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Sample records for cabinet gorge kokanee

  1. Environmental Assessment on Construction of the Cabinet Gorge Kokanee Hatchery.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Washington Water Power Company, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game plan to enter into a cooperative cost-sharing agreement for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a kokanee hatchery in northern Idaho. The proposed hatchery shall supplement mitigation of adverse federal and non-federal hydroelectric and nonhydroelectric impacts. Hydroelectric impacts were primarily degradation of the Lake Pend Oreille shoreline kokanee habitat and blockage of migrating Clark Fork River kokanee. The introduction and establishment of Mysis relicta, the opossum shrimp, created further adverse effects on the kokanee fishery. The proposed hatchery will produce 20 million advanced-stage kokanee fry which will restore the Lake Pend Oreille kokanee fishery level to 744,000 harvestable adults after the first 5 years of operation. 6 references, 4 figures.

  2. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaugh L.

    1994-07-01

    Lake Pend Oreille once provided the most popular kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka fishery in northern Idaho. A dramatic decline in the population occurred from the mid-1960s to 1970s. Restoration efforts included construction of the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to supplement the wild population and restore the fishery. In this study, hatchery-reared age 0 kokanee were stocked into Lake Pend Oreille from 1986 through 1992. Seven experimental stocking strategies for kokanee were tested using five locations and two time periods (early May through early June or late July). In 1985, the age 3 and older kokanee totaled about 0.35 million, but rose to 0.78 million in 1986, was stable, was then followed by a decline in 1990 to 0.53 million, then improved to 1.75 million in 1992. Much of the annual variation in total numbers of kokanee, ranging from 4.5 million to 10.2 million, was due to hatchery stockings of age 0 fish. Standing stocks of kokanee remained stable and ranged from 8 to 10 kg/hectare de spite dramatic changes in density due to age 0 fish. Prior to this study (1985), standing stocks were substantially higher (mean = 13.6 kg/hectare), indicating that the population may be operating below carrying capacity. The authors found survival of age 0 hatchery kokanee by each release season to range from 3% in 1986 to 39% in 1992, while the mean from 1987 through 1992 was 23%. They found significant (P=0.05) differences in survival between years, but they could not detect differences between stocking locations (P>0.71). Their analysis of survival between time (early vs late) and location was weak and inconclusive because after 1989 they had fewer fish to stock and could not repeat testing of some release strategies. They believe some of the variation in survival between release groups each year was due to the length of time between release in the lake and trawling.

  3. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1988 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1989-02-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1988. Estimated kokanee abundance in early September was 10.2 million fish. This estimate is 70% higher than 1987 and 140% higher than the populations's low point in 1986. Increased population size over the past two years is the result of two consecutive strong year classes produced from high recruitment of hatchery and wild fry. High recruitment of wild fry in 1988 resulted from good parental escapement (strong year class) in 1987 and relatively high fry survival. Hatchery fry made up 51% of total fry recruitment (73% of total fry biomass), which is the largest contribution since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. High hatchery fry abundance resulted from a large release (13 million fry) from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery and excellent fry survival (29%) during their first summer in Lake Pend Oreille. Improved fry release strategies enhanced survival, which doubled from 1987 to 1988 and was ten times higher than survival in 1986. Our research goal is to maintain 30% survival so we are very optimistic, but need to replicate additional years to address annual variability. 27 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1990 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-03-01

    Rehabilitation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka in Lake Pend Oreille met with some success in 1990, but unexpected results have raised new questions. Estimated kokanee abundance during late August of 1990 was about 6.9 million fish. This is a decline of 19% from 1989, a continued decrease since 1988. The decreased population was attributed to low stocking of hatchery fry (7.3 million), lower wild fry survival in 1990 (1.5%), and exceptionally poor survival of fish ages 3+ and 4+. Average survival of the older fish was only 11% in 1990 compared to 72% in prior years. Compensatory survival was noted for kokanee ages 1+ and 2+, with an average of 81% in 1990 compared to 44% in 1989. Hatchery fry comprised 47% of the total kokanee fry recruitment in 1990 (80% of fry biomass). This contribution ranked third behind 1988 and 1989 since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. Survival of hatchery fry was 20%, the second highest since this investigation began. Findings of 1990 indicate a more comprehensive approach to managing kokanee must take into account predator stockings and predator/prey interaction. An unexpected low adult escapement was responsible for an egg-take of only 5.6 million eggs in 1990, 58% of the previous year, which will limit experimental stocking in 1991. Modification of the fish ladder at the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to improve adult escapement is strongly recommended to increase egg-take. 27 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1989 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelscher, Brian

    1990-04-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1989. Estimated kokanee abundance in late August was 7.71 million fish. Decreased population size is the result of lower hatchery and wild fry recruitment and low age 1+ survival. Lower recruitment of wild fry in 1989 resulted from a smaller parental escapement in 1988 and lower wild fry survival. Six fry release strategies were evaluated in 1989. Two groups were released in Clark Fork River to help improve a spawning run to Cabinet Gorge Hatchery. Survival from the mid-summer release, which was barged down Clark Fork River to avoid low flow problems, was not significantly different from the early release. The final assessment of these release strategies will be evaluated when adults return to Cabinet gorge Hatchery in 1992 and 1993. Fry released to support the Sullivan Springs Creek spawning run also survived will in 1989. Two open-water releases were made during early and mid-summer. 30 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1987 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1988-05-01

    Estimated kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka abundance in Lake Pend Oreille was 6.01 million during late summer 1987. This estimate is 40% higher than the 1986 estimate and is the second largest population estimate since 1977. Higher abundance is predominantly a result of enhanced fry survival and recruitment. Hatchery-reared fry contribution was 22% of total fry recruitment in 1987, compared to 8% in 1986, and resulted from a fivefold increase in survival. Much of this improvement can be attributed to the large (52 mm) fry produced at Cabinet Gorge Hatchery in 1987 and represents the first measurable contribution of the new hatchery to the kokanee rehabilitation program. Survival of hatchery-reared fry released into Clark Fork River was nearly one-half that of fry released into Sullivan Springs due to poor flow conditions and potentially high predation during migration from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery to Lake Pend Oreille. Wild fry survival was enhanced by early availability of forage (cladocern zooplankton) during fry emergence in late spring. Cladoceran production began three weeks earlier in 1987 than 1986, which resulted from reduced Mysis abundance and earlier thermal stratification of Lake Pend Oreille, which helped segregate cladocerans from mysid predation. Kokanee dry otolith coding was evaluated to provide a reliable long-term mark. Analysis of daily growth increments on otoliths was used successfully in 1987 to differentiate fry from various release sites. The technique will be refined during 1988 to include coding fry otoliths with water temperature fluctuations during hatchery residence. 23 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-01-01

    water temperatures of July, and higher cladoceran densities compared to June. River release Lower survival of the early Clark Fork is attributed to the exceptionally high river flows (1,984 cm /s or 70,000 ft /s) and low density of zooplankton. Age of adult kokanee sampled at Sullivan Springs was 1% age 2, 46% age 3, and 53% age 4. The high proportion of age 3 kokanee resulted in lower average fecundity. Recovery of about 160 fin clipped kokanee at Sullivan Springs provided evidence of imprinting. About 0.4% of the marked kokanee released in 1988 returned to spawn at age 3. This failure of a spawning run to Clark Fork River and low (<0.000l%) returns to the Cabinet Gorge Hatchery is a major concern. Total fishing effort was 460,679 h (220%) or about 12 h/hectare. A sport fishery survey indicated anglers harvested 276,457 fish of which 227,140 were kokanee and 2,157 Gerrard rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (>610 mm) while an additional 14,800 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were released. The harvest of kokanee is at 33% of the management goals, but the harvest of large Gerrard rainbow trout was the best in 15 years.

  8. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1987-02-01

    Estimated kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) abundance in Lake Pend Oreille was 4.3 million during September 1986. This estimate was similar to 1985 and indicates continued suppression of the kokanee population since initial decline in the late 1960s. Atypically high survival of wild fry resulted in similar fry recruitment in 1986 as 1985, whereas hatchery-reared fry contributed only 8% to total fry recruitment as a result of low post-release survival (3%). Fry released into the Clark Fork River from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery had very low survival during emigration to Lake Pend Oreille, resulting from poor flow conditions and potentially high predation. Fry survival during emigration was twice as high during nighttime flows of 16,000 cfs than 7,800 cfs. Emigration also was faster during higher flows. Several marks were tested to differentially mark fry release groups to help determine impacts of flow and other factors on fry survival. Survival of fry marked with tetracycline and fluorescent dye was high (>99%) during the 10-week study. In contrast, survival of fry marked with fluorescent grit marks ranged from 5 to 93%, depending on application pressure and distance from the fry. Retention was high (>96%) for tetracycline and grit marks during the study, whereas dye marks were discernible (100%) for only one week. 23 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1985 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1986-07-01

    Mid-water trawling techniques were used during September to estimate kokanee population abundance, structure and survival. Abundance in 1985 was estimated at 4.5 million fish (198 per hectare), down from over 12 million kokanee in 1974 when the population was first monitored. Hatchery fry production (<6 million annually) has stabilized kokanee abundance since its initial decline in the late 1960s. Wild fry recruitment has remained relatively stable at 1.8 million since 1978; whereas recruitment of hatchery-reared fry has ranged from 0.09 to 1.98 million. The 1985 creel survey indicated that kokanee harvest rates remain low, with approximately one kokanee harvested per hour of effort from April to August. Catch rates were as high as 3.5 fish per hour during the mid-1960s. The zooplankton community was monitored with periodic plankton tows. Zooplankton composition in 1985 was similar to previous years and appears to have stabilized following the introduction of mysids, with peak cladoceran production occurring several weeks after peak kokanee emergence. Delayed release of hatchery fry resulted in higher survival of hatchery (7.3%) than wild (0.43%) kokanee fry. Other release strategies will be tested as more fry become available.

  10. Estimating the impacts of reservoir elevation changes on kokanee emergence in flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming-Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modde, T.; Jeric, R.J.; Hubert, W.A.; Gipson, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Flaming Gorge Reservoir, like many western North American reservoirs, is managed to release water during the winter months to allow for water storage associated with melting snow and rain during spring. Decreases in reservoir elevation during winter can cause mortalities of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka spawned along the shoreline the previous fall. This study compared data on depth distribution of embryos and depth-adjusted survival to estimate the relative survival of emergent kokanee at different depths and the effect of winter drawdown on the proportion of deposited eggs that survive to emergence. Estimates of decreases in kokanee survival to emergence were 8.3% and 38.1% for reservoir elevation reductions of 1.0 m and 5.0 m, respectively.

  11. Kokanee Impacts Assessment and Monitoring on Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, Annual Progress Report for October 1995-September 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to Monitor Lake Pend Oreille's kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi population. Data will serve as a baseline for evaluating the benefits of a higher winter lake level beginning in 1996. We estimated the kokanee population in Lake Pend Oreille using a Hauser-type midwater trawl during August 1995 and September 1996. Population estimates in 1995 were 4.55 million age-0 kokanee, 2.87 million age-1 kokanee, 1.52 million age-2 kokanee, 0.74 million age-3 kokanee, 0.15 million age-4 kokanee, and 42,000 age-5 kokanee. Population estimates in 1996 were 5.42 million age-0 kokanee, 3.57 million age-1 kokanee, 3.17 million age-2 kokanee, 0.67 million age-3 kokanee, 0.44 million age-4 kokanee, and no age-5 kokanee. These were two of the highest total populations of kokanee since trawling began in 1977; largely due to high numbers of young kokanee. The densities of age-4 and 5 kokanee (which make up the bulk of the fishery), however, were the lowest on record in 1995 and average in 1996. We also surveyed traditional shoreline and tributary spawning areas. Counts of kokanee spawning in tributaries during 1995 were relatively consistent with previous years (6,261 kokanee). Counts of spawners along the shorelines reached a new record low of only 74 kokanee; a 93 percent decline from 1994. During December 1996, both counts dropped to their lowest point on record. Only 49 fish were seen spawning along the shorelines, and only 819 fish were seen in tributary streams. These low counts may have been partially due to higher lake levels during the spawning seasons. Higher than normal lake levels made additional gravel available for kokanee spawning in many areas of the lake. Possibly this caused kokanee to spread along the shorelines and reduced the spawner counts. Kokanee fry that had been fin clipped and stocked at the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery Ladder in 1991 and 1992 returned at a rate of 0.27% and 0.14% once they matured. This return rate was much

  12. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for the Noxon Rapids and Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Projects, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Gael

    1985-04-01

    Mitigation projects for wildlife species impacted by the Noxon Rapids and Cabinet Gorge hydroelectric projects are recommended. First priority projects encompass the development of long-term wildlife management plans for WWP lands adjacent to the two reservoirs. General objectives for all WWP lands include alternatives designed to protect or enhance existing wildlife habitat. It is also suggested that WWP evaluate the current status of beaver and river otter populations occupying the reservoirs and implement indicated management. Second priority projects include the protection/enhancement of wildlife habitat on state owned or privately owned lands. Long-term wildlife management agreements would be developed with Montana School Trust lands and may involve reimbursement of revenues lost to the state. Third priority projects include the enhancement of big game winter ranges located on Kootenai National Forest lands. 1 ref., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  13. Effects of the Cabinet Gorge Kokanee Hatchery on Wintering Bald Eagles in the Lower Clark Fork River and Lake Pend, Oreille, Idaho: 1986 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crenshaw, John G.

    1987-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the lower Clark Fork River, Lake Pend Oreille, and the upper Pend Oreille River, Idaho, were documented during the winters of 1985--86 and 1986--87. Peak counts of bald eagles in weekly aerial censuses were higher in 1985--86 (274) and 1986--87 (429) than previously recorded in mid-winter surveys. Differences in eagle distribution within and between years were apparently responses to changes in prey availability. Eight bald eagles were captured and equipped with radio transmitters in the winter and spring of 1986. Residencies within the study area averaged 13.9 days in 1985--86 and 58.3 days for the four eagles that returned in 1986-87. The eagles exhibited considerable daily movement throughout the study area. After departing the area, one eagle was later sighted approximately 1185 km to the southwest in northern California. Eagle behavioral activity was recorded at time budget sessions at areas of heavy use. Perching in live trees was the most common behavior observed. 34 refs., 39 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. The Home Medicine Cabinet

    PubMed Central

    McGuigan, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    The home medicine cabinet contains both drug and non-drug poisons, of varying toxicity. The more seriously toxic ones and old medications, should be removed, since the `steps' of toilet and sink make medicine cabinets accessible even to young children. This article describes the degree of toxicity of items commonly found in medicine cabinets, and recommends storage methods which prevent accidents. Ipecac syrup should be in every medicine cabinet of every home in which there are children.

  15. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; Artificial Imprinting of Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) with Synthetic Chemicals: Measurement of Thyroxine Content as an Indicator of the Sensitive Period for Imprinting to Olfactory Cues; 1992 Supplement Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, Allan T.; White, Ronald J.; Tilson, Mary Beth

    1993-09-01

    In 1991, we initiated studies to determine the critical period for thyroxine-induced olfactory imprinting in kokanee salmon. In our preliminary investigation we found that thyroxine [T{sub 4}] levels of Lake Whatcom stock, 1990 year class, kokanee were relatively high in eggs and alevins as compared to post-swimup fry, and peaked at hatch and swimup. Here we report on follow-up studies conducted in 1992 designed to determine if our initial results could be replicated. Additionally, in 1992, we initiated experiments to determine if kokanee could be imprinted to synthetic chemicals--morpholine and phenethyl alcohol--at different life stages. In 1991, whole body thyroxine content [T{sub 4}] was measured in 460 Lake Whatcom stock kokanee and 480 Lake Pend Orielle (Cabinet Gorge) stock kokanee to indicate the critical period for imprinting. Lots of 20 kokanee eggs, alevins and fry from both stocks, reared at the Spokane Tribal hatchery, were collected at weekly intervals from November 1991 to August 1992 and assayed for T{sub 4} content by radioimmunoassay. T{sub 4} levels were monitored in Lake Whatcom stock, 1991 year class fish, from eyed egg (33 days post-fertilization) to fry (248 days post-fertilization) stages. T{sub 4} concentration ({+-} SEM) in eggs was 6.7 {+-} 1.3 rig/g body weight. T{sub 4} peaked on the day of hatch at 13.1 {+-} 2.5 ng/g body weight, then declined to 10.3 {+-} 1.1 ng/g body weight in recently post-hatch alevins. T{sub 4} peaked again at 22.1 {+-} 5.2 ng/g body weight during swimup, then steadily decreased to about 1.0 ng/g body weight in 176-248 day old fry. T{sub 4} levels were monitored in Lake Pend Orielle stock, 1991 year class, fish from the day of fertilization (day 0) to 225 days post-fertilization. T{sub 4} content of eggs was 9.5 {+-} 1.7 ng/g body weight and peaked on the day of hatch (day 53 post-fertilization) at 24.2 {+-} 4.5 ng/g body weight. After declining to 13.0 {+-} 2.9 ng/g body weight on day 81 post-fertilization, T

  16. Detail of motor control cabinet and field breakers. Control cabinet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of motor control cabinet and field breakers. Control cabinet and breaker panel built by Cutler-Hammer - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  17. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    SciTech Connect

    Costantino, R.A. Jr; Gliebe, R.J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload. 7 figs.

  18. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    DOEpatents

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  19. Dworshak Reservoir Kokanee Population Monitoring, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo; Stark, Eric

    2003-03-01

    Onsite testing of strobe lights was conducted to determine if they repelled kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from the turbine intakes at Dworshak Dam. We tested a set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min placed near the intake of a 90 mW turbine. A split-beam echo sounder was used to determine the effect of strobe light operation on fish density (thought to be mostly kokanee) in front of the turbine intakes. On five nights between December 2001 and January 2002, fish density averaged 110 fish/ha when no lights were flashing. Mean density dropped to 13 fish/ha when the strobe lights were turned on during five additional nights of sampling. This 88% decline in density was significant at the P = 0.009 level of significance based on a paired Student's t test. There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicate that a single set of nine lights may be sufficient to repel kokanee from a turbine intake during the night. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2001. Estimated abundance of kokanee has continued to increase since the spring of 1996 when high entrainment losses occurred. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,276,000 kokanee in Dworshak Reservoir in early July 2001. This included 2,069,000 age-0 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 16.4%), 801,000 age-1 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 17.8%), and 406,000 age-2 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 20.5%). Entrainment sampling was also conducted with split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of one continuous 24 h period per month. The highest entrainment rates occurred at night with lower discharges and shallower intake depths. Fish movement patterns suggested that they swam 'at will' in front of the intakes and may have chosen to move into the turbine intakes. Based on monthly hydroacoustic sampling in the forebay, we found that kokanee density was low in July and August during a period of high discharge

  20. Dworshak Reservoir Kokanee Population Monitoring: Project Progress Report, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Harryman, Bill

    2001-08-01

    We used split-beam hydroacoustics and trawling to monitor the kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka population in Dworshak Reservoir during 1999. Estimated abundance of kokanee has continued to increase since the high entrainment losses in the spring of 1996. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 1,545,000 kokanee and rainbow trout O. mykiss in Dworshak Reservoir during July 1999. This included 1,144,000 age-0 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 42%), 212,000 age-1 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15%), and 189,000 age-2 kokanee and stocked rainbow trout (90% CI {+-} 39%). Rainbow trout could not be distinguished from the age-2 kokanee in the echograms since they were of similar size. Age-0 kokanee ranged in length from 40 mm to 90 mm, age-1 from 193 mm to 212 mm, and age-2 kokanee from 219 mm to 336 mm. These sizes indicated kokanee are still growing well. Discharge of water from Dworshak Dam during 1999 did not stop the expansion of the kokanee population based on these results. Counts of spawning kokanee in four tributary streams exceeded 11,000 fish. This index also showed a marked increase from last year's 660 spawning kokanee or the 1997 total of 144 spawning kokanee.

