are heat transfer processes, involving chemical changes which may greatly affect product quality. Due to sparse literature on freeze-thawed cycles and its effects on soups quality, the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on the nutritional quality of selected Nigerian soups has to be investigated. Soups (Ila, Ewedu, Ogbono, and Kuka) were prepared using standard recipes. The soups were packaged in plastic and aluminum containers, frozen at -20°C, and thawed with microwave oven, hot water (100°C), and at ambient condition for four cycles of 5-day interval. After each cycle, chemical compositions of the samples were determined using AOAC methods. Data were analyzed using ANOVA at P = 0.05. Moisture, protein, fat, crude fiber, ash, and carbohydrate contents of the freeze-thawed soups were 63.6-88.6%, 3.6-8.8%, 1.0-6.1%, 0.8-1.2%, 1.8-4.6%, and 0.9-15.6%, respectively. Mineral contents were iron (5.0-6.8 mg/100 g), calcium (68.1-190.8 mg/100 g), sodium (144.4-231.7 mg/100 g), potassium (200.4-302.1 mg/100 g), and phosphorus (228.0-337.2 mg/100 g). Vitamins were vitamin A (29.5-59.9 mg/100 g), vitamin B (10.1-36.4 mg/100 g), and vitamin E (28.4-90.2 mg/100 g). Microwave-thawed plastic soups had limited nutritional losses when compared with other thawing methods, and should not be extended beyond the third cycle because of increasing reduction in fat and protein, indicating deterioration. PMID:27004107

  6. Nutritional status of men attending a soup kitchen: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Laven, G T; Brown, K C

    1985-01-01

    Nutritional status and socioeconomic characteristics of 49 men attending a soup kitchen in a residential neighborhood of Birmingham, Alabama were determined by interview, anthropometry and laboratory assays. Laboratory or anthropometric evidence of nutrient deficiency was present in 94 per cent of the subjects. Deficiency of ascorbate (63 per cent), folate (35 per cent), and thiamin (29 per cent) was higher in these men than in either patients or presumably healthy adults. Since soup kitchen meals provided insufficient vitamin C and folate, additional sources of these nutrients should be provided. PMID:4040716

  7. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  8. The impact of red cabbage fermentation on bioavailability of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of human plasma.

    PubMed

    Wiczkowski, Wieslaw; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Romaszko, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The effect of red cabbage fermentation on anthocyanin bioavailability and plasma antioxidant capacity in humans was studied. In a randomized crossover study, 13 volunteers consumed fresh and fermented red cabbage. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after consumption. Analyses of anthocyanins by HPLC-MS/MS and plasma antioxidant capacity by photochemiluminescence assay were conducted. Red cabbage products contained 20 different nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins with the main structure of cyanidin triglucosides. The anthocyanins ingested were present in physiological fluids in form of 18 native anthocyanins and 12 metabolites (methylated, glucuronided, sulfated). Among cyanidin metabolites identified, methylated forms were predominant. Bioavailability of anthocyanin from fresh red cabbage was over 10% higher than from fermented red cabbage. Upon fresh cabbage consumption, volunteers plasma showed higher antioxidant capacity than after fermented cabbage intake. The study has shown that fermentation process affects red cabbage anthocyanins bioavailability and human plasma antioxidant capacity. PMID:26213032

  9. The study of heat penetration of kimchi soup on stationary and rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F 0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F 0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R(2)=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F 0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%. PMID:25866751

  10. Dependency on Soup Kitchens in Urban Areas of New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Barbara S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A study of the dependency of persons on soup kitchens in Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, and Westchester County (New York) identified who uses these kitchens, the extent to which they are dependent on them, what other food programs they use, what their perceived need from other services is, and dependency differences of subgroups. (JS)

  11. Legislative Alphabet Soup: Federal Laws that Affect Your Work as a Library Media Specialist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2006-01-01

    Today, federal laws often seem like an alphabet soup with acronyms like CIPA (Children's Internet Protection Act), CTEA (Copyright Term Extension Act), ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), YMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act), and NC LB (No Child Left Behind). These letters stand for federal

  12. The Study of Heat Penetration of Kimchi Soup on Stationary and Rotary Retorts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R2=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%. PMID:25866751

  13. Stone Soup: Photo-Elicitation as a Learning Tool in the Food Geography Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Hilda E.; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases self-reflective and inclusive pedagogy using photo-elicitation in a food geography course assignment. The Stone Soup project positions students as both researchers and participant-subjects in a participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE) study of students' foodways. Student papers for this assignment demonstrate rich…

  14. Stone Soup: Photo-Elicitation as a Learning Tool in the Food Geography Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Hilda E.; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases self-reflective and inclusive pedagogy using photo-elicitation in a food geography course assignment. The Stone Soup project positions students as both researchers and participant-subjects in a participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE) study of students' foodways. Student papers for this assignment demonstrate rich

  15. Effect of Thickener Type on the Rheological Properties of Hot Thickened Soups Suitable for Elderly People with Swallowing Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoo, Whachun; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2014-01-01

    Flow and dynamic rheological properties of hot thickened soups for consumption by the elderly people with swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) were investigated at a serving temperature of 60C. In this study, sea mustard soup (SMS) and dried pollock soup (DPS), which have been widely known as favorable hot soups provided in a domestic hospitals and nursing homes for dysphagic patients, were thickened with four commercial xanthan gum (XG)-based food thickeners (coded A~D) marketed in Korea. Thickened soups prepared with different thickeners showed high shear-thinning flow behaviors (n=0.15~0.21). Apparent viscosity (?a,50), consistency index (K), storage modulus (G?), and loss modulus (G?) demonstrated differences in rheological behaviors between the XG-based thickeners. The magnitudes of G? were much higher than those of G? over the entire range of frequency (?) with the high dependence on ?, showing the rheological behavior similar to a weak gel. In general, all rheological parameter values of thickened DPS samples were higher when compared to the thickened SMS samples. These results indicate that flow and dynamic rheological properties of hot thickened soups containing commercial XG-based thickeners are strongly dependent on the type of thickener and soup. PMID:25580403

  16. 78 FR 48805 - Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23608). Table 1 1. Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay... Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim safety zone described in 33 CFR 165.171 will be enforced on August 18,...

  17. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  18. Domestic cooking methods affect the nutritional quality of red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Zheng, Yonghua; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Shao, Xingfeng; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwave heating, boiling and stir-frying on the nutritional quality of red cabbage. Compared with fresh-cut red cabbage, all cooking methods were found to cause significant reduction in anthocyanin and total glucosinolates contents. Moreover, steaming resulted in significantly greater retention of vitamin C and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, while stir-frying and boiling, two popular Chinese cooking methods, led to significant losses of total phenolic, vitamin C, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and total soluble sugar as well as reducing sugars. Normally, red cabbage consumed fresh in salads could maintain the highest nutrition. However, considering the habits of Asian cuisine, it is recommended to use less water and less cooking time, such as steaming based on our present results, so as to retain the optimum benefits of the health-promoting compounds. PMID:24837935

  19. The dissipation of ethofenprox in cabbage and soil under open conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dali; Li, Li; Liang, Hongwu; Li, Wei; Ji, Ran; Wu, Yijun; Liu, Chenglan

    2012-09-01

    The dissipation of ethofenprox in cabbage and soil under open conditions was investigated at two primary cabbage-growing regions, Beijing and Kunming in China. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with a single quadrupole detector. Dissipation of ethofenprox from cabbage and soil can be best explained by a first-order decay process. The half-lives of ethofenprox were 1.9 and 2.3 days in cabbage and 20.0 and 13.0 days in soil at Beijing and Kunming, respectively. The concentration of ethofenprox residue was reduced by 90% taking 7 and 60 days in cabbage and soil. Dissipation rates in cabbage and soil at two geographically separated experimental fields differed, suggesting that this was affected by complicated factors, such as local climate and soil characteristics. These data could provide guidance for the proper and safe use of this pesticide on cabbage in China. PMID:21968878

  20. A comparison of plasma and prostate lycopene in response to typical servings of tomato soup, sauce or juice in men before prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Elizabeth M; Hadley, Craig W; Moran, Nancy E; Riedl, Kenneth M; Gong, Michael C; Pohar, Kamal; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-08-28

    Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2-2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142-198 g/d or 5-7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325-488 ml/d or 11-16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25-35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( - 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80-90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and biodistribution. PMID:26202168

  1. Nitrogen loss in surface runoff from Chinese cabbage fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi-Yuan, Wu; Zhang, Li-Ping; Fu, Xing-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, He-Si

    A growth period of Chinese cabbage included seedling, rosette, anterior folding, middle folding, and posterior folding stages. To investigate characteristic of surface runoff, evolution of various nitrogen (N) forms at different growth stages, and contribution of N loss during a whole growth period to environment, 10 simulated rainfalls were applied on Chinese cabbage planted in two 2 m 2 troughs (A and B), with two replicates. Troughs A and B were designed with slopes of 14° and 21°. Five simulated rainfalls were applied in each trough. Seedling and rosette stages were with rainfall intensities of 0.65 mm min -1 and folding stages were with 1.93 mm min -1, respectively. Fertilizers were applied at seedling and anterior folding stages at rate of 103 and 103 kg N ha -1, respectively. One rainfall event lasted for approximately 20 min. Conclusions were as follows: N loss mainly occurred at rosette stage and anterior folding stage. Nitrogen loss had a close relationship with runoff volume. Percentage of NH4+-N in TN had an ascending trend with growth of Chinese cabbage while percentage of NO3--N had a descending trend. Folding stages had more percentages of undissolved N than seedling and rosette stages. Lower slope was advantageous to the concentrations of TN, NO3--N, and NH4+-N and proportion of NO3--N. Based on the results, we need to pay more attention to the NO3--N pollution in Chinese cabbage filed at lower slope.

  2. Identification of seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Target detectionis one of research focues for precision chemical application. This study developed a method to identify seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral spectral imaging. In processing the image data, with ENVI software, after dimension reduction, noise reduction, de-correlation for h...

  3. Estimating Cabbage Physical Parameters Using Remote Sensing Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has long been used as a tool to extract plant growth and yield information for many crops, but little research has been conducted on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) with this technology. The objective of this study was to evaluate aerial photography and field reflectance spectra for estim...

  4. Does boiling affect the bioaccessibility of selenium from cabbage?

    PubMed

    Funes-Collado, Virginia; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, J Fermín

    2015-08-15

    The bioaccessible selenium species from cabbage were studied using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) which establishes conditions that simulate the gastric and gastrointestinal phases of human digestion. Samples of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown in peat fortified with different concentrations of Se(IV) and Se(VI) were analysed, and several enzymes (pepsin, pancreatin and amylase) were used in the PBET. The effect of boiling before extraction was also assayed. Selenium speciation in the PBET extracts was determined using anionic exchange and LC-ICP/MS. The selenocompounds in the extracts were Se(IV), SeMet and, mostly, Se(VI) species. The results show that the activity of the enzymes increased the concentration of the selenocompounds slightly, although the use of amylase had no effect on the results. The PBET showed the concentration of inorganic selenium in the extracts from boiled cabbage decreased as much as 4-fold while the release of SeMet and its concentration increased (up to 6-fold), with respect to raw cabbage. PMID:25794754

  5. Video image processor on the Spacelab 2 Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter /SL2 SOUP/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, R. W.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    The SOUP instrument is designed to obtain diffraction-limited digital images of the sun with high photometric accuracy. The Video Processor originated from the requirement to provide onboard real-time image processing, both to reduce the telemetry rate and to provide meaningful video displays of scientific data to the payload crew. This original concept has evolved into a versatile digital processing system with a multitude of other uses in the SOUP program. The central element in the Video Processor design is a 16-bit central processing unit based on 2900 family bipolar bit-slice devices. All arithmetic, logical and I/O operations are under control of microprograms, stored in programmable read-only memory and initiated by commands from the LSI-11. Several functions of the Video Processor are described, including interface to the High Rate Multiplexer downlink, cosmetic and scientific data processing, scan conversion for crew displays, focus and exposure testing, and use as ground support equipment.

  6. The Reverend Russell H. Conwell, W. Wayne Babcock, and the "soup bone" cranioplasties of 1915.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Adam L; Biswas, Arundhati; Goodrich, James Tait

    2014-04-01

    In 1915, faced with 2 patients with large skull defects, W. Wayne Babcock, an obstetrician-gynecologist-turned-general surgeon, operating in a modest North Philadelphia hospital, did something extraordinary: he went to the hospital kitchen to look for a cranial graft. Based heavily on archival and other primary sources, the authors tell the remarkable tale of the "soup bone" cranioplasties of the Samaritan Hospital and place these operations within the context of the early modern American hospital. PMID:24684334

  7. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p < 0.05). Income was the only variable that remained associated with higher prevalence of food insecurity in the adjusted PR. Knowing the characteristics of soup-kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations. PMID:25099047

  8. "Submesoscale Soup" Vorticity and Tracer Statistics During the Lateral Mixing Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbina, A.; D'Asaro, E. A.; Lee, C. M.; Molemaker, J.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed view of upper-ocean velocity, vorticity, and tracer statistics was obtained by a unique synchronized two-vessel survey in the North Atlantic in winter 2012. In winter, North Atlantic Mode water region south of the Gulf Stream is filled with an energetic, homogeneous, and well-developed submesoscale turbulence field - the "submesoscale soup". Turbulence in the soup is produced by frontogenesis and the surface layer instability of mesoscale eddy flows in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream. This region is a convenient representation of the inertial range of the geophysical turbulence forward cascade spanning scales of o(1-100km). During the Lateral Mixing Experiment in February-March 2012, R/Vs Atlantis and Knorr were run on parallel tracks 1 km apart for 500 km in the submesoscale soup region. Synchronous ADCP sampling provided the first in-situ estimates of full 3-D vorticity and divergence without the usual mix of spatial and temporal aliasing. Tracer distributions were also simultaneously sampled by both vessels using the underway and towed instrumentation. Observed vorticity distribution in the mixed layer was markedly asymmetric, with sparse strands of strong anticyclonic vorticity embedded in a weak, predominantly cyclonic background. While the mean vorticity was close to zero, distribution skewness exceeded 2. These observations confirm theoretical and numerical model predictions for an active submesoscale turbulence field. Submesoscale vorticity spectra also agreed well with the model prediction.

  9. Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) does not improve glucose tolerance, serum insulin, or blood lipid profiles in a rat model of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Choi, H

    2008-11-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of a low (0.5%) and a high (2.0%) dietary dose of freeze-dried Chinese cabbage (CC) (Brassica campestris L.) powder in a type-2 diabetes (T2D) model of rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat (HF)-containing diet for 2 wk then randomly divided into 4 groups of 8 animals, namely: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC), Chinese cabbage low (CCL, 0.5%), and Chinese cabbage high (CCH, 2.0%) groups. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg body weight) in all groups except the NC group. After 4 wk feeding of experimental diets, although food intake was not different among the DBC, CCL, and CCH groups, body weight gain was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the CCH group compared to the DBC group. Relatively higher serum insulin concentrations and better glucose tolerance were observed in the CC-fed groups compared to the DBC group; however, the results were not significantly different. Fasting blood glucose, blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), liver weight, and liver glycogen levels were not influenced by the CC-containing diets. Additionally, hypertriglyceridemic tendencies were observed in the CC-fed groups compared to the NC and DBC groups, while difference observed for total-, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterols between the groups were negligible. Results of this study suggest that up to 2% dietary dose of freeze-dried CC is not significantly effective to reduce diabetes-related symptoms in an HF diet-fed STZ-induced T2D model of rats. PMID:19021803

  10. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  11. Dissipation of flubendiamide residues in/on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Banerjee, Hemanta

    2013-02-01

    Residues of fubendiamide and its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide were estimated in cabbage and soil using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-vis detector. The initial deposits of flubendiamide residues on cabbage were found to be 0.16 and 0.31 μg g(-1) following two applications of flubendiamide 20 WG at 12.5 (standard dose) and 25 (double dose) g a.i. ha(-1) respectively at 10-days interval. The half-life values (t(1/2)) of flubendiamide on cabbage ranged from 3.4 to 3.6 days. When flubendiamide applied at both the standard and double dose, no detectable residues were found in cabbage and soil at harvest. Thus, a waiting period of 1.63 days was suggested for the safe consumption of flubendiamide-treated cabbage. These data could provide guidance for the proper and safe use of this pesticide on cabbage crops in India. PMID:22527473

  12. Monosodium l-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Shuzhen Hao, Susan; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-01

    The umami seasoning, monosodium l-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 250-399 kg/m2), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (05 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders. PMID:26455957

  13. Identification of the active components in Bone Marrow Soup: a mitigator against irradiation-injury to salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Dongdong; Hu, Shen; Liu, Younan; Quan, Vu-Hung; Seuntjens, Jan; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    In separate studies, an extract of soluble intracellular contents from whole bone marrow cells, named “Bone Marrow (BM) Soup”, was reported to either improve cardiac or salivary functions post-myocardial infarction or irradiation (IR), respectively. However, the active components in BM Soup are unknown. To demonstrate that proteins were the active ingredients, we devised a method using proteinase K followed by heating to deactivate proteins and for safe injections into mice. BM Soup and “deactivated BM Soup” were injected into mice that had their salivary glands injured with 15Gy IR. Control mice received either injections of saline or were not IR. Results at week 8 post-IR showed the ‘deactivated BM Soup’ was no better than injections of saline, while injections of native BM Soup restored saliva flow, protected salivary cells and blood vessels from IR-damage. Protein arrays detected several angiogenesis-related factors (CD26, FGF, HGF, MMP-8, MMP-9, OPN, PF4, SDF-1) and cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-16) in BM Soup. In conclusion, the native proteins (but not the nucleic acids, lipids or carbohydrates) were the therapeutic ingredients in BM Soup for functional salivary restoration following IR. This molecular therapy approach has clinical potential because it is theoretically less tumorigenic and immunogenic than cell therapies. PMID:26526154

  14. Salt reduction in vegetable soup does not affect saltiness intensity and liking in the elderly and children

    PubMed Central

    Gonalves, Carla; Monteiro, Srgio; Padro, Patrcia; Rocha, Ada; Abreu, Sandra; Pinho, Olvia; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Study background Reduction of added salt levels in soups is recommended. We evaluated the impact of a 30% reduction of usual added salt in vegetable soups on elderly and children's saltiness and liking evaluation. Methods Subjects were elderly and recruited from two public nursing homes (29 older adults, 79.78.9 years), and preschool children recruited from a public preschool (49 children, 4.51.3 years). This study took place in institutional lunchrooms. Through randomization and crossover, the subjects participated in two sensory evaluation sessions, on consecutive days, to assess perceived saltiness intensity (elderly sample) and liking (elderly and children samples) of a vegetable soup with baseline salt content and with a 30% salt reduction. Elderly rated perceived liking through a 10 cm visual analogue scale [like extremely (1) to dislike extremely (10)] and children through a five-point facial scale [dislike very much (1) to like very much (5)]. Results After 30% added salt reduction in vegetable soup, there were no significant differences in saltiness noted by the elderly (p=0.150), and in perceived liking by children (p=0.160) and elderly (p=0.860). Conclusions A 30% salt reduction in vegetable soup may be achieved without compromising perceived saltiness and liking in children and the elderly. PMID:25317121

  15. Susceptibility of four different vegetable brassicas to cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella L., Aleyrodidae) attack.

    PubMed

    Trdan, Stanislav; Papler, Ursa

    2002-01-01

    Cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella L.) is one of the most noticeable pests on cultivated Brassica species in the continental part of Slovenia. In year 2000 a susceptibility of four different vegetables of Brassica genus to cabbage whitefly attack had been examined. The highest number of imagoes and larvae was found on kale, significantly less on savoy cabbage and Brussels sprouts and only individual specimen on cabbage. Due to relatively small parcels, the most appropriate way of determining potential economic importance was to count imogoes and larvae on plants (visual inspection). On the other hand, monitoring with sticky yellow boards gave less satisfactory results. PMID:12696419

  16. Inhibitors for cholesterol ester accumulation in macrophages from Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Takamoto, Haruka; Eguchi, Keisuke; Kawabata, Tetsuro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Takeya, Motohiro; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    The cholesterol ester accumulates in macrophages in the early stage of atherosclerotic lesions, leading to the formation of foam cells. We examined the inhibitory effects of the crude extracts of 22 edible plants on foam cell formation and isolated nine chlorophyll derivatives as potent inhibitors from Chinese cabbage. The results of the present study suggest that the chlorophyll derivatives contained in edible plants may be useful for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:25776101

  17. Consumption of a high-fat soup preload leads to differences in short-term energy and fat intake between PROP non-taster and super-taster women.

    PubMed

    Shafaie, Yasmine; Hoffman, Daniel J; Tepper, Beverly J

    2015-06-01

    Taste blindness to the bitterness of PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been used as a genetic marker for food selection and adiposity. We have shown that PROP non-taster (NT) women have higher BMIs and habitually consume more fat and energy than either medium-taster (MT) or super-taster (ST) women. These data imply that differences in dietary selection underlie the body weight differences among PROP taster groups. However, no studies investigated energy compensation in women classified by PROP status. We investigated if NTs would compensate less accurately for the calories and fat in a high-fat soup preload in a subsequent test meal compared to MTs and STs. Energy intake from a buffet meal was measured in 75 healthy non-diet-restrained, lean women 30 min after the ingestion of a high-fat soup preload (0.8 kcal/g; 55% calories from fat), calculated to represent 10% of resting energy expenditure for each subject, or the same volume of water. Subjects (n = 20-28/taster group) ate a standard breakfast followed 3 hr later by an ad-libitum buffet lunch, on two occasions. There were no differences in energy intake or macronutrient selection across taster groups after water. After soup, NTs consumed more energy than STs. Fat intake (as %-energy) was higher in NTs (46.4% ± 2.4) compared to either MTs (36.1 ± 1.9%) or STs (38.1% ± 2.3; p < 0.05). NTs overate by 11% ± 5 after the soup compared to MTs and STs who underrate by 16% ± 6 and 26% ± 10, respectively (p < 0.01). These data suggest that small discrepancies in short-term energy compensation and selection of fat after a mixed-nutrient, high-fat preload may play a role in positive energy balance and increased adiposity in women with the PROP non-taster phenotype. PMID:25675856

  18. Combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Shen, Guo-Qing; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of women of advanced years. Design: 120 elderly women lacking daily exercise were chosen as the study subjects. By using the table of random numbers, they were then divided into the control group and the experiment group, consisting of 60 each. The control group practiced Taiji boxing for 45 minutes twice a day. The experiment group did the same, and, in addition, took astragalus soup after each boxing. Indexes related to physical immunity of the two groups were observed and compared when they were first chosen, when the alternative treatment was applied three, six and twelve months later, respectively. Results: The two groups demonstrated no significant differences in general data and research indexes when chosen (P > 0.05). Three months after the two groups were chosen and treated differently, the control group demonstrated no significant improvement while most indexes of the experiment group improved considerably (P > 0.05). After six months, the related indexes of both groups improved substantially (P < 0.05) and the improvement with the experiment was even clearer (P < 0.05). Twelve months later, the improvement with the experiment group was more noticeable (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Conclusions: In a relatively short period of three months, Taiji boxing produces no noticeable effect on the improvement of immunity in elderly women. However, when they resume the exercise for another three months and longer, Taiji boxing has a noticeable advantage and the effect is the most favorable when it is combined with astragalus soup. PMID:25126193

  19. A solar magnetic and velocity field measurement system for Spacelab 2: The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1992-08-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) flew on the shuttle mission Spacelab 2 (STS-51F) in August, 1985, and collected historic solar observations. SOUP is the only solar telescope on either a spacecraft or balloon which has delivered long sequences of diffraction-limited images. These movies led to several discoveries about the solar atmosphere which were published in the scientific journals. After Spacelab 2, reflights were planned on the shuttle Sunlab mission, which was cancelled after the Challenger disaster, and on a balloon flights, which were also cancelled for funding reasons. In the meantime, the instrument was used in a productive program of ground-based observing, which collected excellent scientific data and served as instrument tests. Given here is an overview of the history of the SOUP program, the scientific discoveries, and the instrument design and performance.

  20. A solar magnetic and velocity field measurement system for Spacelab 2: The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) flew on the shuttle mission Spacelab 2 (STS-51F) in August, 1985, and collected historic solar observations. SOUP is the only solar telescope on either a spacecraft or balloon which has delivered long sequences of diffraction-limited images. These movies led to several discoveries about the solar atmosphere which were published in the scientific journals. After Spacelab 2, reflights were planned on the shuttle Sunlab mission, which was cancelled after the Challenger disaster, and on a balloon flights, which were also cancelled for funding reasons. In the meantime, the instrument was used in a productive program of ground-based observing, which collected excellent scientific data and served as instrument tests. Given here is an overview of the history of the SOUP program, the scientific discoveries, and the instrument design and performance.

  1. Large-scale horizontal flows from SOUP observations of solar granulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    November, L. J.; Simon, G. W.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Ferguson, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Using high resolution time sequence photographs of solar granulation from the SOUP experiment on Spacelab 2, large scale horizontal flows were observed in the solar surface. The measurement method is based upon a local spatial cross correlation analysis. The horizontal motions have amplitudes in the range 300 to 1000 m/s. Radial outflow of granulation from a sunspot penumbra into surrounding photosphere is a striking new discovery. Both the supergranulation pattern and cellular structures having the scale of mesogranulation are seen. The vertical flows that are inferred by continuity of mass from these observed horizontal flows have larger upflow amplitudes in cell centers than downflow amplitudes at cell boundaries.

  2. Use of human urine fertilizer in cultivation of cabbage (Brassica oleracea)--impacts on chemical, microbial, and flavor quality.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Sjblom, Annalena; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2007-10-17

    Human urine was used as a fertilizer in cabbage cultivation and compared with industrial fertilizer and nonfertilizer treatments. Urine achieved equal fertilizer value to industrial fertilizer when both were used at a dose of 180 kg N/ha. Growth, biomass, and levels of chloride were slightly higher in urine-fertilized cabbage than with industrial-fertilized cabbage but clearly differed from nonfertilized. Insect damage was lower in urine-fertilized than in industrial-fertilized plots but more extensive than in nonfertilized plots. Microbiological quality of urine-fertilized cabbage and sauerkraut made from the cabbage was similar to that in the other fertilized cabbages. Furthermore, the level of glucosinolates and the taste of sauerkrauts were similar in cabbages from all three fertilization treatments. Our results show that human urine could be used as a fertilizer for cabbage and does not pose any significant hygienic threats or leave any distinctive flavor in food products. PMID:17894454

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Protein and Gene Expression in Salivary Glands of Sjogrens-Like Disease NOD Mice Treated by Bone Marrow Soup

    PubMed Central

    Misuno, Kaori; Khalili, Saeed; Huang, Junwei; Liu, Younan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone marrow cell extract (termed as BM Soup) has been demonstrated to repair irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and restore saliva secretion in our previous study. In the present study, we aim to investigate if the function of damaged SGs in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice can be restored by BM Soup treatment and the molecular alterations associated with the treatment. Methods Whole BM cells were lysed and soluble intracellular contents (BM Soup) were injected I.V. into NOD mice. Tandem mass tagging with 2-D liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify proteins in the submandibular glands (SMGs) between untreated and BM Soup-treated mice. Quantitative PCR was used to identify genes with altered expression in the treated mice. Results BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels and significantly reduced the focus scores of SMGs in NOD mice. More than 1800 proteins in SMG cells were quantified by the proteomic approach. Many SMG proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis were found to be down-regulated whereas those involved in salivary gland biology and development/regeneration were up-regulated in the BM Soup-treated mice. qPCR analysis also revealed expression changes of growth factors and cytokines in the SMGs of the treated NOD mice. Conclusion BM Soup treatment is effective to restore the function of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Through gene/protein expression analysis, we have found that BM Soup treatment might effectuate via inhibiting apoptosis, focal adhesion and inflammation whereas promoting development, regeneration and differentiation of the SG cells in NOD mice. These findings provide important insights on the potential mechanisms underlying the BM Soup treatment for functional restoration of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Additional studies are needed to further confirm the identified target genes and their related signaling pathways that are responsible for the BM Soup treatment. PMID:24489858

  4. Distribuion and infestation rates of cyst nematodes(Heterodera spp.) in cabbage-growing areas in Samsun

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cabbages are cultivated in over 7058.5 ha in Samsun (Northern part of Turkey). White head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. subvar. alba), red head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. subvar. rubra), and kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) are the most produced varietie...

  5. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  6. Umami compounds enhance the intensity of retronasal sensation of aromas from model chicken soups.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Goto, Shingo; Miura, Kyo; Takakura, Yukiko; Egusa, Ai S; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the influence of taste compounds on retronasal aroma sensation using a model chicken soup. The aroma intensity of a reconstituted flavour solution from which glutamic acid (Glu), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), or phosphate was omitted was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the model soup. The aroma intensity of 0.4% NaCl solution containing the aroma chicken model (ACM) with added Glu and IMP was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of 0.4% NaCl solution containing only ACM. The quantitative analyses showed that adding monosodium glutamate (MSG) to aqueous aroma solution containing only ACM enhanced the intensity of retronasal aroma sensation by 2.5-folds with increasing MSG concentration from 0% to 0.3%. Sensation intensity using an umami solution with added MSG and IMP was significantly higher than that with only MSG when the MSG concentration was 0.05%, 0.075%, or 0.1%. However, it plateaued when MSG concentration was beyond 0.3%. PMID:26593530

  7. Nutritional and functional characterization of barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sumeet; Das, Madhusweta

    2015-09-01

    Barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix (BFSM) was developed from whole barely flour (46.296%), roasted flaxseed powder (23.148%) and the seasoning (30.555%) comprising several flavoring compounds and anticaking agent, using simple processing technique. Developed BFSM was nutritious. On dry matter basis it contained: protein (14.31%), carbohydrate excluding crude fiber (54.70%), fat (8.70%), ash (17.45%) and crude fiber (4.84%). It was low glycemic soup, free of antinutritional risk and had calorific value of 319.77 kcal/100 g (wet or sample basis, sb) estimated from its composition. 100 g (sb) of BFSM contained 4.36 g β-glucans and 8.08 g total lipid of which 25.6% was ω-3 fatty acids. Different extracts of BFSM revealed the presence of total phenols (0.57-1.86 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, sb) with antioxidants equivalence of DPPH (20.69-39.07%) and FRAP (120-331 μm Fe (II)/g, sb). PMID:26344965

  8. Antidiabetic effect of Korean traditional Baechu (Chinese cabbage) kimchi in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Choi, Haymie

    2009-04-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the antidiabetic effects of two dietary dosages (0.5% and 2.0%) of freeze-dried Korean traditional Baechu (Chinese cabbage) kimchi in a high-fat (HF) diet-fed, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) rat model. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HF diet for 2 weeks and then randomly divided into four groups of eight animals: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC), kimchi low (KML) (0.5%), and kimchi high (KMH) (2.0%) groups. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (40 mg/kg of body weight) in all groups except the NC group. After 4 weeks of feeding of experimental diets, serum insulin concentrations and Homeostatic Model Assessment pancreatic beta-cell function were increased and blood glycated hemoglobin was decreased in the kimchi-fed groups compared to the DBC group, while a significant (P < .05) difference was observed only in the KMH group for serum insulin concentration. Lower fasting blood glucose and better glucose tolerance were observed in the KMH group compared to the DBC and KML groups; however, differences were not significant. Food intake, body weight gain, Homeostatic Model Assessment insulin resistance index, and serum lipid profiles were not significantly influenced by kimchi-containing diets. Data of this study suggest that dietary Baechu kimchi has some antidiabetic effects even when fed with a HF-containing diet. Better results are possible if it is consumed with normal or low-fat rather than HF-containing diet. PMID:19459728

  9. Water in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of metabolism . You also get water through liquid foods and beverages, such as soup, milk, tea, coffee, soda, drinking ... is the total amount you get from both food and beverages every day. There is no specific recommendation for ...

  10. Phenol removal by peroxidases extracted from Chinese cabbage root

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, H.I.; Jeong, Y.H.

    1995-12-31

    More than four million tons of Chinese cabbages are produced in Korea. Most of them are used as raw materials for Kimchi, but root parts of them are discarded as agricultural wastes. A trial for the application of agricultural waste to industrial waste water treatment was made as an effort to the efficient use of natural resources and to reduce water pollution problem simultaneously. Peroxidases of both solid and liquid phases were obtained from Chinese cabbage roots by using commercial juicer. The differences in peroxidase activity among the various cultivars of Chinese cabbages in Korea were little and electrophoretic patterns of various peroxidases will be discussed. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity will be discussed also. Since peroxidases are distributed into 66% in liquid (juice) and 34% in solid phase (pulp), enzymes from both phases were applied to investigate the enzymatic removal of phenol from waste water. After phenol solution at 150 ppm being reacted with liquid phase enzyme (1,800 unit/1) for 3 hours in a batch stirred reactor, 96% of phenol could be removed through polymerization and precipitation. Also, phenol could be removed from initial 120 ppm to final 5 ppm by applying solid phase enzyme in an air lift reactor (600 unit/1). Almost equivalent efficiencies of phenol removal were observed between two systems, even though only one third of the enzymes in batch stirred reactor was applied in air lift reactor. The possible reason for this phenomenon is because peroxidases exist as immobilized forms in solid phase.

  11. IBS Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Diarrhea Foods That Cause Gas and Bloating Dietary Fiber 12 Week Elimination Diet for IBS Diet, food ... and Diarrhea Foods That Cause Gas and Bloating Dietary Fiber 12 Week Elimination Diet for IBS Low-FODMAP ...

  12. Immune response is energetically costly in white cabbage butterfly pupae.

    PubMed

    Freitak, Dalial; Ots, Indrek; Vanatoa, Alo; Hõrak, Peeter

    2003-11-01

    Parasite-driven coevolution has led hosts to develop a complicated and potentially costly defence machinery, consisting mainly of the immune system. Despite the evidence for the trade-offs between immune function and life-history traits, it is still obscure how the costs of using and maintaining the immune function are paid. We tested whether immune challenge is energetically costly for white cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae L.) diapausing pupa. Individuals challenged with nylon implant raised their standard metabolic rate nearly 8% compared to the controls. Hence, costs of activation of immune system in insect pupa can be expressed in energetic currency. PMID:14667388

  13. Investigation of active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T.; Frank, Z.; Gilbreth, C.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Topka, K.; Wolfson, J.

    1989-01-01

    SOUP is a versatile, visible-light solar observatory, built for space or balloon flight. It is designed to study magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere with high spatial resolution and temporal uniformity, which cannot be achieved from the surface of the earth. The SOUP investigation is carried out by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, under contract to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Co-investigators include staff members at a dozen observatories and universities in the U.S. and Europe. The primary objectives of the SOUP experiment are: to measure vector magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere with much better spatial resolution than can be achieved from the ground; to study the physical processes that store magnetic energy in active regions and the conditions that trigger its release; and to understand how magnetic flux emerges, evolves, combines, and disappears on spatial scales of 400 to 100,000 km. SOUP is designed to study intensity, magnetic, and velocity fields in the photosphere and low chromosphere with 0.5 arcsec resolution, free of atmospheric disturbances. The instrument includes: a 30 cm Cassegrain telescope; an active mirror for image stabilization; broadband film and TV cameras; a birefringent filter, tunable over 5100 to 6600 A with 0.05 A bandpass; a 35 mm film camera and a digital CCD camera behind the filter; and a high-speed digital image processor.

  14. Does information about MSG (monosodium glutamate) content influence consumer ratings of soups with and without added MSG?

    PubMed

    Prescott, John; Young, Ariane

    2002-08-01

    Responses to recent concerns about perceived adverse health effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) have included using prominent labels, e.g., "No added MSG", on products. Label information has been shown to create expectations for a food's sensory properties and acceptability, and influence evaluations of the product. To assess the impact of information about MSG content, subjects evaluated saltiness, richness, natural taste of, and liking for, vegetable soups with (MSG+) and without (MSG-) added MSG. Their attitudes to MSG were evaluated and found to be generally negative. Subjects tasted both soups under three information conditions, presented as an ingredient list: contains added MSG, does not contain added MSG, or no mention of MSG. The expected changes in liking and sensory properties due to added MSG were found, but there were no effects of information. A second experiment used a more obvious manipulation of information on added MSG content, as well as two soup flavors to reduce the obvious differences between the MSG+ and MSG- soups. Again, there were no effects of information. These data suggest that sensory properties are weighted more than information when products are evaluated during tasting, even when the information is highly relevant to beliefs and attitudes. PMID:12160562

  15. Carrageenans, sulphated polysaccharides of red seaweeds, differentially affect Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper).

    PubMed

    Sangha, Jatinder S; Khan, Wajahatullah; Ji, Xiuhong; Zhang, Junzeng; Mills, Aaron A S; Critchley, Alan T; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Carrageenans are a collective family of linear, sulphated galactans found in a number of commercially important species of marine red alga. These polysaccharides are known to elicit defense responses in plant and animals and possess anti-viral properties. We investigated the effect of foliar application of ?-, ?- and ?-carrageenans (representing various levels of sulphation) on Arabidopsis thaliana in resistance to the generalist insect Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) which is known to cause serious economic losses in crop plants. Plants treated with ?- and ?-carrageenan showed reduced leaf damage, whereas those treated with ?- carrageenan were similar to that of the control. In a no-choice test, larval weight was reduced by more than 20% in ?- and ?- carrageenan treatments, but unaffected by ?-carrageenan. In multiple choice tests, carrageenan treated plants attracted fewer T. ni larvae by the fourth day following infestation as compared to the control. The application of carrageenans did not affect oviposition behaviour of T. ni. Growth of T. ni feeding on an artificial diet amended with carrageenans was not different from that fed with untreated control diet. ?-carrageenan induced the expression of defense genes; PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, but ?- and ?-carrageenans did not. Besides PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, the indole glucosinolate biosynthesis genes CYP79B2, CYP83B1 and glucosinolate hydrolysing QTL, ESM1 were up-regulated by ?-carrageenan treatment at 48 h post infestation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of carrageenan treated leaves showed increased concentrations of both isothiocyanates and nitriles. Taken together, these results show that carrageenans have differential effects on Arabidopsis resistance to T. ni and that the degree of sulphation of the polysaccharide chain may well mediate this effect. PMID:22046375

  16. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea extracts on foodborne pathogens in ground beef and mushroom soup.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Fung, D Y C

    2004-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of water-soluble arrowroot tea extract was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in ground beef and mushroom soup. The concentrations of arrowroot tea used were 0, 3, and 6% (wt/wt) for ground beef and 0, 1, 5, and 10% (wt/vol) for mushroom soup. Samples without tea extract were considered controls. Each sample was stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at 7 degrees C for ground beef and for 0, 1, 3, and 5 days at 35 degrees C for mushroom soup. On each sampling time, proper dilutions were spread plated on each pathogen-specific agar. Viable cell counts of each pathogen were performed after incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For ground beef, Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes were slightly suppressed by approximately 1.5 log, compared with the control, on day 7 at 3 and 6% arrowroot tea treatment. For mushroom soup, all test pathogens were suppressed by 6.5, 4.7, 3.4, and 4.3 log at 5% and 6.0, 4.7, 5.0, and 4.3 log at 10% against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. Mushroom soup with 1% arrowroot tea also showed 2.3- and 2.7-log growth suppression of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. This study showed that the use of arrowroot tea would effectively inhibit the microbial growth of both gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogens in various foods, especially liquid foods. PMID:15453588

  17. Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.J.

    1984-11-01

    The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Inducible cadmium binding complexes of cabbage and tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.J.; Trotter, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Cadmium complexes with apparent molecular weights of 10,000 were observed in aqueous extracts of Cd-treated cabbage (Brassica capitata L., cv. red danish) and tobacco (hybrid of Nicotiana glauca and N. langsdorffii) plants. The amount of complex (as Cd) recovered was found to be dependent on the concentration of the metal in the growth medium and the total time of exposure of plants to the metal. Induction of the complex at moderate levels of /sup 112/Cd exposure was monitored after labeling the complex with /sup 109/Cd in vitro. The constitutive nature of the ligand of the complex in cabbage and tobacco leaves was suggested when control plant extracts were exposed to /sup 109/Cd. Such extracts contained /sup 109/Cd, which eluted froom Sephadex G-50 in the region of Cd complex. Simultaneous labeling with /sup 112/Cd and /sup 35/S or /sup 32/P indicated that the complex contained sulfur but probably not phosphorus. The amount of /sup 35/S which eluted coincident with /sup 112/Cd complex increased during complex induction. No evidence was found for the presence of 10,000 molecular weight Cd complex in stem exudates (vascular sap) of Cd-treated plants. The results obtained are consistent with the presence in these tissues of a ligand which is both inducible and consitutive and binds Cd in mercaptide bonds. All of these properties and oters reported earlier, are characteristic of Cd-metallothionein formed in animals.