  1. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation; Kokanee Stocking and Monitoring in Flathead Lake, 1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, Daniel; Knoetek, W. Ladd Hansen, Barry

    1997-06-01

    Kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were introduced into Flathead Lake in 1916. The kokanee population declined in the 1960s and 1970s, and kokanee disappeared from Flathead Lake in the late 1980s. Their disappearance has been attributed to the long-term effects of the construction and operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr dams, excessive harvest by anglers, and changes in the lake food web induced by the introduction of opossum shrimp Mysis relicta. Attempts to reestablish kokanee in the Flathead Lake ecosystem between 1988 and 1991 were unsuccessful. In 1991, Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) wrote a mitigation plan to restore kokanee to Flathead Lake. In 1993, MFWP, CSKT, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wrote a mitigation implementation plan that initiated a 5-year test program to use hatchery-reared fish to reintroduce kokanee to the lake. Stocking hatchery-reared kokanee into Flathead Lake began in 1993; the 5-year {open_quotes}kokanee test{close_quotes} started in 1994 and is scheduled to continue through 1998. The annual stocking objective is 1 million yearling kokanee (6-8 in long). Criteria used to evaluate the success of the 5-year test are (1) 30% survival of kokanee 1 year after stocking, (2) yearling-to-adult survival of 10%, and (3) annual harvest of 50,000 kokanee ({ge} 11 in) and fishing effort {ge} 100,000 angler hours.

  2. 48 CFR 908.7106 - Security cabinets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cabinets. (a) Acquisitions of security cabinets shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.507 and the “prerequisites to ordering” criteria contained in FPMR 41 CFR 101-25.302-2 and DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-25.302. (b... cabinets in accordance with 48 CFR part 51....

  3. 48 CFR 908.7105 - Filing cabinets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing cabinets. 908.7105 Section 908.7105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7105 Filing cabinets. Acquisitions of filing cabinets shall be...

  4. 48 CFR 908.7106 - Security cabinets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cabinets. (a) Acquisitions of security cabinets shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.507 and the “prerequisites to ordering” criteria contained in FPMR 41 CFR 101-25.302-2 and DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-25.302. (b... cabinets in accordance with 48 CFR part 51....

  5. 48 CFR 908.7106 - Security cabinets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cabinets. (a) Acquisitions of security cabinets shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.507 and the “prerequisites to ordering” criteria contained in FPMR 41 CFR 101-25.302-2 and DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-25.302. (b... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security cabinets....

  6. 48 CFR 908.7106 - Security cabinets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cabinets. (a) Acquisitions of security cabinets shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.507 and the “prerequisites to ordering” criteria contained in FPMR 41 CFR 101-25.302-2 and DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-25.302. (b... cabinets in accordance with 48 CFR part 51....

  7. 2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE DUE TO THE COMBINATION OF UNIT 24 BEING DOWN FOR REWINDING AND TWO UNITS COMING ON LINE UNEXPECTEDLY AT ROSS POWERHOUSE LED TO WATER FLOWING OVER THE SPILLGATES. EACH GATE IF 47 FEET WIDE AND 50 FEET HIGH, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  8. Hazard Assessment of Fire in Electrical Cabinets

    SciTech Connect

    Avidor, Elyahu; Joglar-Billoch, Francisco J.; Mowrer, Frederick W.; Modarres, Mohammad

    2003-12-15

    Fire in electrical cabinets is of major concern in nuclear power plants. With the need to reduce incoming electrical power from 14 kV to as low as 50 V, and the need to supply power to hundreds of electrical components, there is an abundance of electrical cabinets in nuclear power plants. The combination of fire load and live electrical energy within electrical cabinets has caused fires and explosions. Such fires are of concern as they may disrupt the delivery of electrical power and instrumentation and control in the plant. In addition, the fire can propagate to nearby cabinets and plant components. This paper presents advances in the knowledge and understanding of the conditions inside a cabinet due to fire and ranks fire hazard potential of electrical cabinets.Test results for electrical cabinet fires have been reported by Sandia National Laboratories and by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The Sandia tests provide data for fires in control cabinets. The VTT tests provide a model for calculation of burning rates inside a specific electrical cabinet. This research included a site visit to a nuclear power plant to understand variations in electrical cabinet design as well as performing 39 cabinet fire tests with varying burning rates, ventilation openings, and cabinet sizes. Two types of fuels were used for this study: propane gas and heptane liquid. This paper identifies the minimum fire size that can be maintained in a cabinet as a function of ventilation openings, cabinet wall temperatures, and radiation levels, and the characteristics of external smoke and fire plumes. Based on the test results, a one-zone model was developed for mathematical simulation. The model was used to expand on the results of the tests to construct a risk matrix of fire hazards for various cabinets as a function of the cabinet size, fire size, and ventilation openings.Since the test results in this study are based on propane and heptane as the fire load, it is desirable

  9. Phototherapy cabinet for ultraviolet radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, S.N.; Frost, P.

    1981-08-01

    A newly designed cabinet can be used for the treatment of psoriasis with fluorescent ultraviolet (UV) lamps. the new design provides more uniform distribution of UV radiation in both the horizontal and vertical axes, and several safety features have been added. The distribution and uniformity of UV output in this and in a previously described cabinet are compared. The UV output at the vertical center of the older UV light cabinet was six times greater than that at either the top or bottom, while the design of the present cabinet provides uniform UV radiation except for a slight increase at head height and at the level of the lower legs compared with the middle third of the cabinet. The variation in output of the older cabinet may, in part, explain the commonly encountered difficulty in the phototherapy of psoriasis of the scalp and lower extremities.

  10. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; Artificial Imprinting and Smoltification in Juvenile Kokanee Salmon Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon Hatcheries; 1994 Supplement Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, Mary Beth; Scholz, Allan T.; White, Ronald J.

    1995-02-01

    At the kokanee salmon hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt, constructed as partial mitigation for effects from Grand Coulee Dam, adult returns have been poor. The reason may be in the imprinting or in the smoltification. A study was initiated in 1992 to determine if there was a critical period for thyroxine induced alfactory imprinting in kokanee salmon; experiments were conducted on imprinting to morpholine and phenethyl alcohol. Other results showed that chemical imprinting coincided with elevated thyroxine levels in 1991 kokanee exposed to synthetic chemicals in 1992. In this report, imprinting experiments were repeated; results showed that imprinting occurred concomitant with elevated thyroxine levels in 1991 kokanee exposed to synthetic chemicals in 1992 and tested in 1994 as age 3 spawners. Imprinting also occurred at the same time as thyroxine peaks in 1992 kokanee exposed to synthetic chemicals in 1993 and tested as age 2 spawners. In both groups fish that had the highest whole body thyroxine content (swimup stage) also had the highest percentage of fish that were attracted to their exposure odor in behavioral tests. So, kokanee salmon imprinted to chemical cues during two sensitive periods during development, at the alevin/swimup and smolt stages. A field test was conducted in Lake Roosevelt on coded wire tagged fish. Smoltification experiments were conducted from 1992 to 1994. Recommendations are made for the Lake Roosevelt kokanee hatcheries.

  11. Do predators influence the distribution of age-0 kokanee in a Colorado Reservoir?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardiman, J.M.; Johnson, B.M.; Martinez, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal changes in reservoir conditions such as productivity, light, and temperature create spatiotemporal variation in habitat that may segregate or aggregate predators and prey, producing implications for the distribution, growth, and survival of fishes. We used hydroacoustics to document the diel vertical distribution of age-0 kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka relative to environmental gradients at Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado, during May-August of 2002. Temperature, light, and zooplankton density profiles were examined relative to foraging conditions for kokanee and their primary predator, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Age-0 kokanee displayed large diel vertical migrations in May despite the lack of an energetic advantage before reservoir stratification. Age-0 kokanee minimized near-surface foraging at this time, perhaps to avoid predation by visual predators, such as lake trout, in the well-lit surface waters. Strong reservoir stratification in midsummer appeared to provide a thermal refuge from lake trout that the kokanee exploited. By August vertical migrations were shallow and most kokanee remained in the epilimnion throughout the day. Although the energetic implications of the late-summer strategy are unclear, it appears that kokanee were responding to changes in their predator environment. A robust model for kokanee diel vertical migration across a range of systems should include a predator avoidance component.

  12. State Children's Cabinets and Councils: 2008 Directory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Elizabeth; Ravindranath, Nalini; Folliard, June

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves as the introduction to the State Children's Cabinets and Councils Series, a set of reports intended to capture and organize the decisions and experiences of more than 20 children's cabinets and councils and present them against an emerging set of expectations about what the public and policy makers could and should expect from…

  13. Kokanee Stocking and Monitoring, Flathead Lake, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Deleray, Mark; Fredenberg, Wade; Hansen, Barry

    1995-07-01

    One mitigation goal of the Hungry Horse Dam fisheries mitigation program, funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, is to replace lost production of 100,000 adult kokanee in Flathead Lake. The mitigation program calls for a five-year test to determine if kokanee can be reestablished in Flathead Lake. The test consists. of annual stocking of one million hatchery-raised yearling kokanee. There are three benchmarks for judging the success of the kokanee reintroduction effort: (1) Post-stocking survival of 30 percent of planted kokanee one year after stocking; (2) Yearling to adult survival of 10 percent (100,000 adult salmon); (3) Annual kokanee harvest of 50,000 or more fish per year by 1998, with an average length of 11 inches or longer for harvested fish, and fishing pressure of 100,000 angler hours or more. Kokanee were the primary sport fish species in the Flathead Lake fishery in the early 1900s, and up until the late 1980s when the population rapidly declined in numbers and then disappeared. Factors identified which influenced the decline of kokanee are the introduction of opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta), hydroelectric operations, overharvest through angling, and competition and/or predation by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonur clupeaformis). The purpose of this report was to summarize the stocking program and present monitoring results from the 1993 and 1994 field seasons. In June 1993, roughly 210,000 yearling kokanee were stocked into two bays on the east shore of Flathead Lake. Following stocking, we observed a high incidence of stocked kokanee in stomach samples from lake trout captured in areas adjacent to the stocking sites and a high percentage of captured lake trout containing kokanee. Subsequent monitoring concluded that excessive lake trout predation precluded significant survival of kokanee stocked in 1993. In June 1994, over 802,000 kokanee were stocked into Big Arm Bay. The combination of near optimum water

  14. Three Gorges Dam, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.

    This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER

  15. Development of flammable liquid storage wooden cabinets for chemical laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Staggs, K.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.; Doughty, S.M.; Barr, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A fire hardened wooden cabinet was developed for the storage of flammable liquids for LLNL Bldg. 151 nuclear chemistry laboratories. The new cabinet requirements were to fit into existing cabinet spaces, match existing cabinets in appearance, and meet the National Fire Protection Association Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. A standard test apparatus was developed to produce the required fire exposure necessary to evaluate existing cabinets and new designs. The final design was a cabinet insert that could be prefabricated and installed into the appropriate storage area of the existing cabinets.

  16. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project : Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservaton 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    LeCaire, Richard

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1980's the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, the Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife developed a management plan for Lake Roosevelt on the restoration and enhancement of kokanee salmon populations using hatchery out plants and the restoration of natural spawning runs. The plan was incorporated into the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) in their 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife program as partial mitigation for hydropower caused fish losses resulting from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project, as part of a basin wide effort, is evaluating the status of the natural production kokanee in streams tributary to Lakes Roosevelt and Rufus Woods and is examining entrainment through Grand Coulee Dam. The goal of this project is the protection and enhancement of the natural production kokanee in these two lakes. The project is currently collecting data under four phases or parts. Since 1991, Lake Whatcom Washington origin kokanee have been planted in considerable numbers into the waters of Lake Roosevelt. A natural production kokanee fishery has persisted in the lake since the early 1970's(Cash, 1995), (Scholz, 1991). Historical information alludes to wild Kokanee production in the San Poil River, Nespelem River, Big Sheep Creek, Ora-Pa-Ken Creek, Deep Creek and Onion Creeks. The genetic makeup of the fish within the fishery is unknown, as is their contribution to the fishery. The level of influence by the hatchery out planted stock on wild fish stocks is unknown as well. Project outcomes will indicate the genetic fitness for inclusion of natural production kokanee stocks into current Bonneville Power Administration funded hatchery programs. Other findings may determine contribution/interaction of/between wild/hatchery kokanee stocks found in the waters of Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt.

  17. 72. LOCK ELECTRICAL SYSTEM CONTROL SWITCH CABINET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. LOCK - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM - CONTROL SWITCH CABINET - PANEL ARRANGEMENT AND DETAILS (ML-5-29/33-FS), March 1934 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  18. Fluid dynamics of cytotoxic safety cabinets.

    PubMed

    Braconnier, R; Bonthoux, F

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the specific fluid dynamics characteristics of cytotoxic safety cabinets (CSC), particularly those used in cancer drug reconstitution operations. Measurements taken on site were used to derive characteristic data for these cabinets. An in-depth laboratory investigation of airflows inside another CSC was also conducted. Anemometric values recorded on these two installations enabled the experimental validation of computational fluid dynamics methods applied to CSC. The digital flow simulations conducted provide a better understanding of the detailed flow structure inside a CSC and made it possible to study the influence of different operating parameters on the air velocity distribution inside the cabinet front opening: recycled air temperature, product protection airflow rate, suction openings spatial distribution, air compensation mode and draughts, operator arm penetration, and operator presence in front of the cabinet. PMID:20007340

  19. Plight of the Cabinet Mountains grizzlies

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of mineral and petroleum exploration and development and logging on grizzly bears in the Cabinet Mountains region of Montana is discussed. The author points out that such activities might cut the bears off from other bear populations in the Glacier National park and the Bob Marshall Wilderness. It is maintained, that in order for the bears to survive, they must range beyond the Cabinet Mountains and that extensive human activities in the area would damage their range. (JMT)

  20. Kokanee Impacts Assessment and Monitoring of Lake Pend Oreille and Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredericks, James P.; Elam, Steve; Maiolie, Melo A.

    1995-06-01

    In an effort to recover the declining kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi population in Lake Pend Oreille, a study was proposed to evaluate the benefits of a higher winter elevation, thus providing more spawning gravel for kokanee. This project was designed to collect and compile baseline information on the kokanee population and potential spawning gravel in Lake Pend Oreille that can be used to help evaluate the effectiveness of future changes in lake level management. We estimated the area of suitable quality spawning gravel at the current winter elevation (625.1 m) and at the proposed winter elevation (626.7 m). Gravels beneath the current winter elevation were generally characterized by a high percentage of fine sediments and a high degree of embeddedness. Of the total gravel available below the proposed elevation of 626.7 m, only 15% was available at current winter elevations. Kokanee population estimates were made with a midwater trawl and hydroacoustic surveys in August and September. September population estimates were 6,760,000 age O, 380,000 age 1 +, 700,000 age 2 +, 990,000 age 3 +, 760,000 age 4 +, and 70,000 age 5 + kokanee. Hydroacoustic surveys run alongside the trawl indicated that hydroacoustics can effectively estimate abundance of kokanee, with the exception of fry, which are too small to be completely distinguishable from opossum shrimp Mysis relicta. Historic estimates of wild kokanee fry indicate that winter elevations higher than 625 m and a stable elevation throughout the winter are positively correlated with kokanee fry abundance and survival.

  1. Variability of kokanee and rainbow trout food habits, distribution, and population dynamics, in an ultraoligotrophic lake with no manipulative management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake is a unique environment to evaluate the ecology of introduced kokanee and rainbow trout because of its otherwise pristine state, low productivity, absence of manipulative management, and lack of lotic systems for fish spawning. Between 1986 and 2004, kokanee displayed a great deal of variation in population demographics with a pattern that reoccurred in about 10 years. We believe that the reoccurring pattern resulted from density dependent growth, and associated changes in reproduction and abundance, driven by prey resource limitation that resulted from low lake productivity exacerbated by prey consumption when kokanee were abundant. Kokanee fed primarily on small-bodied prey from the mid-water column; whereas rainbow trout fed on large-bodied prey from the benthos and lake surface. Cladoceran zooplankton abundance may be regulated by kokanee. And kokanee growth and reproductive success may be influenced by the availability of Daphnia pulicaria, which was absent in zooplankton samples collected annually from 1990 to 1995, and after 1999. Distribution and diel migration of kokanee varied over the duration of the study and appeared to be most closely associated with prey availability, maximization of bioenergetic efficiency, and fish density. Rainbow trout were less abundant than were kokanee and exhibited less variation in population demographics, distribution, and food habits. There is some evidence that the population dynamics of rainbow trout were in-part related to the availability of kokanee as prey. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. CENet: A Cabinet Environmental Sensing Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zusheng; Yu, Fengqi; Chen, Liang; Cao, Guangmin

    2010-01-01

    For data center cooling and intelligent substation systems, real time cabinet environmental monitoring is a strong requirement. Monitoring data, such as temperature, humidity, and noise, is important for operators to manage the facilities in cabinets. We here propose a sensing network, called CENet, which is energy efficient and reliable for cabinet environmental monitoring. CENet achieves above 93% reliable data yield and sends fewer beacons compared to periodic beaconing. It does so through a data-aided routing protocol. In addition, based on B-MAC, we propose a scheduling scheme to increase the lifetime of the network by reducing unnecessary message snooping and channel listening, thus it is more energy efficient than B-MAC. The performance of CENet is evaluated by simulations and experiments. PMID:22205856

  3. CENet: a cabinet environmental sensing network.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zusheng; Yu, Fengqi; Chen, Liang; Cao, Guangmin

    2010-01-01

    For data center cooling and intelligent substation systems, real time cabinet environmental monitoring is a strong requirement. Monitoring data, such as temperature, humidity, and noise, is important for operators to manage the facilities in cabinets. We here propose a sensing network, called CENet, which is energy efficient and reliable for cabinet environmental monitoring. CENet achieves above 93% reliable data yield and sends fewer beacons compared to periodic beaconing. It does so through a data-aided routing protocol. In addition, based on B-MAC, we propose a scheduling scheme to increase the lifetime of the network by reducing unnecessary message snooping and channel listening, thus it is more energy efficient than B-MAC. The performance of CENet is evaluated by simulations and experiments. PMID:22205856

  4. 24 CFR 3280.204 - Kitchen cabinet protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Kitchen cabinet protection. (a) The bottom and sides of combustible kitchen cabinets over cooking ranges to a horizontal distance of 6 inches from the outside edge of the cooking range shall be protected... framing members and trim are exempted from this requirement. The cabinet area over the cooking range...

  5. 21 CFR 868.6100 - Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray. 868.6100... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6100 Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray. (a) Identification. An anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray is a device intended to...

  6. 21 CFR 868.6100 - Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray. 868.6100... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6100 Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray. (a) Identification. An anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray is a device intended to...

  7. 21 CFR 868.6100 - Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray. 868.6100... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6100 Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray. (a) Identification. An anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray is a device intended to...

  8. 21 CFR 868.6100 - Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray. 868.6100... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6100 Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray. (a) Identification. An anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray is a device intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 868.6100 - Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray. 868.6100... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6100 Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray. (a) Identification. An anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray is a device intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 1020.40 - Cabinet x-ray systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cabinet x-ray systems. 1020.40 Section 1020.40...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.40 Cabinet x-ray systems. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to cabinet x-ray...

  11. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... with a ventilation system designed to circulate and exchange the air in the cabinet to shorten the...

  12. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... with a ventilation system designed to circulate and exchange the air in the cabinet to shorten the...

  13. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... with a ventilation system designed to circulate and exchange the air in the cabinet to shorten the...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... with a ventilation system designed to circulate and exchange the air in the cabinet to shorten the...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... with a ventilation system designed to circulate and exchange the air in the cabinet to shorten the...

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.302-2 - Filing cabinets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used. (e) Using filing cabinets with locks only when required by special needs that cannot be satisfied... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Filing cabinets. 101-25... Standards § 101-25.302-2 Filing cabinets. Executive agencies shall make every effort to effect maximum...

  17. EMISSIONS FROM BURNING CABINET MAKING SCRAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an initial determination of differences in missions when burning ordinary cordwood compared to kitchen cabinet making scraps. he tests were performed in an instrumented woodstove testing laboratory on a stove that simulated units observed in use at a k...

  18. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Engrainment Assessment : 2006 Annual Report, March 1, 2006 - February 28, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-12-18

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. Strobe light tests were conducted on four nights from April 24-27, 2006, in front of the middle reservoir outlet (RO) 2. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On two nights, April 25 and 27, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near RO 2 averaged 12.4 fish and densities averaged 31.0 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during the nights of April 24 and 26, mean counts dropped to 4.7 fish and densities dropped to 0.5 fish/ha. The decline in counts (62%) and densities (99%) was statistically significant (p = 0.009 and 0.002, respectively). Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of a discharging reservoir outlet, which would be sufficient to improve sport fish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2006. Estimated abundance of kokanee increased from the 2005 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated approximately 5,815,000 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) in Dworshak Reservoir in August 2006. This included 2,183,000 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 24.2%), 1,509,000 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 29.0%), and 2,124,000 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) kokanee. This resulted in a density of age-2 kokanee above the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site, split-beam hydroacoustics from May through September for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were found during dawn periods, unlike previous year's results, which

  19. An experimental investigation of internally ignited fires in nuclear power plant control cabinets: Part 1: Cabinet effects tests

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, J.M.

    1987-04-01

    A series of full-scale cabinet fire tests was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The cabinet fire tests were prompted by the potential threat to the safety of a nuclear power plant by a cabinet fire in either the control room or in a switchgear type room. The purpose of these cabinet fire tests was to characterize the development and effects of internally ignited cabinet fires as a function of several parameters believed to most influence the burning process. A primary goal of this test program was to test representative and credible configurations and materials. This series of 22 cabinet fire tests demonstrated that fires in either benchboard or vertical cabinets with either IEEE-383 qualified cable or unqualified cable can be ignited and propagate. However, fires with IEEE-383 qualified cable do not propagate as rapidly nor to the extent that unqualified cable does. Furthermore, the results showed that the thermal environment in the test enclosure and adjacent cabinets is not severe enough to result in autoignition of other combustibles; although in some of the larger fires melting of plastic materials may occur. Smoke accumulation in the room appeared to be the most significant problem, as smoke obscured the view in the enclosure within minutes after ignition. Essentially, a cabinet fire can propagate within a single cabinet; however, for the conditions tested it does not appear that the fire poses a threat outside the burning cabinet except the resulting smoke.

  20. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation; Kokanee Stocking and Monitoring in Flathead Lake, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenberg, Wade; Carty, Daniel; Cavigli, Jon

    1996-06-01

    The operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork-of the Flathead River reduced the reproductive success of kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawning in the Flathead River. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) authored a mitigation plan to offset those losses. The mitigation goal, stated in the Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributed to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, is to: {open_quotes}Replace lost annual production of 100,000 kokanee adults, initially through hatchery production and pen rearing in Flathead Lake, partially replacing lost forage for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Flathead Lake.{close_quotes}

  1. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Holly; Scholz, Allan

    2002-03-01

    Lake Roosevelt has been stocked with Lake Whatcom stock kokanee since 1989 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining recreational fishery. Due to low return numbers, it was hypothesized a stock of kokanee, native to the upper Columbia River, might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom strain. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Matched pair releases of Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee were made from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance between Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee was evaluated using three performance measures; (1) the number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to other tributaries and (3) the number of returns to the creel. Kokanee were collected during five passes through the reservoir via electrofishing, which included 87 tributary mouths during the fall of 2000 and 2001. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Whatcom stock in 2000 ({chi}{sup 2} = 736.6; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01) and 2001 ({chi}{sup 2} = 156.2; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01). Reservoir wide recoveries of age two kokanee had similar results in 2000 ({chi}{sup 2} = 735.3; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01) and 2001 ({chi}{sup 2} = 150.1; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01). Six Lake Whatcom and seven Meadow Creek three year olds were collected in 2001. The sample size of three year olds was too small for statistical analysis. No kokanee were collected during creel surveys in 2000, and two (age three kokanee) were collected in 2001. Neither of the hatchery kokanee collected were coded wire tagged, therefore stock could not be distinguished. After two years of monitoring, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appear to be capable of providing a run of three-year-old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. The small number of

  2. 27 CFR 9.178 - Columbia Gorge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Columbia Gorge. 9.178 Section 9.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.178 Columbia Gorge. (a) Name. The name of...

  3. 27 CFR 9.178 - Columbia Gorge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Columbia Gorge. 9.178 Section 9.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.178 Columbia Gorge. (a) Name. The name of...

  4. 97. VIEW OF CENTER OF INTERIOR ROW OF EQUIPMENT CABINETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW OF CENTER OF INTERIOR ROW OF EQUIPMENT CABINETS ON SOUTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. THREE ADDITIONAL GOULD BRUSH CHART RECORDERS ARE IN THIS ROW (NOT VISIBLE IN PHOTOGRAPH) LOCATED IMMEDIATELY EAST (LEFT) OF THESE CABINETS. Another row of cabinets south of (behind) this one is not accessible for photography. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. The Proteus Cabinet, or "We Are Here but Not Here"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nield, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    In the early nineteenth century, there were three stage illusions in which a magician could cause a person to disappear. In one of these, the Proteus Cabinet, participants would enter a box, and simply vanish. As the designers of the Proteus Cabinet said of them, they were "Here, but not Here." My essay explores this concept in relation to…

  6. Detail of field breakers in the motor control cabinet for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of field breakers in the motor control cabinet for unit 3. Control cabinet and breaker panel built by Cutler-Hammer - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  7. 24 CFR 3280.204 - Kitchen cabinet protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and sides of combustible kitchen cabinets over cooking ranges to a horizontal distance of 6 inches from the outside edge of the cooking range shall be protected with at least 5/16-inch thick gypsum... from this requirement. The cabinet area over the cooking range or cooktops shall be protected by...

  8. Clinostat Delivers Power To Plant-Growth Cabinets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushong, Wilton E.; Fox, Ronald C.; Brown, Christopher S.; Biro, Ronald R.; Dreshel, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinostat rotates coaxial pair of plant-growth cabinets about horizontal axis while supplying cabinets with electric power for built-in computers, lamps, fans, and auxiliary equipment, such as nutrient pumps. Each cabinet self-contained unit for growing plants in controlled environment. By rotating cabinets and contents about horizontal axis, scientists simulate and study some of effects of microgravity on growth of plants. Clinostat includes vertical aluminum mounting bracket on horizontal aluminum base. Bearings on bracket hold shaft with V-belt pulley. At each end of shaft, circular plate holds frame mount for cabinet. Mounting plates also used to hold transparent sealed growth chambers described in article, "Sealed Plant-Growth Chamber For Clinostat" (KSC-11538).

  9. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  10. Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation: Kokanee Depth Distribution in Dworshak Reservoir and Implications Toward Minimizing Entrainment, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo; Elam, Steve

    1996-10-01

    The authors measured the day and night depth distribution of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi directly upstream of Dworshak Dam from October 1993 to December 1994 using split-beam hydroacoustics. At night most kokanee (70%) were distributed in a diffuse layer about 10 m thick. The depth of the layer varied with the season and ranged from 30 to 40 m deep during winter and from 15 to 25 m deep during summer. Nighttime depth of the kokanee layer during summer roughly corresponded to a zone where water temperatures ranged from 7 C to 12 C. Daytime kokanee distribution was much different with kokanee located in dense schools. Most kokanee (70%) were found in a 5--15 m thick layer during summer. Daytime depth distribution was also shallowest during fall and deepest during winter. Dworshak Dam has structures which can be used for selective water withdrawal and can function in depth ranges that will avoid the kokanee layer. Temperature constraints limit the use of selective withdrawal during the spring, summer, and fall, but in the winter, water is nearly isothermal and the full range of selector gate depths may be utilized. From October 1993 to February 1994, selector gates were positioned to withdraw water from above the kokanee layer. The discharge pattern also changed with more water being released during May and July, and less water being released during fall and winter. A combination of these two changes is thought to have increased kokanee densities to a record high of 69 adults/ha.

  11. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System; Technical Addendum to the Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, Will; Tohtz, Joel

    1990-03-01

    This addendum to the Final Report presents results of research on the zooplankton and fish communities of Flathead Lade. The intent of the Study has been to identify the impacts of hydroelectric operations at Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on the reproductive success of kokanee an to propose mitigation for these impacts. Recent changes in the trophic ecology of the lake, have reduced the survival of kokanee. In the last three year the Study has been redirected to identify, if possible, the biological mechanisms which now limit kokanee survival, and to test methods of enhancing the kokanee fishery by artificial supplementation. These studies were necessary to the formulation of mitigation plans. The possibility of successfully rehabilitating the kokanee population, is the doubt because of change in the trophic ecology of the system. This report first presents the results of studies of the population dynamics of crustacean zooplankton, upon which planktivorous fish depend. A modest effort was directed to measuring the spawning escapement of kokanee in 1988. Because of its relevance to the study, we also report assessments of 1989 kokanee spawning escapement. Hydroacoustic assessment of the abundance of all fish species in Flathead Lake was conducted in November, 1988. Summary of the continued efforts to document the growth rates and food habits of kokanee and lake whitefish are included in this report. Revised kokanee spawning and harvest estimates, and management implications of the altered ecology of Flathead Lake comprise the final sections of this addendum. 83 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-11-06

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. We tested one set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min in front of turbine 3 while operating at higher discharges than previously tested. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On five nights between January 31 and February 28, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near turbine 3 averaged eight fish and densities averaged 91 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during five adjacent nights during the same period, mean counts dropped to four fish and densities dropped to 35 fish/ha. The decline in counts (49%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.182), but decline in densities (62%) was significant (p = 0.049). There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of turbines operating at higher discharges, which would be sufficient to improve sportfish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2005. Estimated abundance of kokanee decreased from the 2004 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,011,626 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15.2%) in Dworshak Reservoir, July 2005. This included 2,135,986 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 15.9%), 769,175 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 16.0%), and 107,465 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 15.2%). Poor survival of kokanee from age-1 to age-2 continued to keep age-2 densities below the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of two days

  13. Impacts of Water Level Fluctuations on Kokanee Reproduction in Flathead Lake, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, Will; Fraley, John J.; Decker-Hess, Janet

    1986-06-01

    This study has investigated the effects of the operation of Kerr Dam on the reproductive success of kokanee that spawn along the shores of Flathead Lake. We have estimated the spawning escapement to the lakeshore, characterized spawning habitat, monitored egg and alevin survival in redds, and related survival to length of redd exposure due to lake drawdown. Groundwater discharge apparently attracts kokanee to spawning sites along the lakeshore and is responsible for prolonging egg survival in redds above minimum pool. We have quantified and described the effect of lake drawdown on groundwater flux in spawning areas. This report defines optimal lakeshore spawning habitat and discusses eqg and alevin survival both in and below the varial zone.

  14. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Holly

    2003-03-01

    Lake Whatcom, Washington kokanee have been stocked in Lake Roosevelt since 1987 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining fishery. Success has been limited by low recruitment to the fishery, low adult returns to hatcheries, and a skewed sex ratio. It was hypothesized that a stock native to the upper Columbia River might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom stock. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Post smolts from each stock were released from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance was evaluated using three measures; (1) number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to 86 tributaries sampled and, (3) the number of returns to the creel. In two repeated experiments, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appeared to be capable of providing a run of three-year old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. Less than 10 three-years olds from either stock were collected during the study period. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek and to other tributaries in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Lake Whatcom stock in both 2000 and 2001. However, preliminary data from the Spokane Tribe of Indians indicated that a large number of both stocks were precocial before they were stocked. The small number of hatchery three-year olds collected indicated that the current hatchery rearing and stocking methods will continue to produce a limited jacking run largely composed of precocious males and a small number of three-year olds. No kokanee from the study were collected during standard lake wide creel surveys. Supplemental creel data, including fishing derbies, test fisheries, and angler diaries, indicated anglers harvested two-year-old hatchery kokanee a month after release. The majority of the two-year old kokanee harvested

  15. Dissolution of FB-Line Cabinet Sweepings

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, Mark L.

    2005-06-14

    Three FB-Line samples were received by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization and evaluation for suitability for HB-Line dissolution. These samples are part of a larger sampling/evaluation program in support of FB-Line deinventory efforts. The samples studied were identified as MC04-147- HBL, MC04-148-HBL, and FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N). The first sample, MC04-147-HBL, is a portion of FB-Line Packaging and Stabilization (P&S) materials. The second sample, MC04-148-HBL, is a sweeping from Cabinet 6-8, which is not representative of the mechanical line. The third sample, FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N), is an FB-Line North cabinet sweeping. The samples were described by FB-Line personnel as containing plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) which had not been high-fired. This description was generally confirmed by solids analysis and off gas measurements. All three samples were dissolved in 8 M HNO{sub 3}/0.1 M KF at 90-100 C leaving minor amounts of solid residue. During dissolution, sample MC04-147 did not generate hydrogen gas. Sample MC04-148 generated modest amounts of gas, which contained 4.0 to 4.7 volume percent (vol %) hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at a ratio of up to 8.4 x 10{sup -5} mol H{sub 2}/g sample. Sample FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N) was nearly completely soluble in 8 M HNO{sub 3}and produced a very small amount of gas. Apparently, the CaF{sub 2} in that sample dissolves and provides sufficient fluoride to support the dissolution of other components.

  16. Temperature and depth mediate resource competition and apparent competition between Mysis diluviana and kokanee.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Erik R; Beauchamp, David A; Buettner, Anna R; Overman, Nathanael C

    2015-10-01

    In many food webs, species in similar trophic positions can interact either by competing for resources or boosting shared predators (apparent competition), but little is known about how the relative strengths of these interactions vary across environmental gradients. Introduced Mysis diluviana shrimp interact with planktivorous fishes such as kokanee salmon (lacustrine Oncorhynchus nerka) through both of these pathways, and effective management depends on understanding which interaction is more limiting under different conditions. An "environmental matching" hypothesis predicts the ecological impacts of Mysis are maximized under cool conditions near its thermal optimum. In addition, we hypothesized Mysis is more vulnerable to predation by lake trout in relatively shallow waters, and therefore Mysis enhances lake trout density and limits kokanee through apparent competition more strongly in shallower habitats. We tested whether these hypotheses could explain food web differences between two connected lake basins, one relatively shallow and the other extremely deep. The shallower basin warmed faster, thermally excluded Mysis from surface waters for 75% longer, and supported 2.5-18 times greater seasonal production of cladoceran zooplankton than the deeper basin, standardized by surface area. Mysis consumed 14-22% less zooplankton in the shallower basin, and lower ratios of total planktivore consumption to zooplankton production (C:P) indicated less potential for resource competition with kokanee, consistent with environmental matching. Lake trout diets contained more Mysis in the shallower basin and at shallower sampling sites within both basins. The catch rate of lake trout was seven times greater and the predation risk for kokanee was 4-5 times greater in the shallower basin than in the deeper basin, consistent with stronger apparent competition in shallower habitats. Understanding how the strengths of these interactions are mediated by temperature and depth would

  17. 6. VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING EAST TO THE FORMER GRAVITY OIL STORAGE BUILDING, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  18. 5. GORGE HIGH DAM; LOOKING TOWARD INTAKE WITH WATER FLOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GORGE HIGH DAM; LOOKING TOWARD INTAKE WITH WATER FLOWING OVER THE TOP OF THE SPILLGATE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  19. MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A GRAVITY SECTION IS THE THIRD DAM BUILT BY SEATTLE CITY LIGHT TO PROVIDE WATER FOR GORGE POWERHOUSE AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1961, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  1. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 87-99 : Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, Willaim J.

    1999-11-01

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights, as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee moved 20 to 40 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 3 to 5 m. Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.07 to p=0.00) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. We also continued annual monitoring of the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir. Spawner counts in four tributary streams that were used as an index of the adult population reached a record low of 144 spawners. No age-1 or age-2 kokanee were caught in 15 trawl hauls used to make population estimates. The population estimate of fry was 65,000 fish, {+-} 76% (90% C.I.). Flooding during the spring of 1996 was responsible for the low kokanee population.

  2. 10. INTERIOR OF NORTH MAIN BUILDING ROOM, SOUTH WALL CABINETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF NORTH MAIN BUILDING ROOM, SOUTH WALL CABINETS AND DOOR TO SOUTH MAIN BUILDING ROOM. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Hydrographer's Office, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. 12. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING BACK DOOR, BUILTIN CABINETS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING BACK DOOR, BUILT-IN CABINETS, AND WASHER/DRYER PLUMBING AND VENT CONNECTIONS. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  4. 16. INTERIOR OF SHED ADDITION AND FREESTANDING CABINETS AGAINST NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF SHED ADDITION AND FREE-STANDING CABINETS AGAINST NORTH WALL. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Hydrographer's Office, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. 11. METALCLAD CONTROL PANELS AND CABINETS, MAIN FLOOR LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. METAL-CLAD CONTROL PANELS AND CABINETS, MAIN FLOOR LOOKING NORTH - Bonneville Power Administration South Bank Substation, I-84, South of Bonneville Dam Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 30. BATHROOM DETAIL SHOWING, BUILTIN CABINET, TOILET, AND OPEN DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BATHROOM DETAIL SHOWING, BUILT-IN CABINET, TOILET, AND OPEN DOOR TO BACK BEDROOM. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  7. 72. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, CONTROL SWITCH CABINET, ASSEMBLY AND DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, CONTROL SWITCH CABINET, ASSEMBLY AND DETAILS. February 1936 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  8. 54. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, CONTROL SWITCH CABINET, PANEL ARRANGEMENT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, CONTROL SWITCH CABINET, PANEL ARRANGEMENT AND DETAILS. February 1938 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  9. View southwest of model board and operator's station #2; cabinet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest of model board and operator's station #2; cabinet in foreground houses at supervisory board and control switches for circuit breakers - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 13. POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER, RECESSED IN CABINET BEHIND HINGED METAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER, RECESSED IN CABINET BEHIND HINGED METAL DOOR (SHOWN OPEN), WEST SIDE, MAIN FLOOR - Bonneville Power Administration South Bank Substation, I-84, South of Bonneville Dam Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. 88. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 25' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT GYRO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 25' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT GYRO MONITORS AND TAPE PUNCH - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. [The development of a dispensing cabinet of total nutrient admixture].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-an

    2002-03-01

    A dispensing cabinet of total nutrient admixture is introduced in this paper. Which can be used for nutrient solution dispensing. The clinical application shows that it can provide a practical, simple, safe and satisfactory sterile environment. PMID:16104182

  14. 7. View of pipe cabinet on east elevation of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of pipe cabinet on east elevation of the power plant, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  15. View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within the former transformer building. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  16. 107. VIEW OF SOUTH END OF COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT CABINET FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF SOUTH END OF COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT CABINET FACING EAST WALL OF COMMUNICATIONS ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 12. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM, SHOWING LOW CABINET TEAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM, SHOWING LOW CABINET TEAT HOUSES HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND CLOSET AT LEFT THAT HOUSES OPERATING VALVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 27. Generator Voltage Regulator Cabinet Interior for Unit 1, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Generator Voltage Regulator Cabinet Interior for Unit 1, view to the northwest. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  19. 89. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 26' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT PROGRAMMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 26' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT PROGRAMMER PANELS AND TAPE READER - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. Interior of niche with small sink and cabinets behind original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of niche with small sink and cabinets behind original nurses' station - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Type "B" Casualty Dressing & Decontamination Station, Intersection of Eighth Street, Avenue E & Central Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 15. FRONT VIEW, DETAIL, CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FRONT VIEW, DETAIL, CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, NEW HAVEN YARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  2. 14. CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, NEW HAVEN YARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, NEW HAVEN YARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  3. INTERIOR VIEW, SALOON FROM THE SOUTHWEST CABINET. THE MIRRORED DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SALOON FROM THE SOUTHWEST CABINET. THE MIRRORED DOOR PANELS AND SALOON LIGHT FIXTURES WERE INSTALLED IN 1981, BASED ON PHYSICAL AND DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE INDICATING THEIR HISTORICAL PRESENCE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. INTERIOR DETAIL, SOUTHEAST CABINET FIREPLACE. WHILE THE SURROUND HAS BEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, SOUTHEAST CABINET FIREPLACE. WHILE THE SURROUND HAS BEEN ALTERED, THE FIREBACK IS LIKELY ORIGINAL OR EARLY TO THE HOUSE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 27. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING ELECTRICAL JUNCTION CABINET, HOPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING ELECTRICAL JUNCTION CABINET, HOPPER WINDOW, OPEN DOOR TO KITCHEN NO. 2, AND METAL SINK. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. Interior detail of original storage cabinets and ceiling boards in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of original storage cabinets and ceiling boards in utility porch in northeast corner of quarters no. 2, looking northwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  7. Acceptance Test Plan for Fourth-Generation Corrosion Monitoring Cabinet

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-10-23

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the third-generation corrosion monitoring cabinet (Hiline Engineering Part No.0004-CHM-072-C01). This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer of the cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinet. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation.