  19. Gamma irradiation inhibits wound induced browning in shredded cabbage.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Suprasanna, Penna; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2015-04-15

    Gamma-radiation induced browning inhibition in minimally processed shredded cabbage stored (10 C) for up to 8 days was investigated. ?-irradiation (2 kGy) resulted in inhibition of browning as a result of down-regulation (1.4-fold) in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. Activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, total and individual phenolic content as well as o-quinone concentration were, however, unaffected. In the non-irradiated samples, PAL activity increased as a consequence of up-regulation of PAL gene expression after 24 and 48 h by 1.2 and 7.7-fold, respectively, during storage that could be linearly correlated with enhanced quinone formation and browning. Browning inhibition in radiation processed shredded cabbage as a result of inhibition of PAL activity was thus clearly demonstrated. The present work provides an insight for the first time on the mechanism of browning inhibition at both biochemical and genetic level. PMID:25465992

  20. [Quantitative Detection of Chinese Cabbage Clubroot Based on FTIR Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-ping; Chai, A-li; Shi, Yan-xia; Xie, Xue-wen; Li, Bao-ju

    2015-05-01

    Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is considered the most devastating soilborne disease in Brassica crops. It has emerged as a serious disease threatening the cruciferous crop production industry in China. Nowadays, the detection techniques for P. brassicae are laborious, time-consuming and low sensitivity. Rapid and effective detection methods are needed. The objective of this study is to develop a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) technique for detection of P. brassicae effectively and accurately. FTIR and Real-time PCR techniques were applied in quantitative detection of P. brassicae. Chinese cabbages were inoculated with P. brassicae. By analyzing the FTIR spectra of P. brassicae, infected clubroots and healthy roots, three specific bands 1 105, 1 145 and 1 228 cm-1 were selected. According to the correlation between the peak areas at these sensitive bands and Real-time PCR Ct value, quantitative evaluation model of P. brassicae was established based on FTIR y=34. 17 +12. 24x - 9. 81x2 - 6. 05x3, r=0. 98 (p<0. 05). To validate accuracy of the model, 10 clubroot samples were selected randomly from field, and detected by FTIR spectrum model, the results showed that the average error is 1. 60%. This demonstrated that the FTIR technology is an available one for the quantitative detection of P. brassicae in clubroot, and it provides a new method for quantitative and quickly detection of Chinese cabbage clubroot. PMID:26415436

  1. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. PMID:25863635

  2. Nonrandom Distribution of Cabbage Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Dryland Canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Characterization of spatial distribution patterns of pests in large-scale agricultural fields is important because these patterns affect the sampling effort needed to accurately detect and estimate their population density. In this study, we conducted experimental releases of alate cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) into centers of small plots of canola (Brassica napus L.), and their gradual spread over a 7-wk period was characterized. The small-plot experiment demonstrated gradient effects from plot centers and a nonrandom vertical distribution, with initial colonization occurring on the abaxial side of lower canopy leaves and, later, highest numbers of cabbage aphids occurring on racemes. We also conducted large-scale distribution analyses of cabbage aphid infestations in two commercial canola fields, using visual inspection and sweep net sampling. We used canola plant phenological and landscape features as explanatory variables of the spatial distribution of cabbage aphid counts. These large-scale experiments showed strong edge effects with negative associations between cabbage aphid counts and distance to crop edges, including tree lines and contour banks. Cabbage aphid distribution was more effectively displayed using logistic regression than ordinary regression, Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs, or both. Based on the study findings, a nonrandom or optimized inspection approach is proposed to focus monitoring efforts on canola plants within 20 m from field edges with particular attention to the abaxial side of lower-canopy leaves. Detection of advanced cabbage aphid infestations should target the racemes within 20 m from field edges. PMID:26313983

  3. Ectopic expression of a Chinese cabbage BrARGOS gene in Arabidopsis increases organ size.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao; Zhou, Xincheng; Xu, Feng; Gao, Jianwei

    2010-06-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a common and economically important crop in Asia. Specific targets of plant breeding programs for cabbage have been improvement in yield, resistance to environment stresses, and nutrition quality by means of genetic manipulation. To obtain information on yield improvement applicable for the genetic engineering approach, we have attempted to dissect the molecular pathways that regulate organ size. We first isolated a putative homolog of ARGOS full-length cDNA from Chinese cabbage leaves, which we designated BrARGOS. At the transcription level, BrARGOS was detected in all organs tested in Chinese cabbage. To test the function of this gene, we then engineered Arabidopsis plants that would overexpress BrARGOS ectopically. The organs of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were significantly larger than those of the control plants. This increase in size was due to enhanced cell proliferation, with no contribution from cell expansion. The molecular analysis revealed that overexpression of BrARGOS up-regulated the transcription of several genes involved in the control of organ size. These results suggest that the BrARGOS gene may function as one of the regulators of organ size in Chinese cabbage. As such, manipulation of the BrARGOS gene may significantly increase the size of Chinese cabbage organs, such as Chinese cabbage heads. PMID:19789991

  4. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  5. An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction in children: lentil soup bezoar

    PubMed Central

    Plataras, Christos; Sardianos, Nektarios; Vlatakis, Stephanos; Nikas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Bezoars are an unusual cause of acute intestinal obstruction in children. Most cases are trichobezoars in adolescent girls who swallow their hair. Lactobezoars are another unusual but occasionally reported cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. Phytobezoars and food bolus bezoars are the least common types of intestinal obstruction that have been reported in children. Of the few paediatric cases that have been described, the majority involve persimmons. Moreover, all of these cases involve the ingestion of raw fibres or fruit that have not been cooked. We report a case of a girl who presented with acute ileal obstruction because of lentil soup bezoar. Given the wide use of this otherwise nutritional foodstuff, we highlight the danger from its inappropriate preparation to the health of children. This is the first reported case of intestinal obstruction caused by lentils in children and we hope to raise concern among paediatricians regarding this matter. PMID:24692381

  6. Titan's Primordial Soup: Formation of Amino Acids via Low-Temperature Hydrolysis of Tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Somogyi, rpd; Smith, Mark A.

    2010-04-01

    Titan organic haze analogues, or "tholins," produce biomolecules when hydrolyzed at low temperature over long timescales. By using a combination of high-resolution mass spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation techniques, four amino acids were identified in a tholin sample that had been hydrolyzed in a 13 wt % ammonia-water solution at 253 1 K and 293 1 K for 1 year. These four species have been assigned as the amino acids asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid. This represents the first detection of biologically relevant molecules created under conditions thought to be similar to those found in impact melt pools and cryolavas on Titan, which are at a stage of chemical evolution not unlike the "primordial soup" of the early Earth. Future missions to Titan should therefore carry instrumentation capable of, but certainly not limited to, detecting amino acids and other prebiotic molecules on Titan's surface.

  7. Titan's primordial soup: formation of amino acids via low-temperature hydrolysis of tholins.

    PubMed

    Neish, Catherine D; Somogyi, Arpd; Smith, Mark A

    2010-04-01

    Titan organic haze analogues, or "tholins," produce biomolecules when hydrolyzed at low temperature over long timescales. By using a combination of high-resolution mass spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation techniques, four amino acids were identified in a tholin sample that had been hydrolyzed in a 13 wt % ammonia-water solution at 253 + or - 1 K and 293 + or - 1 K for 1 year. These four species have been assigned as the amino acids asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid. This represents the first detection of biologically relevant molecules created under conditions thought to be similar to those found in impact melt pools and cryolavas on Titan, which are at a stage of chemical evolution not unlike the "primordial soup" of the early Earth. Future missions to Titan should therefore carry instrumentation capable of, but certainly not limited to, detecting amino acids and other prebiotic molecules on Titan's surface. PMID:20446873

  8. [Effects of spent mushroom compost on greenhouse cabbage growth under soil salt stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu-Ling; Wu, Liang-Huan; Dong, Lan-Xue; Chen, Zai-Ming; Wang, Zhong-Qiang

    2011-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of spent mushroom compost (SMC) in alleviating greenhouse soil secondary salinization and cabbage salt stress. With the amendment of SMC, the salinized soil after 60 day cabbage cultivation had a pH value close to 7.0, its organic matter and available phosphorous contents increased significantly, and the increment of total water-soluble salt content reduced, compared with the control. When the amendment amount of SMC was 10 g x kg(-1), the increment of soil water soluble salt content was the least, suggesting that appropriate amendment with SMC could reduce the salt accumulation in greenhouse soil. Amendment with SMC increased the cabbage seed germination rate, plant height, plant fresh mass, chlorophyll SPAD value, and vitamin C content, and decreased the proline content significantly. All the results indicated that SMC could improve the growth environment of greenhouse cabbage, and effectively alleviate the detrimental effect of salt stress. PMID:21812296

  9. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of the Cabbage Seedpod Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five families and 13 species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) were reared from the seedpods of Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae) as putative parasitoids of the cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhyncus obstrictus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Georgia, United States. The species are Conura torvina (...

  10. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 ?g/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms. PMID:25976785

  11. A solar magnetic and velocity field measurement system for Spacelab 2: The solar optical universal polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1992-08-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter flew on the Shuttle Mission Spacelab 2 (STS-51F) in August, 1985, and collected historic solar observations. SOUP is the only solar telescope on either a spacecraft or balloon which has delivered long sequences of diffraction-limited images. These movies led to several discoveries about the solar atmosphere which were published in the scientific journals. After Spacelab 2, reflights were planned on the Space Shuttle Sunlab Mission, which was cancelled after the Challenger disaster, and on balloon flights, which were also cancelled for funding reasons. In the meantime, the instrument was used in a productive program of ground-based observing, which collected excellent scientific data and served as instrument tests. This report gives an overview of the history of the SOUP program, the scientific discoveries, and the instrument design and performance.

  12. Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program documentation: SOUP5 version 3.8 user's manual, volume 1, chapters 1 through 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J.; Ottey, H. R.; Sawitz, P.; Zusman, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    The underlying engineering and mathematical models as well as the computational methods used by the Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program 5 (SOUP5) analysis programs are described. Included are the algorithms used to calculate the technical parameters, and references to the technical literature. The organization, capabilities, processing sequences, and processing and data options of the SOUP5 system are described. The details of the geometric calculations are given. Also discussed are the various antenna gain algorithms; rain attenuation and depolarization calculations; calculations of transmitter power and received power flux density; channelization options, interference categories, and protection ratio calculation; generation of aggregrate interference and margins; equivalent gain calculations; and how to enter a protection ratio template.

  13. Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program Documentation: SOUP5 Version 3.8 User's Manual, Volume 2, Appendices a Through G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J.; Ottey, H. R.; Sawitz, P.; Zusman, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    The appendixes of the user manual are presented. Input forms which may be used to prepare data for the SOUP5V3.4 of the R2BCSAT-83 data base are given. The IBM job control language which can be used to run the SOUP5 system from a magnetic tape is described. Copies of a run using the delivered tape and IBM OS/MVS Job Control Language card deck are illustrated. Numerical limits on scenario data requests are listed. Error handling, error messages and editing procedures are also listed. Instructions as to how to enter a protection ratio template are given. And relation between PARC prameter, channelization, channel families, and interference categories are also listed.

  14. Influence of ionic thiocyanate on growth of cabbage, bean, and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ju, H Y; Bible, B B; Chong, C

    1983-08-01

    Plant weight and contents of chlorophyll, ionic thiocyanate (SCN(-)), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were determined in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitula L. cv. Early Greenball), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Delhi 76) grown hydroponically in modified Hoagland's nutrient solution with six concentrations of SCN(-) (supplied as KSCN) (0, 5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/liter). Whereas tobacco plants did not grow with any level of SCN(-) in the culture solution, beans grew with 5 mg/liter and cabbages grew with between 5 and 50 mg/ liter. Increasing levels of SCN(-) in the culture solution resulted in decreased growth and chlorophyll content, accompanied by consistently increasing amounts of SCN(-) in cabbage. Small amounts of HCN found only in tissues of cabbage were not influenced by levels of SCN(-). The greater insensitivity of cabbages to the presence of SCN(-) compared with beans is apparently related to the presence of endogenous glucosinolates which are capable of being degraded into SCN(-). Accumulation of SCN(-) and occurrence of leaf chlorosis in cabbage and beans and death of tobacco plants supplied with SCN(-) in hydroponic culture confirm the capacity of SCN(-) as an allelopathic agent, but its effect mechanism in ecology needs to be demonstrated. PMID:24407816

  15. Field Evaluation of a Novel Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Attracticide for the Management of Zonocerus variegatus on Cabbage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timbilla, J. A.; Lawson, B. W.; Yeboah-Gyan, K.

    Cabbage, Brassica oleraceae var. capitata is an important vegetable grown and consumed in Ghana. Apart from infestations of the lepidopterous Plutella xylostella and Hellula undalis resulting from continuous cultivation, a new pest Zonocerus variegatus has been reported to causing damage to the crop. The efficacy of a novel pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) based novel PA-attracticide developed from treating the roots of the neophyte, Chromolaena odorata which contains PAs with Carbofuran 3G for the management of Z. variegatus was tested using cabbage as a test crop in field caged plots. Field caged plots of cabbage artificially infested with Z. variegatus were treated with and without PA-attracticide in addition to a control treatment of caged cabbage plot with no insect and PA-attracticide. The experimental design was a RCB replicated three times in two ecological zones. The results showed that the establishment, leaf and head damage of cabbage was statistically the same in the PA-treated plots and the control treatment. These treatments, however, performed significantly better than the treatment without PA-attracticide. The results obtained holds promise for mitigating the menace of the grasshopper on cabbage using PA based attracticides.

  16. High Accumulation and Subcellular Distribution of Thallium in Green Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L. Var. Capitata L.).

    PubMed

    Ning, Zengping; He, Libin; Xiao, Tangfu; Mrton, Lszl

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of thallium (Tl) in brassicaceous crops is widely known, but both the uptake extents of Tl by the individual cultivars of green cabbage and the distribution of Tl in the tissues of green cabbage are not well understood. Five commonly available cultivars of green cabbage grown in the Tl-spiked pot-culture trials were studied for the uptake extent and subcellular distribution of Tl. The results showed that all the trial cultivars mainly concentrated Tl in the leaves (101?192 mg/kg, DW) rather than in the roots or stems, with no significant differences among cultivars (p = 0.455). Tl accumulation in the leaves revealed obvious subcellular fractionation: cell cytosol and vacuole > cell wall > cell organelles. The majority (? 88%) of leaf-Tl was found to be in the fraction of cytosol and vacuole, which also served as the major storage site for other major elements such as Ca and Mg. This specific subcellular fractionation of Tl appeared to enable green cabbage to avoid Tl damage to its vital organelles and to help green cabbage tolerate and detoxify Tl. This study demonstrated that all the five green cabbage cultivars show a good application potential in the phytoremediation of Tl-contaminated soils. PMID:26067081

  17. Self-assembled cabbage-like NaInS2 microstructures with efficient visible light photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuanhao; Zhai, Xuezhen; Zhang, Yange; Xu, Zhihong; Li, Pinjiang; Zheng, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Cabbage-like NaInS2 microstructures have been synthesized by reacting In(NO3)3 with the alkaline sulfur aqueous solution of NaOH in a simple hydrothermal process without any shape-directing surfactants. The cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures are monodispersed in large quantities. The cabbage-like morphologies depend strongly on the different ratios of S powder to NaOH, the reaction temperature and reaction time. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures is discussed. The cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures exhibit the superiority of photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of RhB irradiation under visible light irradiation. It is believed that the photocatalytic superiority of the cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures is mainly due to their special surface areas and inner interconnected structural features.

  18. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  19. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diet low in saturated fats and supplemented by Omega-3 (from fatty fishes, cod-liver oil, or flaxseed ... Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low Carb Omega-3 Publication Diet and MS Research Review Paper With ...

  20. Effect of cross-linking on physicochemical properties of tapioca starch and its application in soup product.

    PubMed

    Wongsagonsup, Rungtiwa; Pujchakarn, Thamonwan; Jitrakbumrung, Suparat; Chaiwat, Weerawut; Fuongfuchat, Asira; Varavinit, Saiyavit; Dangtip, Somsak; Suphantharika, Manop

    2014-01-30

    Physicochemical properties of cross-linked tapioca starch (CLTS) with different cross-linking levels and their application as a thickening agent in soups were studied. The CLTS was prepared by cross-linking native tapioca starch suspended in alkaline solution (41.67% (w/w), pH 11) using a mixture (99:1 (w/w) ratio) of sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) at different concentrations ranged from 0.25% to 6.0% (w/w of starch) at 45C for 3h. Starch paste clarity decreased with increasing concentration of STMP/STPP mixture. Variations of swelling power, solubility, pasting, gelatinization, and rheological properties of the CLTS were found. Thermogravimetric analysis exhibited higher thermal stability for the CLTS granules compared to the native one. Among the samples, the CLTS prepared using 1.0% STMP/STPP (1.0%-CLTS) and soup containing the 1.0%-CLTS exhibited the strongest gel characteristic and the greatest shear resistant properties. The 1.0%-CLTS improved the textural properties and sensory quality of soups. PMID:24299823

  1. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin genes (AQPs) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tao, Peng; Zhong, Xinmin; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Wuhong; Yue, Zhichen; Lei, Juanli; Guo, Weiling; Huang, Xiaoyun

    2014-12-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are members of a superfamily of integral membrane proteins and play a significant role in the transportation of small molecules across membranes. However, currently little is known about the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, a genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage. In total, 53 non-redundant AQP genes were identified that were located on all of the 10 chromosomes. The number of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was greater than in Arabidopsis. They were classified into four subfamilies, including PIP, TIP, NIP, and SIP. Thirty-three groups of AQP orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, but orthologs corresponding to AtNIP1;1 and AtPIP2;8 were not detected. Seventeen groups of paralogous genes were identified in Chinese cabbage. Three-dimensional models of the AQPs of Chinese cabbage were constructed using Phyre2, and ar/R selectivity filters were analyzed comparatively between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Generally, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily, especially in the SIP subfamily. Intron loss events have occurred during the evolution of the PIP, TIP, and NIP subfamilies. The expression of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was analyzed in different organs. Most AQP genes were downregulated in response to salt stress. This work shows that the AQP genes of Chinese cabbage have undergone triplication and subsequent biased gene loss. PMID:24972664

  2. Ileostomy and your diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... certain foods. Some of these foods are onions, garlic, broccoli, asparagus, cabbage, fish, some cheeses, eggs, baked ... more than normal. Your stoma has turned purple, black, or white. Your stoma is leaking often. You ...

  3. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution.

  4. Smart Soup, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula, Ameliorates Amyloid Pathology and Related Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Ding, Jianqing; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Xianglu; Ling, Yun; Shen, Xiaoheng; Chen, Shengdi; Huang, Chenggang; Pei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS), a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT), Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP) and Radix Polygalae (RP), is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease. PMID:25386946

  5. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, as space food sterilized by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Hao, Chen; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate microbial populations, Hunter's color values (L*, a*, b*) and the sensory quality of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, in order to use it as space food. Microorganisms were not detected in non-irradiated freeze-dried miyeokguk within the detection limit of 1.00 log CFU/g. However, the microbial population in rehydrated miyeokguk was 7.01 log CFU/g after incubation at 35 C for 48 h, indicating that freeze-dried miyeokguk was not sterilized by heat treatment during the preparation process. Bacteria in the freeze-dried miyeokguk were tentatively identified as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Ancinetobacter genomosp. using the 16S rDNA sequencing. In samples that were gamma-irradiated above 10 kGy, it was confirmed that all microorganisms were inactivated. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated at doses less than 10 kGy were not significantly altered from their baseline appearance (p>0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that preference scores in all sensory properties decreased when freeze-dried miyeokguk was irradiated at doses greater than 10 kGy. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy is sufficient to sterilize freeze-dried miyeokguk without significant deterioration in the sensory quality, and thus, the freeze-dried and irradiated miyeokguk at 10 kGy fulfills the microbiological requirements as space food.

  6. Antixenotic resistance of cabbage to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). I. Light reflectance.

    PubMed

    Fail, Jzsef; Deutschlander, Mark E; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-12-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) has become a significant pest of cabbage (Brasssica oleracea L.) in regions with a dry continental climate. Thrips-resistant cabbage varieties have been developed in breeding programs, but the mechanisms ofresistance remain largely unknown. Antixenosis, one of the three resistance mechanisms, may play a role but no plant trait has been identified as a source of antixenosis. A series of studies were conducted to identify resistance mechanisms in this insect- crop interaction and to seek plant traits that were correlated to resistance. In this first article of the series, the result of studying antixenosis and overall resistance of cabbage and the correlation between antixenosis and light reflectance characteristics are reported. There were distinct differences in the overall resistance to thrips between the six cabbage varieties studied. There were more pronounced differences between varieties based on the number of damaged head leaves compared with the use of damage ratings as a measure of overall resistance. Varieties also differed in their level of antixenosis; proportional abundance of thrips adults on head-forming leaves was more closely correlated to overall resistance of cabbage than actual thrips numbers. Some of the variables computed from the recorded reflectance spectra of cabbage were correlated to thrips abundance on head-forming leaves only in the first but not in the second year of this study, suggesting that either spectral characteristics do not affect antixenosis or other variables may affect thrips' responses to spectral cues. Furthermore, multiple spray applications of a kaolin particle-based product significantly changed the light reflectance characteristics of cabbage, but it did not reduce the actual thrips abundance on head-forming leaves. PMID:24498763

  7. Speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) and soils in response to different levels of vanadium in soils and cabbage growth.

    PubMed

    Tian, Liyan; Yang, Jinyan; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2014-09-01

    This study highlights the accumulation and speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) in relation to the speciation of soil vanadium with pot experiments at 122-622mgVkg(-1) by spiking NH4VO3. Cabbage planting decreased the bioavailable and residual vanadium based on sequential extraction, leading to enrichment of oxalate-extractable vanadium in soils. The biomass production increased with increasing concentrations of soil vanadium from 122 to 372mgVkg(-1), probably due to the increasing nitrogen availability and low vanadium availability in our soils with a consequent low vanadium toxicity. Although the concentrations of root vanadium (14.4-24.9mgVkg(-1)) related positively with soil vanadium, the bio-dilution alleviated the increase of leaf vanadium (2.1-2.7mgVkg(-1)). The predominance of vanadium(IV) in leaves (?60-80% of total vanadium) indicates bio-reduction of vanadium in Chinese cabbage, since the mobile vanadium in oxic soils was usually pentavalent. Approximately 15-20% of the leaf vanadium was associated with recalcitrant leaf tissues. The majority of leaf vanadium was water and ethanol extractable, which is considered mobile and may cause more toxic effects on Chinese cabbage. PMID:24997904

  8. Fine mapping and identification of candidate Bo-or gene controlling orange head of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange head Chinese cabbage accumulates significant amounts of carotenoids with enhanced nutritional quality. To develop molecular markers for breeding of Chinese cabbage lines with high carotenoid content and to isolate the candidate gene underlying carotenoid synthesis, we performed fine mapping ...

  9. Interactions Between a Belowground Herbivore and Primary and Secondary Root Metabolites in Wild Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Van Geem, Moniek; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Cortesero, Anne Marie; Raaijmakers, Ciska E; Gols, Rieta

    2015-08-01

    Plants are attacked by both above- and belowground herbivores. Toxic secondary compounds are part of the chemical defense arsenal of plants against a range of antagonists, and are subject to genetic variation. Plants also produce primary metabolites (amino acids, nutrients, sugars) that function as essential compounds for growth and survival. Wild cabbage populations growing on the Dorset coast of the UK exhibit genetically different chemical defense profiles, even though they are located within a few kilometers of each other. As in other Brassicaceae, the defensive chemicals in wild cabbages constitute, among others, secondary metabolites called glucosinolates. Here, we used five Dorset populations of wild cabbage to study the effect of belowground herbivory by the cabbage root fly on primary and secondary chemistry, and whether differences in chemistry affected the performance of the belowground herbivore. There were significant differences in total root concentrations and chemical profiles of glucosinolates, amino acids, and sugars among the five wild cabbage populations. Glucosinolate concentrations not only differed among the populations, but also were affected by root fly herbivory. Amino acid and sugar concentrations also differed among the populations, but were not affected by root fly herbivory. Overall, population-related differences in plant chemistry were more pronounced for the glucosinolates than for amino acids and sugars. The performance of the root herbivore did not differ among the populations tested. Survival of the root fly was low (<40%), suggesting that other belowground factors may override potential differences in effects related to primary and secondary chemistry. PMID:26271671

  10. Genes associated with agronomic traits in non-heading Chinese cabbage identified by expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genomes of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis), heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) and their close relative Arabidopsis thaliana have provided important resources for studying the evolution and genetic improvement of cruciferous plants. Natural growing conditions present these plants with a variety of physiological challenges for which they have a repertoire of genes that ensure adaptability and normal growth. We investigated the differential expressions of genes that control adaptability and development in plants growing in the natural environment to study underlying mechanisms of their expression. Results Using digital gene expression tag profiling, we constructed an expression profile to identify genes related to important agronomic traits under natural growing conditions. Among three non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars, we found thousands of genes that exhibited significant differences in expression levels at five developmental stages. Through comparative analysis and previous reports, we identified several candidate genes associated with late flowering, cold tolerance, self-incompatibility, and leaf color. Two genes related to cold tolerance were verified using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions We identified a large number of genes associated with important agronomic traits of non-heading Chinese cabbage. This analysis will provide a wealth of resources for molecular-assisted breeding of cabbage. The raw data and detailed results of this analysis are available at the website http://nhccdata.njau.edu.cn. PMID:24655567

  11. Use of heat stress responsive gene expression levels for early selection of heat tolerant cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Ji; Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Song, Jun Ho; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Hyeran; Kim, Chulwook; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2013-01-01

    Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL), "HO", and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL), "JK", by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13) were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS). Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress. PMID:23736694

  12. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk. PMID:26167479

  13. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%-14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%-9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 ?g) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mgkg(-1)) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg(-1) Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk. PMID:26167479

  14. Development of non-destructive quality measurement technique for cabbage seed (Brassica campestris L) using hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cabbage (Brassica campestris L) is an important crop for Asian countries especially in Korea, Japan and China. In order to achieve uniform and high-yield rate of cabbage product, the seed lot quality needs to be controlled. Non-destructive evaluation of seed viability is an important technique for i...

  15. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Ji; Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Song, Jun Ho; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, HyeRan; Kim, ChulWook; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2013-01-01

    Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL), “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL), “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13) were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS). Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress. PMID:23736694

  16. From the Primitive Atmosphere to the Prebiotic Soup to the Pre-RNA World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    Organic compounds would have been produced in an earth's atmosphere that was reducing. The soup would contain amino and hydroxy acids, together with smaller amounts of purines and pyrimidines. The presence' of sugars is less likely, although they can be produced by the formose reaction from formaldehyde. However, the prebiotic synthesis of RNA has not been demonstrated. One problem is that ribose is not produced selectively over other pentoses and hexoses, except under special conditions. The second problem is that ribose is unstable, with a half-life at pH7 and 100 C of 73 minutes (44 years at 0 C). Other sugars are similarly unstable. Another problem is that there is no efficient prebiotic synthesis of polyphosphates, nor the glycosidic bond of nucleosides. This suggests that there may have been an informational macromolecule that preceded RNA. The RNA world refers to the time when RNA carried both the genetic information and the catalytic activity, and was subsequently converted to the DNA/protein world when protein synthesis began. Preceeding the RNA world was the Pre-RNA world, where a backbone different from ribose phosphate was used, and the bases may have been different from adenine, uracil, guanine and cytosine. We have shown recently that cytosine and uracil can be synthesized efficiently under prebiotic conditions using a dried lagoon model instead of the usual dilute ocean hypothesis. In addition, we have shown that uracil adds formaldehyde efficiently to give 5- hydroxymethyl uracil, which in turn adds various nucleophiles to give uracil analogs of most of the amino acids that occur in proteins. For example, the ammonia, guanidine and imidazole adducts from the analogs of lysine, arginine and histidine. This suggests that the catalytic potential of RNA may have been much more extensive than previously assumed. The major problem is finding out what was the precursor to the ribose phosphate backbone. This will be the key to developing prebiotic self-replicating systems.

  17. Self-assembled cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures with efficient visible light photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yuanhao Zhai, Xuezhen; Zhang, Yange; Xu, Zhihong; Li, Pinjiang; Zheng, Zhi

    2013-07-15

    Cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures have been synthesized by reacting In(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} with the alkaline sulfur aqueous solution of NaOH in a simple hydrothermal process without any shape-directing surfactants. The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures are monodispersed in large quantities. The cabbage-like morphologies depend strongly on the different ratios of S powder to NaOH, the reaction temperature and reaction time. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures is discussed. The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures exhibit the superiority of photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of RhB irradiation under visible light irradiation. It is believed that the photocatalytic superiority of the cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures is mainly due to their special surface areas and inner interconnected structural features. - Graphical abstract: Cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures were facilely synthesized via simple hydrothermal reaction. The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures exhibit the superiority of photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of RhB irradiation under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: Cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures were facilely synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction. Influencing parameters on the NaInS{sub 2} morphologies have been discussed in detail. The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures hold efficient photocatalytic performance. The photocatalytic superiority is mainly due to their special structural features.

  18. Anatomic Characteristics Associated with Head Splitting in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonan; Choi, Su Ryun; Wang, Yunbo; Sung, Chang-keun; Im, Subin; Ramchiary, Nirala; Zhou, Guangsheng; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Cabbage belonging to Brassicaceae family is one of the most important vegetables cultivated worldwide. The economically important part of cabbage crop is head, formed by leaves which may be of splitting and non-splitting types. Cabbage varieties showing head splitting causes huge loss to the farmers and therefore finding the molecular and structural basis of splitting types would be helpful to breeders. To determine which anatomical characteristics were related to head-splitting in cabbage, we analyzed two contrasting cabbage lines and their offspring using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The inbred line “747” is an early head-splitting type, while the inbred line “748” is a head-splitting-resistant type. The petiole cells of “747” seems to be larger than those of “748” at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages. The lower epidermis cells of “747” were larger than those of “748” at the pre-heading and maturity stages. “747” had thinner epidermis cell wall than “748” at maturity stage, however, there was no difference of the epidermis cell wall thickness in the two lines at the pre-heading stage. The head-splitting plants in the F1 and F2 population inherited the larger cell size and thinner cell walls of epidermis cells in the petiole. In the petiole cell walls of “747” and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other. These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting. PMID:26536356

  19. Growing hot pepper for cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hbner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch) control.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Meyer, Janet E; Rogers, Jami A; Hu, Yoon-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    With the public perception that synthetic pesticides leave harmful residues in crop produce for human consumption, there has been increased interest in using natural products for pest control. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper for controlling the cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hbner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is explored in this investigation. Crude extracts from fruits of Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. annuum, were prepared and tested under laboratory conditions for their insecticidal and acaricidal performance. Mortality was greatest (94%) when fruit extract of accession PI-593566 (C. annuum) was sprayed on larvae of the cabbage looper, while crude extracts of accessions PI-241675 (C. frutescens) and PI-310488 (C. annuum) were repellent to the spider mite. We investigated differences in chemical composition of the crude fruit extracts that may explain the observed differences in mortality and repellency between accessions. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry spectrometric analysis revealed that capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, the pungent components of pepper fruit, were not correlated with toxicity or repellency, indicating that the two capsaicinoids are not likely related to the efficacy of pepper fruit extracts. Major compounds in hot pepper fruit extracts were detected and identified as pentadecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, and octadecanoic acid methyl ester. Spectrometric analysis and toxicity to cabbage looper larvae revealed that pentadecanoic acid methyl ester is likely related to cabbage looper mortality. However, the concentration of pentadecanoic acid methyl ester in some accessions was insufficient to explain the observed mortality of cabbage looper and repellency of spider mite. Fruit extracts of accessions PI-593566 (C. annuum) and PI-241675 (C. frutescens) could be useful for managing populations of cabbage loopers and spider mites, which could reduce reliance on synthetic pesticides. Further study is needed to investigate performance of hot pepper extracts under ultra-violet light and field conditions. PMID:17562464

  20. Isolation of a cadmium-binding complex from cabbage and tobacco leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, C

    1980-01-01

    Cd binding complexes with mol wts of approximately 10k daltons were observed in extracts, protoplast lysates, and protoplast cytosol obtained from the leaves of several plants. Extracts of the roots and stems of cabbage also contain the complex. In cabbage and tobacco the ligand appears to be both inducible and constitutive as determined by its association with Cd acquired either during growth of plants in the presence of the metal or after addition of the metal to extracts of Cd free leaves. Current efforts are directed toward determining the nature of the ligand.

  1. A Modelling Approach to Estimate the Impact of Sodium Reduction in Soups on Cardiovascular Health in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Dtsch-Klerk, Mariska; Matthee, Joep; Kearney, Mary; van Elk, Kathelijn; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, which could be lowered by reducing dietary sodium. The potential health impact of a product reformulation in the Netherlands was modelled, selecting packaged soups containing on average 25% less sodium as an example of an achievable product reformulation when implemented gradually. First, the blood pressure lowering resulting from sodium intake reduction was modelled. Second, the predicted blood pressure lowering was translated into potentially preventable incidence and mortality cases from stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina pectoris, and heart failure (HF) implementing one year salt reduction. Finally, the potentially preventable subsequent lifetime Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated. The sodium reduction in soups might potentially reduce the incidence and mortality of stroke by approximately 0.5%, AMI and angina by 0.3%, and HF by 0.2%. The related burden of disease could be reduced by approximately 800 lifetime DALYs. This modelling approach can be used to provide insight into the potential public health impact of sodium reduction in specific food products. The data demonstrate that an achievable food product reformulation to reduce sodium can potentially benefit public health, albeit modest. When implemented across multiple product categories and countries, a significant health impact could be achieved. PMID:26393647

  2. A Modelling Approach to Estimate the Impact of Sodium Reduction in Soups on Cardiovascular Health in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Maaike J; Dtsch-Klerk, Mariska; Matthee, Joep; Kearney, Mary; van Elk, Kathelijn; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, which could be lowered by reducing dietary sodium. The potential health impact of a product reformulation in the Netherlands was modelled, selecting packaged soups containing on average 25% less sodium as an example of an achievable product reformulation when implemented gradually. First, the blood pressure lowering resulting from sodium intake reduction was modelled. Second, the predicted blood pressure lowering was translated into potentially preventable incidence and mortality cases from stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina pectoris, and heart failure (HF) implementing one year salt reduction. Finally, the potentially preventable subsequent lifetime Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated. The sodium reduction in soups might potentially reduce the incidence and mortality of stroke by approximately 0.5%, AMI and angina by 0.3%, and HF by 0.2%. The related burden of disease could be reduced by approximately 800 lifetime DALYs. This modelling approach can be used to provide insight into the potential public health impact of sodium reduction in specific food products. The data demonstrate that an achievable food product reformulation to reduce sodium can potentially benefit public health, albeit modest. When implemented across multiple product categories and countries, a significant health impact could be achieved. PMID:26393647

  3. Genetic method of combating the cabbage root fly. Part II. Localization of factor determining male sex in the cabbage root fly Delia brassicae bouche

    SciTech Connect

    Samoilov, Yu.B.

    1986-05-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was conducted of 15 lines of the cabbage root fly with hereditary semisterility in the form of late embryonic lethals (LEL). In 14 lines (93%), the presence of translocations was noted. A high yield of translocations linked with the male sex was obtained, which was caused by the fact that determination of male sex in this species is apparently associated with the largest chromosome 6, and not with chromosome 1, as was believed previously.

  4. Bacterial feeding induces changes in immune-related gene expression and has trans-generational impacts in the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni)

    PubMed Central

    Freitak, Dalial; Heckel, David G; Vogel, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    Background Poly- and oligophagous insects are able to feed on various host plants with a wide range of defense strategies. However, diverse food plants are also inhabited by microbiota differing in quality and quantity, posing a potential challenge for immune system mediated homeostasis in the herbivore. Recent studies highlight the complex interactions between environmentally encountered microorganisms and herbivorous insects, pointing to a potential adaptational alteration of the insects' physiology. We performed a differential gene expression analysis in whole larvae and eggs laid by parents grown on different diets to identify potential novel genes related to elevated microbial content in the caterpillars' food. Results We used GeneFishing, a novel differential display method, to study the effects of dietary bacteria on the general gene expression in different life stages and tissues of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni). We were able to visualize several hundred transcripts on agarose gels, one fifth of which were differentially expressed between treatments. The largest number of differentially expressed genes was found in defense-related processes (13) and in recognition and metabolism (16). 21 genes were picked out and further tested for differential gene expression by an independent method (qRT-PCR) in various tissues of larvae grown on bacterial and bacteria-free diet, and also in adults. We detected a number of genes indicative of an altered physiological status of the insect, depending on the diet, developmental stage and tissue. Conclusion Changes in immune status are accompanied by specific changes in the transcript levels of genes connected to metabolism and homeostasis of the organism. Our findings show that larval feeding on bacteria-rich diet leads to substantial gene expression changes, potentially resulting in a reorganization of the insects' metabolism to maintain organismal homeostasis, not only in the larval but also in the adult stage. Furthermore, differences in gene expression levels can also be seen in the next generation, strongly influenced by parental diet. PMID:19422678

  5. Mediterranean Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and other cereals, potatoes, beans, nuts and seeds olive oil is an important monounsaturated fat source dairy ... Mediterranean diet come from monounsaturated fats (mainly from olive oil). Monounsaturated fat doesn't raise blood cholesterol ...

  6. Mediterranean diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and triglycerides, and a lower risk of heart disease and other health problems. ... The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based meals, with just ... is prepared and seasoned simply, without sauces and gravies.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chines cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage. PMID:26599708

  8. Changes in the content and composition of anthocyanins in red cabbage and its antioxidant capacity during fermentation, storage and stewing.

    PubMed

    Wiczkowski, Wieslaw; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Topolska, Joanna

    2015-01-15

    The effect of fermentation, storage and stewing on the content and composition of anthocyanins as well as antioxidant capacity of red cabbage was studied. The observation of anthocyanins profile by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS was conducted. Red cabbage products contained twenty different nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins with main structure of cyanidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside. Treatments applied affected concentration and profile of red cabbage anthocyanins. Anthocyanins content was reduced by 24%, 25% and 34% in fermented and stewed (30 and 60-min) red cabbage, respectively. The intensity of anthocyanins degradation during storage depended on the process length. Derivatives of cyanidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside acylated with sinapic acid were characterised by the highest losses. Five assays were used to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Fresh red cabbage had stronger antioxidant capacity in comparison to fermented, stored and stewed red cabbage. The study has shown that red cabbage products are valuable vegetables for daily consumption in fresh, fermented, stored as well as stewed form. PMID:25148967

  9. Genome-wide identification, classification, and analysis of heat shock transcription factor family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, X Y; Tao, P; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide, and various methods exist for selection, propagation, and cultivation. The entire Chinese cabbage genome has been sequenced, and the heat shock transcription factor family (Hsfs) has been found to play a central role in plant growth and development and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, particularly in acquired thermotolerance. We analyzed heat tolerance mechanisms in Chinese cabbage. In this study, 30 Hsfs were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database. The classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs, expression analysis, and interaction networks of the Hsfs were predicted and analyzed. Thirty BrHsfs were classified into 3 major classes (class A, B, and C) according to their structural characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons, and class A was further subdivided into 8 subclasses. Distribution mapping results showed that Hsf genes were located on 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. The expression profile indicated that Hsfs play differential roles in 5 organs in Chinese cabbage, and likely participate in the development of underground parts and regulation of reproductive growth. An orthologous gene interaction network was constructed, and included MBF1C, ROF1, TBP2, CDC2, and HSP70 5 genes, which are closely related to heat stress. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of Hsfs in Chinese cabbage and provide a basis for further functional gene research. PMID:25867366

  10. Genome-wide identification, classification, and expression analysis of sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tao, P; Guo, W L; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are essential for the plant's normal development and stress responses, especially the heat stress response. The information regarding sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis) is sparse, hence we performed a genome-wide analysis to identify sHSP genes in this species. We identified 26 non-redundant sHSP genes distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome A7, with one additional sHSP gene identified from an expressed sequence tag library. Chinese cabbage was found to contain more sHSP genes than Arabidopsis. The 27 sHSP genes were classified into 11 subfamilies. We identified 22 groups of sHSP syntenic orthologous genes between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. In addition, eight groups of paralogous genes were uncovered in Chinese cabbage. Protein structures of the 27 Chinese cabbage sHSPs were modeled using Phyre2, which revealed that all of them contain several conserved ? strands across different subfamilies. In general, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, except for peroxisome sHSP. Analysis of promoter motifs showed that most sHSP genes contain heat shock elements or variants. We also found that biased gene loss has occurred during the evolution of the sHSP subfamily in Chinese cabbage. Expression analysis indicated that the greatest transcript abundance of most Chinese cabbage sHSP genes was found in siliques and early cotyledon embryos. Thus, genome-wide identification and characterization of sHSP genes is a first and important step in the investigation of sHSPs in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26505345

  11. ?-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-09-01

    Non-protein amino acid, ?-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant. PMID:25288957

  12. Changes in bacterial flora of Japanese cabbage during growth and potential source of flora.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hidemi; Sera, Kaori

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial flora of cabbage were identified and enumerated during various stages of growth, and the potential sources of contamination in the field were determined. Bacterial counts increased from below the level of detection (2.4 log CFU/g) on seeds to 2.5 to 5.7 log CFU/g on seedlings. After transplanting, the counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria on leaves decreased and then increased to 5.7 log CFU/g on outer leaves, 5.0 log CFU/g on middle leaves, and 3.0 log CFU/g on inner leaves at the harvesting stage. Counts of coliforms were below the level of detection during the growing period of the leaves. Bacteria isolated from cabbage seeds, seedlings, and leaves were soilborne organisms such as Bacillus, Curtobacterium, and Delftia and phytopathogenic organisms such as Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Stenotrophomonas. These bacteria were found frequently in seeding machines, potting soil mix, soil, agricultural water, pesticide solutions mixed with the agricultural water, liquid fertilizers, and chemical fertilizers. Contamination from these environmental sites occurred throughout the cabbage growing period rather than only at the harvesting stage. These results indicate that use of clean water for irrigation and for mixing with pesticides and amendments from seeding to the harvesting stage is an important part of a good agricultural practices program for cabbage in Japan. PMID:21477482

  13. Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture on fermentation of cabbage with reduced salt concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sauerkraut fermentations rely upon selection of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria by addition of 2.0 to 2.25% granulated sodium chloride (NaCl) to shredded cabbage. Excess brine generated is a waste product with high levels of organic material (BOD) and non-biodegradable NaCl. The objective...

  14. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions.

    PubMed

    Christensen, O B

    1979-07-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl2 solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. PMID:498768

  15. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...

  16. Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars to cabbage and lettuce leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the ability of five Salmonella enterica serovars to attach to and colonize intact and cut lettuce (Iceberg, Romaine) and cabbage surfaces. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Bacterial populations of loosely and strong...

  17. Comparative Analysis Of 226Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-01

    The transfer of 226Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeiriça uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean 226Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of 226Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for 226Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, 226Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1).

  18. Evaluation of nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings using hyper-spectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suming; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Wang, Ching-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Shih-Chieh

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of nutrient status of crops is essential for better management of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in fertilizer for the growth and yield of vegetable crops. In this study, nitrogen content of cabbage seedlings was evaluated using hyper-spectral images. Cabbage seedlings, cultured at five nitrogen fertilization levels, were planted in the 128-cell plug trays and grown in a phytotron at National Taiwan University. The images, ranged from 410 to 1090 nm, of cabbage seedlings were analyzed by a hyper-spectral imaging system consisting of CCD cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF), which was developed in this study. The digital images of seedling canopies were processed including image segmentation, gray level calibration and absorbance conversion. Models including modified partial least square regression (MPLSR), step-wise multi-linear regression (SMLR) and artificial neural network with cross-learning strategy (ANN-CL) were developed for the determination of the nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings. The three significant wavelengths derived from SMLR model are 470, 710, and 1080; and the best result is obtained by ANN-CL model, in which r c=0.89, SEC=6.41 mg/g, r v=0.87, and SEV=6.96 mg/g. The ANN-CL model is more suitable for the remote sensing in precision agriculture applications because not only its model accuracy but also only 3 wavelengths are needed.