  8. 63. Refrigerator, microwave oven, storage cabinet open, north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Refrigerator, microwave oven, storage cabinet open, north side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  9. Room 105, small laboratory with museum case wooden cabinets at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 105, small laboratory with museum case wooden cabinets at left. View to south. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Builtin glassdoored cabinets in the dining room (southern unit) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Built-in glass-doored cabinets in the dining room (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. Builtin cabinets with stairs to second floor beyond (southern unit) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Built-in cabinets with stairs to second floor beyond (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. 3. INTERIOR, NORTH VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS AND CABINETS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR, NORTH VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS AND CABINETS. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mill Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  13. Go Metric in Metals with a Parts/Tool Cabinet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Kenneth A.; Hutchinson, Gary

    1978-01-01

    To develop accuracy in various metalworking techniques, teachers designed two parts or tool cabinets for students to build. Drawings for the two containers, and a photograph and materials list for the more complicated one, are included. (MF)

  14. 122. VIEW OF CABINETS ON WEST SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. VIEW OF CABINETS ON WEST SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (206), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING EAST. PECOS CABINET INCLUDES CONTROLS FOR PRESSURE SWITCHES, VALVES, AND PURGE; THE LOGIC AND MONITOR UNITS FOR BOOSTER AND FUEL SYSTEMS INCLUDES CONTROLS FOR MISSILE GROUND POWER AND HYDRAULICS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. Electrostatic precipitator with modular cabinet and cell washer

    SciTech Connect

    Kitsch, E.A.; Krause, J.A.

    1983-02-15

    A roof-mounted electrostatic air cleaner for connection to an exhaust duct has a sectionalized cabinet with detachably connected, directable inlet and outlet sections and an intermediate precipitator section, a traveling manifold with multiple spray nozzles is arranged to wash the outer surfaces of precipitator cell end plates as well as both surfaces of intermediate collector plates, and a construction and arrangement of large capacity precipitator cells provides for their convenient and safe assembly and removal from the cabinet.

  16. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Lake Whatcom Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) : Investigations in Lake Roosevelt Annual Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Holly J.; Scholz, Allan T.; McLellan, Jason G.; Tilson, Mary Beth

    2001-07-01

    Lake Whatcom stock kokanee have been planted in Lake Roosevelt since 1988 with the primary goal of establishing a self-sustaining fishery. Returns of hatchery kokanee to egg collection facilities and recruitment to the creel have been minimal. Therefore, four experiments were conducted to determine the most appropriate release strategy that would increase kokanee returns. The first experiment compared morpholine and non-morpholine imprinted kokanee return rates, the second experiment compared early and middle run Whatcom kokanee, the third experiment compared early and late release dates, and the fourth experiment compared three net pen release strategies: Sherman Creek hatchery vs. Sherman Creek net pens, Colville River net pens vs. Sherman Creek net pens, and upper vs. lower reservoir net pen releases. Each experiment was tested in three ways: (1) returns to Sherman Creek, (2) returns to other tributaries throughout the reservoir, and (3) returns to the creel. Chi-square analysis of hatchery and tributary returns indicated no significant difference between morpholine imprinted and non-imprinted fish, early run fish outperformed middle run fish, early release date outperformed late release fish, and the hatchery outperformed all net pen releases. Hatchery kokanee harvest was estimated at 3,323 fish, which was 33% of the total harvest. Return rates (1998 = 0.52%) of Whatcom kokanee were low indicating an overall low performance that could be caused by high entrainment, predation, and precocity. A kokanee stock native to the upper Columbia, as opposed to the coastal Whatcom stock, may perform better in Lake Roosevelt.

  17. Columbia Gorge Community College Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jonathon V.

    This is a report on a business survey conducted by Columbia Gorge Community College (CGCC) (Oregon) to review the success and quality of the college's degree and certificate programs in business administration, computer application systems, and computer information systems. The community college surveyed 104 local businesses to verify the…

  18. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  19. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt Annual Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Holly J.; Scholz, Allan T.

    2001-07-01

    Lake Roosevelt has been stocked with Whatcom stock kokanee since 1989 to mitigate for anadromous salmon losses caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The primary objective of the hatchery plantings was to create a self-sustaining recreational fishery. Due to low return numbers, it was hypothesized a native stock of kokanee might perform better than the coastal Whatcom strain. Therefore, kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Matched pair releases of Whatcom stock and Meadow Creek kokanee were made from Sherman Creek in late June 2000. Stock performance between Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee was evaluated through three performance measures (1) returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) returns to other tributaries, indicating availability for angler harvest, and (3) returns to the creel. A secondary objective was to evaluate the numbers collected at downstream fish passage facilities. Age 2 kokanee were collected during five passes through the reservoir, which included 89 tributaries between August 17th and November 7th, 2000. Sherman Creek was sampled once a week because it was the primary egg collection location. A total of 2,789 age 2 kokanee were collected, in which 2,658 (95%) were collected at Sherman Creek. Chi-square analysis indicated the Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek in significantly higher numbers compared to the Whatcom stock ({chi}{sup 2} = 734.4; P < 0.01). Reservoir wide recoveries indicated similar results ({chi}{sup 2} = 733.1; P < 0.01). No age 2 kokanee were collected during creel surveys. Age 3 kokanee are expected to recruit to the creel in 2001. No age 2 kokanee were collected at the fish passage facilities due to a 170 mm size restriction at the fish passage centers. Age 3 kokanee are expected to be collected at the fish passage centers during 2001. Stock performance cannot be properly evaluated until 2001, when

  20. Effects of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1979-1985 Final Research Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, Patrick

    1986-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. Studies concerning operation of the dam on the Flathead River aquatic biota began in 1979 and continued to 1982 under Bureau of Reclamation funding. These studies resulted in flow recommendations for the aquatic biota in the main stem Flathead River, below the influence of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork. Studies concerned specifically with kokanee salmon have continued under Bonneville Power Administration funding since 1982. This completion report covers the entire study period (September 1979 to June 1985). Major results of this study were: (1) development and refinement of methods to assess hydropower impacts on spawning and incubation success of kokanee; (2) development of a model to predict kokanee year class strength from Flathead River flows; and (3) implementation of flows favorable for successful kokanee reproduction. A monitoring program has been developed which will assess the recovery of the kokanee population as it proceeds, and to recommend management strategies to maintain management goals for the kokanee fishery in the river system.

  1. Composition and location of simulated lake-shore redds influence incubation success in kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fincel, M.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for improving spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), were explored by quantifying incubation success of embryos exposed to three substrate treatments in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, USA. Substrate treatments included no modification that used existing gravels in the lake (EXISTING), a cleaned substrate treatment where existing gravels were sifted in the water column to remove silt (CLEANED) and the addition of new, silt-free gravel (ADDED). Incubation success was evaluated using Whitlock-Vibert incubation boxes buried within each substrate treatment that contained recently fertilised embryos. Upon retrieval, live and dead sac fry and eyed eggs were enumerated to determine incubation success (sac fry and eyed eggs ?? 100/number of fertilised embryos). Incubation success varied significantly among locations and redd treatments. In general, incubation success among ADDED redds (0.0-13.0%) was significantly lower than that for EXISTING (1.4-61.0%) and CLEANED (0.4-62.5%) redds. Adding new gravel to spawning areas changed the morphometry of the gravel-water interface and probably exposed embryos to disturbance from wave action and reduced embryo survival. Moreover, efforts to improve spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee should consider water depth and location (e.g. protected shorelines) as important variables. Adding clean gravel to existing spawning areas may provide little benefit if water depth or lake-bottom morphometry are altered. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Causes of haze in the Columbia River Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Green; Jin Xu

    2007-08-15

    Visibility impairment in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area is an area of concern. A field study conducted from July 2003 to February 2005 was followed by data analysis and receptor modeling to better understand the temporal and spatial patterns of haze and the sources contributing to the haze in the Columbia River Gorge in the states of Washington and Oregon. The nephelometer light scattering and surface meteorological data at eight sites along the gorge showed five distinct wind patterns, each with its characteristic diurnal and spatial patterns in light scattering by particles (b{sub sp}). In summer, winds were nearly always from west to east (upgorge) and showed decreasing b{sub sp} with distance into the gorge and a pronounced effect of the Portland, OR, metropolitan area on haze, especially in the western portions of the gorge. Winter often had winds from the east with very high levels of b{sub sp}, especially at the eastern gorge sites, with sources east of the gorge responsible for much of the haze. The major chemical components responsible for haze were organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using chemically speciated Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments data indicated seven source factors in the western gorge and five factors in the eastern gorge. Organic mass is a large contributor to haze in the gorge in all seasons, with a peak in fall. Approximately half of the organic mass is biomass smoke, with mobile sources as the second largest contributor. PMF analysis showed nitrates mainly attributed to a generic secondary nitrate factor. Sulfate is a significant contributor in all seasons, with peak sulfate concentrations in summer. Sources east of the gorge, likely a coal-fired power plant, nearby dairy farm, and upriver cities, appear to be major contributors to wintertime haze in the gorge. 22 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. A test system for the biological safety cabinet

    PubMed Central

    Newsom, S. W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A simple, cheap and readily available test system for biological safety cabinets is described. It depends on the containment of an aerosol of Bacillus subtilis spores generated in a BIRD micronebulizer and the measurement of air flows with an anemometer. The system was set up to survey new equipment but equally valuable results have been obtained from tests during use. New units were often badly installed and used equipment was poorly maintained. It is suggested that any department which has a need for a biological safety cabinet must be in a position to test its function. Images PMID:4214380

  4. The Three Gorges Project: How sustainable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepa Brian Morgan, Te Kipa; Sardelic, Daniel N.; Waretini, Amaria F.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryIn 1984 the Government of China approved the decision to construct the Three Gorges Dam Project, the largest project since the Great Wall. The project had many barriers to overcome, and the decision was made at a time when sustainability was a relatively unknown concept. The decision to construct the Three Gorges Project remains contentious today, especially since Deputy Director of the Three Gorges Project Construction Committee, Wang Xiaofeng, stated that "We absolutely cannot relax our guard against ecological and environmental security problems sparked by the Three Gorges Project" (Bristow, 2007; McCabe, 2007). The question therefore was posed: how sustainable is the Three Gorges Project? Conventional approaches to sustainability assessment tend to use monetary based assessment aligned to triple bottom line thinking. That is, projects are evaluated as trade-offs between economic, environmental and social costs and benefits. The question of sustainability is considered using such a traditional Cost-Benefit Analysis approach, as undertaken in 1988 by a CIPM-Yangtze Joint Venture, and the Mauri Model Decision Making Framework (MMDMF). The Mauri Model differs from other approaches in that sustainability performance indicators are considered independently from any particular stakeholder bias. Bias is then introduced subsequently as a sensitivity analysis on the raw results obtained. The MMDMF is unique in that it is based on the Māori concept of Mauri, the binding force between the physical and the spiritual attributes of something, or the capacity to support life in the air, soil, and water. This concept of Mauri is analogous to the Chinese concept of Qi, and there are many analogous concepts in other cultures. It is the universal relevance of Mauri that allows its use to assess sustainability. This research identified that the MMDMF was a strong complement to Cost-Benefit Analysis, which is not designed as a sustainability assessment tool in itself. The

  5. 102. VIEW OF WEST ROW OF CABINETS IN LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. VIEW OF WEST ROW OF CABINETS IN LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770). LOGIC CONTROL AND MONITOR UNITS BOOSTER AND FUEL SYSTEMS ON LEFT; LANDLINE SIGNAL CONDITIONERS ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 121. VIEW OF CABINETS ON WEST SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. VIEW OF CABINETS ON WEST SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (206), LSB (BLDG. 751). FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT: FACILITY DISTRIBUTION CONSOLE FOR WATER CONTROL SYSTEMS, PROPULSION ELECTRICAL CHECKOUT SYSTEM (PECOS), LOGIC CONTROL AND MONITOR UNITS FOR BOOSTER AND FUEL SYSTEMS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 19. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 2 SHOWING BUILTIN CABINETS ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 2 SHOWING BUILT-IN CABINETS ALONG EAST WALL. THIS PORTION OF THE BEDROOM WAS EXTENDED IN REMODELING THAT INCORPORATED THE FRONT PORCH INTO THE INTERIOR HOUSE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  8. Another view of the pumps and control cabinets, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Another view of the pumps and control cabinets, view to the southeast - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  9. Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet and cement pipes along the south wall are being temporarily stored in the Pumping Plant and are not part of the original equipment - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  10. The WWW Cabinet of Curiosities: A Serendipitous Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Josie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that the WWW is able to be fruitfully understood as a research tool when we utilise the metaphor of the cabinet of curiosities, the wunderkammer. It unpeels some of the research attributes of the metaphor as it reveals the multiplicity of connectivity on the web that provides serendipitous interactions between unexpected…

  11. 24 CFR 3280.204 - Kitchen cabinet protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cabinet face. The 5/16-inch thick gypsum board or equivalent material which is above the top of the hood... § 3280.203 shall be installed in the factory. (e) Vertical clearance above cooking top. Ranges shall have a vertical clearance above the cooking top of not less than 24 inches to the bottom of...

  12. 21 CFR 890.5250 - Moist steam cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moist steam cabinet. 890.5250 Section 890.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5250 Moist...

  13. 21 CFR 890.5250 - Moist steam cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Moist steam cabinet. 890.5250 Section 890.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5250 Moist...

  14. 21 CFR 890.5250 - Moist steam cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moist steam cabinet. 890.5250 Section 890.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5250 Moist...

  15. MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 21 CFR 890.5250 - Moist steam cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moist steam cabinet. 890.5250 Section 890.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5250 Moist...

  17. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. 16. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING BUILTIN MEDICINE CABINET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING BUILT-IN MEDICINE CABINET FLANKED BY SMALL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS IN A GROUPED ARRANGEMENT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  19. 24 CFR 3280.204 - Kitchen cabinet protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kitchen cabinet protection. 3280.204 Section 3280.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety §...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.204 - Kitchen cabinet protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kitchen cabinet protection. 3280.204 Section 3280.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety §...

  1. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE PANTRY. SHOWING GLAZED UPPER CABINETS. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE PANTRY. SHOWING GLAZED UPPER CABINETS. NOTE THE FLOUR BIN IN FOREGROUND (SLIGHTLY AJAR) AND THE WINDOWS AT THE TOP OF THE EXTERIOR WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  2. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE PANTRY. SHOWING THE CABINET DOORS NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE PANTRY. SHOWING THE CABINET DOORS NEAR THE CEILING. NOTE THE SINGLE-LIGHT OVER SINGLE-PANEL KITCHEN DOOR TO SERVICE PORCH. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type J, 701 Beard Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 21 CFR 890.5250 - Moist steam cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moist steam cabinet. 890.5250 Section 890.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5250 Moist...

  4. INTERIOR DETAIL, SOUTHEAST CABINET NORTH WALL. THE DOORS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, SOUTHEAST CABINET NORTH WALL. THE DOORS TO THE LEFT OF THE CHIMNEY MASS OPEN ONTO CLOSETS. ON THE RIGHT, THERE ARE TWO CLOSETS WITH JIB DOORS WITHIN THE CHIMNEY MASS. THE OPEN DOOR CONNECTS WITH THE DRAWING ROOM - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 134. VIEW OF TRANSFORMER CABINETS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. VIEW OF TRANSFORMER CABINETS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING SOUTH. POWER PANEL B AT EAST SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212), FACING WEST, AT RIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Cabinet Making and Millwork. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a cabinet making and millwork program. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational Titles occupational description. A section on program content presents the curriculum framework that contains major concepts/content, laboratory activities,…

  7. 117. VIEW OF CABINETS ON EAST SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. VIEW OF CABINETS ON EAST SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (206), LSB (BLDG. 751). FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT: ALTERNATING CURRENT POWER DISTRIBUTION RELAY BOX, AIRBORNE BEACON ELECTRONIC TEST SYSTEM (ABETS), AUTOPILOT CHECKOUT CONTROLS, POWER DISTRIBUTION UNITS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. INTERIOR VIEW, SOUTHEAST CABINET, FROM THE NORTHWEST. THE TIGHTLYFITTED BOARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SOUTHEAST CABINET, FROM THE NORTHWEST. THE TIGHTLY-FITTED BOARDS FRAMING THE WALLS WERE USED INSTEAD OF PLASTER AND LATH SO THAT HEAVY PIECES OF ART COULD BE EFFECTIVELY SUPPORTED DURING THE HAMILTONIAN OCCUPANCY - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ON THE TURBINE ARE EACH EQUIPPED WITH A SHEAR PIN AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGE. IF A GATE JAMS, THE PIN SMEARS AND THE CHANGE IN OIL PRESSURE TRIGGERS AN ALARM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  10. 36 CFR 7.89 - New River Gorge National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... River Gorge National River? (i) In addition to the applicable provisions in 36 CFR part 4, all... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New River Gorge National River. 7.89 Section 7.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 36 CFR 7.89 - New River Gorge National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New River Gorge National River. 7.89 Section 7.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.89 New River Gorge National River....

  12. Historic interior view of gorge wall, taken shortly after battle, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic interior view of gorge wall, taken shortly after battle, looking northwest at the entrance and northwest shoeing damage to gorge wall as well as timber and earth blindage (see also HABS No. GA-2158-39). - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. 24. MITSUBISHI BIPLANE VALVE GORGE POWERHOUSE SEEN FROM THE SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. MITSUBISHI BIPLANE VALVE GORGE POWERHOUSE SEEN FROM THE SOUTH. THE MITSUBISHI BIPLANE VALVES WERE INSTALLED IN 1980 AND REPLACED LARNER-JOHNSON NEEDLE VALVES ON UNITS 21, 22, AND 23, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  14. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Progam; Thyroid-Induced Chemical Imprinting in Early Life Stages and Assessment of Smoltification in Kokanee Salmon Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon Hatcheries; 1993 Supplement Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, Mary Beth; Galloway, Heather; Scholz, Allan T.