  19. Expression analysis of self-incompatibility-associated genes in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Wang, C; Ge, T T; Wang, J J; Liu, T K; Hou, X L; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    In Brassicaceae, a self-incompatibility (SI) system mediates pollen-pistil interactions. Self-pollen could be recognized and rejected by incompatible pistils. Several components involved in the SI response have been determined, including S-locus receptor kinase (SRK), S-locus cysteine-rich protein/S-locus protein 11, and arm repeat-containing protein 1 (ARC1). However, the components involved in the SI system of Brassicaceae are not fully understood. Here, we detected expression patterns of 24 SI-related genes in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp chinensis Makino) after compatible and incompatible pollination, and potential interaction relationships of these genes were predicted. SRK and ARC1 transcripts increased initially 0.25 h after incompatible pollination, while kinase-associated protein phosphatase had an expression pattern that was opposite that of SRK transcripts during self-pollination. Plant U-box 8 was not required in the SI response of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Our results showed that the SI signal of non-heading Chinese cabbage could occur within 0.25 h after self-pollination. The hypothetical interaction relationships indicated that plastid-lipid-associated protein and malate dehydrogenase could be negatively regulated by chaperonin 10, glutathione transferase, cytidylate kinase/uridylate kinase, and methionine synthase by indirect interactions. Our findings could be helpful to better understand potential roles of these components in the SI system of non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:25062491

  20. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Podsędek, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays) strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage. PMID:24575407

  1. The effects of tentoxin on chlorophyll synthesis and plastid structure in cucumber and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Halloin, J M; De Zoeten, G A; Walker, J C

    1970-03-01

    To determine if chlorosis caused by tentoxin, a toxin produced by Alternaria tenuis Nees., is due to interference with chlorophyll synthesis directly or to disruption of normal chloroplast development, the effects of the toxin on these processes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., var. capitata) were studied. Cucumber cotyledons are highly sensitive to the toxin but exhibited no interference with the conversion of protochlorophyll(ide) to chlorophyll(ide) or with the general time course pattern of chlorophyll synthesis, although there was a 90% reduction in chlorophyll concentration. In cabbage, which shows no chlorosis in the presence of the toxin, there was a slight stimulation of chlorophyll synthesis in the presence of the toxin. Electron microscopy revealed that in cucumber, toxin treatment interferes with development of prolamellar bodies and lamellae, and results in deformed plastids. No such effects were noted in toxin-treated cabbage tissues. Plastids in toxin-treated cotyledons of both cucumber and cabbage contained more starch than plastids in nontreated tissues. It was concluded that tentoxin acts through disruption of normal plastid development, rather than through direct interference with chlorophyll synthesis. PMID:5463696

  2. The Effects of Tentoxin on Chlorophyll Synthesis and Plastid Structure in Cucumber and Cabbage 12

    PubMed Central

    Halloin, J. M.; de Zoeten, G. A.; Gaard, G.; Walker, J. C.

    1970-01-01

    To determine if chlorosis caused by tentoxin, a toxin produced by Alternaria tenuis Nees., is due to interference with chlorophyll synthesis directly or to disruption of normal chloroplast development, the effects of the toxin on these processes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., var. capitata) were studied. Cucumber cotyledons are highly sensitive to the toxin but exhibited no interference with the conversion of protochlorophyll(ide) to chlorophyll(ide) or with the general time course pattern of chlorophyll synthesis, although there was a 90% reduction in chlorophyll concentration. In cabbage, which shows no chlorosis in the presence of the toxin, there was a slight stimulation of chlorophyll synthesis in the presence of the toxin. Electron microscopy revealed that in cucumber, toxin treatment interferes with development of prolamellar bodies and lamellae, and results in deformed plastids. No such effects were noted in toxin-treated cabbage tissues. Plastids in toxin-treated cotyledons of both cucumber and cabbage contained more starch than plastids in nontreated tissues. It was concluded that tentoxin acts through disruption of normal plastid development, rather than through direct interference with chlorophyll synthesis. Images PMID:5463696

  3. ?-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Non-protein amino acid, ?-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant. PMID:25288957

  4. Efficacy of mosquito netting for sustainable small holders' cabbage production in Africa.

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Assogba-Komlan, F; Houndete, T; Hougard, J M; Chandre, F

    2006-04-01

    The efficacy of a mosquito netting to protect cabbages, Brassica oleracea L., against pests was investigated in field trials in Benin, West Africa. A polyester net covered the plants at night by using a wood armature. The net was removed during the day to prevent overheating and excessive shade, both problems of insect-proof screens used under tropical conditions. The number of all lepidopteran larvae with netting protection and foliar insecticide sprays was significantly lower than the unprotected control. The number of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was significantly lower with netting protection compared with foliar insecticide sprays and control. Netting treated with deltamethrin gave total protection of young plants against the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). At harvest, the number of marketable cabbages protected with untreated netting was significantly higher compared with the production with foliar insecticide sprays. The protection of cabbages with netting can be an economically viable method. Considering the price of cabbages on local markets (US dollars 1/unit), the net returns per 100 m2 were US dollars 247 by using netting, US dollars 149 by using insecticides, and US dollars 117 for controls. The net returns for using netting are based on replacing the netting each crop cycle. But netting can be reused several times, depending upon conditions, increasing the profit margin. The netting protection may be an alternative to the growing unsustainable practices of vegetable cropping in peri-urban areas of tropical countries. PMID:16686146

  5. Rapid enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in artificially contaminated cabbage using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hough, Angela J; Harbison, Sally-Ann; Savill, Marion G; Melton, Laurence D; Fletcher, Graham

    2002-08-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method specific for Listeria monocytogenes was developed, and studies involving pure culture showed that the response of the assay was linear over 7 log10 (log) cycles. The method was then applied to the detection of L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated onto cabbage, a vegetable chosen because it is a major component of coleslaw, which has been associated with an outbreak of listeriosis. After being allowed to attach to the food, cells were washed from the cabbage leaf surface and recovered by centrifugation. The DNA was purified by an organic solvent extraction technique and analyzed by real-time PCR. In this matrix, the method again produced a linear response over 7 log cycles from 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.4 x 10(9) CFU of L. monocytogenes in 25 g of cabbage, and analysis of the reproducibility of the system showed that log differences in L. monocytogenes numbers added to cabbage could be reliably distinguished. The system allowed quantitative results to be obtained within 8 h and was relatively inexpensive, showing good potential for routine analytical use. PMID:12182489

  6. Matrix effects on the stability and antioxidant activity of red cabbage anthocyanins under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Pods?dek, Anna; Redzynia, Ma?gorzata; Klewicka, El?bieta; Kozio?kiewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays) strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage. PMID:24575407

  7. Analysis of Chameleonic Change of Red Cabbage Depending on Broad pH Range for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Tae Young; Ko, Hyun Seok; Han, Eun Mi; Lee, Suk-Ho; Kim, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-08-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled using natural dyes extracted from red cabbage as a sensitizer. In this work, we investigated the adsorption characteristics and the electrochemical behavior for harvesting sunlight and electron transfer in red cabbage DSSCs under different solvents and pH. For the red cabbage dye-sensitized electrode adsorbed at pH 3.5, the solar cell yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 1.60 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Vcc) of 0.46 V, and a fill factor of 0.55, corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.41%. PMID:26369159

  8. Effects of chitosan films on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. in laboratory media and in fish soup.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Saiz, P; Soler, C; Lagaron, J M; Ocio, M J

    2010-02-28

    The objective of this study was to assess the antimicrobial effectiveness of chitosonium acetate films on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The samples were tested in both laboratory conditions using Tryptone Soy Broth (TSB) and in a real food system using fish soup. The study was carried out at different temperatures (4, 12, and 37 degrees C) in order to discern the influence of such variables. Moreover, a sensory evaluation of the final product was performed as a parameter of consumer acceptance. The results showed a significant reduction of the bacterial growth, which greatly depended on the bacteria type, the temperature of incubation and the food substrate. Although the effectiveness of chitosan films decreased in the fish soup, neither the sensory properties nor the pH of the soup was affected upon their addition. The application of chitosonium acetate as an internal coating of the packaging material could be a very suitable means to assure safety of liquid food products such as fish soup at the range of temperatures studied. PMID:20022649

  9. Persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil, and its risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Gupta, Suman

    2013-07-01

    Metaflumizone is a novel sodium channel blocker insecticide of semicarbazone class. It provides good to excellent control of most of the economically important lepidopterous pests and certain pests in the orders Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Isoptera, and Siphonaptera. Although metaflumizone has been marketed globally for several years and got registered in India in the year 2009, specifically for the control of DBM on cabbage, to our knowledge, no food safety aspects of metaflumizone residue on cabbage have ever been reported in the literature in India or elsewhere. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage and soil, vis-a-vis its risk assessment, following two spray applications of metaflumizone 220 SC (Verismo), each at recommended and double dose of 200 and 400g?a.i.?ha(-1) respectively. Initial residue deposits of metaflumizone on cabbage were 0.46 and 0.51mg?kg(-1) at recommended and 0.76 and 0.85mg?kg(-1) at double the recommended dose following the first spray and second spray application. The residues persisted beyond 5days from both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life ranging from 1.7-2.1days. Initial deposits of metaflumizone on soil ranged from 0.23-0.37mg?kg(-1) and degraded with a half life ranging from 4.0-4.8days. No degradation product of metaflumizone was detected in cabbage and soil at any point of time. Soil samples collected from the treated field after 7days were free from any residue of metaflumizone or its metabolites. A pre-harvest waiting period of 3days after application was suggested based on calculation of theoretical maximum daily intake. PMID:23224645

  10. Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage).

    PubMed

    Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Tongkun; Huang, Zhinan; Ren, Jun; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2015-02-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an ancient and well-studied transcription factor family that functions in almost every developmental process in plants. There are a number of reports about the MADS-box family in different plant species, but systematic analysis of the MADS-box transcription factor family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) is still lacking. In this study, 160 MADS-box transcription factors were identified from the entire Chinese cabbage genome and compared with the MADS-box factors from 21 other representative plant species. A detailed list of MADS proteins from these 22 species was sorted. Phylogenetic analysis of the BrMADS genes, together with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts, showed that the BrMADS genes were categorised into type I (M?, M?, M?) and type II (MIKC(C), MIKC*) groups, and the MIKC(C) proteins were further divided into 13 subfamilies. The Chinese cabbage type II group has 95 members, which is twice as much as the Arabidopsis type II group, indicating that the Chinese cabbage type II genes have been retained more frequently than the type I genes. Finally, RNA-seq transcriptome data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that BrMADS genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner similar to Arabidopsis. Interestingly, a number of BrMIKC genes showed responses to different abiotic stress treatments, suggesting a function for some of the genes in these processes as well. Taken together, the characterization of the B. rapa MADS-box family presented here, will certainly help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and further facilitate functional studies in Chinese cabbage. PMID:25216934

  11. The maturation zone is an important target of Piriformospora indica in Chinese cabbage roots

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Sheqin; Tian, Zhihong; Oelmllar, Ralf; Yeh, Kai Wun

    2013-01-01

    The mutualistic symbiont Piriformospora indica exhibits a great potential in agriculture. The interaction between P. indica and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cv. Chinensis) results in growth and biomass promotion of the host plant and in particular in root hair development. The resulting highly bushy root phenotype of colonized Chinese cabbage seedlings differs substantially from reports of other plant species, which prompted the more detailed study of this symbiosis. A large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) data set was obtained from a double-subtractive EST library, by subtracting the cDNAs of Chinese cabbage root tissue and of P. indica mycelium from those of P. indica-colonized root tissue. The analysis revealed ~700 unique genes rooted in 141 clusters and 559 singles. A total of 66% of the sequences could be annotated in the NCBI GenBank. Genes which are stimulated by P. indica are involved in various types of transport, carbohydrate metabolism, auxin signalling, cell wall metabolism, and root development, including the root hair-forming phosphoinositide phosphatase 4. For 20 key genes, induction by fungal colonization was confirmed kinetically during the interaction by real-time reverse transcriptionPCR. Moreover, the auxin concentration increases transiently after exposure of the roots to P. indica. Microscopic analyses demonstrated that the development of the root maturation zone is the major target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. Taken together, the symbiotic interaction between Chinese cabbage and P. indica is a novel model to study root growth promotion which, in turn, is important for agriculture and plant biotechnology. PMID:24006423

  12. Role of xylo-oligosaccharides in protection against salinity-induced adversities in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Guo, Chen; Hussain, Saddam; Zhu, Bingxin; Deng, Fang; Xue, Yan; Geng, Mingjian; Wu, Lishu

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a stringent abiotic constraint limiting crop growth and productivity. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOSs) in improving the salinity tolerance of Chinese cabbage. Salinity stress (0.5 % NaCl solution) and four levels (0, 40, 80, 120 mg L(-1)) of XOSs were imposed on 20-day-old plants cultured under controlled conditions. Salinity stress decreased the aboveground fresh biomass, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll contents but increased the stomatal limitation value of Chinese cabbage compared with control. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Chinese cabbage were significantly alleviated by the addition of XOSs under salinity stress. Under salinity stress, application of XOSs significantly enhanced the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbate, carotene) antioxidants and reduced the malondialdehyde content in the leaves of Chinese cabbage. The XOS-applied plants under salinity stress also recorded higher soluble sugars, proline, and soluble protein content in their leaves. Exposure of salinity stress increased the ratio of Na(+)/K(+), Na(+)/Ca(2+), and Na(+)/Mg(2+) in shoot as well as root of Chinese cabbage, however, XOS application significantly reduced these ratios particularly in shoot. Lower levels of XOSs (40 or 80 mg L(-1)) were more effective for most of the studied attributes. The greater salinity tolerance and better growth in these treatments were related with enhanced antioxidative defense system, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased osmolyte accumulation, and maintenance of ionic balance. PMID:26358207

  13. Dissipation kinetics of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron residues in cabbage grown under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bizhang; Zhao, Qing; Hu, Jiye

    2015-12-01

    Residue analysis of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage matrices and soil was developed using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v) or 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile/water (5:1, v/v) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all samples ranged 87.8-100.0 % and 3.6-12.6% for emamectin benzoate and 87.8-104.8 % and 6.2-11.5% for lufenuron, respectively. The validated method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage and soil as well as the residual levels in harvested cabbage and soil at different preharvest intervals (PHI). The half-lives of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron were 1.08-2.70 and 1.74-5.04days in cabbage, and 1.42-4.01 and 0.94-6.18days in soil, respectively. The terminal residues were below the China maximum residue limits (MRLs) at 3days for emamectin benzoate (0.1mgkg(-1)) and European Union MRLs at 5days for lufenuron (0.5mgkg(-1)), which suggested that 5days could be recommended as the PHI for the commercial formulation of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron application in the Chinese cabbage field. PMID:26590145

  14. Accumulation of mercury in rice grain and cabbage grown on representative Chinese soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-fa; Wu, Cheng-xian; Rafiq, Muhammad T; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Hou, Dan-di; Ding, Zhe-li; Lin, Zi-wen; Lou, Lin-jun; Feng, Yuan-yuan; Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2013-12-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the accumulation properties of mercury (Hg) in rice grain and cabbage grown in seven soil types (Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols) spiked with different concentrations of Hg (CK, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that Hg accumulation of plants was significantly affected by soil types. Hg concentration in both rice grain and cabbage increased with soil Hg concentrations, but this increase differed among the seven soils. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pH, Mn(II), particle size distribution, and cation exchange capacity have a close relationship with Hg accumulation in plants, which suggested that physicochemical characteristics of soils can affect the Hg accumulation in rice grain and cabbage. Critical Hg concentrations in seven soils were identified for rice grain and cabbage based on the maximum safe level for daily intake of Hg, dietary habits of the population, and Hg accumulation in plants grown in different soil types. Soil Hg limits for rice grain in Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols were 1.10, 2.00, 2.60, 2.78, 1.53, 0.63, and 2.17 mg/kg, respectively, and critical soil Hg levels for cabbage are 0.27, 1.35, 1.80, 1.70, 0.69, 1.68, and 2.60 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:24302714

  15. The maturation zone is an important target of Piriformospora indica in Chinese cabbage roots.

    PubMed

    Dong, Sheqin; Tian, Zhihong; Chen, Peng Jen; Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin Hui; Cai, Daguang; Oelmllar, Ralf; Yeh, Kai Wun

    2013-11-01

    The mutualistic symbiont Piriformospora indica exhibits a great potential in agriculture. The interaction between P. indica and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cv. Chinensis) results in growth and biomass promotion of the host plant and in particular in root hair development. The resulting highly bushy root phenotype of colonized Chinese cabbage seedlings differs substantially from reports of other plant species, which prompted the more detailed study of this symbiosis. A large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) data set was obtained from a double-subtractive EST library, by subtracting the cDNAs of Chinese cabbage root tissue and of P. indica mycelium from those of P. indica-colonized root tissue. The analysis revealed ~700 unique genes rooted in 141 clusters and 559 singles. A total of 66% of the sequences could be annotated in the NCBI GenBank. Genes which are stimulated by P. indica are involved in various types of transport, carbohydrate metabolism, auxin signalling, cell wall metabolism, and root development, including the root hair-forming phosphoinositide phosphatase 4. For 20 key genes, induction by fungal colonization was confirmed kinetically during the interaction by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Moreover, the auxin concentration increases transiently after exposure of the roots to P. indica. Microscopic analyses demonstrated that the development of the root maturation zone is the major target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. Taken together, the symbiotic interaction between Chinese cabbage and P. indica is a novel model to study root growth promotion which, in turn, is important for agriculture and plant biotechnology. PMID:24006423

  16. Accumulation of mercury in rice grain and cabbage grown on representative Chinese soils*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-fa; Wu, Cheng-xian; Rafiq, Muhammad T.; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Hou, Dan-di; Ding, Zhe-li; Lin, Zi-wen; Lou, Lin-jun; Feng, Yuan-yuan; Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2013-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the accumulation properties of mercury (Hg) in rice grain and cabbage grown in seven soil types (Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols) spiked with different concentrations of Hg (CK, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that Hg accumulation of plants was significantly affected by soil types. Hg concentration in both rice grain and cabbage increased with soil Hg concentrations, but this increase differed among the seven soils. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pH, Mn(II), particle size distribution, and cation exchange capacity have a close relationship with Hg accumulation in plants, which suggested that physicochemical characteristics of soils can affect the Hg accumulation in rice grain and cabbage. Critical Hg concentrations in seven soils were identified for rice grain and cabbage based on the maximum safe level for daily intake of Hg, dietary habits of the population, and Hg accumulation in plants grown in different soil types. Soil Hg limits for rice grain in Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols were 1.10, 2.00, 2.60, 2.78, 1.53, 0.63, and 2.17 mg/kg, respectively, and critical soil Hg levels for cabbage are 0.27, 1.35, 1.80, 1.70, 0.69, 1.68, and 2.60 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:24302714

  17. Dissipation behavior of organophosphorus pesticides during the cabbage pickling process: residue changes with salt and vinegar content of pickling solution.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuele; Yang, Zhonghua; Shen, Luyao; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Diao, Jinling

    2013-03-01

    In this experiment, the behavior of 10 pesticides in three different cabbage pickling treatments has been studied. The brine used for pickling was made up with different salt and vinegar contents to determine the influence of different pickling solutions on pesticide dissipation and distribution. A modified QuECHERS and SPE method was established for the analysis of the pesticides in the cabbage and brine. It was found that different pesticides showed different dissipation patterns and finally represented dissimilar residue levels in the cabbage and brine. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the distinctions of these pesticides between each treatment and proved that salt content and pH value had certain influence on the dissipation and distribution of these pesticides during the pickling process. The data from this experiment would help to control pesticide residues in pickled cabbage and prevent potential risk to human health and environmental safety. PMID:23402557

  18. Oral fluid therapy: sodium and potassium content and osmolality of some commercial "clear" soups, juices and beverages.

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, B E; Arbus, G S

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of nearly 90 commercial "clear" fluids, including soups, juices, fruit-flavoured drinks and ices, carbonated beverages and gelatins, showed a range of 0.1 to 251 mmol of sodium and 0.0 to 65 mmol of potassium per litre; the osmolality ranged from 246 to more than 2000 mOsm/kg of water. Knowledge of these values is useful in the home or hospital management of patients for whom control of fluid and electrolyte intake is indicated. The results of the analyses are presented in tabular form for use by physicians and nutritionists when counselling patients to ingest clear-type fluids for various illnesses. Examples are given using these data to show how clear-fluid therapy can be tailored in one such illness--gastroenteritis (infectious diarrhea). PMID:497946

  19. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of Bisphenol A following ingestion in soup: Individual pharmacokinetic data and emographics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2015-09-01

    Here we present data to evaluate potential absorption of Bisphenol A through non-metabolizing tissues of the upper digestive tract. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 h period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. The pharmacokinetic behavior of BPA and its metabolites in this cohort (rapid absorption, complete elimination, evidence against sublingual absorption) was reported. This Data in Brief article contains the corresponding individual pharmacokinetic data, reports the demographics of the cohort and provides additional details related to the analyticalmore » methods employed and is related to [4].« less

  20. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of Bisphenol A following ingestion in soup: Individual pharmacokinetic data and emographics

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2015-09-01

    Here we present data to evaluate potential absorption of Bisphenol A through non-metabolizing tissues of the upper digestive tract. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 h period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. The pharmacokinetic behavior of BPA and its metabolites in this cohort (rapid absorption, complete elimination, evidence against sublingual absorption) was reported. This Data in Brief article contains the corresponding individual pharmacokinetic data, reports the demographics of the cohort and provides additional details related to the analytical methods employed and is related to [4].

  1. [Ecotoxicological effects of tetracycline on the seedling development of Chinese white cabbage (Brassica rapa L. chinensis group.) in soil].

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; An, Jing; Zhou, Qi-Xing

    2011-08-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of tetracycline (TC) on the early growth and seedlings development of Chinese white cabbage were investigated using the pot-culture method. The results showed that the stem elongation of the cabbages was promoted, while the root elongation and fresh weight of the cabbages were inhibited by 1-100 mg/kg TC. After a 28-day exposure, the inhibition rate of root elongation was up to 36.0% and that of fresh weight was up to 34.6% stressed by 100 mg/kg TC. With the exposure time of TC prolonged, the content of chlorophyll in leaves of the cabbage seedlings stressed by 100 mg/kg TC was significantly lower than that treated by other concentrations of TC, with the inhibition rate of chlorophyll was 21.7% - 29.0%. After a 7-day exposure to TC, the content of soluble protein (SP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cabbage seedlings changed insignificantly. With the exposure time of TC prolonged, the content of SP in the cabbage seedlings decreased significantly, while the content of MDA increased significantly. Moreover, the activity of SOD, POD and CAT in Chinese white cabbage seedlings was inhibited by 1-100 mg/kg TC. The inhibition rates of SOD, POD and CAT activity exposed to 100 mg/kg TC were 33.9% - 45.3%, 33.8% - 67.7% and 29.6% - 57.7%, respectively. It suggested that TC has ecotoxicological effects on Chinese white cabbage seedlings with a chronic exposure. PMID:22619974

  2. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup.

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Seryak, Liesel M; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-10-15

    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to <1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30?g d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t1/2=0.45h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43nM at 1.6h after administration and represented <0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29h vs 0.45h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (<1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies. PMID:25620055

  3. Discrimination of cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) cultivars grown in different geographical areas using H NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jahan; Jung, Youngae; Song, Byeongyeol; Bong, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Do Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2013-04-15

    Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most popular foods in Asia and is widely cultivated in many countries for the production of lightly fermented vegetables. In this study, metabolomic analysis was performed to distinguish two cultivars of cabbage grown in different geographical areas, Korea and China, using H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear discrimination between extracts of cabbage grown in Korea and China for two different cultivars (Chunmyeong and Chunjung). The major biochemicals (metabolites) that contributed to discrimination between cabbages grown in the two regions were 4-aminobutyrate (GABA), acetate, asparagine, leucine, isoleucine, O-phosphocholine, phenylacetate, phenylalanine, succinate, sucrose, tyrosine, and valine. These results suggest that the levels of the major metabolites that differ significantly between cabbages grown in these two areas were influenced by environmental factors such as climate and geology. Our study demonstrates that H NMR based on metabolomics, coupled with multivariate statistics, can be applied to identify the regions of cultivation of various cabbage cultivars. PMID:23199992

  4. Why food-poisoning bacteria attached to shredded cabbage are not efficiently disinfected by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO).

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Yumiko; Kawamura, Shiori; Tsutsuura, Satomi; Shimamura, Yuko; Murata, Masatsune

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine why food poisoning bacteria attached to cut cabbage are not efficiently disinfected by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Pretreatment of shredded cabbage with diethyl ether definitely decreased the survival numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. after disinfection with 100 ppm of NaClO. The density of E. coli O157:H7 at the cut edge of a cabbage section was larger than that on the surface. The residual ratio of attached bacteria at the cut edge after NaClO disinfection was significantly higher than that on the surface. Microscopical observation indicated that the cut edge of shredded cabbage pretreated with diethyl ether was almost closed, resulting in a decrease in bacterial infiltration. Pretreatment of shredded cabbage with a higher concentration of NaClO to penetrate it more deeply significantly decreased the numbers of surviving bacteria after NaClO disinfection. Based on these results, we concluded that the bacteria attached to cut cabbage were not efficiently disinfected by NaClO, because not enough NaClO deeply infiltrated into the cut edges, and hence not enough came in contact with the bacteria. PMID:23748784

  5. Persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and des-iodo flubendiamide in cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi; Jagadish, G K; Rashmi, N

    2010-09-01

    Flubendiamide belongs to a novel class of insecticide which controls lepidopteran pest complex of cabbage such as diamondback moth, cabbage white butterfly, cluster caterpillar etc. Being a newly introduced insecticide no information is available on its residue persistence in cabbage. A study was undertaken to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in cabbage and soil following 2 applications of flubendiamide 480 SC at the recommended and double the recommended dose of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide in cabbage were 0.33 and 0.49 mg kg(-1) respectively. The residues persisted for 10 days from the both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life of 3.9 and 4.45 days, respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite of flubendiamide, was not detected in cabbage at any time during the study period. Soil sample collected from the treated field after 15 days was free from any residue of flubendiamide or its metabolite. PMID:20661541

  6. Diet and Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... By Emily McCloud, RD Rheumatoid Arthritis: Lifestyle Management Diet and Pain Many people who suffer from chronic ... and risks associated with diet restrictions. Vegan/Vegetarian Diets Vegan/Vegetarian diets are composed predominantly of plant ...

  7. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... Exercise ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  8. Degradation dynamics of emamectin benzoate on cabbage under subtropical conditions of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmail; Chahil, G S; Jyot, Gagan; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-07-01

    Emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) was applied to cabbage at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha?, during the head initiation stage. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method, for the determination of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, was developed. Average recoveries of emamectin benzoate ranged from 92 % to 96 % at different fortification levels (0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 mg kg?). The initial deposits, 0.11 and 0.21 mg kg? of emamectin benzoate at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha?, dissipated below the determination limit of 0.05 mg kg? in 3 and 5 days, respectively. PMID:23680950

  9. Stability of glucosinolates and glucosinolate degradation products during storage of boiled white cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Ewa; Drabińska, Natalia; Narwojsz, Agnieszka; Honke, Joanna

    2016-07-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of storage on the contents of glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products in a boiled white cabbage. A 24h storage at 4°C resulted in a decrease in GLS content (20-40%, depending on the cooking time applied) in the edible parts. The most significant losses were observed for sinigrin (20-45%), and the least for glucobrassicin (12-32%). Storage had a diversified effect on GLS breakdown products (indole-3-acetonitrile, indole-3-carbinol, ascorbigen and 3,3'-diindolylmethane released from glucobrassicin and 4-methylsulfinylbutanenitrile released from glucoiberin) in the boiled cabbage. The increase in the content of indole-3-acetonitrile, especially considerable within the first 24h of storage (and a simultaneous decrease in glucobrassicin) clearly indicates that degradation of GLS may occur during storage or cooling to 4°C. PMID:26948623

  10. Identification of candidate genes for Fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage by differential expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Motoki; Fujimoto, Ryo; Ying, Hua; Pu, Zi-jing; Ebe, Yusuke; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Saeki, Natsumi; Taylor, Jennifer M; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is an important disease of Brassica worldwide. To identify a resistance (R) gene against Fusarium yellows in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we analyzed differential expression at the whole genome level between resistant and susceptible inbred lines using RNA sequencing. Four hundred and eighteen genes were significantly differentially expressed, and these were enriched for genes involved in response to stress or stimulus. Seven dominant DNA markers at putative R-genes were identified. Presence and absence of the sequence of the putative R-genes, Bra012688 and Bra012689, correlated with the resistance of six inbred lines and susceptibility of four inbred lines, respectively. In F(2) populations derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible inbred lines, presence of Bra012688 and Bra012689 cosegregated with resistance, suggesting that Bra012688 and Bra012689 are good candidates for fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage. PMID:24668026

  11. Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolics of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Seong, Gi-Un; Hwang, In-Wook; Chung, Shin-Kyo

    2016-05-15

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) is a green leafy vegetable used mainly in kimchi, salted and fermented dishes. Consumer preference for the leaf portion differs according to the type of dishes. In this study, Chinese cabbage was divided into three parts, and their antioxidant activities were investigated through in vitro assays. The total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and vitamin C contents were also determined as indicators of antioxidant contents. The phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The outer leaf had the strongest antioxidant activity with the maximum antioxidant contents, followed by the mid- and inner leaves. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that outer leaf is positively related to caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and myricetin contents, whereas the mid- and inner leaves are negatively related to sinapic acid contents. PMID:26776015

  12. Two cytochromes P450 catalyze S-heterocyclizations in cabbage phytoalexin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Andrew P; Sattely, Elizabeth S

    2015-11-01

    Phytoalexins are abundant in edible crucifers and have important biological activities, yet no dedicated gene for their biosynthesis is known. Here, we report two new cytochromes P450 from Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) that catalyze unprecedented S-heterocyclizations in cyclobrassinin and spirobrassinin biosynthesis. Our results provide genetic and biochemical insights into the biosynthesis of a prominent pair of dietary metabolites and have implications for pathway discovery across >20 recently sequenced crucifers. PMID:26389737

  13. [Variety recognition of Chinese cabbage seeds by hyperspectral imaging combined with machine learning].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Xi; Kong, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Chu; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2014-09-01

    The variety of Chinese cabbage seeds were recognized using hyperspectral imaging with 256 bands from 874 to 1,734 nm in the present paper. A total of 239 Chinese cabbage seed samples including 8 varieties were acquired by hyperspectral image system, 158 for calibration and the rest 81 for validation. A region of 15 pixel x 15 pixel was selected as region of interest (ROI) and the average spectral information of ROI was obtained as sample spectral information. Multiplicative scatter correction was selected as pretreatment method to reduce the noise of spectrum. The performance of four classification algorithms including Ada-boost algorithm, extreme learning machine (ELM), random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) were examined in this study. In order to simplify the input variables, 10 effective wavelengths (EMS) including 1,002, 1,005, 1,015, 1,019, 1,022, 1,103, 1,106, 1,167, 1,237 and 1,409 nm were selected by analysis of variable load distribution in PLS model. The reflectance of effective wavelengths was taken as the input variables to build effective wavelengths based models. The results indicated that the classification accuracy of the four models based on full-spectral were over 90%, the optimal models were extreme learning machine and random forest, and the classification accuracy achieved 100%. The classification accuracy of effective wavelengths based models declined slightly but the input variables compressed greatly, the efficiency of data processing was improved, and the classification accuracy of EW-ELM model achieved 100%. ELM performed well both in full-spectral model and in effective wavelength based model in this study, it was proven to be a useful tool for spectral analysis. So rapid and nondestructive recognition of Chinese cabbage seeds by hyperspectral imaging combined with machine learning is feasible, and it provides a new method for on line batch variety recognition of Chinese cabbage seeds. PMID:25532356

  14. Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

  15. Peptidomics of the Agriculturally Damaging Larval Stage of the Cabbage Root Fly Delia radicum (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zoephel, Judith; Reiher, Wencke; Rexer, Karl-Heinz; Kahnt, Jrg; Wegener, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The larvae of the cabbage root fly induce serious damage to cultivated crops of the family Brassicaceae. We here report the biochemical characterisation of neuropeptides from the central nervous system and neurohemal organs, as well as regulatory peptides from enteroendocrine midgut cells of the cabbage maggot. By LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF and chemical labelling with 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate, 38 peptides could be identified, representing major insect peptide families: allatostatin A, allatostatin C, FMRFamide-like peptides, kinin, CAPA peptides, pyrokinins, sNPF, myosuppressin, corazonin, SIFamide, sulfakinins, tachykinins, NPLP1-peptides, adipokinetic hormone and CCHamide 1. We also report a new peptide (Yamide) which appears to be homolog to an amidated eclosion hormone-associated peptide in several Drosophila species. Immunocytochemical characterisation of the distribution of several classes of peptide-immunoreactive neurons and enteroendocrine cells shows a very similar but not identical peptide distribution to Drosophila. Since peptides regulate many vital physiological and behavioural processes such as moulting or feeding, our data may initiate the pharmacological testing and development of new specific peptide-based protection methods against the cabbage root fly and its larva. PMID:22848525

  16. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-06-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  17. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  18. Isolation and characterization of endophytic actinomycetes from Chinese cabbage roots as antagonists to Plasmodiophora brassicae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Og; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Park, Dong Jin; Kim, Chang Jin; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2008-11-01

    This study was conducted to select endophytic actinomycetes as biocontrol agents against Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae. A total of 81 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from surface-sterilized roots of Chinese cabbage that was grown on paddy field and upland soils collected from various locations in Korea. By using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing, they were classified to 8 actinobacterial genera. The genus Microbispora (67%) was most frequently isolated, followed by Streptomyces (12%) and Micromonospora (11%). Three of the 81 isolates, when inoculated in germinated Chinese cabbage seeds and then transplanted to pots, effectively suppressed the occurrence of a post-inoculated strain of P. brassicae in the pots. They showed control values of 58% for strain A004, 33% for strain A004, and 42% for strain A018. Based on cell wall components, morphological characteristics, and phylogenetic analyses, the three antagonistic isolates were identified as Microbispora rosea subsp. rosea (A004 and A011) and Streptomyces olivochromogenes (A018). Further researches on the field efficacy and action modes of the three actinomycetes are in progress. PMID:19047815

  19. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. PMID:26593594

  20. Nonwoven fiber barriers for control of cabbage maggot and onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M P; Kuhar, T P; Baird, J M; Gardner, J; Schwartz, P; Shelton, A M

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the use of nonwoven fiber barriers for control of cabbage maggot, Delia radicum (L.), and onion maggot, D. antiqua (Meigen). The barriers consist of arrangements of minute fibers loosely intertwined in "web" form. Results from a greenhouse experiment showed that manually applied graphite fibers placed at the base of broccoli plants reduced the number of D. radicum eggs by 64-98%, and that efficacy increased with greater fiber density. Using a melt extrusion process, we devised a method for on-site creation of nonwoven fibers of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). In field trials with broccoli and onion plants, EVA fibers significantly reduced the number of cabbage and onion maggots infesting plants. Fiber barriers provided comparable control to standard insecticide applications. The addition of blue, yellow, red, or black pigments, as well as optical brighteners that absorb UV light did not enhance fiber efficacy. Incorporation of capsaicin olfactory repellent to EVA also did not enhance fiber efficacy. Nonwoven fiber barriers may offer an alternative to insecticides for control of cabbage maggot and onion maggot and possibly other insect pests. Additional research is needed to improve the application process and to identify economically feasible and biodegradable compounds for fibers. PMID:11777053

  1. Molar absorptivity (ε) and spectral characteristics of cyanidin-based anthocyanins from red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ahmadiani, Neda; Robbins, Rebecca J; Collins, Thomas M; Giusti, M Monica

    2016-04-15

    Red cabbage extract contains mono and di-acylated cyanidin (Cy) anthocyanins and is often used as food colorants. Our objectives were to determine the molar absorptivity (ε) of different red cabbage Cy-derivatives and to evaluate their spectral behaviors in acidified methanol (MeOH) and buffers pH 1-9. Major red cabbage anthocyanins were isolated using a semi-preparatory HPLC, dried and weighed. Pigments were dissolved in MeOH and diluted with either MeOH (0.1% HCl) or buffers to obtain final concentrations between 5×10(-5) and 1×10(-3) mol/L. Spectra were recorded and ε calculated using Lambert-Beer's law. The ε in acidified MeOH and buffer pH 1 ranged between ~16,000-30,000 and ~13,000-26,000 L/mol cm, respectively. Most pigments showed higher ε in pH 8 than pH 2, and lowest ε between pH 4 and 6. There were bathochromic shifts (81-105 nm) from pH 1 to 8 and hypsochromic shifts from pH 8 to 9 (2-19 nm). Anthocyanins molecular structures and the media were important variables which greatly influenced their ε and spectral behaviors. PMID:26617032

  2. [Osteoporosis diet].

    PubMed

    Morselli, B; Neuenschwander, B; Perrelet, R; Lippuner, K

    2000-03-01

    Bone requires a wide variety of nutrients to develop normally and to maintain itself after growth. Most important--in the sense that bony abnormalities are associated with their deficiencies--are protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, C and K, zinc, manganese and copper. The nutrients most likely to be deficient in citizens of industrialized countries are calcium and vitamin D. In this review of the current literature about nutritional aspects of osteoporosis, we have focused on factors influencing calcium requirement: the principal interacting nutrients are sodium, protein, caffeine, fiber, oxalate, phytate, and the acid/alkaline ash character of the overall diet. Fiber and caffeine decrease calcium absorption from the gut and typically exert relatively minor effects, while sodium, protein and the acid/alkaline balance of the diet increase urinary excretion of calcium and are of much greater significance for the calcium homeostasis. Alkali buffers, whether vegetables or fruits reverse this urinary calcium loss. As long as accompanied by adequate calcium intake, protein-rich diet is not deleterious to bone: a calcium-to-protein ratio of 20:1 (mg calcium/g protein) is recommended. Whether a nutrition-based therapeutic approach to osteoporosis is feasible in the near future is yet unclear: at least there are some recent promising data from in-vitro as well as from rat studies showing that extracts taken from various vegetables, mainly from the onion family inhibit bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:10756695

  3. Glut1 deficiency syndrome: Absence epilepsy and La Soupe du Jour.

    PubMed

    Thouin, Anaïs; Crompton, Douglas E

    2016-02-01

    For some time, paediatric neurologists have recognised glucose transporter type 1 (GluT1) deficiency syndrome as a cause of intractable infantile seizures, microcephaly, developmental delay and hypoglycorrhachia in the presence of a normal plasma glucose. It is caused by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene, coding for GluT1, leading to a reduction in the available glucose transporter sites; it responds to the ketogenic diet. Recently, a wider spectrum of seizure syndromes have been associated with functional impairment of glucose transport caused by SLC2A1 mutations. These syndromes include 12% of early-onset absence epilepsy and 1% of genetic generalised epilepsies, where they represent a risk allele contributing to polygenic inheritance. We describe a young man with early-onset absence seizures and paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia. While this syndrome is uncommon, it is recognisable and its diagnosis allows consideration of treatment with the ketogenic diet. We discuss the role of genetic testing in early-onset absence seizures and genetic generalised epilepsy. PMID:26336901

  4. Solar production of industrial process hot water: operation and evaluation of the Campbell Soup hot water solar facility. Final report, September 1, 1979-December 10, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kull, J. I.; Niemeyer, W. N.; Youngblood, S. B.