    1994-06-01

    In 1991, two hatcheries were built to provide a kokanee salmon and rainbow trout fishery for Lake Roosevelt as partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead caused by construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Sherman Creek Hatchery, located on a tributary of Lake Roosevelt to provide an egg collection and imprinting site, is small with limited rearing capability. The second hatchery was located on the Spokane Indian Reservation because of a spring water source that supplied cold, pure water for incubating and rearing eggs.`The Spokane Tribal Hatchery thus serves as the production facility. Fish reared there are released into Sherman Creek and other tributary streams as 7-9 month old fry. However, to date, returns of adult fish to release sites has been poor. If hatchery reared kokanee imprint to the hatchery water at egg or swim up stages before 3 months of age, they may not be imprinting as 7-9 month old fry at the time of stocking. In addition, if these fish undergo a smolt phase in the reservoir when they are 1.5 years old, they could migrate below Grand Coulee Dam and out of the Lake Roosevelt system. In the present investigation, which is part of the Lake Roosevelt monitoring program to assess hatchery effectiveness, kokanee salmon were tested to determine if they experienced thyroxine-induced chemical imprinting and smoltification similar to anadromous salmonids. Determination of the critical period for olfactory imprinting was determined by exposing kokanee to different synthetic chemicals (morpholine or phenethyl alcohol) at different life stages, and then measuring the ability to discriminate the chemicals as sexually mature adults. Whole body thyroxine content and blood plasma thyroxine concentration was measured to determine if peak thyroid activity coincided with imprinting or other morphological, physiological or behavioral transitions associated with smoltification.

  15. Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf δ13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific δ13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ɛ29 and ɛ33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and δ13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

  16. High Efficancy Integrated Under-Cabinet Phosphorescent OLED

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Hack

    2001-10-31

    In this two year program Universal Display Corporation (UDC) together with the University of Michigan, Teknokon, developed and delivered an energy efficient phosphorescent OLED under cabinet illumination system. Specifically the UDC team goal was in 2011 to deliver five (5) Beta level OLED under cabinet lighting fixtures each consisting of five 6-inch x 6-inch OLED lighting panels, delivering over 420 lumens, at an overall system efficacy of >60 lm/W, a CRI of >85, and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 20,000 hours. During the course of this program, the Team pursued the commercialization of these OLED based under cabinet lighting fixtures, to enable the launch of commercial OLED lighting products. The UDC team was ideally suited to develop these novel and efficient solid state lighting fixtures, having both the technical experience and commercial distribution mechanisms to leverage work performed under this contract. UDC's business strategy is to non-exclusively license its PHOLED technology to lighting manufacturers, and also supply them with our proprietary PHOLED materials. UDC is currently working with several licensees who are manufacturing OLED lighting panels using our technology. During this 2 year program, we further developed our high efficiency white Phosphorescent OLEDs from the first milestone, achieving a 80 lm/W single pixel to the final milestone, achieving an under-cabinet PHOLED lighting system that operates at 56 lm/W at 420 lumens. Each luminaire was comprised of ten 15cm x 7.5cm lighting modules mounted in outcoupling enhancement lenses and a control module. The lamps modules are connected together using either plugs or wires with plugs on each end, allowing for unlimited configurations. The lamps are driven by an OLED driver mounted in an enclosure which includes the AC plug. As a result of advancements gained under this program, the path to move OLED lighting panels from development into manufacturing has been

  17. Problems in the disinfection of class 1 microbiology safety cabinets.

    PubMed Central

    Everall, P H; Morris, C A; Oliver, P R; Becker, J F

    1982-01-01

    Microbiology safety cabinet disinfection procedures using formaldehyde have been tested. Tubercle bacilli were killed by concentrations of formaldehyde obtained by heating commercial formalin irrespective of whether the bacilli were in the cabinet free space or above the prefilters. However, Bacillus stearothermophilus spore papers for for the testing of low temperature steam/formaldehyde sterilisers were almost never sterilised and a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis (NCTC 7944) showed a resistance intermediate between the B stearothermophilus spores and the tubercle bacilli. Tests using a vaccine strain of poliovirus type 3 indicated a considerable degree of resistance of the virus to the action of formaldehyde. No such resistance was demonstrated by vaccinia virus or echovirus 14. Chemical and biological evidence is presented which indicates that filter paper discs are an unsuitable carrier material for a challenge organism in testing the efficiency of any formaldehyde sterilising process. Recommendations are made towards developing a satisfactory test procedure. PMID:7047573

  18. Problems in the disinfection of class 1 microbiology safety cabinets.

    PubMed

    Everall, P H; Morris, C A; Oliver, P R; Becker, J F

    1982-07-01

    Microbiology safety cabinet disinfection procedures using formaldehyde have been tested. Tubercle bacilli were killed by concentrations of formaldehyde obtained by heating commercial formalin irrespective of whether the bacilli were in the cabinet free space or above the prefilters. However, Bacillus stearothermophilus spore papers for for the testing of low temperature steam/formaldehyde sterilisers were almost never sterilised and a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis (NCTC 7944) showed a resistance intermediate between the B stearothermophilus spores and the tubercle bacilli. Tests using a vaccine strain of poliovirus type 3 indicated a considerable degree of resistance of the virus to the action of formaldehyde. No such resistance was demonstrated by vaccinia virus or echovirus 14. Chemical and biological evidence is presented which indicates that filter paper discs are an unsuitable carrier material for a challenge organism in testing the efficiency of any formaldehyde sterilising process. Recommendations are made towards developing a satisfactory test procedure. PMID:7047573

  19. AIR DUCTS STAND NEXT TO (AND OUTSIDE OF) REACTOR CABINET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AIR DUCTS STAND NEXT TO (AND OUTSIDE OF) REACTOR CABINET AT THE SOUTHWEST AND NORTHEAST CORNERS OF THE REACTOR'S THERMAL SHIELD. THEY WILL BE ENVELOPED IN BIOLOGICAL CONCRETE SHIELD. IN THE SUB-BASEMENT, THE TWO DUCTS WILL JOIN TOGETHER AND EXIT THE BUILDING TO THE FAN HOUSE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1625. Unknown Photographer, 3/6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 26. Generator Voltage Regulator Cabinet Exterior for Unit 1, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Generator Voltage Regulator Cabinet Exterior for Unit 1, view to the northwest. The exciter supplies the DC current to the generator rotor to create electricity. Each of the four original units has an exciter identical to this one, and all are scheduled for replacement. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  1. Measurement of the transient shielding effectiveness of shielding cabinets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlemann, H.; Koch, M.

    2008-05-01

    Recently, new definitions of shielding effectiveness (SE) for high-frequency and transient electromagnetic fields were introduced by Klinkenbusch (2005). Analytical results were shown for closed as well as for non closed cylindrical shields. In the present work, the shielding performance of different shielding cabinets is investigated by means of numerical simulations and measurements inside a fully anechoic chamber and a GTEM-cell. For the GTEM-cell-measurements, a downscaled model of the shielding cabinet is used. For the simulations, the numerical tools CONCEPT II and COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS were available. The numerical results agree well with the measurements. They can be used to interpret the behaviour of the shielding effectiveness of enclosures as function of frequency. From the measurement of the electric and magnetic fields with and without the enclosure in place, the electric and magnetic shielding effectiveness as well as the transient shielding effectiveness of the enclosure are calculated. The transient SE of four different shielding cabinets is determined and discussed.

  2. Exceptional river gorge formation from unexceptional floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, L.; Mather, A. E.; Stokes, M.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; de Vicente, G.

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of rates and mechanisms of incision and knickpoint retreat in bedrock rivers is fundamental to perceptions of landscape response to external drivers, yet only sparse field data are available. Here we present eye witness accounts and quantitative surveys of rapid, amphitheatre-headed gorge formation in unweathered granite from the overtopping of a rock-cut dam spillway by small-moderate floods (~100-1,500 m3 s-1). The amount of erosion demonstrates no relationship with flood magnitude or bedload availability. Instead, structural pattern of the bedrock through faults and joints appears to be the primary control on landscape change. These discontinuities facilitate rapid erosion (>270 m headward retreat; ~100 m incision; and ~160 m widening over 6 years) principally through fluvial plucking and block topple. The example demonstrates the potential for extremely rapid transient bedrock erosion even when rocks are mechanically strong and flood discharges are moderate. These observations are relevant to perceived models of gorge formation and knickpoint retreat.

  3. Exceptional river gorge formation from unexceptional floods.

    PubMed

    Anton, L; Mather, A E; Stokes, M; Muñoz-Martin, A; De Vicente, G

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of rates and mechanisms of incision and knickpoint retreat in bedrock rivers is fundamental to perceptions of landscape response to external drivers, yet only sparse field data are available. Here we present eye witness accounts and quantitative surveys of rapid, amphitheatre-headed gorge formation in unweathered granite from the overtopping of a rock-cut dam spillway by small-moderate floods (∼100-1,500 m(3) s(-1)). The amount of erosion demonstrates no relationship with flood magnitude or bedload availability. Instead, structural pattern of the bedrock through faults and joints appears to be the primary control on landscape change. These discontinuities facilitate rapid erosion (>270 m headward retreat; ∼100 m incision; and ∼160 m widening over 6 years) principally through fluvial plucking and block topple. The example demonstrates the potential for extremely rapid transient bedrock erosion even when rocks are mechanically strong and flood discharges are moderate. These observations are relevant to perceived models of gorge formation and knickpoint retreat. PMID:26242429

  4. The Volcanic Story of the Columbia River Gorge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John Eliot

    1982-01-01

    Uses maps, diagrams, and geological accounts to describe the Columbia River Gorge which separates Oregon from Washington and exposes an unexcelled record of Cenozoic volcanic stratigraphy, sedimentation, flooding, and landsliding for the visiting tourists, geologists, or students. (Author/DC)

  5. View of interior facade of gorge wall looking from southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior facade of gorge wall looking from southeast to northwest at the northern half of the wall ( see also HABS No. GA-2158-56 & 57). - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  6. Evaluation of a class III biological safety cabinet for enclosure of an ultracentrifuge.

    PubMed

    Chatigny, M A; Dunn, S; Ishimaru, K; Eagleson, J A; Prusiner, S B

    1979-11-01

    An evaluation of a special safety cabinet housing a high-speed centrifuge was made. The cabinet enclosed both the top access port and the drive and pumping machinery of the centrifuge. A titanium rotor was loaded with tubes containing a bacterial culture, weakened, and driven until rotor rupture occurred. There were several bent and broken components in the centrifuge, and bacteria leaked from the vacuum chamber. Although the forces were sufficient to displace the cabinet, none of the test bacteria were found outside the cabinet. PMID:543704

  7. Migration timing of female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka: diel patterns and effects of maturation state.

    PubMed

    Warren, M A; Morbey, Y E

    2012-09-01

    Diel patterns of migration and migration speed were compared between reproductive timing phenotypes in female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Females of varying degrees of reproductive maturation were captured on their migration route to the Meadow Creek Spawning Channel (British Columbia, Canada), were tagged with passive-integrated transponders (PIT tags) and were subsequently monitored with stationary receivers. Females showed crepuscular migration timing, with approximately equal detections at dawn and dusk. In particular, peaks of movement were associated with the appearance of the sun over the mountains in the east and the disappearance of the sun over the mountains in the west. Over 25 m, migration speed was 1·0 body lengths (measured as fork length; L(F)) s(-1) and did not depend on maturation state. Over 3 km, migration speed was much slower (0·2-0·3 L(F) s(-1)) than over the short distance, with less mature females migrating more slowly than more mature females. Less mature females appeared to be in less of a hurry to reach breeding areas compared with more mature females. PMID:22957867

  8. Development of a non-propagating explosives storage cabinet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, W. A.; Schneider, B. A.

    1991-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNL) has completed the design of an Explosive Components Facility (ECF). Construction of the ECF is scheduled to begin in 1992 with completion in 1995. An integral part of the ECF will be on-site storage of explosives in six earth-covered service magazines. Each magazine will contain a non-propagating Explosives Storage Cabinet (ESC) system made up to twenty modular units. In addition to the secure storage of explosives, a primary purpose of the cabinet system is to prevent a sympathetic detonation of the explosives stored in the surrounding units as a result of an accidental detonation of up to 5.0 pounds of explosives (TNT equivalent) stored in a donor unit in the cabinet. Therefore, the maximum creditable event for each service magazine is 5.0 pounds, even though each magazine could contain up to 100 pounds of explosives stored in 5.0 pounds increments. A new material being developed at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI) known as SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fiber CONcrete), had been shown to be highly resistant to back spall from blast loadings, and penetration by high velocity ballistic projectiles and fragments. These, and other characteristics unique to SIFCON, such as very high strength and ductility, appeared to make it an excellent candidate material for the modular units of the ESC. In 1989 SNL contracted with NMERI to develop a SIFCON modular unit for the ESC. Based upon the success of Phase 1 program, a more extensive Phase 2 program was undertaken in 1990 and has been successfully completed. This paper is a summary of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 work, which includes the design, fabrication, and explosive testing of the modular units.

  9. Linnaeus' herbarium cabinet: a piece of furniture and its function.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2006-06-01

    The Swedish 18th-century naturalist Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus is habitually credited with laying the foundations of modern taxonomy through the invention of binominal nomenclature. However, another innovation of Linnaeus' has largely gone unnoticed. He seems to have been one of the first botanists to leave his herbarium unbound, keeping the sheets of dried plants separate and stacking them in a purpose built-cabinet. Understanding the significance of this seemingly mundane and simple invention opens a window onto the profound changes that natural history underwent in the 18th century. PMID:16600379

  10. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; Measurement of Thyroxin Concentration as an Indicator of the Critical Period for Imprinting in the Kokanee Salmon (Orcorhynchus Nerka) Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Hatcheries; 1991 Supplement Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, Allan T.; White, Ronald J.; Koehler, Valerie A.

    1992-05-01

    Previous investigations have determined that thyroid hormone surges activate olfactory imprinting in anadromous salmonid smolts. The mechanism of action appears to require binding of thyroid hormones to receptors in brain cell nuclei, which stimulates neuron differentiation and wires a pattern of neuron circuitry that allows for the permanent storage of the imprinted olfactory memory. In this study, thyroxine concentrations [T{sub 4}] were measured in 487 Lake Whatcom stock and 70 Lake Roosevelt stock Kokanee salmon to indicate the critical period for imprinting. Eggs, alevins and fry, reared at the Spokane Indian Kokanee Hatchery, were collected from January through August 1991. Sampled fish were flash frozen on dry ice and stored at {minus}80{degrees}C until T{sub 4} was extracted and concentrations determined by radioimmunassay. Mean concentration {+-} SEM of 10--20 individual fish (assayed in duplicate) were determined for each time period. T{sub 4} concentration peaked on the day of hatch at 16.8 ng/g body weight and again at swim-up at 16.0 {+-} 4.7 ng/g body weight. T{sub 4} concentration was 12.5 to 12.9 ng/g body weight in eggs, 7.1 to 15.2 ng/g body weight in. alevins, 4.5 to 11.4 ng/g body weight in 42 to 105 day old fry and 0.1 to 2.9 ng/g body weight in 112 to 185 day old fry. T{sub 4} concentrations were highest in eggs at 13.3 {+-} 2.8 ng/g body weight, then steadily decreased to 0.1 {+-} 0.1 ng/g body weight in older fry. Fry were released in Lake Roosevelt tributaries in July and August 1991, at about 170--180 days post hatching, in order to imprint them to those sites. The results of this study indicate that the time of release was not appropriate for imprinting. If T{sub 4} levels are an accurate guide for imprinting in kokanee, our results suggest that the critical period for imprinting in kokanee is at hatching or swim-up stages.

  11. Radiation measurements around X-ray cabinet systems.

    PubMed

    Suric Mihic, M; Vucic, Z; Prlic, I; Lulic, I; Mestrovic, T

    2012-07-01

    Security personnel who operate X-ray units for the control of hand luggage and personal items at airports are generally not under dosimetric surveillance. A significant increase in the number of inspected items per passenger, due to rigorous air traffic security measures, raises a question of extended exposure of these workers to scattered X-ray radiation. A new approach to investigating directions of breaches of scattered X-ray radiation in the area near to an X-ray cabinet system, which is based on using active electronic dosemeters is presented. Influence of the increase in the number of inspected items in time on the dose rate is described. Time-dependent dose rates have showed a very good correlation with passengers undergoing security control prior to boarding an airplane. Measurements confirmed that an increase in the dose rate, coinciding with rush hours, was caused by scattered radiation passing through incompletely closed lead curtains. It is found that the doses at the entrance to the inspection tunnel are 50% higher than those at the exit, which is a consequence of inherent operational characteristics of X-ray cabinet systems. PMID:22302108

  12. Relay studies: Existing data, current testing and cabinet amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1988-01-01

    The seismic fragility of most electrical equipment is governed by the malfunction of relays. This paper discusses the combined study being performed at BNL by evaluating existing fragility test data, conducting a new relay test program and estimating the cabinet amplification at relay locations. Existing test data for relays have been collected and evaluated at BNL. The data base consists of results from a wide variety of test programs - single frequency, single axis, multifrequency, multiaxis tests. For most relays, the non-operating condition controls the chatter fragility limit. In order to characterize the effect of various parameters on the relay seismic capacity, a test program has been initiated at BNL. Selected test specimens will be tested to determine the influence of frequency of vibration, direction of motion, adjustments of relay parts, among others, on the relay capacities. The amplification study involves computing dynamic amplification factors at various device locations in motor control centers and switchgear cabinets. Fragility and high level qualification data have been used for this purpose. This paper includes a summary of the amplification results. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America-funded research by teams and national laboratories that resulted in the development of an ASHRAE standard and a standardized testing method for testing the air leakage of HVAC air handlers and furnace cabinets and has spurred equipment manufacturers to tighten the cabinets they use for residential HVAC systems.

  14. Environmental friendly automated line for recovering the cabinet of waste refrigerator.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jujun; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-11-01

    A large amount of hazardous trichloromonofluoromethane (CFC-11) is contained in the polyurethane (PUR) foam of refrigerator cabinet. How to recover the cabinet of waste refrigerator with environmental awareness has been the pressing problem in the treatment of waste refrigerator. The published literature of waste refrigerator cabinets recovering mainly focuses on policy making and conceptual design. Little information relates to the production line of waste refrigerator cabinet recovering and its detailed operation, which is the urgent needed literature. In this paper, an environmental friendly production line for recovering the cabinet of waste refrigerators was reported for helping enterprise or government to construct line to recover the obsolete refrigerators. It included closed shearing process, activated carbon fiber absorption (ACFA) process, air current separation, and magnetic/eddy current separation. The optimized operating parameters of every process were obtained from the experiments. Then, experiment of recovering 50 waste refrigerator cabinets by the production line was performed in factory. Mass balances of the recovered materials were carried out. The result shown the recovery rate of waste refrigerator cabinet could reach 97.6%. Finally, comparison between the production line and other recovery technologies was made. The results indicated that the proposed line provided environment-friendly recovery of waste refrigerator cabinets while achieving low cost of production. PMID:21782408

  15. Lake Pend Oreille Fishery Recovery Project, 1996-1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Elam, Steve

    1999-09-01

    During the winter of 1996-97, the elevation of Lake Pend Oreille was kept 1.2 m higher in an attempt to recover the impacted Kokanee fishery. This was the first winter of the scheduled three-year test. We found that kokanee spawned on the newly inundated gravels provided by the higher water levels. Many of the redds were at depths of 0.5 to 2 m with the highest density of redds at the 1.2 m depth. We also found the numbers of kokanee spawning in tributary streams declined sharply with the higher lake levels. Presumably, these fish spawned on the lakeshore because of the abundance of shoreline gravel rather than migrate up tributary streams. Kokanee spawning sites were mapped around the entire perimeter of the lake. Most spawning occurred at the southern end of the lake; however, kokanee utilized the newly available spawning gravels throughout much of lake's shorelines. Unusually high spring run-off in 1997 produced an inflow to the lake of 4,360 m{sup 3}/s and raised the lake 1 m above full pool. We found that all age-classes of kokanee declined sharply between 1996 and 1997. Survival rates of all age-classes were at or near the lowest point on record. The cause of these declines is unknown; possible causes include kokanee emigrating from the lake and mortality of kokanee due to dissolved gases in the northern third of the lake reaching 120% to 130% of saturation. High dissolved gases were caused by the Cabinet Gorge and Noxon dams on the Clark Fork River. Kokanee population declines caused by flooding would have masked any benefits to the population resulting from a higher winter lake level.

  16. Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in array of cabinets supporting secure physical partition

    DOEpatents

    Tomkins, James L.; Camp, William J.

    2007-07-17

    A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective routers in neighboring row cabinet boards with the routers in series connection coupled to routers in series connection in respective neighboring column cabinet boards. The array can include disconnect cabinets or respective routers in all boards in each cabinet connected in a toroid. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

  17. 33 CFR 110.127b - Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127b Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah. (a) Buckboard Crossing, Wyo. That portion of Flaming Gorge Lake inclosed by the shore and a line connecting...

  18. 33 CFR 110.127b - Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127b Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah. (a) Buckboard Crossing, Wyo. That portion of Flaming Gorge Lake inclosed by the shore and a line connecting...

  19. Infrared identification of internal overheating components inside an electric control cabinet by inverse heat transfer problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Wang, Ye; Liu, Huikai; Yan, Guanghui; Kou, Wei

    2014-11-01

    The components overheating inside an object, such as inside an electric control cabinet, a moving object, and a running machine, can easily lead to equipment failure or fire accident. The infrared remote sensing method is used to inspect the surface temperature of object to identify the overheating components inside the object in recent years. It has important practical application of using infrared thermal imaging surface temperature measurement to identify the internal overheating elements inside an electric control cabinet. In this paper, through the establishment of test bench of electric control cabinet, the experimental study was conducted on the inverse identification technology of internal overheating components inside an electric control cabinet using infrared thermal imaging. The heat transfer model of electric control cabinet was built, and the temperature distribution of electric control cabinet with internal overheating element is simulated using the finite volume method (FVM). The outer surface temperature of electric control cabinet was measured using the infrared thermal imager. Combining the computer image processing technology and infrared temperature measurement, the surface temperature distribution of electric control cabinet was extracted, and using the identification algorithm of inverse heat transfer problem (IHTP) the position and temperature of internal overheating element were identified. The results obtained show that for single element overheating inside the electric control cabinet the identifying errors of the temperature and position were 2.11% and 5.32%. For multiple elements overheating inside the electric control cabinet the identifying errors of the temperature and positions were 3.28% and 15.63%. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method of IHTP and the correctness of identification algorithm of FVM were validated.

  20. 76 FR 2145 - Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Jackson, OH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65798). The Department has received information that the... Reserves Network, Jackson, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group, Waverly, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group, Seal... workers of Masco Building Cabinet Group in Waverly, Ohio, Seal Township, Ohio, and Seaman, Ohio....

  1. Management of municipal solid waste in the Three Gorges region

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Liao Pei Tingquan Huang Chuan; Yuan Hui

    2009-07-15

    As the fourth phase of the Three Gorges reservoir project commenced in 2008, the rate of water flow in the Yangtze River has obviously decelerated further downstream and water clarity within the storage facility has decreased. Meanwhile, the rate of urbanization in the region is adding to the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) being generated by every day life. The composition of the waste is becoming more diversified and complicated, thereby presenting an increasing threat to the ecological environment and water resources of the Three Gorges region. This paper is a probe into MSW in terms of its characteristics as well as methods of storage, collection, transportation, recycling, treatment and disposal, the protection of environmental ecosystems. Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems in the Three Gorges region, and indeed the whole of China. Based on the analysis of the present situation of MSWM and its treatment/disposal, some methods of sorting, recycling, decomposing, incineration and reuse are described, sanitary landfill as the main disposal method in Chongqing city, incineration being the second. Sanitary landfill or dump was also used for MSW treatment in the Three Gorges region, and this paper also provides some suggestions for improving MSWM in the Three Gorges region.

  2. The Three Gorges Dam Affects Regional Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    Issues regarding building large-scale dams as a solution to power generation and flood control problems have been widely discussed by both natural and social scientists from various disciplines, as well as the policy-makers and public. Since the Chinese government officially approved the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) projects, this largest hydroelectric project in the world has drawn a lot of debates ranging from its social and economic to climatic impacts. The TGD has been partially in use since June 2003. The impact of the TGD is examined through analysis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall rate and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and high-resolution simulation using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The independent satellite data sets and numerical simulation clearly indicate that the land use change associated with the TGD construction has increased the precipitation in the region between Daba and Qinling mountains and reduced the precipitation in the vicinity of the TGD after the TGD water level abruptly rose from 66 to 135 m in June 2003. This study suggests that the climatic effect of the TGD is on the regional scale (approx.100 km) rather than on the local scale (approx.10 km) as projected in previous studies.

  3. Encouraging resilience within SMEs: the Cabinet Office's proposed approach.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Stuart

    2011-06-01

    This paper introduces the Cabinet Office's Civil Contingencies Secretariat (CCS). It explains how the National Risk Assessment, produced within the CCS, is created and used. As part of the recent Strategic Defence and Security Review, the Government made a commitment to improve the business continuity of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).This paper describes the CCS's approach to achieving this, and explains why the resilience of SMEs is important to both local communities, at a time of disruption or crisis, and the essential services sectors, such as energy, food and transport. It provides an outline of a strategic approach that will seek to simplify business continuity by making it accessible, achievable and affordable, and, in partnership with the organisations that SMEs turn to for advice, promotes the benefits of business continuity and encourages its use. PMID:21835751

  4. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  5. Post-glacial rock avalanche causing epigenetic gorge incision (Strassberg gorge, Eastern Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Diethard

    2015-04-01

    In the western part of the Eastern Alps, the Strassberg gorge 1.5 km in length and down to 100 m in depth shows a marked asymmetry in height of its right/left brinklines. The gorge is incised into Upper Triassic dolostones, and parallels an older valley filled with Quaternary deposits. Upstream, the valley-fill consists of (a) glacial till (Last Glacial Maximum, LGM), overlain by (b) a rock avalanche deposit (RAD) at least a few tens of meters thick, and (c) alluvial deposits shed over the RAD (except for projecting boulders); the RAD is locally also downlapped by scree slopes. Downstream, the valley-fill consists of glacio-fluvial deposits overlain by LGM till and, on top, the RAD. The rock avalanche defaced from the west slope of mount Hohe Munde (2662 m asl), and consists exclusively of clasts of Wetterstein Limestone (Triassic p. p.). Rock avalanche defacement was tied to a system of NW-SE trending strike-slip faults (Telfs fault zone). The rock avalanche descended before the old valley was significantly cleared of glaciofluvial/glacial deposits of the LGM. On a plateau west of the present bedrock gorge, LGM till is veneered over a large area by RAD; the till and the RAD both were later involved in slumping. The RAD covers a total planview area of ~3.7 square kilometers. The fahrböschung of the rock avalanche is reconstructed between 16°-14.5°. In its proximal part, the rock avalanche propagated by dynamic fragmentation; in the distal part, propagation was by sheet-like 'plug flow', perhaps in part over a snow cover. The filling of the old valley by the RAD led to: (a) formation and filling of a small intramontane basin directly upstream, and (b) incision of the present Strassberg gorge along a course westward-parallel to the old valley. Mean rates of bedrock incision required to form the deepest reach of the present canyon range from 1 cm/a (since 10 ka) to 0.7 cm/a (since 15 ka). In the considered area, talus breccias of pre-LGM age locally show zones of

  6. Bathymetry, morphology, and lakebed geologic characteristics of potential Kokanee salmon spawning habitat in Lake Pend Oreille, Bayview and Lakeview quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Dux, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are a keystone species in Lake Pend Oreille in northern Idaho, historically supporting a high-yield recreational fishery and serving as the primary prey for the threatened native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the Gerrard-strain rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). After 1965, the kokanee population rapidly declined and has remained at a low level of abundance. Lake Pend Oreille is one of the deepest lakes in the United States, the largest lake in Idaho, and home to the U.S. Navy Acoustic Research Detachment Base. The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho Department of Fish and Game are mapping the bathymetry, morphology, and the lakebed geologic units and embeddedness of potential kokanee salmon spawning habitat in Lake Pend Oreille. Relations between lake morphology, lakebed geologic units, and substrate embeddedness are characterized for the shore zone, rise zone, and open water in bays and the main stem of the lake. This detailed knowledge of physical habitat along the shoreline of Lake Pend Oreille is necessary to better evaluate and develop kokanee recovery actions.

  7. Impacts of Water Level Fluctuations on Kokanee Reproduction in Flathead Lake; Effects of Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on Reproductive Success, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Decker-Hess, Janet; McMullin, Steve L.

    1983-11-01

    Koktneesalmon (Oncorhvnchusnerka), the land-locked form of sockeye salmon, were originally introduced to Flathead Lake in 1916. My 1933, kokanee had become established in the lake and provided a popular summer trolling fishery as well as a fall snagging fishery in shoreline areas. Presently, Flathead Lake supports the second highest fishing pressure of any lake or reservoir in Montana (Montana Department of Fish and Game 1976). During 1981-82, the lake provided 168,792 man-days of fishing pressure. Ninety-two percent of the estimated 536,870 fish caught in Flathead Lake in 1981-82 were kokanee salmon. Kokanee also provided forage for bull trout seasonally and year round for lake trout. Kokanee rear to maturity in Flathead Lake, then return to various total grounds to spawn. Spawning occurred in lake outlet streams, springs, larger rivers and lake shoreline areas in suitable but often limited habitat. Shoreline spawning in Flathead Lake was first documented in the mid-1930's. Spawning kokanee were seized from shoreline areas in 1933 and 21,000 cans were processed and packed for distribution to the needy. Stefanich (1953 and 1954) later documented extensive but an unquantified amount of spawning along the shoreline as well as runs in Whitefish River and McDonald Creek in the 1950's. A creel census conducted in 1962-63 determined 11 to 13 percent of the kokanee caught annually were taken during the spawning period (Robbins 1966). During a 1981-82 creel census, less than one percent of the fishermen on Flathead Lake were snagging kokanee (Graham and Fredenberg 1982). The operation of Kerr Dam, located below Flathead Lake on the Flathead River, has altered seasonal fluctuations of Flathead Lake. Lake levels presently remain high during kokanee spawning in November and decline during the incubation and emergence periods. Groundwater plays an important role in embryo and fry survival in redds of shoreline areas exposed by lake drawdown. Stefanich (1954) and Domrose (1968

  8. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Evaluation of Limiting Factors for Stocked Kokanee and Rainbow Trout in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Casey; Polacek, Matt

    2009-03-01

    Hatchery supplementation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka and rainbow trout O. mykiss has been the primary mitigation provided by Bonneville Power Administration for loss of anadromous fish to the waters above Grand Coulee Dam (GCD). The hatchery program for rainbow trout has consistently met management goals and provided a substantial contribution to the fishery; however, spawner returns and creel survey results for kokanee have been below management goals. Our objective was to identify factors that limit limnetic fish production in Lake Roosevelt by evaluating abiotic conditions, food limitations, piscivory, and entrainment. Dissolved oxygen concentration was adequate throughout most of the year; however, levels dropped to near 6 mg/L in late July. For kokanee, warm water temperatures during mid-late summer limited their nocturnal distribution to 80-100 m in the lower section of the reservoir. Kokanee spawner length was consistently several centimeters longer than in other Pacific Northwest systems, and the relative weights of rainbow trout and large kokanee were comparable to national averages. Large bodied daphnia (> 1.7 mm) were present in the zooplankton community during all seasons indicating that top down effects were not limiting secondary productivity. Walleye Stizostedion vitreum were the primary piscivore of salmonids in 1998 and 1999. Burbot Lota lota smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, and northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis preyed on salmonids to a lesser degree. Age 3 and 4 walleye were responsible for the majority (65%) of the total walleye consumption of salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling indicated that reservoir wide consumption by walleye could account for a 31-39% loss of stocked kokanee but only 6-12% of rainbow trout. Size at release was the primary reason for differential mortality rates due to predation. Entrainment ranged from 2% to 16% of the monthly abundance estimates of limnetic fish, and could account for 30% of total

  9. Flow and performance of an air-curtain biological safety cabinet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chou, Chun I

    2009-06-01

    Using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer gas concentration detection techniques, this study examines aerodynamic flow properties and the characteristics of escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination of a biological safety cabinet installed with an air curtain across the front aperture. The experimental method partially simulates the NSF/ANSI 49 standards with the difference that the biological tracer recommended by these standards is replaced by a mixture of 10% SF(6) in N(2). The air curtain is set up across the cabinet aperture plane by means of a narrow planar jet issued from the lower edge of the sash and a suction flow going through a suction slot installed at the front edge of the work surface. Varying the combination of jet velocity, suction flow velocity, and descending flow velocity reveals three types of characteristic flow modes: 'straight curtain', 'slightly concave curtain', and 'severely concave curtain'. Operating the cabinet in the straight curtain mode causes the air curtain to impinge on the doorsill and therefore induces serious escape from containment. In the severely concave curtain mode, drastically large inward dispersion and cross-cabinet contamination were observed because environmental air entered into the cabinet and a three-dimensional vortical flow structure formed in the cabinet. The slightly concave curtain mode presents a smooth and two-dimensional flow pattern with an air curtain separating the outside atmosphere from the inside space of the cabinet, and therefore exhibited negligibly small escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination. PMID:19398506

  10. Building services cabinets as teaching material in a degree in architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Gómez, César; Zapata, Omayra; Zuazua, Amaia; Villanueva, Sonia; Olaizola, Paula

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this innovative educational project is to encourage students' interest in one of the most underrated fields of architecture: building services. With this material students interact with real elements and thereby understand the relationship between facilities and the building. A set of three small technical cabinets is planned. They allow for comfortable use and movement inside the building, need minimum maintenance and are easily stored. The result is an alternative concept of a mobile laboratory called a 'technical cabinet', made up of three mobile units for fire safety, electricity and the heating/cooling system. The design, content and learning systems of the cabinets confirmed the validity of the initial concept during the first year of use. A protocol has also been developed for each of the technical cabinets so that the teaching experience may be of use in other Schools of Architecture.

  11. Engine room, showing “vibrator” (inverter) cabinet, looking north. Door opens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Engine room, showing “vibrator” (inverter) cabinet, looking north. Door opens to radio room. Note overhead cable duct and conduits. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. Bedding disposal cabinet for containment of aerosols generated by animal cage cleaning procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, C L; Sabel, F L; Henke, C B

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory tests with aerosolized spores and animal room tests with uranine dye indicate the effectiveness of a prototype bedding disposal cabinet in reducing airborne contamination generated by cage cleaning procedures. Images PMID:826219

  13. Bedding disposal cabinet for containment of aerosols generated by animal cage cleaning procedures.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, C L; Sabel, F L; Henke, C B

    1976-02-01

    Laboratory tests with aerosolized spores and animal room tests with uranine dye indicate the effectiveness of a prototype bedding disposal cabinet in reducing airborne contamination generated by cage cleaning procedures. PMID:826219

  14. Acceptance Test Report for Fourth-Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring Cabinet

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-10-23

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the third-generation corrosion monitoring cabinet (Hiline Engineering Part No.0004-CHM-072-C01). This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer of the cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinet. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation.

  15. The distribution of individual cabinet positions in coalition governments: A sequential approach

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas M.; Müller, Wolfgang C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Multiparty government in parliamentary democracies entails bargaining over the payoffs of government participation, in particular the allocation of cabinet positions. While most of the literature deals with the numerical distribution of cabinet seats among government parties, this article explores the distribution of individual portfolios. It argues that coalition negotiations are sequential choice processes that begin with the allocation of those portfolios most important to the bargaining parties. This induces conditionality in the bargaining process as choices of individual cabinet positions are not independent of each other. Linking this sequential logic with party preferences for individual cabinet positions, the authors of the article study the allocation of individual portfolios for 146 coalition governments in Western and Central Eastern Europe. The results suggest that a sequential logic in the bargaining process results in better predictions than assuming mutual independence in the distribution of individual portfolios. PMID:27546952

  16. Do we need big flood to cut spectacular river gorges?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, Loreto; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Mather, Anne; Stokes, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The study of a historical erosional process occurred in a dam spillway in NW Spain evidences extremely rapid gorge formation in granite. Historic documents, photographs and surveys preserved at the Historical Archives allowed the reconstruction of the whole erosion process. A ~270 m long, ~100 m deep and ~100 to 160 m wide amphitheater headed canyon was carved over 6 years. The study approaches the reconstruction of the scour site topography prior to the gorge formation and during the erosion events, and analyses the erosion mechanisms involved in the canyon cutting. Data reveal extremely high (>100 m/year) erosion rates, the highest reported so far on earth, associated to small-moderate floods (~100-1500m3/s). Results come to nuance the established models of erosion and gorge formation which are used to analyze the landscape evolution. The example demonstrates that moderate water discharges are capable of radical erosion suggesting that adjustments to changes such as drainage diversion and capture, or glacier outburst, may be initially much more rapid than has hereto been assumed. Structural preconditioning of the bedrock through jointing and faulting was the primary control on landscape change, conditioning gorge morphology and the rate at which erosion progress.

  17. Time constraints for the Yellow River traversing the Sanmen Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, P.; Jia, J.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Yellow River is sourced to the northern piedmont of the Bayanhar Mountain Range in the Qinghai Province. It is the second longest river in China, traversing 5464 km. The Yellow River bends like a square in its middle course before traversing the Sanmen Gorge. The Sanmen Gorge is the last gorge in the main course of the Yellow River. After the Sanmen Gorge, the Yellow River flows into vast plains without any barrier, and finally emptys into the Bohai Bay. Thus, the timing of cut-through the Sanmen Gorge implies a true sense of formation and connection of the Yellow River. Drilling in the Weihe Basin, located west of the Sanmen Gorge, shows deposition of over 1000 m lacustrine/fluvial sediments and suggests existence of a paleolake in the basin before the Sanmen Gorge was cut through. The lacustrine/fluvial sequence outcrops at the west bank of the Youhe reservoir is composed of the Sanmen Formation and the Youhe Formation, typical of the sediments in the Weihe Basin. We studied five lacustrine/fluvial phase samples collected from the Youhe reservoir section and three fluvial sand samples relating to transition from lake to fluvial environments from Xihoudu. Our cosmogenic nuclide burial ages suggest that the paleolake formed 2 Ma ago, the transition of the Youhe Formation to the Sanmen Formation occurred 1.8 Ma ago, and the transition from lake to fluvial environment occurred 1.4-1.5 Ma ago. Thick fluvial sands, 90-120 m and 60 m higher than the current water level of the Yellow River, are preserved at Liujiahou and Mapo, respectively, located within the Sanmen Gorge. Dating of these fluvial sands suggests their deposition ages over 1.3 Ma. Zircon U-Pb age distributions of the sands further suggest that Weihe primarily flowed over the Sanmen Gorge 1.3-1.5 Ma ago, followed by the Yellow River cutting through the gorge 1.3-1.4 Ma ago. Previous studies show that the Yellow River appeared at Lanzhou 1.7 Ma ago and running through to the Bohai Bay in the Early

  18. Microbiological Studies on the Performance of a Laminar Airflow Biological Cabinet

    PubMed Central

    Mcdade, Joseph J.; Sabel, Fred L.; Akers, Ronald L.; Walker, Robert J.