    1980-12-01

    The operation and evaluation of a solar hot water facility designed by Acurex Corporation and installed (November 1977) at the Campbell Soup Company Sacramento, California canning plant is summarized. The period of evaluation was for 12 months from October 1979 through September 1980. The objective of the work was to obtain additional, long term data on the operation and performance of the facility. Minor modifications to the facility were completed. The system was operated for 15 months, and 12 months of detailed data were evaluated. The facility was available for operation 99% of the time during the last 8 months of evaluation. A detailed description of the solar facility and of the operating experience is given, and a summary of system performance for the 12 month operation/evaluation period is presented. Recommendations for large-scale solar facilities based on this project's experience are given, and an environmental impact assessment for the Campbell Soup solar facility is provided. (WHK)

  5. Genome-wide identification, classification and expression analysis of the heat shock transcription factor family in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Gaofeng; Duan, Weike; Liu, Tongkun; Huang, Zhinan; Ren, Jun; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2014-08-01

    The Hsf gene family, one of the most important transcription factor families, plays crucial roles in regulating heat resistance. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of this gene family has not been reported in Chinese cabbage. Therefore, systematic analysis of the Hsf gene family in Chinese cabbage has profound significance. In this study, 35 BrHsf genes were identified from Chinese cabbage, which could be classified into three groups according to their structural characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons with Arabidopsis and rice. Thirty-three BrHsf genes mapped on chromosomes were further assigned to three subgenomes and eight ancestral karyotypes. Distribution mapping showed that BrHsf genes were non-randomly localized on chromosomes. Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis shared 22 orthologous gene pairs. The expansion of BrHsf genes mainly resulted from genome triplication. Comparative analysis showed that the most Hsf genes were in Chinese cabbage among the five species analyzed. Interestingly, the number of Hsf genes of heat-resistant plants (Theobroma cacao and Musa acuminata) was fewer than that in Chinese cabbage. The expression patterns of BrHsf genes were different in six tissues, based on RNA-seq. Quantitative real-time-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of BrHsf genes varied under various abiotic stresses. In conclusion, this comprehensive analysis of BrHsf genes will provide rich resources, aiding the determination of Hsfs functions in plant heat resistance. Furthermore, the comparative genomics analysis deepened our understanding of Hsf genes' evolution accompanied by the polyploidy event of Chinese cabbage. PMID:24609322

  6. Effect of two formulations on the decline curves and residue levels of rotenone in cabbage and soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Wang, Kun; Yan, Chao; Li, Wei-Sheng; Li, Hong; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2014-06-01

    The dissipation and residue levels of rotenone with suspension concentrate (SC) as well as water dispersible granule (WDG) formulations in cabbage and soil were investigated under field conditions. The decline curves of rotenone residues in cabbage and soil corresponded with first-order kinetics. The dissipation rate of rotenone in cabbage was faster than that in soil. The half-lives of the SC formulations in cabbage and soil were 1.14d to 1.85d and 2.26d to 3.98d, respectively. For the WDG formulation, the values were 1.33d to 1.96d and 2.41d to 3.38d. Less spraying, lower dosage, and longer pre-harvest intervals could reduce terminal residue levels. Terminal residues below the MRL (0.5mg kg(-1)) were achieved after pre-harvest intervals of 3d at either once (45g a.i. ha(-1)) or twice (90g a.i. ha(-1)) the recommended dosage. The different dissipation processes of rotenone in cabbage and soil under field conditions could be attributed to the different climate and soil properties, and the types of formulation had no apparent effect on half-life. Formulation type affected the initial concentrations and finally led to different terminal residues. Prolonged pre-harvest intervals are necessary to ensure that the products are sufficiently safe for consumption. PMID:24632119

  7. The application of soil amendments benefits to the reduction of phosphorus depletion and the growth of cabbage and corn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ji, Hongli; Kerr, Philip; Wu, Yonghong; Fang, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    The loss of phosphorus from agricultural intensive areas can cause ecological problems such as eutrophication in downstream surface waters. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to control the phosphorus loss using environmentally benign soil amendments, viz, ferrous sulfate (FES), aluminum sulfate (ALS), and polyacrylamide (PAM). The phosphorus concentration changes in soil and leaching solution, the morphological index of plant (including stem and root), and root activity and quality (represented by chlorophyll and soluble sugar) at different growth stages of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) were monitored in a pilot experiment. Phosphorus contents in soil and runoff were also investigated in field experiments cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). The results show that the application of these amendments improved the phosphorus uptake by cabbage and corn, resulting in the enhanced morphologies of root and stem as well as the root activity at the early and middle stages of cabbage growth. The soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus in soils treated with FES, ALS, and PAM declined, resulting in lower concentrations of phosphorus in the leachate and the soil runoff. During the use of the soil amendments, the cabbage quality measures, determined as chlorophyll and soluble sugar in leaves, were not significantly different from those in the control. It is suggested that the application of these soil amendments is safe for cabbage production under single season cropping conditions, and the use of these three amendments is a promising measure to reduce phosphorus loss in intensive agricultural areas. PMID:26092358

  8. Growth inhibition in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) growth exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chien-Sen; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2009-04-30

    The toxicity and effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), an endocrine disruptor, on the growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) were studied. Etiolation occurred on leaves of Chinese cabbage plant treated with 50mg/L of DBP for 42 d. DBP even below 1mg/L had a significant effect on the concentration of chlorophyll in Chinese cabbage and the biomass showed a severe decrease under treatment with more than 30 mg/L of DBP. At a concentration below 1mg/L of DBP, no significant difference in accumulation was found, but treatments with concentration exceeding 10, 30, 50 and 100mg/L all resulted in significant accumulation of DBP. Six protein spots extracted from leaf tissue of DBP-treated Chinese cabbage displaying a differential expression are shown in 2-DE maps. According to proteome level studies, three protein spots were found to increase and were identified, respectively, as acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase (acyl-ACP desaturase), root phototropism protein 3 (RPT3) and ferredoxin-nitrite reductase (Fd-NiR). The other three protein spots were found to decrease and were identified respectively as dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) and ATP synthase subunit beta. The key finding is that the other closely related plant, Bok choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis), the subspecies of Chinese cabbage, respond differently to the same chemicals. PMID:18678443

  9. Trichokonins from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2 induce resistance against Gram-negative Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yun; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Xiu-Sheng; Shi, Wei-Ling; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Peptaibols, mainly produced by Trichoderma, play a pivotal role in controlling plant disease caused by fungi, virus, and Gram-positive bacteria. In the current study, we evaluated the control effect of Trichokonins, antimicrobial peptaibols from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2, on soft rot disease of Chinese cabbage caused by a Gram-negative bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and analyzed the mechanism involved. Trichokonins treatment (0.3mgL(-1) ) enhanced the resistance of Chinese cabbage against Pcc infection. However, Trichokonins could hardly inhibit the growth of Pcc in vitro, even at high concentration (500mgL(-1) ). Therefore, the direct effect of Trichokonins on Pcc may not the main reason why Trichokonins could control soft rot of Chinese cabbage. Trichokonin treatment led to an obvious increase in the production of reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical, a significant enhance of the activities of pathogenesis-related enzymes catalase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase, and upregulation of the expression of salicylic acid - responsive pathogenesis-related protein gene acidic PR-1a in Chinese cabbage. These results indicate that Trichokonins induce resistance in Chinese cabbage against Pcc infection through the activation of salicylic acid signaling pathway, which imply the potential of Trichoderma and peptaibols in controlling plant disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24655217

  10. Determination of residual flubendiamide in the cabbage by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Lu, Chunliang; Fan, Shuqin; Lu, Haibo; Cui, Hairong; Meng, Zhiyuan; Yang, Yizhong

    2012-11-01

    Flubendiamide, which belongs to the new chemical class of phthalic acid diamides, is widely used against lepidopteron pests in a variety of vegetable and rice pests. It provides superior plant protection against a broad range of economically important lepidopterous pests, including Spodoptera exigua and Plutella xylostella. A determination method of flubendiamide in the cabbage was established in this paper. Flubendiamide in the cabbage was extracted with acetonitrile and ultrasonic extraction, and was purified by QuEChERS and analyzed by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). The results indicated that the average recovery of flubendiamide in the cabbage was 81.27%-91.45%, the coefficient of variation was 1.79%-4.81%, and the lowest detection concentration was 0.3 μg/kg. The extraction of flubendiamide from the cabbage and its analysis was in accordance with the pesticide residue criterion, i.e., simple, rapid, accurate, reproducible, stable, separatory, and convenient. It identifies and quantifies trace-level flubendiamide residues in the cabbage extracts using LC-MS/MS in the ESI negative mode coupled with the QuEChERS method. PMID:22983724

  11. White-light movies of the solar photosphere from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab. [Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L; Duncan, D.; Simon, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Initial results are presented on solar granulation, pores and sunspots from the white-light films obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) instrument in Spacelab 2. Several hours of movies were taken at various disk and limb positions in quiet and active regions. The images are diffraction-limited at 0.5 arcsec resolution and are, of course, free of atmospheric seeing and distortion. Properties of the granulation in magnetic and nonmagnetic regions are compared and are found to differ significantly in size, rate of intensity variation, and lifetime. In quiet sun, on the order of fifty-percent of the area has at least one 'exploding granule' occurring in it during a 25-min period. Local correlation tracking has detected several types of transverse flows, including systematic outflow from the penumbral boundary of a spot, motion of penumbral filaments, and cellular flow patterns of supergranular and mesogranular size. Feature tracking has shown that, in the quiet sun, the average granule fragment has a velocity of about one kilometer/second.

  12. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hbner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni. PMID:26470077

  13. Fluoride in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  14. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a good bet? Not really. Like many other fad diets, detox diets can have harmful side effects, especially ... Lose Weight Safely? 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  15. Comparison of diet-induced thermogenesis of foods containing medium- versus long-chain triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Michio; Nosaka, Naohisa; Maki, Hideaki; Suzuki, Yoshie; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Ohra, Atsushi; Harada, Youji; Okazaki, Mitsuko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-10 g of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on diet-induced thermogenesis in healthy humans. The study compared diet-induced thermogenesis after ingestion of test foods containing MCT and long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT), using a double-blind, crossover design. Eight male and eight female subjects participated in study 1 and study 2, respectively. In both studies, the LCT was a blend of rapeseed oil and soybean oil. In study 1, the liquid meals contained 10 g MCT (10M), a mixture of 5 g MCT and 5 g LCT (5M5L), and 10 g LCT (10L). In study 2, the subjects were given a meal (sandwich and clear soup) with the mayonnaise or margarine containing 5 g of MCT or LCT. Postprandial energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry before and during the 6 h after ingestion of the test meals. Diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly greater after 5M5L and 10M Ingestion as compared to 10L ingestion. Ingestion of the mayonnaise or margarine containing 5 g MCT caused significantly larger diet-induced thermogenesis as compared to that of LCT. These results suggest that, in healthy humans, the intake of 5-10 g of MCT causes larger diet-induced thermogenesis than that of LCT, irrespective of the form of meal containing the MCT. PMID:12775122

  16. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract Parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants.

    PubMed

    Charleston, Deidre S; Gols, Rieta; Hordijk, Kees A; Kfir, Rami; Vet, Louise E M; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Cotesia plutellae was attracted only to Plutella xylostella-infested cabbage plants in a wind tunnel after an oviposition experience. Female C. plutellae did not distinguish between P. xylostella-infested cabbage plants treated with neem and control P. xylostella-infested plants. However, females preferred infested cabbage plants that had been treated with syringa extract to control infested plants. Syringa extract on filter paper did not attract C. plutellae. This suggests that an interaction between the plant and the syringa extract enhances parasitoid attraction. Diadromus collaris was not attracted to cabbage plants in a wind tunnel and did not distinguish between caterpillar-damaged and undamaged cabbage plants. Headspace analysis revealed 49 compounds in both control cabbage plants and cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract. Among these are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, terpenoids, sulfides, and an isothiocyanate. Cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract emitted larger quantities of volatiles, and these increased quantities were not derived from the syringa extract. Therefore, the syringa extract seemed to induce the emission of cabbage volatiles. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a plant extract inducing the emission of plant volatiles in another plant. This interesting phenomenon likely explains the preference of C. plutellae parasitoids for cabbage plants that have been treated with syringa extracts. PMID:16555134

  17. Mechanism of iodine uptake by cabbage: effects of iodine species and where it is stored.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Hong, Chun-Lai; Yan, Ai-Lan; Pan, Le-Hua; Qin, Ya-Chao; Bao, Lü-Ting; Xie, Ling-Li

    2008-10-01

    Iodine-enhanced vegetable has been proven to be an effective way to reduce iodine deficiency disorders in many regions. However, the knowledge about what mechanisms control plant uptake of iodine and where iodine is stored in plants is still very limited. A series of controlled experiments, including solution culture, pot planting, and field experiments were carried out to investigate the uptake mechanism of iodine in different forms. A new methodology for observing the iodine distribution within the plant tissues, based on AgI precipitation reaction and transmission electron microscope techniques, has been developed and successfully applied to Chinese cabbage. Results show that iodine uptake by Chinese cabbage was more effective when iodine was in the form of IO(3) (-) than in the form of I(-) if the concentration was low (<0.5 mg L(-1)), but the trend was opposite if iodine concentration was 0.5 mg L(-1) or higher. The uptake was more sensitive to metabolism inhibitor in lower concentration of iodine, which implies that the uptake mechanism transits from active to passive as the iodine concentration increases, especially when the iodine is in the form of IO(3) (-). The inorganic iodine fertilizer provided a quicker supply for plant uptake, but the higher level of iodine was toxic to plant growth. The organic iodine fertilizer (seaweed composite) provided a more sustainable iodine supply for plants. Most of the iodine uptake by the cabbage is intercepted and stored in the fibrins in the root while the iodine that is transported to the above-ground portion (shoots and leaves) is selectively stored in the chloroplasts. PMID:18521548

  18. Impacts of spinosad and ?-cyhalothrin on spider communities in cabbage fields in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Liu, T-X; Irungu, R W; Dean, D A; Harris, M K

    2013-04-01

    Spiders are a principal arthropod group that preys on numerous pests of vegetables and other crops. In this study, we determined the effects of the two most commonly used insecticides, spinosad and ?-cyhalothrin, on diversity of spiders on cabbage in south Texas. In two seasons (fall 2008 and spring 2009), we collected a total of 588 spiders belonging to 53 species in 11 families from spinosad and ?-cyhalothrin-treated cabbages and the untreated control plants. A great majority of spiders were collected from the pitfall traps (554) where only a few (34) were collected from the blower/vacuum sampling. In the insecticide-treated plots, there were significantly fewer spider individuals, species and families than in untreated fields. Spinosad had significantly less effect on spiders in total individuals, number of species and families than ?-cyhalothrin. The effects of the two insecticides were further demonstrated by the Shannon-Weiner index (H') and the hierarchical richness index (HRI). Spider diversity in the spinosad-treated plots were not significantly different from that in the untreated fields but were greater than those in ?-cyhalothrin-treated plots in both seasons when measured by H' values. In contrast, the H' values of spider's diversity in the ?-cyhalothrin-treated plots were significantly lower than spinosad-treated and untreated plots. High values of HRI for spider richness in the spinosad-treated plots suggested that spinosad had less effect on spiders than ?-cyhalothrin. We concluded that spinosad was more compatible with spiders on cabbage compared to ?-cyhalothrin and that this information should be used when developing insecticide resistance management strategies. PMID:23455995

  19. Cold plasma treatment for the microbiological safety of cabbage, lettuce, and dried figs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Chung, Myong-Soo; Min, Sea C

    2015-10-01

    Microwave-powered cold plasma treatment (CPT) was evaluated as a means to improve the microbiological safety of fresh vegetables and dried fruits. The CPT at 900 W, conducted for 10 min using nitrogen as a plasma-forming gas, inactivated Salmonella Typhimurium inoculated on cabbage and lettuce by approximately 1.5 log CFU/g. The CPT at 400-900 W and 667 Pa, conducted for 1-10 min using a helium-oxygen gas mixture, inactivated Listeria monocytogenes on cabbage by 0.3-2.1 log CFU/g in a time-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The Weibull model adequately described the inactivation of L. monocytogenes on cabbage by CPT. The CPT at the optimum conditions of treatment power (400 W) and time (10 min) inactivated L. monocytogenes on lettuce by 1.8 ± 0.2 log CFU/g. As the water activity of the dried figs increased from 0.70 to 0.93, the reductions in numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes on figs increased from 0.5 to 1.3 log CFU/g and from 1.0 to 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The microbial inactivation by CPT increased synergistically when the pH of the figs was reduced from 6 to 4. CTPs have potential application to increase the microbiological safety of vegetables and dried fruits. PMID:26187830

  20. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  1. Residue level and dissipation pattern of spiromesifen in cabbage and soil from 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2016-03-01

    Spiromesifen is a new class of insecticide used for the control of whiteflies and mites which have developed resistance to the more commonly used neonicotinoids. Dissipation pattern of spiromesifen on cabbage was evaluated over 2 years by conducting supervised field studies as per good agricultural practices. Cabbage and soil samples were extracted and purified using modified QuEChERS method and analyzed through gas chromatography (GC). Confirmatory studies were carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The recoveries of spiromesifen from cabbage and soil were between 85.44 and 103.37 % with the relative standard deviation (RSD) between 3.2 and 9.4 % (n = 6). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003 μg mL(-1) and 0.01 mg kg(-1), respectively. The measurement uncertainties (MUs) were within 9.9-14.9 %. Initial residues of spiromesifen on cabbage were 0.640 and 1.549 mg kg(-1) during 2013 and 0.723 and 1.438 mg kg(-1) during 2014 from treatments at standard and double doses of 125 and 250 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), respectively. Spiromesifen residue dissipation followed first-order rate kinetics, and it degraded within the half-lives of 2.9 and 3.9 days during 2013 and 3.2 and 4.5 days during 2014. The residue levels reached below the maximum residue limit (MRL; 0.02 mg kg(-1)) within 15-17 days at the standard dose and 24-27 days at the double dose. The field soil analyzed at harvest (30 days) was free from spiromesifen residues. Metabolite spiromesifen-enol was not detected in any sample which was confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis. PMID:26869045

  2. Female meiosis in the onion fly and cabbage root fly (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hartman, T P; Southern, D I

    1994-10-01

    The sequence of female meiosis was investigated in two populations of the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) and three populations of the onion fly (D. antiqua). In contrast with the completely achiasmate males, both species showed high levels of recombination in females. However, significant differences in chiasma frequency occurred between individuals within populations and between the populations. It was not uncommon to find aneuploidy of the X chromosomes. The autosomes occasionally showed asynapsis or desynapsis, but normal disjunction of univalents was facilitated by distance pairing. PMID:18470127

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence, and more than forty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. The genome has undergone triplication events since its divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana (13 to 17 Mya), however a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between the two species. Arabidopsis is therefore a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Variation in the number of members in gene families due to genome triplication may contribute to the broad range of phenotypic plasticity, and increased tolerance to environmental extremes observed in Brassica species. Transcription factors are important regulators involved in plant developmental and physiological processes. The AP2/ERF proteins, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators, play a crucial role in plant growth, and in response to biotic and abiotic stressors. Our analysis will provide resources for understanding the tolerance mechanisms in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. Results In the present study, 291 putative AP2/ERF transcription factor proteins were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database, and compared with proteins from 15 additional species. The Chinese cabbage AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into four families, including AP2, ERF, RAV, and Soloist. The ERF family was further divided into DREB and ERF subfamilies. The AP2/ERF superfamily was subsequently divided into 15 groups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns, and interaction networks of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily were predicted and analyzed. Distribution mapping results showed AP2/ERF superfamily genes were localized on the 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences among six tissue types based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In the AP2/ERF superfamily, 214 orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Orthologous gene interaction networks were constructed, and included seven CBF and four AP2 genes, primarily involved in cold regulatory pathways and ovule development, respectively. Conclusions The evolution of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage resulted from genome triplication and tandem duplications. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes in Chinese cabbage is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which provides us with rich resources and opportunities to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms. PMID:23972083

  4. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2()), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr. PMID:25638524

  5. Shelf life extension of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cabbage by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation (0.5-2.5kGy) in combination with low temperature (4-15C) storage was attempted to increase shelf life of ready-to-cook shredded cabbage wrapped in cling films. A maximum extension in shelf life of 8days, while retaining the microbial and sensory quality, was obtained with an irradiation dose of 2kGy and storage at 10C. Gamma irradiation also inhibited browning of shredded cabbage at their cut edges resulting in enhanced visual appeal. An increase in total antioxidant activity was observed with respect to DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability while the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing property remained unaffected with irradiation. Total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C content remained unchanged due to irradiation. No significant migration of additives from cling films into stimulant water was observed up to a radiation dose of 2kGy thus demonstrating the feasibility of such films for above applications. PMID:26787945

  6. Regulation of growth-blocking peptide expression during embryogenesis of the cabbage army worm

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Sekiguchi, Shiroh; Hayakawa, Yoichi . E-mail: hayakayo@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-07

    Growth-blocking peptide (GBP) is an insect cytokine with diverse biological functions. Northern blot analysis revealed high heterogeneity in the size distribution of GBP mRNAs as well as in the tissues where they are detected. The s patio-temporal transcription pattern is dynamic, especially during embryogenesis. Gel shift assays demonstrated that the cabbage army worm embryo nuclear extract specifically binds to a 178-bp element, at position +234 to +411 from the transcription start site of the 1.3 kb GBP transcript, in which two Drosophila Deformed (DfD) binding sites are repeated in tandem. The specific binding between this element and Dfd was demonstrated using recombinant cabbage armyworm Dfd protein. Silencing the Dfd expression in embryos by treating with DfD double-stranded RNA did not reduce the expression level of GBP, but ectopic GBP expression was observed in the lateral region of the embryo, suggesting that DD could serve as a transcriptional repressor for the GBP gene.

  7. Comparative physiological responses in Chinese cabbage induced by herbivory and fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Rosts, Michael; Bennett, Richard; Hilke, Monika

    2002-12-01

    Fungal infection of Chinese cabbage leaves by Alternaria brassicae has earlier been shown to have detrimental effects on larval development of the chrysomelid beetle Phaedon cochleariae. Furthermore, adults of this leaf beetle avoid fungus-infected Chinese cabbage leaves for oviposition and feeding. However, herbivory had no impact on fungal growth. In this study, we investigated physiological responses of the host plant to herbivore attack and fungal infection in order to elucidate the mechanisms of the described ecological interactions between the fungus and the herbivore. Changes in primary factors (water, C/N ratio, protein, sucrose) and defense-related plant compounds (glucosinolates, anthocyanins, peroxidase) were measured. Herbivory and fungal infection reduced the sucrose concentration of leaves and increased amounts of indole glucosinolates as well as total anthocyanins. In addition, water content was slightly lower in insect-damaged but not in infected leaves. Higher levels of peroxidase activity resulted exclusively from fungal infection. The C/N ratio and total protein content remained unaffected by either treatment. The implications of the induced plant changes on the herbivore are discussed. PMID:12564792

  8. Cover crop mulches influence biological control of the imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L., Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in cabbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing structural complexity within crop fields can provide a way to manipulate pest abundance and biological control in agroecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of cover crop mulches in cabbage on the structure and function of an insect food web, investigating the role of cover crop species,...

  9. First report of bacterial blight of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in Monterey County, California in 2006. Kochs postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomon...

  10. Comparative Analysis Of {sup 226}Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-07

    The transfer of {sup 226}Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeirica uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, {sup 226}Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1)

  11. FIELD RESPONSE OF ALFALFA LOOPER AND CABBAGE LOOPER MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE, PLUSIINAE) TO SINGLE AND BINARY BLENDS OF FLORAL ODORANTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven compounds known as floral odorants were tested as lures for attractiveness to alfalfa looper moths, Autographa californica (speyer) and cabbage looper moths, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). Phenylacetaldehyde, limonen, ß-mycrene, methyl-2-methoxy benzoate, methyl salicylate, alpha-pinene, and ß-pine...

  12. First Report of Bacterial Leaf Blight on Broccoli and Cabbage Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In May 2009, leaf spot and leaf blight symptoms were observed on broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) on several farms in Lexington County, the major brassica-growing region of South Carolina. Affected areas ranged from scattered disease foci within fiel...

  13. The Effect of Dose Size on Bioavailability of Acylated and Nonacylated Anthocyanins from Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies indicate that anthocyanin (ACN) intake conveys a variety of health benefits, which depend on absorption and metabolic mechanisms that deliver ACNs and their bioactive metabolites to responsive tissues. We evaluated red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) ACN bioavailability a...

  14. Interactive Effects of Soil ph, Halosulfuron Rate, and Application Method on Carryover to Turnip Green and Cabbage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the tolerance of autumn-planted cabbage and turnip green to halosulfuron applied the previous spring to cantaloupe. Main plots were three levels of soil pH; maintained at a natural pH level, pH raised with Ca(OH)2, and pH lowered with Al2(SO...

  15. Evolution of antioxidants in dietary fiber powder produced from white cabbage outer leaves: effects of blanching and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Tanongkankit, Yardfon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-04-01

    White cabbage outer leaves, which are usually discarded both during industrial processing and selling in a consumer market, have proven to be a good source of dietary fiber (DF) as well as antioxidants and can be effectively transformed into functional DF powder. In the past, however, only hot air drying was used to prepare DF powder from cabbage outer leaves although it is well recognized that this drying technique could lead to much quality degradation of a dried product. This work was therefore aimed at studying the evolution of selected important antioxidants, e.g., phenolic compounds and vitamin C, in white cabbage outer leaves during vacuum drying at 60, 70 and 80C. The effect of pretreatment viz. steam blanching was also evaluated. The results showed that there were losses of antioxidants during steam blanching; vacuum dried blanched leaves nevertheless contained higher antioxidant contents and activity than dried unblanched leaves. Losses of antioxidants during vacuum drying were also noted to be less than those during hot air drying. Overall, the results showed that there were no differences in the antioxidants retention among all the tested conditions performed in this study. Therefore, the most suitable condition for the production of antioxidant DF powder from cabbage outer leaves is vacuum drying at 80C as this condition requires the minimum specific energy consumption. PMID:25829610

  16. PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH CABBAGES (BRASSICA SPP.) IN THE SAMSUN (MIDDLE BLACK SEA REGION) OF TURKEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in the Samsun (Middle Black Sea Region) of Turkey to study the occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with cabbages (Brassica spp.). A total of 101 soil and root samples containing mixed populations of 10 genera and 11 species belonging to 7 families of the order T...

  17. Safety evaluation of flubendiamide and its metabolites on cabbage and persistence in soil in different agroclimatic zones of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K K; Mohapatra, Saudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi; Jagdish, G K; Rashmi, N; Battu, R S; Sharma, S K; Singh, Balwinder; Parihar, N S; Sharma, B N; Kale, V D; Nakat, R V; Walnuj, A R; Singh, Geeta; Ravivanshi, Kuldeep K; Devi, Suneeta; Noniwal, Rajbir

    2014-06-01

    Supervised field trials following good agricultural practices were conducted at the research farms of four agricultural universities located at four different agroclimatic zones of India to evaluate the persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, on cabbage. Two spray applications of flubendiamide 480 SC of standard and double dose at the rate of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1) were given to the crop at a 15-day interval, and the residues of flubendiamide 2 h after spray were found in the range of 0.107-0.33 and 0.20-0.49 mg kg(-1) at respective doses. Residue of des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in any cabbage sample during study period. No residues were found in the soil samples collected from all treated fields after 15 days of application. On the basis of data generated under All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues, a preharvest interval (PHI) of 10 days has been recommended, and the flubendiamide 480 SC has been registered for its use on cabbage by Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The maximum residue limit (MRL) of flubendiamide on cabbage has been fixed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, under Food Safety Standard Authority of India as 0.05 μg/g after its risk assessment. PMID:24497081

  18. [Research on identification of cabbages and weeds combining spectral imaging technology and SAM taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Zu, Qin; Zhang, Shui-fa; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Hui-yi; Dang, Chang-qing

    2015-02-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide. Therefore, accurate, rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cabbage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed, barnyard grass, goosegrass, crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1000 to 2500 nm. In ENVI, by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11, and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra, finally, using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds, the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0. 1 radians. In HSI Analyzer, after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum, the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages. Furthermore, in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally, the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classification image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image. The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing, 0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle, the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds, non-weeds and overall samples was 80%, 97.3% and 96.8% respectively. The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image. By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level, integrating the advantages of spectra and images meanwhile considering their accuracy and rapidity and improving weeds detection range in the full range that could detect weeds between and within crop rows, the above method contributes relevant analysis tools and means to the application field requiring the accurate information of plants in agricultural precision management PMID:25970917

  19. A first study comparing preservation of a ready-to-eat soup under pressure (hyperbaric storage) at 25C and 30C with refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Slvia A; Fernandes, Pedro A R; Duarte, Ricardo; Santos, Diana I; Fidalgo, Liliana G; Santos, Mauro D; Queirs, Rui P; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2015-11-01

    Hyperbaric storage (HS), storage under pressure at 25C and 30C, of a ready-to-eat (RTE) soup was studied and compared with refrigeration. Soup was stored at different time (4 and 8h), temperature (4C, 25C, and 30C), and pressure (0.1, 100, and 150MPa) conditions, to compare microbial loads and physicochemical parameters. HS resulted in similar (microbial growth inhibition) to better (microbial inactivation) results compared to refrigeration, leading to equal and lower microbial loads, respectively, at the end of storage. Lower/higher pressure (100 vs. 150MPa) and shorter/longer storage times (4 vs. 8h) resulted in more pronounced microbial growth inhibition/microbial inactivation. Aerobic mesophiles showed less susceptibility to HS, compared to Enterobacteriaceae and yeast and molds. HS maintained generally the physicochemical parameters at values similar to refrigeration. Thus, HS with no need for temperature control throughout storage and so basically energetically costless, is a potential alternative to refrigeration. PMID:26788288

  20. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  1. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  2. Effects of freezing and hardening on the sulfhydryl groups of protein fractions from cabbage leaves.

    PubMed

    Morton, W M

    1969-02-01

    Disc electrophoresis was used to separate water soluble proteins from hardy, non-hardy, and frost killed cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) leaves. Amidoschwarz staining failed to reveal any new bands as a result of hardening although the relative amounts of proteins in individual bands changed. Sulfhydryl groups in the protein bands were stained with 2,2-dihydroxy-6,6-dinaphthyl disulfide and labeled with (14)C p-chloromercuribenzoate. Significant decreases in the sulfhydryl content of the total water soluble protein were found during hardening and as a result of frost death. The decrease during hardening was paralleled by a significant increase in the water soluble protein. There was a significant increase in the sulfhydryl content per unit high molecular weight protein but a decrease in the sulfhydryl content per total protein as a result of frost death. This was interpreted as evidence for intermolecular disulfide bond formation during freezing. PMID:16657040

  3. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm, Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Feng, Xiao-Jing; Huang, Guo-Hua; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2016-03-01

    The sequenced mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm Hellula undalis includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (nad1-6, cox1-3, atp6, atp8, nad4L and cob), two ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S) and 19 transfer RNAs, which is 14,678 bp in length. Its gene order and orientation are identical to the common types found in most of the other completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. Thirteen PCGs start with a typical ATN codon, while cox1 uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs use the standard TAA as their termination codon, while others use the incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2 and nad4). PMID:24919505

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of homeothermic temperature control in skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takanori; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2005-11-01

    Certain primitive plants undergo orchestrated temperature control during flowering. Skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus, has been demonstrated to maintain an internal temperature of around 20 °C even when the ambient temperature drops below freezing. However, it is not clear whether a unique algorithm controls the homeothermic behavior of S. foetidus, or whether such an algorithm might exhibit linear or nonlinear thermoregulatory dynamics. Here we report the underlying dynamics of temperature control in S. foetidus using nonlinear forecasting, attractor and correlation dimension analyses. It was shown that thermoregulation in S. foetidus was governed by low-dimensional chaotic dynamics, the geometry of which showed a strange attractor named the “Zazen attractor.” Our data suggest that the chaotic thermoregulation in S. foetidus is inherent and that it is an adaptive response to the natural environment.

  5. Sojourner Rover View of Well-Rounded Pebbles in Cabbage Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner Rover image of rounded 4-cm-wide pebble (lower center) and excavation of cloddy deposit of Cabbage Patch at lower left. Note the bright wind tails of drift material extending from small rocks and the wheel track from upper right to lower left.

    Well-rounded objects, like the one in this image, were not seen at the Viking sites. These are thought to be pebbles liberated from sedimentary rocks composed of cemented silts, sands and rounded fragments; such rocks are called conglomerates.

    NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  6. Modeling of the thermoregulation system in the skunk cabbage: Symplocarpus foetidus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ken; Ito, Takanori; Onda, Yoshihiko; Endo, Takehiro; Chiba, Shigeki; Ito, Kikukatsu; Osada, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents a model of the thermoregulation system of the spadix of skunk cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus which regulates its internal temperature at around 20°C during flowering even when the ambient air temperature drops below freezing. From the temperature responses of the spadix to changing ambient air temperature, we assumed that the thermoregulation system of the spadix is probably one of negative feedback control. The feedback signals are based on the rate of temperature change of the spadix over time. A signal is factored into the biochemical energy generator, and becomes biochemical energy, some of which becomes heat. Comparing our proposed model temperature responses and those of the living spadix, we found good agreement. In the process of engineering the model, the existence of two regulatory pathways in the thermoregulation system was simulated, and our proposed model appears to provide the necessary elements to explain the fundamental mechanism of the thermoregulation system of S. foetidus.

  7. [Staining for Helicobacter pylori on gastric mucosa with dye from red cabbage during endoscopy].

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Arakawa, T; Kobayashi, K

    1993-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori has a high urease activity and produces ammonia from urea, resulting in elevation of mucosal pH. Based on this characteristics of H. pylori, we have developed a method for staining H. pylori under endoscopy using dye from red cabbage (San-red RC, San-Ei Chemical Ind., Osaka), a pH indicator, safe for clinical use. After administration of a proton-pump inhibitor and an H2-receptor antagonist, the dye solution, mixed with 2% urea, was sprayed over the mucosa by endoscope. Change in color of the dye was found in some areas infected with H. pylori. The change in color reflects urease activity or amount of ammonia. This method may be useful to find the distribution of H. pylori in the mucosa and to examine the H. pylori-infected mucosa pathophysiologically. PMID:8283630

  8. Microbial reduction efficacy of various disinfection treatments on fresh-cut cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Hee; Hong, Seok-In; Kim, Dongman

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the pathogenic microorganisms of fresh-cut vegetables, various sanitizers applied at different concentrations and against four different bacteria inoculated in high or low initial loads were tested on shredded cabbage. The bacteria were reduced by 1 log CFU g?1 after being exposed to over 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite, over 1% hydrogen peroxide, over 50 ppm peroxyacetic acid, and three types of electrolyzed water (EW) for 1 min. When the efficacy of the sanitizer was compared in the low initial bacterial load of 103104 CFU g?1, a significant reduction in the inoculated bacteria was observed with the acidified EW treatment, followed by the 50 ppm peroxyacetic acid and the neutral EW treatment, which was more efficient than the 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite treatment. The efficacy of the various sanitizers used could be also influenced by different bacterial species. PMID:25473517

  9. [Optimization of the protocol for constructing transgenic plants of the white cabbage brassica oleracea var. capitata].

    PubMed

    Gribova, T N; Kamionskaia, A M; Skriabin, K G

    2006-01-01

    The strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101, which contains the pBar vector carrying the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene (bar) under the control of the 35SCMoV promoter and NOS 3' terminator, was used for genetic transformation of four white cabbage lines, Ges-3, Drv-2, Zmu 7, and Meg 2. The effect of different concentrations and combinations of phytohormones was studied, which allowed for choosing the cultivation conditions that provided a 63-78% regeneration efficiency. It was demonstrated that concerted action by natural and synthetic cytokinins is necessary for the lines studied. Overall, 26 transgenic plants were obtained using the optimized protocol for agrobacterial transformation. The transgenic nature of these plants was confirmed by PCR and dot-blot hybridization. PMID:17066961

  10. Optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage using Taguchi design method.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Raheleh; Tamadon, Ali Mohammad; Niakousari, Mehrdad

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing demand for developing suitable and more efficient extraction of active compounds from the plants and ultrasound is one of these novel methodologies. Moreover, the experimental set up to reach an appropriate condition for an optimum yield is demanding and time consuming. In the present study, Taguchi L9 orthogonal design was applied to optimize the process parameters (output power, time, temperature and pulse mode) for ultrasound assisted extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage and the concluding yield of anthocyanin was measured by pH differential method. The statistical analysis revealed that the most important factors contributing to the extraction efficiency were time, temperature and power, respectively and the optimum condition was at 30min, 15C and 100W which could result the maximum anthocyanin yield of about 20.9mg/L. The theoretical result was confirmed experimentally by carrying out the trials at the optimum condition and evaluating the actual yield. PMID:26604387

  11. Translocation of Sugars Into Infected Cabbage Tissues During Clubroot Development 1

    PubMed Central

    Keen, N. T.; Williams, P. H.

    1969-01-01

    Sucrose, glucose, and inositol were the major sugars in cabbage hypocotyls infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae and in noninfected hypocotyls, based on paper, thin-layer, and gas-liquid chromatography. Small amounts of trehalose were tentatively identified in extracts from noninfected hypocotyls, whereas up to 20× this level occurred in extracts from infected hypocotyls. Inositol declined in the infected hypocotyls while glucose increased to about 4× the level in noninfected hypocotyls. Fructose and mannose concentrations increased about 2-fold in the diseased hypocotyls, whereas the galactose concentration was about one-third that of noninfected hypocotyls. Translocation of 14CO2 sugar photosynthates into infected hypocotyls was more rapid than that into noninfected hypocotyls. The infected tissues also exported less sugar than the non-infected tissues. Sucrose was the major sugar translocated into the hypocotyls of both infected and noninfected plants. Images PMID:16657127

  12. Tri-Trophic Insecticidal Effects of African Plants against Cabbage Pests

    PubMed Central

    Amoabeng, Blankson W.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Gitau, Catherine W.; Nicol, Helen I.; Stevenson, Phil C.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily-available Ghanaian plants give beneficial, tri-trophic benefits and merit further research as an inexpensive plant protection strategy for smallholder farmers in West Africa. PMID:24205287

  13. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

  14. Temporal consistency in herbivore responses to glucosinolate polymorphism in populations of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    PubMed

    Newton, Erika; Bullock, James M; Hodgson, Dave

    2010-11-01

    Natural populations of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) show significant qualitative diversity in heritable aliphatic glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites involved in defence against herbivore attack. One candidate mechanism for the maintenance of this diversity is that differential responses among herbivore species result in a net fitness balance across plant chemotypes. Such top-down differential selection would be promoted by consistent responses of herbivores to glucosinolates, temporal variation in herbivore abundance, and fitness impacts of herbivore attack on plants varying in glucosinolate profile. A 1-year survey across 12 wild cabbage populations demonstrated differential responses of herbivores to glucosinolates. We extended this survey to investigate the temporal consistency of these responses, and the extent of variation in abundance of key herbivores. Within plant populations, the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae consistently preferred plants producing the glucosinolate progoitrin. Among populations, increasing frequencies of sinigrin production correlated positively with herbivory by whitefly Aleyrodes proletella and negatively with herbivory by snails. Two Pieris butterfly species showed no consistent response to glucosinolates among years. Rates of herbivory varied significantly among years within populations, but the frequency of herbivory at the population scale varied only for B. brassicae. B. brassicae emerges as a strong candidate herbivore to impose differential selection on glucosinolates, as it satisfies the key assumptions of consistent preferences and heterogeneity in abundance. We show that variation in plant secondary metabolites structures the local herbivore community and that, for some key species, this structuring is consistent over time. We discuss the implications of these patterns for the maintenance of diversity in plant defence chemistry. PMID:20596728

  15. Genome sequence of a recombinant brassica yellows virus infecting Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seungmo; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Zhao, Fumei; Kim, Kil Hyun; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-02-01

    RNA from a Chinese cabbage plant (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis) showing leaf malformation and mottling was labeled and hybridized to a DNA chip capable of detecting plant viruses and viroids. Probes specific for beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV) and beet western yellows virus (BWYV) yielded positive results, suggesting that the plant was infected by a polerovirus. Primers designed from the sequences of the positive probes were used to amplify and sequence one portion of the viral genome. This sequence showed a 90% or greater identity to several poleroviruses, including BMYV, BWYV, beet chlorosis virus (BChV) and turnip yellows virus (TuYV). The complete genome sequence of the Chinese cabbage-infecting polerovirus consisted of 5,666 nt and was most closely related to brassica yellows virus (BrYV; 94% identity). The virus was named BrYV-Cheongsong (BrYV-CS). However, ORF3, ORF4 and the 5' half of ORF5 of BrYV-CS were more closely related to those of TuYV, BWYV, BChV and BMYV than to those of BrYV. Interestingly, a recombination event (positions 3531-4819 in BrYV-CS) was detected when this sequence was aligned with those of BrYV and TuYV. This region showed the highest sequence identity to that of TuYV (94% identity) and had greater than 93% identity to those of BWYV, BChV and BMYV, but it shared only 81% identity with that of BrYV. Taken together, the genomes of BrYV-CS and BrYV are closely related. However, the structural genes in the 3' half of the genome of BrYV-CS are more closely related to those of other poleroviruses. PMID:25352211

  16. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-01-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the ‘glucosinolate–myrosinase’ system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as ‘the mustard oil bomb’. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn’t affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate–myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

  17. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in a vegetarian diet are high in copper. Wilson disease cannot be managed by diet alone. Proper ... Advisory Committee Contact Us Facebook Twitter Linkedin About Wilson Disease Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence ...

  18. Diets that Work

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most days of the week? A Moderately Low-Carbohydrate Diet This diet, similar to the South Beach ... lean protein foods and high-fiber, nutrient-rich carbohydrates, such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. The ...

  19. Diet myths and facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and facts; Obesity- diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...

  20. Diet and Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Risks Cancer Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware ... plan that fits your needs, likes and dislikes. Diet After a Transplant After your transplant, you will ...

  1. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  2. Diets for Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation. PMID:25587519

  3. Effects of spray application of lanthanum and cerium on yield and quality of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L) based on different seasons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian Jun; Ren, Yan Jun; Yan, Li Ying

    2014-09-01

    The use of single light rare earth elements in agriculture was studied using the application of single rare earth elements (La and Ce) to Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in field plot experiments where the soil conditions remained the same but the season (spring or autumn) in which application occurred was altered. The results showed that the Chinese cabbage's nutrition quality between the two seasons had obvious differences. When planted in the autumn, the soluble sugar and vitamin C content was higher, the titratable acid and nitrate content was lower, and the ratio of sugar to acid was higher, while when planted in spring, the situation was opposite. La or Ce treatments in spring and autumn promoted the growth of the Chinese cabbage, the fresh and dry weight of the stems and leaves increased, the ratio of dry to fresh weight increased, and the observed effects were greater in the Ce treatments than the La treatments. Moreover, the soluble sugar content increased and the titratable acid content decreased, which meant that the ratio of sugar to acid increased. There was an increase in the vitamin C and nitrate content in the spring Chinese cabbage, while there was a decrease in the vitamin C and nitrate content in the autumn. The levels of the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni decreased. The La treatment had greater effects on the spring Chinese cabbage, while the Ce affected the autumn Chinese cabbage more. PMID:25022243

  4. Children's diets (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... age should not be on a fat-restricted diet, because cholesterol and fat are thought to be important nutrients for brain development. Children over two can have lower fat foods added to their diets. Fat in the diet is necessary to help ...

  5. Soup-Can Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randall D.

    2004-01-01

    In these studies, a vegetable can containing fluid was swung as a pendulum by supporting its end-lips with a pair of knife edges. The motion was measured with a capacitive sensor and the logarithmic decrement in free decay was estimated from computer-collected records. Measurements performed with nine different homogeneous liquids, distributed…

  6. Soup-Can Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randall D.

    2004-01-01

    In these studies, a vegetable can containing fluid was swung as a pendulum by supporting its end-lips with a pair of knife edges. The motion was measured with a capacitive sensor and the logarithmic decrement in free decay was estimated from computer-collected records. Measurements performed with nine different homogeneous liquids, distributed

  7. Sea Soup: Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerullo, Mary M.

    This guide, designed for students in grades 3-7, answers intriguing questions about phytoplankton, tiny drifters that have shaped our world. Invisible to the naked eye, phytoplankton are the source of our atmosphere, our climate, our ocean food chain, much of our oil supply, and more. They're also food for zooplankton. Photomicroscopy serves up

  8. Sea Soup: Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerullo, Mary M.

    This guide, designed for students in grades 3-7, answers intriguing questions about phytoplankton, tiny drifters that have shaped our world. Invisible to the naked eye, phytoplankton are the source of our atmosphere, our climate, our ocean food chain, much of our oil supply, and more. They're also food for zooplankton. Photomicroscopy serves up…

  9. The optimisation of traditional fermentation process of white cabbage (in relation to biogenic amines and polyamines content and microbiological profile).

    PubMed

    Cvetkovi?, Biljana R; Pezo, Lato L; Tasi?, Tatjana; ari?, Ljubia; Kevrean, arko; Mastilovi?, Jasna

    2015-02-01

    White cabbage heads cultivar "Futoki" and hybrid "Bravo" were investigated during fermentation process, for 50days, at different temperature regimes (16-18; 18-20; 20-22C) and salt concentrations 1, 1.5 and 2%. The quantity of biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, serotonine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine), as well as microbiological profile (lactic acid bacteria, total number of microorganisms, yeasts and moulds and Enterobacteriaceae) have been determined during fermentation. The optimum processing conditions were determined by Response Surface Method, coupled with Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation algorithm. The optimal process parameters, regarding low biogenic amines and polyamines content, for "Futoki" cabbage was: salt concentration of 2%, at 18C, and for hybrid "Bravo": salt concentration of 1%, at 20C. PMID:25172737

  10. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  11. Cloning, expression and physiological analysis of broccoli catalase gene and Chinese cabbage ascorbate peroxidase gene under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Huang, Ho-Chang; Lin, Ching-Yun

    2010-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to clone the catalase (CAT) gene from broccoli (Brassica oleracea) and the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) gene from Chinese cabbage and measure the regulation of CAT and APX gene expressions under heat-stress conditions. Different genotypes responded differently to heat stress according to their various antioxidant enzymes and physiological parameters. CAT and APX gene expression profiles were well matched with the data for CAT and APX enzyme activities in the broccoli and Chinese cabbage plants, respectively. Full-length of the CAT and APX cDNA were 1,768 and 1,070 bp, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of CAT and APX indicated that plant CATs and APXs diverged into two major clusters. PMID:20352229

  12. Surface micro/nanotopography, wetting properties and the potential for biomimetic icephobicity of skunk cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2014-10-21

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is known for its two remarkable properties: superhydrophobicity and thermogenesis; however, the relationship between these two properties remains obscure. Most botanists agree that thermogenesis helps to attract pollinators, while non-wetting helps to catch pollinators and prevents contamination. Here we investigate the surface micro- and nanotopography and wetting properties of eastern skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), another thermogenic plant, which is known for its ability to melt snow. The skunk cabbage leaves are hydrophobic but not superhydrophobic, and they have high contact angle hysteresis (similar to the rose petal effect). We develop a heat transfer model to relate icephobicity with heat transfer and discuss the biomimetic potential that both thermogenic and superhydrophobic plants may have for icephobicity in soft materials. PMID:25144747

  13. Diet induced thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2004-01-01

    Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis. PMID:15507147

  14. ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION AND GENE EXPRESSION IN CHINESE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) AFTER CONTINUOUS SEEDLING BREEDING.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Wang, X L; Guo, M H; Zhang, Y W

    2015-08-01

    Vernalization plays a key role in the bolting and flowering of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Plants can switch from vegetative to reproductive growth and then bolt and flower under low temperature induction. The economic benefits of Chinese cabbage will decline significantly when the bolting happens before the vegetative body fully grows due to a lack of the edible value. It was found that continuous seedling breeding reduced the heading of Chinese cabbage and led to bolt and flower more easily. In the present study, two inbred lines, termed A161 and A105, were used as experiment materials. These two lines were subjected to vernalization and formed four types: seeds-seedling breeding once, seedling breeding twice, seedling breeding thrice and normal type. Differences in plant phenotype were compared. DNA methylation analysis was performed based on MSAP method. The differential fragments were cloned and analyzed by qPCR. Results showed that plants after seedling breeding thrice had a loosen heading leaves, elongated center axis and were easier to bolt and flower. It is suggested that continuous seedling breeding had a weaker winterness. It was observed that genome methylation level decreased with increasing generation. Four differential genes were identified, short for BraAPC1, BraEMP3, BraUBC26, and BraAL5. Fluorescent qPCR analysis showed that expression of four genes varied at different reproduction modes and different vernalization time. It is indicated that these genes might be involve in the development and regulation of bolting and flowering of plants. Herein, the molecular mechanism that continuous seedling breeding caused weaker winterness was analyzed preliminarily. It plays an important guiding significance for Chinese cabbage breeding. PMID:26601490

  15. Combined effects of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid with mild heat to control microorganisms on cabbage.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S M E; Jin, Yong-Guo; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2010-03-01

    Effects of alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), deionized water (DIW), 1% citric acid (CA) alone, and combinations of AlEW with 1% CA (AlEW + CA), in reducing the populations of spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens on cabbage were investigated at various dipping times (3, 5, and 10 min) with different dipping temperatures (1, 20, 40, and 50 degrees C). Inhibitory effect of the selected optimal treatment against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157 : H7 on cabbage were also evaluated. Compared to the untreated control, AlEW treatment most effectively reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast, and mold, followed by AcEW and 100-ppm NaClO treatments. All treatments dip washed for 5 min significantly reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast, and mold on cabbage. With increasing dipping temperature from 1 to 50 degrees C, the reductions of total bacteria, yeast, and mold were significantly increased from 0.19 to 1.12 log CFU/g in the DIW wash treatment (P < 0.05). Combined 1% CA with AlEW treatment at 50 degrees C showed the reduction of around 3.98 and 3.45 log CFU/g on the total count, and yeast and mold, effective reduction of L. monocytogenes (3.99 log CFU/g), and E. coli O157 : H7 (4.19 log CFU/g) on cabbage. The results suggest that combining AlEW with CA could be a possible method to control foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria effectively on produce. PMID:20492239

  16. A SIX1 Homolog in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans Is Required for Full Virulence on Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Jian; Yang, Yuhong; Xie, Bingyan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-born fungus that induces wilt and root rot on a variety of plants. F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) can cause wilt disease on cabbage. This study showed that a homolog of SIX1 protein in the Arabidopsis infecting isolate Fo5176 (Fo5176-SIX1) had four isoforms in the conidia of Foc by proteomic analysis. Thus, we analyzed the roles of protein Foc-SIX1. Gene expression analysis showed that, compared to the expression in mycelia, dramatically altered expression of Foc-SIX1 could be detected after infecting cabbages, and Foc-SIX1 was highly expressed in conidia under axenic culture condition. Furthermore, we knocked out the Foc-SIX1 gene and found that Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants had significantly reduced virulence compared with wild type isolate, and full virulence was restored by complementation of Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants with Foc-SIX1. Thus, we concluded that SIX1 in Foc was required for full virulence on cabbage. We also complemented Foc-ΔSIX1 with SIX1 gene in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and found Foc-ΔSIX1::Fol-SIX1 mutants did not affect the virulence of Foc-ΔSIX1. The results confirmed that Fol-SIX1 was not capable of replacing the role of Foc-SIX1 in Foc on the disease symptom development of cabbage. The roles of Fol-SIX1 on virulence might rely on host specificity. PMID:27010418

  17. BrpSPL9 (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis SPL9) controls the earliness of heading time in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yali; Wu, Feijie; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2014-04-01

    The leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis), Brussels sprouts (B.oleracea ssp. gemmifera) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) comprise extremely incurved leaves that are edible vegetable products. The heading time is important for high quality and yield of these crops. Here, we report that BrpSPL9-2 (B.rapa ssp. pekinensis SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE 9-2), a target gene of microRNA brp-miR156, controls the heading time of Chinese cabbage. Quantitative measurements of leaf shapes, sizes, colour and curvature indicated that heading is a late adult phase of vegetative growth. During the vegetative period, miR156 levels gradually decreased from the seedling stage to the heading one, whereas BrpSPL9-2 and BrpSPL15-1 mRNAs increased progressively and reached the highest levels at the heading stage. Overexpression of a mutated miR156-resistant form of BrpSPL9-2 caused the significant earliness of heading, concurrent with shortening of the seedling and rosette stages. By contrast, overexpression of miR156 delayed the folding time, concomitant with prolongation of the seedling and rosette stages. Morphological analysis reveals that the significant earliness of heading in the transgenic plants overexpressing BrpSPL9-2 gene was produced because the juvenile phase was absent and the early adult phase shortened, whereas the significant delay of folding in the transgenic plants overexpressing Brp-MIR156a was due to prolongation of the juvenile and early adult phases. Thus, miR156 and BrpSPL9 genes are potentially important for genetic improvement of earliness of Chinese cabbage and other crops. PMID:24237584

  18. Isolation and gene expression analysis of a papain-type cysteine protease in thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius).

    PubMed

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Masuko, Hiromi; Watanabe, Masao; Inaba, Takehito

    2012-01-01

    Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) spadices contain abundant transcripts for cysteine protease (CP). From thermogenic spadices, we isolated SrCPA, a highly expressed CP gene that encoded a papain-type CP. SrCPA is structurally similar to other plant CPs, including the senescence-associated CPs found in aroids. The expression of SrCPA increased during floral development, and was observed in all floral tissues except for the stamens. PMID:23047088

  19. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qian; Li, Jingjuan; Wang, Fengde; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR) markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%), amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5%) showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26504770

  20. Eco-toxic effects of sulfadiazine sodium, sulfamonomethoxine sodium and enrofloxacin on wheat, Chinese cabbage and tomato.

    PubMed

    Jin, Caixia; Chen, Qiuying; Sun, Ruilian; Zhou, Qingxiang; Liu, Junjun

    2009-10-01

    Investigation of the toxic effects of three veterinary drugs [sulfadiazine sodium (SDS), sulfamonomethoxine sodium (SMMS), and enrofloxacin (EFLX)] on seed germination, root elongation and shoot elongation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) and tomato (Cyphomandra betacea) was carried out. Significant linear relationships between the root and shoot elongation and the concentration of veterinary drugs addition were observed. The effects of the three veterinary drugs on seed germination of wheat, Chinese cabbages and tomato were not significant (P > 0.05), but on shoot and root elongation they were markedly significant (P < 0.05). The inhibitory rates of veterinary drugs on root and shoot elongation of crops were significantly stronger than that on seed germination. Based on IC(50) (drugs concentration when 50% plants show inhibition) of root elongation, wheat was the most sensitive plant to the toxicity of SDS with a IC(50) value as high as 28.1 mg/kg; Chinese cabbage was the most sensitive plant to the toxicity of SMMS with a IC(50) value as high as 27.1 mg/kg; tomato was the most sensitive plant to the toxicity of EFLX with a IC(50) value as high as 125.7 mg/kg. The toxic effects of sulfadiazine sodium and sulfamonometh-oxine sodium on the three crops were much higher than that of enrofloxacin. PMID:19554446

  1. Improved solar efficiency by introducing graphene oxide in purple cabbage dye sensitized TiO2 based solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Gupta, R. K.; Kahol, P. K.; Wageh, S.; Al-Turki, Y. A.; El Shirbeeny, W.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2014-04-01

    Natural dye extracted from purple cabbage was used for fabrication of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effect of light intensity on the solar efficiency of the device was investigated. It was observed that the efficiency of the DSSC increases with increasing the light intensity e.g. the efficiency of the solar cell increases from 0.013±0.002% to 0.150±0.020% by increase in light intensity from 30 to 100 mW/cm2, respectively. The solar efficiency of the natural dye used in this research was compared with commercial dye (N 719) under similar experimental conditions and observed that the natural (purple cabbage) dye has higher efficiency (0.150±0.020%) than N 719 (0.078±0.002%). It was further evaluated that the efficiency of the fabricated solar cell could improve by incorporating graphene oxide. The efficiency of the TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell was found to increase from 0.150±0.020% to 0.361±0.009% by incorporating graphene oxide into purple cabbage dye.

  2. Effects of the size and morphology of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the germination of Chinese cabbage seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lei; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Li, Yan-Wen; Huang, Xian-Pei; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Zhai, Teng; Yuan, Yue; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2015-07-01

    The toxicity of four zinc oxide nanoparticles (i.e., spheric ZnO-30, spheric ZnO-50, columnar ZnO-90, and hexagon rod-like ZnO-150) to the seed germination of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) was investigated in this study. The results showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) did not affect germination rates at concentrations of 1-80 mg/L but significantly inhibited the root and shoot elongation of Chinese cabbage seedlings, with the roots being more sensitive. The inhibition was evident mainly during seed incubation rather than the seed soaking process. Both the production of free hydroxyl groups (OH) and the Zn bioaccumulation in roots or shoots resulted in toxicity of nano-ZnOs to Chinese cabbage seedlings. The toxicity of nano-ZnOs was affected significantly by their primary particle sizes in the minimum dimensionality, but large columnar ZnO-90 and small spherical ZnO-50 had comparable toxicities. Therefore, both the particle size and morphology affected the toxicity of nano-ZnOs. PMID:25724800

  3. [Environmental safety assessment on the new super absorbent polymers applied into a soil-Chinese cabbage system].

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; He, Ji-Zheng; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zheng, Ming-Lan

    2014-02-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAPs), a new water retention material, have a potential for application in water-saving agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effects of SAPs, synthesized from natural plant extracts, on Chinese cabbage fresh weight, soil water content, soil water stable aggregates, soil microbial biomass (carbon) and soil microbial respiration under three water conditions (excessive, normal and deficient) and two SAPs application strategies (bulk treatment and spraying treatment). The results showed that the SAPs significantly promoted the soil water content, water-stable aggregates (> 0.25 mm) and the soil microbial activities, especially under the water deficient conditions. Meanwhile, SAP application strategy was of great significance to the effects on Chinese cabbage and soil properties. Compared with the control treatment under normal water condition, spraying treatment of Jaguar C (S-JC) could reduce irrigation water amount by about 25% without reducing the crop production. Furthermore, compared with the control treatment under the same water condition with S-JC (deficient), it could increase Chinese cabbage production by 287%. Thus, SAPs is an environmental friendly water-saving technique in agricultural production. PMID:24812978

  4. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Ding, Qian; Li, Jingjuan; Wang, Fengde; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR) markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12?bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%), amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5%) showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26504770

  5. Chemical elements in common vegetable components of Portuguese diets, determined by k0-INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, A. M. G.; Freitas, M. C.; Ventura, M. G.; Dionísio, I.; Ermakova, E.

    2006-08-01

    Vegetables play an important role in national diets, as a side dish to many a main-course fare the whole year round, and, especially in what concerns raw lettuce and tomato, with a higher seasonal rate of consumption during summer months, as associated to the traditional charcoal-grilled sardines. In March 2004, lettuces, tomatoes, carrots and cabbages of Portuguese origin (except for the carrots from one site) were purchased from large commercial areas or central markets of two central and southern regional hubs, respectively Coimbra and Évora. Even if from different growers, all vegetables had come from horticultural plots in the same general area of western Portugal, north of Lisboa. For lettuce plants, the inner leaves were separated from the external ones and processed as different samples for further analysis. In this work, the reactor and detector parameters were re-evaluated for the new IAEA k0-INAA software. Quality assessment was obtained through analysis of IAEA-359 (cabbage material) and BCR-679 (Bowen's kale). Traces of hazardous elements—namely, antimony, arsenic and bromine—could be found throughout, and, for lettuce samples, the overall results indicate that outer leaves feature higher concentrations than inner ones. Interestingly enough, vegetables from Coimbra and Évora appeared to differ from each other in their elemental levels, even if originally grown at relatively close range. Concentrations of trace elements are compared to available data from other countries' cultivars.

  6. Quorum-sensing signals in the microbial community of the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut

    PubMed Central

    Borlee, Bradley R; Geske, Grant D; Robinson, Courtney J; Blackwell, Helen E; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to examine the role of quorum-sensing (QS) signals in a multispecies microbial community. Toward this aim, we studied QS signals produced by an indigenous member and an invading pathogen of the microbial community of the cabbage white butterfly (CWB) larval midgut (Pieris rapae). As an initial step, we characterized the QS system in Pantoea CWB304, which was isolated from the larval midgut. A luxI homolog, designated panI, is necessary for the production of N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs) by Pantoea CWB304. To determine whether AHL signals are exchanged in the alkaline environment of the midgut, we constructed AHL-sensing bioluminescent reporter strains in Pantoea CWB304 and a panI mutant of this strain. In the gut of the CWB larvae, the reporter in an AHL-deficient Pantoea CWB304 detected AHLs when coinoculated with the wild type. To study the role of AHL signals produced by a community invader, we examined pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in CWB larvae. Mortality induced by P. aeruginosa PAO1 was significantly reduced when signaling was interrupted by either a potent chemical inhibitor of QS or mutations in the lasI and rhlI AHL synthases of P. aeruginosa PAO1. These results show that AHLs are exchanged among bacteria in the alkaline gut of CWB larvae and contribute to disease caused by P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:18650927

  7. Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner. PMID:25289020

  8. Identification of Chinese cabbage sentrin as a suppressor of Bax-induced cell death in yeast.

    PubMed

    Sawitri, Widhi Dyah; Slameto, Slameto; Sugiharto, Bambang; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2012-05-01

    Studies into the cell death program termed apoptosis have resulted in new information regarding how cells control and execute their own demise, including insights into the mechanism by which death-preventing factors can inhibit Bax-induced caspase activation. We investigated high temperature stress-induced cell death in Brassica rapa. Using a yeast functional screening from a Brassica rapa cDNA library, the BH5-127 EST clone encoding an apoptotic suppressor peptide was identified. However, a phylogenic tree showed that BH5-127 clusters within a clade containing SUMO-1 (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier- 1). BH5-127 was confirmed similar to have function to SUMO-1 as Fas suppression. Expression of BH5-127 showed that substantial suppression of cell death survived on SD-galactose-Leu--Ura- medium. The results suggest that BrSE (Brassica rapa Sentrin EST, BH5-127) is one of the important regulatory proteins in programming cell death, especially in the seedling stage of Chinese cabbage. PMID:22561852

  9. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner. PMID:25289020

  10. Subcellular Localization of Spermidine Synthase in the Protoplasts of Chinese Cabbage Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Sindhu, Ram K.; Cohen, Seymour S.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies on the presence of spermidine synthase (EC 2.5.1.16) in the protoplasts of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis var Pak Choy) leaves had detected a small but significant fraction of the enzyme in a crude chloroplast fraction (Cohen, Balint, Sindhu 1981 Plant Physiol 68: 1150-1155). To establish whether this enzyme is truly a chloroplast component, we have isolated purified intact chloroplasts from protoplasts by density gradient centrifugation in silica sols (Ludox AM). Such chloroplasts contained all of the diaminopimelate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.20) of the protoplasts, but were essentially devoid of spermidine synthase. Control experiments showed that the latter had not been inactivated under conditions of isolation, purification, and assay of the intact chloroplasts. Isolation and assay of protoplast vacuoles in a further examination of the supernatant fluid containing the enzyme revealed a significant fraction of the enzyme in the vacuole fraction. However this fraction was found to contain similar proportions of a soluble enzyme, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. It has been concluded that vacuolar fractions are difficultly separable from soluble cytoplasmic material, which is probably the only compartment containing spermidine synthase. PMID:16663802

  11. Endocrine Mechanisms Regulating Post-Diapause Development in the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Nobuto; Okamoto, Naoki; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest at a specific stage, is common in insects and is regulated by hormones. It is well established that in pupal diapause, cessation of ecdysteroid secretion from the prothoracic glands (PGs) after pupal ecdysis leads to diapause initiation, while resumption of its secretion induces post-diapause development. However, what regulates the activity of the glands is poorly understood, especially for the glands of diapause-terminated pupae. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms by which post-diapause development is regulated in the cabbage armyworm Mamestra brassicae. We demonstrate that the brain is necessary for the initiation of post-diapause development and that the factor in the brain responsible for the activation of the PGs is the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Further, through measuring the hemolymph PTTH titers by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, we show that PTTH is actually released into the hemolymph prior to the activation of the PGs. Although its peak titer is much lower than expected, this low concentration of PTTH is most likely still effective to activate the PGs of post-diapause pupae, because the responsiveness to PTTH of the glands at this stage is very high compared to that of nondiapause pupal PGs. These results strongly suggest that in M. brassicae, PTTH serves as a trigger to initiate pupa-adult development after diapause termination by stimulating the PGs to secrete ecdysteroid. PMID:26745499

  12. Identification of expressed genes during infection of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan F; Lbeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae is an obligate, biotrophic pathogen causing the club-root disease of crucifers. Despite its importance as a plant pathogen, little is known about P. brassicae at the molecular level as most of its life cycle takes place inside the plant host, and axenic culturing is impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen-host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty ESTs were found of which 49% proved to be P. brassicae genes. Ten novel P. brassicae genes were identified, and the genomic sequences surrounding four of the ESTs were acquired using genome walking. Alignment of the ESTs and the genomic DNA sequences confirmed that P. brassicae genes are intron rich and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed in the infection of Arabidopsis plants, indicating that these genes play an important role in P. brassicae infection. PMID:21518080

  13. Parasitoid- and hyperparasitoid-mediated seasonal dynamics of the cabbage aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, Mohammad Reza; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Karimzadeh, Javad; Zalucki, Myron Philip

    2014-12-01

    The population dynamics of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), its parasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae McIntosh, and hyperparasitoids, Pachyneuron spp., were quantified under field conditions during 2011-2013, by examining synchronization, parasitoid: aphid ratio, possible effect of density on the finite rate of increase, and spatial coincidence. The rates of parasitism and hyperparasitism were based on rearing field-collected mummies and live parasitized aphids, and density of the aphid were estimated using heat extraction and subsampling techniques. Only one parasitoid, D. rapae (80% on average), and two hyperparasitoid species from the genus of Pachyneuron (6.5% on average), namely Pachyneuron aphidis (Bouch) and Pachyneuron groenlandicum (Holmgren), were reared from the aphid mummies. Significant Pearson's time lagged correlations for percentage parasitism versus aphid density and for percentage hyperparasitism versus mummy density indicated that 2-3 wk is needed for D. rapae and Pachyneuron spp. to show impact on their respective host's population. In early spring, the parasitoid: aphid ratio was low (0.11 on average) while aphid density was increasing. Based on Taylor's power law, D. rapae and Pachyneuron spp., as well as B. brassicae, had an aggregated distribution among canola plants. Moreover, a high degree of spatial overlap was found between D. rapae and B. brassicae and between Pachyneuron spp. and D. rapae. In general, the parasitoid had good spatial coincidence with its aphid host but because of a lack of parasitoid-host synchronization and low parasitoid: aphid ratio, impact on the host population was low. PMID:25479198

  14. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour. PMID:26353086

  15. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in Rural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis. PMID:25295297

  16. Roseomonas soli sp. nov., isolated from an agricultural soil cultivated with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2014-03-01

    A bacterial strain, designated 5N26(T), was isolated from an agricultural soil cultivated with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris). Cells of this strain were Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming rods, and catalase- and urease-negative. The major fatty acids of strain 5N26(T) were C16?:?0 (7.5?%), C18?:?1 2-OH (13.4?%) and summed feature 8 (C18:1?6c and/or C18:1?7c; 63.2%). The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and one unidentified aminolipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 5N26(T) was 68.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 5N26(T) was phylogenetically related to Roseomonas lacus TH-G33(T) and Roseomonas terrae DS-48(T) (97.0?% and 96.6?% sequence similarity, respectively). The results of genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain 5N26(T) could be distinguished from phylogenetically related species, and that this strain represented a novel species within the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas soli sp. nov. (type strain 5N26(T)?=?KACC 16376(T)?=?NBRC 109097(T)) is proposed. PMID:24363292

  17. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ?2 M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ?5 M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ?2 M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ?2 M concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  18. Plant Bioelectric Potential of Hard-leaf Cabbage to Irradiation-light Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Masaki; Shao, Lixin; Oyabu, Takashi; Nanto, Hidehito

    Bioelectric potential was investigated to examine the availability of vegetable growth control. The potential is a kind of information transmitted by the vegetable and it varies markedly with one’s physiological phenomenon, light, air contaminant and insect which are external factors. Highly-efficient growth control can be made possible due to clarifying the relationship between the external factors and the potential. Vegetable can be used as a sensor in addition. A hard-leaf cabbage (Ancient specie) was adopted as a subjective plant in this study and the bioelectric potential was measured. The analysis was carried out using the summation of the potential (vm1) for one minute. The data was input every 0.1 seconds through a difference amplifier. The potential characteristic was investigated as a function of light frequency emitting from a LED panel. In addition, the potential was studied when ethyl alcohol existed and not existed as an air contaminant. As a result, it becomes obvious that the vm1 is raised when blue and red lights are irradiated. The lights mainly contribute to photosynthesis. The potential increases in the presence of ethyl alcohol which was adopted as a kind of nutrient.

  19. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  20. Extinction of Vibrio cholerae in acidic substrata: contaminated cabbage and lettuce treated with lime juice.

    PubMed

    Mata, L; Vargas, C; Saborío, D; Vives, M

    1994-12-01

    Lime juice killed millions of Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor, Inaba, present on cabbage and lettuce contaminated in the laboratory. The lethal effect was evident within 5 min of exposure to lime juice. No vibrios could be recovered at dilution 1:10 using alkaline peptone water (APW) and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-saccharose agar (TCBS). More than 99.9% of the initial inoculum was effectively destroyed. The number of vibrios killed by lime juice was 2 to 6 logarithms greater than the maximum infecting dose, and 4 to 8 logs greater than the minimum infecting dose for cholera El Tor. The time interval needed for killing was smaller than the usual waiting time for serving food in homes and restaurants. The addition of lime juice to non-acidic foods, beverages and water, is strongly recommended to prevent infection with cholera vibrios and other acid-sensitive microorganisms. This measure is particularly important for rural and slum populations in the tropics and subtropics. PMID:7501870

  1. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003–2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40–60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003–2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010–2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of ‘oogenesis-flight syndrome’. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  2. Carotenoid and polyphenol bioaccessibility and cellular uptake from plum and cabbage varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaulmann, Anouk; André, Christelle M; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2016-04-15

    Plum and cabbage are rich in carotenoids and polyphenols. However, their bioactivity depends on their release and intestinal uptake. Four varieties of Brassicaceae (Duchy, Scots Kale, Kale, Kalorama) and Prunus (Cherry Plum, Plum 620, Ersinger, Italian Plum) were studied; bioaccessibility following in vitro digestion, cellular uptake (Caco-2 vs. co-culture cell model: Caco-2:HT-29-MTX (90:10%) and colonic fermentation were determined for carotenoids/polyphenols; the influence of certain kitchen preparations was likewise studied. Carotenoids were non-significantly influenced by the latter, while for polyphenols, boiling and steaming significantly reduced total phenolics (p<0.05). Carotenoid bioaccessibility did not differ significantly between Prunus vs. Brassicaceae varieties, but xanthophyll was higher than carotene bioaccessibility (p<0.01). Polyphenol bioaccessibility was low (<10%), possibly compromised by the cream containing test meal. Total carotenoid cellular uptake varied between varieties (0.3-4.1%), being higher for carotenes (4.1%) than for xanthophylls (1.6%, p<0.01), and were higher for the co-culture cell model compared to Caco-2 cells (p<0.01). Total carotenoid recovery in the colonic fraction varied from 4% to 25%. Lower bioaccessibility of carotenes thus appeared to be somewhat counterbalanced by higher cellular uptake. The potential positive role of the mucus layer for cellular uptake and the fate of the colonic digesta deserve further attention in the future. PMID:26616956

  3. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  4. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. PMID:26878720

  5. Genetic analysis of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a seasonal migrant in western North America

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Michelle T; Ritland, Carol E; Myers, Judith H

    2011-01-01

    Long-range migrations of many wind-borne noctuid moths will have been influenced by the expansion of agriculture that provides greater availability of food plants along the migratory route. The migratory, agricultural pest, Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) over-winters in southern California and each summer migrates as far north as British Columbia. We explored the degree of genetic connectivity of populations over this migratory range. Preliminary investigation of seven mitochondrial gene regions found little to no variation among 13 populations, while partial regions of the NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 in 42 individuals revealed eight and six haplotypes, respectively. The pattern of haplotype distribution indicated genetic homogeneity of persistent populations in California but weak differentiation among populations further north. Four highly variable amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations generated 167 polymorphic bands, with heterozygosity levels ranging from 0.250 to 0.302. Pairwise FST values and clustering analyses also showed similarty among populations in California with some differentiation among populations initiated from the annual migration. Overall, some differentiation occurs among temporary, annual migratory populations but no pattern occurs with distance from the source population. Population subdivision in British Columbia associated with greenhouses has the greatest impact on genetic differentiation. PMID:25567955

  6. Evidence That Root Pressure Flow Is Required for Calcium Transport to Head Leaves of Cabbage 1

    PubMed Central

    Palzkill, David A.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1977-01-01

    Young cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) that were exposed to an atmosphere at 50% relative humidity transpired freely and accumulated significant quantities of 45Ca in the leaves. Plants that were enclosed by plastic bags to stop transpiration from all leaves exhibited guttation with the development of root pressure and also accumulated significant quantities of 45Ca in the leaves. 45Ca accumulation increased in the leaves and tended to decrease in roots and stems with increasing quantities of water transpired or guttated by the plant. When plants were only partially enclosed so that some leaves were covered and the remainder exposed, only the exposed leaves that were transpiring accumulated significant quantities of 45Ca. The covered leaves of partially enclosed plants exhibited no guttation and accumulated little 45Ca with no measurable 45Ca at the margins of the leaves. The results demonstrate that root pressure flow is required to transport adequate amounts of Ca to those tissues in plants that are not undergoing transpirational water loss. PMID:16660200

  7. Diet dependent experience and physiological state shape the behavior of a generalist herbivore.

    PubMed

    Tremmel, Martin; Mller, Caroline

    2014-04-22

    The performance of herbivorous insects depends on a balance of nutrient uptake and toxin avoidance. Whereas high concentrations of defensive plant metabolites impair both generalists and specialists, generalists are likely less adapted to particular hosts and thus more negatively affected by plant defense traits. Furthermore, resulting diet-dependent differences in the physiological state and the gained experience of an animal may shape its behavior. Here, we investigated the effects of life-long experience with leaves of different quality on the performance and various behavioral traits of the generalist leaf beetle Galeruca tanaceti. Rearing individuals continuously on three different diets [young leaves, old leaves, or leaves of different age of cabbage (Brassicaceae) in alternating order every other day], we found that relative growth rates (RGRs) of the larvae were higher when feeding on young leaves than when feeding on the other diets. Feeding on leaves of different age in alternating order reduced the performance of G. tanaceti, indicating costs involved in diet mixing. The experience gained by the respective food qualities shaped the preference behavior in adult beetles. Positive and negative feedbacks of animals reared on young or old leaves, respectively, led to a preference towards young leaves. In contrast, feedback was probably prevented for animals reared on alternating diet, which did not exhibit any preferences. Older adults did not show any diet-dependent differences in body mass due to physiological changes during adult development. A battery of behavioral tests with the older adults revealed that the behavior was consistent over context and partially over time but behaviors did not differ in dependence of the diet experience. We retrieved three personality dimensions for this species, namely boldness, activity, and exploration. The behavioral structure was very similar to earlier findings for another chrysomelid species, indicating a broader validity of the concept of personality dimensions in insects. Our results demonstrate the importance of both experience- and state-dependence when investigating behavioral phenotypes. PMID:24576678

  8. Cabbage Juices and Indoles Modulate the Expression Profile of AhR, ER?, and Nrf2 in Human Breast Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Szaefer, Hanna; Krajka-Ku?niak, Violetta; Licznerska, Barbara; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed the diversified effect of cabbage juices and indoles on the estrogen metabolism key enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1) in breast epithelial cells differing in ER status, i.e., in tumorigenic-MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and non-tumorigenic-MCF10A cells. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the mechanism of chemopreventive action of cabbage juice and its active components by evaluating their effect on the expression of AhR, ER?, and Nrf2 using the same treatment regimen. The mRNA level of AhR and ER? was changed in a cell type-dependent manner and in general correlated with previously observed modulation of CYP expression. However, in most cases the alterations in mRNA were not accompanied by the changes in the level of relevant proteins. Marked differences were also found in the effect of cabbage juices and indoles; although both cabbage juices and indoles increased most of the NQO1 transcript levels in all tested lines, indoles also enhanced GSTP transcription in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. Overall, the results of this study partly explain the mechanism behind the chemopreventive activity of white cabbage products and indicate that modulation of the expression of specific transcription factors may play an important role in this process. PMID:26399169

  9. [Eco-toxicological effects of heavy metals on the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation of Chinese cabbages in soils].

    PubMed

    Song, Yufang; Xu, Huaxia; Ren, Liping; Gong, Ping; Zhou, Qixing

    2002-01-30

    The Eco-toxicity effects of individual Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd on the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation of Chinese cabbages (Brassica pekimensis) were tested in four types of soils (red loam soils, meadow brown soils, chestnut soils and dark brown soils) and water solution. The combined effects of heavy metals pollution were determined with meadow brown soils. Results indicated that with same concentration, the inhibition rates of heavy metals on root elongation of Chinese cabbages are stronger than that on the seed germination. The inhibition effects of heavy metals on the root elongation of Chinese cabbages in soils are much lower than that in water, indicating that soils play an important role of buffering on heavy metals pollution. Inhibition rates of heavy metals on the root elongation (IRHMRE) of Chinese cabbages are significantly negative related with the contents of organic matter (OR) and Kjedahl-nitrogen (K-N) in soils, however, there is no significant related between IRHMRE and soil pH, so does the content of T-K. In the concentrations that result in the irritated effect in the single form of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd pollution, synergic effects are produced significantly when four heavy metals are combined. As the results, the threshold values that result in the inhibition effects on root elongation in Chinese cabbages decrease markedly. PMID:11987391

  10. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to break down fats than other types of oil Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is the scarring and hardening of the liver. Diet Recommendations: • Limit salt and foods that contain a lot of salt • Talk to your doctor about how much protein to have in your diet Fatty Liver ...

  11. Mediterranean diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E

    2000-12-01

    Mortality statistics from the WHO database covering the period 1960 to 1990 have provided intriguing evidence that something unusual has been affecting in a beneficial way the health of the Mediterranean population. In recent papers, which evaluated the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, it was concluded that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. Direct evidence in support of the beneficial properties of the Mediterranean diet has also become available. These data were derived from three studies, which have used a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight desirable key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region. The conclusion of these studies is that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean one is associated with longer survival. The Greek version of the Mediterranean diet is dominated by the consumption of olive oil and by high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and an antioxidant action provides a plausible explanation for the apparent benefits. Wild edible greens frequently eaten in rural Greece in the form of salads and pies contain very high quantities of flavonoids-- considerably higher than those found in red wine or black tea. While there is no direct evidence that these antioxidants are central to the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, indirect evidence from epidemiological data and the increasing understanding of their mechanisms of action suggest that antioxidants may play a major role. PMID:11242471

  12. Diet Therapy Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This four-volume student text is intended for use in training Air Force diet therapy specialists. The first volume, a study guide and workbook for self-directed instruction, covers nutrition, food processing and preparation, therapeutic diets, security precautions in medical food service, procedures for ordering equipment and supplies, food

  13. TOTAL DIET STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Total Diet Study (TDS), sometimes called the Market Basket Study, is an ongoing FDA program that determines levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods, for the purpose of estimating intakes of these substances in representative diets of specifi...

  14. DIET at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  15. How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Post-Surgery Diet Post-Surgery Exercise How are diet & exercise affected? It is very difficult for pancreatic ... fatigued. Pancan.org has published a very informative Diet and Nutrition booklet. You can review this booklet ...

  16. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Fabulous ... not diet this way. Why? Let's find out. Dieting to Lose Weight All foods and many drinks ...

  17. Use of Consumer Acceptability as a Tool to Determine the Level of Sodium Reduction: A Case Study on Beef Soup Substituted With Potassium Chloride and Soy-Sauce Odor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cho Long; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2015-11-01

    In this study, consumer acceptability was considered as a tool of reducing sodium rather than just using it as a final examination of the successfulness of the substitution. This study consisted of 4 experimental steps. First, by gradually reducing the concentrations of NaCl, consumer rejection threshold (CRT) of NaCl in beef soup was examined. Then, the amount of KCl that can increase preference was examined in 2 low sodium beef soups, with sodium concentrations slightly above or below the CRT. Relative saltiness of various KCl and NaCl/KCl mixtures were also measured. Finally, consumers evaluated acceptability and intensities of sensory characteristics for 9 beef soup samples that differed with respect to NaCl content and/or KCl content with/without addition of salty-congruent odor (soy-sauce odor). The results showed that in the "above CRT" system, consumer acceptability as well as sensory profile of low sodium beef soup substituted using KCl had similar profile to the control although saltiness was not fully recovered, whereas in the "below CRT" system, consumer acceptability was not recovered using KCl solely as a substitute. Potential of using salty-congruent odor as a final touch to induce salty taste was observed; however, the results inferred the importance of having almost no artificialness in the odor and having harmony with the final product when using it as a strategy to substitute sodium. Overall, the results of the study implied the importance of considering consumer acceptability when approaching sodium reduction to better understand the potentials of the sodium substitutes and salty-congruent odor. PMID:26447813

  18. Identification of differentially accumulating pistil proteins associated with self-incompatibility of non-heading Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Peng, H; Ge, T; Liu, T; Hou, X; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino), an important vegetable crop in China, exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system. To better understand the mechanism of SI response and identify potential candidate proteins involved in the SI system of this vegetable crop, the proteomic approach was taken to identify differential accumulating pistil proteins. Pistils were collected at 0 h and 2 h after self-pollination at anthesis in self-incompatible and compatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage, and total proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 25 protein spots that displayed differential abundance were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) and peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). Among them, 22 protein spots were confidently established. The mRNA levels of the corresponding genes were detected by quantitative RT-PCR. The 22 identified protein spots are involved in energy metabolism (four), protein biosynthesis (three), photosynthesis (six), stress response and defence (five), and protein degradation (four). Among these potential candidate proteins, UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase could be involved in sucrose degradation to influence pollen germination and growth. Glutathione S-transferases could be involved in pollen maturation, and affect pollen fertility. Senescence-associated cysteine protease, which is related to programmed cell death, could be mainly related to self pollen recognition of non-heading Chinese cabbage. The study will contribute to further investigations of molecular mechanism of sporophytic SI in Brassicaceae. PMID:23581423

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the petal degeneration mutant pdm in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis) using RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengnan; Liu, Zhiyong; Yao, Runpeng; Li, Danyang; Feng, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Flowering, which plays a crucial role in the growth and development of flowering plants, is a crucial point from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. The goal of this study was to examine the differences between the transcriptomes of the Chinese cabbage mutant pdm and the corresponding wild-type line 'FT'. We performed transcriptome analysis on mRNA isolated from flower buds of pdm and 'FT' using Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data. A total of 117 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected. Among the DEGs, we identified a number of genes involved in floral development and flowering, including an F-box protein gene, EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), and transcription factors BIGPETAL (BPE) and MYB21 (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog); differential expression of these genes could potentially explain the difference in the flowers between pdm and 'FT'. In addition, the expression patterns of 20 DEGs, including 12 floral development and flowering-related genes and eight randomly selected genes, were validated by qRT-PCR, and the results were highly concordant with the RNA-Seq results. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed to better understand the functions of these DEGs. We also identified a large number of single nucleotide polymorphism and insertion/deletion markers, which will be a rich resource for future marker development and breeding research in Chinese cabbage. Also, our analysis revealed numerous novel transcripts and alternative splicing events. The transcriptome analysis provides valuable information for furthering our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the flowering process, and establishes a solid foundation for future genetic and functional genomic studies in Chinese cabbage. PMID:25860116

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Roots.