    1968-01-01

    Engineering and microbiological tests indicated that a typical, commercial laminar airflow cabinet was not effective in providing either product protection or agent containment. The cabinet was modified and tested through a series of alternate configurations to establish a set of design criteria. A mock-up cabinet was developed from these design criteria. The mock-up unit was evaluated for efficiency in providing both product protection and agent containment. In these evaluations, challenge methods were developed to simulate normal, in-use laboratory operations. Controlled bacterial or viral aerosol challenges were used at higher than normal levels to provide stringent test conditions. Test results indicated that the mock-up unit was considerably better in preventing agent penetration (0.1 to 0.2 particles per 100 ft3 of air) than the commercial cabinet (5 to 6 particles per 100 ft3 of air) during product protection tests. Similarly, agent containment was considerably better in the new cabinet (particle escape of 2 to 3 per 100 ft3 of air at only one of the five test sites) than in the commercial cabinet (particle escape of 2 to 14 per 100 ft3 of air at three of the five test sites). PMID:4874462

  19. Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of wooden cabinets

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088, May 1992). The WMAC team at Colorado state University performed an assessment at a plant that manufacturers wooden kitchen and bathroom cabinets. Components purchased from vendors are prepared for production through cutting, sanding, and routing operations. Stain, sealer, and top-coat are applied in separate spray booths. After the final coating, the components are dried and assembled. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint sludge from the spray booth water curtains is generated in a large amount and that significant cost savings could be achieved by dewatering the sludge before it is shipped offsite for disposal and reusing the water. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  20. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Cook, C.

    2005-02-01

    This report documents a four-year study(a) to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) at the entrance to the forebay of the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes). In this report, emphasis is placed on the methodology and results associated with the fourth project year and compared with findings from the previous years to provide an overall project summary. Since 1995, the Colville Confederated Tribes have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams on the Columbia River (Figure S.1). A 42-month investigation from 1996 to 1999 determined that from 211,685 to 576,676 fish, including kokanee and rainbow trout, were entrained annually at Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the data found that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. Because these entrainment rates represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam, they have been judged unacceptable to fishery managers responsible for perpetuating the fishery in Lake Roosevelt. In an effort to reduce fish entrainment rates, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was modified in 2001 to include a multiyear study of the efficacy of using strobe lights to deter fish from entering the third powerplant forebay. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated the four-year study in collaboration with Colville Tribal

  1. Inner gorges cut by subglacial meltwater during Fennoscandian ice sheet decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, J. D.; Codilean, A. T.; Stroeven, A. P.; Fabel, D.; Hättestrand, C.; Kleman, J.; Harbor, J. M.; Heyman, J.; Kubik, P. W.; Xu, S.

    2014-05-01

    The century-long debate over the origins of inner gorges that were repeatedly covered by Quaternary glaciers hinges upon whether the gorges are fluvial forms eroded by subaerial rivers, or subglacial forms cut beneath ice. Here we apply cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating to seven inner gorges along ~500 km of the former Fennoscandian ice sheet margin in combination with a new deglaciation map. We show that the timing of exposure matches the advent of ice-free conditions, strongly suggesting that gorges were cut by channelized subglacial meltwater while simultaneously being shielded from cosmic rays by overlying ice. Given the exceptional hydraulic efficiency required for meltwater channels to erode bedrock and evacuate debris, we deduce that inner gorges are the product of ice sheets undergoing intense surface melting. The lack of postglacial river erosion in our seven gorges implicates subglacial meltwater as a key driver of valley deepening on the Baltic Shield over multiple glacial cycles.

  2. Inner gorges cut by subglacial meltwater during Fennoscandian ice sheet decay.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J D; Codilean, A T; Stroeven, A P; Fabel, D; Hättestrand, C; Kleman, J; Harbor, J M; Heyman, J; Kubik, P W; Xu, S

    2014-01-01

    The century-long debate over the origins of inner gorges that were repeatedly covered by Quaternary glaciers hinges upon whether the gorges are fluvial forms eroded by subaerial rivers, or subglacial forms cut beneath ice. Here we apply cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating to seven inner gorges along ~500 km of the former Fennoscandian ice sheet margin in combination with a new deglaciation map. We show that the timing of exposure matches the advent of ice-free conditions, strongly suggesting that gorges were cut by channelized subglacial meltwater while simultaneously being shielded from cosmic rays by overlying ice. Given the exceptional hydraulic efficiency required for meltwater channels to erode bedrock and evacuate debris, we deduce that inner gorges are the product of ice sheets undergoing intense surface melting. The lack of postglacial river erosion in our seven gorges implicates subglacial meltwater as a key driver of valley deepening on the Baltic Shield over multiple glacial cycles. PMID:24809336

  3. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique.

    Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area.

    The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water.

    The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and

  4. User's manual for the model interface and plugboard cabinets in the 14- by 22-foot subsonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, Robert B.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1994-01-01

    The primary method of connection between the wind tunnel model instrumentation and the data acquisition system in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel is through the Model Interface (MIF) and Plugboard cabinets. The MIF and Plugboard cabinets allow versatility in the connection of the instrumentation to the different data systems in the facility. The User's Manual describes the components inside the MIF cabinet, the input and output of the MIF, and the MIF patchboard, and the Plugboard cabinets. There are examples of standard connections for most of the instrumentation used in the facility.

  5. 20. Governor Accumulator Tanks for Units 1 and 2, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Governor Accumulator Tanks for Units 1 and 2, view to the north. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  6. 19. Oil Storage Tanks, view to the northwest. Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Oil Storage Tanks, view to the northwest. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  7. 8. Load Center 3, view to the north. Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Load Center 3, view to the north. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  8. 12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps are connected to sewage treatment tanks. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  9. 22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the southwest. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  10. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, Will; Zubik, Raymond; Clancey, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    Studies of kokanee reproductive success in the Flathead system from 1981 to 1987 have assessed the losses in fish production attributable to hydroelectric operations. We estimated that the Flathead Lake shoreline spawning stock has lost at least 50,000 fish annually, since Kerr Dam was completed in 1938. The Flathead River spawning stock has lost 95,000 spawners annually because of the operations of Hungry Horse Dam. Lakeshore spawning has been adversely affected because Flathead Lake has been drafted to minimum pool during the winter when kokanee eggs are incubating in shallow shoreline redds. Egg mortality from exposure and desiccation of kokanee redds has increased since the mid 1970's. When the lake was drafted more quickly and held longer at minimum pool. Escapement surveys in the early 1950's, and a creel survey in the early 1960's have provided a baseline to which the present escapement levels can be compared, and loss estimated. Main stem Flathead River spawning has also declined since the mid 1970's when fluctuating discharge from Hungry Horse Dam during the spawning and incubation season exposed redds at the river margin and increased mortality. This decline followed an increase in main stem spawning in the late 1950's through the mid 1960's attributable to higher winter water temperature and relatively stable discharge from Hungry Horse Dam. Spawning escapement in the main stem exceeded 300,000 kokanee in the early 1970's as a result. Spawning in spring-influenced sites has comprised 35 percent of the main stem escapement from 1979 to 1986. We took that proportion of the early 1970's escapement (105,000) as the baseline against which to measure historic loss. Agricultural and suburban development has contributed less significantly to degradation of kokanee spawning habitat in the river system and on the Flathead Lake shoreline. Their influence on groundwater quality and substrate composition has limited reproductive success in few sites. Studies of the

  11. Validation of cross-contamination control in biological safety cabinet for biotech/pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Tu, Jin-Xin; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2015-12-01

    For class II, type A2 biological safety cabinets (BSC), NSF/ANSI Standard 49 should be conformed in cabinet airflow velocity derivation, particle contamination, and aerodynamic flow properties. However, there exists a potential problem. It has been built that the cabinet air flow stabilize is influenced by the quantity of downflow of air and the height above the cabinet exhaust opening. Three air downflow quantities were compared as an operating apparatus was placed from 20 to 40 cm above the bench of the cabinet. The results show that the BSC air downflow velocity is a function of increased sampling height, displaying that containment is improvingly permitted over product protection as the sampling height decreases. This study investigated the concentration gradient of particles at various heights and downflow air quantity from the bench of the BSC. Experiment results indicate that performance near the bench was better than in the rest of the BSC. In terms of height, the best cleanliness was measured at a height of 10 cm over the bench; it reduced actually with add in height. The empirical curves accommodate, founded on the concentration gradient of particle created was elaborated for evaluating the particle concentration at different heights and downflow air quantity from the source of the bench of the BSC. The particle image velocimetry system applied for BSC airflow research to fix amount of airflow patterns and air distribution measurement and results of measurements show how obstructions can greatly influence the airflow and contaminant transportation in a BSC. PMID:26257118

  12. Geomorphology and Mapping of Canyon Lake Gorge from Flood Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    A large volume of runoff causes flood that exceed the capacity of flood control reservoir. Canyon Lake Gorge, Canyon Lake, TX was formed as a result of a major erosional event in 2002. A low-pressure system combined with a flow of tropical air hit over central Texas causing precipitation, recent flooding in 2015 has changed the structure of the channel. Here, channel changes in the canyon are evaluated using hydrologic conductivity, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and photogrammetry. Mapping and field reconnaissance will be used to map out changes over the years of when the flood had occurred in the past (1998, 2002, and 2015) as well as to study the flood surrounding Canyon Lake Gorge and Guadalupe River. A demographic survey will be used to analyzed the damage that was caused by the flood and compare the severity of the event. The justification for this is that the Canyon Lake Gorge have a unique formation, geologic time scale before and after the flood has changed. The recent flood in 2015 gives an opportunity to study the changes that is currently occurring.

  13. 76 FR 33778 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in the San Joaquin River Gorge Special Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management, Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in the San Joaquin River Gorge... proposes to begin collecting fees in fiscal year 2011 at the San Joaquin River Gorge (SJRG) Special... INFORMATION: The San Joaquin River Gorge Management Area is a popular recreation area offering...

  14. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.; McKinstry, C.; Cook, C.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation from 1996 to 1999 determined that from 211,685 to 576,676 fish were entrained annually at Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the entrainment data found that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the third year of the strobe light study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout under field conditions. The prototype system consists of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended 15 m vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, illuminate a region directly upstream of the barge. The 2003 study period extended from June 16 through August 1. Three light treatments were used: all six lights on for 24 hours, all lights off for 24 hours, and three of six lights cycled on and off every hour for 24 hours. These three treatment conditions were assigned randomly within a

  15. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project : Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grond Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.A.; McKinstry, C.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1995, the Colville Confederated Tribes have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC's Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the first year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. Analysis of the effect of strobe lights on the distribution (numbers) and behavior of kokanee and rainbow trout was based on 51, 683 fish targets detected during the study period (June 30 through August 1, 2001). Study findings include the following: (1) Analysis of the count data indicated that significantly more fish were present when the lights were on compared to off. This was true for both the 24-hr tests as well as the 1-hr tests. Powerplant discharge, distance from lights, and date were significant factors in the analysis. (2) Behavioral results indicated that fish within 14 m of the lights were trying to avoid the lights by swimming across the lighted region or

  16. The 2006 Project Progress Report for 1987-099-00 Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment (contract # 26850) is attached to project 2007-003-00, contract #31598. [POINTER

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-18

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. Strobe light tests were conducted on four nights from April 24-27, 2006, in front of the middle reservoir outlet (RO) 2. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On two nights, April 25 and 27, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near RO 2 averaged 12.4 fish and densities averaged 31.0 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during the nights of April 24 and 26, mean counts dropped to 4.7 fish and densities dropped to 0.5 fish/ha. The decline in counts (62%) and densities (99%) was statistically significant (p = 0.009 and 0.002, respectively). Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of a discharging reservoir outlet, which would be sufficient to improve sport fish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2006. Estimated abundance of kokanee increased from the 2005 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated approximately 5,815,000 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) in Dworshak Reservoir in August 2006. This included 2,183,000 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 24.2%), 1,509,000 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 29.0%), and 2,124,000 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) kokanee. This resulted in a density of age-2 kokanee above the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site, split-beam hydroacoustics from May through September for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were found during dawn periods, unlike previous year's results, which

  17. Prediction of Dangerous Time in Case Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Leaks into Household Refrigerator Cabinet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Takatoshi; Kaji, Nobufuji; Miyake, Kunihiro

    Hydrocarbon refrigerators are now on sale in European countries. However, hydrocarbons are flammable. A common claim is that concentration of hydrocarbon in the refrigerator could exceed the lower explosive limit by a sudden leak and then a spark ignites a flame causing overpressure. There is the need of the studies on potential risks originated from the use of flammable refrigerants. Thus, the flow rate of the fresh air into the refrigerator cabinet has been defined experimentally, and the spatial average concentration in the refrigerator cabinet has been analyzed theoretically to predict the dangerous time in excess of the lower explosive limit.

  18. A reconnaissance of the Archean complex of the Granite Gorge, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, L.F.; Hunter, J. Fred

    1917-01-01

    The field work upon which this article is based was done in March and April, 1914. From Garnet Canyon, near the west end of the Granite Gorge, the route followed the Tonto trail along the so-called lower plateau, or Tonto platform, to Red Canyon, at the east end of the Granite Gorge.

  19. School District Cabinet Member Task and Relationship Conflict Behavior during Budget Development in a State Fiscal Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The first purpose of this study was to determine to what extent task and relationship conflict occurred in school district cabinets during budget development in a state budget crisis. The second purpose was to determine which cabinet member task and relationship conflict behaviors were demonstrated during budget development in a state…

  20. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproduction Success of Kokanee in the Flathead River System, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, Will; Clancey, Patrick

    1987-03-01

    The 1985 kokanee spawning run in the Flathead system was the strongest in five years. Escapement to the Flathead River system was 147,000 fish, including 123,000 in McDonald Creek and an estimated 20,000 in the main stem. Enumeration of spawners and redds in the Flathead River was hindered by high fall flows and early freezing in November. The upstream spawning migration from Flathead Lake began in late August. Schools of kokanee were seen six miles above the lake on September 4. We counted 1,156 redds in Flathead Lake, distributed primarily along the southeastern shore. An unusually high proportion (90 percent) of lakeshore spawning occurred in the zone above minimum pool, where egg mortality is very high because of exposure from drawdown. Escapement to the Swan River was 1,350 fish. Four year old (III+) fish comprised 95 percent of the spawning run in the Flathead system. This continues a five-year trend toward dominance of the III+ year class. The age composition of spawners has varied considerably for the past 15 years. The average size of spawning fish was 365 mm, which is identical to the average size of the parent year class in 1981. One of the goals of managing Flathead kokanee is to produce mature fish 300-330 mm in length. In the main stem Flathead River, pre-emergent survival was 80 percent. Survival in McDonald Creek, unaffected by hydroelectric operations, was 83 percent. Sampling showed few hatched alevins, probably due to unusually cold winter temperatures. Egg survival at Blue Bay, a spawning area on Flathead Lake where redds are concentrated below minimum pool, varied in relation to depth and dissolved oxygen concentration in the substrate. Eggs survived 78 days at 2,880 feet where dissolved oxygen was 5.7 mg/l. Eggs survived 35 days at 2,870 feet where dissolved oxygen concentration averaged 2.9 mg/l. Low dissolved oxygen contributed to poor survival to emergence at all elevations in Blue Ray. Experiments in Skidoo Bay confirmed that survival of

  1. An automated dosimetry system for testing whole-body ultraviolet phototherapy cabinets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, G. D.; Evans, A. L.; Smith, D.; Martin, C. J.; McCalman, S.; Bilsland, D.

    2001-02-01

    A new technique is described for automated ultraviolet dosimetry within whole-body phototherapy cabinets. A dual-head detector system has been designed, permitting simultaneous assessment of irradiance levels and radiant intensities from individual lamps. One detector is used in combination with a diffuser/filter system for the measurement of irradiance and the other is mounted at the end of a slit collimator to provide a measurement which can be related to the radiant intensities of the individual lamps. These quantities are derived from 800 separate measurements made during rotation of the detector head around a 360° circle at a fixed height and position within the cabinet under remote computer software control. The device has advantages compared with standard techniques, enabling measurements to be made without the need for a person to be present in the cabinet. A full set of measurements is made with minimal switching of the power supply to the lamps. This simplifies the assessment and reduces the uncertainty from variation in output after the lamps are switched on. Variations in irradiance with orientation for the smaller phototherapy cabinets are clearly demonstrated. Plots of data from the collimated detector show peaks corresponding to the lamps and the surrounding reflectors. The plots enable failed lamps to be detected and peak values can be related to radiant intensities of individual lamps.

  2. MTR WING, TRA604. A LABORATORY ROOM WITH ITS CABINETS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. A LABORATORY ROOM WITH ITS CABINETS AND SERVICE STRIP DOWN CENTER OF ROOM. CARD IN LEFT CORNER OF VIEW WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON THE ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3817. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 78 FR 76710 - Notice of Buy America Waiver for a Video Ready Access Device Cabinet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... cabinet needed for an AT&T utility relocation associated with the Charlotte Area Transit System's (CATS... Transit System's (CATS or City of Charlotte) LYNX Blue Line Extension (BLE) project, which is an FTA... interpretation of FTA's Buy America rules with respect to the utility relocation performed for the CATS LYNX...

  4. State Children's Cabinets and Councils--Elements of Success Issue 1: Structural Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Elizabeth; Faigley, Ian; Pittman, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Elements of Success 1: Structural Options outlines the range of current children's cabinet and council structures in place and offers tips and warnings for getting the most effective structure in place. This issue brief builds heavily on interviews conducted by the Forum and on the detailed documentation work done by Susan Robison for the National…

  5. 5. INTERIOR SHOWING WOOD STORAGE CABINETS AND 2LIGHT OVER 2LIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR SHOWING WOOD STORAGE CABINETS AND 2-LIGHT OVER 2-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOW THROUGH SOUTHEAST WALL AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Lightning Arrestor Vault, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. 25. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 2 SHOWING BUILTIN CABINETS, 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 2 SHOWING BUILT-IN CABINETS, 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW, AND DOORWAY TO UTILITY ROOM. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  7. 16. INTERIOR OF REAR BEDROOM SHOWING BUILTIN COMBINATION CABINET/SLIDING DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF REAR BEDROOM SHOWING BUILT-IN COMBINATION CABINET/SLIDING DOOR CLOSET, OPEN FIVE-PANELED DOOR TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO CENTER, AND OPEN SOLID DOOR TO BATHROOM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  8. Anatomy of a Government Document: The Cabinet Committee Report on Cable Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cater, Douglass

    Excerpts are presented from comments made by the participants at a seminar held to discuss the Report of the Cabinet Committee on Cable Communications. The report was considered in the following three lights: 1) as a political document which seeks to strike a balance of interests to permit cable television (CATV) to survive in a system heavily…

  9. An Electronic Filing Cabinet for "Classic" Articles and Other Teaching Materials: Something Old, Something New

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Simon; Lapid, Maria I.; Philbrick, Kemuel L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: "Classic" articles remain an important resource in teaching psychiatry. But, such materials are often buried in a faculty member's filing cabinet, effectively lost in today's world of instant access. We attempt to recover these materials through a marriage of traditional reading lists and contemporary technology. Method: The authors…

  10. Modeling of variable speed refrigerated display cabinets based on adaptive support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhikun; Han, Hua; Gu, Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the adaptive support vector machine (ASVM) method is introduced to the field of intelligent modeling of refrigerated display cabinets and used to construct a highly precise mathematical model of their performance. A model for a variable speed open vertical display cabinet was constructed using preprocessing techniques for measured data, including the elimination of outlying data points by the use of an exponential weighted moving average (EWMA). Using dynamic loss coefficient adjustment, the adaptation of the SVM for use in this application was achieved. From there, the object function for energy use per unit of display area total energy consumption (TEC)/total display area (TDA) was constructed and solved using the ASVM method. When compared to the results achieved using a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model, the ASVM model for the refrigerated display cabinet was characterized by its simple structure, fast convergence speed and high prediction accuracy. The ASVM model also has better noise rejection properties than that of original SVM model. It was revealed by the theoretical analysis and experimental results presented in this paper that it is feasible to model of the display cabinet built using the ASVM method.