    PubMed

    Xing, Miaomiao; Lv, Honghao; Ma, Jian; Xu, Donghui; Li, Hailong; Yang, Limei; Kang, Jungen; Wang, Xiaowu; Fang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (FOC) is a destructive disease of Brassica crops, which results in severe yield losses. There is little information available about the mechanism of disease resistance. To obtain an overview of the transcriptome profiles in roots of R4P1, a Brassica oleracea variety that is highly resistant to fusarium wilt, we compared the transcriptomes of samples inoculated with FOC and samples inoculated with distilled water. RNA-seq analysis generated more than 136 million 100-bp clean reads, which were assembled into 62,506 unigenes (mean size = 741 bp). Among them, 49,959 (79.92%) genes were identified based on sequence similarity searches, including SwissProt (29,050, 46.47%), Gene Ontology (GO) (33,767, 54.02%), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG) (14,721, 23.55%) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) (12,974, 20.76%) searches; digital gene expression analysis revealed 885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between infected and control samples at 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours after inoculation. The DEGs were assigned to 31 KEGG pathways. Early defense systems, including the MAPK signaling pathway, calcium signaling and salicylic acid-mediated hypersensitive response (SA-mediated HR) were activated after pathogen infection. SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance (SAR), ethylene (ET)- and jasmonic (JA)-mediated pathways and the lignin biosynthesis pathway play important roles in plant resistance. We also analyzed the expression of defense-related genes, such as genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, UDP-glycosyltransferase (UDPG), pleiotropic drug resistance, ATP-binding cassette transporters (PDR-ABC transporters), myrosinase, transcription factors and kinases, which were differentially expressed. The results of this study may contribute to efforts to identify and clone candidate genes associated with disease resistance and to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying FOC resistance in cabbage. PMID:26849436

  1. Transcriptome Profiling of Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Roots

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Miaomiao; Lv, Honghao; Ma, Jian; Xu, Donghui; Li, Hailong; Yang, Limei; Kang, Jungen; Wang, Xiaowu; Fang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (FOC) is a destructive disease of Brassica crops, which results in severe yield losses. There is little information available about the mechanism of disease resistance. To obtain an overview of the transcriptome profiles in roots of R4P1, a Brassica oleracea variety that is highly resistant to fusarium wilt, we compared the transcriptomes of samples inoculated with FOC and samples inoculated with distilled water. RNA-seq analysis generated more than 136 million 100-bp clean reads, which were assembled into 62,506 unigenes (mean size = 741 bp). Among them, 49,959 (79.92%) genes were identified based on sequence similarity searches, including SwissProt (29,050, 46.47%), Gene Ontology (GO) (33,767, 54.02%), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG) (14,721, 23.55%) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) (12,974, 20.76%) searches; digital gene expression analysis revealed 885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between infected and control samples at 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours after inoculation. The DEGs were assigned to 31 KEGG pathways. Early defense systems, including the MAPK signaling pathway, calcium signaling and salicylic acid-mediated hypersensitive response (SA-mediated HR) were activated after pathogen infection. SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance (SAR), ethylene (ET)- and jasmonic (JA)-mediated pathways and the lignin biosynthesis pathway play important roles in plant resistance. We also analyzed the expression of defense-related genes, such as genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, UDP-glycosyltransferase (UDPG), pleiotropic drug resistance, ATP-binding cassette transporters (PDR-ABC transporters), myrosinase, transcription factors and kinases, which were differentially expressed. The results of this study may contribute to efforts to identify and clone candidate genes associated with disease resistance and to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying FOC resistance in cabbage. PMID:26849436

  2. Paenibacillus brassicae sp. nov., isolated from cabbage rhizosphere in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Miao; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Ji; Liu, Jun; Sun, Yan-hua; Wang, Yu-jiong; Sun, Jian-guang

    2013-03-01

    A novel Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, spore-forming, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain 112(T), was isolated from cabbage rhizosphere in Beijing, China. The strain was found to grow at 10-40 C and pH 4-11, with an optimum of 30 C and pH 7.0, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain 112(T) is a member of the genus Paenibacillus. High levels of 16S rRNA gene similarities were found between strain 112(T), Paenibacillus sabinae DSM 17841(T) (97.82 %) and Paenibacillus forsythiae DSM 17842(T) (97.22 %). However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 112(T) and the type strains of these two species were 10.36 and 6.28 %, respectively. The predominant menaquinone was found to be menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major fatty acids were determined to be anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0). The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unknown aminophospholipids. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 55.4 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the value of DNA-DNA hybridization, strain 112(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus brassicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 112(T) (= ACCC 01125(T) = DSM 24983(T)). PMID:23180372

  3. Trade-off between sensitivity and specificity in the cabbage looper moth response to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Hemmann, Daniel J; Allison, Jeremy D; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2008-11-01

    The evolution of male moth responses to pheromone blends may be constrained by a trade-off between two response traits: sensitivity and breadth of response. Population genetic simulations predict that if sensitivity and breadth of response are negatively correlated (i.e., a trade-off exists), then selection will favor males with narrow response phenotypes and high sensitivity. Although sensitivity-breadth of response trade-offs are generally assumed to exist and are implicit to the shape of male preference function, this study is the first to provide empirical support measuring behavior at the level of the individual. Previous studies with the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, have documented the existence of a mutant pheromone strain. While mutant females produce a pheromone blend significantly different from wild-type females, mutant males respond equally to the wild-type and mutant pheromone blends. This study used wind tunnel bioassays to document that relative to wild-type males, mutant males had broader response profiles but lower pheromone sensitivity. While wild-type male responses were highest to the wild-type pheromone blend, mutant males did not discriminate among pheromone blends. These results are consistent with a trade-off between breadth of response and sensitivity. Pure wild-type and mutant lines were crossed and hybrid males assayed. Both hybrid types (maternal wild-type and maternal mutant hybrids) responded similarly. Hybrid males had response profiles similar to wild-type males and the reduced sensitivity observed in mutant males. These results suggest a possible hybrid disadvantage and a putative mechanism for reinforcement of male pheromone response traits. PMID:18818970

  4. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    PubMed

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation. PMID:16208206

  5. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  6. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... IBD. Often, patients have questions regarding The Specific Carbohydrate Diet ™ (SCD), popularized by Elaine Gottschall, M.S., author ... it particularly onerous to maintain. Decreasing poorly digestible carbohydrates may decrease symptoms of gas, bloat, cramps, and ...

  7. Diet for Ataxia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bowel movements. • Improved mood and spirit. A SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES-RESTRICTED, HIGH FIBER DIET MAY BE HELPFUL Ataxia patients may sometimes benefit by avoiding simple carbohydrates. What this means is to eliminate foods sweetened ...

  8. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  9. Diet and Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... poultry Increased dietary fiber provided by whole grains, fruits/vegetables and legumes An increased intake of fruits and ... variety of foods. Diets should be rich in fruits/vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and lean meats. This ...

  10. Low-Carb Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... high amounts of added sugars include: non-diet soda, cookies, candy, and sugary cereal (or cereal with ... and fruits) than sugars or refined grains (candy, soda, chips, and juice) In addition to a healthy ...

  11. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... avoided if you are pregnant or have an eating disorder . Detox diets can be addicting. That's because there's ... addiction that leads to health problems, including serious eating disorders, heart problems, and even death. Detox supplements can ...

  12. Understanding the DASH diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pubmed/20101007 . de Koning L, Chiuve SE, Fung TT, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Hu FB. Diet-quality ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21464460 . Fung TT, Chiuve SE, McCullough ML, Rexrode KM, Logroscino G, ...

  13. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  14. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ... gamma tocopherol, plasma ascorbate, and serum folate. (See nutrition table below.) Recommendations for dietary supplementation should be ...

  15. Heart disease and diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... source of information on diet and heart disease. Balance the number of calories you eat with the number you use each day to maintain a healthy body weight. You can ask your doctor or dietitian to ...

  16. Copper in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the food guide plate. Specific recommendations depend on age, gender, and other factors (such ...

  17. Diet and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gotto, Antonio M.; Scott, Lynne W.; Foreyt, John P.

    1984-01-01

    The role of diet in personal health maintenance is important whether a person is trying to stay healthy or to treat diet-related diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. Dietary recommendations include limiting fat to 30% and protein to 20% of total calories, with the remaining 50% coming from carbohydrate. Maintaining dietary changes for long periods is very difficult for many persons. Specific self-management skills may ease the task. PMID:6523862

  18. Anti-inflammatory Diets.

    PubMed

    Sears, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease is driven by inflammation. This article will provide an overview on how the balance of macronutrients and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can alter the expression of inflammatory genes. In particular, how the balance of the protein to glycemic load of a meal can alter the generation of insulin and glucagon and the how the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can effect eicosanoid formation. Clinical results on the reduction of inflammation following anti-inflammatory diets are discussed as well as the molecular targets of anti-inflammatory nutrition. To overcome silent inflammation requires an anti-inflammatory diet (with omega-3s and polyphenols, in particular those of Maqui). The most important aspect of such an anti-inflammatory diet is the stabilization of insulin and reduced intake of omega-6 fatty acids. The ultimate treatment lies in reestablishing hormonal and genetic balance to generate satiety instead of constant hunger. Anti-inflammatory nutrition, balanced 40:30:30 with caloric restriction, should be considered as a form of gene silencing technology, in particular the silencing of the genes involved in the generation of silent inflammation. To this anti-inflammatory diet foundation supplemental omega-3 fatty acids at the level of 2-3g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day should be added. Finally, a diet rich in colorful, nonstarchy vegetables would contribute adequate amounts of polyphenols to help not only to inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-?B (primary molecular target of inflammation) but also activate AMP kinase. Understanding the impact of an anti-inflammatory diet on silent inflammation can elevate the diet from simply a source of calories to being on the cutting edge of gene-silencing technology. PMID:26400429

  19. Diet and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kritchevsky, D.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the statistical establishment of elevated blood lipids as a risk factor in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease, most of the attempts to regulate blood lipids by diet are centered on the fat in the diet. The levels of blood lipids and the course of experimental atherosclerosis can be affected by other dietary components such as type and amount of protein, carbohydrate, and nonnutritive fiber. Interaction among the dietary components further affects serum lipids and atherosclerosis. PMID:786036

  20. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.221.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.641.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.781.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.011.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.591.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease. PMID:24264226

  1. The combination of aricept with a traditional Chinese medicine formula, smart soup, may be a novel way to treat Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Sui, Yi; Yu, Hongshuang; Shen, Xiaoheng; Chen, Shengdi; Pei, Gang; Zhao, Jian; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease affecting cognitive function in the elderly, which is characterized by the presence of extracellular deposits of insoluble amyloid-β plaques and neuronal loss. Modern pharmacology and drug development usually follow a single-target principle, which might contribute to the failure of most compounds in clinical trials against AD. Considering AD is a multifactorial disease, a combination therapeutic strategy that applies drugs with different mechanisms would be an alternative way. Smart Soup (SS), a Traditional Chinese Medicine formula, is composed of three herbaceous plants and has been applied in the treatment of amnesia in China for hundreds of years. In this work, we studied the clinical potency of the combination of SS and Aricept in AD therapy. In the in vivo model, both longevity and locomotive activity of AD transgenic Drosophila were improved remarkably in the combined medicine treated group. We also observed less amyloid-β deposition and retarded neuronal loss following the combined drug treatment. In the retrospective cohort study, we found the combination therapy exerted better therapeutic effect on AD patients. Our study revealed that combination therapy with multiple drug targets did have a better therapeutic outcome. It provides a new strategy to develop an optimum pharmaceutical approach against AD. PMID:25690664

  2. Recovery of turgor by wilted, excised cabbage leaves in the absence of water uptake : a new factor in drought acclimation.

    PubMed

    Levitt, J

    1986-09-01

    Cabbage leaves excised from a fully turgid plant wilt within 20 minutes to 2 hours (depending on plant age) with a loss of about 10% relative water content (RWC). If droughted for 2 to 4 days in a high relative humidity leaf chamber, they may acclimate, recovering their turgor without the absorption of water, in fact at a loss of 15 to 25% RWC. This turgor recovery in the absence of water uptake occurs only if (a) the rate of water loss is slow enough (about 1-5% RWC per day after the first 24 hours drought loss of about 15% RWC), (b) if the leaves are no longer growing actively. Osmotic adjustment accompanies the turgor adjustment, but cannot be the cause in the absence of water uptake. The recovery of turgor by wilted cabbage leaves in the absence of water uptake cannot be explained by (a) transfer of reserve water from apoplast to symplast either from the cell walls or from the vessel lumens by cavitation or (b) metabolic loss of dry matter and gain of water. It can be explained by a contraction of the cell walls around the partially dehydrated protoplasts, until they regain their elastic extensibility. These proposed cell wall changes during drought acclimation are therefore the opposite of those occurring during growth. This hypothesis therefore explains the long recognized inverse relation between growth and acclimation. Two predictions of this hypothesis were tested and substantiated. PMID:16664982

  3. Risk of egg parasitoid attraction depends on anti-aphrodisiac titre in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae.

    PubMed

    Huigens, Martinus E; de Swart, Erik; Mumm, Roland

    2011-04-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the large cabbage white Pieris brassicae is depleted by frequent display of the mate-refusal posture that signals a female's unreceptivity to mating. This depletion of BC is ecologically important because it results in a reduced risk of attracting the hitch-hiking egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae to mated female butterflies over time since mating. Our results indicate for the first time that a reduction in anti-aphrodisiac titre in mated females due to frequent adoption of the mate-refusal posture is beneficial to both mated females and males particularly when parasitoid pressure is high. PMID:21452001

  4. Live imaging technique for studies of growth and development of Chinese cabbage under microgravity in a recoverable satellite (SJ-8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huiqiong; Wei, Ning; Chen, Aidi

    The live imaging techniques have been developed and applied to investigate for the first time the growth and development of Chinese cabbage for 18 d under microgravity conditions on board the Chinese SJ-8 recoverable satellite. These experiments offer insight into plant behaviors operating during plant development in space. Two automatic, preprogrammed CCD cameras were installed in the plant experimental chamber. The experimental objectives were: 1) seed germination; 2) Seedling growth; 3) Flower opening and pollination. The growth of seedlings and flowers were followed by time lapse photography at 2h intervals. Serial real-time images of the Chinese cabbage plant growth under microgravity were successfully obtained through the remote operating system. The image data obtained from space experiment, in comparison with the results from ground control (1g) and 3-D clinostat stimulate experiments, showed that the height of plant and the number of leaves were significantly reduced under the microgravity conditions, but characters of leaf arrangement and leaf shape were not altered obviously. Flower opening and expansion were inhibited by exposed to space flight condition. The petals of flowers from both SJ-8 grown plants and clinostat rotated plants couldn't fully expand before wilted.

  5. Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Control

    PubMed Central

    Baok, Renata; Cerani?-Serti?, Mirna; Bar?i?, Jasminka Igrc; Boroi?, Josip; Kozina, Antonela; Kos, Tomislav; Lemi?, Darija; ?a?ija, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was determined. Seasonal flight activity during the cultivation season of a mid-early variety of white cabbage was correlated with DDA and JD and was characterized by having two peaks. The first peak occurred between 119 7.5 JD and 125.5 8 JD when DDA was 471.35 74.97 C. The second occurred between 172.8 6.1 JD and 179.3 6.7 JD when DDA was 1,217.28 96.12 C. The DDA, cumulative capture of flies and JD are suitable for predicting the timing of insecticide application. Spraying with insecticides should be applied when the cumulative capture of flies reaches 100 flies/YST and when DDA reaches 400 C. If only one parameter reaches the threshold, additional visual surveys should be employed to establish the level of infestation. Insecticides were able to ensure only partial control. In the future, alternative control tactics which employ seed treatments and nonpesticide measures should be investigated in Croatia. PMID:26466723

  6. Hydrogen-rich water enhances cadmium tolerance in Chinese cabbage by reducing cadmium uptake and increasing antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Cai, Jiangtao; Shen, Zhenguo; Cui, Jin

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present paper was to understand the specific mechanism of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) in alleviating cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. chinensis L.). Our results showed that the addition of 50% saturation HRW significantly alleviated the Cd toxic symptoms, including the improvement of both root elongation and seedling growth inhibition. These responses were consistent with a significant decrease of Cd accumulation in roots and shoots, which was further confirmed by the histochemical staining. Molecular evidence illustrated that Cd-induced up-regulations of IRT1 and Nramp1 genes, responsible for Cd absorption, were blocked by HRW. By contrast, Cd-induced up-regulation of the HMA3 gene, which regulates Cd sequestration into the root vacuoles, was substantially strengthened by HRW. Furthermore, compared with those in Cd stress alone, the expressions of HMA2 and HMA4, which function in the transportation of Cd to xylem, were repressed by co-treatment with HRW. HRW enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. These results were further confirmed by the alleviation of oxidative damage, as indicated by the decrease of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Taken together, these results suggest that the improvement of Cd tolerance by HRW was associated with reduced Cd uptake and increased antioxidant defense capacities. Therefore, the application of HRW may be a promising strategy to improve Cd tolerance of Chinese cabbage. PMID:25543863

  7. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants. PMID:26679081

  8. Characterizing volatiles and attractiveness of five brassicaceous plants with potential for a 'push-pull' strategy toward the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum.

    PubMed

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Dugravot, Sébastien; Danner, Holger; van Dam, Nicole M; Cortesero, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) released by plants are involved in various orientation processes of herbivorous insects and consequently play a crucial role in their reproductive success. In the context of developing new strategies for crop protection, several studies have previously demonstrated the possibility to limit insect density on crops using either host or non-host plants that release attractive or repellent VOCs, respectively. The cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, is an important pest of brassicaceous crops for which control methods have to be implemented. Several studies have shown that plant odors influence cabbage root fly behavior, but only few VOCs have been identified so far. The present study aimed at selecting both plants and olfactory stimuli that could be used in the development of a "push-pull" strategy against the cabbage root fly. Olfactometer results revealed that plants belonging to the same family, even to the same species, may exhibit different levels of attractiveness toward D. radicum. Plants that were found attractive in behavioral observations were characterized by high release rates of distinct terpenes, such as linalool, β-caryophyllene, humulene, and α-farnesene. This study represents a first step to identify both attractive plants of agronomic interest, and additional volatiles that could be used in the context of trap crops to protect broccoli fields against the cabbage root fly. PMID:25893791

  9. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zheng-miao; Wang, Bi-ling; Sun, Ye-fang; Li, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phytoavailability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m2 soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment. PMID:16365925

  10. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

    2010-12-01

    An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment. PMID:21443002

  11. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53, a potent biocontrol agent resists Rhizoctonia disease on Chinese cabbage through hormonal and antioxidants regulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani is one of the causal agents of numerous diseases that affect crop growth and yield. The aim of this present investigation was to identify a biocontrol agent that acts against R. solani and to determine the agent's protective effect through phytohormones and antioxidant regulation in experimentally infected Chinese cabbage plants. Four rhizospheric soil bacterial isolates GR53, GR169, GR786, and GR320 were tested for their antagonistic activity against R. solani. Among these isolates, GR53 significantly suppressed fungal growth. GR53 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. The biocontrol activity of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 was tested in Chinese cabbage plants under controlled conditions. Results showed that R. solani inhibited plant growth (length, width, fresh and dry weight of leaves) by reducing chlorophyll and total phenolic content, as well as by increasing the levels of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and DPPH scavenging activity. By regulating the levels of these compounds, the co-inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 heightened induced systemic resistance in infected Chinese cabbage, effectively mitigating R. solani-induced damaging effects and improving plant growth. The results obtained from this study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 is an effective biocontrol agent to prevent the damage caused by R. solani in Chinese cabbage plants. PMID:26160009

  12. SnRK1 Phosphorylation of AL2 Delays Cabbage Leaf Curl Virus Infection in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Dallas, Mary Beth; Goshe, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Geminivirus AL2/C2 proteins play key roles in establishing infection and causing disease in their plant hosts. They are involved in viral gene expression, counter host defenses by suppressing transcriptional gene silencing, and interfere with the host signaling involved in pathogen resistance. We report here that begomovirus and curtovirus AL2/C2 proteins interact strongly with host geminivirus Rep-interacting kinases (GRIKs), which are upstream activating kinases of the protein kinase SnRK1, a global regulator of energy and nutrient levels in plants. We used an in vitro kinase system to show that GRIK-activated SnRK1 phosphorylates recombinant AL2/C2 proteins from several begomoviruses and to map the SnRK1 phosphorylation site to serine-109 in the AL2 proteins of two New World begomoviruses: Cabbage Leaf Curl Virus (CaLCuV) and Tomato mottle virus. A CaLCuV AL2 S109D phosphomimic mutation did not alter viral DNA levels in protoplast replication assays. In contrast, the phosphomimic mutant was delayed for symptom development and viral DNA accumulation during infection of Arabidopsis thaliana, demonstrating that SnRK1 contributes to host defenses against CaLCuV. Our observation that serine-109 is not conserved in all AL2/C2 proteins that are SnRK1 substrates in vitro suggested that phosphorylation of viral proteins by plant kinases contributes to the evolution of geminivirus-host interactions. IMPORTANCE Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious diseases in many crops. Dicot-infecting geminiviruses carry genes that encode multifunctional AL2/C2 proteins that are essential for infection. However, it is not clear how AL2/C2 proteins are regulated. Here, we show that the host protein kinase SnRK1, a central regulator of energy balance and nutrient metabolism in plants, phosphorylates serine-109 in AL2 proteins of three subgroups of New World begomoviruses, resulting in a delay in viral DNA accumulation and symptom appearance. Our results support SnRK1's antiviral role and reveal a novel mechanism underlying this function. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that AL2 S109 evolved as begomoviruses migrated from the Old World to the New World and may have provided a selective advantage as begomoviruses adapted to a different environment and different plant hosts. This study provides new insights into the interaction of viral pathogens with their plant hosts at the level of viral protein modification by the host. PMID:24990996

  13. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyr, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 065; 95 % CI 046, 094); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment. PMID:22874538

  14. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations. PMID:12798783

  15. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  16. Enhancing growth, phytochemical constituents and aphid resistance capacity in cabbage with foliar application of eckol - a biologically active phenolic molecule from brown seaweed.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Pendota, Srinivasa C; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-03-25

    Although foliar application of seaweed extracts on plant growth and development has and is extensively studied, reliable knowledge and understanding of the mode of action of particular compound(s) responsible for enhancing plant growth is lacking. A brown seaweed Ecklonia maxima is widely used commercially as a biostimulant to improve plant growth and crop protection. Eckol, a phenolic compound isolated from E. maxima has recently shown stimulatory effects in maize, indicating its potential use as a plant biostimulant. Cabbage is a widely cultivated vegetable crop throughout the world, which requires high input of fertilizers and is susceptible to several aphid borne diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application of eckol on the growth, phytochemical constituents and myrosinase activity (aphid resistance capacity) of commercially cultivated cabbage. Foliar application of eckol (10(-6)M) significantly enhanced shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf number. This treatment also showed a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll 'a', chlorophyll 'b', total chlorophyll and carotenoid) compared to the untreated plants. The levels of protein, proline and iridoid glycosides were significantly higher in cabbage leaves with eckol treatment. All the control plants were severely infested with cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) but no infestation was observed on the eckol-sprayed plants, which can be attributed to an increase in myrosinase activity. This study reveals dual effects (plant growth promoting and insect repelling) of eckol on cabbage plants that need further investigations both under field conditions and in other brassicaceous species. PMID:26585339

  17. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  18. The Role of Dark Septate Endophytic Fungal Isolates in the Accumulation of Cesium by Chinese Cabbage and Tomato Plants under Contaminated Environments

    PubMed Central

    Diene, Ousmane; Sakagami, Nobuo; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the preservation of the food chain from radionuclides contamination has become of crucial importance. The potential of Dark septate endophytic fungi in the management of Cs accumulation in plants under contaminated environments was investigated using Chinese cabbage and tomato plants. Four endophytic fungal isolates of different species, i.e. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, Helminthosporium velutinum 41-1, and as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 were tested In Vitro in two levels of Cs (5ppm and 10ppm). On the plant growth, the inoculation of the selected DSEs to both Chinese cabbage and tomato resulted in an increased biomass of up to 82% and 122%, respectively compared to control (non-inoculated) plants. With regards to the Cs accumulation, it varied with the host plant considered. In Chinese cabbage, DSEs inoculation caused higher Cs accumulation in above ground plant parts, whereas in tomato, Cs accumulation decreased significantly with three of the isolates tested, i.e., V. simplex Y34, P. ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, and the as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 suggesting low-risk transfer on the above ground plants parts as a result of high and negative plant reactions rather than high and positive reactions as it is the case with Chinese cabbage. These results suggested that DSEs can be recommended for use with Chinese cabbage to enhance phytoremediation of Cs in surrounding contaminated areas. With tomato, DSEs can be recommended for decreasing the accumulation of Cs in plants under contaminated environments. PMID:25296037

  19. Estimation of habitual iodine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d diet records over four seasons with a newly developed food composition database for iodine.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Miura, Ayako; Todoriki, Hidemi; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-08-28

    Although habitual seaweed consumption in Japan would suggest that iodine intake in Japanese is exceptionally high, intake data from diet records are limited. In the present study, we developed a composition database of iodine and estimated the habitual intake of iodine among Japanese adults. Missing values for iodine content in the existing composition table were imputed based on established criteria. 16 d diet records (4 d over four seasons) from adults (120 women aged 30-69 years and 120 men aged 30-76 years) living in Japan were collected, and iodine intake was estimated. Habitual intake was estimated with the Best-power method. Totally, 995 food items were imputed. The distribution of iodine intake in 24 h was highly skewed, and approximately 55 % of 24 h values were < 300 ?g/d. The median iodine intake in 24 h was 229 ?g/d for women and 273 ?g/d for men. All subjects consumed iodine-rich foods (kelp or soup stock) on one or more days of the sixteen survey days. The mean (median) habitual iodine intake was 1414 (857) ?g/d for women and 1572 (1031) ?g/d for men. Older participants had higher intake than younger participants. The major contributors to iodine intake were kelp (60 %) and soup stock (30 %). Habitual iodine intake among Japanese was sufficient or higher than the tolerable upper intake level, particularly in older generations. The association between high iodine intake as that observed in the present study and thyroid disease requires further study. PMID:26197981

  20. Diet and Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Samir P.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it was thought that many common dermatological conditions had no relationship to diet. Studies from recent years, however, have made it clear that diet may influence outcome. In this review, the authors focus on conditions for which the role of diet has traditionally been an underappreciated aspect of therapy. In some cases, dietary interventions may influence the course of the skin disease, as in acne. In others, dietary change may serve as one aspect of prevention, such as in skin cancer and aging of the skin. In others, dermatological disease may be linked to systemic disease, and dietary changes may affect health outcomes, as in psoriasis. Lastly, systemic medications prescribed for dermatological disease, such as steroids, are known to raise the risk of other diseases, and dietary change may reduce this risk. PMID:25053983

  1. Diet-Regulated Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michelle; Mercer, Julian G.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of noncommunicable disease originates in habitual overconsumption of calories, which can lead to weight gain and obesity and attendant comorbidities. At the other end of the spectrum, the consequences of undernutrition in early life and at different stages of adult life can also have major impact on wellbeing and quality of life. To help address some of these issues, greater understanding is required of interactions with food and contemporary diets throughout the life course and at a number of different levels: physiological, metabolic, psychological, and emotional. Here we review the current literature on the effects of dietary manipulation on anxiety-like behaviour. This evidence, assembled from study of preclinical models of diet challenge from gestation to adult life, supports a role for diet in the important connections between psychology, physiology, and behaviour. Analogous processes in the human population in our current obesogenic environment are likely to contribute to individual and societal challenges in this area. PMID:24027581

  2. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST.

  3. Diet History Questionnaire

    Cancer.gov

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Diet History Questionnaire Today's date: MONTH DAY YEAR |___|___| 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 01 Jan 02 Feb 03 Mar 04 Apr 05 May 06 Jun 07 Jul 08 Aug 09 Sep 10 Oct 11 Nov 12

  4. Diet - clear liquid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the important fluids, salts, and minerals that you need for energy. Eating only a clear liquid diet gives you enough nutrition for 3 to 4 days. It is safe for people with diabetes, but only for a short time when they are followed closely by their doctor.

  5. Protein in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... protein. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development in children, teens, and pregnant women.

  6. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the sodium in your diet. Look for these words on food labels: Low-sodium No salt added Sodium-free Sodium-reduced Unsalted Check ... much potassium can build up when the kidneys no longer function ... is found in many food groups, including fruits and vegetables. ...

  7. Complete genome sequence analysis identifies a new genotype of brassica yellows virus that infects cabbage and radish in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2014-08-01

    For brassica yellows virus (BrYV), proposed to be a member of a new polerovirus species, two clearly distinct genotypes (BrYV-A and BrYV-B) have been described. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of two BrYV isolates from radish and Chinese cabbage were determined. Sequence analysis suggested that these isolates represent a new genotype, referred to here as BrYV-C. The full-length sequences of the two BrYV-C isolates shared 93.4-94.8 % identity with BrYV-A and BrYV-B. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the BrYV-C isolates formed a subgroup that was distinct from the BrYV-A and BrYV-B isolates based on all of the proteins except P5. PMID:24599564

  8. Feasibility Study for Detection of Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) Infection of Chinese Cabbage Plants Using Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Saetbyeol; Lee, Sanguk; Chi, Hee-Youn; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Su-Heon; Chung, Hoeil

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides many advantages compared to other common analytical techniques due to its ability of rapid and accurate identification of unknown specimens as well as simple sample preparation. Here, we described potential of Raman spectroscopic technique as an efficient and high throughput method to detect plants infected by economically important viruses. To enhance the detection sensitivity of Raman measurement, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was employed. Spectra of extracts from healthy and Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) infected Chinese cabbage leaves were collected by mixing with gold (Au) nanoparticles. Our result showed that TYMV infected plants could be discriminated from non-infected healthy plants, suggesting the current method described here would be an alternative potential tool to screen virus-infection of plants in fields although it needs more studies to generalize the technique. PMID:25288935

  9. Development of a Specific Diagnostic System for Detecting Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus from Chinese Cabbage in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Rho, J Y

    2016-03-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) is a plant pathogenic virus transmitted mainly through its host Brassica spp. TYMV is originated from Europe. Its infection cases have been reported in Australia, Brazil, Turkey, and Japan. Symptoms similar to those of TYMV infections were also reported in Korea in 2012. In this study, we developed RT-PCR primer pairs that were highly sensitive for detecting TYMV. The developed RT-PCR primer pairs offered about 10-100 times stronger detection sensitivity compared to primer pairs previously used in Korea. As a result, a 491 bp TYMV-specific band was identified. The specific band was confirmed to be TYMV based on sequencing results and phylogenetic analysis. The RT-PCR primer pairs developed in this study can be used to rapidly and precisely diagnose TYMV in agricultural products such as Chinese cabbage and other crops infected by TYMV. PMID:26843703

  10. Cabbage compression early breast care on breast engorgement in primiparous women after cesarean birth: a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lim, A-Reum; Song, Ji-Ah; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lee, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of cabbage compression early breast care (CCEBC) and early breast care (EBC) on breast pain, breast hardness with general nursing breast care (GNBC) in primiparous women after cesarean birth. Sixty participants were divided to three groups including CCEBC, EBC and GNBC. Each group was treated with its intervention respectively more than 10 minutes before breast feeding from day two to day four after delivery. The primary outcomes were breast pain and breast hardness. Both CCEBC and EBC showed significantly lower pain level than GNBC at day 4 after delivery. There are significant differences of breast hardness among three groups. CCEBC group showed significantly lower breast hardness compared with EBC and GNBC. Neither core body temperature nor breast skin temperature was significantly different among the three groups. In conclusion, CCEBC may effective in relieving breast pain and breast hardness compared with EBC alone and GNBC in primiparous women after a cesarean birth. PMID:26885074

  11. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals and personal care products by cabbage (Brassica campestris) from fortified and biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Holling, Cheryl S; Bailey, Jonathon L; Vanden Heuvel, Brian; Kinney, Chad A

    2012-11-01

    Human pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are routinely found in biosolids from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Once land applied, the PPCPs in biosolids are potentially available for plant uptake and bioaccumulation. This study used a greenhouse model to investigate uptake of PPCPs commonly detected in biosolids by the agricultural plant Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris). Two series of greenhouse experiments were conducted as part of this project. In the first set of experiments, four pharmaceuticals were added to an organic matter-rich soil in environmentally relevant concentrations based on typical biosolids application rates, resulting in final soil concentrations of 2.6 ng g(-1) carbamazepine, 3.1 ng g(-1) sulfamethoxazole, 5.4 ng g(-1) salbutamol, and 0.5 ng g(-1) trimethoprim. In the second set of experiments, the cabbage was grown in soil amended with an agronomic rate of biosolids from a local WWTP. The ambient concentration of PPCPs in the biosolids resulted in final soil concentrations of 93.1 ng g(-1) carbamazepine, 67.4 ng g(-1) sulfamethoxazole, 30.3 ng g(-1) salbutamol, 433.7 ng g(-1) triclosan, and 24.7 ng g(-1) trimethoprim. After growing to maturity, the aerials of the plants were separated from roots and the two tissue types were analyzed separately. All four human pharmaceuticals were detected in both tissues in the cabbage grown in the soil fortified with the four pharmaceuticals with median concentrations of 255.4 ng g(-1) aerials and 272.9 ng g(-1) roots carbamazepine; 222.8 ng g(-1) aerials and 260.3 ng g(-1) roots sulfamethoxazole; 108.3 ng g(-1) aerials and 140.6 ng g(-1) roots salbutamol; and 20.6 ng g(-1) aerials and 53.7 ng g(-1) roots trimethoprim. Although all study compounds were present in the biosolids-amended planting soil, only carbamazepine (317.6 ng g(-1) aerials and 416.2 ng g(-1) roots), salbutamol (21.2 ng g(-1) aerials and 187.6 ng g(-1) roots), and triclosan (22.9 ng g(-1) aerials and 1220.1 ng g(-1) roots) were detected in the aerials of the cabbage. In addition to the study compounds detected in the aerials, sulfamethoxazole was detected in the roots of one of the plants in the biosolid-amended soil. In comparison to many previous studies that have utilized PPCP concentration that exceed environmentally relevant concentrations, plants in this study were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of the PPCPs, yet resulted in uptake concentrations similar to or greater than those reported in comparable studies. We suggest that rhizosphere conditions, particularly the presence of dissolved organic matter in the planting matrix, might be one of the critical factors determining mobilization and bioavailability of xenobiotic compounds such as PPCPs. PMID:23051741

  12. Risk Assessment Studies: Detailed Host Range Testing of Wild-Type Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Cathy J.; Hirst, Mark L.; Cory, Jenny S.; Entwistle, Philip F.

    1990-01-01

    The host range of a multiply enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) (Baculoviridae) isolated from the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined by challenging a wide range of insect species with high (106 polyhedral inclusion bodies) and low (103 polyhedral inclusion bodies) doses of the virus. The identity of the progeny virus was confirmed by dot blotting. Analysis of 50% lethal dose was carried out on selected species, and the progeny virus was identified by using restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blotting. Other than the Lepidoptera, none of the species tested was susceptible to M. brassicae NPV. Within the Lepidoptera, M. brassicae NPV was infective to members of four families (Noctuidae, Geometridae, Yponomeutidae, and Nymphalidae). Of 66 lepidopterous species tested, M. brassicae NPV was cross-infective to 32 of them; however, 91% of the susceptible species were in the Noctuidae. The relevance of host range data in risk assessment studies is discussed. Images PMID:16348279

  13. Glycine conjugates in a lepidopteran insect herbivore--the metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Fredd; Svatos, Ales; Schneider, Bernd; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wittstock, Ute

    2006-12-01

    Herbivores have developed a wide array of countermeasures to overcome plants' chemical defences. Larvae of the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae, feed exclusively on plants of the Brassicales order, which are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system. The defensive function of this system comes from toxic isothiocyanates that are formed when glucosinolates are hydrolysed by myrosinases upon tissue damage. Here we show that P. rapae larvae convert benzylglucosinolate to phenylacetylglycine, which is released in their faeces. Feeding experiments with isotopic tracers suggest that phenylacetonitrile and phenylacetic acid are intermediates in this conversion. We also identified additional glycine and isoserine (2-hydroxy-3-aminopropanoic acid) conjugates with benzoate and indole-3-carboxylate from P. rapae faeces extracts. This is the first description of such conjugates from lepidopteran insects. PMID:17086559

  14. Simultaneous determination of flubendiamide its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide residues in cabbage, tomato and pigeon pea by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Banerjee, Hemanta

    2011-10-01

    A sensitive and simple method for simultaneous analysis of flubendiamide and its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide in cabbage, tomato and pigeon pea has been developed. The residues were extracted with QuEChERS method followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent to remove co extractives, prior to analysis by HPLC coupled with UV-Vis detector. The recoveries of flubendiamide and desiodo flubendiamide were ranged from 85.1 to 98.5% and 85.9 to 97.1% respectively with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 5% and sensitivity of 0.01 μg g(-1). The method offers a less expensive and safer alternative to the existing residue analysis methods for vegetables. PMID:21858703

  15. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  16. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Crushes What's a Booger? Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting OK for Kids? ...

  17. Effects of sewage water irrigation of cabbage to soil geochemical properties and products safety in peri-urban Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Hidayat; Khan, Ikhtiar

    2015-03-01

    Irrigation of agricultural land with municipal wastewater has become a serious environmental issue due to soil contamination. The objective of the present study was to investigate the extent of contamination of vegetables grown on soil irrigated with untreated sewage water for the last four decades in suburban Peshawar. Samples of sewage water, soil, and vegetables were collected from three different sectors selected for the study. Heavy metals like Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Ni in the three media were determined with atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). Statistical analysis of data revealed that the distribution order of these metals is quite different in the analyzed samples. Some of the heavy metals, viz., Cr, Cd, Zn, and Ni, have high skewness with non-normal frequency distribution. The soil of polluted areas showed highest mean concentration of Zn (51.25mgkg(-1)), followed by Pb (43.51mgkg(-1)), Cu (43.3mgkg(-1)), Ni (37.05mgkg(-1)), Cr (28.18mgkg(-1)), and Cd (8.51mgkg(-1)), which were 43, 22, 33, 26, 20, and 6 times higher than the control area, respectively. The ammonium bicarbonate diethylenetriaminepenta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) extractable concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Cu in soil of polluted sectors were 12, 10, and 10 times greater than the those in control sector, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed that enhanced levels of these toxic heavy metals in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) were strongly correlated with extractable and total heavy metal concentration in the soil. Significant difference (at P?cabbage of polluted sectors. Zn showed the highest transfer factor (TF) followed by Ni and Cu. Heavy metal concentration in sewage water and soil has exceeded the maximum permissible limits of World Health Organization (WHO 1997). PMID:25697308

  18. Rearing insects on artificial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are reared in the laboratory for various purposes. They may be reared either on their natural food or artificial diets. Developing artificial diets may be difficult and time consuming but once optimized, artificial diets usually are simple to prepare and easy to use. Because they are process...

  19. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes. PMID:23186839

  20. Diet therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Panush, R S; Carter, R L; Katz, P; Kowsari, B; Longley, S; Finnie, S

    1983-04-01

    Although diet therapy for arthritis has received considerable publicity, there is little objective information about its efficacy. We undertook a 10-week, controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-six patients completed the study; 11 were on an experimental diet (a specific popular diet free of additives, preservatives, fruit, red meat, herbs, and dairy products) and 15 were on a "placebo" diet. Of 183 variables analyzed, there were no clinically important differences among rheumatologic, laboratory, immunologic, radiologic, or nutritional findings between patients on experimental and placebo diets. Six RA patients on the placebo and 5 on the experimental diet improved by objective criteria. Improvement averaged 29% for patients on placebo and 32% for patients on experimental diets. Two patients on the experimental diet improved notably, elected to remain on the experimental diet following the study period, have continued to improve, and noted exacerbations of disease upon consuming nonexperimental diet foods. Our study failed to provide evidence of objective overall clinical benefit of this diet as followed by a group of patients with longstanding, progressive, active RA. However, our data are not inconsistent with the possibility that individualized dietary manipulations might be beneficial for selected patients with rheumatic disease. PMID:6838671

  1. [Controversies around diet proteins].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    Critical theories regarding proteins of anima origin are still and still popularized, though they are ungrounded from scientific point of view. Predominance of soya proteins over the animal ones in relation to their influence on calcium metabolism, bone break risk or risk of osteoporosis morbidity has not been confirmed in any honest, reliable research experiment. Statement, that sulphur amino acids influence disadvantageously on calcium metabolism of human organism and bone status, is completely groundless, the more so as presence of sulphur amino acids in diet (animal proteins are their best source) is the condition of endogenic synthesis of glutathione, the key antioxidant of the organism, and taurine stimulating brain functioning. Deficiency of proteins in the diet produce weakness of intellectual effectiveness and immune response. There is no doubt that limitation of consumption of animal proteins of standard value is not good for health. PMID:24490473

  2. [Diet low in potassium].

    PubMed

    Sáez Rodríguez, Loreto; Meizoso Ameneiro, Ana; Pérez Paz, Ma Jesús; Valiño Pazos, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    After confirming the high prevalence rates in our hemodialysis unit of the following nursing diagnoses: nutritional imbalances--both excesses and shortages, willingness to improve nutrition and fear related to the consequences of excessive intake of potassium and manifested by the inhibition in some people towards the enjoyment of food, we decided to plan an educational strategy which later resulted in a nursing intervention for these diagnoses, with the objective of providing adequate resources for the monitoring of balanced diets with a restriction of potassium. Inspired by dietary rations, as well as recognized dietary programs of learning by points, we decided to incorporate these ideas to design an educational tool to facilitate advice to our patients on how to follow diet plans as well as the choice of appropriate foods. The result was a set of cards incorporating nutritional information of various kinds, aimed at our patients covering different aspects of the diet appropriate food rations using household measurements, promoting good food preparation, appropriate dietary advice for different chronic diseases and a scoring system of foods according to their potassium content. Together they form a board game available during the hemodialysis sessions that also takes into consideration other issues of importance related to conditions such as cognitive stimulation, coping with the disease, improving the therapeutic performance or resources to increase patient motivation. Although initially it was only an educational exercise, the result has turned out to be both enjoyable and entertaining. PMID:25546901

  3. Diet and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ryan-Harshman, Milly; Aldoori, Walid

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether diet has a role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2006 for articles on the relationship between diet and CRC using the key words colorectal cancer and folic acid, calcium, vitamin D, red meat, or fibre. Evidence that these factors are associated with CRC came from case-control and prospective cohort studies and some clinical trials. MAIN MESSAGE Whether red meat is a culprit in causing CRC remains unanswered, although any effect it might have is likely moderate and related to processing or cooking. The effect of dietary fibre on risk of CRC has also been difficult to determine because fibre intake is generally low. Evidence that folic acid, calcium, and vitamin D reduce risk of CRC is stronger. In particular, recent research indicates that calcium and vitamin D might act together, rather than separately, to reduce the risk of colorectal adenomas. There might also be an interaction between low folate levels and high alcohol consumption and CRC. CONCLUSION Before dispensing dietary advice, physicians should understand the potential benefits and harm of specific components of various foods. People might be able to reduce their risk of CRC by increasing their vitamin and mineral levels through eating more vegetables and fruit. Multivitamin and mineral supplements can complement a healthy diet. PMID:18000268

  4. [Diet and migraine].

    PubMed

    Leira, R; Rodrguez, R

    1996-05-01

    Some foods in our diet can spark off migraine attacks in susceptible individuals. Some foods can bring an attack on through an allergic reaction. A certain number such as citrus fruits, tea, coffee, pork, chocolate, milk, nuts, vegetables and cola drinks have been cited as possible allergens associated with migraine. This mechanism has however been criticized: an improvement in symptoms by eliminating some food(s) from our diet does not necessarily mean an immunologically based allergic reaction. The high IgE incidence rate is not greater in such patients than in the population at large. Other allergic reactions unrelated to diet may also be associated with migraine attacks. On the other hand substances in food may be the cause of modifications in vascular tone and bring migraine on in those so prone. Among such substances are tyramine, phenylalanine, phenolic flavonoids, alcohol, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, aspartame) and caffeine. Another recognized trigger for migraine is hypoglycemia. Such foods as chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits, bananas, nuts, 'cured' meats, dairy products, cereals, beans, hot dogs, pizza, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate in Chinese restaurant food, aspartame as a sweetener), coffee, tea, cola drinks, alcoholic drinks such as red wine, beer or whisky distilled in copper stills, all may bring on a migraine attack. For every patient we have to assess which foodstuffs are involved in the attack (not necessarily produced by consuming the product concerned) in order to try to avoid their consumptions as a means of prophylaxis for migraine. PMID:8681169

  5. Acne and diet.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3) PMID:15556724

  6. Acne and diet.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Wolf R; Matz H; Orion E

    2004-09-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3)

  7. Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Divisi, Duilio; Di Tommaso, Sergio; Salvemini, Salvatore; Garramone, Margherita; Crisci, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between diet and cancer development. It has been estimated that 30-40% of all kinds of cancer can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle and dietary measures. A low use of fibres, the intake of red meat and an imbalance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fats may contribute to increase the risk of cancer. On the other hand, the assumption of lots of fruit and vegetables may lower the risk of cancer. Protective elements in a cancer-preventive diet include selenium, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin D, chlorophyll and antioxidants such as carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, cryptoxanthin). Ascorbic acid has limited benefits if taken orally, but it effective through intravenous injection. A supplementary use of oral digestive enzymes and probiotics is also an anticancer dietary measure. A diet drawn up according to the proposed guidelines could decrease the incidence of breast, colon-rectal, prostate and bronchogenic cancer. PMID:17172193

  8. Ternary Cu2SnS3 cabbage-like nanostructures: large-scale synthesis and their application in Li-ion batteries with superior reversible capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Baihua; Li, Hongxing; Zhang, Ming; Mei, Lin; Chen, Libao; Wang, Yanguo; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, novel ternary Cu2SnS3 cabbage-like nanostructures are synthesized on a large scale via a facile solvothermal route. The individual Cu2SnS3 cabbage-like hierarchitecture is constructed from 2D nanosheets with thickness of about 15.6 nm. The Cu2SnS3 electrodes exhibit an initial reversible capacity of 842 mAh g-1 and still reach 621 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles. Such an admirable performance could be related to their 3D porous structural features as well as the high electrical conductivity induced by Cu. The electrochemical properties of the 3D hierarchical nanostructures imply its potential application in high energy density Li-ion batteries.

  9. Direct determination of atrazine residue on Chinese cabbage leaf using desorption electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and its application for diagnosing atrazine drift phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Li, Chong-Jiu; Chen, Shan-Shan; Li, Xiao-Juan; Han, Hao; Ma, Xiao-Dong

    2009-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of atrazine residue and phytotoxicity on a nontargeted plant, the Chinese cabbage. The analysis was done by desorption electrospray ionization combined with ion trap MS/MS. Within the range of 63.13 to 2525 pg/mm2 of atrazine on the specimen, the linear relationship of the average peak area of extracted product ion m/z 174 (y) versus the surface concentration of atrazine (x) was estimated as y = 5066.5x - 85779; r was 0.9994, with RSD between 3.37 and 26.17%. The LOQ of atrazine on the leaf surface was lower than 63.13 pg/mm2. The method is highly applicable to detect atrazine residue and evaluate atrazine phytotoxicity on Chinese cabbage leaf with good accuracy, selectivity, sensitivity, and specificity. PMID:19916397

  10. Correlation of leaf senescence and gene expression/activities of chlorophyll degradation enzymes in harvested Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuelian; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Li, Jin; Wu, Lajie; Guo, Jiongye; Ouyang, Lvqing; Xia, Yinyin; Huang, Xuemei; Pang, Xuequn

    2011-11-15

    Chinese flowering cabbage is one of the main leafy vegetables produced in China. They have a rapid leaf yellowing due to chlorophyll degradation after harvest that limits their marketing. In the present study, leaf senescence of the cabbages was manipulated by ethylene and 6-benzyl aminopurine (6-BA) treatment to investigate the correlation of leaf senescence and chlorophyll degradation related to gene expression/activities in the darkness. The patterns of several senescence associated markers, including a typical marker, the expression of senescence-associated gene SAG(12), demonstrated that ethylene accelerated leaf senescence of the cabbages, while 6-BA retarded this progress. Similar to the trends of BrSAG(12) gene expression, strong activation in the expression of three chlorophyll degradation related genes, pheophytinase (BrPPH), pheophorbide a oxygenase (BrPAO) and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (BrRCCR), was detected in ethylene treated and control leaves during the incubation, while no evident increase was recorded in 6-BA treated leaves. The overall dynamics of Mg-dechelatase activities in all treatments displayed increasing trends during the senescence process, and a delayed increase in the activities was observed for 6-BA treated leaves. However, chlorophyllase activity as well as the expression of BrChlase1 and BrChlase2 decreased with the incubation in all treatments. Taken together, the expression of BrPPH, BrPAO and BrRCCR, and the activity of Mg-dechelatase was closely associated with the chlorophyll degradation during the leaf senescence process in harvested Chinese flowering cabbages under dark conditions. PMID:21820757

  11. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. PMID:26263516

  12. Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Na, U.

    2010-12-01

    It has been recognized that intensively managed agricultural soil is a dominant source of atmospheric N2O through increase in use of nitrogen fertilizer and soil microbial processes, contributing to about 57% (9Tg y-1) of total N2O annual global emission. Organic carbons in soil and wetland sediment including tidal flat affect the CO2 and CH4 emission in such environments depending on their physicochemical conditions. From October 2009 to June 2010, CO2, CH4, and N2O (GHG) soil emission measurements were conducted from upland cabbage field at Kunsan (35o56’23’’N, 126o43’14’’E), Korea by using closed static chamber method. During the experimental period, hourly GHG emissions were conducted mostly from 1000 to 1800LST in each field measurement day (total 28 days). After placing each chamber over soil surface of two neighboring plots, 50 ml of air sample inside the chambers was taken for every 15 min over a 30 min period by using plastic syringes (total of three samples). GHG concentrations were simultaneously analyzed in the laboratory by using a GC equipped with a methanizer, FID and ECD (Varian CP3800). The GHG fluxes were calculated from a linear regression of the changes in the concentrations. Negative values indicate GHG uptake by the soil surface, and positive values indicate GHG emission to the atmosphere. In addition, soil parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, pH, organic C, soil N) were measured at the sampling plot. The average soil pH and soil moisture during the experimental period was ~pH5.4±0.4 and 70.0±19.7 %WFPS, respectively. The average fluxes and ranges of GHG during the experimental period were -0.004±0.032 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-0.087 ~ 0.045 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CH4, 5.32±57.63 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-92.96 ~ 139.38 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CO2, and 1.119±1.918 mg-m-2 hr-1 (0.077 ~ 8.409 mg-m-2 hr-1) for N2O, respectively. Monthly base flux measurement results revealed that monthly means of CO2 and CH4 flux during October (fall) was positive and significantly higher than those (negative value) during January (winter) when sub soil have low temperature and relatively high moisture due to snow during the winter measurement period. Averages of soil temperature and moisture during these months were 17.5±1.2oC, 45.7±8.2%WFPS for October; and 1.4±1.3oC, 89.9±8.8%WFPS for January. It may indicate that soil temperature and moisture have significant role in determining whether the CO2 and CH4 emission or uptake take place. Low temperature and high moisture above a certain optimum level during winter could weaken microbial activity and the gas diffusion in soil matrix, and then make soil GHG emission to the atmosphere decrease. Other soil parameters were also correlated with GHG emissions and discussed. Both positive and negative gas fluxes in CH4 and CO2 were observed during these measurements, but not for N2O. CH4 and CO2 gases seem to be emitted from soil surface or up taken by the soil depending on other factors such as background concentrations and physicochemical soil conditions. However, still there are many uncertainties and large scarcities in both their determination methods and soil GHG flux data. Improvement of measurement techniques and well-understanding of relationships between gas emission and controlling factors in such environments need to be required.

  13. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Fengde; Li, Jingjuan; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that the VQ motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa play an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the VQ genes in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage). In this study, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the VQ genes in Chinese cabbage, especially under adverse environment. We identified 57 VQ genes and classified them into seven subgroups (I-VII), which were dispersedly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 10. The expansion of these genes mainly contributed to segmental and tandem duplication. Fifty-four VQ genes contained no introns and 50 VQ proteins were less than 300 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the VQ genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and during different abiotic stresses and plant hormone treatments. This study provides a comprehensive overview of Chinese cabbage VQ genes and will benefit the molecular breeding for resistance to stresses and disease, as well as further studies on the biological functions of the VQ proteins. PMID:26633387

  14. Functional Coexpression of the Mitochondrial Alternative Oxidase and Uncoupling Protein Underlies Thermoregulation in the Thermogenic Florets of Skunk Cabbage1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Kato, Yoshiaki; Abe, Yukie; Ito, Takanori; Morohashi, Miyuki; Ito, Yuka; Ichikawa, Megumi; Matsukawa, Kazushige; Kakizaki, Yusuke; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2008-01-01

    Two distinct mitochondrial energy dissipating systems, alternative oxidase (AOX) and uncoupling protein (UCP), have been implicated as crucial components of thermogenesis in plants and animals, respectively. To further clarify the physiological roles of AOX and UCP during homeothermic heat production in the thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius), we identified the thermogenic cells and performed expression and functional analyses of these genes in this organism. Thermographic analysis combined with in situ hybridization revealed that the putative thermogenic cells surround the stamens in the florets of skunk cabbage and coexpress transcripts for SrAOX, encoding Symplocarpus AOX, and SrUCPb, encoding a novel UCP that lacks a fifth transmembrane segment. Mitochondria isolated from the thermogenic florets exhibited substantial linoleic acid (LA)-inducible uncoupling activities. Moreover, our results demonstrate that LA is capable of inhibiting the mitochondrial AOX pathway, whereas the proportion of pyruvate-stimulated AOX capacity was not significantly affected by LA. Intriguingly, the protein expression levels for SrAOX and SrUCPb were unaffected even when the ambient air temperatures increased from 10.3C to 23.1C or from 8.3C to 24.9C. Thus, our results suggest that functional coexpression of AOX and UCP underlies the molecular basis of heat production, and that posttranslational modifications of these proteins play a crucial role in regulating homeothermic heat production under conditions of natural ambient temperature fluctuations in skunk cabbage. PMID:18162588

  15. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Fengde; Li, Jingjuan; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that the VQ motif–containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa play an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the VQ genes in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage). In this study, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the VQ genes in Chinese cabbage, especially under adverse environment. We identified 57 VQ genes and classified them into seven subgroups (I–VII), which were dispersedly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 10. The expansion of these genes mainly contributed to segmental and tandem duplication. Fifty-four VQ genes contained no introns and 50 VQ proteins were less than 300 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the VQ genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and during different abiotic stresses and plant hormone treatments. This study provides a comprehensive overview of Chinese cabbage VQ genes and will benefit the molecular breeding for resistance to stresses and disease, as well as further studies on the biological functions of the VQ proteins. PMID:26633387

  16. Application of a simple method using minute particles of amorphous calcium phosphate for recovery of norovirus from cabbage, lettuce, and ham.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Michiyo; Uchida, Kazue; Shimada, Shin-ichi; Tomioka, Kyoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Minegishi, Toshitaka; Kawahashi, Sachie; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Ohashi, Norio

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) method developed previously for calicivirus concentration from water was applied for norovirus detection from food. The viral recovery from cabbage, lettuce, or ham (10g of each) was firstly examined in seeding experiments with feline caliciviruses (FCVs). The viruses were concentrated by viral adsorption to ACP particles (0.3g) in the eluent solution (40ml) from foods, collection of the particles by centrifugation, followed by dissolution of the particles with 3.3M citric acid (3ml). In ham, FCV recovery was improved by addition of ascorbic acids into the eluent solution before ACP-particle adsorption. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that FCV recoveries were 32-33%, 50-55%, and 37-46% from cabbage, lettuce, and ham, respectively, when seeded with 10(3)-10(4) viruses, and detection limits were estimated ?10(3) genomic copies in all 3 foods. Subsequently, the ACP-concentration method was evaluated for norovirus (NoV) detection from these 3 foods. The recoveries and detection limit of NoVs determined by qRT-PCR were 12-41% and 10(3) (genomic copies) from cabbage, 30-57% and 10(3) from lettuce, and 20-26% and 10(4) from ham, when seeded with 10(3)-10(5) viruses. This simple method may be suitable for NoV detection from these foods. PMID:23046989

  17. Piriformospora indica confers drought tolerance in Chinese cabbage leaves by stimulating antioxidant enzymes, the expression of drought-related genes and the plastid-localized CAS protein.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Johnson, Joy M; Cai, Daguang; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmller, Ralf; Lou, Binggan

    2010-08-15

    Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, promotes plant growth and confers resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. The fungus strongly colonizes the roots of Chinese cabbage, promotes root and shoot growth, and promotes lateral root formation. When colonized plants were exposed to polyethylene glycol to mimic drought stress, the activities of peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases in the leaves were upregulated within 24h. The fungus retarded the drought-induced decline in the photosynthetic efficiency and the degradation of chlorophylls and thylakoid proteins. The expression levels of the drought-related genes DREB2A, CBL1, ANAC072 and RD29A were upregulated in the drought-stressed leaves of colonized plants. Furthermore, the CAS mRNA level for the thylakoid membrane associated Ca(2+)-sensing regulator and the amount of the CAS protein increased. We conclude that antioxidant enzyme activities, drought-related genes and CAS are three crucial targets of P. indica in Chinese cabbage leaves during the establishment of drought tolerance. P. indica-colonized Chinese cabbage provides a good model system to study root-to-shoot communication. PMID:20471134

  18. Application of Baranyi function to model the antibacterial properties of solvent extract from Irish York cabbage against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, A K; Gupta, S; Abu-Ghannam, N; Cox, S

    2011-10-01

    Cabbage is a rich source of a number of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, glucosinolates and their breakdown products which may have antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Outer green leaves of York cabbage were extracted with 60% methanol, ethanol or acetone. Antibacterial activities of vacuum dried crude extracts were estimated against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food spoilage and food pathogenic bacteria. The crude extracts showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities but 60% methanol extract exhibited the highest antibacterial effect. Complete growth inhibition for Listeria monocytogenes was achieved with an extract concentration of 1.4%, whereas a two-fold concentration was required to achieve a reduction of 75% and 64% for Salmonella abony and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. For Enterococcus faecalis methanolic extract showed a weak inhibition only (31%). The lower concentrations of methanolic extract from York cabbage prolonged the lag phase and reduced both the exponential growth rate and final population densities of the culture. Survival of the micro-organisms in presence of methanolic extract was mathematically modeled using Baranyi model equations. PMID:21954314

  19. From Olympia to Atlanta: a cultural-historical perspective on diet and athletic training.

    PubMed

    Grivetti, L E; Applegate, E A

    1997-05-01

    Greek and Roman writers described diet and training of Olympic athletes. Lucian (A.D. 120-ca. 180) described distance and speed work in runners; Galen (A.D. 131-201) recommended ball-related exercises to train vision and the body; Philostratos (A.D. 170-249) suggested cross training by endurance running, weight training, and wrestling with animals. The ancient Greek training system, the tetrad (eta tau epsilon tau rho alpha sigma), was a four-day cycle with each day devoted to a different activity. Diogenes Laertius (died A.D. 222) wrote that Greek athletes trained on dried figs, moist cheese and wheat; then the pattern changed and focused on meat. Epictetus (2nd century A.D.) wrote that Olympic victors avoided desserts and cold water and took wine sparingly. Philostratos deprecated athletic diet in his era, a pattern based on white bread sprinkled with poppy seeds, fish and pork. Americans at the XIth Olympiad in Berlin (1936) consumed beefsteak with average daily intake of 125 grams of butter or cotton oil, three eggs, custard for dessert and 1.5 L of milk. The American pattern at Berlin was characterized by ad libitum intake of white bread, dinner rolls, fresh vegetables and salads. At Atlanta, more than 5 million meals will be served during the Olympic festival. The highly varied menu will include fresh vegetables and dips; fruits, cheeses and breads; salads; pasta, rice and fruit salads; soups; meat and seafood entrees; hot vegetables; desserts; and beverages. American Southern specialties will be served. PMID:9164253

  20. Biochemical, photosynthetic and productive parameters of Chinese cabbage grown under blue-red LED assembly designed for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Pogosyan, Sergey; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Erokhin, Alexei; Zhigalova, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    Currently light emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered to be most preferable source for space plant growth facilities. We performed a complex study of growth and photosynthesis in Chinese cabbage plants (Brassica chinensis L.) grown with continuous LED lighting based on red (650 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs with a red to blue photon ratio of 7:1. Plants grown with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps were used as a control. PPF levels used were about 100 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 100) and nearly 400 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 400). One group of plants was grown with PPF 100 and transferred to PPF 400 at the age of 12 days. Plants were studied at the age of 15 and 28 days (harvest age); some plants were left to naturally end their life cycle. We studied a number of parameters reflecting different stages of photosynthesis: photosynthetic pigment content; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (photosystem II quantum yield, photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching); electron transport rate, proton gradient on thylakoid membranes (ΔpH), and photophosphorylation rate in isolated chloroplasts. We also tested parameters reflecting plant growth and productivity: shoot and root fresh and dry weight, sugar content and ascorbic acid content in shoots. Our results had shown that at PPF 100, plants grown with LEDs did not differ from control plants in shoot fresh weight, but showed substantial differences in photophosphorylation rate and sugar content. Differences observed in plants grown with PPF 100 become more pronounced in plants grown with PPF 400. Most parameters characterizing the plant photosynthetic performance, such as photosynthetic pigment content, electron transport rate, and ΔpH did not react strongly to light spectrum. Photophosphorylation rate differed strongly in plants grown with different spectrum and PPF level, but did not always reflect final plant yield. Results of the present work suggest that narrow-band LED lighting caused changes in Chinese cabbage plants on levels of the photosynthetic apparatus and the whole plant, concerning its development and adaptation to a varying PPF level.

  1. Diet and dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, P K

    1987-01-01

    Personal experience shows that subjective and objective improvements can be achieved in chronic renal failure treated with dialysis. These aims were achieved by limiting energy intake to 8 MJ a day and by substituting cassava for bread and potatoes, thereby reducing the intake of protein, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. Water soluble vitamins were added to the diet. With this regimen blood urea concentrations vary between 2.5 and 12 mmol/l for most of the week and the packed cell volume between 0.30 and 0.37. PMID:3119029

  2. Nutrition, diet and immunosenescence.

    PubMed

    Maij, Mnica; Clements, Sarah J; Ivory, Kamal; Nicoletti, Claudio; Carding, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by immunosenescence and the progressive decline in immunity in association with an increased frequency of infections and chronic disease. This complex process affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems with a progressive decline in most immune cell populations and defects in activation resulting in loss of function. Although host genetics and environmental factors, such as stress, exercise and diet can impact on the onset or course of immunosenescence, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. This review focusses on identifying the most significant aspects of immunosenescence and on the evidence that nutritional intervention might delay this process, and consequently improve the quality of life of the elderly. PMID:24373813

  3. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Manjari

    2013-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. PMID:23936641

  4. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  5. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    PubMed

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future. PMID:26668038

  6. Cooking Up Hot Quark Soup

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Walsh, Karen McNulty

    2011-03-28

    Near-light-speed collisions of gold ions provide a recipe for in-depth explorations of matter and fundamental forces. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has produced the most massive antimatter nucleus ever discovered—and the first containing an anti-strange quark. The presence of strange antimatter makes this antinucleus the first to be entered below the plane of the classic Periodic Table of Elements, marking a new frontier in physics.

  7. Chemical Soups Around Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This artist's conception shows a young, hypothetical planet around a cool star. A soupy mix of potentially life-forming chemicals can be seen pooling around the base of the jagged rocks. Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope hint that planets around cool stars the so-called M-dwarfs and brown dwarfs that are widespread throughout our galaxy might possess a different mix of life-forming, or prebiotic, chemicals than our young Earth.

    Life on our planet is thought to have arisen out of a pond-scum-like mix of chemicals. Some of these chemicals are thought to have come from a planet-forming disk of gas and dust that swirled around our young sun. Meteorites carrying the chemicals might have crash-landed on Earth.

    Astronomers don't know if these same life-generating processes are taking place around stars that are cooler than our sun, but the Spitzer observations show their disk chemistry is different. Spitzer detected a prebiotic molecule, called hydrogen cyanide, in the disks around yellow stars like our sun, but found none around cooler, less massive, reddish stars. Hydrogen cyanide is a carbon-containing, or organic compound. Five hydrogen cyanide molecules can join up to make adenine a chemical element of the DNA molecule found in all living organisms on Earth.

  8. Thermodynamic sorption of red cabbage extract (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. f. rubra) encapsulated by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Anahi; Zapata Norea, Caciano P

    2015-12-01

    Red cabbage aqueous extract acidified with 2% citric acid was spray-dried using gum Arabic as encapsulating agent. The concentration of anthocyanin in the powder was 253.45??10.82mg/100g of dry basis and antioxidant activity of 4.6??0.2mmol trolox/kg of dry basis. The sorption isotherms were determined at 15, 25 and 35C, and the GAB model was the one that best adjusted to the experimental data. The differential enthalpy and entropy for moisture levels up to 2g of water/g of dry basis decreased to a minimum value of -4.36kJ/mol and -0.019kJ/molK respectively, and then increased in magnitude with the rise in moisture content to levels close to the free moisture with a spontaneous process, governed by the entropy. The spreading pressure increased with the rise in water activity for all temperatures, while net integral enthalpy and entropy decreased with the rise in moisture content reaching levels close to 10kJ/mol and 0.025kJ/molK, respectively. PMID:26604392

  9. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the PUB family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinesis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Duan, Weike; Riquicho, Ali RamuliMaquina; Jing, Zange; Liu, Tongkun; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2015-12-01

    U-box proteins are widely distributed among eukaryotic organisms and show a higher prevalence in plants than in other organisms. Plant U-box (PUB) proteins play crucial regulatory roles in various developmental and physiological processes. Previously, 64 and 77 PUB genes have been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. In this study, 101 putative PUB genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis line Chiifu-401-42) genome and compared with other 15 representative plants. By specific protein domains and a phylogenetic analysis, the B. rapa PUB (BrPUB) gene family was subdivided into 10 groups. Localization of BrPUB genes showed an uneven distribution on the ten chromosomes of B. rapa. The orthologous and co-orthologous PUB gene pairs were identified between B. rapa and A. thaliana. RNA-seq transcriptome data of different tissues revealed tissue-specific and differential expression profiles of the BrPUBs, and quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed inverse gene expression patterns of the BrPUB-ARMs in response to cold and heat stresses. Altogether, the identification, classification, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs, and expression patterns of BrPUBs were predicted and analysed. Importantly, this study of BrPUBs provides a rich resource that will aid in the determination of PUB functions in plant development. PMID:26054324

  10. Effects of Temperature on Systemic Infection and Symptom Expression of Turnip mosaic virus in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    PubMed

    Chung, Bong Nam; Choi, Kyung San; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Joa, Jae Ho; Do, Ki Seck; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2015-12-01

    Using the Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris) cultivar 'Chun-goang' as a host and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) as a pathogen, we studied the effects of ambient temperature (13C, 18C, 23C, 28C and 33C) on disease intensity and the speed of systemic infection. The optimal temperature for symptom expression of TuMV was 18-28C. However, symptoms of viral infection were initiated at 23-28C and 6 days post infection (dpi). Plants maintained at 33C were systemically infected as early as 6 dpi and remained symptomless until 12 or 22 dpi, depending on growth stage at the time of inoculation. It took 45 days for infection of plants grown at 13C. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) results showed that the accumulation of virus coat protein was greater in plants grown at 23-28C. The speed of systemic infection increased linearly with rising ambient temperature, up to 23C. The zero-infection temperature was 10.1C. To study the effects of abruptly elevated temperatures on systemic infection, plants inoculated with TuMV were maintained at 10C for 20 d; transferred to a growth chamber at temperatures of 13C, 18C, 23C, 28C, or 33C for 1, 2, or 3 d; and then moved back to 10C. The numbers of plants infected increased as duration of exposure to higher temperatures and dpi increased. PMID:26673094

  11. Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage with swine manure for biogas production: batch and continuous study.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Bhattarai, Sujala; Kim, Sang Hun; Chen, Lide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage (CCWS) with swine manure (SM). Batch and continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions (36-38C). The batch test evaluated the effect of CCWS co-digestion with SM (SM: CCWS=100:0; 25:75; 33:67; 0:100, % volatile solids (VS) basis). The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor with SM alone and with a mixture of SM and CCWS. Batch test results showed no significant difference in biogas yield up to 25-33% of CCWS; however, biogas yield was significantly decreased when CCWS contents in feed increased to 67% and 100%. When testing continuous digestion, the biogas yield at organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.0 g VSL? d? increased by 17% with a mixture of SM and CCWS (SM:CCWS=75:25) (423 mL g? VS) than with SM alone (361 mL g? VS). The continuous anaerobic digestion process (biogas production, pH, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and TVFA/total alkalinity ratios) was stable when co-digesting SM and CCWS (75:25) at OLR of 2.0 g VSL? d? and hydraulic retention time of 20 days under mesophilic conditions. PMID:25176305

  12. The Respiratory Chain of Plant Mitochondria. I. Electron Transport Between Succinate and Oxygen in Skunk Cabbage Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Bayard T.; Bahr, James T.

    1969-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of ubiquinone, flavoprotein, cytochrome c, and the cytochrome b complex in skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) mitochondria made anaerobic with succinate have been measured spectrophotometrically and fluorimetrically in the absence of respiratory inhibitor and in the presence of cyanide or antimycin A. No component identifiable by these means was oxidized rapidly enough in the presence of one or the other inhibitor to qualify for the role of alternate oxidase. Cycles of oxidation and rereduction of flavoprotein and ubiquinone obtained by injecting 12 μm oxygen into the anaerobic mitochondrial suspension were kinetically indistinguishable in the presence of cyanide or antimycin A, implying that these 2 components are part of a respiratory pathway between succinate and oxygen which does not involve the cytochromes and does involve a cyanide-insensitive alternate oxidase. The cytochrome b complex shows biphasic oxidation kinetics with half times of 0.018 sec and 0.4 sec in the absence of inhibitor, which increase to 0.2 sec and 1 sec in the presence of cyanide. In the presence of antimycin A, the oxidation of the cytochrome b complex shows an induction period of 1 sec and a half-time of 3.5 sec. A split respiratory chain with 2 terminal oxidases and a branch point between the cytochromes and flavoprotein and ubiquinone is proposed for these mitochondria. PMID:5775846

  13. Residue behavior of combination formulations of insecticides in/on cabbage and their efficacy against aphids and diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suman; Sharma, Rakesh K; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Gupta, Ram K

    2015-01-01

    Persistence behavior of insecticides chlorpyriphos, profenofos, triazophos, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin following the use of three combination formulations Action 505 (chlorpyriphos?+?cypermethrin), Roket 44EC (profenofos?+?cypermethrin), and Anaconda Plus (triazophos?+?deltamethrin) was studied in cabbage following the spray application at the recommended and double doses. Bio-efficacy of these formulations was also evaluated against mustard aphids (Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach) and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.). The residues of different insecticides persisted for 5-8 days at low dose and 8-12 days at high dose. The residues dissipated with time and 87-100% dissipation was recorded on the 8th day. The half-life values varied from 0.4 to 1.6 days. Based on the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values, a safe waiting period of 1 day has been suggested for the formulations Action 505 and Roket 44EC and 3 days for Anaconda Plus at the recommended dose of application. Action (1.6 L/ha) treatment was found to be the best as it significantly reduced the diamondback moth (DBM) (~60%) and aphid population (~70%) besides giving the highest yield (170% increase over control). PMID:25384368

  14. Influence of postharvest UV-B treatment and fermentation on secondary plant compounds in white cabbage leaves.

    PubMed

    Harbaum-Piayda, Britta; Palani, Kalpana; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The influence of postharvest UV-B on its own and in combination with fermentation (e.g. sauerkraut production) on formation and degradation of bioactive compounds was investigated in white cabbage, processed according to traditional Chinese fermentation methods. The pattern of polyphenols was affected by postharvest UV-B: Newly formed coumaroylglycoside, feruloylglycoside, caffeoylglycoside (up to 1 mg/g dry matter; 4 days) and quercetintriglycoside (0.4-0.5 mg/gdm; 4 days) might be related to postharvest increase in enzyme activity in the biosynthesis. Decreasing contents were observed for the glucosinolates glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, but the formation of the degradation products dihydroascorbigen and dihydro-4-methoxyascorbigen, which might be related to cell shrinking as mechanical damage. Fermentation resulted in deglycosidation of hydroxycinnamic acids. Newly generated cinnamic acid from coumaric acid aglycone was detected in fermented plant material combined with UV-B (50 μg/g). Glucosinolates and dihydroascorbigens were completely degraded. This study shows exemplary UV-B as a supplemental step to improve the nutritional quality of processed plants. PMID:26616923

  15. Differential alteration of two aminopeptidases N associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in cabbage looper.

    PubMed

    Tiewsiri, Kasorn; Wang, Ping

    2011-08-23

    The soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most successfully used biopesticide in agriculture, and its insecticidal protein genes are the primary transgenes used for insect control in transgenic crops. However, evolution of insect resistance to Bt toxins threatens the long-term future of Bt applications. To date, cases of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in agricultural situations in six insect species, but the molecular basis for these cases of resistance remains unclear. Here we report that the resistance to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, evolved in greenhouses, is associated with differential alteration of two midgut aminopeptidases N, APN1 and APN6, conferred by a trans-regulatory mechanism. Biochemical, proteomic, and molecular analyses showed that in the Cry1Ac-resistant T. ni, APN1 was significantly down-regulated, whereas APN6 was significantly up-regulated. The Cry1Ac resistance was correlated with down-regulation of APN1 but not with the up-regulation of APN6. The concurrent up-regulation of APN6 and down-regulation of APN1 might play a role in compensating for the loss of APN1 to minimize the fitness costs of the resistance. Along with identifying reduced expression of APN1 as the molecular basis of Bt resistance selected in an agricultural setting, our findings demonstrate the importance of APN1 to the mode of action of Bt toxin Cry1Ac. PMID:21844358

  16. BcPMI2, isolated from non-heading Chinese cabbage encoding phosphomannose isomerase, improves stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuehua; Zhang, Shuo; Hu, Die; Zhao, Xiaojun; Li, Yan; Liu, Tongkun; Wang, Jianjun; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) is an enzyme that catalyses the first step of the L-galactose pathway for ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthesis in plants. To clarify the physiological roles of PMI in AsA biosynthesis, the cDNA sequence of PMI was cloned from non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino) and overexpressed in tobacco transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The AsA and soluble sugar contents were lower in 35S::BcPMI2 tobacco than in wild-type tobacco. However, the AsA level in BcPMI2-overexpressing plants under stress was significantly increased. The T1 seed germination rate of transgenic plants was higher than that of wild-type plants under NaCl or H2O2 treatment. Meanwhile, transgenic plants showed higher tolerance than wild-type plants. This finding implied that BcPMI2 overexpression improved AsA biosynthetic capability and accumulation, and evidently enhanced tolerance to oxidative and salt stress, although the AsA level was lower in transgenic tobacco than in wild-type tobacco under normal condition. PMID:24430300

  17. Diet intake patterns of non-Bengali Muslim mothers during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, R N; Ghosh, B N; Chatterjee, B N

    1989-01-01

    An explorative study was carried out to ascertain the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diet patterns during pregnancy and lactation among Non-Bengali Muslim mothers. 100 consecutive mothers admitted for delivery in the Obstetric Ward of Islamia Hospital, Calcutta, were selected as index cases. Retrospective data from these mothers were collected about their diet patterns during pregnancy. At least 3 home visits were made for each mother after her discharge from the hospital: the 1st visit within 7 days after discharge, the 2nd visit when the infant was 4-6 months old during the weaning period, and the 3rd visit when the infant was 8-12 months old. 60% of mothers were illiterate and 34% had up to primary level education, while only 4% and 2% of mothers had up to secondary and higher than secondary level education, respectively. None of the mothers was working. Only 13% of the families' daily diet was nonvegetarian. There was a wide gap between the mothers' attitude towards various nutritious food categories and the actual practice of consuming them because of the inability to buy those food items owing to poverty. When pregnant, they avoided leafy vegetables (96%) as well as brinjal, cauliflower, and cabbage (42%) for fear of gastric upset. 75% of mothers avoided pineapple and papaya; and 50% avoided fish since it was believed to cause scaly patches on the child's face and body. 76% of mothers, irrespective of their level of education or economic status, were consuming sago, barley, garlic, and turmeric in the erroneous belief of augmenting breast milk secretion. Garlic and turmeric were also believed to improve the baby's complexion and protect the baby and mother from cough and cold. Common food items avoided by mothers during lactation were vegetables (93%), fruits (81%), pulses (59%), and roots and tubers (54%). PMID:2641755

  18. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  19. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,

  20. HEALTH AND DIET SURVEY (HDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FDA conducts this periodic omnibus survey of American consumers to track consumer attitudes, knowledge, and reported behaviors related to diet and health issues including cholesterol awareness of diet-disease risk factors, food label use, dietary supplement use, and awarenes...

  1. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals. PMID:19279075

  2. Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence

    PubMed Central

    Alaux, Cdric; Ducloz, Franois; Crauser, Didier; Le Conte, Yves

    2010-01-01

    The maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and a lack of dietary protein can increase the susceptibility of organisms to disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between protein nutrition and immunity in insects. Here, we tested in honeybees (Apis mellifera) whether dietary protein quantity (monofloral pollen) and diet diversity (polyfloral pollen) can shape baseline immunocompetence (IC) by measuring parameters of individual immunity (haemocyte concentration, fat body content and phenoloxidase activity) and glucose oxidase (GOX) activity, which enables bees to sterilize colony and brood food, as a parameter of social immunity. Protein feeding modified both individual and social IC but increases in dietary protein quantity did not enhance IC. However, diet diversity increased IC levels. In particular, polyfloral diets induced higher GOX activity compared with monofloral diets, including protein-richer diets. These results suggest a link between protein nutrition and immunity in honeybees and underscore the critical role of resource availability on pollinator health. PMID:20089536

  3. Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence.

    PubMed

    Alaux, Cdric; Ducloz, Franois; Crauser, Didier; Le Conte, Yves

    2010-08-23

    The maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and a lack of dietary protein can increase the susceptibility of organisms to disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between protein nutrition and immunity in insects. Here, we tested in honeybees (Apis mellifera) whether dietary protein quantity (monofloral pollen) and diet diversity (polyfloral pollen) can shape baseline immunocompetence (IC) by measuring parameters of individual immunity (haemocyte concentration, fat body content and phenoloxidase activity) and glucose oxidase (GOX) activity, which enables bees to sterilize colony and brood food, as a parameter of social immunity. Protein feeding modified both individual and social IC but increases in dietary protein quantity did not enhance IC. However, diet diversity increased IC levels. In particular, polyfloral diets induced higher GOX activity compared with monofloral diets, including protein-richer diets. These results suggest a link between protein nutrition and immunity in honeybees and underscore the critical role of resource availability on pollinator health. PMID:20089536

  4. [Diet prescription in obese patients].

    PubMed

    Lesi, Carlo; Giaquinto, Ester; Valeriani, Luca; Zoni, Luisa

    2005-03-01

    Diet is a cornerstone in the treatment of obese patients with or without metabolic complications. To optimize outcome, diet treatment should always take into account factors such as the Body Mass Index, the timeframe for reaching the recommended weight loss, comorbidities (e.g. arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, lipid abnormalities, hyperuricemia) and, finally, individual patient characteristics (e.g. habits, preferences, adherence capacity). Hypocaloric diets need to be adequately balanced in terms of glucides, lipids and proteins, vitamins and minerals. For these reasons the diet prescription for obese patients, particularly those with comorbidities or cardiovascular disease, should be under the guidance of expert nutrition professionals who are aware of the risks of an unbalanced diet. PMID:16128164

  5. [Water in children's diet].

    PubMed

    Rudzka-Kantoch, Z; Weker, H

    2000-01-01

    Water is one of the main dietary components. Its quality plays an important role for the safety of food particularly for infants. For the youngest children the groundwater free of chemical and microbiological pollution and with the proper chemical composition can be used. For infants is recommended natural spring water and natural mineral water of low sodium concentration diet. PMID:11381158

  6. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet ... avoid. It is very important to follow these diet guidelines. ... about any problems you are having with your diet, or about other issues related to your surgery ...

  7. Diet and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koriech, Osama M.

    1994-01-01

    Environrnental and lifestyle factors, including diet, pray be responsible for the recognised worldwide variation in tire incidence of specific types or cancer. Chemical carcinogenesis is a multistage process occurring over a relatively long period or time. The mechanisms are complex as different factors damage develops following exposure to carcinogenic agents. Progression to malignancy is, at this stage, not inevitable. Specific agents are needed to promote, and induce progression or inhibit subsequent changes to develop invasive malignancy. Understanding the roles played by different agents and mechanisms in the overall carcinogenic process For cc specific cancer nary form the basis for risk assessment and eventual prevention. The multistep process of carcinogenesis including initiation, promotion, and progression, are all needed for clinically invasive cancer to develop. Efforts directed to any of these phases can prevent the development of cancer. A variety of carcinogenic and mutagenic substances ore present in our diet. Some are found naturally in the food ingredients, whereas others result from pesticide residues, environmental pollution, food additives, preparation and processing procedures, curd fungal contamination. The control of these factors may render some cancers potentially avoidable. The role of macro and micro-nutrients in the causation of cancer and eventually in its prevention is complicated by their combined distribution in food products. Intensive research into the nature of cancer prevention by nutrient components and their synthetic analogs is still in its infancy. As cancer induction, promotion and progression is a slow mechanism that could take many years, it is uncertain what time-period of dietary intake is most relevant. Currently, recommended prevention strategies include choose more/choose less approach, through emphasizing a shift away from high fat, low-fiber foods that may increase cancer risks, toward foods low in fat and rich in fiber and nutrients. PMID:23008529

  8. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  9. Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus infection and enhancing effect of proteins derived from Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus in larvae of Mamestra brassicae and Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cabbage.