  11. The Cabinet Member as a Representative of the President: The Case of James Watt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renz, Mary Ann

    1987-01-01

    Compares the environmental rhetoric of former U.S. Interior Secretary James Watt and U.S. President Ronald Reagan, explaining that Watt's political value outweighed his political liability. Notes that cabinet members extend a President's influence by reaching issue-specific audiences while maintaining philosophical consistency, and serve as…

  12. Coalition Theory in Praxis: A Comparative Politics Simulation of the Cabinet Formation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaarbo, Juliet; Lantis, Jeffrey S.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a political science class simulation where groups of students assumed the roles of political parties in a mythical country with a parliamentary system. Students developed party platforms, held mock elections, and put together coalitions to back cabinet ministers. Includes all pertinent information on the mythical country and political…

  13. Study on the characteristic decomposition components of air-insulated switchgear cabinet under partial discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Yingang; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Yinjun; Chen, Lincong

    2016-07-01

    Air-insulated switchgear cabinet plays a critical role in entire power transmission and distribution system. Its stability directly affects the operational reliability of the power system. And the on-line gas detection method, which evaluates the insulation status of insulation equipment by detecting the decomposition components of filled air in cabinet, becomes an innovative way to ensure the running stability of air-insulated switchgear cabinet. In order to study the characteristic gas types and production regularity of decomposition components under partial discharge, three insulation defects: needle-plate, air-gap and impurity defect are proposed to simulate the insulation defects under partial discharge in air-insulated switchgear cabinet. Firstly, the generation pathways and mechanism of composition components are discussed. Then CO and NO2 are selected as the characteristic decomposition components to characterize the partial discharge due to their high concentration and chemical stability. Based on the different change regularity of CO and NO2 concentration under different insulation defect, it provides an effective way to evaluate and predict the insulation defect type and severity in the field.

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  15. Breeding systems, hybridization and continuing evolution in Avon Gorge Sorbus

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Shanna; Robertson, Ashley; Rich, Timothy C. G.; Djordjević, Milena; Cerović, Radosav; Houston, Libby; Harris, Stephen A.; Hiscock, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Interspecific hybridization and polyploidy are key processes in plant evolution and are responsible for ongoing genetic diversification in the genus Sorbus (Rosaceae). The Avon Gorge, Bristol, UK, is a world ‘hotspot’ for Sorbus diversity and home to diploid sexual species and polyploid apomictic species. This research investigated how mating system variation, hybridization and polyploidy interact to generate this biological diversity. Methods Mating systems of diploid, triploid and tetraploid Sorbus taxa were analysed using pollen tube growth and seed set assays from controlled pollinations, and parent–offspring genotyping of progeny from open and manual pollinations. Key Results Diploid Sorbus are outcrossing and self-incompatible (SI). Triploid taxa are pseudogamous apomicts and genetically invariable, but because they also display self-incompatibility, apomictic seed set requires pollen from other Sorbus taxa – a phenomenon which offers direct opportunities for hybridization. In contrast tetraploid taxa are pseudogamous but self-compatible, so do not have the same obligate requirement for intertaxon pollination. Conclusions The mating inter-relationships among Avon Gorge Sorbus taxa are complex and are the driving force for hybridization and ongoing genetic diversification. In particular, the presence of self-incompatibility in triploid pseudogamous apomicts imposes a requirement for interspecific cross-pollination, thereby facilitating continuing diversification and evolution through rare sexual hybridization events. This is the first report of naturally occurring pseudogamous apomictic SI plant populations, and we suggest that interspecific pollination, in combination with a relaxed endosperm balance requirement, is the most likely route to the persistence of these populations. We propose that Avon Gorge Sorbus represents a model system for studying the establishment and persistence of SI apomicts in natural populations. PMID

  16. Dating the Naisiusiu Beds, Olduvai Gorge, by electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, A. R.; Hay, R. L.; Masao, F.; Blackwell, B. A. B.

    2003-05-01

    The lower beds at Olduvai Gorge are well known for containing early hominid fossils and Oldowan stone tools, and their ages have been established by 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and paleomagnetic stratigraphy. Ages are generally less certain for the upper deposits at Olduvai Gorge because of the scarcity of datable tuffs. The youngest archaeologically significant site at Olduvai is microlithic LSA, which lies in the type section of the Naisiusiu Beds. The age for the site is controversial, with 14C dates of 17,000-17,550 (Hay, R.L., 1976 Geology of Olduvai Gorge, University of California Press, Berkeley) and >42,000 BP (Manega, P.C., 1993. Geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic study of the Plio-Pleistocene Hominid sites and the Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland in Northern Tanzania. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The tuff bed in the zone with artifacts does not contain materials datable by 40Ar/ 39Ar, and some other dating method was needed. In the summer of 2001, five equid teeth were collected from the type Naisiusiu site. Another tooth had previously been collected. ESR ages have been determined for three teeth from the archaeological level and their ages cluster around 62±5 ka, assuming linear uranium uptake. Another tooth from a level without artifacts and believed to be significantly younger dated to 39±5 ka, again assuming LU. These dates are considerably older than previous estimates and suggest that the East African MSA/LSA transition occurred very early.

  17. Geomagnetic polarity epochs: new data from Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gromme, C.S.; Hay, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    The lower lava flow of Bed I in Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika, carries natural remanent magnetization (NRM) having normal polarity. Thermal demagnetization experiments demonstrate the stability of this NRM. Thus the Olduvai geomagnetic polarity event, which was originally named from the upper lava flow in Bed I, is represented in its type locality by two normally magnetized lavas. These lavas have been shown to be 1.9 m.y. old, and although they are distinct from each other in composition and surface structure, their eruptions appear to have been closely spaced in time. ?? 1967.

  18. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Dam Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, T.; Duncan, J.; Johnson, R.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterize the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL conducted field studies at Grand Coulee Dam in 2004 using the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish that pass through pumps at Grand Coulee Dam's Pump-Generating Plant and are transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the Pump-Generating Plant's new nine-bladed turbines was also estimated. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The lowest and highest pressures experienced by the Sensor Fish were 6.4 and 155 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.0755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of recently released hatchery kokanee would be carried through the test pump without being struck and most likely with low risk of injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish could be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without significant injury, assuming that no kokanee were injured or killed by pressure exposure during passage.

  19. Using 3D Acoustic Telemetry to Assess the Response of Resident Salmonids to Strobe Lights in Lake Roosevelt, Washington; Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Feasibility Study, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Russlee; Farley, M.; Hansen, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    In 1995, the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was established to mitigate the loss of anadromous fish due to the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams. The objectives of the Chief Joseph Enhancement Project are to determine the status of resident kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams and to enhance kokanee and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. Studies conducted at Grand Coulee Dam documented substantial entrainment of kokanee through turbines at the third powerhouse. In response to finding high entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam, the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) recommended investigating the use of strobe lights to repel fish from the forebay of the third powerhouse. Therefore, our study focused on the third powerhouse and how strobe lights affected fish behavior in this area. The primary objective of our study was to assess the behavioral response of kokanee and rainbow trout to strobe lights using 3D acoustic telemetry, which yields explicit spatial locations of fish in three dimensions. Our secondary objectives were to (1) use a 3D acoustic system to mobile track tagged fish in the forebay and upriver of Grand Coulee Dam and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting fish using a hydrophone mounted in the tailrace of the third powerhouse. Within the fixed hydrophone array located in the third powerhouse cul-de-sac, we detected 50 kokanee and 30 rainbow trout, accounting for 47% and 45% respectively, of the fish released. Kokanee had a median residence time of 0.20 h and rainbow trout had a median residence time of 1.07 h. We detected more kokanee in the array at night compared to the day, and we detected more rainbow trout during the day compared to the night. In general, kokanee and rainbow trout approached along the eastern shore and the relative frequency of kokanee and rainbow trout detections was highest along the eastern shoreline of the 3D array. However, because we

  20. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Simmons, C.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the second year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The 2002 study period extended from May 18 through July 30. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The prototype system consisted of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, were aimed to illuminate a specific region directly upstream of the barge. Three light level treatments were used: 6 of 6 lights on, 3 of 6 lights on, and all lights off. These three treatment conditions were applied for an entire 24-hr day and were randomly assigned within a 3-day block throughout the study period. A seven-transducer splitbeam

  1. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-10-01

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element 'draft-tube' that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700-1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences. PMID:26442144

  2. Accumulation of floating microplastics behind the Three Gorges Dam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Gong, Wen; Lv, Jizhong; Xiong, Xiong; Wu, Chenxi

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in surface water from the Three Gorges Reservoir. Nine samples were collected via trawl sampling with a 112 μmmesh net. The abundances of microplastics were from 3407.7 × 10(3) to 13,617.5 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the main stream of the Yangtze River and from 192.5 × 10(3) to 11,889.7 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the estuarine areas of four tributaries. The abundance of microplastics in the main stream of the Yangtze River generally increased as moving closer to the Three Gorges Dam. The microplastics are made exclusively of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS). Together with microplastics, high abundance of coal/fly ash was also observed in the surface water samples. Comparing with previously reported data, microplastics in the TGR were approximately one to three orders of magnitudes greater, suggesting reservoirs as potential hot spot for microplastic pollution. PMID:25935612

  3. Local Climate Sensitivity of the Three Gorges Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.; Jin, Jiming; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2005-02-18

    Two simulations, control and land use change, were performed for an eight week period (2 April-16 May 1990) to determine the net sensitivity of the local climate around the Three Gorges Dam. The analysis indicates that the large reservoir acts as a potential evaporating surface that decreases the surface temperature, cools the lower atmosphere, decreasing upward motion, and increasing sinking air mass. Such sinking results in low level moisture divergence, decreasing cloudiness, and increasing net downward radiation, which increases the surface temperature. However, results indicate that evaporative cooling dominates radiative warming in this initial study. The strong evaporation also supplies moisture to the atmosphere, suggesting an increase in precipitation, but the sinking moist air diverges away from the TGD region with no net change in precipitation. This numerical study represents an initial methodology for quantification of the impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the local climate and a more comprehensive, fine-scale set of multi-season simulations with additional observational data is needed for a more complete analysis.

  4. Altered streamflow and sediment entrainment in the Gunnison Gorge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Parker, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Gunnison River in the Gunnison Gorge is a canyon river where upstream dams regulate mainstem discharge but do not affect debris-flow sediment supply from tributaries entering below the reservoirs. Regulation since 1966 has altered flood frequency, streambed mobility, and fluvial geomorphology creating potential resource-management issues. The duration of moderate streamflows between 32.3 and 85.0 m3/s has increased threefold since 1966. This, along with flood-peak attenuation, has facilitated fine-sediment deposition and vegetation encroachment on stream banks. The Shields equation and on-site channel geometry and bed-material measurements were used to assess changes in sediment entrainment in four alluvial reaches. Sand and fine gravel are transported through riffle/pool reaches at most discharges, but the cobbles and boulders composing the streambed in many reaches now are infrequently entrained. Periodic debris flows add coarse sediment to rapids and can increase pool elevation and the streambed area affected by backwater and fine-sediment accumulation. Debris-flow supplied boulders accumulate on fans and in rapids and constrict the channel until reworked by larger floods. The response to streamflow-regime changes in the Gunnison Gorge could serve as an analog for alluvial reaches in other regulated canyon rivers.

  5. After Three Gorges Dam: What have we learned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, J.; Williams, P.; Wong, R.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    China is at a critical point in its development path. By investing heavily in large-scale infrastructure, the rewards of economic growth weigh against long-term environmental and social costs. The construction of Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric project, began in 1994. Between 2002 and 2010, its 660 kilometer reservoir filled behind a 181 meter dam, displacing at least 1.4 million people and transforming Asia's longest river (the Yangtze) while generating nearly 100 billion kWh/yr of electricity -- 2.85% of China's current electric power usage. As the mega-project progenitor in a cascade of planned dams, the Three Gorges Dam emerges as a test case for how China will plan, execute and mitigate its development pathway and the transformation of its environment. Post-Project Assessments (PPA) provide a systematic, scientific method for improving the practice of environmental management - particularly as they apply to human intervention in river systems. In 2012, the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning at University of California, Berkeley organized a symposium-based PPA for the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. Prior to this symposium, the twelve invited Chinese scientists, engineers and economists with recent research on Three Gorges Dam had not had the opportunity to present their evaluations together in an open, public forum. With a 50-year planning horizon, the symposium's five sessions centered on impacts on flows, geomorphology, geologic hazards, the environment and socioeconomic effects. Three Gorges' project goals focused on flood control, hydropower and improved navigation. According to expert research, major changes in sediment budget and flow regime from reservoir operation have significantly reduced sediment discharge into the downstream river and estuary, initiating a series of geomorphic changes with ecological and social impacts. While the dam reduces high flow stages from floods originating above the

  6. Bedrock gorges incising glacial hanging valleys (Western Alps, France): results from morphometric analysis, numerical modeling and 10Be cosmogenic dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre G.; van der Beek, Peter A.; Lague, Dimitri; Carcaillet, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Bedrock gorges are frequent features in glacial or post-glacial landscapes and allow measurements of fluvial bedrock incision in mountainous relief. Using digital elevation models, aerial photographs, topographic maps and field reconnaissance in the Pelvoux-Ecrins Massif (French Western Alps), we have identified ~30 tributary hanging valleys incised by gorges toward their confluence with the trunk streams. Longitudinal profiles of these tributaries are all convex and have abrupt knickpoints at the upper limit of oversteepened gorge reaches. From morphometric analyses, we find that mean channel gradients and widths, as well as knickpoint retreat rates, display a drainage-area dependence modulated by bedrock lithology. However, there appears to be no relation between horizontal retreat and vertical downwearing of knickpoints. Numerical modeling has been performed to test the capacity of different fluvial incision models to predict the inferred evolution of the gorges. Results from simple end-member models suggest transport-limited behavior of the bedrock gorges. Using a more sophisticated model including dynamic width adjustment and sediment-dependent incision rates, we show that bedrock gorge evolution requires significant supply of sediment from the gorge sidewalls triggered by gorge deepening, combined with pronounced inhibition of bedrock incision by sediment transport and deposition. We then use in-situ produced 10Be cosmogenic nuclides to date and quantify bedrock gorge incision into a single glacial hanging valley (Gorge du Diable). We have sampled gorge sidewalls and the active channel bed to derive both long-term and present-day incision rates. 10Be ages of sidewall profiles reveal rapid incision through the late Holocene (ca 5 ka), implying either delayed initiation of gorge incision after final ice retreat from internal Alpine valleys at ca 12 ka, or post-glacial surface reburial of the gorge. Both modeling results and cosmogenic dating suggest that

  7. Time scale matters: genetic analysis does not support adaptation-by-time as the mechanism for adaptive seasonal declines in kokanee reproductive life span

    PubMed Central

    Morbey, Yolanda E; Jensen, Evelyn L; Russello, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal declines of fitness-related traits are often attributed to environmental effects or individual-level decisions about reproductive timing and effort, but genetic variation may also play a role. In populations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal declines in reproductive life span have been attributed to adaptation-by-time, in which divergent selection for different traits occurs among reproductively isolated temporal components of a population. We evaluated this hypothesis in kokanee (freshwater obligate Oncorhynchus nerka) by testing for temporal genetic structure in neutral and circadian-linked loci. We detected no genetic differences in presumably neutral loci among kokanee with different arrival and maturation dates within a spawning season. Similarly, we detected no temporal genetic structure in OtsClock1b, Omy1009uw, or OmyFbxw11, candidate loci associated with circadian function. The genetic evidence from this study and others indicates a lack of support for adaptation-by-time as an important evolutionary mechanism underlying seasonal declines in reproductive life span and a need for greater consideration of other mechanisms such as time-dependent, adaptive adjustment of reproductive effort. PMID:25478160

  8. Monitoring the event-scale evolution of a rapidly eroding bedrock gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. L.; Suppe, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Daan River Gorge in western Taiwan provides a unique opportunity to directly observe the impacts of individual flood events on channel evolution. The 1200 m long and up to 20 m deep bedrock gorge has formed in the past 11 years in response to uplift of the riverbed during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The extremely rapid pace of erosion ensures that flood events have measurable and often dramatic effects on the channel. Since early 2009 we have monitored evolution of the gorge with repeated RTK GPS surveys, laser rangefinder measurements, and terrestrial LIDAR surveys. Six rainfall stations and five water level gauges provide hydrological data for the basin. Discharge is highly variable, ranging from 5 to over 1000 m3/s, and incision is largely driven by floods associated with typhoons and other heavy rainfall events. Different sections of the channel may respond to floods in different ways. In the lower gorge, bedrock incision has ceased, and flood-related changes involve the deposition and removal of sediment. In the steeper upper gorge, flood impacts have included bedrock incision, knickpoint retreat, sediment deposition, and channel widening. Upstream of the bedrock gorge the river is cut into gravel fill, exposing bedrock in the channel bed. The river here is relatively mobile, and floods have caused bedrock incision, channel migration, sediment deposition and removal, and channel avulsion. Since monitoring began, the Daan River has experienced one typhoon (Typhoon Morakot, Aug. 2009) and four heavy rainfall events (April 2009, June 2009, June 2010 and July 2010). Typhoon Morakot, the largest of these events, with 984 mm of rain over five days and a discharge of 1000-1300 m3/s, was a net erosive event, causing 1.5 to 2 m of sediment removal from the lower gorge and a similar amount of bedrock incision in the preexisting upper gorge. In addition, an avulsion of the main channel ~2 km upstream of the gorge redirected flow into the gorge, triggering the

  9. Wireless communication in the airflow verification system of biological safety cabinet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-de; Hou, De-xin; Qiu, Jian; Ye, Shu-liang

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, biological safety cabinet has been applied widely and urgently to the biochemistry laboratory. An increasing research need has been asked about the processing safety of the workers. In this safety cabinet system, among series of related factors, the main parameter is airflow velocity. At percent, this measuring work is usually done by processional workers, thus leading to the low efficiency and disadvantages. In this paper, a new method was approved to deal with the current problem, where wireless communication controller and detector. According to the experimental data and the comparison between the two methods, the wireless way is more convenient and more efficient than previous one, and the working distance can be about 730 meters. Meanwhile, the communication system has already been used in Guangzhou Institute of Metrology Laboratory.

  10. Guidelines for development of in-cabinet amplified response spectra for electrical benchboards and panels

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevic, W.; O'Sullivan, J.J. )

    1990-12-01

    The seismic capacity of electric relays is normally determined by shake-table testing, generally performed with the relay mounted directly on the shake table. The seismic demand for the relay is usually available only in terms of a floor-response spectrum at the base of the cabinet to which the relay is attached. The floor-motion amplification caused by the cabinet is needed to make demand and capacity values compatible so that relay seismic acceptability can be evaluated. Because there are many different types of control panels and benchboards, each with different dynamic characteristics, simplified methods are needed to define generic, conservative amplification values. The authors used an existing database of in situ tests for 45 benchboards and control panels to determine a minimum frequency for the generic class. They analyzed each component using three floor-response spectra (FRS) with a variety of dominant frequencies to develop rigorous amplified-response spectra (ARS) within the components. Next, they established envelopes for each FRS. Finally, they calculated the ratios of ARS peak to FRS peak and developed a conservative, generic amplification factor. In a similar manner, the authors established a generic participation factor by comparing the rigorous results to the envelope of results for a series of single-degree-of-freedom systems. A simplified generic factor of 4.5, which is valid for any location in the component, should be used to scale the FRS to the ARS. A generic participation factor of 3 should be used in the GENRS computer program, which develops a more realistic, conservative ARS for a specific FRS. No dynamic data on the cabinet are necessary to use either the simplified factor or the GENRS approach. If such date are available, the generic parameters in GENRS can be overridden. This report provides rules for the type of cabinets that can be reviewed using these guidelines. 5 refs., 9 figs.