    PubMed

    Mukawa, Shigeyuki; Goto, Chie

    2010-04-01

    The insecticidal effect of Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus (MabrNPV) T5 against Mamestra brassicae (L.) and Helicoverpa armnigera (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), important pests of various vegetables and ornamental crops in Japan as well as many other countries, and the enhancing activity of proteins derived from occlusion bodies of Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV) a-4, which was named GVPs, on the infectivity of MabrNPV were evaluated in a bioassay with second-instar larvae fed on virus-applied cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata, plants. The lethal concentrations of MabrNPV achieving 95% mortality (LC95) were estimated to be 7.7 x 10(5) and 1.8 x 10(5) OBs per ml for M. brassicae and H. armigera, respectively, with MabrNPV-alone treatment. Because the mean areas of cabbage leaf consumed by one larva in 60 h were not significantly different between M. brassicae and H. armigera, we conclude that MabrNPV is more infectious to H. armigera than to M. brassicae. When larvae were fed on cabbage plants treated with 10(4) OBs per ml MabrNPV and various concentrations of the GVPs, the mortality of the two noctuid larvae increased in relation to GVP concentration. The requisite concentrations of the GVPs achieving 95% mortality with the MabrNPV for M. brassicae and H. armigera were estimated to be 5.93-8.30 and 1.94-3.48 microg/ml, respectively. In a comparison of the MabrNPV-alone treatment with equivalent 95% mortality, addition of GVPs increased the rate of larval death at younger instars, especially in M. brassicae. Our results indicate that GVPs are a potentially useful additive for improving the insecticidal efficacy of MabrNPV. PMID:20429436

  10. Physiological Characterization and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Slow-Growing Reduced-Thylakoid Mutant of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengnan; Liu, Zhiyong; Li, Danyang; Yao, Runpeng; Hou, Li; Li, Xiang; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mutants are ideal for studying physiological processes. The leaves of Chinese cabbage are a major place for photosynthesis, and the mutation of these leaves may directly affect the rate of plant growth and development, thus influencing the formation of its leafy head. We characterized a slow-growing mutant, which was designated as drm. The drm exhibited slow growth and development at the seedling and heading stages, leading to the production of a tiny, leafy head, and chlorophyll-deficient leaves, especially in seedlings. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotype of drm was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Compared with the wild-type "FT" line, the drm's chlorophyll content was significantly reduced and its chloroplast structure was abnormal. Moreover, its photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were significantly decreased. The changes in leaf color, combined with these altered physiological characters, may influence the growth and development of plant, ultimately resulting in the slow-growing phenotype. To further understand the molecular regulation mechanisms of phenotypic differences between "FT" and drm, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed using RNA-Seq; a total of 338 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between "FT" and drm. According to GO and KEGG pathway analysis, a number of DEGs involved in chlorophyll degradation and photosynthesis were identified, such as chlorophyllase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. In addition, the expression patterns of 12 DEGs, including three chlorophyll degradation- and photosynthesis-related genes and nine randomly-selected genes, were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified, providing a valuable resource for research and molecular marker-assistant breeding in Chinese cabbage. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular regulation mechanisms underlying growth and development and lay the foundation for future genetic and functional genomics in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26858733

  11. Physiological Characterization and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Slow-Growing Reduced-Thylakoid Mutant of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shengnan; Liu, Zhiyong; Li, Danyang; Yao, Runpeng; Hou, Li; Li, Xiang; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mutants are ideal for studying physiological processes. The leaves of Chinese cabbage are a major place for photosynthesis, and the mutation of these leaves may directly affect the rate of plant growth and development, thus influencing the formation of its leafy head. We characterized a slow-growing mutant, which was designated as drm. The drm exhibited slow growth and development at the seedling and heading stages, leading to the production of a tiny, leafy head, and chlorophyll-deficient leaves, especially in seedlings. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotype of drm was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Compared with the wild-type “FT” line, the drm's chlorophyll content was significantly reduced and its chloroplast structure was abnormal. Moreover, its photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were significantly decreased. The changes in leaf color, combined with these altered physiological characters, may influence the growth and development of plant, ultimately resulting in the slow-growing phenotype. To further understand the molecular regulation mechanisms of phenotypic differences between “FT” and drm, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed using RNA-Seq; a total of 338 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between “FT” and drm. According to GO and KEGG pathway analysis, a number of DEGs involved in chlorophyll degradation and photosynthesis were identified, such as chlorophyllase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. In addition, the expression patterns of 12 DEGs, including three chlorophyll degradation- and photosynthesis-related genes and nine randomly-selected genes, were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified, providing a valuable resource for research and molecular marker-assistant breeding in Chinese cabbage. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular regulation mechanisms underlying growth and development and lay the foundation for future genetic and functional genomics in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26858733

  12. QTL Analysis of Head Splitting Resistance in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) Using SSR and InDel Makers Based on Whole-Genome Re-Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Head splitting resistance (HSR) in cabbage is an important trait closely related to both quality and yield of head. However, the genetic control of this trait remains unclear. In this study, a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from an intra-cross between head splitting-susceptible inbred cabbage line 79–156 and resistant line 96–100 was obtained and used to analyze inheritance and detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for HSR using a mixed major gene/polygene inheritance analysis and QTL mapping. HSR can be attributed to additive-epistatic effects of three major gene pairs combined with those of polygenes. Negative and significant correlations were also detected between head Hsr and head vertical diameter (Hvd), head transverse diameter (Htd) and head weight (Hw). Using the DH population, a genetic map was constructed with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and insertion–deletion (InDel) markers, with a total length of 1065.9 cM and average interval length of 4.4 cM between adjacent markers. Nine QTLs for HSR were located on chromosomes C3, C4, C7, and C9 based on 2 years of phenotypic data using both multiple-QTL mapping and inclusive composite interval mapping. The identified QTLs collectively explained 39.4 to 59.1% of phenotypic variation. Three major QTLs (Hsr 3.2, 4.2, 9.2) showing a relatively larger effect were robustly detected in different years or with different mapping methods. The HSR trait was shown to have complex genetic mechanisms. Results from QTL mapping and classical genetic analysis were consistent. The QTLs obtained in this study should be useful for molecular marker-assisted selection in cabbage breeding and provide a foundation for further research on HSR genetic regulation. PMID:26406606

  13. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (var. kurstaki) Against Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.) Eggs and Larvae on Cabbage Under Semi-Controlled Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Legwaila, Mitch M.; Munthali, David C.; Kwerepe, Baone C.; Obopile, Motshwari

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (var. kurstaki) (Btk) against the diamondback moth (DBM) on cabbage was studied at Botswana College of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana. Using five concentrations of Btk: 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/L, bioassays were conducted against DBM eggs and second instar larvae at 30C 5C. Each treatment was replicated three times. Probit analysis was used to determine the LD50 and LD90 values for the treatments against eggs and larvae. When the treatments were assessed at 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours, LD90 values against larvae were 11.02, 10.22, 5.92, and 4.01 g/L, whereas they were 7.71, 6.94, and 6.24 g/L against eggs when assessed 48, 72, and 96 hours after the expected time of hatching. This indicated that Btk was effective against both eggs and larvae when exposed for long periods. The slopes of the probit lines for larvae assessed at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours after application were 0.250, 1.064, 0.910, 0.383, 0.453, and 0.414, while those against eggs were 1.153, 1.246, and 0.933 when assessed 48, 72, and 96 hours after the expected time of hatching. This indicates a smaller change in mortality with increase in pesticide dosage for both eggs and larvae. Btk treatments achieved 85.7%94.6% reduction in DBM damage on cabbage. Therefore, Btk can be used to achieve effective control of DBM eggs and larvae and reduce damage on cabbage under greenhouse conditions. PMID:26816488

  14. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective. PMID:25461244

  15. Target-site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in German populations of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christoph T; Müller, Andreas; Heimbach, Udo; Nauen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major pest of winter oilseed rape in several European countries particularly attacking young emerging plants in autumn. Over the last several decades, pyrethroid insecticides have been foliarly applied to control flea beetle outbreaks. Recent control failures in northern Germany suggested pyrethroid resistance development in cabbage stem flea beetles, which were confirmed by resistance monitoring bioassays using lambda-cyhalothrin in an adult vial test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of polymorphisms in the para-type voltage-gated sodium channel gene of P. chrysocephala known to be involved in knock-down resistance (kdr). By using a degenerate primer approach we PCR amplified part of the para-type sodium channel gene and identified in resistant flea beetles a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in an L1014F (kdr) mutation within domain IIS6 of the channel protein, known as one of the chief pyrethroid target-site resistance mechanisms in several other pest insects. Twenty populations including four archived museum samples collected between 1945 and 1958 were analyzed using a newly developed pyrosequencing diagnostic assay. The assay revealed a kdr allele frequency of 90-100% in those flea beetle populations expressing high-level cross-resistance in discriminating dose bioassays against different pyrethroids such as lambda-cyhalothrin, tau-fluvalinate, etofenprox and bifenthrin. The presence of target-site resistance to pyrethroids in cabbage stem flea beetle is extremely worrying considering the lack of effective alternative modes of action to control this pest in Germany and other European countries, and is likely to result in major control problems once it expands to other geographies. The striking fact that cabbage stem flea beetle is next to pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus the second coleopteran pest in European winter oilseed rape resisting pyrethroid treatments by expressing a target-site mutation, underpins the importance of diversity in available chemistry for resistance management tactics based on mode of action rotation in order to guarantee sustainable winter oilseed rape cultivation in Europe. PMID:24485308

  16. Egg Laying of Cabbage White Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) on Arabidopsis thaliana Affects Subsequent Performance of the Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Blenn, Beatrice; Drechsler, Navina; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Kunze, Reinhard; Hilker, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Plant resistance to the feeding by herbivorous insects has recently been found to be positively or negatively influenced by prior egg deposition. Here we show how crucial it is to conduct experiments on plant responses to herbivory under conditions that simulate natural insect behaviour. We used a well-studied plant – herbivore system, Arabidopsis thaliana and the cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae, testing the effects of naturally laid eggs (rather than egg extracts) and allowing larvae to feed gregariously as they do naturally (rather than placing single larvae on plants). Under natural conditions, newly hatched larvae start feeding on their egg shells before they consume leaf tissue, but access to egg shells had no effect on subsequent larval performance in our experiments. However, young larvae feeding gregariously on leaves previously laden with eggs caused less feeding damage, gained less weight during the first 2 days, and suffered twice as high a mortality until pupation compared to larvae feeding on plants that had never had eggs. The concentration of the major anti-herbivore defences of A. thaliana, the glucosinolates, was not significantly increased by oviposition, but the amount of the most abundant member of this class, 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate was 1.8-fold lower in larval-damaged leaves with prior egg deposition compared to damaged leaves that had never had eggs. There were also few significant changes in the transcript levels of glucosinolate metabolic genes, except that egg deposition suppressed the feeding-induced up-regulation of FMOGS-OX2, a gene encoding a flavin monooxygenase involved in the last step of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate biosynthesis. Hence, our study demonstrates that oviposition does increase A. thaliana resistance to feeding by subsequently hatching larvae, but this cannot be attributed simply to changes in glucosinolate content. PMID:23527243

  17. Secretion of Na(+), K(+) and fluid by the Malpighian (renal) tubule of the larval cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Esau; O'Donnell, Michael J; Donini, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The Malpighian (renal) tubules play important roles in ionic and osmotic homeostasis in insects. In Lepidoptera, the Malpighian tubules are structurally regionalized and the concentration of Na(+) and K(+) in the secreted fluid varies depending on the segment of tubule analyzed. In this work, we have characterized fluid and ion (Na(+), K(+), H(+)) transport by tubules of the larval stage of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni; we have also evaluated the effects of fluid secretion inhibitors and stimulants on fluid and ion transport. Ramsay assays showed that fluid was secreted by the iliac plexus but not by the yellow and white regions of the tubule. K(+) and Na(+) were secreted by the distal iliac plexus (DIP) and K(+) was reabsorbed in downstream regions. The fluid secretion rate decreased>50% after 25?M bafilomycin A1, 500?M amiloride or 50?M bumetanide was added to the bath. The concentration of K(+) in the secreted fluid did not change, whereas the concentration of Na(+) in the secreted fluid decreased significantly when tubules were exposed to bafilomycin A1 or amiloride. Addition of 500?M cAMP or 1?M 5-HT to the bath stimulated fluid secretion and resulted in a decrease in K(+) concentration in the secreted fluid. An increase in Na(+) concentration in the secreted fluid was observed only in cAMP-stimulated tubules. Secreted fluid pH and the transepithelial electrical potential (TEP) did not change when tubules were stimulated. Taken together, our results show that the secretion of fluid is carried out by the upper regions (DIP) in T. ni Malpighian tubules. Upper regions of the tubules secrete K(+), whereas lower regions reabsorb it. Stimulation of fluid secretion is correlated with a decrease in the K(+)/Na(+) ratio. PMID:26432549

  18. Effects of Temperature on Systemic Infection and Symptom Expression of Turnip mosaic virus in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bong Nam; Choi, Kyung San; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Joa, Jae Ho; Do, Ki Seck; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Using the Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris) cultivar ‘Chun-goang’ as a host and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) as a pathogen, we studied the effects of ambient temperature (13°C, 18°C, 23°C, 28°C and 33°C) on disease intensity and the speed of systemic infection. The optimal temperature for symptom expression of TuMV was 18–28°C. However, symptoms of viral infection were initiated at 23–28°C and 6 days post infection (dpi). Plants maintained at 33°C were systemically infected as early as 6 dpi and remained symptomless until 12 or 22 dpi, depending on growth stage at the time of inoculation. It took 45 days for infection of plants grown at 13°C. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) results showed that the accumulation of virus coat protein was greater in plants grown at 23–28°C. The speed of systemic infection increased linearly with rising ambient temperature, up to 23°C. The zero-infection temperature was 10.1°C. To study the effects of abruptly elevated temperatures on systemic infection, plants inoculated with TuMV were maintained at 10°C for 20 d; transferred to a growth chamber at temperatures of 13°C, 18°C, 23°C, 28°C, or 33°C for 1, 2, or 3 d; and then moved back to 10°C. The numbers of plants infected increased as duration of exposure to higher temperatures and dpi increased. PMID:26673094

  19. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E.; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects. PMID:26699853

  20. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects. PMID:26699853

  1. Genetic control of immunity to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) pathotype 1 in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage).

    PubMed

    Lydiate, Derek J; Pilcher, Rachel L Rusholme; Higgins, Erin E; Walsh, John A

    2014-08-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is the major virus infecting crops of the genus Brassica worldwide. A dominant resistance gene, TuRB01b, that confers immunity to the virus isolate UK 1 (a representative pathotype 1 isolate of TuMV) on Brassica rapa was identified in the Chinese cabbage cultivar Tropical Delight. The TuRB01b locus was mapped to a 2.9-cM interval on B. rapa chromosome 6 (A6) that was flanked by RFLP markers pN101e1 and pW137e1. This mapping used a first backcross (B(1)) population segregating for the resistance gene at TuRB01b and sets of RFLP markers employed in previous mapping experiments in Brassica. Virus-plant interaction phenotypes were assayed in inbred progeny derived from B(1) individuals to allow different virus isolates to be tested. Comparative mapping confirmed that A6 of B. rapa was equivalent to chromosome 6 of Brassica napus (A6) and that the map position of TuRB01b in B. rapa could be identical to that of TuRB01 in B. napus. Detailed evaluation of plant-virus interactions showed that TuRB01 and TuRB01b had indistinguishable specificities to a range of TuMV isolates. The possibility that TuRB01 and TuRB01b represent similar or identical alleles at the same A genome resistance locus suggests that B. napus acquired TuRB01 from the B. rapa gene pool. PMID:25275757

  2. Pedobacter rhizosphaerae sp. nov. and Pedobacter soli sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Wo; Son, Jung-A; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yi-Seul; Park, In-Cheol; Bok, Jeung-Im; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2011-12-01

    Two bacterial strains, 01-96(T) and 15-51(T), isolated from rhizosphere soil of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris) were characterized by using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 01-96(T) was phylogenetically related most closely to Pedobacter suwonensis 15-52(T) and Pedobacter roseus CL-GP80(T) (96.7 and 96.7% similarity, respectively), and strain 15-51(T) to Pedobacter borealis G-1(T) and P. suwonensis 15-52(T) (97.2 and 97.1%, respectively). However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 15-51(T) and P. borealis KACC 14287(T) and P. suwonensis KACC 11317(T) were low (<50%). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.8 mol% for strain 01-96(T) and 38.6 mol% for strain 15-51(T). The major fatty acids of the two strains were iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:0) and summed feature 3 (iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1)?7c). The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic data showed that strains 01-96(T) and 15-51(T) could be distinguished from their closest phylogenetic relatives, and that these strains represented two novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the names Pedobacter rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain 01-96(T) =KACC 14938(T) =NBRC 107690(T)) and Pedobacter soli sp. nov. (type strain 15-51(T) =KACC 14939(T) =NBRC 107691(T)) are proposed. PMID:21257686

  3. The construction of a genetic linkage map of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; Geng, Jianfeng; Zhang, Jingyi; Wang, Qian; Ban, Qingyu; Hou, Xilin

    2009-08-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino) is one of the most important vegetables in eastern China. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 127 doubled haploid (DH) lines, and the DH population was derived from a commercial hybrid "Hanxiao" (lines SW-13 x L-118). Out of the 614 polymorphic markers, 43.49% were not assigned to any of the linkage groups(LGs). Chi-square tests showed that 42.67% markers were distorted from expected Mendelian segregation ratios, and the direction of distorted segregation was mainly toward the paternal parent L-118. After sequentially removing the markers that had an interval distance smaller than 1 cM from the upper marker, the overall quality of the linkage map was increased. Two hundred and sixty-eight molecular markers were mapped into 10 LGs, which were anchored to the corresponding chromosome of the B. rapa reference map based on common simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The map covers 973.38 cM of the genome and the average interval distance between markers was 3.63 cM. The number of markers on each LG ranged from 18 (R08) to 64 (R07), with an average interval distance within a single LG from 1.70 cM (R07) to 6.71 cM (R06). Among these mapped markers, 169 were sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers, 50 were SSR markers and 49 were random amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. With further saturation to the LG, the current map offers a genetic tool for loci analysis for important agronomic traits. PMID:19683673

  4. Evidence for Inbreeding Depression and Pre-Copulatory, but Not Post Copulatory Inbreeding Avoidance in the Cabbage Beetle Colaphellus bowringi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, XingPing; Tu, XiaoYun; He, HaiMin; Chen, Chao; Xue, FangSen

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding is known to have adverse effects on fitness-related traits in a range of insect species. A series of theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that polyandrous insects could avoid the cost of inbreeding via pre-copulatory mate choice and/or post-copulatory mechanisms. We looked for evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance using female mate preference trials, in which females were given the choice of mating with either of two males, a sibling and a non-sibling. We also tested for evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance by conducting double mating experiments, in which four sibling females were mated with two males sequentially, either two siblings, two non-siblings or a sibling and a non-sibling in either order. We identified substantial inbreeding depression: offspring of females mated to full siblings had lower hatching success, slower development time from egg to adult, lower survival of larval and pupal stages, and lower adult body mass than the offspring of females mated to non-sibling males. We also found evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, as females preferred to mate with non-sibling males. However, we did not find any evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance: egg hatching success of females mating to both sibling and non-sibling males were consistent with sperm being used without bias in relation to mate relatedness. Our results suggest that this cabbage beetle has evolved a pre-copulatory mechanism to avoid matings between close relative, but that polyandry is apparently not an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in C. bowringi. PMID:24718627

  5. Ammonia volatilization from a Chinese cabbage field under different nitrogen treatments in the Taihu Lake Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Shan, Linan; He, Yunfeng; Chen, Jie; Huang, Qian; Wang, Hongcai

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major pathway of nitrogen (N) loss from soil-crop systems. As vegetable cultivation is one of the most important agricultural land uses worldwide, a deeper understanding of NH3 volatilization is necessary in vegetable production systems. We therefore conducted a 3-year (2010-2012) field experiment to characterize NH3 volatilization and evaluate the effect of different N fertilizer treatments on this process during the growth period of Chinese cabbage. Ammonia volatilization rate, rainfall, soil water content, pH, and soil NH4(+) were measured during the growth period. The results showed that NH3 volatilization was significantly and positively correlated to topsoil pH and NH4(+) concentration. Climate factors and fertilization method also significantly affected NH3 volatilization. Specifically, organic fertilizer (OF) increased NH3 volatilization by 11.77%-18.46%, compared to conventional fertilizer (CF, urea), while organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (OIF) reduced NH3 volatilization by 8.82%-12.67% compared to CF. Furthermore, slow-release fertilizers had significantly positive effects on controlling NH3 volatilization, with a 60.73%-68.80% reduction for sulfur-coated urea (SCU), a 71.85%-78.97% reduction for biological Carbon Power® urea (BCU), and a 77.66%-83.12% reduction for bulk-blend controlled-release fertilizer (BBCRF) relative to CF. This study provides much needed baseline information, which will help in fertilizer choice and management practices to reduce NH3 volatilization and encourage the development of new strategies for vegetable planting. PMID:26702964

  6. Overexpression of a Chinese cabbage BrERF11 transcription factor enhances disease resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yan; Dang, Fengfeng; Lin, Jing; Yu, Lu; Shi, Youliang; Xiao, Yuhua; Huang, Mukun; Lin, Jinhui; Chen, Chengcong; Qi, Aihua; Liu, Zhiqin; Guan, Deyi; Mou, Shaoliang; Qiu, Ailian; He, Shuilin

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene-responsive factors (ERFs) play diverse roles in plant growth, developmental processes and stress responses. However, the roles and underlying mechanism of ERFs remain poorly understood, especially in non-model plants. In this study, a full length cDNA of ERF gene was isolated from the cDNA library of Chinese cabbage. According to sequence alignment, we found a highly conservative AP2/ERF domain, two nuclear localization signals, and an ERF-associated Amphiphilic Repression (EAR) motif in its C-terminal region. It belonged to VIIIa group ERFs sharing the highest sequence identity with AtERF11 in all of the ERFs in Arabidopsis and designated BrERF11. BrERF11-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transient expressed in onion epidermis cells localized to the nucleus. The transcript levels of BrERF11 were induced by exogenous salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ethephon (ETH), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Constitutive expression of BrERF11 enhanced tolerance to Ralstonia solanacearum infection in transgenic tobacco plants, which was coupled with hypersensitive response (HR), burst of H(2)O(2) and upregulation of defense-related genes including HR marker genes, SA-, JA-dependent pathogen-related genes and ET biosynthesis associated genes and downregulation of CAT1, suggesting BrERF11 may participate in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)- and effector-triggered immunity (PTI and ETI) mediated by SA-, JA- and ET-dependent signaling mechanisms. PMID:23201563

  7. Diet and nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Kritchevsky, D

    1988-10-15

    The interest in nutrition and cancer, which was high in the 1940s and 1950s, was rekindled in the 1970s and is now more intense than ever. There has been considerable experimental work on dietary fat, but delineation of the precise role(s) of the essential fatty acids is still lacking. There have been few studies on protein or carbohydrate effects and only Visek has adequately addressed the important area of nutrient interactions. More work is needed in the fiber field with regard to the influences of short chain fatty acids, and the standardization of protocols is needed to make the various findings comparable. Currently, fiber data have been accrued using rats of different strains and gender, commercial and semipurified diets, a variety of colon carcinogens, and different routes of administration. The effects of energy restriction (in the literature since 1909) have not been widely studied as to mechanism and influence of energy expenditure (i.e., exercise) and merit more attention. PMID:2844385

  8. [Vegetarian diets; effect on health].

    PubMed

    de Luis Román, D; Aller, R; Castaño, O

    2007-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that diet is healthy, nutritionally adequate and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:17397638

  9. Search for the optimal diet.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E

    2010-12-01

    Since the beginning of time, we have been searching for diets that satisfy our palates while simultaneously optimizing health and well-being. Every year, there are hundreds of new diet books on the market that make a wide range of promises but rarely deliver. Unfortunately, consumers are gullible and believe much of the marketing hype because they are desperately seeking ways to maximize their health. As a result, they continue to purchase these diet books, sending many of them all the way to the bestseller list. Because many of these meal plans are not sustainable and are questionable in their approaches, the consumer is ultimately left to continue searching, only able to choose from the newest "fad" promoted by publicists rather than being grounded in science. Thus, the search for the optimal diet continues to be the "holy grail" for many of us today, presenting a challenge for nutritionists and practitioners to provide sound advice to consumers. PMID:21139121

  10. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  11. Genetic toxicology of the diet

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, I. )

    1986-01-01

    This book contains over 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons During the Smoking and Grilling of Food; Fecal Mutagens as a Function of Diet; Dietary Desmutagens; and Coffee and Cancer.

  12. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Cancer.gov

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  13. Diet and regimen during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Girija, P.LT

    2008-01-01

    To rely on Ayurveda is the best way to ensure a safe and natural childbirth. Ayurveda understands all the factors, which bring about a hazard-free childbirth. By following a regulated diet and regimen, the pregnant mother is prepared for a natural delivery. By helping nature to take its course, women enjoy a risk-free childbirth. This paper provides a broad view of the diet and regimen during pregnancy PMID:22557297

  14. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  15. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of

  16. The Modified Atkins Diet in Refractory Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy. PMID:24627806

  17. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, duplication, and expression analyses of two-component system genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenning; Zhang, Mei; Kong, Lijun; Lv, Yanxia; Zou, Minghua; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu; Yu, Xiaolin

    2014-08-01

    In plants, a two component system (TCS) composed of sensor histidine kinases (HKs), histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HPs), and response regulators (RRs) has been employed in cytokinin signal transduction. A TCS exhibits important functions in diverse biological processes, including plant growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli. Conducting an exhaustive search of the Chinese cabbage genome, a total of 20 HK(L) (11 HKs and 9 HKLs), 8 HP (7 authentic and 1 pseudo), and 57 RR (21 Type-A, 17 Type-B, 4 Type-C, and 15 pseudo) proteins were identified. The structures, conserved domains, and phylogenetic relationships of these protein-coding genes were analysed in detail. The duplications, evolutionary patterns, and divergence of the TCS genes were investigated. The transcription levels of TCS genes in various tissues, organs, and developmental stages were further analysed to obtain information of the functions of these genes. Cytokinin-related binding elements were found in the putative promoter regions of Type-A BrRR genes. Furthermore, gene expression patterns to adverse environmental stresses (drought and high salinity) and exogenous phytohormones (tZ and ABA) were investigated. Numerous stress-responsive candidate genes were obtained. Our systematic analyses provided insights into the characterization of the TCS genes in Chinese cabbage and basis for further functional studies of such genes. PMID:24585003

  18. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids. PMID:26158208

  19. Pesticide effects on the plant cuticle. IV. The effect of EPTC on the permeability of cabbage, bean, and sugar beet cuticle

    SciTech Connect

    Flore, J.A.; Bukovac, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC, 2.24 kg/ha) inhibited epicuticular wax production on developing leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., resulting in an increase in cuticular permeability. This increased penetration of /sup 14/C-1-naphthaleneacetic acid (/sup 14/C-NAA) and increased cuticular transpiration. EPTC-enhanced penetration was a consequence of increased diffusion across the cuticle, and not of active uptake. Application of EPTC increased penetration of NAA 200% in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and 121% in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). For cabbage, the percent increase in penetration due to EPTC inhibition of cuticle development 7 days after treatment (141%) was similar to that at 42 days (112%). The effect of EPTC declined until full leaf expansion (28 days after application). Silver nitrate was preferentially taken up by the cuticular ledges of guard cells and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and was greater in leaves from EPTC-treated plants than in those from non-treated plants. 27 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  20. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae perform better on pre-infested Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis by enhancing host plant nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Cao, He-He; Liu, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction. PMID:26905564

  1. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, Duplication, and Expression Analyses of Two-Component System Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenning; Zhang, Mei; Kong, Lijun; Lv, Yanxia; Zou, Minghua; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu; Yu, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    In plants, a two component system (TCS) composed of sensor histidine kinases (HKs), histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HPs), and response regulators (RRs) has been employed in cytokinin signal transduction. A TCS exhibits important functions in diverse biological processes, including plant growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli. Conducting an exhaustive search of the Chinese cabbage genome, a total of 20 HK(L) (11 HKs and 9 HKLs), 8 HP (7 authentic and 1 pseudo), and 57 RR (21 Type-A, 17 Type-B, 4 Type-C, and 15 pseudo) proteins were identified. The structures, conserved domains, and phylogenetic relationships of these protein-coding genes were analysed in detail. The duplications, evolutionary patterns, and divergence of the TCS genes were investigated. The transcription levels of TCS genes in various tissues, organs, and developmental stages were further analysed to obtain information of the functions of these genes. Cytokinin-related binding elements were found in the putative promoter regions of Type-A BrRR genes. Furthermore, gene expression patterns to adverse environmental stresses (drought and high salinity) and exogenous phytohormones (tZ and ABA) were investigated. Numerous stress-responsive candidate genes were obtained. Our systematic analyses provided insights into the characterization of the TCS genes in Chinese cabbage and basis for further functional studies of such genes. PMID:24585003

  2. Brief report: genome sequence and construction of an infectious cDNA clone of Ribgrass mosaic virus from Chinese cabbage in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, So-Young; Hong, Jin-Sung; Rhee, Sun-Ju; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2012-04-01

    Ribgrass mosaic virus (RMV) has severely decreased the production and lowered quality of Chinese cabbage co-infected with Turnip mosaic virus (63.4%) in Korea. The complete genome sequence of RMV isolated from Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis was determined. The full genome consisted of 6,304 nucleotides and showed sequence identities of 91.5-94.2% with the corresponding genome of other RMV strains. Full-length cDNA of RMV-Br was amplified by RT-PCR with a 5'-end primer harboring a T7 promoter sequence and a 3'-end RMV specific primer. Subsequently, the full-length cDNA was cloned into plasmid vectors. Capped transcripts synthesized from the cDNA clone were highly infectious and caused characteristic symptoms in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and several indicator plants, similar to wild type RMV. Since there has not been found RMV resistant Chinese cabbage yet and the virus has been prevalent already throughout the natural fields of Korea, the identification of full sequence and development of infectious clone would help developing breeding program for RMV resistant crops. PMID:22143325

  3. Wavelength-dependent photooxidation and photoreduction of protochlorophyllide and protochlorophyll in the innermost leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

    PubMed

    Erdei, Anna Laura; Kósa, Annamária; Kovács-Smirová, Lilla; Böddi, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The photoreduction and photooxidation processes of different protochlorophyll(ide) forms were studied in the innermost leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) under monochromatic irradiations. Room-temperature fluorescence emission spectra were measured from the same leaf spots before and after illumination to follow the wavelength dependence of the photochemical reactions. Short-wavelength light of 7 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) (625-630 nm) provoked mainly bleaching, and longer wavelengths (630-640 nm) caused both bleaching and photoreduction, while above 640 nm resulted in basically photoreduction. When bleached leaves were kept in darkness at room temperature, all protochlorophyll(ide) forms regenerated during 72 h. Oxygen-reduced environment decreased the extent of bleaching suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species. These results confirm that the short-wavelength, 628 nm absorbing, and 633 nm emitting protochlorophyll(ide) form in etiolated cabbage leaves sensibilizes photooxidation. However, the 628 nm light at low intensities stimulates the photoreduction of the longer wavelength protochlorophyllide forms. Kinetic measurements showed that photoreduction saturates at a low PFD (photon flux density) compared to bleaching, suggesting that the quantum yield of photoreduction is higher than that of bleaching. PMID:26519365

  4. Genome reorganization from polyteny to polyploidy in the nurse cells found in onion fly (Delia antiqua) and cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) ovaries (Diptera, Anthomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hartman, T P; Southern, D I

    1995-08-01

    The material required to ensure successful embryogenesis in the onion fly (Delia antiqua) and the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) (Diptera, Anthomyiidae) is supplied by 15 nurse cells, while the oocyte chromosomes enter a quiescent stage during prophase I of meiosis. This level of transcription is achieved by the polyploidization of the nurse cell DNA. Elongate polytene chromosomes form in both species, but lack the banding and conspicuous puffing commonly seen in other dipteran tissues. The polytene chromosomes contract until they finally appear as small, densely staining spheres. These fragment into large numbers of endochromosomes that are much smaller than their mitotic counterparts, which then despiralize, resulting in the flocculate appearance of the nurse cell nucleus. Photodensitometry revealed a gradient of DNA values between nurse cells near the oocytes and those further away. Final DNA values 1000 times the haploid level were recorded in the nurse cell nearest to the oocyte compared with 336 times the C-value in the most distal cell. At lower temperatures (< 10 degrees C), the polytene chromosomes become banded and longer. None of the onion flies kept in these conditions produced viable eggs, though there was some reproductive success among the cabbage root flies. PMID:7551540

  5. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae perform better on pre-infested Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis by enhancing host plant nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Cao, He-He; Liu, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction. PMID:26905564

  6. Regulation of drug metabolism in man by environmental chemicals and diet.

    PubMed

    Conney, A H; Pantuck, E J; Hsiao, K C; Kuntzman, R; Alvares, A P; Kappas, A

    1977-04-01

    Studies in animals have shown that many environmental pollutants induce the synthesis or inhibit the activity of microsomal mixed-function oxygenases that metabolize drugs, carcinogens and normal body constituents such as steroid hormones. These effects on microsomal enzyme activity alter the duration and intensity of action of foreign and endogenous chemicals in animals, and such effects on metabolism may influence the carcinogenicity of some pollutants in man. Studies on the effects of environmental chemicals on drug metabolism in man are sparse. Exposure of humans to DDT or lindane in a pesticide factory results in an enhanced rate of metabolism of antipyrine and phenylbutazone and an increased urinary excretion of 6-beta-hydroxycortisol. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in cigarette smoke, in charcoal-broiled meats, and in polluted city air are potent inducers of drug-metabolizing enzymes in animals. In humans, cigarette smoking stimulates the activity of placental enzymes that metabolize several drugs and carcinogens. In addition, cigarette smokers metabolize phenacetin, theophylline, and other drugs more rapidly in vivo than nonsmokers. Dietary factors are important in the regulation of drug metabolism in animals and man. Feeding rats brussels sprouts or cabbage stimulates the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of drugs in animals. This effect is caused, at least in part, by certain indoles normally present in these vegetables. The feeding of a charcoal-broiled beef diet to rats stimulates the metabolism of phenacetin in vitro, and a similar diet stimulates the in vivo metabolism of phenacetin in man. It is likely that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are the major inducers in charcoal-broiled beef. PMID:844609

  7. Healthy aspects of the Nordic diet are related to lower total mortality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anja; Egeberg, Rikke; Halkjr, Jytte; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjnneland, Anne

    2011-04-01

    Health-promoting effects of the Mediterranean diet have been in focus for decades, whereas less interest has been given to existing healthy dietary habits within other Western cultures. The aim of the study was to develop a food index based on traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects and relate this to all-cause mortality in a cohort of Danes. Detailed information about diet, lifestyle, and anthropometry was provided by 57,053 Danes aged 50-64 y. During 12 y of follow-up, 4126 of the cohort participants died. A healthy Nordic food index, consisting of traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects (fish, cabbages, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables), was extracted and associated with mortality by Cox proportional hazard models. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) with 95% CI were used to associate the index to mortality. In an adjusted model, a 1-point higher index score was associated with a significantly lower MRR for both men [0.96 (0.92-0.99)] and women [0.96 (0.92-1.00)] (P = 0.03). When the index components were evaluated separately, whole grain rye bread intake was the factor most consistently associated with lower mortality in men. In conclusion, an index based on traditional healthy Nordic foods was found to be related to lower mortality among middle-aged Danes, in particular among men. This study indicates that traditional, healthy food items should be considered before public recommendations for major dietary changes are made. PMID:21346102

  8. Alcohol levels in Chinese lactating mothers after consumption of alcoholic diet during postpartum "doing-the-month" ritual.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Liu, Jen-Fang; Huang, Ya-Jing; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Chao, Jane C-J

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to ethanol through cultural practices by lactating mothers. Specifically, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in Chinese lactating mothers was investigated after they consumed chicken soup flavored with sesame oil and rice wine (CSSR), a typically prescribed diet during the postpartum "doing-the-month" period. Experimental findings were employed to estimate the potential ethanol dose to neonates and determine associated health risks. Twenty-three lactating mothers were examined. Informed consent was obtained from each subject. The target alcohol dosage was 0.3g/kg. Milk and blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals from each subject following exposure to CSSR, and alcohol levels were determined. Acute health risks to infants were estimated by comparing the potential infant dosage to an established criterion dose. Blood alcohol level peaked at 20 min after exposure to CSSR and decreased almost linearly thereafter. Alcohol in milk reached a plateau roughly at 20-40 min after exposure to CSSR and then decreased. Alcohol pharmacokinetics among subjects varied widely. The coefficients of variation in subject alcohol concentrations were 16.5-46.2% (mean, 30.0%) for blood and 32.8-57.6% (mean, 44.4%) for milk. Mean maximal alcohol concentration in blood (30.2+/-5.0 mg/dl) was achieved at 23.5+/-7.6 min and in milk (31.6+/-10.3 mg/dl) at 31.7+/-12.7 min. Potential infant doses were 3.0-58.8 mg (mean, 13.4 mg), and the predicted time required for milk alcohol level to return to zero level was 175 min. The acute health risks for infants exposed to alcohol through their mothers' milk under the current exposure scenario are low (hazard index<0.2). Nursing infants at least 3h after ingesting a diet containing alcohol would further reduce potential health risks. PMID:16713502

  9. Perceptions of a Healthy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Denby, Nigel; Haycock, Bryan; Sherif, Katherine; Steinbaum, Suzanne; von Schacky, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Limited data exist on consumer beliefs and practices on the role of omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin D dietary supplements and health. For this reason, the Global Health and Nutrition Alliance conducted an online survey in 3 countries (n = 3030; United States = 1022, Germany = 1002, United Kingdom = 1006) of a convenience sample of adults (aged 18–66 years) who represented the age, gender, and geographic composition within each country. More than half of the sample (52%) believed they consume all the key nutrients needed for optimal nutrition through food sources alone; fewer women (48%) than men (57%), and fewer middle-aged adults (48%) than younger (18–34 years [56%]) and older (≥55 years [54%]) adults agreed an optimal diet could be achieved through diet alone. Overall, 32% reported using omega-3s (45% in United States, 29% in United Kingdom, and 24% in Germany), and 42% reported using vitamin D dietary supplements (62% in United States, 32% in United Kingdom, and 31% in Germany). Seventy eight percent of the sample agreed that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for heart health; however, only 40% thought that their diet was adequate in omega-3 fatty acids. Similarly, 84% agreed that vitamin D was beneficial to overall, and 55% of adults from all countries were unsure or did not think they consume enough vitamin D in their diet. For most findings in our study, US adults reported more dietary supplement use and had stronger perceptions about the health effects of omega-3s and vitamin D than their counterparts in the United Kingdom and Germany. Nevertheless, the consistent findings across all countries were that adults are aware of the importance of nutrition, and most adults believe their diet is optimal for health. Our data serve to alert dietitians and health professionals that consumers may have an elevated sense of the healthfulness of their own diets and may require guidance and education to achieve optimal diets. PMID:26663954

  10. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes. PMID:25481634

  11. Dieting in Spanish adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lpez-Guimer, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Portell, Mariona; Snchez-Carracedo, David; Raich, Rosa M

    2008-05-01

    This article examines the relation between dieting and non-dieting adolescent girls and body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes and the influence of the aesthetic body shape model. Three hundred forty-nine Spanish adolescent girls in their second year of secondary education were selected. The research design was a cross-sectional ex post facto study and validated measures were used to assess the main variables. Fourteen per cent of the sample was on a diet. Of this group, 69% were overweight, 70% had disordered eating attitudes and 70% were influenced by the current aesthetic body shape model. In all situations, the scores for dieters were significantly higher than those for non-dieters. Although there is not yet any clear consensus with regards to how adolescents interpret the term 'diet', the results indicate major differences between dieters and non-dieters and that those who self-report that they are on a diet present elements of the risk of developing eating and weight disorders. PMID:17910030

  12. [Secrets of the Mediterranean diet].

    PubMed

    Farah, Raymond; Glick, Yoaz; Farah, Rola

    2008-05-01

    Mediterranean diet is a modern nutritional model inspired by the traditional dietary pattern of some of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. At least 16 countries border the Mediterranean Sea. Diets vary between these countries and also between regions within a country. Many differences in culture, ethnic background, religion, economy and agricultural productions result in different diets. But the common Mediterranean dietary pattern has these characteristics: high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread and other cereals, potatoes, beans, nuts and seeds, olive oil is an important monounsaturated fat source, dairy products, fish and poultry are consumed in low to moderate amounts, and relatively small amounts of red meat is eaten, eggs are consumed zero to four times a week and wine is consumed in low to moderate amounts. A recent study has once again confirmed that people who closely follow 'the Mediterranean Diet' live longer than other Europeans and Americans and the incidence of heart disease in Mediterranean countries is lower than in the United States. But this may not be entirely due only to the diet. Lifestyle factors (such as more physical activity and extended social support systems) may also play a part. PMID:18770965

  13. Food Avoidance Diets for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey F; Hammond, Margaret I; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is relatively common in both children and adults, and its prevalence is increasing. Early exposure of food allergens onto skin with an impaired epidermal barrier predisposes to sensitization and prevents the development of oral tolerance. While immediate-type food allergies are well described, less is known about delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. This is due, in part, to limitations with current diagnostic testing for delayed-type food allergy, including atopy patch testing. We conducted a systematic review of food avoidance diets in delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. While beneficial in some clinical circumstances, avoidance diets should be used with caution in infants and children, as growth impairment and developmental delay may result. Ultimately, dermatitis is highly multifactorial and avoidance diets may not improve symptoms of delayed-type food allergy until combined with other targeted therapies, including restoring balance in the skin microbiome and re-establishing proper skin barrier function. PMID:26300528

  14. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  15. Diet and renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake of vegetables that can carry a plentiful supply of alkali that counteract the acid load coming from animal protein. New prospective studies to evaluate the effectiveness of the diet for the prevention of renal stones should be oriented to simple dietary advices that should be focused on a few specific goals easily controlled by means of self-evaluation tools, such as the LAKE food screener. PMID:23392537

  16. Diet quality and diet costs in German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alexy, U; Schwager, V; Kersting, M

    2014-10-01

    We examined the association between diet costs and diet quality in a sample of children and adolescents using data from the ongoing longitudinal (open cohort) DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) study. Children and adolescents aged 4-18 years (255 boys and 239 girls) provided 1100 yearly collected 3-day weighted dietary records. Linear mixed (effects) models were used to analyze the association between diet costs ([euro ;[sol;day, estimated using retail food prices) and the Nutrient Quality Index (NQI) and the Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth (HuSKY). Analysis were stratified for low-quality records (scoremedian). No significant association was found in the low-quality records, whereas in the high-quality records the association was significantly positive for both scores (HuSKY P=0.016, NQI P<0.0001). In conclusion, a substantial part of our sample could increase their diet quality without a noteworthy increase of expenditure. PMID:24896011

  17. Associations between diet and disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients using a novel method of data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Elizabeth A; Edmond, Laurie M; Tasker, Shiona M; Kong, San Choon; Curno, Richard; Cummings, John H

    2005-01-01

    Background The relapsing nature and varying geographical prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) implicates environmental factors such as diet in its aetiology. Methods In order to determine which foods might be related to disease activity in UC a new method of dietary analysis was developed and applied. Eighty-one UC patients were recruited at all stages of the disease process. Following completion of a 7 d diet diary, clinical assessment including a sigmoidoscopic examination (scale 0 (normal mucosa) to 6 (very active disease)) was conducted. Food weights for each person were adjusted (divided) by the person's calorific intake for the week. Each food consumed was given a food sigmoidoscopy score (FSS) calculated by summing the products of the (adjusted) weight of food consumed and sigmoidoscopy score for each patient and occurrence of food and dividing by the total (adjusted) weight of the food consumed by all 81 patients. Thus, foods eaten in large quantities by patients with very active disease have high FSSs and vice versa. Foods consumed by <10 people or weighing <1 kg for the whole group were excluded, leaving 75 foods. Results High FSS foods were characterized by high levels of the anti-thiamin additive sulfite (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.001), i.e. bitter, white wine, burgers, soft drinks from concentrates, sausages, lager and red wine. Caffeine also has anti-thiamin properties and decaffeinated coffee was associated with a better clinical state than the caffeine containing version. Beneficial foods (average intake per week) included pork (210 g), breakfast cereals (200 g), lettuce (110 g), apples and pears (390 g), milk (1250 ml), melon (350 g), bananas (350 g), bacon (120 g), beef and beef products (500 g), tomatoes (240 g), soup (700 g), citrus fruits (300 g), fish (290 g), yogurt (410 g), cheese (110 g), potatoes (710 g) and legumes (120 g). Conclusions The dietary analysis method described provides a new tool for establishing relationships between diet and disease and indicates a potentially therapeutic diet for UC. PMID:15705205

  18. Transcriptome sequencing of two parental lines of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) and construction of an EST-based genetic map

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers are preferred because they reflect transcribed portions of the genome. We report the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from transcriptome sequences in cabbage, and their utility for map construction. Results Transcriptome sequences were obtained from two cabbage parental lines, C1184 and C1234, which are susceptible and resistant to black rot disease, respectively, using the 454 platform. A total of 92,255 and 127,522 reads were generated and clustered into 34,688 and 40,947 unigenes, respectively. We identified 2,405 SSR motifs from the unigenes of the black rot-resistant parent C1234. Trinucleotide motifs were the most abundant (66.15%) among the repeat motifs. In addition, 1,167 SNPs were detected between the two parental lines. A total of 937 EST-based SSR and 97 SNP-based dCAPS markers were designed and used for detection of polymorphism between parents. Using an F2 population, we built a genetic map comprising 265 loci, and consisting of 98 EST-based SSRs, 21 SNP-based dCAPS, 55 IBP markers derived from B. rapa genome sequence and 91 public SSRs, distributed on nine linkage groups spanning a total of 1,331.88cM with an average distance of 5.03cM between adjacent loci. The parental lines used in this study are elite breeding lines with little genetic diversity; therefore, the markers that mapped in our genetic map will have broad spectrum utility. Conclusions This genetic map provides additional genetic information to the existing B. oleracea map. Moreover, the new set of EST-based SSR and dCAPS markers developed herein is a valuable resource for genetic studies and will facilitate cabbage breeding. Additionally, this study demonstrates the usefulness of NGS transcriptomes for the development of genetic maps even with little genetic diversity in the mapping population. PMID:24559437

  19. RANA CATESBEIANA (AMERICAN BULLFROG) DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    RANA CATESBELANA (American Bullfrog). DIET. Data were obtained opportunistically
    from 28 adult (M = 14; F = 14) bullftogs collected in April 2001 from the Meadow Valley Wash
    located between the cities of Carp and Elgin, Lincoln County, Nevada, USA (N37'17':WI14'30'). Alth...

  20. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Casari, Ilaria; Falasca, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26610570